Science.gov

Sample records for melanocortin-4 receptor mrna

  1. Melanocortin-4 receptor-regulated energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Krashes, Michael J; Lowell, Bradford B; Garfield, Alastair S

    2016-02-01

    The melanocortin system provides a conceptual blueprint for the central control of energetic state. Defined by four principal molecular components--two antagonistically acting ligands and two cognate receptors--this phylogenetically conserved system serves as a prototype for hierarchical energy balance regulation. Over the last decade the application of conditional genetic techniques has facilitated the neuroanatomical dissection of the melanocortinergic network and identified the specific neural substrates and circuits that underscore the regulation of feeding behavior, energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis and autonomic outflow. In this regard, the melanocortin-4 receptor is a critical coordinator of mammalian energy homeostasis and body weight. Drawing on recent advances in neuroscience and genetic technologies, we consider the structure and function of the melanocortin-4 receptor circuitry and its role in energy homeostasis. PMID:26814590

  2. Melanocortin 4 receptors in autonomic neurons regulate thermogenesis and glycemia

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Eric D.; Liu, Tiemin; Kong, Xingxing; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Vong, Linh; Deng, Zhuo; Lee, Charlotte E.; Lee, Syann; Williams, Kevin W.; Olson, David P.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Melanocortin 4 receptors (Mc4rs) are expressed by extra-hypothalamic neurons including cholinergic autonomic pre-ganglionic neurons. However, whether Mc4rs in these neurons are required to control energy and glucose homeostasis is unclear. Here we report that Mc4rs in sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, pre-ganglionic neurons are required to regulate energy expenditure and body weight including brown and white adipose tissue thermogenic responses to diet and cold exposure. In addition, deletion of Mc4rs in both sympathetic and parasympathetic cholinergic neurons impairs glucose homeostasis. PMID:24908101

  3. Proopiomelanocortin Deficiency Treated with a Melanocortin-4 Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Kühnen, Peter; Clément, Karine; Wiegand, Susanna; Blankenstein, Oliver; Gottesdiener, Keith; Martini, Lea L; Mai, Knut; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Grüters, Annette; Krude, Heiko

    2016-07-21

    Patients with rare defects in the gene encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have extreme early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, hypopigmentation, and hypocortisolism, resulting from the lack of the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotropin. In such patients, adrenal insufficiency must be treated with hydrocortisone early in life. No effective pharmacologic treatments have been available for the hyperphagia and obesity that characterize the condition. In this investigator-initiated, open-label study, two patients with proopiomelanocortin deficiency were treated with setmelanotide, a new melanocortin-4 receptor agonist. The patients had a sustainable reduction in hunger and substantial weight loss (51.0 kg after 42 weeks in Patient 1 and 20.5 kg after 12 weeks in Patient 2). PMID:27468060

  4. A neural basis for melanocortin-4 receptor regulated appetite

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Alastair S.; Li, Chia; Madara, Joseph C.; Shah, Bhavik P.; Webber, Emily; Steger, Jennifer S.; Campbell, John N.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Lee, Charlotte E.; Olson, David P.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Krashes, Michael J.; Lowell, Bradford B.

    2015-01-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)- and agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are oppositely regulated by caloric depletion and co-ordinately stimulate and inhibit homeostatic satiety, respectively. This bimodality is principally underscored by the antagonistic actions of these ligands at downstream melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Although this population is critical to energy balance the underlying neural circuitry remains unknown. Enabled by mice expressing Cre-recombinase in MC4R neurons, we demonstrate bidirectional control of feeding following real-time activation and inhibition of PVHMC4R neurons and further identify these cells as a functional exponent of ARCAgRP neuron-driven hunger. Moreover, we reveal this function to be mediated by a PVHMC4R→lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) pathway. Activation of this circuit encodes positive valence, but only in calorically depleted mice. Thus, the satiating and appetitive nature of PVHMC4R→LPBN neurons supports the principles of drive reduction and highlights this circuit as a promising target for anti-obesity drug development. PMID:25915476

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in human subjects with function-altering melanocortin-4 receptor variants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects wi...

  6. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  7. Functional role, structure, and evolution of the melanocortin-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Lagerström, Malin C; Watanobe, Hajime; Jonsson, Logi; Vergoni, Anna Valeria; Ringholm, Aneta; Skarphedinsson, Jon O; Skuladottir, Gudrun V; Klovins, Janis; Fredriksson, Robert

    2003-06-01

    The melanocortin (MC)-4 receptor participates in regulating body weight homeostasis. We demonstrated early that acute blockage of the MC-4 receptor increases food intake and relieves anorexic conditions in rats. Our recent studies show that 4-week chronic blockage of the MC-4 receptor leads to robust increases in food intake and development of obesity, whereas stimulation of the receptor leads to anorexia. Interestingly, the food conversion ratio was clearly increased by MC-4 receptor blockage, whereas it was decreased in agonist-treated rats in a transient manner. Chronic infusion of an agonist caused a transient increase in oxygen consumption. Our studies also show that the MC-4 receptor plays a role in luteinizing hormone and prolactin surges in female rats. The MC-4 receptor has a role in mediating the effects of leptin on these surges. The phylogenetic relation of the MC-4 receptor to other GPCRs in the human genome was determined. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was studied by construction of a high-affinity zinc binding site between the helices, using two histidine residues facing each other. We also cloned the MC-4 receptor from evolutionary important species and showed by chromosomal mapping a conserved synteny between humans and zebrafish. The MC-4 receptor has been remarkably conserved in structure and pharmacology for more than 400 million years, implying that the receptor participated in vital physiological functions early in vertebrate evolution. PMID:12851300

  8. Melanocortin 4 Receptor and Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression in Brain Areas Involved in Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ye Ran

    2015-01-01

    Background The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is involved in the regulation of homeostatic energy balance by the hypothalamus. Recent reports showed that MC4R can also control the motivation for food in association with a brain reward system, such as dopamine. We investigated the expression levels of MC4R and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), which is known to be related to food rewards, in both the hypothalamus and brain regions involved in food rewards. Methods We examined the expression levels of D2R and MC4R by dual immunofluorescence histochemistry in hypothalamic regions and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the central amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area of transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the D2R gene. Results In the hypothalamic area, significant coexpression of MC4R and D2R was observed in the arcuate nucleus. We observed a significant coexpression of D2R and MC4R in the BNST, which has been suggested to be an important site for food reward. Conclusion We suggest that MC4R and D2R function in the hypothalamus for control of energy homeostasis and that within the brain regions related with rewards, such as the BNST, the melanocortin system works synergistically with dopamine for the integration of food motivation in the control of feeding behaviors. PMID:26790386

  9. Melanocortin 4 receptor signaling in dopamine 1 receptor neurons is required for procedural memory learning

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Huxing; Mason, Brittany L.; Lee, Charlotte; Nishi, Akinori; Elmquist, Joel K; Lutter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that exposure to palatable foods engages reward circuits that promote over-eating and facilitate the development of obesity. While the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) has previously been shown to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, little is known about its role in food reward. We demonstrate that MC4R is co-expressed with the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) in the ventral striatum. While MC4R-null mice are hyperphagic and obese, they exhibit impairments in acquisition of operant responding for a high fat reinforcement. Restoration of MC4R signaling in D1R neurons normalizes procedural learning without affecting motivation to obtain high fat diet. MC4R signaling in D1R neurons is also required for learning in a non-food-reinforced version of the cued water maze. Finally, MC4R signaling in neostriatal slices increases phosphorylation of the Thr34 residue of DARPP-32, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor that regulates synaptic plasticity. These data identify a novel requirement for MC4R signaling in procedural memory learning. PMID:22342812

  10. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor in spotted scat, Scatophagus argus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Tao; Yang, Zhao; Chen, Hua-Pu; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Deng, Si-Ping; Li, Guang-Li; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The functions of the MC4R in fish have not been investigated extensively. We herein reported on the cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) MC4R (SAMC4R). It consisted of a 984bp open reading frame predicted to encode a protein of 327 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that SAMC4R was highly homologous (>80%) at amino acid levels to several teleost MC4Rs. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SAMC4R was closely related to piscine MC4R. Using RT-PCR, we showed that in addition to brain, pituitary, and gonads, mc4r mRNA was also widely expressed in peripheral tissues of spotted scat in sexually divergent pattern. With human MC4R (hMC4R) as a control, several agonists including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-MSH (NDP-MSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and THIQ (N-[(3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium3-ylcarbonyl]-(1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine), were used to investigate the binding and signaling properties of SAMC4R. The results showed that SAMC4R bound NDP-MSH with the highest affinity followed by ACTH (1-24) and α-MSH. Similar ranking was also found for hMC4R, although SAMC4R had two to five-fold higher affinities for these ligands. THIQ did not displace NDP-MSH from SAMC4R, different from hMC4R. α-MSH, NDP-MSH, and ACTH (1-24) were identified as potent agonists to stimulate cAMP generation followed by THIQ in SAMC4R. The availability of SAMC4R and its pharmacological characteristics will facilitate the investigation of its function in regulating diverse physiological processes in spotted scat. PMID:27080551

  11. Melanocortin 4 receptor mutations contribute to the adaptation of cavefish to nutrient-poor conditions.

    PubMed

    Aspiras, Ariel C; Rohner, Nicolas; Martineau, Brian; Borowsky, Richard L; Tabin, Clifford J

    2015-08-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of morphological evolution, the genetic underpinnings of behavioral and physiological evolution remain largely unknown. Here, we study the metabolic changes that evolved in independently derived populations of the Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. A hallmark of cave environments is scarcity of food. Cavefish populations rely almost entirely on sporadic food input from outside of the caves. To survive under these conditions, cavefish have evolved a range of adaptations, including starvation resistance and binge eating when food becomes available. The use of these adaptive strategies differs among independently derived cave populations. Although all cavefish populations tested lose weight more slowly than their surface conspecifics during restricted rations, only a subset of cavefish populations consume more food than their surface counterparts. A candidate gene-based screen led to the identification of coding mutations in conserved residues of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene, contributing to the insatiable appetite found in some populations of cavefish. Intriguingly, one of the mutated residues has been shown to be linked to obesity in humans. We demonstrate that the allele results in both reduced maximal response and reduced basal activity of the receptor in vitro. We further validate in vivo that the mutated allele contributes to elevated appetite, growth, and starvation resistance. The allele appears to be fixed in cave populations in which the overeating phenotype is present. The presence of the same allele in multiple caves appears to be due to selection from standing genetic variation present in surface populations. PMID:26170297

  12. Melanocortin 4 receptor mutations contribute to the adaptation of cavefish to nutrient-poor conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aspiras, Ariel C.; Rohner, Nicolas; Martineau, Brian; Borowsky, Richard L.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of morphological evolution, the genetic underpinnings of behavioral and physiological evolution remain largely unknown. Here, we study the metabolic changes that evolved in independently derived populations of the Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. A hallmark of cave environments is scarcity of food. Cavefish populations rely almost entirely on sporadic food input from outside of the caves. To survive under these conditions, cavefish have evolved a range of adaptations, including starvation resistance and binge eating when food becomes available. The use of these adaptive strategies differs among independently derived cave populations. Although all cavefish populations tested lose weight more slowly than their surface conspecifics during restricted rations, only a subset of cavefish populations consume more food than their surface counterparts. A candidate gene-based screen led to the identification of coding mutations in conserved residues of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene, contributing to the insatiable appetite found in some populations of cavefish. Intriguingly, one of the mutated residues has been shown to be linked to obesity in humans. We demonstrate that the allele results in both reduced maximal response and reduced basal activity of the receptor in vitro. We further validate in vivo that the mutated allele contributes to elevated appetite, growth, and starvation resistance. The allele appears to be fixed in cave populations in which the overeating phenotype is present. The presence of the same allele in multiple caves appears to be due to selection from standing genetic variation present in surface populations. PMID:26170297

  13. A Conformational Analysis Study on the Melanocortin 4 Receptor Using Multiple Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Shahlaei, Mohsen; Mousavi, Atefeh

    2015-09-01

    Taking into account the uncertainties involved in 3D model of biomolecule developed by homology modeling (HM), it is important to opportunely validate the initial structure before employing for different purposes such as drug design. Extended simulation times and the necessity of correct representation of interactions within the protein and the nearby molecules impose significant limitations on molecular dynamics (MD)-based refinement of structures developed by HM. Consequently, there is a pressing requirement for more efficient methods for HM and subsequent validation of developed structure. Multiple MD simulation runs are well suited for producing ensembles of structures. In this context, a computational investigation was presented to study the structure of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit phospholipids bilayer. Several MD runs with different initial velocities were employed to sample conformations in the neighborhood of the native structure of receptor, collecting trajectories spanning 0.21 ms. The coherence between the results, different structural analysis, and the convergence of parameters derived by principal component analysis (PCA) shows that an accurate description of the MC4R conformational space around the native state was achieved by multiple MD trajectories. PMID:25487745

  14. Neuroanatomy of melanocortin-4 receptor pathway in the lateral hypothalamic area

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Huxing; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Gautron, Laurent; Funahashi, Hisayuki; Williams, Kevin W.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Lutter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The central melanocortin system regulates body energy homeostasis including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) receives dense melanocortinergic inputs from the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus and regulates multiple processes including food intake, reward behaviors and autonomic function. Using a mouse line in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed under control of MC4R gene promoter, we systemically investigated MC4R signaling in the LHA by combining double immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology and retrograde tracing techniques. We found that LHA MC4R-GFP neurons co-express neurotensin as well as the leptin receptor but not with other peptide neurotransmitters found in the LHA including orexin, melanin concentrating hormone and nesfatin-1. Furthermore, electrophysiological recording demonstrated that leptin, but not the MC4R agonist melanotan II, hyperpolarizes the majority of LHA MC4R-GFP neurons in an ATP-sensitive potassium channel-dependent manner. Retrograde tracing revealed that LHA MC4R-GFP neurons do not project to the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus accumbens and spinal cord, and only limited number of neurons project to the nucleus of solitary tract and parabrachial nucleus. Our findings provide new insight into MC4R signaling in the LHA and its potential implication in homeostatic regulation of body energy balance. PMID:22605619

  15. Hypothalamic Expression of Melanocortin-4 Receptor and Agouti-related Peptide mRNAs During the Estrous Cycle of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad Reza; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Akhlaghi, Amir; Salehi, Mohammad Saied; Niazi, Ali; Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin- 4 receptor (MC4R) and agouti- related peptide (AgRP) are involved in energy homeostasis in rats. According to MC4R and AgRP effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, they may influence the estrous cycle of rats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of MC4R and AgRP mRNAs at different stages of estrous cycle in the rat’s hypothalamus. The estrous cycle stages (proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus) were determined in 20 adult female rats using vaginal smears. The rats were divided into four equal groups (n=5). Four ovariectomized rats were selected as controls two weeks after surgery. Using real- time PCR, relative expressions (compared to controls) of MC4R and AgRP mRNAs in the hypothalamus of rats were compared in four different groups of estrous cycle. The relative expression of MC4R mRNA in the hypothalamus of female rats during proestrus stage was higher than those in other stages (P=0.001). Despite a lower mean of relative expression of AgRP mRNA at proestrus stage, the relative expression of AgRP mRNA of the four stages of estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05). In conclusion, changes in the relative expression of MC4R and AgRP mRNAs in four stages of rat estrous cycle indicated a stimulatory role of MC4R in the proestrus and preovulatory stages and an inhibitory role of AgRP in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretions. PMID:25317405

  16. A Small Molecule Agonist THIQ as a Novel Pharmacoperone for Intracellularly Retained Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Although mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene cause severe early-onset obesity, we still do not have effective approaches to correct the defects of these mutations. Several antagonists have been identified as pharmacoperones of the MC4R whereas no agonist of the MC4R has been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a small molecule agonist of the MC4R, THIQ, on the cell surface expression and signaling of ten intracellularly retained MC4R mutants using different cell lines. We showed that THIQ increased the cell surface expression of three mutants (N62S, C84R, and C271Y) and two of them (N62S and C84R) had increased signaling in HEK293 cells. Interestingly, THIQ increased the signaling of two other mutants (P78L and P260Q) without increasing their cell surface expression in HEK293 cells. In neuronal cells, THIQ exhibited a more potent effect, correcting the cell surface expression and signaling of seven mutants (N62S, I69R, P78L, C84R, W174C, P260Q, and C271Y). Other mutants were not rescued by THIQ. We also showed that THIQ did not rescue MC4R mutants defective in ligand binding or signaling or one intracellularly retained mutant of the melanocortin-3 receptor. In summary, we demonstrated that a small molecule agonist acted as a pharmacoperone of the MC4R rescuing the cell surface expression and signaling of some intracellularly retained MC4R mutants. PMID:25076858

  17. Ipsen 5i is a Novel Potent Pharmacoperone for Intracellularly Retained Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ya-Xiong; Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) cause early-onset severe obesity in humans. Comprehensive functional studies show that most of the inactivating mutants of the MC4R are retained intracellularly. In the present study, we investigated whether a small molecule inverse agonist of the MC4R, Ipsen 5i, could act as a pharmacoperone and correct the cell surface expression and function of intracellularly retained mutant MC4Rs using multiple cell lines, including HEK293 and two neuronal cell lines. We showed that Ipsen 5i rescued the cell surface expression of all 11 intracellularly retained mutant MC4Rs studied herein in at least one cell line. Ipsen 5i functionally rescued seven mutants in all cell lines used. One mutant (Y157S) was functionally rescued in HEK293 cells but not in the two neuronal cell lines. Ipsen 5i increased cell surface expression of three mutants (S58C, G98R, and F261S) but did not affect signaling. Ipsen 5i had no effect on mutant MC4Rs with other defects (Δ88-92, D90N, I102S) or no defect (N274S). It also did not affect trafficking of a misrouted MC3R mutant (I335S). Cell impermeable peptide ligands of the MC4R or cell permeable small molecule ligand of δ opioid receptor could not rescue misrouted mutant MC4R. In summary, we demonstrated that Ipsen 5i was a novel potent pharmacoperone of the MC4R, correcting trafficking and signaling of a significant portion (73%) of intracellularly retained mutants. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy. PMID:25136332

  18. Obese melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats exhibit augmented angiogenic balance and vasorelaxation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spradley, Frank T; Palei, Ana C; Granger, Joey P

    2013-01-01

    While obesity is a major risk factor for preeclampsia, the mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension during preeclampsia remain unclear. Hypertension in preeclampsia is associated with placental ischemia-induced release of antiangiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) into the maternal circulation, which antagonizes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoting endothelial dysfunction. Haploinsufficiency, defined as loss of one copy of a gene via a mutation, of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is the most common cause of monogenetic obesity in humans. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of genetic obesity on angiogenic balance, endothelial function, and blood pressure in pregnant MC4R+/− and MC4R+/+ rats. At gestational day (GD) 18, body weight and total body fat mass were greater in MC4R+/− than MC4R+/+ rats. On GD 19, plasma sFlt-1 was not significantly different between groups. Interestingly, circulating VEGF was greater in the obese rats with the source being adipose tissue and not the placenta. Wire myography showed in third-order mesenteric arteries that sensitivity (logEC50) to endothelial-dependent and nitric oxide donor-induced vasorelaxation was greater in MC4R+/− versus MC4R+/+. Mean arterial blood pressure was similar between groups. In conclusion, under normal pregnant conditions, genetically obese pregnant animals have greater angiogenic balance and dependency of vasorelaxation on nitric oxide signaling protecting against the development of hypertension. However, we speculate that, in the face of reduced uterine perfusion, a rise in circulating placental factors that target and reduce nitric oxide bioavailability exposes the susceptibility of genetically obese animals to greater hypertension in pregnancy. PMID:24159378

  19. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) melanocortin-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Wei; Shi, Lin; Chai, Ji-Tian; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-04-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is critical in regulating mammalian food intake and energy expenditure. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), famous as the living fossil, is an endangered species endemic to China. We are interested in exploring the functions of the giant panda MC4R (amMC4R) in regulating energy homeostasis and report herein the molecular cloning and pharmacology of the amMC4R. Sequence analysis revealed that amMC4R was highly homologous (>88%) at nucleotide and amino acid sequences to several mammalian MC4Rs. Western blot revealed that the expression construct myc-amMC4R in pcDNA3.1 was successfully constructed and expressed in HEK293T cells. With human MC4R (hMC4R) as a control, pharmacological characteristics of amMC4R were analyzed with binding and signaling assays. Four agonists, including [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), α- and β-MSH, and a small molecule agonist, THIQ, were used in binding and signaling assays. We showed that amMC4R bound NDP-MSH with the highest affinity followed by THIQ, α-MSH, and β-MSH, with the same ranking order as hMC4R. Treatment of HEK293T cells expressing amMC4R with different concentrations of agonists resulted in dose-dependent increase of intracellular cAMP levels, with similar EC50s for the four agonists. The results suggested that the cloned amMC4R encoded a functional MC4R. The availability of amMC4R and its binding and signaling properties will facilitate the investigation of amMC4R in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:26896843

  20. Dual melanocortin-4 receptor and GLP-1 receptor agonism amplifies metabolic benefits in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Finan, Brian; Fischer, Katrin; Tom, Robby Zachariah; Legutko, Beata; Sehrer, Laura; Heine, Daniela; Grassl, Niklas; Meyer, Carola W; Henderson, Bart; Hofmann, Susanna M; Tschöp, Matthias H; Van der Ploeg, Lex HT; Müller, Timo D

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of simultaneous agonism at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) for the treatment of obesity and diabetes in rodents. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were chronically treated with either the long-acting GLP-1R agonist liraglutide, the MC4R agonist RM-493 or a combination of RM-493 and liraglutide. Co-treatment of DIO mice with RM-493 and liraglutide improves body weight loss and enhances glycemic control and cholesterol metabolism beyond what can be achieved with either mono-therapy. The superior metabolic efficacy of this combination therapy is attributed to the anorectic and glycemic actions of both drugs, along with the ability of RM-493 to increase energy expenditure. Interestingly, compared to mice treated with liraglutide alone, hypothalamic Glp-1r expression was higher in mice treated with the combination therapy after both acute and chronic treatment. Further, RM-493 enhanced hypothalamic Mc4r expression. Hence, co-dosing with MC4R and GLP-1R agonists increases expression of each receptor, indicative of minimized receptor desensitization. Together, these findings suggest potential opportunities for employing combination treatments that comprise parallel MC4R and GLP-1R agonism for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:25652173

  1. Microarray gene expression profiles of fasting induced changes in liver and adipose tissues of pigs expressing the melanocortin-4 receptor D298N variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify porcine genes and pathways that respond to a fasting in pigs that express the missense mutation (D298N) in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, which has been associated with increased growth and feed efficiency. Prepubertal gilts (n=24; 12 wildtype...

  2. Gene expression in hypothalamus, liver and adipose tissues and feed intake response to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist in pigs expressing (MC4R) mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genes and pathways that responded to intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist, NDP-MSH, in pigs homozygous for the missense mutation in the MC4R, D298 allele (n = 12), N298 allele (n = 12) or heterozygous (n = 12...

  3. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characterization of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropyl benzylamine derivatives as melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tucci, Fabio C; Jiang, Wanlong; Tran, Joe A; Fleck, Beth A; Hoare, Sam R; Wen, Jenny; Chen, Takung; Johns, Michael; Markison, Stacy; Foster, Alan C; Marinkovic, Dragan; Chen, Caroline W; Arellano, Melissa; Harman, John; Saunders, John; Bozigian, Haig; Marks, Daniel

    2008-05-15

    A series of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropylbenzylamine derivatives were synthesized and characterized as melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonists. Attaching an amino acid to benzylamines 7 significantly increased their binding affinity, and the resulting compounds 8-12 bound selectively to MC4R over other melanocortin receptor subtypes and behaved as functional antagonists. These compounds were also studied for their permeability using Caco-2 cell monolayers and metabolic stability in human liver microsomes. Most compounds exhibited low permeability and high efflux ratio possibly due to their high molecular weights. They also showed moderate metabolic stability which might be associated with their moderate to high lipophilicity. Pharmacokinetic properties of these MC4R antagonists, including brain penetration, were studied in mice after oral and intravenous administrations. Two compounds identified to possess high binding affinity and selectivity, 10d and 11d, were studied in a murine cachexia model. After intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 1mg/kg dose, mice treated with 10d had significantly more food intake and weight gain than the control animals, demonstrating efficacy by blocking the MC4 receptor. Similar in vivo effects were also observed when 11d was dosed orally at 20mg/kg. These results provide further evidence that a potent and selective MC4R antagonist has potential in the treatment of cancer cachexia. PMID:18417348

  4. Melanocortin-4 receptor signaling is not required for short-term weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jelin, E B; Daggag, H; Speer, A L; Hameed, N; Lessan, N; Barakat, M; Nadler, E P

    2016-03-01

    Homozygous or compound heterozygous melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) mutations are rare with fewer than 10 patients described in current literature. Here we report the short- and long-term outcomes for four children ages 4.5-14 who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in the MC4R and underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. All four patients experienced significant weight loss and improvement in, or resolution of, their comorbidities in the short term. One patient, however, has had significant weight regain in the long term. We conclude that MC4R signaling is not required for short-term weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in children. Behavior modification may be more important for long-term weight maintenance, but patients with homozygous MC4R deficiency should not be excluded from consideration for sleeve gastrectomy. However, as at least one copy of functional MC4R is necessary and sufficient to induce long-term postoperative weight loss benefits, patients with complete loss of MC4R functionality might be less likely to exhibit the same benefits resulting from bariatric surgery. PMID:26538186

  5. Melanocortin-4 receptor gene variants are not associated with binge-eating behavior in nonobese patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Villarroel, Carmen; Rodriguez-Lopez, Raquel; Jimenez, Mercedes; Carrillo, Juan A; Garcia-Herraiz, Angustias; Albuquerque, David; Flores, Isalud; Gervasini, Guillermo

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to determine whether variability in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, predisposing to hyperphagia and obesity, may also be present in nonobese patients with binge-eating behavior or be related to anthropometric or psychopathological parameters in these patients. The coding region of the MC4R gene was sequenced in nonobese patients with binge-eating behavior diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder (n=77); individuals with severe early-onset obesity (n=170); and lean women with anorexia nervosa (n=20). A psychometric evaluation (Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist 90 Revised inventories) was carried out for all the patients with eating disorders. In the obesity group, 10 different variants were identified, whereas in the binge-eating patients, only two individuals with bulimia nervosa were found to carry the I251L polymorphism, which did not correlate with weight, BMI, or psychopathological features. We found no evidence that mutations in the MC4R gene are associated with binge-eating behavior in nonobese eating disorder patients. PMID:25419636

  6. Variation at the Melanocortin 4 Receptor gene and response to weight-loss interventions in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Delahanty, Linda M.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Knowler, William C.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess associations and genotype × treatment interactions for melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) locus variants and obesity-related traits. Design and Methods Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) participants (N=3,819, of whom 3,356 were genotyped for baseline and 3,234 for longitudinal analyses) were randomized into intensive lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight loss), metformin or placebo control. Adiposity was assessed in a subgroup (n=909) using computed tomography. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and treatment. Results The rs1943218 minor allele was nominally associated with short-term (6 month; P=0.032) and long-term (2 year; P=0.038) weight change. Eight SNPs modified response to treatment on short-term (rs17066856, rs9966412, rs17066859, rs8091237, rs17066866, rs7240064) or long-term (rs12970134, rs17066866) reduction in body weight, or diabetes incidence (rs17066829) (all Pinteraction <0.05). Conclusion This is the first study to comprehensively assess the role of MC4R variants and weight regulation in a weight loss intervention trial. One MC4R variant was directly associated with obesity-related traits or diabetes; numerous other variants appear to influence body weight and diabetes risk by modifying the protective effects of the DPP interventions. PMID:23512951

  7. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor-dependent inverse agonism of agouti-related protein on melanocortin 4 receptor in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elisa; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Thompson, Darren; Metz, Juriaan; Flik, Gert; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor mainly expressed in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Activation of the MC4R leads to a decrease in food intake, whereas inactivating mutations are a genetic cause of obesity. The binding of agouti-related protein (AGRP) reduces not only agonist-stimulated cAMP production (competitive antagonist) but also the basal activity of the receptor, as an inverse agonist. Transgenic zebrafish overexpressing AGRP display increased food intake and linear growth, indicative of a physiological role for the melanocortin system in the control of the energy balance in fish. We report on the cloning, pharmacological characterization, tissue distribution, and detailed brain mapping of a sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) MC4R ortholog. Sea bass MC4R is profusely expressed within food intake-controlling pathways of the fish brain. However, the activity of the melanocortin system during progressive fasting does not depend on the hypothalamic/pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and MC4R expression, which suggests that sea bass MC4R is constitutively activated and regulated by AGRP binding. We demonstrate that AGRP acts as competitive antagonist and reduces MTII-induced cAMP production. AGRP also decreases the basal activity of the receptor as an inverse agonist. This observation suggests that MC4R is constitutively active and supports the evolutionary conservation of the AGRP/MC4R interactions. The inverse agonism, but not the competitive antagonism, depends on the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (IBMX). This suggests that inverse agonism and competitive antagonism operate through different intracellular signaling pathways, a view that opens up new targets for the treatment of melanocortin-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:19225141

  8. A Pharmacologically Active Monoclonal Antibody against the Human Melanocortin-4 Receptor: Effectiveness After Peripheral and Central Administration

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Jean-Christophe; Lecourt, Anne-Catherine; Weckering, Marjorie; Zipfel, Géraldine; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Hofbauer, Karl G.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a constituent of an important pathway regulating food intake and energy expenditure. We produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the N-terminal domain of the MC4R and evaluated its potential as a possible therapeutic agent. This mAb (1E8a) showed specific binding to the MC4R in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing the human MC4R and blocked the activity of the MC4R under basal conditions and after stimulation with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The inverse agonist action of Agouti-related protein was significantly enhanced in the presence of mAb 1E8a. After a single intracerebroventricular injection into the third ventricle, mAb 1E8a (1 μg) increased 24-h food intake in rats. After 7 days of continuous intracerebroventricular administration, mAb 1E8a increased food intake, body weight, and fat pad weight and induced hyperglycemia. Because the complete mAb was ineffective after intravenous injection, we produced single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) derived from mAb 1E8a. In pharmacokinetic studies it was demonstrated that these scFvs crossed the blood-brain barrier and reached the hypothalamus. Consequently, the scFv 1E8a increased significantly food intake and body weight in rats after intravenous administration (300 μg/kg). The pharmacological profile of mAb 1E8a and the fact that its scFv was active after peripheral administration suggest that derivatives of anti-MC4R mAbs may be useful in the treatment of patients with anorexia or cachexia. PMID:20118207

  9. RM-493, a Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) Agonist, Increases Resting Energy Expenditure in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kong Y.; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Abel, Brent S.; Mullins, Katherine P.; Staker, Pamela; Brychta, Robert J.; Zhao, Xiongce; Ring, Michael; Psota, Tricia L.; Cone, Roger D.; Panaro, Brandon L.; Gottesdiener, Keith M.; Van der Ploeg, Lex H.T.; Reitman, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Activation of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) with the synthetic agonist RM-493 decreases body weight and increases energy expenditure (EE) in nonhuman primates. The effects of MC4R agonists on EE in humans have not been examined to date. Objective, Design, and Setting: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we examined the effects of the MC4R agonist RM-493 on resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese subjects in an inpatient setting. Study Participants and Methods: Twelve healthy adults (6 men and 6 women) with body mass index of 35.7 ± 2.9 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) received RM-493 (1 mg/24 h) or placebo by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 72 hours, followed immediately by crossover to the alternate treatment. All subjects received a weight-maintenance diet (50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein) and performed 30 minutes of standardized exercise daily. Continuous EE was measured on the third treatment day in a room calorimeter, and REE in the fasting state was defined as the mean of 2 30-minute resting periods. Results: RM-493 increased REE vs placebo by 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.68–13.02%), on average by 111 kcal/24 h (95% confidence interval, 15–207 kcal, P = .03). Total daily EE trended higher, whereas the thermic effect of a test meal and exercise EE did not differ significantly. The 23-hour nonexercise respiratory quotient was lower during RM-493 treatment (0.833 ± 0.021 vs 0.848 ± 0.022, P = .02). No adverse effect on heart rate or blood pressure was observed. Conclusions: Short-term administration of the MC4R agonist RM-493 increases REE and shifts substrate oxidation to fat in obese individuals. PMID:25675384

  10. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation☆

    PubMed Central

    Obici, Silvana; Magrisso, I. Jack; Ghazarian, Armen S.; Shirazian, Alireza; Miller, Jonas R.; Loyd, Christine M.; Begg, Denovan P.; Krawczewski Carhuatanta, Kimberly A.; Haas, Michael K.; Davis, Jon F.; Woods, Stephen C.; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Seeley, Randy J.; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Pothos, Emmanuel N.; Mul, Joram D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) are highly expressed by dopamine-secreting neurons of the mesolimbic tract, but their functional role has not been fully resolved. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) induces adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system and has a myriad of long-term beneficial effects on health. In the present experiments we asked whether MC4R function regulates the effects of VWR, and whether VWR ameliorates MC4R-associated symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Electrically evoked dopamine release was measured in slice preparations from sedentary wild-type and MC4R-deficient Mc4rK314X (HOM) rats. VWR was assessed in wild-type and HOM rats, and in MC4R-deficient loxTBMc4r mice, wild-type mice body weight-matched to loxTBMc4r mice, and wild-type mice with intracerebroventricular administration of the MC4R antagonist SHU9119. Mesolimbic dopamine system function (gene/protein expression) and metabolic parameters were examined in wheel-running and sedentary wild-type and HOM rats. Results Sedentary obese HOM rats had increased electrically evoked dopamine release in several ventral tegmental area (VTA) projection sites compared to wild-type controls. MC4R loss-of-function decreased VWR, and this was partially independent of body weight. HOM wheel-runners had attenuated markers of intracellular D1-type dopamine receptor signaling despite increased dopamine flux in the VTA. VWR increased and decreased ΔFosB levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of wild-type and HOM runners, respectively. VWR improved metabolic parameters in wild-type wheel-runners. Finally, moderate voluntary exercise corrected many aspects of the metabolic syndrome in HOM runners. Conclusions Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive

  11. Substitution of Arginine with Proline and Proline Derivatives in Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones Leads to Selectivity for Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hongchang; Cai, Minying; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Grieco, Paolo; Zingsheim, Morgan; Hruby, Victor. J.

    2009-01-01

    A new series of melanotropin analogues with His or Arg residues in the core pharmacophores of MTII, SHU9119 and Ac-NDP-γ-MSH-NH2 replaced by Pro or trans-/cis- 4-guanidinyl-Pro derivatives were designed and synthesized to introduce selectivity toward the human melanocortin 4 receptor (hMC4R). Analogues 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 were found to be hMC4R selective. Second messenger studies have demonstrated that analogues 1 and 2 are insurmountable inhibitors of MTII agonist activity at the hMC4R. Molecular modeling studies suggest that the hMC4R selectivity is due to a β-turn shift induced by the Pro ring that makes the global minimum structures of these analogues resemble the NMR solution structure of the hASIP melanocortin receptor binding motif. Substitution of His in MTII also provided functional selectivity for the hMC3R or the hMC4R. These findings are important for a better understanding of the selectivity mechanism at the hMC3R/hMC4R, and the development of therapeutic ligands selectively targeting the hMC4R. PMID:19473029

  12. Roles for the sympathetic nervous system, renal nerves, and CNS melanocortin-4 receptor in the elevated blood pressure in hyperandrogenemic female rats

    PubMed Central

    Maranon, Rodrigo; Lima, Roberta; Spradley, Frank T.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Zhang, Howei; Smith, Andrew D.; Bui, Elizabeth; Thomas, R. Lucas; Moulana, Mohadetheh; Hall, John E.; Granger, Joey P.

    2015-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have hyperandrogenemia and increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including elevated blood pressure. We recently characterized a hyperandrogenemic female rat (HAF) model of PCOS [chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) beginning at 4 wk of age] that exhibits similar characteristics as women with PCOS. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that the elevated blood pressure in HAF rats is mediated in part by sympathetic activation, renal nerves, and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activation. Adrenergic blockade with terazosin and propranolol or renal denervation reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP by telemetry) in HAF rats but not controls. Hypothalamic MC4R expression was higher in HAF rats than controls, and central nervous system MC4R antagonism with SHU-9119 (1 nmol/h icv) reduced MAP in HAF rats. Taking a genetic approach, MC4R null and wild-type (WT) female rats were treated with DHT or placebo from 5 to 16 wk of age. MC4R null rats were obese and had higher MAP than WT control rats, and while DHT increased MAP in WT controls, DHT failed to further increase MAP in MC4R null rats. These data suggest that increases in MAP with chronic hyperandrogenemia in female rats are due, in part, to activation of the sympathetic nervous system, renal nerves, and MC4R and may provide novel insights into the mechanisms responsible for hypertension in women with hyperandrogenemia such as PCOS. PMID:25695289

  13. Chronic treatment with a melanocortin-4 receptor agonist causes weight loss, reduces insulin resistance, and improves cardiovascular function in diet-induced obese rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kievit, Paul; Halem, Heather; Marks, Daniel L; Dong, Jesse Z; Glavas, Maria M; Sinnayah, Puspha; Pranger, Lindsay; Cowley, Michael A; Grove, Kevin L; Culler, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is well recognized as an important mediator of body weight homeostasis. Activation of MC4R causes dramatic weight loss in rodent models, and mutations in human are associated with obesity. This makes MC4R a logical target for pharmacological therapy for the treatment of obesity. However, previous studies in rodents and humans have observed a broad array of side effects caused by acute treatment with MC4R agonists, including increased heart rate and blood pressure. We demonstrate that treatment with a highly-selective novel MC4R agonist (BIM-22493 or RM-493) resulted in transient decreases in food intake (35%), with persistent weight loss over 8 weeks of treatment (13.5%) in a diet-induced obese nonhuman primate model. Consistent with weight loss, these animals significantly decreased adiposity and improved glucose tolerance. Importantly, we observed no increases in blood pressure or heart rate with BIM-22493 treatment. In contrast, treatment with LY2112688, an MC4R agonist previously shown to increase blood pressure and heart rate in humans, caused increases in blood pressure and heart rate, while modestly decreasing food intake. These studies demonstrate that distinct melanocortin peptide drugs can have widely different efficacies and side effects. PMID:23048186

  14. Impact of obesity on renal structure and function in the presence and absence of hypertension: evidence from melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Jussara M; Tallam, Lakshmi S; Roberts, John V; Brandon, Elizabeth L; Biglane, John; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term impact of obesity and related metabolic abnormalities in the absence and presence of hypertension on renal injury and salt-sensitivity of blood pressure. Markers of renal injury and blood pressure salt sensitivity were assessed in 52- to 55-wk-old normotensive melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-/-) mice and lean C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice and in 22-wk-old MC4R-/- and WT mice made hypertensive by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the drinking water for 8 wk. Old MC4R-/- mice were 60% heavier, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperleptinemic but had similar mean arterial pressure (MAP) as WT mice (115 +/- 2 and 117 +/- 2 mmHg) on normal salt diet (0.4% NaCl). A high-salt diet (4.0% NaCl) for 12 days did not raise MAP in obese or lean mice [DeltaMAP: MC4R (-/-) 4 +/- 2 mmHg; WT, 2 +/- 1 mmHg]. Obese MC4R-/- mice had 23% greater glomerular tuft area and moderately increased GFR compared with WT mice. Bowman's space, total glomerular area, mesangial matrix, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), renal TGF-beta and collagen expression were not significantly different between old MC4R-/- and WT mice. Renal lipid content was greater but renal macrophage count was markedly lower in MC4R-/- than WT mice. Mild increases in MAP during L-NAME treatment (approximately 16 mmHg) caused small, but greater, elevations in UAE, renal TGF-beta content, and macrophage infiltration in MC4R-/- compared with WT mice without significant changes in glomerular structure. Thus despite long-term obesity and multiple metabolic abnormalities, MC4R-/- mice have no evidence of renal injury or salt-sensitivity of blood pressure. These observations suggest that elevations in blood pressure may be necessary for obesity and related metabolic abnormalities to cause major renal injury or that MC4R-/- mice are protected from renal injury by mechanisms that are still unclear. PMID:19605765

  15. Synthesis, Biophysical, and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Melanocortin Agonist AST3-88: Modifications of Peptide Backbone at Trp 7 Position Lead to a Potent, Selective, and Stable Ligand of the Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (α-, β-, γ-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp7 residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a β-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ∼5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII β-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the α-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  16. Synthesis, biophysical, and pharmacological evaluation of the melanocortin agonist AST3-88: modifications of peptide backbone at Trp 7 position lead to a potent, selective, and stable ligand of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Dirain, Marvin L; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Chen, Chi; Gosnell, Blake A; Levine, Allen S; Edison, Arthur S; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2014-10-15

    The melanocortin-3 (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 (MC4R) receptors are expressed in the brain and are implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The endogenous agonist ligands for these receptors (α-, β-, γ-MSH and ACTH) are linear peptides with limited receptor subtype selectivity and metabolic stability, thus minimizing their use as probes to characterize the overlapping pharmacological and physiological functions of the melanocortin receptor subtypes. In the present study, an engineered template, in which the peptide backbone was modified by a heterocyclic reverse turn mimetic at the Trp(7) residue, was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and characterized by a β-galactosidase cAMP based reporter gene assay. The functional assay identified a ∼5 nM mouse MC4R agonist (AST3-88) with more than 50-fold selectivity over the mMC3R. Biophysical studies (2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics) of AST3-88 identified a type VIII β-turn secondary structure spanning the pharmacophore domain stabilized by the intramolecular interactions between the side chains of the His and Trp residues. Enzymatic studies of AST3-88 revealed enhanced stability of AST3-88 over the α-MSH endogenous peptide in rat serum. Upon central administration of AST3-88 into rats, a decreased food intake response was observed. This is the first study to probe the in vivo physiological activity of this engineered peptide-heterocycle template. These findings advance the present knowledge of pharmacophore design for potent, selective, and metabolically stable melanocortin ligands. PMID:25141170

  17. A Novel Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutation MC4R-P272L Associated with Severe Obesity Has Increased Propensity To Be Ubiquitinated in the ER in the Face of Correct Folding

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Susana; Serra-Juhé, Clara; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á.; Díaz, Francisca; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; Baldini, Giulia; Argente, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene represent the most frequent cause of monogenic obesity in humans. MC4R mutation analysis in a cohort of 77 children with morbid obesity identified previously unreported heterozygous mutations (P272L, N74I) in two patients inherited from their obese mothers. A rare polymorphism (I251L, allelic frequency: 1/100) reported to protect against obesity was found in another obese patient. When expressed in neuronal cells, the cell surface abundance of wild-type MC4R and of the N74I and I251L variants and the cAMP generated by these receptors in response to exposure to the agonist, α-MSH, were not different. Conversely, MC4R P272L was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and had reduced cell surface expression and signaling (by ≈3-fold). The chemical chaperone PBA, which promotes protein folding of wild-type MC4R, had minimal effects on the distribution and signaling of the P272L variant. In contrast, incubation with UBE-41, a specific inhibitor of ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, inhibited ubiquitination of MC4R P272L and increased its cell surface expression and signaling to similar levels as wild-type MC4R. UBE41 had much less profound effects on MC4R I316S, another obesity-linked MC4R variant trapped in the ER. These data suggest that P272L is retained in the ER by a propensity to be ubiquitinated in the face of correct folding, which is only minimally shared by MC4R I316S. Thus, studies that combine clinical screening of obese patients and investigation of the functional defects of the obesity-linked MC4R variants can identify specific ways to correct these defects and are the first steps towards personalized medicine. PMID:23251400

  18. Development of a high throughput screen for allosteric modulators of melanocortin-4 receptor signaling using a real time cAMP assay.

    PubMed

    Pantel, Jacques; Williams, Savannah Y; Mi, Dehui; Sebag, Julien; Corbin, Jackie D; Weaver, C David; Cone, Roger D

    2011-06-11

    The melanocortin MC(4) receptor is a potential target for the development of drugs for both obesity and cachexia. Melanocortin MC(4) receptor ligands known thus far are orthosteric agonists or antagonists, however the agonists, in particular, have generally exhibited unwanted side effects. For some receptors, allosteric modulators are expected to reduce side-effect profiles. To identify allosteric modulators of the melanocortin MC(4) receptor, we created HEK293 cell lines coexpressing the human melanocortin MC(4) receptor and a modified luciferase-based cAMP sensor. Monitoring luminescence as a readout of real-time intracellular cAMP concentration, we demonstrate that this cell line is able to report melanocortin agonist responses, as well as inverse agonist response to the physiological AgRP peptide. Based on the MC4R-GLO cell line, we developed an assay that was shown to meet HTS standards (Z'=0.50). A pilot screen run on the Microsource Spectrum compound library (n=2000) successfully identified 62 positive modulators. This screen identified predicted families of compounds: β(2)AR agonists - the β(2)AR being endogenously expressed in HEK293 cells, an adenylyl cyclase activator and finally a distribution of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors well characterized or recently identified. In this last category, we identified a structural family of coumarin-derived compounds (imperatorin, osthol and prenyletin), along with deracoxib, a drug in veterinary use for its COX2 inhibitory properties. This latter finding unveiled a new off-target mechanism of action for deracoxib as a PDE inhibitor. Overall, these data are the first report of a HTS for allosteric modulators for a Gs protein coupled receptor. PMID:21296065

  19. Development of a high throughput screen for allosteric modulators of melanocortin-4 receptor signaling using a real time cAMP assay

    PubMed Central

    Pantel, Jacques; Williams, Savannah Y.; Mi, Dehui; Sebag, Julien; Corbin, Jackie D.; Weaver, C. David; Cone, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    The melanocortin MC4 receptor is a potential target for the development of drugs for both obesity and cachexia. Melanocortin MC4 receptor ligands known thus far are orthosteric agonists or antagonists, however the agonists, in particular, have generally exhibited unwanted side effects. For some receptors, allosteric modulators are expected to reduce side-effect profiles. To identify allosteric modulators of the melanocortin MC4 receptor, we created HEK293 cell lines coexpressing the human melanocortin MC4 receptor and a modified luciferase-based cAMP sensor. Monitoring luminescence as a readout of real-time intracellular cAMP concentration, we demonstrate this cell line is able to report melanocortin agonist responses, as well as inverse agonist response to the physiological AgRP peptide. Based on the MC4R-GLO cell line, we developed an assay that was shown to meet HTS standards (Z’=0.50). A pilot screen run on the Microsource Spectrum compound library (n= 2,000) successfully identified 62 positive modulators. This screen identified predicted families of compounds: β2AR agonists –the β2AR being endogenously expressed in HEK293 cells-, an adenylyl cyclase activator and finally a distribution of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors well characterized or recently identified. In this last category, we identified a structural family of coumarin-derived compounds (imperatorin, osthol and prenyletin), along with deracoxib, a drug in veterinary use for its COX2 inhibitory properties. This latter finding unveiled a new off-target mechanism of action for deracoxib as a PDE inhibitor. Overall, these data are the first report of an HTS for allosteric modulators for a Gs protein coupled receptor. PMID:21296065

  20. Gene expression in hypothalamus, liver and adipose tissues and food intake reponse to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist in pigs expressing MC4R mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genetic mechanisms that respond to alpha- melanocortin stimulating hormone (MSH), a melanocortin-3 and 4-receptor (MC3/4-R) agonist. Three MC4R genotypes (2 homozygous and the heterozygous for MC4R) were selected. Six pigs per genotype per treatment wer...

  1. Identification of Tetrapeptides from a Mixture Based Positional Scanning Library That Can Restore nM Full Agonist Function of the L106P, I69T, I102S, A219V, C271Y, and C271R Human Melanocortin-4 Polymorphic Receptors (hMC4Rs)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human obesity has been linked to genetic factors and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) SNPs have been associated with up to 6% frequency in morbidly obese children and adults. A potential therapy for individuals possessing such genetic modifications is the identification of molecules that can restore proper receptor signaling and function. These compounds could serve as personalized medications improving quality of life issues as well as alleviating diseases symptoms associated with obesity including type 2 diabetes. Several hMC4 SNP receptors have been pharmacologically characterized in vitro to have a decreased, or a lack of response, to endogenous agonists such as α-, β-, and γ2-melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). Herein we report the use of a mixture based positional scanning combinatorial tetrapeptide library to discover molecules with nM full agonist potency and efficacy to the L106P, I69T, I102S, A219V, C271Y, and C271R hMC4Rs. The most potent compounds at all these hMC4R SNPs include Ac-His-(pI)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, Ac-His-(pCl)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, Ac-His-(pCl)DPhe-Arg-(pI)Phe-NH2, and Ac-Arg-(pCl)DPhe-Tic-(pNO2)DPhe-NH2, revealing new ligand pharmacophore models for melanocortin receptor drug design strategies. PMID:24517312

  2. Seasonal changes in hepatic progesterone receptor mRNA, estrogen receptor mRNA, and vitellogenin mRNA in the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta.

    PubMed

    Custodia-Lora, Noemí; Callard, Ian P

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies using the fresh water turtle Chrysemys picta have demonstrated that progesterone (P) inhibits estradiol (E)-induced vitellogenin (vtg) secretion in this species. Further, there is evidence for the differential expression of the two P receptor isoforms (PRA and PRB) in the liver during the turtle seasonal cycle, correlating with hepatic vitellogenesis. In this study we report changes in the hepatic PR mPNA, ER mRNA, and vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA transcripts during the reproductive cycle of the turtle. Fragments of the turtle hepatic PR and ER cDNAs were cloned and sequenced and a previously cloned turtle vtg cDNA were used as probes in Northern blotting. No 3.7-kb PR mRNA, corresponding to the smaller PR transcript, PRA of other species was found, although, a smaller 1.8-kb transcript (putative PRC mRNA) was present. These observations suggest that the turtle as in the chicken and human, the 4.5-kb PR mRNA transcript encodes both PRA and PRB proteins. Only the larger PR mRNA transcript (4.5-kb), was found to vary significantly during the annual cycle, being highest when vitellogenesis was inhibited in winter and summer. Vtg mRNA could not be detected during the summer or winter, was highest during vitellogenesis in the spring, and reappeared during the fall period of vitellogenesis and ovarian recrudescence. ER mRNA followed a similar pattern, being highest during spring and early fall, when vtg synthesis is high. The data suggest that P/PR, as well as E/ER, may be involved in the seasonal regulation of hepatic vitellogenesis in this species. PMID:12392693

  3. Discovery of a β-Hairpin Octapeptide, c[Pro-Arg-Phe-Phe-Dap-Ala-Phe-DPro], Mimetic of Agouti-Related Protein(87-132) [AGRP(87-132)] with Equipotent Mouse Melanocortin-4 Receptor (mMC4R) Antagonist Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mark D; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sorensen, Nicholas B; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2015-06-11

    Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a potent orexigenic peptide that antagonizes the melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R). While the C-terminal domain of AGRP, AGRP(87-132), is equipotent to the full-length peptide, further truncation decreases potency at the MC3R and MC4R. Herein, we report AGRP-derived peptides designed to mimic the active β-hairpin secondary structure that contains the hypothesized Arg-Phe-Phe pharmacophore. The most potent scaffold, c[Pro-Arg-Phe-Phe-Asn-Ala-Phe-DPro], comprised the hexa-peptide β-hairpin loop from AGRP cyclized through a DPro-Pro motif. A 20 compound library was synthesized from this scaffold for further structure-activity relationship studies. The most potent peptide from this library was an asparagine to diaminopropionic acid substitution that possessed sub-nanomolar antagonist activity at the mMC4R and was greater than 160-fold selective for the mMC4R versus the mMC3R. The reported ligands may serve as probes to characterize the melanocortin receptors in vivo and leads in the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25898270

  4. The prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA expression in primary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J. M.; Langdon, S. P.; Simpson, B. J.; Stewart, M.; Katsaros, D.; Sismondi, P.; Love, S.; Scott, W. N.; Williams, A. R.; Lessells, A. M.; Macleod, K. G.; Smyth, J. F.; Miller, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    The expression of mRNA for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) was determined in 76 malignant, six borderline and 15 benign primary ovarian tumours using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and related to clinical and pathological parameters. Of the malignant tumours, 70% (53/76) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 31% (23/75) expressed EGF mRNA and 35% (26/75) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. For the borderline tumours, four of six (67%) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 1/6 (17%) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA and none expressed EGF mRNA. Finally, 33% (5/15) of the benign tumours expressed EGF receptor mRNA, whereas 40% (6/15) expressed EGF mRNA and 7% (1/15) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. The presence of the EGF receptor in malignant tumours was associated with that of TGF-alpha (P = 0.0015) but not with EGF (P = 1.00), whereas there was no relationship between the presence of EGF and TGF-alpha (P = 1.00). EGF receptor mRNA expression was significantly and positively associated with serous histology (P = 0.006) but not with stage or grade. Neither EGF nor TGF-alpha showed any link with histological subtype or stage. The survival of patients with malignant tumours possessing EGF receptor mRNA was significantly reduced compared with that of patients whose tumours were negative (P = 0.030 for all malignant tumours; P = 0.007 for malignant epithelial tumours only). In contrast, neither the expression of TGF-alpha nor EGF was related to survival. These data suggest that the presence of EGF receptor mRNA is associated with poor prognosis in primary ovarian cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8562334

  5. Expression of D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in the arterial chemoreceptor afferent pathway.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1992-11-01

    Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the arterial chemoreceptor pathway. In the present study we wished to determine if messenger RNAs for dopamine D1 and D2 receptor are expressed in carotid body (type I cells), in sensory neurons of the petrosal ganglion which innervate the carotid body and in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. We failed to detect D1 receptor mRNA in any of these tissues. However, we found that D2 receptor mRNA was expressed by dopaminergic carotid body type I cells. D2 receptor mRNA was also found in petrosal ganglion neurons that innervated the carotid sinus and carotid body. In addition, a large number of sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion expressed D2 receptor mRNA. PMID:1362730

  6. Localization of insulin receptor mRNA in rat brain by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.L.; Porte, D. Jr.; Stahl, W.L.; Baskin, D.G. )

    1990-12-01

    Insulin receptor mRNA was demonstrated in rat brain slices by in situ hybridization with three {sup 35}S-oligonucleotide probes and contact film autoradiography. Specificity was confirmed by showing that (a) excess unlabeled probe abolished the signal, (b) an oligonucleotide probe for rat neuropeptide Y mRNA showed a different distribution of hybridization signal, and (c) the distribution of insulin receptor binding was consistent with the distribution of insulin receptor mRNA. Insulin receptor mRNA was most abundant in the granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, cerebellum and dentate gyrus, in the pyramidal cell body layers of the pyriform cortex and hippocampus, in the choroid plexus and in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

  7. Prodynorphin, proenkephalin and kappa opioid receptor mRNA responses to acute "binge" cocaine.

    PubMed

    Spangler, R; Zhou, Y; Maggos, C E; Schlussman, S D; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

    1997-02-01

    Previous studies showed that preprodynorphin (ppDyn) mRNA increases in caudate-putamen while kappa opioid receptor (KOR) mRNA decreases in substantia nigra after 3 and 14 days "binge" cocaine. To further characterize opioid mRNA responses, rats were administered: saline; 1 day cocaine followed by 1 day saline; 1 day cocaine; or 2 days cocaine. ppDyn mRNA in caudate-putamen increased in both groups receiving cocaine on the final day compared to groups receiving saline. Preproenkephalin (ppEnk) mRNA in caudate-putamen increased, and KOR mRNA in substantia nigra decreased, after 2 days of cocaine. Thus ppDyn mRNA is elevated acutely by cocaine, while ppEnk and KOR mRNAs show a significant response only on the second day of "binge" cocaine. PMID:9030708

  8. Prefrontal cortical-striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nicholas W; Beas, Blanca S; Montgomery, Karienn S; Haberman, Rebecca P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2013-06-01

    Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

  9. Prefrontal cortical–striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nicholas W.; Beas, Blanca S.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

  10. Steroid receptor mRNA expression in the ovarian follicles of cows with cystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Natalia S; Salvetti, Natalia R; Velazquez, Melisa M; Stangaferro, Matías L; Rey, Florencia; Ortega, Hugo H

    2012-06-01

    Steroid receptors have been demonstrated to be important intra-ovarian regulators of follicular development and ovulatory processes. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of steroid receptor mRNA in ovarian follicular structures from cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD) compared with ovarian structures from regularly cycling cows using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cystic follicles showed a higher estrogen receptor α (ESR1) mRNA expression in the theca and granulosa and a lower estrogen receptor β (ESR2) expression. The cystic follicles also showed a strong expression of androgen receptor mRNA in the granulosa. No changes were observed in total progesterone receptor mRNA, but a very significant increase in the B isoform was found in the granulosa of the cystic follicles. The findings of the current study provide evidence that an altered steroid signaling system may be present in bovine follicular cysts, and we suggest that in conditions characterized by altered ovulation, such as COD, changes in the expression of ovarian steroid receptors could play a fundamental role in the pathogeny of this disease. PMID:21536311

  11. Regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA expression by a specific RNA binding protein in the ovary*

    PubMed Central

    Menon, K.M.J.; Nair, Anil K.; Wang, Lei; Peegel, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Summary The expression of LH receptor mRNA shows significant changes during different physiological states of the ovary. Previous studies from our laboratory have identified a post-transcriptional mechanism by which LH receptor mRNA is regulated following preovulatory LH surge or in response to hCG administration. A specific binding protein, identified as mevalonate kinase, binds to the open reading frame of LH receptor mRNA. The protein binding site is localized to nucleotides 203–220 of the LH receptor mRNA and exhibits a high degree of specificity. The expression levels of the protein show an inverse relationship to the LH receptor mRNA levels. The hCG-induced down-regulation of LH receptor mRNA can be mimicked by increasing the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. An in vitro mRNA decay assay showed that addition of the binding protein to the decay system caused accelerated LH receptor mRNA decay. Our results therefore show that LH receptor mRNA expression in the ovary is regulated post-transcriptionally by altering the rate of mRNA degradation by a specific mRNA binding protein. PMID:17055149

  12. Posttranscriptional regulation of urokinase receptor mRNA: identification of a novel urokinase receptor mRNA binding protein in human mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, S; Kumar, A; Idell, S

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of human pleural mesothelioma (MS-1) cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and cycloheximide results in 17- and 10-fold, respectively, increases in steady-state expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) mRNA. Studies of transcriptional inhibition by actinomycin D showed four- and sixfold extensions of uPAR mRNA half-life in MS-1 cells treated with PMA and cycloheximide, respectively, suggesting that uPAR gene expression involves a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. Using gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking assays, we identified a 50-kDa uPAR mRNA binding protein (uPAR mRNABp) that selectively bound to a 51-nucleotide (nt) fragment of mRNA corresponding to the uPAR coding region. We investigated the possibility that this 51-nt protein binding fragment of uPAR mRNA contains regulatory information for message stability. Chimeric beta-globin/uPAR/beta-globin mRNA containing the 51-nt protein binding fragment was able to destabilize otherwise stable beta-globin mRNA. Conversely, a control chimeric beta-globin/uPAR/beta-globin mRNA containing a 51-nt fragment of the uPAR coding region that does not bind uPAR mRNABp was stable under identical conditions. Binding of uPAR mRNABp to uPAR mRNA was abolished after treatment with cycloheximide and rapidly down-regulated by PMA. These data suggest that the 51-nt protein binding fragment of uPAR mRNA may be involved in mRNA turnover as well as in cycloheximide-induced uPAR message stabilization. Our results indicate a novel mechanism of uPAR gene regulation in which cis elements within a 51-nt coding region interact with a uPAR mRNABp to regulate uPAR message stability. PMID:9032234

  13. Acetylcholine receptor-inducing factor from chicken brain increases the level of mRNA encoding the receptor. alpha. subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.A.; Falls, D.L.; Dill-Devor, R.M.; Fischbach, G.D. )

    1988-03-01

    A 42-kDa glycoprotein isolated from chicken brain, referred to as acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity (ARIA), that stimulates the rate of incorporation of acetylcholine receptors into the surface of chicken myotubes may play a role in the nerve-induced accumulation of receptors at developing neuromuscular synapses. Using nuclease-protection assays, the authors have found that ARIA causes a 2- to 16-fold increase in the level of mRNA encoding the {alpha} subunit of the receptor, with little or no change in the levels of {gamma}- and {delta}-subunit messengers. ARIA also increases the amount of a putative nuclear precursor of {alpha}-subunit mRNA, consistent with an activation of gene transcription. These results suggest that the concentration of {alpha} subunit may limit the rate of biosynthesis of the acetylcholine receptors in chicken myotubes. They also indicate that neuronal factors can regulate the expression of receptor subunit genes in a selective manner. Tetrodotoxin, 8-bromo-cAMP, and forskolin also increase the amount of {alpha}-subunit mRNA, with little change in the amount of {gamma}- and {delta}-subunit mRNAs. Unlike ARIA, however, these agents have little effect on the concentration of the {alpha}-subunit nuclear precursor.

  14. Adrenocorticotropin receptors: Functional expression from rat adrenal mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, L.M.; Catt, K.J. )

    1991-10-01

    The adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) receptor, which binds corticotropin and stimulates adenylate cyclase and steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells, was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with rat adrenal poly(A){sup +} RNA. Expression of the ACTH receptor in individual stage 5 and 6 oocytes was monitored by radioimmunoassay of ligand-stimulated cAMP production. Injection of 5-40 ng of adrenal mRNA caused dose-dependent increases in ACTH-responsive cAMP production. Size fractionation of rat adrenal poly(A){sup +}RNA by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation revealed that mRNA encoding the ACTH receptor was present in the 1.1-to 2.0-kilobase fraction. These data indicate that ACTH receptors can be expressed from adrenal mRNA in Xenopus oocytes and are fully functional in terms of ligand specificity and signal generation. The extracellular cAMP response to ACTH is a sensitive and convenient index of receptor expression. This system should permit more complete characterization and expression cloning of the ACTH receptor.

  15. Oestradiol reduces Liver Receptor Homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Kyren A.; Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C.; To, Sarah Q.; Chand, Ashwini L.; Clyne, Colin D.

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates tumor proliferation. •In breast cancer, high mRNA expression is associated with ER+ status. •In ER−ve cells, despite very low mRNA, we found abundant LRH-1 protein. •Our data show distinctly different LRH-1 protein isoforms in ER− and ER+ breast cancer cells. •This is due to differences in LRH-1 mRNA and protein stability rates. -- Abstract: The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E{sub 2}), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER− cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER− cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER− breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER− compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E{sub 2}, showed increased mRNA stability in ER− versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E{sub 2} treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER− cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER− cells as well as ER− tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER− tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER− and ER+ breast cancer.

  16. mRNA expression pattern of gonadotropin receptors in bovine follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Marelli, Belkis E; Diaz, Pablo U; Salvetti, Natalia R; Rey, Florencia; Ortega, Hugo H

    2014-12-01

    Follicular growth and steroidogenesis are dependent on gonadotropin binding to their receptors in granulosa and theca cells of ovarian follicles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression patterns of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) in ovarian follicular structures from cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD) as compared with those of regularly cycling cows. Relative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR mRNA in granulosa cells was highest in small antral follicles, then decreased significantly as follicles increased in size, and was lowest in cysts. FSHR mRNA was not detected in the theca cells of any follicular category, including cysts. LHCGR mRNA expression in granulosa cells was significantly higher in large antral follicles than in cysts, and not detected in granulosa cells of small and medium antral follicles. In theca cells, the expression level of LHCGR mRNA in medium antral follicles was higher than in small and large antral follicles, whereas that in follicular cysts it was similar to those in small and medium antral follicles, but higher than that in large antral follicles. Our findings provide evidence that there is an altered gonadotropin receptor expression in bovine cystic follicles, and suggest that in conditions characterized by altered ovulation, such as COD, changes in the signaling system of gonadotropins may play a fundamental role in their pathogenesis. PMID:25454493

  17. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    PubMed

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted. PMID:25967984

  18. mRNA for low density lipoprotein receptor in brain and spinal cord of immature and mature rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.L.; Russell, D.W.; Goldstein, J.L.; Brown, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Hybridization studies with (/sup 32/P)cDNA probes revealed detectable amounts of mRNA for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the central nervous system (CNS) of rabbits. mRNA levels were highest in the medulla/pons and spinal cord, which were the most heavily myelinated regions that were studied. Lower, but detectable levels were present in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum. In the medulla/pons and spinal cord, the levels of receptor mRNA were in a range comparable to that detected in the liver. The levels of receptor mRNA in whole brain were constant from 3 days of age to adulthood and, thus, did not vary in proportion to the rate of myelin synthesis. LDL receptor mRNA in the CNS was produced by the same gene that produced the liver and adrenal mRNA as revealed by the demonstration of a deletion in the neural mRNA of Watanabe-heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits identical to the deletion in the LDL receptor gene of these mutant animals. Using antibodies directed against the bovine LDL receptor, the authors showed that LDL receptor protein is present in the medulla/pons of adult cows. The cell types that express LDL receptors in the CNS and the functions of these receptors are unknown.

  19. HDAC3 regulates stability of estrogen receptor α mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Oie, Shohei; Matsuzaki, Kazuya; Yokoyama, Wataru; Murayama, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ERα mRNA in MCF-7 cells. ► HDAC3 is involved in maintaining ERα mRNA stability in MCF-7 cells. ► ERα mRNA instability by knockdown of HDAC3 reduces the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive MCF-7 cells. ► HDAC3 specific inhibitor will be one of new drugs for ERα-positive breast cancers. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. HDAC inhibitors have been demonstrated to down-regulate ERα expression in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ERα mRNA, and that knockdown of HDAC3 decreases the stability of ERα mRNA and suppresses estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the Oncomine database, expression levels of HDAC3 in ERα-positive tumors are higher than those in ERα-negative tumors, thus suggesting that HDAC3 is necessary for ERα mRNA stability, and is involved in the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive tumors.

  20. Aromatase and estrogen receptor alpha mRNA expression as prognostic biomarkers in patients with astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Dueñas Jiménez, J M; Candanedo Arellano, A; Santerre, A; Orozco Suárez, S; Sandoval Sánchez, H; Feria Romero, I; López-Elizalde, R; Alonso Venegas, M; Netel, B; de la Torre Valdovinos, B; Dueñas Jiménez, S H

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are oncogenic hormones at a high level in breast, prostate, endometrial and lung cancer. Estrogens are synthesized by aromatase which has been used as a biomarker both in breast and lung cancer. Estrogen biological activities are executed by their classic receptors (ERα and ERβ). ERα has been described as a cancer promoter and ERβ, as a possible tumor suppressor. Both receptors are present at low levels in primary multiforme glioblastoma (GBM). The GBM frequency is 50 % higher in men than in women. The GBM patient survival period ranges from 7 to 18 months. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate aromatase and estrogen receptor expression, as well as 17ß-estradiol concentration in astrocytoma patients biopsies to obtain a prognosis biomarker for these patients. We analyzed 36 biopsies of astrocytoma patients with a different grade (I-IV) of malignity. Aromatase and estrogen receptor mRNA expression were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, and the E2 levels, by ELISA. E2 concentration was higher in GBM, compared to grade II or III astrocytomas. The number of cells immunoreactive to aromatase and estrogen receptors decreased as the grade of tumor malignity increased. Aromatase mRNA expression was present in all biopsies, regardless of malignity grade or patient age or gender. The highest expression of aromatase mRNA in GBM patients was associated to the worst survival prognostic (6.28 months). In contrast lowest expression of ERα mRNA in astrocytoma patients had a worst prognosis. In conclusion, aromatase and ERα expression could be used as prognosis biomarkers for astrocytoma patients. PMID:25005528

  1. Time-course of 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression during memory consolidation and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Rivas, A; Pérez-García, G; González-Espinosa, C; Meneses, A

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor(6) (5-HT(6)) improve memory and reverse amnesia although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, in this paper RT-PCR was used to evaluate changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in trained and untrained rats treated with the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine. Changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor were investigated at different times in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Data indicated that memory in the Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping task was a progressive process associated to reduced mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in the three structures examined. SB-399885 improved long-term memory at 48h, while the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine or the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine impaired it at 24h. Autoshaping training and treatment with SB-399885 increased 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in (maximum increase) prefrontal cortex and striatum, 24 or 48h. The scopolamine-induced amnesia suppressed 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression while the dizocilpine-induced amnesia did not modify 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. SB-399885 and scopolamine or dizocilpine were able to reestablish memory and 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. These data confirmed previous memory evidence and of more interest is the observation that training, SB-399885 and amnesic drugs modulated 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Further investigation in different memory tasks, times and amnesia models together with more complex control groups might provide further clues. PMID:19733250

  2. Chronic estrogen exposure maintains elevated levels of progesterone receptor mRNA in guinea pig hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E

    1991-05-01

    We performed in situ hybridization on hypothalamic sections from ovariectomized guinea pig using a cocktail of three 35S-labeled oligonucleotides complementary to mammalian progesterone receptor (PR) cDNA. PR mRNA was readily detected in hypothalamic neurons from guinea pigs pretreated with 17 beta-estradiol benzoate (E2B), but not from animals which did not receive supplemental E2B. The distribution of PR mRNA-containing cells corresponded well with previous localizations of PR in guinea pig. In contrast to earlier reports of E2B regulation of PR mRNA in rat hypothalamus, however, we found that PR mRNA remained elevated during chronic exposure to E2B (up to 10 days) in guinea pig. PMID:2072827

  3. Chronic stress alters glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) brain.

    PubMed

    Dickens, M; Romero, L M; Cyr, N E; Dunn, I C; Meddle, S L

    2009-10-01

    Although the glucocorticoid response to acute short-term stress is an adaptive physiological mechanism that aids in the response to and survival of noxious stimuli, chronic stress is associated with a negative impact on health. In wild-caught European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), chronic stress alters the responsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as measured by the acute corticosterone response. In the present study, we investigated potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms by comparing glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in the brains of chronically and nonchronically-stressed starlings. Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, but not hippocampal, glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in chronically-stressed birds was significantly lower compared to controls, suggesting changes in the efficacy of corticosterone negative feedback. In addition, chronically-stressed birds showed a significant decrease in hippocampal MR mRNA expression. Together, these results suggest that chronic stress changes the brain physiology of wild birds and provides important information for the understanding of the underlying mechanisms that result in dysregulation of the HPA axis in wild animals by chronic stress. PMID:19686439

  4. Regulation of the growth hormone (GH) receptor and GH-binding protein mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kaji, Hidesuke; Ohashi, Shin-Ichirou; Abe, Hiromi; Chihara, Kazuo

    1994-12-31

    In fasting rats, a transient increase in growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) mRNA levels was observed after 1 day, in muscle, heart, and liver, but not in fat tissues. The liver GH receptor (GHR) mRNA level was significantly increased after 1 day (but not after 5 days) of bovine GH (bGH) treatment in fed rats. Both the liver GHR mRNA level and the net increment of plasma IGF-I markedly decreased after 5 days of bGH administration in fasting rats. These findings suggest that GHR and GHBP mRNAs in the liver are expressed in a different way and that the expression of GHBP mRNA is regulated differently between tissues, at least in rats. The results also suggest that refractoriness to GH in a sustained fasting state might be beneficial in preventing anabolic effects of GH. In humans, GHR mRNA in lymphocytes, from subjects with either GH-deficiency or acromegaly, could be detected by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. In one patient with partial GH insensitivity, a heterozygous missense mutation (P561T) was identified in the cytoplasmic domain of GHR. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  5. The human insulin receptor mRNA contains a functional internal ribosome entry segment

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Keith A.; Cobbold, Laura C.; Ridley, Simon H.; Coldwell, Mark; Bottley, Andrew; Bushell, Martin; Willis, Anne E.; Siddle, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of mRNA translation is an important mechanism determining the level of expression of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Translation is most commonly initiated by cap-dependent scanning, but many eukaryotic mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry segments (IRESs), providing an alternative means of initiation capable of independent regulation. Here, we show by using dicistronic luciferase reporter vectors that the 5′-UTR of the mRNA encoding human insulin receptor (hIR) contains a functional IRES. RNAi-mediated knockdown showed that the protein PTB was required for maximum IRES activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that PTB1, PTB2 and nPTB, but not unr or PTB4, bound to hIR mRNA, and deletion mapping implicated a CCU motif 448 nt upstream of the initiator AUG in PTB binding. The IR-IRES was functional in a number of cell lines, and most active in cells of neuronal origin, as assessed by luciferase reporter assays. The IRES was more active in confluent than sub-confluent cells, but activity did not change during differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. IRES activity was stimulated by insulin in sub-confluent cells. The IRES may function to maintain expression of IR protein in tissues such as the brain where mRNA translation by cap-dependent scanning is less effective. PMID:19654240

  6. Alpha1-adrenoreceptor in human hippocampus: binding and receptor subtype mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Szot, Patricia; White, Sylvia S; Greenup, J Lynne; Leverenz, James B; Peskind, Elaine R; Raskind, Murray A

    2005-10-01

    Alpha1-adrenoreceptors (AR), of which three subtypes exist (alpha1A-, alpha1B- and alpha1D-AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the actions of norepinephrine and epinephrine both peripherally and centrally. In the CNS, alpha1-ARs are found in the hippocampus where animal studies have shown the ability of alpha1-AR agents to modulate long-term potentiation and memory; however, the precise distribution of alpha1-AR expression and its subtypes in the human brain is unknown making functional comparisons difficult. In the human hippocampus, 3H-prazosin (alpha1-AR antagonist) labels only the dentate gyrus (molecular, granule and polymorphic layers) and the stratum lucidum of the CA3 homogeneously. Human alpha1A-AR mRNA in the hippocampus is observed only in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer, while alpha1D-AR mRNA expression is observed only in the pyramidal cell layers of CA1, CA2 and CA3, regions where 3H-prazosin did not bind. alpha1B-AR mRNA is not expressed at detectable levels in the human hippocampus. These results confirm a difference in hippocampal alpha1-AR localization between rat and humans and further describe a difference in the localization of the alpha1A- and alpha1D-AR mRNA subtype between rats and humans. PMID:16039007

  7. Evidence for the presence of beta 3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Carillon, C; Coquerel, A; Le Fur, G; Ferrara, P; Caput, D; Shire, D

    1995-04-01

    The beta 3-adrenergic receptor (AR) is widely distributed in peripheral tissues, but up to now it has not been detected in the central nervous system. By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, we found the beta 3-AR mRNA to be present in all the regions of the human brain we investigated. The quantities found were very low compared to those of the beta 1-AR and beta 2-AR mRNAs, being hardly detectable in adult brain. In contrast, the brain of very young infants contained about 100 times more beta 3-AR mRNA than the adult brain, whereas the amounts of beta 1-AR and beta 2-AR transcripts were essentially the same. In addition, using PCR we have cloned a central beta 3-AR coding region from a human frontal cortex cDNA library and have found it to be identical to the corresponding peripheral sequence. PMID:7609625

  8. Activity-dependent mRNA splicing controls ER export and synaptic delivery of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yuanyue; Otsuka, Takeshi; Horton, April C; Scott, Derek B; Ehlers, Michael D

    2003-10-30

    Activity-dependent targeting of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a key feature of synapse formation and plasticity. Although mechanisms for rapid trafficking of glutamate receptors have been identified, the molecular events underlying chronic accumulation or loss of synaptic NMDARs have remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that activity controls NMDAR synaptic accumulation by regulating forward trafficking at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER export is accelerated by the alternatively spliced C2' domain of the NR1 subunit and slowed by the C2 splice cassette. This mRNA splicing event at the C2/C2' site is activity dependent, with C2' variants predominating upon activity blockade and C2 variants abundant with increased activity. The switch to C2' accelerates NMDAR forward trafficking by enhancing recruitment of nascent NMDARs to ER exit sites via binding of a divaline motif within C2' to COPII coats. These results define a novel pathway underlying activity-dependent targeting of glutamate receptors, providing an unexpected mechanistic link between activity, mRNA splicing, and membrane trafficking during excitatory synapse modification. PMID:14642281

  9. Distinct prognostic values of four-Notch-receptor mRNA expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinling; Teng, Lingling; Wang, Min

    2016-05-01

    Notch signaling pathway includes ligands and Notch receptors, which are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies including ovarian cancer. Aberrant activation of Notch signaling has been linked to ovarian carcinogenesis and progression. In the current study, we used the "Kaplan-Meier plotter" (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information from a total of 1306 ovarian cancer patients were used to access the prognostic value of four Notch receptors in ovarian cancer patients. Hazard ratio (HR), 95 % confidence intervals, and log-rank P were calculated. Notch1 messenger RNA (mRNA) high expression was not found to be correlated to overall survival (OS) for all ovarian cancer, as well as in serous and endometrioid cancer patients followed for 20 years. However, Notch1 mRNA high expression is significantly associated with worsen OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, while it is significantly associated with better OS in TP53 mutation-type ovarian cancer patients. Notch2 mRNA high expression was found to be significantly correlated to worsen OS for all ovarian cancer patients, as well as in grade II ovarian cancer patients. Notch3 mRNA high expression was found to be significantly correlated to better OS for all ovarian cancer patients, but not in serous cancer patients and endometrioid cancer patients. Notch4 mRNA high expression was not found to be significantly correlated to OS for all ovarian cancer patients, serous cancer patients, and endometrioid cancer patients. These results indicate that there are distinct prognostic values of four Notch receptors in ovarian cancer. This information will be useful for better understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity in the molecular biology of ovarian cancer and for developing tools to more accurately predict their prognosis. Based on our results, Notch1 could be a potential drug target of TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer and Notch2 could be a potential drug

  10. Prognostic values of four Notch receptor mRNA expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wentao; Tang, Ding; Xiao, Haijuan; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Che; Yao, Xuequan; Liu, Fukun; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Notch ligands and receptors are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies including gastric cancer. The activation of Notch signaling has been reported to contribute to gastric carcinogenesis and progression. However, the prognostic roles of individual Notch receptors in gastric cancer patients remain elusive. In the current study, we accessed the prognostic roles of four Notch receptors, Notch 1–4, in gastric cancer patients through “The Kaplan-Meier plotter” (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information include a total of 876 gastric cancer patients. All four Notch receptors’ high mRNA expression was found to be correlated to worsen overall survival (OS) for all gastric cancer patients followed for 20 years. We further accessed the prognostic roles of individual Notch receptors in different clinicopathological features using Lauren classification, pathological grades, clinical grades, HER2 status and different choices of treatments of gastric cancer patients. These results indicate that there are critical prognostic values of the four Notch receptors in gastric cancer. This information will be useful for better understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity in the molecular biology of gastric cancer and to develop tools to more accurately predict their prognosis. PMID:27363496

  11. Endothelin receptor B protects granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA from degradation.

    PubMed

    Jungck, David; Knobloch, Jürgen; Körber, Sandra; Lin, Yingfeng; Konradi, Jürgen; Yanik, Sarah; Stoelben, Erich; Koch, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Evidence is lacking on the differential effects of the two therapeutic concepts of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs): the blockade of only the endothelin receptor A (ETAR; selective antagonism) versus both ETAR and endothelin receptor B (ETBR; dual blockade). Ambrisentan, a selective ERA, and bosentan, a dual blocker, are both available for therapy. We hypothesized that there are differences in the potential of ERAs to ameliorate inflammatory processes in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and aimed to unravel underlying mechanisms. We used HASMC culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced transcription and expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) in HASMCs. In concentration-response experiments, bosentan led to a significantly greater reduction of GM-CSF and MMP12 protein release than ambrisentan, whereas there was no significant difference in their effect on GM-CSF and MMP12 mRNA. Both ERAs reduced CXCL3 protein and mRNA equally but had no effect on CXCL2. Blocking mitogen-activated protein kinases revealed that both ETAR and ETBR signal through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but ETBR also signals through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 to induce GM-CSF expression. In the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, bosentan, but not ambrisentan, reduced GM-CSF but not MMP12 or CXCL3 mRNA. In conclusion, blockade of each endothelin receptor subtype reduces GM-CSF transcription, but blocking ETBR additionally protects GM-CSF mRNA from degradation via ERK-1/2. Accordingly, blocking both ETAR and ETBR leads to a stronger reduction of TNFα-induced GM-CSF protein expression. This mechanism might be specific to GM-CSF. Our data stress the anti-inflammatory potential

  12. mRNA profiles of cytokine receptors in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianming; Yang, Aizhen; Chen, Min; Li, Ansheng; Yao, Xu; Li, Yumei; Xie, Shihai; Yang, Xueyuan; Zhong, Liansheng; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2011-03-01

    This present study was aimed to investigate the roles of the receptors of Th1/Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Thirty patients with CIU, 30 patients with dermographism and 30 healthy controls were randomly enrolled. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the mRNA of cytokine receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), interferon-γ receptor (IFN-γR), and interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) were statistically increased in the CIU group (P < 0.05), while IL-2R, IL-4R, IL-6R, and IL-13R showed no significant differences between the CIU and other groups. The mRNA levels of CCR3 and CCR6 were statistically increased in the CIU group (P < 0.05). The toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mRNA level was significantly lower in the CIU group than the healthy control group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the regulation of mRNA of TNFR, IFN-γR, IL-10R, CCR3, CCR6 and TLR2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of CIU. PMID:23554682

  13. Increased expression of C5a receptor (CD88) mRNA in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Hezmee, Mohd Noor Mohd; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Lee, Jia Yu Peppermint; Shiels, Ian A; Rolfe, Barbara; Woodruff, Trent; Mills, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplastic conditions in dogs, and there is evidence that inflammation plays a role in the development of some tumor types in dogs. The complement system is a major participant in the inflammatory process and the complement activation component, C5a, is a potent inflammatory peptide. This study investigated the mRNA expression of the major receptor for C5a (C5aR; CD88) in histopathological samples of canine mammary tumors by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using canine-specific primers for CD88. A total of seven canine mammary tumors (four malignant carcinomas, two benign mixed mammary tumors, and one myoepithelioma) and eight normal mammary glands were analysed. All the tumor samples expressed low levels of CD88 mRNA, while none of the normal mammary tissues showed any detectable expression. These preliminary results suggest that C5a-CD88 interaction may play a contributory role in the inflammatory response associated with mammary tumor development in dogs. Further studies investigating the mechanisms behind complement activation and C5a receptor expression in canine mammary tumors are warranted. PMID:20846729

  14. Lesion of the substantia nigra pars compacta downregulates striatal glutamate receptor subunit mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Fan, X D; Li, X M; Ashe, P C; Juorio, A V

    1999-12-11

    This is a study of the effect of the unilateral administration of dopamine (DA) in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra (SN) of the rat on striatal glutamate receptor subunit (GluR1, GluR2 and NMDAR1) gene expression determined by in situ hybridization. The location of the nigral lesion was determined by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry and its extent by the striatal DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentrations. The DA-induced lesions produce significant bilateral reductions in the expression of GluR1 and NMDAR1 subunit mRNA in the medio-lateral striatum, whereas the expression of striatal GluR2 receptors was not changed. The reduction in GluR1 and NMDAR1 subunit mRNA may be the consequence of glutamatergic hyperactivity developed in the presence of a damaged nigro-striatal system and these may be associated with the genesis of some neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:10629751

  15. IONOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE HUMAN THALAMUS: ABSENCE OF CHANGE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Dracheva, Stella; Byne, William; Chin, Benjamin; Haroutunian, Vahram

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission are thought to be among the major contributing factors to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Although schizophrenia has been regarded mostly as a disorder of higher cortical function, the cortex and thalamus work as a functional unit. Existing data regarding alterations of glutamate receptor subunit expression in the thalamus in schizophrenia remain equivocal. This postmortem study examined mRNA expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) subunits and PSD95 in 5 precisely defined and dissected thalamic subdivisions (medial and lateral sectors of the mediodorsal nucleus; and the ventrolateral posterior, ventral posterior, and centromedian nuclei) of persons with schizophrenia and matched controls using quantitative PCR with normalization to multiple endogenous controls. Among 15 genes examined (NR1 and NR2A-D subunits of NMDA receptor; GluR1-4 subunits of AMPA receptor; GluR5-7 and KA1-2 subunits of kainate receptor; PSD95), all but two (GluR4 and KA1) were expressed at quantifiable levels. Differences in iGluR gene expression were seen between different nuclei but not between diagnostic groups. The relative abundance of transcripts was: NR1≫NR2A>NR2B>NR2D>NR2C for NMDA, GluR2>GluR1>GluR3 for AMPA, and KA2>GluR5>GluR7>GluR6 for kainate receptors. The expression of PSD95 correlated with the expression of NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2D and GluR6 in all nuclei. These results provide detailed and quantitative information on iGluR subunit expression in multiple nuclei of the human thalamus but suggest that alterations in their expression are not a prominent feature of schizophrenia. PMID:18462708

  16. Melatonin receptor deficiency decreases and temporally shifts ecto-5'-nucleotidase mRNA levels in mouse prosencephalon.

    PubMed

    Homola, Moran; Pfeffer, Martina; Robson, Simon C; Fischer, Claudia; Zimmermann, Herbert; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2016-07-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) is the major extracellular adenosine-producing ecto-enzyme in mouse brain. Via the production of adenosine, eN participates in many physiological and pathological processes, such as wakefulness, inflammation, nociception and neuroprotection. The mechanisms regulating the expression of eN are therefore of considerable neurobiological and clinical interest. Having previously described a modulatory effect of melatonin in the regulation of eN mRNA levels, we decided to analyze the melatonin receptor subtype involved in the regulation of eN mRNA levels by comparing eN mRNA patterns in melatonin-proficient transgenic mice lacking either the melatonin receptor subtype 1 (MT1 KO) or both melatonin receptor subtypes (MT1 and MT2; MT1/2 KO) with the corresponding melatonin-proficient wild-type (WT) controls. By means of radioactive in situ hybridization, eN mRNA levels were found to be diminished in both MT1 and MT1/2 KO mice compared with WT controls suggesting stimulatory impacts of melatonin receptors on eN mRNA levels. Whereas eN mRNA levels increased during the day and peaked at night in WT and MT1 KO mice, eN mRNA levels at night were reduced and the peak was shifted toward day-time in double MT1/2 KO mice. These data suggest that the MT2 receptor subtype may play a role in the temporal regulation of eN mRNA availability. Notably, day-time locomotor activity was significantly higher in MT1/2 KO compared with WT mice. Our results suggest melatoninergic signaling as an interface between the purinergic system and the circadian system. PMID:26917036

  17. Cocaine treatment alters oxytocin receptor binding but not mRNA production in postpartum rat dams.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, T M; McMurray, M S; Walker, C H; Johns, J M

    2006-06-01

    Gestational cocaine treatment in rat dams results in decreased oxytocin (OT) levels, up-regulated oxytocin receptor (OTR) binding density and decreased receptor affinity in the whole amygdala, all concomitant with a significant increase in maternal aggression on postpartum day six. Rat dams with no gestational drug treatment that received an infusion of an OT antagonist directly into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) exhibited similarly high levels of maternal aggression towards intruders. Additionally, studies indicate that decreased OT release from the hypothalamic division of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is coincident with heightened maternal aggression in rats. Thus, it appears that cocaine-induced alterations in OT system dynamics (levels, receptors, production, and/or release) may mediate heightened maternal aggression following cocaine treatment, but the exact mechanisms through which cocaine impacts the OT system have not yet been determined. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that two likely mechanisms of cocaine's action would be, increased OTR binding specifically in the CeA, and decreased OT mRNA production in the PVN. Autoradiography and in situ hybridization assays were performed on targeted nuclei in brain regions of rat dams on postpartum day six, following gestational treatment twice daily with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or normal saline (1 ml/kg). We now report cocaine-induced reductions in OTR binding density in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), but not the CeA. There was no significant change in OT mRNA production in the PVN following cocaine treatment. PMID:16677710

  18. P2 purinergic receptor mRNA in rat and human sinoatrial node and other heart regions.

    PubMed

    Musa, Hanny; Tellez, James O; Chandler, Natalie J; Greener, Ian D; Maczewski, Michał; Mackiewicz, Urszula; Beresewicz, Andrzej; Molenaar, Peter; Boyett, Mark R; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2009-06-01

    It is known that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a cotransmitter in the heart. Additionally, ATP is released from ischemic and hypoxic myocytes. Therefore, cardiac-derived sources of ATP have the potential to modify cardiac function. ATP activates P2X(1-7) and P2Y(1-14) receptors; however, the presence of P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes in strategic cardiac locations such as the sinoatrial node has not been determined. An understanding of P2X and P2Y receptor localization would facilitate investigation of purine receptor function in the heart. Therefore, we used quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization to measure the expression of mRNA of all known purine receptors in rat left ventricle, right atrium and sinoatrial node (SAN), and human right atrium and SAN. Expression of mRNA for all the cloned P2 receptors was observed in the ventricles, atria, and SAN of the rat. However, their abundance varied in different regions of the heart. P2X(5) was the most abundant of the P2X receptors in all three regions of the rat heart. In rat left ventricle, P2Y(1), P2Y(2), and P2Y(14) mRNA levels were highest for P2Y receptors, while in right atrium and SAN, P2Y(2) and P2Y(14) levels were highest, respectively. We extended these studies to investigate P2X(4) receptor mRNA in heart from rats with coronary artery ligation-induced heart failure. P2X(4) receptor mRNA was upregulated by 93% in SAN (P < 0.05), while a trend towards an increase was also observed in the right atrium and left ventricle (not significant). Thus, P2X(4)-mediated effects might be modulated in heart failure. mRNA for P2X(4-7) and P2Y(1,2,4,6,12-14), but not P2X(2,3) and P2Y(11), was detected in human right atrium and SAN. In addition, mRNA for P2X(1) was detected in human SAN but not human right atrium. In human right atrium and SAN, P2X(4) and P2X(7) mRNA was the highest for P2X receptors. P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) mRNA were the most abundant for P2Y receptors in the right atrium, while P2Y(1), P2Y(2), and P2Y(14

  19. mRNA expression profile of serotonin receptor subtypes and distribution of serotonergic terminations in marmoset brain

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Rammohan; Watakabe, Akiya; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    To better understand serotonin function in the primate brain, we examined the mRNA expression patterns of all the 13 members of the serotonin receptor (5HTR) family, by in situ hybridization (ISH) and the distribution of serotonergic terminations by serotonin transporter (SERT) protein immunohistochemical analysis. Ten of the 13 5HTRs showed significant mRNA expressions in the marmoset brain. Our study shows several new features of the organization of serotonergic systems in the marmoset brain. (1) The thalamus expressed only a limited number of receptor subtypes compared with the cortex, hippocampus, and other subcortical regions. (2) In the cortex, there are layer-selective and area-selective mRNA expressions of 5HTRs. (3) Highly localized mRNA expressions of 5HT1F and 5HT3A were observed. (4) There was a conspicuous overlap of the mRNA expressions of receptor subtypes known to have somatodendritic localization of receptor proteins with dense serotonergic terminations in the visual cortex, the central lateral (CL) nucleus of the thalamus, the presubiculum, and the medial mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. This suggests a high correlation between serotonin availability and receptor expression at these locations. (5) The 5HTRs show differences in mRNA expression pattern between the marmoset and mouse cortices whereas the patterns of both the species were much similar in the hippocampus. We discuss the possible roles of 5HTRs in the marmoset brain revealed by the analysis of their overall mRNA expression patterns. PMID:24904298

  20. Separate fractions of mRNA from Torpedo electric organ induce chloride channels and acetylcholine receptors in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sumikawa, K; Parker, I; Amano, T; Miledi, R

    1984-01-01

    Poly(A)+ mRNA extracted from the electric organ of Torpedo was fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. After injection into Xenopus oocytes one mRNA fraction induced the appearance of chloride channels in the oocyte membrane. Many of these channels were normally open, and the ensuing chloride current kept the resting potential of injected oocytes close to the chloride equilibrium potential. When the membrane was hyperpolarized, the chloride current was reduced. A separate fraction of mRNA induced the incorporation of acetylcholine receptors into the oocyte membrane. When translated in a cell-free system this fraction directed the synthesis of the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunits of the acetylcholine receptor. In contrast, the mRNA fraction that induced the chloride channels caused the synthesis of the delta subunit, a very small amount of alpha, and no detectable beta or gamma subunits. This suggests that the size of the mRNA coding for the chloride channel is similar to the preponderant species of mRNA coding for the delta subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6094179

  1. Acute intermittent morphine increases preprodynorphin and kappa opioid receptor mRNA levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, X M; Zhou, Y; Spangler, R; Ho, A; Han, J S; Kreek, M J

    1999-03-20

    We determined the effects of morphine on mRNA levels for the opioid ligands preprodynorphin (PPD) and preproenkephalin (PPE) and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). Rats received six injections of morphine (6.25 mg/kg/injection) every 2 h, and were sacrificed 30 min later. mRNA levels were measured in brain tissue after removal of the cortex, cerebellum and brainstem. There were increases in PPD and KOR mRNA levels (P<0.05 and P<0.005, respectively), with no alteration of PPE. These alterations in the kappa/dynorphin system may counter morphine-induced effects on the brain. PMID:10095091

  2. mRNA expression profiles of calmodulin and liver receptor homolog-1 genes in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z-C; Xiao, L-H; Wang, Y; Chen, S-Y; Yang, Z-Q; Zhao, X-L; Zhu, Q; Liu, Y-P

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CALM), a calcium-binding protein, is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; it plays a pivotal role in the reproductive system by regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling. Downstream of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal signaling pathways, liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is involved in female gonadal hormone synthesis. In the chicken, although the two genes are known to be associated with reproductive traits, the interaction between gonadotropins and gonadal steroids remains unclear. We used quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the tissular (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, liver, kidney, oviduct, heart) and ontogenetic (12, 18, 32, and 45 weeks) mRNA expression profiles of CALM and LRH-1 in Erlang Mountainous chickens to determine their roles in the endocrine control of fertility, and compared these profiles with expression in Roman chickens. We found that the relative expressions of CALM and LRH-1 genes had the highest levels in the pituitary and ovary at 32 weeks. The expression level of CALM mRNA in the pituitary of Roman chickens was significantly higher than that in Erlang Mountainous chickens at 32 and 45 weeks, while the LRH-1 transcript level in the ovaries of Roman chickens was significantly lower than that of Erlang Mountainous chickens at 32 and 45 weeks. In summary, the transcript levels of CALM and LRH-1 genes are associated with chicken reproductive traits; in addition, we found that the CALM gene is the key regulator in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal signaling network. PMID:23079841

  3. Nuclear receptor and target gene mRNA abundance in duodenum and colon of dogs with chronic enteropathies.

    PubMed

    Greger, D L; Gropp, F; Morel, C; Sauter, S; Blum, J W

    2006-11-01

    Nuclear receptors (NR), such as constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-associated receptors alpha and gamma (PPARalpha, PPARgamma) are mediators of inflammation and may be involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and food responsive diarrhea (FRD) of dogs. The present study compared mRNA abundance of NR and NR target genes [multi drug-resistance gene-1 (MDR1), multiple drug-resistance-associated proteins (MRD2, MRD3), cytochrome P450 (CYP3A12), phenol-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase (SULT1A1) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST A3-3)] in biopsies obtained from duodenum and colon of dogs with IBD and FRD and healthy control dogs (CON; n=7 per group). Upon first presentation of dogs, mRNA levels of PPARalpha, PPARgamma, CAR, PXR and RXRalpha in duodenum as well as PPARgamma, CAR, PXR and RXRalpha in colon were not different among groups (P>0.10). Although mRNA abundance of PPARalpha in colon of dogs with FRD was similar in both IBD and CON (P>0.10), PPARalpha mRNA abundance was higher in IBD than CON (P<0.05). Levels of mRNA of MDR1 in duodenum were higher in FRD than IBD (P<0.05) or CON (P<0.001). Compared with CON, abundances of mRNA for MRP2, CYP3A12 and SULT1A1 were higher in both FRD and IBD than CON (P<0.05). Differences in mRNA levels of PPARalpha and MRP2 in colon and MDR1, MRP2, CYP3A12 and SULT1A1 in duodenum may be indicative for enteropathy in FRD and (or) IBD dogs relative to healthy dogs. More importantly, increased expression of MDR1 in FRD relative to IBD in duodenum may be a useful diagnostic marker to distinguish dogs with FRD from dogs with IBD. PMID:16446074

  4. The expression of histamine H4 receptor mRNA in the skin and other tissues of normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Eisenschenk, Melissa N C; Torres, Sheila M F; Oliveira, Simone; Been, Clint S

    2011-10-01

    The histamine 4 (H(4)) receptor was first cloned and characterized in 2000 using the human H(3) receptor DNA sequence. The H(4) receptor has been shown to participate in various aspects of inflammation, such as chemotaxis, upregulation of adhesion molecule expression and modulation of cytokine secretion. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether H(4) receptor mRNA is expressed in normal canine skin by performing an RT-PCR. An additional goal was to determine the expression of this receptor in the colon, liver, spleen and kidney. Tissues were collected from five healthy, young-adult pit bull dogs. Samples were immediately placed in RNAlater(®) solution and stored at -20°C until processed. The amplified products in all skin samples in addition to the colon, liver, spleen and kidney (variable expression) had the expected size of 400-500 bp. The sequenced amplicons matched the National Center for Biotechnology Information published sequence for the canine H(4) receptor. The study results showed that canine normal skin expresses the H(4) receptor mRNA. Further studies using immunohistochemistry should be conducted to demonstrate the expression of the H(4) receptor at the protein level and to localize the expression of this receptor in the skin. PMID:21392139

  5. Modification of Expanded NK Cells with Chimeric Antigen Receptor mRNA for Adoptive Cellular Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yaya; Flower, Allyson; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    NK cells are bone marrow-derived cytotoxic lymphocytes that play a major role in the rejection of tumors and cells infected by viruses. The regulation of NK activation vs inhibition is regulated by the expression of a variety of NK receptors (NKRs) and specific NKRs' ligands expressed on their targets. However, factors limiting NK therapy include small numbers of active NK cells in unexpanded peripheral blood and lack of specific tumor targeting. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) usually include a single-chain Fv variable fragment from a monoclonal antibody, a transmembrane hinge region, and a signaling domain such as CD28, CD3-zeta, 4-1BB (CD137), or 2B4 (CD244) endodimers. Redirecting NK cells with a CAR will circumvent the limitations of the lack of NK targeting specificity. This chapter focuses on the methods to expand human NK cells from peripheral blood by co-culturing with feeder cells and to modify the expanded NK cells efficiently with the in vitro transcribed CAR mRNA by electroporation and to test the functionality of the CAR-modified expanded NK cells for use in adoptive cellular immunotherapy. PMID:27177669

  6. Prolactin Receptors and Placental Lactogen Drive Male Mouse Pancreatic Islets to Pregnancy-Related mRNA Changes

    PubMed Central

    Goyvaerts, Lotte; Lemaire, Katleen; Arijs, Ingrid; Auffret, Julien; Granvik, Mikaela; Van Lommel, Leentje; Binart, Nadine; in’t Veld, Peter; Schuit, Frans; Schraenen, Anica

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy requires a higher functional beta cell mass and this is associated with profound changes in the gene expression profile of pancreatic islets. Taking Tph1 as a sensitive marker for pregnancy-related islet mRNA expression in female mice, we previously identified prolactin receptors and placental lactogen as key signalling molecules. Since beta cells from male mice also express prolactin receptors, the question arose whether male and female islets have the same phenotypic resilience at the mRNA level during pregnancy. We addressed this question in vitro, by stimulating cultured islets with placental lactogen and in vivo, by transplanting male or female islets into female acceptor mice. Additionally, the islet mRNA expression pattern of pregnant prolactin receptor deficient mice was compared with that of their pregnant wild-type littermates. When cultured with placental lactogen, or when transplanted in female recipients that became pregnant (day 12.5), male islets induced the ‘islet pregnancy gene signature’, which we defined as the 12 highest induced genes in non-transplanted female islets at day 12.5 of pregnancy. In addition, serotonin immunoreactivity and beta cell proliferation was also induced in these male transplanted islets at day 12.5 of pregnancy. In order to further investigate the importance of prolactin receptors in these mRNA changes we used a prolactin receptor deficient mouse model. For the 12 genes of the signature, which are highly induced in control pregnant mice, no significant induction of mRNA transcripts was found at day 9.5 of pregnancy. Together, our results support the key role of placental lactogen as a circulating factor that can trigger the pregnancy mRNA profile in both male and female beta cells. PMID:25816302

  7. Increased abundance of aromatase and follicle stimulating hormone receptor mRNA and decreased insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor mRNA in small ovarian follicles of cattle selected for twin births.

    PubMed

    Echternkamp, S E; Aad, P Y; Eborn, D R; Spicer, L J

    2012-07-01

    Cattle genetically selected for twin ovulations and births (Twinner) exhibit increased ovarian follicular development, increased ovulation rate, and greater blood and follicular fluid IGF-1 concentrations compared with contemporary cattle not selected for twins (Control). Experimental objectives were to 1) assess relationships among aromatase (CYP19A1), IGF-1 (IGF1), IGF-2 receptor (IGF2R), and FSH receptor (FSHR) mRNA expression in small (≤5 mm) antral follicles and 2) determine their association with increased numbers of developing follicles in ovaries of Twinner females. Ovaries were collected from mature, cyclic (d 3 to 6) Twinner (n = 11), and Control (n = 12) cows at slaughter and pieces of cortical tissue were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Expression of mRNA was evaluated by in situ hybridization using (35)S-UTP-labeled antisense and sense probes for CYP19A1, FSHR, IGF1, and IGF2R mRNA. Silver grain density was quantified within the granulosa and theca cells of individual follicles (2 to 7 follicles/cow) by Bioquant image analysis. Follicles of Twinners tended to be smaller in diameter than Controls (1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 2.3 ± 0.1 mm; P = 0.08), but thickness of granulosa layer did not differ (P > 0.1) by genotype. Relative abundance of CYP19A1 (P < 0.01) and FSHR (P < 0.05) mRNA was greater in granulosa cells of Twinners vs. Controls, respectively, whereas IGF2R mRNA expression was less in both granulosa (P < 0.01) and theca (P < 0.05) cells in follicles of Twinners vs. Controls, respectively. Abundance of CYP19A1 mRNA in granulosa cells was correlated negatively with IGF2R mRNA expression in both granulosa (r = -0.33; P < 0.01) and theca (r = -0.21; P = 0.05) cells. Expression of IGF1 mRNA was primarily in granulosa cells, including cumulus cells, and its expression did not differ between Twinners vs. Controls (P > 0.10). Detected increases in CYP19A1 and FSHR, but not IGF1, mRNA expression along with decreases in IGF2R mRNA expression in individual

  8. Positive AMPA receptor modulation rapidly stimulates BDNF release and increases dendritic mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Jourdi, Hussam; Hsu, Yu-Tien; Zhou, Miou; Qin, Qingyu; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2009-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulates local dendritic mRNA translation and is involved in formation and consolidation of memory. 2H,3H,6aH-pyrrolidino[2'',1''-3',2']1,3-oxazino[6',5'-5,4]-benzo[e]1,4-dioxan-10-one (CX614), one of the best-studied positive AMPA receptor modulators (also known as ampakines), increases BDNF mRNA and protein and facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) induction. Several other ampakines also improve performance in various behavioral and learning tasks. Since local dendritic protein synthesis has been implicated in LTP stabilization and in memory consolidation, this study investigated whether CX614 could influence synaptic plasticity by upregulating dendritic protein translation. CX614 treatment of primary neuronal cultures and acute hippocampal slices rapidly activated the translation machinery and increased local dendritic protein synthesis. CX614-induced activation of translation was blocked by K252a [(9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid methyl ester], CNQX, APV, and TTX, and was inhibited in the presence of an extracellular BDNF scavenger, TrkB-Fc. The acute effect of CX614 on translation was mediated by increased BDNF release as demonstrated with a BDNF scavenging assay using TrkB-Fc during CX614 treatment of cultured primary neurons and was blocked by nifedipine, ryanodine, and lack of extracellular Ca(2+) in acute hippocampal slices. Finally, CX614, like BDNF, rapidly increased dendritic translation of an exogenous translation reporter. Together, our results demonstrate that positive modulation of AMPA receptors rapidly stimulates dendritic translation, an effect mediated by BDNF secretion and TrkB receptor activation. They also suggest that increased BDNF secretion and stimulation of local protein synthesis contribute to the effects of ampakines on synaptic plasticity. PMID:19587275

  9. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor mRNA Down-Regulation Is Mediated through ERK-Dependent Induction of RNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Franzo-Romain, Megan; Damanpour, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    The ligand-induced down-regulation of LH receptor (LHR) expression in the ovaries, at least in part, is regulated by a posttranscriptional process mediated by a specific LH receptor mRNA binding protein (LRBP). The LH-mediated signaling pathways involved in this process were examined in primary cultures of human granulosa cells. Treatment with 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for 12 h resulted in the down-regulation of LHR mRNA expression while producing an increase in LHR mRNA binding to LRBP as well as a 2-fold increase in LRBP levels. The activation of ERK½ pathway in LH-mediated LHR mRNA down-regulation was also established by demonstrating the translocation of ERK½ from the cytosol to the nucleus using confocal microcopy. Inhibition of protein kinase A using H-89 or ERK½ by U0126 abolished the LH-induced LHR mRNA down-regulation. These treatments also abrogated both the increases in LRBP levels as well as the LHR mRNA binding activity. The abolishment of the hCG-induced increase in LRBP levels and LHR mRNA binding activity was further confirmed by transfecting granulosa cells with ERK½ specific small interfering RNA. This treatment also reversed the hCG-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA. These data show that LH-regulated ERK½ signaling is required for the LRBP-mediated down-regulation of LHR mRNA. PMID:21147848

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA expression by human pituitary tumors in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J M; Klibanski, A

    1994-01-01

    An important question in the pathogenesis and regulation of human gonadotroph adenomas is whether heterogeneous gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are due to dysregulation of GnRH receptor biosynthesis and/or cell-signaling pathways. We investigated gonadotropin responsiveness to pulsatile GnRH in 13 gonadotroph adenomas. All tumors had evidence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) beta and alpha subunit biosynthesis using reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) techniques. Four tumors significantly increased gonadotropin and/or free subunit secretion during pulsatile 10(-8) M GnRH administration. The GnRH antagonist Antide (10(-6) to 10(-8) M) blocked secretory increases in all GnRH-responsive tumors. Gonadotropin and/or free subunit secretion increased after 60 mM KCl, confirming that GnRH nonresponsiveness was not due to intracellular gonadotropin depletion. We hypothesized that GnRH nonresponsiveness in these tumors may be due to GnRH receptor (GnRH-Rc) biosynthetic defects. RTPCR analyses detected GnRH-Rc transcripts only in responsive tumors and normal human pituitary. This is the first demonstration of a cell-surface receptor biosynthetic defect in human pituitary tumors. We conclude (a) one third of gonadotroph tumors respond to pulsatile GnRH in vitro, (b) GnRH-Rc mRNA is detected in human gonadotroph adenomas and predicts GnRH responsiveness, and (c) GnRH-Rc biosynthetic defects may underlie GnRH nonresponsiveness in gonadotroph tumors. Images PMID:8200967

  11. Calmodulin antagonists increase the amount of mRNA for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor in skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Eckardt, H; Filipovic, I; Hasilik, A; Buddecke, E

    1988-01-01

    The effects of calmodulin antagonists on the amount of LDL receptor (LDL-R) mRNA in cultured human fibroblasts was examined by hybridization with a fragment of LDL-R cDNA. In a 'Northern' blot the fragment hybridized to a 5.3-kilobase RNA, as expected for LDL-R mRNA. The concentration of this RNA was increased in preparations from cells that were treated with trifluoperazine or W-7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloronaphthalene-1-sulphonamide]. The selectivity of the increase was established by using a probe for beta-actin mRNA. In dot-blot hybridization it was observed that the calmodulin antagonists cause 2-4-fold relative increase in the amount of LDL-R mRNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3421929

  12. Regulation of NMDA receptor subunit mRNA expression in the guinea pig vestibular nuclei following unilateral labyrinthectomy.

    PubMed

    Sans, N; Sans, A; Raymond, J

    1997-10-01

    The localization of neurons expressing mRNAs for the NR1 and NR2A-D subunits of the glutamatergic NMDA receptor was examined by non-radioactive in situ hybridization throughout the guinea pig vestibular nuclei. After deafferentation of the vestibular nuclei by unilateral labyrinthectomy, modifications of the mRNA distributions were followed for 30 days. A quantitative analysis was performed in the medial vestibular nucleus by comparison of the labelled neurons in the ipsi- and contra-lateral nuclei. In vestibular nuclei, the NR1 subunit mRNA was found in various populations of neurons. The NR2A and NR2C subunit mRNAs were less widely distributed, whereas little NR2D mRNA was detected and only rare cells contained NR2B mRNA. NR1 and NR2A-D mRNAs were colocalized in some but not other neuronal types. Twenty hours after the lesion, there was a transient ipsilateral increase of NR1 mRNA level in the medial vestibular nucleus, followed by a decrease 48 h after the lesion and, at 3 days, by recovery to the control level. An ipsilateral increase in the mRNA level of NR2C subunit was detected 20 h after lesion and maintained at 48 h. No significant changes were apparent in NR2A, NR2B and NR2D mRNA levels. The distributions and the differential signal intensities of NR2A-D mRNAs suggest various subunit organizations of the NMDA receptors in different neurons of the vestibular nuclei. Neuronal plasticity reorganizations in the vestibular nuclei following unilateral labyrinthectomy appear to include only changes in NR1 and NR2C mRNA levels modifying the functional diversity of the NMDA receptor in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus neurons. The transient changes in NR1 and the NR2C subunit mRNA expressions in response to sensory deprivation are consistent with an active role for NMDA receptors in the appearance and development of the vestibular compensatory process. PMID:9421163

  13. A purine-rich intronic element enhances alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, M L; Wilson, C M; Munroe, S H

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid hormone receptor gene c-erbAalpha gives rise to two mRNAs that code for distinct isoforms, TRalpha1 and TRalpha2, with antagonistic functions. Alternative processing of these mRNAs involves the mutually exclusive use of a TRalpha1-specific polyadenylation site or TRalpha2-specific 5' splice site. A previous investigation of TRalpha minigene expression defined a critical role for the TRalpha2 5' splice site in directing alternative processing. Mutational analysis reported here shows that purine residues within a highly conserved intronic element, SEa2, enhance splicing of TRalpha2 in vitro as well as in vivo. Although SEalpha2 is located within the intron of TRalpha2 mRNA, it activates splicing of a heterologous dsx pre-mRNA when located in the downstream exon. Competition with wild-type and mutant RNAs indicates that SEalpha2 functions by binding trans-acting factors in HeLa nuclear extract. Protein-RNA crosslinking identifies several proteins, including SF2/ASF and hnRNP H, that bind specifically to SEalpha2. SEalpha2 also includes an element resembling a 5' splice site consensus sequence that is critical for splicing enhancer activity. Mutations within this pseudo-5' splice site sequence have a dramatic effect on splicing and protein binding. Thus SEa2 and its associated factors are required for splicing of TRalpha2 pre-mRNA. PMID:11421362

  14. Effects of ketamine exposure on dopamine concentrations and dopamine type 2 receptor mRNA expression in rat brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Liu, Mei-Li; Wu, Xiu-Ping; Jia, Juan; Cao, Jie; Wei, Zhi-Wen; Wang, Yu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of ketamine abuse on the concentration of dopamine (DA), a monoamine neurotransmitter, and the mRNA expression of dopamine type 2 (D2) receptors in brain tissue, we used male Wistar rats to model ketamine abuse through chronic intraperitoneal infusion of ketamine across different doses. Methods: The rats were sacrificed 45 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after initiating the administration of ketamine or normal saline, as well as 3 days following discontinuation. Brain tissue was harvested to examine the concentration of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, the primary metabolites of DA, as well as the expression of D2 receptor mRNA. In addition, behavioral changes were observed within 30 minutes of administration, and withdrawal symptoms were also documented. A factorial experimental design was used to investigate variations and correlations in the primary outcome measures across the four doses and five time points. Brain DA concentrations were significantly higher in the ketamine-treated groups compared with the saline-treated group, with 30 mg/kg > 10 mg/kg > 60 mg/kg > saline (P < 0.05). The D2 receptor mRNA expression exhibited an inverse downregulation pattern, with 30 mg/kg < 10 mg/kg < 60 mg/kg < saline (P < 0.05). In the 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg ketamine-treated groups, the DA concentration and D2 receptor mRNA level in the brain tissue correlated with the dose of ketamine (r = 0.752, r = -0.806), but no significant correlation was found in the 60 mg/kg group. Result: These findings indicated that chronic dosing with ketamine increased the concentration of DA in rat brain tissue by increasing DA release or interrupting DA degradation. D2 receptor mRNA expression likely decreased because of stimulation with excessive DA. Conclusion: High-dose (60 mg/kg) ketamine had potent paralyzing effects on the central nervous system of rats and weakened the excitatory effects of the limbic system. Brain DA and D2 receptor mRNA

  15. Aberrant splicing of androgenic receptor mRNA results in synthesis of a nonfunctional receptor protein in a patient with androgen insensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ris-Stalpers, C.; Kuiper, G.G.J.M.; Faber, P.W.; van Rooij, H.C.J.; Degenhart, H.J.; Trapman, J.; Brinkmann, A.O. ); Schweikert, H.U. ); Zegers, N.D. ); Hodgins, M.B. )

    1990-10-01

    Androgen insensitivity is a disorder in which the correct androgen response in an androgen target cell is impaired. The clinical symtpoms of this X chromosome-linked syndrome are presumed to be caused by mutations in the androgen receptor gene. The authors report a G {r arrow} T mutation in the splice donor site of intron 4 of the androgen receptor gene of a 46, XY subject lacking detectable androgen binding to the receptor and with the complete form of androgen insensitivity. This point mutation completely abolishes normal RNA splicing at the exon 4/intron 4 boundary and results in the activation of a cryptic splice donor site in exon 4, which leads to the deletion of 123 nucleotides from the mRNA. Translation of the mutant mRNA results in an androgen receptor protein {approx}5 kDa smaller than the wild type. This mutated androgen receptor protein was unable to bind androgens and unable to activate transcription of an androgen-regulated reporter gene construct. This mutation in the human androgen receptor gene demonstrates the importance of an intact steroid-binding domain for proper androgen receptor functioning in vivo.

  16. Distribution and cellular localization of mRNA coding for 5-HT1A receptor in the rat brain: correlation with receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, M; Palacios, J M; Mengod, G

    1992-02-01

    In order to localize the cells expressing 5-HT1A receptors in the rat brain, we used in situ hybridization histochemistry to visualize the distribution of the mRNA coding for 5-HT1A receptors. Oligonucleotides derived from different parts of the coding region of the rat 5-HT1A receptor gene were used as hybridization probes. 5-HT1A binding sites were visualized on consecutive sections by receptor autoradiography using 3H-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin as ligand. The highest levels of hybridization were observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus, septum, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and interpeduncular nucleus. Positive hybridization signals were also present in other areas, such as the olfactory bulb; cerebral cortex; some thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei; several nuclei of the brainstem, including all the remaining raphe nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, and nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminus; and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The distribution and abundance of 5-HT1A receptor mRNA in different rat brain areas generally correlate with those of the binding sites, suggesting that 5-HT1A receptors are predominantly somatodendritic receptors. PMID:1531498

  17. Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Quantitation of Substance P Receptor (NK-1R) mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jian-Ping; Douglas, Steven D.; Wang, Yan-Jian; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2005-01-01

    The substance P (SP)-preferring receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), has an important role in inflammation, immune regulation, and viral infection. We applied a newly developed real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay to quantify NK-1R mRNA in human neuronal cell line (NT-2N), a human B-cell line (IM9), monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and human astroglioma cells (U87 MG). The NK-1R real-time RT-PCR assay has a sensitivity of 100 mRNA copies, with a dynamic range of detection between 102 and 107 copies of NK-1R gene transcripts per reaction. This assay is highly reproducible, with an intraassay coefficient variation of threshold cycle (Ct) of less than 1.9%. The NK-1R real-time RT-PCR is highly sensitive for quantitative determination of NK-1R mRNA in human immune cells (MDM and PBL) that express low levels of NK-1R mRNA. In addition, the assay has the ability to accurately quantitate the dynamic changes in NK-1R mRNA expression in interleukin-1β-stimulated U87 MG. These data indicate that the NK-1R real-time RT-PCR has potential for a wide application in investigation of NK-1R expression at the mRNA level under physiological and pathological conditions in both the central nervous system and the immune system. PMID:15817763

  18. Effects of seawater acclimation on mRNA levels of corticosteroid receptor genes in osmoregulatory and immune systems in trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yada, T.; Hyodo, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Influence of environmental salinity on expression of distinct corticosteroid receptor (CR) genes, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-1 and -2, and mineralcorticoid receptor (MR), was examined in osmoregulatory and hemopoietic organs and leucocytes of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). There was no significant difference in plasma cortisol levels between freshwater (FW)- or seawater (SW)-acclimated trout, whereas Na+, K+-ATPase was activated in gill of SW fish. Plasma lysozyme levels also showed a significant increase after acclimation to SW. In SW-acclimated fish, mRNA levels of GR-1, GR-2, and MR were significantly higher in gill and body kidney than those in FW. Head kidney and spleen showed no significant change in these CR mRNA levels after SW-acclimation. On the other hand, leucocytes isolated from head kidney and peripheral blood showed significant decreases in mRNA levels of CR in SW-acclimated fish. These results showed differential regulation of gene expression of CR between osmoregulatory and immune systems. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The mRNA Expression Status of Dopamine Receptor D2, Dopamine Receptor D3 and DARPP-32 in T Lymphocytes of Patients with Early Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yin; Prabhu, Vishwanath; Nguyen, Thong Ba; Yadav, Binod Kumar; Chung, Young-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes are an attractive tool because there is accumulating evidence indicating that lymphocytes may be utilized as a biomarker in the field of psychiatric study as they could reveal the condition of cells distributed in the brain. Here, we measured the mRNA expression status of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), DRD3, and dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32) in T lymphocytes of patients with early psychosis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and explored the relationships between their mRNA levels and the psychopathological status of patients. The present study demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of DRD3 in T lymphocytes were significantly different among controls, and in patients with psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) and schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. However, no significant differences in mRNA expression levels of DRD2 and DARPP-32 were found among the three groups. We found a significant positive correlation between the DRD2 mRNA level and the score of the excited factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in patients with schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. These findings suggest that DRD3 mRNA levels may serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker differentiating patients with early psychosis from controls. PMID:26561806

  20. Expression levels of estrogen receptor α mRNA in peripheral blood cells are an independent biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chi-Wen; Chiang, Tsay-I; Chang, I-Chang; Huang, Chung-Hung; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background The up- and down-regulation of the osteoclastogenesis response depends on the estrogen/estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathway. Previous reports have shown that the promoter hypermethylation and gene polymorphism of ERα are risks for menopausal osteoporosis. No previous study has evaluated the expression levels of ERα mRNA in menopausal osteoporosis using human subjects. We hypothesized that ERα mRNA expression may show less resistance to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods In this study, we enrolled 107 women older than 45 years without menstruation and classified them into control, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups depending on their T-scores. The ERα mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells (PBCs) were analyzed via quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), and estrogen in the serum was detected via ELISA. Results ERα mRNA levels in PBCs had a negative correlation with age and a positive correlation with estrogen and BAP in the osteopenia and osteoporosis groups, but not in the control group. Additionally, multivariate analysis showed that older age (> 55 years), and low ERα mRNA levels in PBLs (≦ 250.39 copies/μg DNA) were associated with an approximately 9.188-, and 31.25-fold risk of osteoporosis. Conclusion We conclude that ERα mRNA levels in PBLs could be used as an independent risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis. General significance Our findings suggested that ERα mRNA levels in PBLs may be more important than age and serum estrogen levels. PMID:27051599

  1. Estrogen receptor is not primarily responsible for altered responsiveness of ovalbumin mRNA induction in the oviduct from genetically selected high- and low-albumen chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, T; Hiramatsu, H; Park, H M; Okumura, J; Kawashima, M; Miyoshi, S

    1997-04-01

    The role of estrogen receptor on ovalbumin mRNA induction by steroid hormones was investigated in primary cultures of oviduct cells from estrogen-stimulated immature chicks of genetically selected high- and low-albumen egg laying lines (H- and L-lines). In experiment 1, the extent of ovalbumin mRNA induction and changes in estrogen and progesterone receptors were compared between the oviduct cells from H- and L-lines with or without steroid hormones in the culture medium. In experiment 2, the effect of estrogen receptor gene transfection on the induction of ovalbumin mRNA was studied in the oviduct cells from the L-line chicks. The results showed a close correlation of the changes in ovalbumin mRNA with the numbers of nuclear and total estrogen receptors in the oviduct cells but not with the numbers of nuclear and total progesterone receptors. Estrogen receptor gene transfection induced ovalbumin mRNA to a moderate extent in the absence of the steroid hormones. To our surprise, however, estrogen receptor gene transfection apparently suppressed the ovalbumin mRNA responsiveness to estrogen to a considerable extent. It was concluded, therefore, that the extent of estrogen receptor expression might not be primarily responsible for the differences in responsiveness to steroid hormones of oviduct cells from genetically selected H- and L-line chickens. PMID:9149392

  2. Expression of interleukin 6 receptors and interleukin 6 mRNA by bovine leukaemia virus-induced tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Droogmans, L; Cludts, I; Cleuter, Y; Kerkhofs, P; Adam, E; Willems, L; Kettmann, R; Burny, A

    1994-11-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the aetiologic agent of bovine leucosis. The virus induces malignancies of the B-cell lineage (leukaemia/lymphoma). The role played by interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the BLV-induced leukemogenesis process was evaluated. Six cell lines derived from BLV-induced tumours were tested for the expression of IL-6 receptors. Two cell lines (LB155 and YR2) display 250-300 receptor per cell (kd = 1.7 10(-10) M and 1.4 10(-10) M, respectively) whereas the other four (LB159, LB167, YR1 and M51) do not display detectable amounts of receptors. Very low (if any) expression of IL-6 receptors has been found in the case of the B lymphocytes of animals in persistent lymphocytosis (PL). Despite the presence of IL-6 receptors on the surface of LB155 and YR2 cells, no influence of exogenous IL-6 on their growth has been observed. Northern analyses indicated the presence of IL-6 transcripts only in the case of mRNA isolated from LB155 cells. Since this cell line also expresses receptors for the cytokine, an autocrine loop may exist in these cells. Experiments in which bovine and bovine epithelial cell lines were transfected with a plasmid containing the bovine IL-6 promoter controlling the expression of the reporter cat gene failed to indicate any influence of the viral transactivator p34tax on the activity of this promoter. We conclude that IL-6 receptors and IL-6 mRNA can be found in some BLV-induced tumours, but this does not correlate with viral expression in BLV-induced leukaemia/lymphoma. PMID:7893972

  3. Androgen regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) mRNA expression and receptor binding in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Michael J.; Goel, Nirupa; Sandau, Ursula S.; Bale, Tracy L.; Handa, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Stress-induced affective disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent in females than in males. The reduced vulnerability to these disorders in males may be due to the presence of androgens, which are known to dampen the stress response and reduce anxiety-like behaviors. However, a neurobiological mechanism for this sex difference has yet to be elucidated. Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) has been implicated in regulating anxiety-type behaviors and is expressed in stress-responsive brain regions that also contain androgen receptors (AR). We hypothesized that androgen may exert its effects through actions on CRHR2 and we therefore examined the regulation of CRHR2 mRNA and receptor binding in the male rat forebrain following androgen administration. Young adult male Sprague/Dawley rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) using hormone filled Silastic capsules. Control animals received empty capsules. Using quantitative real time RT-PCR, CRHR2 mRNA levels were determined in block dissected brain regions. DHTP treatment significantly increased CRHR2 mRNA expression in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and lateral septum (p < 0.01) when compared to vehicle-treated controls. A similar trend was observed in amygdala (p = 0.05). Furthermore, in vitro autoradiography revealed significantly higher CRHR2 binding in the lateral septum in androgen-treated males, with the highest difference observed in the ventral lateral region. Regulation of CRHR2 mRNA by AR was also examined using an in vitro approach. Hippocampal neurons, which contain high levels of AR, were harvested from E17–18 rat fetuses, and maintained in primary culture for 14 days. Neurons were then treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT; 1 nM), DHT plus flutamide (an androgen receptor antagonist), or vehicle for 48 hours. CRHR2 mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Consistent with in

  4. Himasthla elongata: effect of infection on expression of the LUSTR-like receptor mRNA in common periwinkle haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Gorbushin, A M; Klimovich, A V; Iakovleva, N V

    2009-09-01

    The first mollusc mRNA coding G-protein-coupled transmembrane receptor (GPcapital ES, CyrillicR), homologous to human receptors LUSTR 1 (GPR107) and LUSTR 2 (GPR108), was isolated from haemocytes of common periwinkle Littorina littorea. The analyses showed that the full-length cDNA is 1935 bp long and is predicted to encode a 614 amino acid protein (named Lit-LUSTR) with a calculated molecular mass of 69.6 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point 7.59. Pair-wise comparisons between Lit-LUSTR and LUSTR proteins from human or mouse have approximately 38% identity and 56% similarity. Lit-LUSTR clusters with LUSTR-A sub-family proteins and is a first characterization of proteins containing Lung7TM-R domain in Mollusca. Significant differences were found between the Lit-LUSTR mRNA levels in haemocytes of healthy periwinkles and those naturally infected with the echinostome trematode Himasthla elongata. Down regulated expression of the LUSTR-like receptor caused by infection illustrates modification of the haemocyte receptor system and may be attributed to the previously demonstrated greater numbers of "immature" haemocytes in the circulation of infected snails. PMID:19460375

  5. Preterm birth affects GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels during the foetal-to-neonatal transition in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J C; Palliser, H K; Walker, D W; Hirst, J J

    2015-06-01

    Modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor signalling by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone has a major role in late gestation neurodevelopment. The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA levels of GABAA receptor subunits (α4, α5, α6 and δ) that are key to neurosteroid binding in the brain, following preterm birth. Myelination, measured by the myelin basic protein immunostaining, was used to assess maturity of the preterm brains. Foetal guinea pig brains were obtained at 62 days' gestational age (GA, preterm) or at term (69 days). Neonates were delivered by caesarean section, at 62 days GA and term, and maintained until tissue collection at 24 h of age. Subunit mRNA levels were quantified by RT-PCR in the hippocampus and cerebellum of foetal and neonatal brains. Levels of the α6 and δ subunits were markedly lower in the cerebellum of preterm guinea pigs compared with term animals. Importantly, there was an increase in mRNA levels of these subunits during the foetal-to-neonatal transition at term, which was not seen following preterm birth. Myelination was lower in preterm neonatal brains, consistent with marked immaturity. Salivary cortisol concentrations, measured by EIA, were also higher for the preterm neonates, suggesting greater stress. We conclude that there is an adaptive increase in the levels of mRNA of the key GABAA receptor subunits involved in neurosteroid action after term birth, which may compensate for declining allopregnanolone levels. The lower levels of these subunits in preterm neonates may heighten the adverse effect of the premature decline in neurosteroid exposure. PMID:25661827

  6. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  7. Sequence analysis of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II mRNA from ascitic and nonascitic commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Cisar, C R; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Donoghue, A M

    2003-10-01

    Ascites syndrome, also known as pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), is a common metabolic disorder in rapidly growing meat-type chickens. Environmental factors, such as cold, altitude, and diet, play significant roles in development of the disease, but there is also an important genetic component to PHS susceptibility. The human disease familial primary pulmonary hypertension (FPPH) is similar to PHS in broilers both genetically and physiologically. Several recent studies have shown that mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) gene are a cause of FPPH in humans. To determine whether mutations in the chicken BMPR2 gene play a similar role in PHS susceptibility, BMPR-II mRNA from ascitic and nonascitic commercial broilers were sequenced and compared with the published Leghorn chicken BMPR-II mRNA sequence. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in the commercial broiler BMPR-II mRNA. No mutations unique to ascites-susceptible broilers were present in the coding, 5' untranslated or 3' untranslated regions of BMPR-II mRNA. The twelve SNP present within the coding region of BMPR-II mRNA were synonymous substitutions and did not alter the BMPR-II protein sequence. In addition, analysis of BMPR2 gene expression by reverse transcriptase-PCR indicated that there were no differences in BMPR-II mRNA levels in ascitic and nonascitic birds. Therefore, it appears unlikely that mutations in the BMPR2 gene were responsible for susceptibility to PHS in these commercial broilers. PMID:14601724

  8. Upregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 mRNA expression in the rat forebrain after repeated amphetamine administration

    PubMed Central

    Parelkar, Nikhil K; Wang, John Q.

    2008-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors and are densely expressed in the forebrain of adult rats. Accumulative evidence suggests a critical role of mGluRs in the regulation of normal physiological activity of neurons and pathogenesis of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression, and substance addiction. In this study, we investigated alterations in mGluR8 subtype mRNA expression in the rat forebrain in response to repeated intraperitoneal administration of amphetamine (twice daily for 12 days, 5 mg/kg per injection) using quantitative in situ hybridization. We found that mGluR8 mRNA levels were profoundly increased in the dorsal (caudate putamen) and ventral (nucleus accumbens) striatum 1 day after the discontinuation of amphetamine treatments. Such increases were sustained up to 21 days of withdrawal. Increases in mGluR8 mRNAs were also found in the cerebral cortex, including the cingulate and sensory cortex but not the piriform cortex, at 1 and 21 days. These data demonstrate a positive response of mGluR8 in mRNA abundance in most forebrain regions to repeated stimulant exposure. PMID:18255232

  9. Brain α2-adrenoceptors in monoamine-depleted rats: increased receptor density, G coupling proteins, receptor turnover and receptor mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Catalina; Miralles, Antonio; Busquets, Xavier; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the molecular and cellular events involved in the up-regulation (and receptor supersensitivity) of brain α2-adrenoceptors as a result of chronic depletion of noradrenaline (and other monoamines) by reserpine. Chronic reserpine (0.25 mg kg−1 s.c., every 48 h for 6 – 14 days) increased significantly the density (Bmax values) of cortical α2-adrenoceptor agonist sites (34 – 48% for [3H]-UK14304, 22 – 32% for [3H]-clonidine) but not that of antagonist sites (11 – 18% for [3H]-RX821002). Competition of [3H]-RX821002 binding by (−)-adrenaline further indicated that chronic reserpine was associated with up-regulation of the high-affinity state of α2-adrenoceptors. In cortical membranes of reserpine-treated rats (0.25 mg kg−1 s.c., every 48 h for 20 days), the immunoreactivities of various G proteins (Gαi1/2, Gαi3, Gαo and Gαs) were increased (25 – 34%). Because the high-affinity conformation of the α2-adrenoceptor is most probably related to the complex with Gαi2 proteins, these results suggested an increase in signal transduction through α2-adrenoceptors (and other monoamine receptors) induced by chronic reserpine. After α2-adrenoceptor alkylation, the analysis of receptor recovery (Bmax for [3H]-UK14304) indicated that the increased density of cortical α2-adrenoceptors in reserpine-treated rats was probably due to a higher appearance rate constant of the receptor (Δr=57%) and not to a decreased disappearance rate constant (Δk=7%). Northern- and dot-blot analyses of RNA extracted from the cerebral cortex of saline- and reserpine-treated rats (0.25 mg kg−1, s.c., every 48 h for 20 days) revealed that reserpine markedly increased the expression of α2a-adrenoceptor mRNA in the brain (125%). This transcriptional activation of the receptor gene expression appears to be the cellular mechanism by which reserpine induces up-regulation in the density of brain α2-adrenoceptors

  10. Effect of atmospheric fine particles on epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA expression in mouse skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Han, X; Liang, W L; Zhang, Y; Sun, L D; Liang, W Y

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of atmospheric fine particles on epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) mRNA expression in mouse skin tissue and explored the effect of atmospheric fine particles on skin aging. Forty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (each comprising 10 mice) as follows: a saline control group and low-, medium-, and high-dose atmospheric fine particle groups (1.6, 8.0, and 40.0 mg/kg, respectively) (fine particles were defined as those with a diameter of £2.5 mm, i.e., PM2.5). Each dose group was exposed to intratracheal instillation for 3 days. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of Egfr mRNA in the skin tissue of each mouse. The expression levels of Egfr mRNA in the medium- and high-dose PM2.5 groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the control group, and were positively correlated with the dose. Medium and high concentrations of PM2.5 can induce the expression of Egfr mRNA and promote skin aging. PMID:27050971

  11. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, enhances regulator of G protein signaling 2 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaqiong; Nakagawa, Suguru; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kawabata, Yukari; Suzuki, Etsu; Uehara, Yoshio

    2016-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2), thus making a negative feedback loop for Ang II signal transduction. However, few studies have reported whether Ang II receptor (ATR) antagonists influence RGS2 mRNA expression. We investigated RGS2 mRNA expression when Ang II binding to ATR was blocked with Ang II subtype-1 receptor (AT1R) blockers using vascular smooth muscle cells from the thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats. RGS2 mRNA expression significantly increased with Ang II stimulation, and this increase was almost completely abolished by olmesartan, a potent AT1R-specific blocker. Ang II subtype-2 receptor (AT2R) was not involved in Ang II-mediated RGS expression. In contrast, the AT1R blocker, losartan, partially decreased Ang II-mediated RGS2 mRNA expression because this antagonist directly stimulated RGS2 mRNA expression in Ang II-free medium. EXP3174, which is an active metabolite of losartan, almost completely blunted Ang II-mediated RGS2 mRNA expression without direct stimulation of RGS2 mRNA expression. Moreover, pretreatment with olmesartan abolished Ang II-mediated RGS2 mRNA expression. Treatment with a protein kinase C inhibitor partially decreased losartan-mediated RGS2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that AT1R blockers inhibit RGS2 mRNA expression in response to Ang II via an AT1R-mediated mechanism. However, the AT1R blocker, losartan, behaves as a direct agonist for RGS2 mRNA expression via AT1R through protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways. In conclusion, losartan exhibits dual effects on RGS2 mRNA expression, and the direct upregulation of RGS2 mRNA expression may provide a new strategy for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26763849

  12. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and triphenyl phosphate on receptor-associated mRNA expression in zebrafish embryos/larvae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Qiangwei; Liang, Kang; Liu, Jingfu; Zhou, Bingsheng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongling; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-03-15

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) are frequently detected in biota, including fish. However, knowledge of the toxicological and molecular effects of these currently used flame retardants is limited. In the present study, an in vivo screening approach was developed to evaluate effects of TDCPP and TPP on developmental endpoints and receptor-associated expression of mRNA in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Exposure to TDCPP or TPP resulted in significantly smaller rates of hatching and survival, in dose- and time-dependent manners. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) was 7.0 mg/L for TDCPP and 29.6 mg/L for TPP at 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). Real-time PCR revealed alterations in expression of mRNAs involved in aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs)-, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα)-, estrogenic receptors (ERs)-, thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα)-, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-, and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-centered gene networks. Exposure to positive control chemicals significantly altered abundances of mRNA in corresponding receptor-centered gene networks, a result that suggests that it is feasible to use zebrafish embryos/larvae to evaluate effects of chemicals on mRNA expression in these gene networks. Exposure to TDCPP altered transcriptional profiles in all six receptor-centered gene networks, thus exerting multiple toxic effects. TPP was easily metabolized and its potency to change expression of mRNA involved in receptor-centered gene networks was weaker than that of TDCPP. The PPARα- and TRα-centered gene networks might be the primary pathways affected by TPP. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TDCPP and TPP could alter mRNA expression of genes involved in the six receptor-centered gene networks in zebrafish embryos/larvae, and TDCPP seemed to have higher potency in changing the mRNA expression of these genes. PMID:23306105

  13. Adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptors in hematopoiesis. 1. Expression of receptor mRNA in four mouse hematopoietic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Streitová, D; Sefc, L; Savvulidi, F; Pospísil, M; Holá, J; Hofer, M

    2010-01-01

    Four mouse bone marrow or thymus cell populations, namely granulopoietic/monocytopoietic, erythropoietic, B-lymphopoietic, and T-lymphopoietic precursor cells have been assayed by RT-PCR technique for the presence and relative amounts of adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptor mRNA. It has been found that (i) all four populations studied express all four adenosine receptor subtypes, (ii) the A(1), receptor is the least expressed in all populations studied, (iii) the A(3) receptor is markedly expressed in the populations of granulopoietic/monocytopoietic and erythropoietic cells, (iv) the A(2a) receptor is markedly expressed in the populations of B-lymphopoietic and T-lymphopoietic cells, and v) the A(2b) receptor does not predominate in any of the precursor cells studied. Our data offer a new possibility for the assessment of the readiness of these cells to respond, by receptor-mediated mechanisms, to adenosine or its analogs present in the tissues as a result of endogenous processes and/or following their administration. PMID:19249907

  14. Redirecting T-Cell Specificity to EGFR Using mRNA to Self-limit Expression of Chimeric Antigen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Hillary G; Torikai, Hiroki; Zhang, Ling; Maiti, Sourindra; Dai, Jianliang; Do, Kim-Anh; Singh, Harjeet; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Heimberger, Amy B; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2016-06-01

    Potential for on-target, but off-tissue toxicity limits therapeutic application of genetically modified T cells constitutively expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) from tumor-associated antigens expressed in normal tissue, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Curtailing expression of CAR through modification of T cells by in vitro-transcribed mRNA species is one strategy to mitigate such toxicity. We evaluated expression of an EGFR-specific CAR coded from introduced mRNA in human T cells numerically expanded ex vivo to clinically significant numbers through coculture with activating and propagating cells (AaPC) derived from K562 preloaded with anti-CD3 antibody. The density of AaPC could be adjusted to affect phenotype of T cells such that reduced ratio of AaPC resulted in higher proportion of CD8 and central memory T cells that were more conducive to electrotransfer of mRNA than T cells expanded with high ratios of AaPC. RNA-modified CAR T cells produced less cytokine, but demonstrated similar cytolytic capacity as DNA-modified CAR T cells in response to EGFR-expressing glioblastoma cells. Expression of CAR by mRNA transfer was transient and accelerated by stimulation with cytokine and antigen. Loss of CAR abrogated T-cell function in response to tumor and normal cells expressing EGFR. We describe a clinically applicable method to propagate and modify T cells to transiently express EGFR-specific CAR to target EGFR-expressing tumor cells that may be used to limit on-target, off-tissue toxicity to normal tissue. PMID:27163741

  15. Zolpidem withdrawal induced uncoupling of GABA(A) receptors in vitro associated with altered GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Jembrek, Maja Jazvinšćak; Vlainić, Josipa; Šuran, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic zolpidem produces its effects via the benzodiazepine binding site in α1-containing GABAA receptors. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of duration of zolpidem treatment and its withdrawal, as well as the role of alpha1-containing GABAA receptors in the development of physical dependence and tolerance. Namely, recombinant receptors can be used to characterize mechanisms involved in different processes in the brain and to delineate the contribution of specific receptor subtypes. To address the influence of chronic zolpidem treatment we exposed HEK293 cells stably expressing alpha1beta2gamma2S recombinant GABAA receptors for seven consecutive days, while withdrawal periods lasted for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Using radioligand binding studies we determined that chronic zolpidem treatment did not induce changes in either GABAA receptor number or in the expression of subunit mRNAs. We observed the enhancement of binding sites and upregulated expression of subunit mRNAs only following 96-hour withdrawal. Moreover, zolpidem treatment and its withdrawal (All time points) induced functional uncoupling between GABA and benzodiazepine binding sites in the GABAA receptor complex. Accordingly, it might be assumed that zolpidem withdrawal-induced uncoupling of GABAA receptors is associated with altered GABAA receptor subunit mRNA expression. The results presented here provide an insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms probably underlying adaptive changes of GABAA receptor function in response to chronic usage and withdrawal of zolpidem and perhaps the observed molecular changes could be linked to the tolerance and dependence produced upon prolonged treatment with other GABAergic drugs. PMID:26232993

  16. Altered mRNA editing and expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors after kainic acid exposure in cyclooxygenase-2 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Caracciolo, Luca; Barbon, Alessandro; Palumbo, Sara; Mora, Cristina; Toscano, Christopher D; Bosetti, Francesca; Barlati, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) binds to the AMPA/KA receptors and induces seizures that result in inflammation, oxidative damage and neuronal death. We previously showed that cyclooxygenase-2 deficient (COX-2(-/-)) mice are more vulnerable to KA-induced excitotoxicity. Here, we investigated whether the increased susceptibility of COX-2(-/-) mice to KA is associated with altered mRNA expression and editing of glutamate receptors. The expression of AMPA GluR2, GluR3 and KA GluR6 was increased in vehicle-injected COX-2(-/-) mice compared to wild type (WT) mice in hippocampus and cortex, whereas gene expression of NMDA receptors was decreased. KA treatment decreased the expression of AMPA, KA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, with a significant effect in COX-2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, we analyzed RNA editing levels and found that the level of GluR3 R/G editing site was selectively increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the cortex in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT mice. After KA, GluR4 R/G editing site, flip form, was increased in the hippocampus of COX-2(-/-) mice. Treatment of WT mice with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib for two weeks decreased the expression of AMPA/KA and NMDAR subunits after KA, as observed in COX-2(-/-) mice. After KA exposure, COX-2(-/-) mice showed increased mRNA expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, such as cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), microglia (CD11b) and astrocyte (GFAP). Thus, COX-2 gene deletion can exacerbate the inflammatory response to KA. We suggest that COX-2 plays a role in attenuating glutamate excitotoxicity by modulating RNA editing of AMPA/KA and mRNA expression of all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and, in turn, neuronal excitability. These changes may contribute to the increased vulnerability of COX-2(-/-) mice to KA. The overstimulation of glutamate receptors as a consequence of COX-2 gene deletion suggests a functional coupling between COX-2 and the

  17. Activation of P2X(7) receptors stimulates the expression of P2Y(2) receptor mRNA in astrocytes cultured from rat brain.

    PubMed

    D'Alimonte, I; Ciccarelli, R; Di Iorio, P; Nargi, E; Buccella, S; Giuliani, P; Rathbone, M P; Jiang, S; Caciagli, F; Ballerini, P

    2007-01-01

    Under pathological conditions brain cells release ATP at concentrations reported to activate P2X(7) ionotropic receptor subtypes expressed in both neuronal and glial cells. In the present study we report that the most potent P2X(7) receptor agonist BzATP stimulates the expression of the metabotropic ATP receptor P2Y(2) in cultured rat brain astrocytes. In other cell types several kinds of stimulation, including stress or injury, induce P2Y(2) expression that, in turn, is involved in different cell reactions. Similarly, it has recently been found that in astrocytes and astrocytoma cells P2Y(2) sites can trigger neuroprotective pathways through the activation of several mechanisms, including the induction of genes for antiapoptotic factors, neurotrophins, growth factors and neuropeptides. Here we present evidence that P2Y(2) mRNA expression in cultured astrocytes peaks 6 h after BzATP exposure and returns to basal levels after 24 h. This effect was mimicked by high ATP concentrations (1 mM) and was abolished by P2X(7)-antagonists oATP and BBG. The BzATP-evoked P2Y(2) receptor up-regulation in cultured astrocytes was coupled to an increased UTP-mediated intracellular calcium response. This effect was inhibited by oATP and BBG and by P2Y(2)siRNA, thus supporting evidence of increased P2Y(2) activity. To further investigate the mechanisms by which P2X(7) receptors mediated the P2Y(2) mRNA up-regulation, the cells were pre-treated with the chelating agent EGTA, or with inhibitors of mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) (PD98059) or protein kinase C, (GF109203X). Each inhibitor significantly reduced the extent to which BzATP induced P2Y(2) mRNA. Both BzATP and ATP (1 mM) increased ERK1/2 activation. P2X(7)-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was unaffected by pre-treatment of astrocytes with EGTA whereas it was inhibited by GF109203X. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKCs, rapidly increased ERK1/2 activation. We conclude that activation of P2X(7) receptors in

  18. Infusion of ACTH stimulates expression of adrenal ACTH receptor and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Carey, Luke C; Su, Yixin; Valego, Nancy K; Rose, James C

    2006-08-01

    The late-gestation plasma cortisol surge in the sheep fetus is critical for stimulating organ development and parturition. Increased adrenal responsiveness is one of the key reasons for the surge; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Our recent studies suggest that ACTH-mediated increased expression of ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) and steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) may play a role in enhancing responsiveness. Hence, we examined effects of ACTH infusion in fetal sheep on mRNA expression of these two mediators of adrenal responsiveness and assessed the functional consequences of this treatment in vitro. Fetuses of approximately 118 and 138 days of gestational age (dGA) were infused with ACTH-(1-24) for 24 h. Controls received saline infusion. Arterial blood was sampled throughout the infusion. Adrenals were isolated and analyzed for ACTH-R and StAR mRNA, or cells were cultured for 48 h. Cells were stimulated with ACTH, and medium was collected for cortisol measurement. Fetal plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations increased over the infusion period in both groups. ACTH-R mRNA levels were significantly higher in ACTH-infused fetuses in both the 118 and 138 dGA groups. StAR mRNA increased significantly in both the 118 and 138 dGA groups. Adrenal cells from ACTH-infused fetuses were significantly more responsive to ACTH stimulation in terms of cortisol secretion than those from saline-infused controls. These findings demonstrate that increases in circulating ACTH levels promote increased expression of ACTH-R and StAR mRNA and are coupled to heightened adrenal responsiveness. PMID:16478774

  19. Distribution of Androgen Receptor mRNA Expression in Vocal, Auditory, and Neuroendocrine Circuits in a Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Marchaterre, Margaret; Deitcher, David L.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Across all major vertebrate groups, androgen receptors (ARs) have been identified in neural circuits that shape reproductive-related behaviors, including vocalization. The vocal control network of teleost fishes presents an archetypal example of how a vertebrate nervous system produces social, context-dependent sounds. We cloned a partial cDNA of AR that was used to generate specific probes to localize AR expression throughout the central nervous system of the vocal plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). In the forebrain, AR mRNA is abundant in proposed homologs of the mammalian striatum and amygdala, and in anterior and posterior parvocellular and magnocellular nuclei of the preoptic area, nucleus preglomerulosus, and posterior, ventral and anterior tuberal nuclei of the hypothalamus. Many of these nuclei are part of the known vocal and auditory circuitry in midshipman. The midbrain periaqueductal gray, an essential link between forebrain and hindbrain vocal circuitry, and the lateral line recipient nucleus medialis in the rostral hindbrain also express abundant AR mRNA. In the caudal hindbrain-spinal vocal circuit, high AR mRNA is found in the vocal prepacemaker nucleus and along the dorsal periphery of the vocal motor nucleus congruent with the known pattern of expression of aromatase-containing glial cells. Additionally, abundant AR mRNA expression is shown for the first time in the inner ear of a vertebrate. The distribution of AR mRNA strongly supports the role of androgens as modulators of behaviorally defined vocal, auditory, and neuroendocrine circuits in teleost fish and vertebrates in general. PMID:20020540

  20. Anatomical characterization of bombesin receptor subtype-3 mRNA expression in the rodent central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Parks, Gregory S; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Lien; Lew, Michelle; Civelli, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Mice deficient in BRS-3 develop late-onset mild obesity with metabolic defects, while synthetic agonists activating BRS-3 show antiobesity profiles by inhibiting food intake and increasing metabolic rate in rodent models. The molecular mechanisms and the neural circuits responsible for these effects, however, remain elusive and demand better characterization. We report here a comprehensive mapping of BRS-3 mRNA in the rat and mouse brain through in situ hybridization. Furthermore, to investigate the neurochemical characteristics of the BRS-3-expressing neurons, double in situ hybridization was performed to determine whether BRS-3 colocalizes with other neurotransmitters or neuropeptides. Many, but not all, of the BRS-3-expressing neurons were found to be glutamatergic, while few were found to be cholinergic or GABAergic. BRS-3-containing neurons do not express some of the well-characterized neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin/hypocretin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and kisspeptin. Interestingly, BRS-3 mRNA was found to partially colocalize with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), suggesting novel interactions of BRS-3 with stress- and growth-related endocrine systems. Our study provides important information for evaluating BRS-3 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22911445

  1. Differential Conserted Activity Induced Regulation of Nogo Receptors (1–3), LOTUS and Nogo mRNA in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Tobias E.; Koczy, Josefin; Brené, Stefan; Olson, Lars; Josephson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Nogo Receptor 1 (NgR1) mRNA is downregulated in hippocampal and cortical regions by increased neuronal activity such as a kainic acid challenge or by exposing rats to running wheels. Plastic changes in cerebral cortex in response to loss of specific sensory inputs caused by spinal cord injury are also associated with downregulation of NgR1 mRNA. Here we investigate the possible regulation by neuronal activity of the homologous receptors NgR2 and NgR3 as well as the endogenous NgR1 antagonist LOTUS and the ligand Nogo. The investigated genes respond to kainic acid by gene-specific, concerted alterations of transcript levels, suggesting a role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, Downregulation of NgR1, coupled to upregulation of the NgR1 antagonist LOTUS, paired with upregulation of NgR2 and 3 in the dentate gyrus suggest a temporary decrease of Nogo/OMgp sensitivity while CSPG and MAG sensitivity could remain. It is suggested that these activity-synchronized temporary alterations may serve to allow structural alterations at the level of local synaptic circuitry in gray matter, while maintaining white matter pathways and that subsequent upregulation of Nogo-A and NgR1 transcript levels signals the end of such a temporarily opened window of plasticity. PMID:23593344

  2. Thyroid Hormone Regulates the mRNA Expression of Small Heterodimer Partner through Liver Receptor Homolog-1

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, Hwan Hee; Kim, Ye An; Kim, Min; Ohn, Jung Hun; Chung, Sung Soo; Lee, Yoon-Kwang; Park, Do Joon; Park, Kyong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Expression of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is negatively regulated by orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP). In this study, we aimed to find whether thyroid hormone regulates SHP expression by modulating the transcriptional activities of liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1). Methods We injected thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) to C57BL/6J wild type. RNA was isolated from mouse liver and used for microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Human hepatoma cell and primary hepatocytes from mouse liver were used to confirm the effect of T3 in vitro. Promoter assay and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) were also performed using human hepatoma cell line Results Initial microarray results indicated that SHP expression is markedly decreased in livers of T3 treated mice. We confirmed that T3 repressed SHP expression in the liver of mice as well as in mouse primary hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells by real-time PCR analysis. LRH-1 increased the promoter activity of SHP; however, this increased activity was markedly decreased after thyroid hormone receptor β/retinoid X receptor α/T3 administration. EMSA revealed that T3 inhibits specific LRH-1 DNA binding. Conclusion We found that thyroid hormone regulates the expression of SHP mRNA through interference with the transcription factor, LRH-1. PMID:26485468

  3. Expression of GABA A receptor alpha1 subunit mRNA and protein in rat neocortex following photothrombotic infarction.

    PubMed

    Kharlamov, Elena A; Downey, Kathy L; Jukkola, Peter I; Grayson, Dennis R; Kelly, Kevin M

    2008-05-19

    Photothrombotic infarcts of the neocortex result in structural and functional alterations of cortical networks, including decreased GABAergic inhibition, and can generate epileptic seizures within 1 month of lesioning. In our study, we assessed the involvement and potential changes of cortical GABA A receptor (GABA AR) alpha1 subunits at 1, 3, 7, and 30 days after photothrombosis. Quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and semi-quantitative Western blot analysis were used to investigate GABA AR alpha1 subunit mRNA and protein levels in proximal and distal regions of perilesional cortex and in homotopic areas of young adult Sprague-Dawley rats. GABA AR alpha1 subunit mRNA levels were decreased ipsilateral and contralateral to the infarct at 7 days, but were increased bilaterally at 30 days. GABA AR alpha1 subunit protein levels revealed no significant change in neocortical areas of both hemispheres of lesioned animals compared with protein levels of sham-operated controls at 1, 3, 7, and 30 days. At 30 days, GABA AR alpha1 subunit protein expression was significantly increased in lesioned animals within proximal and distal regions of perilesional cortex compared with distal neocortical areas contralaterally (Student's t-test, p<0.05). Short- and long-term alterations of mRNA and protein levels of the GABA AR alpha1 subunit ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion may influence alterations in cell surface receptor subtype expression and GABA AR function following ischemic infarction and may be associated with formative mechanisms of poststroke epileptogenesis. PMID:18407248

  4. A role for the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element in NMDA receptor-regulated mRNA translation in neurons.

    PubMed

    Wells, D G; Dong, X; Quinlan, E M; Huang, Y S; Bear, M F; Richter, J D; Fallon, J R

    2001-12-15

    The ability of neurons to modify synaptic connections based on activity is essential for information processing and storage in the brain. The induction of long-lasting changes in synaptic strength requires new protein synthesis and is often mediated by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). We used a dark-rearing paradigm to examine mRNA translational regulation in the visual cortex after visual experience-induced synaptic plasticity. In this model system, we demonstrate that visual experience induces the translation of mRNA encoding the alpha-subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the visual cortex. Furthermore, this increase in translation is NMDAR dependent. One potential source for newly synthesized proteins is the translational activation of dormant cytoplasmic mRNAs. To examine this possibility, we developed a culture-based assay system to study translational regulation in neurons. Cultured hippocampal neurons were transfected with constructs encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP). At 6 hr after transfection, approximately 35% of the transfected neurons (as determined by in situ hybridization) expressed detectable GFP protein. Glutamate stimulation of the cultures at this time induced an increase in the number of neurons expressing GFP protein that was NMDAR dependent. Importantly, the glutamate-induced increase was only detected when the 3'-untranslated region of the GFP constructs contained intact cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs). Together, these findings define a molecular mechanism for activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that is mediated by the NMDA receptor and requires the CPE-dependent translation of an identified mRNA. PMID:11739565

  5. Decrease in transient receptor potential melastatin 6 mRNA stability caused by rapamycin in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ikari, Akira; Sanada, Ayumi; Sawada, Hayato; Okude, Chiaki; Tonegawa, Chie; Sugatani, Junko

    2011-06-01

    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is used in treatments for transplantation and cancer. Rapamycin causes hypomagnesemia, although precisely how has not been examined. Here, we investigated the effect of rapamycin on the expression of transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6), a Mg2+ channel. Rapamycin and LY-294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidilinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) located upstream of mTOR, inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced expression of the TRPM6 protein without affecting TRPM7 expression in rat renal NRK-52E epithelial cells. Both rapamycin and LY-294002 decreased EGF-induced Mg2+ influx. U0126, a MEK inhibitor, inhibited EGF-induced increases in c-Fos, p-ERK, and TRPM6 levels. In contrast, neither rapamycin nor LY-294002 inhibited EGF-induced increases in p-ERK and c-Fos levels. EGF increased p-Akt level, an effect inhibited by LY-294002 and 1L-6-hydroxymethyl-chiro-inositol2-[(R)-2-O-methyl-3-O-octadecylcarbonate] (Akt inhibitor). Akt inhibitor decreased TRPM6 level similar to rapamycin and LY-294002. These results suggest that a PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is involved in the regulation of TRPM6 expression. Rapamycin inhibited the EGF-induced increase in TRPM6 mRNA but did not inhibit human TRPM6 promoter activity. In the presence of actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor, rapamycin accelerated the decrease in TRPM6 mRNA. Rapamycin decreased the expression and activity of a luciferase linked with the 3'-untranslated region of human TRPM6 mRNA. These results suggest that TRPM6 expression is up-regulated by a PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and rapamycin reduces TRPM6 mRNA stability, resulting in a decrease in the reabsorption of Mg2+. PMID:21073857

  6. Complex control of GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA expression: variation, covariation, and genetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Megan K; Wang, Xusheng; Adler, Adrienne L; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    GABA type-A receptors are essential for fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are critical in brain function. Surprisingly, expression of receptor subunits is highly variable among individuals, but the cause and impact of this fluctuation remains unknown. We have studied sources of variation for all 19 receptor subunits using massive expression data sets collected across multiple brain regions and platforms in mice and humans. Expression of Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabrb2, Gabrb3, and Gabrg2 is highly variable and heritable among the large cohort of BXD strains derived from crosses of fully sequenced parents--C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. Genetic control of these subunits is complex and highly dependent on tissue and mRNA region. Remarkably, this high variation is generally not linked to phenotypic differences. The single exception is Gabrb3, a locus that is linked to anxiety. We identified upstream genetic loci that influence subunit expression, including three unlinked regions of chromosome 5 that modulate the expression of nine subunits in hippocampus, and that are also associated with multiple phenotypes. Candidate genes within these loci include, Naaa, Nos1, and Zkscan1. We confirmed a high level of coexpression for subunits comprising the major channel--Gabra1, Gabrb2, and Gabrg2--and identified conserved members of this expression network in mice and humans. Gucy1a3, Gucy1b3, and Lis1 are novel and conserved associates of multiple subunits that are involved in inhibitory signaling. Finally, proximal and distal regions of the 3' UTRs of single subunits have remarkably independent expression patterns in both species. However, corresponding regions of different subunits often show congruent genetic control and coexpression (proximal-to-proximal or distal-to-distal), even in the absence of sequence homology. Our findings identify novel sources of variation that modulate subunit expression and highlight the extraordinary capacity of biological networks to buffer 4-100 fold

  7. Estrogen binding, receptor mRNA, and biologic response in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, B.S.; Terpening, C.M.; Benz, D.J.; Graeme, K.A.; Gallegos, A.; Korc, M.; Greene, G.L.; O'Malley, B.W.; Haussler, M.R.

    1988-07-01

    High specific activity estradiol labeled with iodine-125 was used to detect approximately 200 saturable, high-affinity (dissociation constant approximately equal to 1.0 nM) nuclear binding sites in rat (ROS 17/2.8) and human (HOS TE85) clonal osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells. Of the steroids tested, only testosterone exhibited significant cross-reactivity with estrogen binding. RNA blot analysis with a complementary DNA probe to the human estrogen receptor revealed putative receptor transcripts of 6 to 6.2 kilobases in both rat and human osteosarcoma cells. Type I procollagen and transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA levels were enhanced in cultured human osteoblast-like cells treated with 1 nM estradiol. Thus, estrogen can act directly on osteoblasts by a receptor-mediated mechanism and thereby modulate the extracellular matrix and other proteins involved in the maintenance of skeletal mineralization and remodeling.

  8. Effects of Reproductive Experience on Central Expression of Progesterone, Oestrogen α, Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor mRNA in Male California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Rodriguez, J. P.; Takahashi, E. Y.; Amador, T. M.; Hao, R. C.; Saltzman, W.; Trainor, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Fatherhood in biparental mammals is accompanied by distinct neuroendocrine changes in males, involving some of the same hormones involved in maternal care. In the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care has been linked to changes in the central and/or peripheral availability of oestrogen, progesterone, vasopressin and oxytocin, although it is not known whether these endocrine fluctuations are associated with changes in receptor availability in the brain. Thus, we compared mRNA expression of oestrogen receptor (ER)α, progesterone receptor (PR), vasopressin receptor (V1a) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in brain regions implicated in paternal care [i.e. medial preoptic area (MPOA)], fear [i.e. medial amygdala (MeA)] and anxiety [i.e. bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)] between first-time fathers (n = 8) and age-matched virgin males (n = 7). Males from both reproductive conditions behaved paternally towards unrelated pups, whereas fathers showed significantly shorter latencies to behave paternally and less time investigating pups. Furthermore, fathers showed significantly lower PR, OTR and V1a receptor mRNA expression in the BNST compared to virgins. Fathers also showed a marginally significant (P = 0.07) reduction in progesterone receptor mRNA expression in the MPOA, although fatherhood was not associated with any other changes in receptor mRNA in the MPOA or MeA. The results of the present study indicate that behavioural and endocrine changes associated with the onset of fatherhood, and/or with cohabitation with a (breeding) female, are accompanied by changes in mRNA expression of hormone and neuropeptide receptors in the brain. PMID:25659593

  9. Effects of reproductive experience on central expression of progesterone, oestrogen α, oxytocin and vasopressin receptor mRNA in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Perea-Rodriguez, J P; Takahashi, E Y; Amador, T M; Hao, R C; Saltzman, W; Trainor, B C

    2015-04-01

    Fatherhood in biparental mammals is accompanied by distinct neuroendocrine changes in males, involving some of the same hormones involved in maternal care. In the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care has been linked to changes in the central and/or peripheral availability of oestrogen, progesterone, vasopressin and oxytocin, although it is not known whether these endocrine fluctuations are associated with changes in receptor availability in the brain. Thus, we compared mRNA expression of oestrogen receptor (ER)α, progesterone receptor (PR), vasopressin receptor (V1a) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in brain regions implicated in paternal care [i.e. medial preoptic area (MPOA)], fear [i.e. medial amygdala (MeA)] and anxiety [i.e. bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)] between first-time fathers (n = 8) and age-matched virgin males (n = 7). Males from both reproductive conditions behaved paternally towards unrelated pups, whereas fathers showed significantly shorter latencies to behave paternally and less time investigating pups. Furthermore, fathers showed significantly lower PR, OTR and V1a receptor mRNA expression in the BNST compared to virgins. Fathers also showed a marginally significant (P = 0.07) reduction in progesterone receptor mRNA expression in the MPOA, although fatherhood was not associated with any other changes in receptor mRNA in the MPOA or MeA. The results of the present study indicate that behavioural and endocrine changes associated with the onset of fatherhood, and/or with cohabitation with a (breeding) female, are accompanied by changes in mRNA expression of hormone and neuropeptide receptors in the brain. PMID:25659593

  10. Glucocorticoid regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein-B (SP-B) mRNA stability is independent of activated glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Tillis, Ceá C; Huang, Helen W; Bi, Weizhen; Pan, Su; Bruce, Shirley R; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-06-01

    Adequate expression of surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is critical in the function of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension. Expression of SP-B mRNA is restricted to specific lung-airway epithelial cells, and human SP-B mRNA stability is increased in the presence of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX). Although the mechanism of SP-B mRNA stabilization by DEX is unknown, studies suggest involvement of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We developed a dual-cistronic plasmid-based expression assay in which steady-state levels of SP-B mRNA, determined by Northern analysis, reproducibly reflect changes in SP-B mRNA stability. Using this assay, we found that steady-state levels of SP-B mRNA increased greater than twofold in transfected human-airway epithelial cells (A549) incubated with DEX (10(-7) M). DEX-mediated changes in SP-B mRNA levels required the presence of the SP-B mRNA 3'-untranslated region but did not require ongoing protein synthesis. The effect of DEX on SP-B mRNA levels was dose dependent, with maximal effect at 10(-7) M. DEX increased levels of SP-B mRNA in cells lacking GR, and the presence of the GR antagonist RU486 did not interfere with the effect of DEX. Surprisingly, other steroid hormones (progesterone, estradiol, and vitamin D; 10(-7) M) significantly increased SP-B mRNA levels, suggesting a common pathway of steroid hormone action on SP-B mRNA stability. These results indicate that the effect of DEX to increase SP-B mRNA stability is independent of activated GR and suggests that the mechanism is mediated by posttranscriptional or nongenomic effects of glucocorticoids. PMID:21398497

  11. Endurance training effects on 5-HT(1B) receptors mRNA expression in cerebellum, striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, M; Drogou, C; Gomez-Merino, D; Grimaldi, B; Fillion, G; Guezennec, C Y

    2001-07-01

    The 5-HT(1B) receptors are the predominant auto- and heteroreceptors located on serotonergic and non-serotonergic terminals where they regulate the neuronal release of neurotransmitters. The present study investigated the effects of a 7 week period of physical training on the expression of cerebral 5-HT(1B) receptors by measuring corresponding mRNA levels in rat. Using RNase protection assay technique, we have observed no change in 5-HT(1B) receptor mRNA levels in the striatum and in the hippocampus after moderate as well as after intensive training. In contrast, a significant decrease in 5-HT(1B) receptor mRNA levels was observed in cerebellum of intensively trained rats. Moreover, in frontal cortex, a significant decrease in 5-HT(1B) receptors mRNA level occurred in both groups of trained rats. These data suggest the existence of regional differences in the effect of physical exercise on the expression of 5-HT(1B) receptors. PMID:11516568

  12. Adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptors in hematopoiesis. 2. Expression of receptor mRNA in resting and lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Streitová, D; Hofer, M; Holá, J; Vacek, A; Pospísil, M

    2010-01-01

    Expression of mRNA for adenosine receptor subtypes A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) in normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages has been investigated using the method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results have shown a very low, unquantifiable expression of adenosine A(1) receptor mRNA in both normal and LPS-activated macrophages. The other three adenosine receptor mRNAs have been found to be expressed at various but always quantifiable levels. Activation of the macrophages by LPS induced upregulation of the expression of adenosine receptor A(2a) and A(2b) mRNA, whereas the expression of adenosine receptor A(3) mRNA was downregulated. Unstimulated macrophages exhibited a high expression of the A(2b) adenosine receptor mRNA. The findings are discussed from the point of view of the antiinflammatory and hematopoiesis-stimulating roles of the adenosine receptor signaling. PMID:19249906

  13. FUS regulates AMPA receptor function and FTLD/ALS-associated behaviour via GluA1 mRNA stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Fujioka, Yusuke; Tanaka, Motoki; Honda, Daiyu; Yokoi, Satoshi; Riku, Yuichi; Ibi, Daisuke; Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Katsuno, Masahisa; Inada, Toshifumi; Ohno, Kinji; Sokabe, Masahiro; Okado, Haruo; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Sobue, Gen

    2015-01-01

    FUS is an RNA/DNA-binding protein involved in multiple steps of gene expression and is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, the specific disease-causing and/or modifying mechanism mediated by FUS is largely unknown. Here we evaluate intrinsic roles of FUS on synaptic functions and animal behaviours. We find that FUS depletion downregulates GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptor. FUS binds GluA1 mRNA in the vicinity of the 3′ terminus and controls poly (A) tail maintenance, thus regulating stability. GluA1 reduction upon FUS knockdown reduces miniature EPSC amplitude both in cultured neurons and in vivo. FUS knockdown in hippocampus attenuates dendritic spine maturation and causes behavioural aberrations including hyperactivity, disinhibition and social interaction defects, which are partly ameliorated by GluA1 reintroduction. These results highlight the pivotal role of FUS in regulating GluA1 mRNA stability, post-synaptic function and FTLD-like animal behaviours. PMID:25968143

  14. Acute "binge" cocaine increases mu-opioid receptor mRNA levels in areas of the rat mesolimbic mesocortical dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Yuferov, V; Zhou, Y; Spangler, R; Maggos, C E; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

    1999-01-01

    Autoradiography studies demonstrated that chronic "binge" cocaine administration increased mu-opioid receptor density in dopaminergically innervated rat brain regions, including the cingulate cortex, the nucleus accumbens, and the basolateral amygdala. The present study investigated the effects of a single day of binge-pattern cocaine administration (3 x 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.] at hourly intervals) on mu-opioid receptor mRNA levels in selected brain regions. Rats were sacrificed 30 min after the third injection and mRNA levels were measured by a quantitative solution hybridization RNase protection assay. Acute binge cocaine administration significantly increased mu-opioid receptor mRNA levels in the frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala, but not in the caudate-putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. As has been suggested for other G-protein coupled receptors, the rapid increase of MOR mRNA reported in this study might represent an adaptive response to compensate for a decrease in number of receptors following cocaine-induced opioid peptide release. PMID:10210176

  15. Enhancement of the in vivo persistence and antitumor efficacy of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells through the delivery of modified TERT mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yun; Kan, Shifeng; Zhou, Shixin; Wang, Yuting; Xu, Jun; Cooke, John P; Wen, Jinhua; Deng, Hongkui

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor T cell immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating tumors, demonstrating its efficiency in eliminating several hematological malignancies in recent years. However, a major obstacle associated with current chimeric antigen receptor T cell immunotherapy is that the limited replicative lifespan of chimeric antigen receptor T cells prohibits the long-term persistence and expansion of these cells in vivo, potentially hindering the long-term therapeutic effects of chimeric antigen receptor T cell immunotherapy. Here we showed that the transient delivery of modified mRNA encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase to human chimeric antigen receptor T cells targeting the CD19 antigen (CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells) would transiently elevate the telomerase activity in these cells, leading to increased proliferation and delayed replicative senescence without risk of insertion mutagenesis or immortalization. Importantly, compared to conventional CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells, after the transient delivery of telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA, these CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells showed improved persistence and proliferation in mouse xenograft tumor models of human B-cell malignancies. Furthermore, the transfer of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells after the transient delivery of telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA enhanced long-term antitumor effects in mouse xenograft tumor models compared with conventional CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell transfer. The results of the present study provide an effective and safe method to improve the therapeutic potential of chimeric antigen receptor T cells, which might be beneficial for treating other types of cancer, particularly solid tumors. PMID:27462436

  16. Correlation of Adiponectin mRNA Abundance and Its Receptors with Quantitative Parameters of Sperm Motility in Rams

    PubMed Central

    Kadivar, Ali; Heidari Khoei, Heidar; Hassanpour, Hossein; Golestanfar, Arefe; Ghanaei, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), known as adiponectin system, have some proven roles in the fat and glucose metabolisms. Several studies have shown that adiponectin can be considered as a candidate in linking metabolism to testicular function. In this regard, we evaluated the correlation between sperm mRNA abundance of adiponectin and its receptors, with sperm motility indices in the present study. Materials and Methods In this completely randomized design study, semen samples from 6 adult rams were fractionated on a two layer discontinuous percoll gradient into high and low motile sperm cells, then quantitative parameters of sperm motility were determined by computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA). The mRNA abundance levels of Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were measured quantitatively using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the high and low motile groups. Results Firstly, we showed that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) were transcriptionally expressed in the ram sperm cells. Using Pfaff based method qRT- PCR, these levels of transcription were significantly higher in the high motile rather than low motile samples. This increase was 3.5, 3.6 and 2.5 fold change rate for Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, respectively. Some of sperm motility indices [curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), wobble (WOB) and straightness (STR)] were also significantly correlated with Adiponectin and AdipoR1 relative expression. The correlation of AdipoR2 was also significant with the mentioned parameters, although this correlation was not comparable with adiponectin and AdipoR1. Conclusion This study revealed the novel association of adiponectin system with sperm motility. The results of our study suggested that adiponectin is one of the possible factors which can be evaluated and studied in male infertility disorders. PMID:27123210

  17. Human oocytes and preimplantation embryos express mRNA for growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Ménézo, Y J; el Mouatassim, S; Chavrier, M; Servy, E J; Nicolet, B

    2003-11-01

    Human genetic expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene was qualitatively analysed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in cumulus cells, immature germinal vesicle (GV) and mature metaphase II (MII) stage oocytes and preimplantation human embryos. The transcripts encoding GHR were detected in cumulus cells and also in naked oocytes, either mature or not. In this case, a nested PCR is needed, as for early embryo preimplantation stages, before genomic activation. The GHR gene is highly expressed from the 4-day morula onwards. This suggests that GHR transcription follows a classical scheme associated with genomic activation. It is probable that, in human, growth hormone plays a role in the final stages of oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis as it does for several other mammalian species. PMID:15085728

  18. Influence of moonlight on mRNA expression patterns of melatonin receptor subtypes in the pineal organ of a tropical fish.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro

    2014-04-01

    The goldlined spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, is a lunar-synchronized spawner, which repeatedly releases gametes around the first quarter moon during the reproductive season. A previous study reported that manipulating moonlight brightness at night disrupted synchronized spawning, suggesting involvement of this natural light source in lunar synchronization. The present study examined whether the mRNA expression pattern of melatonin receptor subtypes MT1 and Mel1c in the pineal organ of the goldlined spinefoot is related to moonlight. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the abundance of MT1 and Mel1c mRNA at midnight increased during the new moon phase and decreased during the full moon phase. Exposing fish to moonlight intensity during the full moon period resulted in a decrease in Mel1c mRNA abundance within 1h. Fluctuations in the melatonin receptor genes according to changes in the moon phase agreed with those of melatonin levels in the blood. These results indicate that periodic changes in cues from the moon influence melatonin receptor mRNA expression levels. The melatonin-melatonin receptor system may play a role in predicting the moon phase through changes in night brightness. PMID:24269345

  19. There is no correlation between glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression and protein binding in the brains of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Medina, Carlos O; Lattin, Christine R; McVey, M; Romero, L Michael

    2013-11-01

    The stress response represents an animal's attempt to cope with a noxious stimulus through a rapid release of corticosterone or cortisol (CORT) into the bloodstream, resulting in a suite of physiological and behavioral changes. These changes are mediated in large part through CORT's binding to two different intracellular receptors, the high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the lower-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We tested the hypothesis that GR and MR mRNA expression would correlate with functional protein expression in neuronal tissue of wild-caught house sparrows (Passer domesticus). To test this hypothesis, we performed a parallel procedure in which protein concentrations were quantified in one half of house sparrow brains (n=16) using radioligand binding assays, and mRNA levels were quantified in the other brain half using reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Two reference genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and TATA-box binding protein (TBP), were used for relative quantification of GR and MR mRNA. Quantifications showed that these two reference genes were not correlated with each other. Furthermore, there was no correlation between mRNA and protein levels for GR or MR using either reference gene, suggesting that regulation of mRNA and protein levels for MR and GR is not tightly linked. This study provides insight into the importance of regulatory steps between mRNA expression and the creation and stability of a functional protein. The overall conclusion is that mRNA expression cannot be used as a proxy for GR or MR binding in house sparrows. PMID:23892014

  20. Localization of the mRNA for the dopamine D sub 2 receptor in the rat brain by in situ hybridization histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mengod, G.; Martinez-Mir, M.I.; Vilaro, M.T.; Palacios, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    {sup 32}P-labeled oligonucleotides derived from the coding region of rat dopamine D{sub 2} receptor cDNA were used as probes to localize cells in the rat brain that contain the mRNA coding for this receptor by using in situ hybridization histochemistry. The highest level of hybridization was found in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. High mRNA content was observed in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, the nuclei caudate-putamen and accumbens, and the olfactory tubercle. Lower levels were seen in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area, as well as in the lateral mammillary body. In these areas the distribution was comparable to that of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor binding sites as visualized by autoradiography using ({sup 3}H)SDZ 205-502 as a ligand. However, in some areas such as the olfactory bulb, neocortex, hippocampus, superior colliculus, and cerebellum, D{sub 2} receptors have been visualized but no significant hybridization signal could be detected. The mRNA coding for these receptors in these areas could be contained in cells outside those brain regions, be different from the one recognized by our probes, or be present at levels below the detection limits of our procedure. The possibility of visualizing and quantifying the mRNA coding for dopamine D{sub 2} receptor at the microscopic level will yield more information about the in vivo regulation of the synthesis of these receptor and their alteration following selective lesions or drug treatments.

  1. Greater amberjack Fsh, Lh, and their receptors: Plasma and mRNA profiles during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kazeto, Yukinori; Izumida, Daisuke; Tani, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hamada, Kazuhisa; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Gen, Koichiro; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Okuzawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To understand the endocrine regulation of ovarian development in a multiple spawning fish, the relationship between gonadotropins (Gths; follicle-stimulating hormone [Fsh] and luteinizing hormone [Lh]) and their receptors (Gthrs; Fshr and Lhr) were investigated in greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). cDNAs encoding the Gth subunits (Fshβ, Lhβ, and glycoprotein α [Gpα]) and Gthrs were cloned. The in vitro reporter gene assay using recombinant hormones revealed that greater amberjack Fshr and Lhr responded strongly to their own ligands. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for measuring greater amberjack Fsh and Lh. Anti-Fsh and anti-Lh antibodies were raised against recombinant chimeric single-chain Gths consisting of greater amberjack Fshβ (or Lhβ) with rabbit GPα. The validation study showed that the ELISAs were precise (intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation, <10%) and sensitive (detection limit of 0.2ng/ml for Fsh and 0.8ng/ml for Lh) with low cross-reactivity. A good parallelism between the standard curve and serial dilutions of greater amberjack plasma and pituitary extract were obtained. In female greater amberjack, pituitary fshb, ovarian fshr, and plasma E2 gradually increased during ovarian development, and plasma Fsh significantly increased during the post-spawning period. This suggests that Fsh plays a role throughout ovarian development and during the post-spawning period. Pituitary lhb, ovarian lhr, and plasma Lh were high during the spawning period, suggesting that the synthesis and secretion of Lh, and Lhr expression are upregulated to induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation. PMID:26519759

  2. Increased expression of the histamine H4 receptor following differentiation and mediation of the H4 receptor on interleukin-8 mRNA expression in HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Eriko; Yamaura, Katsunori; Sato, Shiori; Ueno, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Recent in vivo studies have demonstrated involvement of the histamine H4 receptor in pruritus and skin inflammation. We previously reported that an H4 receptor antagonist attenuated scratching behaviour and improved skin lesions in an experimental model of atopic dermatitis. We also reported the expression of the H4 receptor in human epidermal tissues. In this study, we investigated the expression of H4 receptor mRNA and the function of the receptor in a culture system that mimics in vivo inflammation on the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. Increased expression of the H4 receptor was observed in HaCaT cells following differentiation. Treatment of HaCaT cells with histamine and TNFα enhanced the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-8. These increases in expression were significantly inhibited by the H4 receptor antagonist JNJ7777120. Our results indicate that IL-8 mRNA expression might be enhanced by histamine and TNFα via H4 receptor stimulation in keratinocytes. PMID:24372819

  3. Cotranscriptional Recruitment to the mRNA Export Receptor Mex67p Contributes to Nuclear Pore Anchoring of Activated Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Dieppois, Guennaelle; Iglesias, Nahid; Stutz, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Transcription activation of some Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes is paralleled by their repositioning to the nuclear periphery, but the mechanism underlying gene anchoring is poorly defined. We show that the nuclear pore complex-associated Mlp1p and the shuttling mRNA export receptor Mex67p contribute to the stable association of the activated GAL10 and HSP104 genes with the nuclear periphery. However, we find no obligatory link between gene positioning and gene expression. Furthermore, gene anchoring correlates with the cotranscriptional recruitment of Mex67p to transcribing genes. Notably, the association of Mex67p with chromatin is not mediated by RNA. Interestingly, a mutant GAL2 gene lacking the coding region is still able to recruit Mex67p upon transcriptional activation and to relocate to the nuclear periphery. Together these data suggest that, at least for GAL2, nascent messenger ribonucleoprotein does not play a major role in gene anchoring and that the early recruitment of Mex67p contributes to gene repositioning by virtue of an RNA-independent process. PMID:16954382

  4. Expression of three gonadotropin subunits and gonadotropin receptor mRNA during male-to-female sex change in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    PubMed

    An, Kwang Wook; Lee, Jehee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2010-08-01

    To quantify the sex-change progression from male to female in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus, we divided gonadal development into three stages (I, mature male; II, male at 90 days after removal of the female; and III, mature female), and the expression of GTH subunits and GTH receptors during each of these stages was investigated. The mRNA of the three GTH subunits and their receptors increased with progression from male to female. To understand the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on this progression, we examined expression of genes encoding the GTH subunit mRNA in the pituitary and the GTH-receptor mRNA in the gonads in addition to investigating changes in plasma E(2) levels after GnRH analogue (GnRHa) injection. GnRHa treatment increased mRNA expression levels of these genes, as well as plasma E(2) levels, indicating that GnRH plays an important regulatory role in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of immature cinnamon clownfish. PMID:20348005

  5. Neural regulation of MRNA for the alpha-subunit of acetylcholine receptors: Role of neuromuscular transmission. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, N.G.; Drachman, D.B.; Pestronk, A.; Shih, P.J.

    1989-12-31

    Levels of mRNA for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits are relatively low in innervated skeletal muscles. Following denervation they rise rapidly, leading to increased AChR synthesis. The mechanism by which motor nerves normally regulate these mRNA levels is not yet known. In order to determine the possible role of synaptic transmission in this process, the authors have compared the effect of blockade of cholinergic ACh transmission with that of surgical denervation. Blockade of quantal ACh transmission was produced by injection of type A botulinum toxin into the soleus muscles of rats.

  6. Relationship between somatostatin and death receptor expression in the orbital frontal cortex in schizophrenia: a postmortem brain mRNA study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Dipesh; Catts, Vibeke S; Olaya, Juan C; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, we provided evidence showing reductions in GAD67 and Dlx mRNAs in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) in schizophrenia. It is unknown whether these reductions relate mainly to somatostatin (SST) or parvalbumin (PV) mRNA expression changes, and/or whether these reductions are related to decreased SST mRNA+ interneuron density. Aims: To determine whether inhibitory interneuron deficits in the OFC from people with schizophrenia are greatest for SST or PV mRNAs, and whether any such deficits relate to mRNAs encoding cell death signalling molecules. Methods: Inhibitory interneuron mRNAs (SST; PV: in situ hybridization, quantitative PCR (qPCR)) and death signaling mRNAs [FAS receptor (FASR); TNFSF13: qPCR] were measured in control and schizophrenia subjects (38/38). SST mRNA+ interneuron-like cells were quantified in layer II in the gyrus rectus. Gray matter SST and PV mRNAs were correlated with interstitial white matter neuron (IWMN) density (GAD65/67; NeuN) and death signaling mRNAs. Results: SST mRNA was reduced in OFC layers I–VI in schizophrenia (both in situ and qPCR), with greatest deficit in layer II (67%). Layer II SST mRNA+ neuron density was reduced in schizophrenia (~29%). PV mRNA was reduced in layers III (18%) and IV (31%) with no significant diagnostic difference in PV mRNA measured by qPCR. FASR mRNA was increased in schizophrenia (34%). SST, but not PV, expression correlated negatively with FASR and TNFSF13 expressions and with IWMN density. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that SST interneurons are predominantly linked to the inhibitory interneuron pathology in the OFC in schizophrenia and that increased death receptor signaling mRNAs relate to prominent laminar deficits in SST mRNA in the OFC in schizophrenia. We suggest that SST interneurons may be more vulnerable to increased death receptor signaling than PV interneurons. PMID:27336026

  7. Prenatal ethanol increases ethanol intake throughout adolescence, alters ethanol-mediated aversive learning, and affects μ but not δ or κ opioid receptor mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2015-06-01

    Animal models of prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) have indicated a facilitatory effect of PEE on adolescent ethanol intake, but few studies have assessed the effects of moderate PEE throughout adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this facilitatory effect remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analysed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats with or without PEE (2.0 g/kg, gestational days 17-20) from postnatal days 37 to 62. The results revealed greater ethanol consumption in PEE rats than in controls, which persisted throughout adolescence. By the end of testing, ethanol ingestion in PEE rats was nearly 6.0 g/kg. PEE was associated with insensitivity to ethanol-induced aversion. PEE and control rats were further analysed for levels of μ, δ and κ opioid receptor mRNA in the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and ventral tegmental area. Similar levels of mRNA were observed across most areas and opioid receptors, but μ receptor mRNA in the ventral tegmental area was significantly increased by PEE. Unlike previous studies that assessed the effects of PEE on ethanol intake close to birth, or in only a few sessions during adolescence, the present study observed a facilitatory effect of PEE that lasted throughout adolescence. PEE was associated with insensitivity to the aversive effect of ethanol, and increased levels of μ opioid receptor transcripts. PEE is a prominent vulnerability factor that probably favors the engagement of adolescents in risky trajectories of ethanol use. PMID:25865037

  8. Decreased spinal cord opioid receptor mRNA expression and antinociception in a Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jessica L.; Alley, Jeremy F.; Wellman, Lori; Beitz, Alvin J.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis patients typically experience increased pain that is relatively insensitive to opiate treatment. The mechanistic basis for this increased nociception is currently poorly understood. In the present study, we utilized the Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) model of MS to examine possible changes in spinal cord opioid receptor mRNA over the course of disease progression. TMEV infection led to significantly decreased mu, delta and kappa opioid receptor mRNA expression as analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in both male and female mice at days 90, 150 and 180 post-infection (PI). Since opioid receptor mRNA expression decreased in TMEV mice, we examined whether opiate analgesia is also altered. TMEV infected female mice had significantly decreased opiate analgesia in thermal nociceptive tests beginning at day 90 PI, while TMEV-infected male mice did not display significantly decreased opiate analgesia until day 120 PI. The novel finding that opioid receptor expression is significantly decreased in the spinal cord of TMEV mice could explain the increased nociception and loss of opiate analgesia observed in both TMEV mice and multiple sclerosis patients. PMID:18096140

  9. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1c Ameliorates Obesity and Glucose Intolerance via Central Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lelliott, Christopher J.; Ahnmark, Andrea; Admyre, Therese; Ahlstedt, Ingela; Irving, Lorraine; Keyes, Feenagh; Patterson, Laurel; Mumphrey, Michael B.; Bjursell, Mikael; Gorman, Tracy; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Buchanan, Andrew; Harrison, Paula; Vaughan, Tristan; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Lindén, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We have generated a novel monoclonal antibody targeting human FGFR1c (R1c mAb) that caused profound body weight and body fat loss in diet-induced obese mice due to decreased food intake (with energy expenditure unaltered), in turn improving glucose control. R1c mAb also caused weight loss in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, leptin receptor-mutant db/db mice, and in mice lacking either the melanocortin 4 receptor or the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1. In addition, R1c mAb did not change hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of Agrp, Cart, Pomc, Npy, Crh, Mch, or Orexin, suggesting that R1c mAb could cause food intake inhibition and body weight loss via other mechanisms in the brain. Interestingly, peripherally administered R1c mAb accumulated in the median eminence, adjacent arcuate nucleus and in the circumventricular organs where it activated the early response gene c-Fos. As a plausible mechanism and coinciding with the initiation of food intake suppression, R1c mAb induced hypothalamic expression levels of the cytokines Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and 3 and ERK1/2 and p70 S6 kinase 1 activation. PMID:25427253

  10. Relationship between mRNA expression of splice forms of the zeta1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and spatial memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Siba R; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2008-05-01

    Age-related changes in the protein and mRNA expression of some of the splice forms of the zeta1 (NR1) subunit of the NMDA receptor have been seen in mice and rats. The present study was designed to determine whether individual splice forms of the zeta1 subunit of the NMDA receptor within prefrontal/frontal cortical regions contribute to memory deficits during aging and whether experience in learning tasks can influence the expression of the splice forms. mRNA expression of 4 splice forms (zeta1-1, zeta1-3, zeta1-a and zeta1-b) and mRNA for all known splice forms (zeta1-pan) were examined by in situ hybridization. mRNA for C-terminal splice forms, zeta1-1 (+ C1 and + C2 cassettes) and zeta1-3 (+ C1 and + C2'), showed significant declines during aging in several brain regions even though overall zeta1-pan mRNA expression was not significantly affected by aging. This suggests that these splice forms are more influenced by aging than the subunit as a whole. There was an increase in the expression of zeta1-a (-N1 cassette) splice form in the behaviorally-experienced old mice relative to the younger groups. Old mice with high levels of mRNA expression for the zeta1-a splice form in orbital cortex showed the best performances in the working memory task, but the poorest performances in the cued, associative learning task. These results suggest that there is a complex interaction between zeta1 splice form expression and performance of memory tasks during aging. PMID:18374315

  11. Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the hibernation and reproductive periods of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruidong; Hu, Yuehong; Wang, Huan; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Rong; Wu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, is a critically endangered reptile species unique to China. Little is known about the mechanism of growth- and reproduction-related hormones gene expression in Chinese alligator. Estrogens play important roles in regulating multiple reproduction- and non-reproduction-related functions by binding to their corresponding receptors. Here, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) was cloned and sequenced from Chinese alligator for the first time, which comprises 1764bp nucleotides and encodes a predicted protein of 587 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of ESR1 showed that crocodilians and turtles were the sister-group of birds. The results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the ESR1 mRNA was widely expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues. In the brain and pituitary gland, ESR1 was most highly transcribed in the cerebellum. But in other peripheral tissues, ESR1 mRNA expression level was the highest in the ovary. Compared with hibernation period, ESR1 mRNA expression levels were increased significantly in the reproductive period (P<0.05) in cerebellum, pituitary gland, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and ovary, while no significant change in other examined tissues (P>0.05). The ESR1 mRNA expression levels changes during the two periods of different tissues suggested that ESR1 might play an important role in mediation of estrogenic multiple reproductive effects in Chinese alligator. Furthermore, it was the first time to quantify ESR1 mRNA level in the brain of crocodilians, and the distribution and expression of ESR1 mRNA in the midbrain, cerebellum and medulla oblongata was also reported for the first time in reptiles. PMID:27212643

  12. Trichostatin A and 5 Aza-2' deoxycytidine decrease estrogen receptor mRNA stability in ER positive MCF7 cells through modulation of HuR.

    PubMed

    Pryzbylkowski, Peter; Obajimi, Oluwakemi; Keen, Judith Clancy

    2008-09-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) and 5-Aza 2'deoxycytidine (AZA), two well characterized pharmacologic inhibitors of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation, affect estrogen receptor alpha (ER) levels differently in ER-positive versus ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. Whereas pharmacologic inhibition of these epigenetic mechanisms results in re-expression and increased estrogen receptor alpha (ER) levels in ER-negative cells, treatment in ER-positive MCF7 cells results in decreased ER mRNA and protein levels. This decrease is dependent upon protein interaction with the ER 3'UTR. Actinomycin D studies showed a 37.5% reduction in ER mRNA stability from 4 to 1.5 h in AZA/TSA treated MCF7 cell lines; an effect not seen in 231ER + cells transfected with the ER coding region but lacking incorporation of the 3'UTR. AZA/TSA do not appear to directly interact with the 3'UTR but rather decrease stability through altered subcellular localization of the RNA binding protein, HuR. siRNA inhibition of HuR expression reduces both the steady-state and stability of ER mRNA, suggesting that HuR plays a critical role in the control of ER mRNA stability. Our data suggest that epigenetic modulators can alter stability through modulation of HuR subcellular distribution. Taken together, these data provide a novel anti-estrogenic mechanism for AZA and TSA in ER positive human breast cancer cells. PMID:17891453

  13. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors and their transcribed genes (mRNA) are present in the lower urinary tract of intact male and female dogs.

    PubMed

    Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Scaramuzzi, R J; Khalid, M

    2007-01-15

    In dogs, one of the side effects of neutering is the development of urinary incontinence. The relationship between neutering and urinary incontinence caused by acquired urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) has been reported. Recently, GnRH analogue treatment that suppresses elevated plasma gonadotrophin concentrations post-spaying has been successfully used in incontinent bitches. These data and the fact that non-gonadal tissues may contain receptors for LH (LHR) and FSH (FSHR) suggest that there might be a functional relationship between gonadotrophins and the lower urinary tract in dogs. This study aimed to investigate the presence of LHR and FSHR in the lower urinary tract of intact male and female dogs. Four regions of the lower urinary tract, i.e. (i) body of the bladder, (ii) neck of the bladder, (iii) proximal urethra and (iv) distal urethra were collected from 10 healthy dogs (5 males and 5 anoestrous females). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterise the presence of receptor mRNA and receptor protein. Staining was rated semi-quantitatively, incorporating both the distribution and intensity of specific staining. The distribution of receptor expression in different tissue layers (epithelium, subepithelial stroma and muscle) in each region was statistically analyzed. Luteinizing hormone receptor and FSHR mRNA and protein were present in all four regions and in three tissue layers of males and females. Irrespective of region and layer, female dogs expressed significantly higher expression for LHR mRNA (P<0.001), LHR protein (P<0.05) and FSHR protein (P<0.001). The expression of LHR and FSHR mRNA and protein was not uniform and depended on region, tissue layer and gender. The expression of LHR mRNA was higher in the bladder, compared to the urethra (P<0.05). The FSHR mRNA significantly increased from the bladder to the urethra. Protein expression for LHR and FSHR was highest in the proximal urethra (P<0.05). The

  14. Differences in progesterone concentrations and mRNA expressions of progesterone receptors in bovine endometrial tissue between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Hiroto; HANEDA, Shingo; KAYANO, Mitsunori; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2016-01-01

    Because the establishment of pregnancy begins at the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (ipsi-horn) in cattle, levels of progesterone (P4) and receptor expression in the endometrial tissue, which regulate the intrauterine environment for embryo development, may differ between the ipsi-horn and the uterine horn contralateral to corpus luteum (contra-horn). The aim of the present study was to determine the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 mRNA expressions in the cranial and middle parts of the uterine horns during the luteal phase. The results showed higher endometrial tissue P4 concentrations in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.01); however, no change in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations was evident during the luteal phase. The PGR mRNA expression was higher during the early luteal phase (P<0.05), but no differences between the horns were evident. However, PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the early luteal phase was higher in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.05). In the middle part, there were no changes in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the differences in dynamics of endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the ovary containing a corpus luteum may cause differences in the intrauterine environment for both the ipsi- and contra-horns. PMID:26782011

  15. Individual vulnerability to escalated aggressive behavior by a low dose of alcohol: decreased serotonin receptor mRNA in the prefrontal cortex of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatto, S; Quadros, IMH; Ambar, G; Miczek, KA

    2009-01-01

    Low to moderate doses of alcohol consumption induce heightened aggressive behavior in some, but not all individuals. Individual vulnerability for this nonadaptive behavior may be determined by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors to the sensitivity of alcohol’s effects on brain and behavior. We used a previously established protocol for alcohol oral self-administration and characterized alcohol-heightened aggressive (AHA) mice as compared to alcohol-non-heightened (ANA) counterparts. A week later, we quantified mRNA steady state levels of several candidate genes in the serotonin (5-HT) system in different brain areas. We report a regionally selective and significant reduction of all 5-HT receptor subtype transcripts, except for 5HT3, in the prefrontal cortex of AHA mice. Comparable gene expression profile was previously observed in aggressive mice induced by social isolation or by an anabolic androgenic steroid. Additional change in the 5-HT1B receptor transcripts was seen in the amygdala and hypothalamus of AHA mice. In both these areas, 5-HT1B mRNA was elevated when compared to ANA mice. In the hypothalamus, AHA mice showed also increased transcripts for 5-HT2A receptor. In the midbrain, 5-HT synthetic enzyme, 5-HT transporter, and 5-HT receptors mRNA levels were similar between groups. Our results emphasize a role for postsynaptic over presynaptic 5-HT receptors in individuals who showed escalated aggression after the consumption of a moderate dose of alcohol. This gene expression profile of 5-HT neurotransmission components in the brain of mice may suggest a vulnerability trait for alcohol-heightened aggression. PMID:20002201

  16. Alternative mRNA splicing of SMRT creates functional diversity by generating corepressor isoforms with different affinities for different nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Michael L; Jonas, Brian A; Privalsky, Martin L

    2005-03-01

    Many eukaryotic transcription factors are bimodal in their regulatory properties and can both repress and activate expression of their target genes. These divergent transcriptional properties are conferred through recruitment of auxiliary proteins, denoted coactivators and corepressors. Repression plays a particularly critical role in the functions of the nuclear receptors, a large family of ligand-regulated transcription factors involved in metazoan development, differentiation, reproduction, and homeostasis. The SMRT corepressor interacts directly with nuclear receptors and serves, in turn, as a platform for the assembly of a larger corepressor complex. We report here that SMRT is expressed in cells by alternative mRNA splicing to yield two distinct variants or isoforms. We designate these isoforms SMRTalpha and SMRTtau and demonstrate that these isoforms have significantly different affinities for different nuclear receptors. These isoforms are evolutionarily conserved and are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Our results suggest that differential mRNA splicing serves to customize corepressor function in different cells, allowing the transcriptional properties of nuclear receptors to be adapted to different contexts. PMID:15632172

  17. GH, IGF-I and GH receptors mRNA expression in response to growth impairment following a food deprivation period in individually housed cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Delgadin, Tomás Horacio; Pérez Sirkin, Daniela Irina; Di Yorio, María Paula; Arranz, Silvia Eda; Vissio, Paula Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Cichlasoma dimerus is a social cichlid fish capable of growing at high rates under laboratory conditions, but knowledge on somatic growth regulation is still unclear. Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis is the key regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates. Two types of growth hormone receptors have been described in teleost fish, named GH receptor type 1 (GHR1) and type 2 (GHR2). In addition, isoforms of these receptors lacking part of the intracellular region have been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the somatic growth, liver histology and changes in the GH/IGF-I axis after 4 weeks of food deprivation in C. dimerus. Four-week fasted fish showed reductions in specific growth rates in body weight (p < 0.001) and standard length (p < 0.001). Additionally, the hepatosomatic index (p < 0.001) and hepatocyte area (p < 0.001) decreased in fasted fish, while no changes in glucose levels were detected in plasma. The starvation protocol failed to induce changes in GH mRNA levels in the pituitary and IGF-I mRNA levels in liver. In contrast, IGF-I mRNA levels in muscle decreased in fasted fish (p = 0.002). On the other hand, GHR2 (detected with primer sets designed over the extracellular and intracellular region) was upregulated by starvation both in liver and muscle (p < 0.05), while GHR1 remained unchanged. These results show that a fasting period reduced somatic growth both in length and body weight concomitantly with alterations on liver and muscle GHR2 and muscle IGF-I mRNA expression. PMID:25351458

  18. Dual-targeted nanocarrier based on cell surface receptor and intracellular mRNA: an effective strategy for cancer cell imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Yang, Huijun; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Yanhua; Li, Na; Tang, Bo

    2013-07-16

    Developing efficient methods for targeting cancer cells and encapsulating drugs coupled with activated release holds enormous potential for cancer cell imaging and therapy. Herein, a novel dual-targeted nanocarrier was developed on the basis of gold nanoparticles modified with a dense shell of synthetic oligonucleotides. The folic acid functionalized single-stranded DNA was designed to target the folate receptor on the cancer cell surface, and the molecular beacon was employed as drug carrier for activated release associated with intracellular tumor mRNA. Intracellular experiments indicated that the dual-targeted nanocarrier could be preferentially internalized into cancer cells due to the folate receptor targeting and release Doxorubicin (Dox) selectively in cancer cells because of the activated release with intracellular mRNA. The nanocarrier could reduce the dosage and greatly improve the therapeutic effect of drugs in cancer cells. Moreover, the nanocarrier can identify the changes of the express level of tumor mRNA and release Dox in a controlled manner in cancer cells, which would be beneficial for cancer therapy. PMID:23772649

  19. Epidermal growth factor-nonresponsive 3T3 variants do not contain epidermal growth factor receptor-related antigens or mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.A.; Lim, R.W.; Terwilliger, E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously isolated three independent variants of Swiss 3T3 cells that are unable to generate a mitogenic response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Each of the variants is unable to bind /sup 125/I-labeled EGF; each lacks a functional EGF receptor. They used an antiserum to murine EGF receptor to look for an EGF-receptor gene product in wild-type 3T3 cells and in the three EGF-nonresponsive variants. No cross-reactive material could be detected in any of the three variants, either in /sup 125/I-labeled cell extracts or in (/sup 35/S)methionine metabolically labeled cells. 3T3 cells contained mRNA molecules homologous to a cDNA probe for the human EGF-receptor coding region. In contrast, no homologous RNA could be detected in any of the three variants. Analysis of genomic Southern blots of the DNA from 3T3 cells and the three EGF-nonresponsive variants indicated sequences from the EGF-receptor gene are present in the DNA of all four cell lines. These EGF-nonresponsive lines, which demonstrate proliferative responses to a variety of mitogens, will be ideal recipients for structure-function studies of the EGF receptor by transfection of the cloned gene.

  20. The mRNA expression of prostaglandin E receptors EP2 and EP4 and the changes in glycosaminoglycans in the sheep cervix during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Khalid, M; McGowan, M R; Pitsillides, A A; Scaramuzzi, R J

    2009-07-15

    Transcervical artificial insemination in sheep is limited by the inability to completely penetrate the cervix with an inseminating pipette. Penetration is partially enhanced at estrus due to a degree of cervical relaxation, which is probably regulated by cervical prostaglandin synthesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Prostaglandin E(2) acts via prostaglandin E receptors EP(1) to EP(4), and EP(2) and EP(4) stimulate smooth muscle relaxation and glycosaminoglycan synthesis. This study investigated the expression of EP(2) and EP(4) mRNA and glycosaminoglycans in the sheep cervix during the estrous cycle. Sheep cervices were collected prior to, during, and after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and during the luteal phase. The mRNA expression of EP(2) and EP(4) was determined by in situ hybridization, glycosaminoglycan composition was assessed by Alcian blue staining, and hyaluronan concentration was investigated by ELISA. The expression of EP(2) mRNA was greatest prior to the LH surge (P=0.02), although EP(2) and EP(4) were expressed throughout the estrous cycle. Hyaluronan was the predominant glycosaminoglycan, and hyaluronan content increased prior to the LH surge (P<0.05). Cervical EP(2) mRNA expression changed throughout the estrous cycle and was greatest prior to the LH surge. We propose that prostaglandin E(2) binds to EP(2) and EP(4) stimulating hyaluronan synthesis, which may cause remodeling of the cervical extracellular matrix, culminating in cervical relaxation. PMID:19359033

  1. Chemokine-Like Receptor 1 mRNA Weakly Correlates with Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Score in Male but Not Female Individuals.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Maximilian; Meier, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Pohl, Rebekka; Weiss, Thomas S; Buechler, Christa

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) ligands resolvin E1 and chemerin are known to modulate inflammatory response. The progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with inflammation. Here it was analyzed whether hepatic CMKLR1 expression is related to histological features of NASH. Therefore, CMKLR1 mRNA was quantified in liver tissue of 33 patients without NAFLD, 47 patients with borderline NASH and 38 patients with NASH. Hepatic CMKLR1 mRNA was not associated with gender and body mass index (BMI) in the controls and the whole study group. CMKLR1 expression was similar in controls and in patients with borderline NASH and NASH. In male patients weak positive correlations with inflammation, fibrosis and NASH score were identified. In females CMKLR1 was not associated with features of NAFLD. Liver CMKLR1 mRNA tended to be higher in type 2 diabetes patients of both genders and in hypercholesterolemic women. In summary, this study shows that hepatic CMKLR1 mRNA is weakly associated with features of NASH in male patients only. PMID:27548138

  2. Chemokine-Like Receptor 1 mRNA Weakly Correlates with Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Score in Male but Not Female Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Maximilian; Meier, Elisabeth M.; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Pohl, Rebekka; Weiss, Thomas S.; Buechler, Christa

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) ligands resolvin E1 and chemerin are known to modulate inflammatory response. The progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with inflammation. Here it was analyzed whether hepatic CMKLR1 expression is related to histological features of NASH. Therefore, CMKLR1 mRNA was quantified in liver tissue of 33 patients without NAFLD, 47 patients with borderline NASH and 38 patients with NASH. Hepatic CMKLR1 mRNA was not associated with gender and body mass index (BMI) in the controls and the whole study group. CMKLR1 expression was similar in controls and in patients with borderline NASH and NASH. In male patients weak positive correlations with inflammation, fibrosis and NASH score were identified. In females CMKLR1 was not associated with features of NAFLD. Liver CMKLR1 mRNA tended to be higher in type 2 diabetes patients of both genders and in hypercholesterolemic women. In summary, this study shows that hepatic CMKLR1 mRNA is weakly associated with features of NASH in male patients only. PMID:27548138

  3. Cloning, mRNA expression and transcriptional regulation of five retinoid X receptor subtypes in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco by insulin.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ya-Xiong; Luo, Zhi; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Li-Han; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and mediate development, reproduction, homeostasis and cell differentiation processes in vertebrates. In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of five rxr subtypes from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were cloned. Their mRNA expression patterns in different tissues and transcriptional regulation by insulin were determined. Five P. fulvidraco rxr (Pf-rxr) subtypes differed in the length of cDNA sequence and the open reading frame, but shared the similar domain structures as in typical nuclear receptors. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the five Pf-rxr subtypes were paralogous genes, and that Pf-rxrβa and Pf-rxrβb had arisen during a teleost-specific genome duplication event. Five subtypes of Pf-rxr were detected in all the tested tissues. Overlapping and distinct expression patterns were found for different Pf-rxr subtypes, suggesting functional redundancy and divergence of these duplicates. Intraperitoneal insulin injection and incubation reduced the mRNA expression of Pf-rxrgb, but not other subtypes, in the liver and hepatocytes of P. fulvidraco, respectively, suggesting that Pf-rxrgb is the dominant rxr subtype involved in the insulin signaling pathway in P. fulvidraco. PMID:26519760

  4. Novel G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor GPR30 shows changes in mRNA expression in the rat brain over the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Spary, Emma J; Chapman, Sally E; Sinfield, John K; Maqbool, Azhar; Kaye, Jean; Batten, Trevor F C

    2013-01-01

    Oestrogen influences autonomic function via actions at classical nuclear oestrogen receptors α and β in the brain, and recent evidence suggests the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 may also function as a cytoplasmic oestrogen receptor. We investigated the expression of GPR30 in female rat brains throughout the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy to determine whether GPR30 expression in central autonomic nuclei is correlated with circulating oestrogen levels. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) GPR30 mRNA, quantified by real-time PCR, was increased in proestrus and oestrus. In ovariectomised (OVX) rats, expression in NTS and VLM appeared increased compared to metoestrus, but in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and PAG lower mRNA levels were seen in OVX. GPR30-like immunoreactivity (GPR30-LI) colocalised with Golgi in neurones in many brain areas associated with autonomic pathways, and analysis of numbers of immunoreactive neurones showed differences consistent with the PCR data. GPR30-LI was found in a variety of transmitter phenotypes, including cholinergic, serotonergic, catecholaminergic and nitrergic neurones in different neuronal groups. These observations support the view that GPR30 could act as a rapid transducer responding to oestrogen levels and thus modulate the activity of central autonomic pathways. PMID:22378360

  5. Cardiac calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) in control and cardiomyopathic human hearts: mRNA and protein contents are differentially regulated.

    PubMed

    Sainte Beuve, C; Allen, P D; Dambrin, G; Rannou, F; Marty, I; Trouvé, P; Bors, V; Pavie, A; Gandgjbakch, I; Charlemagne, D

    1997-04-01

    Abnormal intracellular calcium handling in cardiomyopathic human hearts has been associated with an impaired function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, but previous reports on the gene expression of the ryanodine receptors (Ry2) are contradictory. We measured the mRNA levels, the protein levels and the number of high affinity [3H]ryanodine binding sites in the left ventricle of non-failing (n = 9) and failing human hearts [idiopathic dilated (IDCM n = 16), ischemic (ICM n = 7) or mixed (MCM n = 8) cardiomyopathies]. Ry2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in IDCM (-30%) and unchanged in MCM and ICM and Ry2 protein levels were similar. In contrast, we observed a two-fold increase in the number of high affinity Ry2 (B(max) = 0.43 +/- 0.11 v 0.22 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg protein, respectively; P<0.01) and an unchanged K(d). Furthermore, levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA and protein per g of tissue were similar in failing and non-failing hearts, suggesting that the observed differences in Ry2 are not caused by the increase in fibrosis in failing heart. Therefore, the dissociation between the two-fold increase in the number of high affinity ryanodine receptors observed in all failing hearts and the slightly decreased mRNA level or unchanged protein level suggests that the ryanodine binding properties are affected in failing myocardium and that such modifications rather than a change in gene expression alter the channel activity and could contribute to abnormalities in intracellular Ca2+ handling. PMID:9160875

  6. Altered mRNA Levels of Glucocorticoid Receptor, Mineralocorticoid Receptor, and Co-Chaperones (FKBP5 and PTGES3) in the Middle Frontal Gyrus of Autism Spectrum Disorder Subjects.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neil; Crider, Amanda; Pandya, Chirayu D; Ahmed, Anthony O; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2016-05-01

    Although stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), it is not known whether glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels are altered in the brain of subjects with ASD. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of GR isoforms (GRα, GRβ, GRγ, and GRP), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), GR co-chaperones (FKBP5, PTGES3, and BAG1), and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) were examined in the postmortem middle frontal gyrus tissues of 13 ASD and 13 age-matched controls by qRT-PCR. The protein levels were examined by Western blotting. We found significant decreases in GRα (64 %), GRγ (48 %), GRP (20 %) and MR (46 %) mRNA levels in ASD subjects as compared to controls. However, significant increases in FKBP5 (42 %) and PTGES3 (35 %) mRNA levels were observed in ASD subjects. There were no differences in the mRNA levels of GRβ and BAG1 in ASD subjects as compared to controls. MR mRNA was found to be negatively correlated with the diagnostic score for abnormality of development. On the protein level, significant reductions in GR and MR, but no change in FKBP5 and PTGES3 were found in ASD subjects as compared to controls. Moreover, we observed significant increases in IL-1β and IFN-γ mRNA levels in ASD subjects, and these cytokines were negatively associated with GR levels. Our data, for the first time, reports dysregulation of GR, MR, FKBP5, and PTGES3 in ASD and suggest a possible role of inflammation in altered GR function in ASD. PMID:25912394

  7. Developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of PACAP and its receptor PAC1 and their sensitivity to fasting in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Maira; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    The actions and responses of hypothalamic appetite regulatory and factors change markedly during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been found to play pivotal roles in the regulation of metabolic and nutritional status through its specific receptor PAC1. PACAP/PAC1 have anorectic roles, and their functions are regulated by leptin in adulthood. In the present study, we showed that hypothalamic PACAP mRNA expression decreases during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period (from postnatal day 10-30) in both male and female rats. During this period, hypothalamic PACAP mRNA expression was not affected by 24h fasting in either sex, while the serum leptin levels (leptin is a positive regulator of hypothalamic PACAP expression in adulthood) of both sexes were decreased by fasting. On the other hand, hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA expression did not change during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period in either sex; however, its levels were consistently higher in males than in females. Hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA expression was decreased by 24h fasting in males, but no such changes were observed in females. These results indicate while hypothalamic PACAP expression is sensitive to a negative energy state and the serum leptin level in adulthood, no such relationships are seen in the pre-pubertal period. In addition, we speculate that differences in the gonadal steroidal milieu might induce sexual dimorphism in the basal hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA level and its response to fasting. The mechanisms responsible for and the physiological effects of such changes in hypothalamic PACAP and PAC1 expression during the developmental period remain to be clarified. PMID:27181029

  8. LACK OF FUNCTIONAL GABAB RECEPTORS ALTERS Kiss1, Gnrh1 AND Gad1 mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS AT POSTNATAL DAY 4

    PubMed Central

    Di Giorgio, Noelia P.; Catalano, Paolo N.; López, Paula V.; González, Betina; Semaan, Sheila J.; López, Gabriela C.; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Rulli, Susana B.; Somoza, Gustavo M.; Bettler, Bernhard; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Adult mice lacking functional GABAB receptors (GABAB1KO) show altered Gnrh1 and Gad1 expressions in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) and females display disruption of cyclicity and fertility. Here we addressed whether sexual differentiation of the brain and the proper wiring of the GnRH and kisspeptin systems were already disturbed in postnatal day 4 (PND4) GABAB1KO mice. Methods PND4 wild type (WT) and GABAB1KO mice of both sexes were sacrificed; tissues were collected to determine mRNA expression (qPCR), amino acids (HPLC), and hormones (RIA and/or IHC). Results GnRH neuron number (IHC) did not differ among groups in olfactory bulbs or OVLT-POA. Gnrh1 mRNA (qPCR) in POA-AH was similar among groups. Gnrh1 mRNA in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) was similar in WTs but was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Hypothalamic GnRH (RIA) was sexually different in WTs (males > females) but this sex difference was lost in GABAB1KOs; the same pattern was observed when analyzing only the MBH, but not in the POA-AH. Arcuate nucleus Kiss1 mRNA (micropunch-qPCR) was higher in WT females than in WT males and GABAB1KO females. Gad1 mRNA in MBH was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Serum LH and gonadal estradiol content were also increased in GABAB1KOs. Conclusion We demonstrate that GABABRs participate in the sexual differentiation of the ARC/MBH, because sex differences in several reproductive genes, such as Gad1, Kiss1 and Gnrh1, are critically disturbed in GABAB1KO mice at PND4, probably altering the organization and development of neural circuits governing the reproductive axis. PMID:24080944

  9. Melanocortin MC4 receptor agonists alleviate brain damage in abdominal compartment syndrome in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Hong-Guang; Zhao, Zi-Ai; Chang, Ming-Tao; Li, Yang; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lian-Yang

    2015-02-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is accompanied by high morbidity and mortality in surgical departments and ICUs. However, its specific pathophysiology is unclear. IAH not only leads to intra-abdominal tissue damage but also causes dysfunction in distal organs, such as the brain. In this study, we explore the protective effects of melanocortin 4 receptor agonists in IAH-induced brain injury. The IAH rat models were induced by hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (with the mean arterial pressure (MAP) maintained at 30 mm Hg for 90 min followed by the reinfusion of the withdrawn blood with lactated Ringer's solution). Then, air was injected into the peritoneal cavity of the rats to maintain an intra-abdominal pressure of 20 mm Hg for 4 h. The effects of the melanocortin 4 receptor agonist RO27-3225 in alleviating the rats' IAH brain injuries were observed, which indicated that RO27-3225 could reduce brain edema, the expressions of the IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory cytokines, the blood-brain barrier's permeability and the aquaporin4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) levels. Moreover, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist chlorisondamine and the selective melanocortin 4 receptor antagonist HS024 can negate the protective effects of the RO27-3225. The MC4R agonist can effectively reduce the intracerebral proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and alleviate the brain injury caused by blood-brain barrier damage following IAH. PMID:25616531

  10. Analysis of thyroid hormone receptor {beta}A mRNA expression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles as a means to detect agonism and antagonism of thyroid hormone action

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, Robert . E-mail: r.opitz@igb-berlin.de; Lutz, Ilka; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Kloas, Werner

    2006-04-01

    Amphibian metamorphosis represents a unique biological model to study thyroid hormone (TH) action in vivo. In this study, we examined the utility of thyroid hormone receptors {alpha} (TR{alpha}) and {beta}A (TR{beta}A) mRNA expression patterns in Xenopus laevis tadpoles as molecular markers indicating modulation of TH action. During spontaneous metamorphosis, only moderate changes were evident for TR{alpha} gene expression whereas a marked up-regulation of TR{beta}A mRNA occurred in hind limbs (prometamorphosis), head (late prometamorphosis), and tail tissue (metamorphic climax). Treatment of premetamorphic tadpoles with 1 nM 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) caused a rapid induction of TR{beta}A mRNA in head and tail tissue within 6 to 12 h which was maintained for at least 72 h after initiation of T3 treatment. Developmental stage had a strong influence on the responsiveness of tadpole tissues to induce TR{beta}A mRNA during 24 h treatment with thyroxine (0, 1, 5, 10 nM T4) or T3 (0, 1, 5, 10 nM). Premetamorphic tadpoles were highly sensitive in their response to T4 and T3 treatments, whereas sensitivity to TH was decreased in early prometamorphic tadpoles and strongly diminished in late prometamorphic tadpoles. To examine the utility of TR{beta}A gene expression analysis for detection of agonistic and antagonistic effects on T3 action, mRNA expression was assessed in premetamorphic tadpoles after 48 h of treatment with the synthetic agonist GC-1 (0, 10, 50, 250 nM), the synthetic antagonist NH-3 (0, 40, 200, 1000 nM), and binary combinations of NH-3 (0, 40, 200, 1000 nM) and T3 (1 nM). All tested concentrations of GC-1 as well as the highest concentration of NH-3 caused an up-regulation of TR{beta}A expression. Co-treatment with NH-3 and T3 revealed strong antagonistic effects by NH-3 on T3-induced TR{beta}A mRNA up-regulation. Results of this study suggest that TR{beta}A mRNA expression analysis could serve as a sensitive molecular testing approach to study effects

  11. Reduction in mRNA and protein expression of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α8 subunit is associated with resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Xin; Yang, Baojun; Hu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Lixin; Bass, Chris; Liu, Zewen

    2015-11-01

    Target-site resistance is commonly caused by qualitative changes in insecticide target-receptors and few studies have implicated quantitative changes in insecticide targets in resistance. Here we show that resistance to imidacloprid in a selected strain of Nilaparvata lugens is associated with a reduction in expression levels of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit Nlα8. Synergism bioassays of the selected strain suggested resistance was conferred, in part, by a target-site mechanism. Sequencing of N. lugens nAChR subunit genes identified no mutations associated with resistance, however, a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Nlα8 was observed during selection. RNA interference knockdown of Nlα8 decreased the sensitivity of N. lugens to imidacloprid, demonstrating that a decrease in Nlα8 expression is sufficient to confer resistance in vivo. Radioligand binding assays revealed that the affinity of the high-affinity imidacloprid-binding site of native nAChRs was reduced by selection, and reducing the amount of Nlα8 cRNA injected into Xenopus oocytes significantly decreased imidacloprid potency on recombinant receptors. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that a decrease in Nlα8 levels confers resistance to imidacloprid in N. lugens, and thus provides a rare example of target-site resistance associated with a quantitative rather than qualitative change. In insects, target-site mutations often cause high resistance to insecticides, such as neonicotinoids acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here we found that a quantitative change in target-protein level, decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Nlα8, contributed importantly to imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens. This finding provides a new target-site mechanism of insecticide resistance. PMID:26259922

  12. Kinetic mRNA Profiling in a Rat Model of Left-Ventricular Hypertrophy Reveals Early Expression of Chemokines and Their Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nemska, Simona; Monassier, Laurent; Gassmann, Max; Frossard, Nelly; Tavakoli, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a risk factor for heart failure and death, is characterized by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial cell proliferation, and leukocyte infiltration. Chemokines interacting with G protein-coupled chemokine receptors may play a role in LVH development by promoting recruitment of activated leukocytes or modulating left-ventricular remodeling. Using a pressure overload-induced kinetic model of LVH in rats, we examined during 14 days the expression over time of chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNAs in left ventricles from aortic-banded vs sham-operated animals. Two phases were clearly distinguished: an inflammatory phase (D3-D5) with overexpression of inflammatory genes such as il-1ß, tnfa, nlrp3, and the rela subunit of nf-kb, and a hypertrophic phase (D7-D14) where anp overexpression was accompanied by a heart weight/body weight ratio that increased by more than 20% at D14. No cardiac dysfunction was detectable by echocardiography at the latter time point. Of the 36 chemokines and 20 chemokine receptors analyzed by a Taqman Low Density Array panel, we identified at D3 (the early inflammatory phase) overexpression of mRNAs for the monocyte chemotactic proteins CCL2 (12-fold increase), CCL7 (7-fold increase), and CCL12 (3-fold increase), for the macrophage inflammatory proteins CCL3 (4-fold increase), CCL4 (2-fold increase), and CCL9 (2-fold increase), for their receptors CCR2 (4-fold increase), CCR1 (3-fold increase), and CCR5 (3-fold increase), and for CXCL1 (8-fold increase) and CXCL16 (2-fold increase). During the hypertrophic phase mRNA expression of chemokines and receptors returned to the baseline levels observed at D0. Hence, this first exhaustive study of chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression kinetics reports early expression of monocyte/macrophage-related chemokines and their receptors during the development of LVH in rats, followed by regulation of inflammation as LVH progresses. PMID:27525724

  13. Amphetamine Up-Regulates AGS1 mRNA and Protein Levels in Rat Frontal Cortex: The Role of Dopamine and Glucocorticoid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Schwendt, Marek; McGinty, Jacqueline F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute and chronic exposure to psychostimulants results in altered function of G-protein-coupled receptors in the forebrain. It is believed that neuroadaptations in G-protein signaling contribute to behavioral sensitivity to psychostimulants that persists over a prolonged drug-free period. Proteins termed activators of G-protein signaling (AGS) have been characterized as potent modulators of both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent G-protein signaling. Nevertheless, the regulation of AGS gene and protein expression by psychostimulants remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated amphetamine (AMPH)-induced changes in expression patterns of several forebrain-enriched AGS proteins. A single exposure to AMPH (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) selectively induced gene expression of AGS1, but not Rhes or AGS3 proteins, in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) as measured 3h later. Induction of AGS1 mRNA in the PFC by acute AMPH was transient and dose-dependent. Even repeated treatment with AMPH for 5 days did not produce lasting changes in AGS1 mRNA and protein levels in the PFC as measured three weeks post treatment. However, at this time point, a low dose AMPH challenge (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a robust behavioral response and up-regulated AGS1 expression in the PFC selectively in animals with an AMPH history. The effects of AMPH on AGS1 expression in the PFC were blocked by a D2, but not D1, dopamine receptor antagonist and partially by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Collectively, the present study suggests that (1) AGS1 represents a regulator of G-protein signaling that is rapidly inducible by AMPH in the frontal cortex, (2) AGS1 regulation in the PFC parallels behavioral activation by acute AMPH in drug-naïve animals and hypersensitivity to AMPH challenge in sensitized animals, and (3) D2 dopamine and glucocorticoid receptors regulate AMPH effects on AGS1 in the PFC. Changes in AGS1 levels in the PFC may result in abnormal receptor-to-G-protein coupling

  14. Antidepressant dose of taurine increases mRNA expression of GABAA receptor α2 subunit and BDNF in the hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Caletti, Greice; Almeida, Felipe Borges; Agnes, Grasiela; Nin, Maurício Schüler; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Gomez, Rosane

    2015-04-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder associated with higher risk for depression. Diabetic rats present depressive-like behaviors and taurine, one of the most abundant free amino acids in the brain, reverses this depressive behaviors. Because taurine is a GABAA agonist modulator, we hypothesize that its antidepressant effect results from the interaction on this system by changing α2 GABAA receptor subunit expression, beside changes on BDNF mRNA, and memory in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats were daily injected with 100mg/kg of taurine or saline, intraperitoneally, for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were exposed to the novel object recognition memory. Later they were euthanized, the brains were weighed, and the hippocampus was dissected for α2 GABAA subunit and BDNF mRNA expression. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that diabetic rats presented lower α2 GABAA subunit and BDNF mRNA expression than non-diabetic rats and taurine increased both parameters in these sick rats. Taurine also reversed the lower brain weight and improved the short-term memory in diabetic rats. Thus, the taurine antidepressant effect may be explained by interference with the GABA system, in line to its neuroprotective effect showed here by preventing brain weight loss and improving memory in diabetic rats. PMID:25612506

  15. hnRNP A1-mediated translational regulation of the G quadruplex-containing RON receptor tyrosine kinase mRNA linked to tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Pierredon, Sandra; Le Bras, Morgane; Iacovoni, Jason S.; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Favre, Gilles; Roché, Henri; Filleron, Thomas; Millevoi, Stefania; Vagner, Stéphan

    2016-01-01

    The expression and role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) controlling mRNA translation during tumor progression remains largely uncharacterized. Analysis by immunohistochemistry of the expression of hnRNP A1, hnRNPH, RBM9/FOX2, SRSF1/ASF/SF2, SRSF2/SC35, SRSF3/SRp20, SRSF7/9G8 in breast tumors shows that the expression of hnRNP A1, but not the other tested RBPs, is associated with metastatic relapse. Strikingly, hnRNP A1, a nuclear splicing regulator, is also present in the cytoplasm of tumor cells of a subset of patients displaying exceedingly worse prognosis. Expression of a cytoplasmic mutant of hnRNP A1 leads to increased translation of the mRNA encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor RON/MTS1R, known for its function in tumor dissemination, and increases cell migration in vitro. hnRNP A1 directly binds to the 5′ untranslated region of the RON mRNA and activates its translation through G-quadruplex RNA secondary structures. The correlation between hnRNP A1 and RON tumoral expression suggests that these findings hold clinical relevance. PMID:26930004

  16. Association of suboptimal health status with psychosocial stress, plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor α/β in lymphocyte.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Dong, Jing; Liu, You-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Song, Man-Shu; He, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in China. This study investigated whether high SHS is associated with psychosocial stress, changes in cortisol level and/or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression. Three-hundred eighty-six workers employed in three companies in Beijing were recruited. The SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). The short standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to assess job-related psychosocial stress. The mean value of the five scales of COPSOQ and distribution of plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of GRα/GRβ between the high level of SHS group and the low level of SHS group were compared using a general linear model procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of psychosocial stress on SHS. We identified three factors that were predictive of SHS, including "demands at work", "interpersonal relations and leadership" and "insecurity at work". Significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol and GRβ/GRα mRNA ratio were observed among the high SHS group. High level of SHS is associated with decreased mRNA expression of GRα. This study confirmed the association between chronic psychosocial stress and SHS, indicating that improving the psychosocial work environment may reduce SHS and then prevent chronic diseases effectively. PMID:25518867

  17. Nonphotic entrainment by 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonists accompanied by reduced Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels in the suprachiasmatic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, K; Yokota, S; Fuji, K; Akiyama, M; Moriya, T; Okamura, H; Shibata, S

    2000-08-01

    In mammals, the environmental light/dark cycle strongly synchronizes the circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) to 24 hr. It is well known that not only photic but also nonphotic stimuli can entrain the SCN clock. Actually, many studies have shown that a daytime injection of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH DPAT), a serotonin 1A/7 receptor agonist, as a nonphotic stimulus induces phase advances in hamster behavioral circadian rhythms in vivo, as well as the neuron activity rhythm of the SCN in vitro. Recent reports suggest that mammalian homologs of the Drosophila clock gene, Period (Per), are involved in photic entrainment. Therefore, we examined whether phase advances elicited by 8-OH DPAT were associated with a change of Period mRNA levels in the SCN. In this experiment, we cloned partial cDNAs encoding hamster Per1, Per2, and Per3 and observed both circadian oscillation and the light responsiveness of Period. Furthermore, we found that the inhibitory effect of 8-OH DPAT on hamster Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels in the SCN occurred only during the hamster's mid-subjective day, but not during the early subjective day or subjective night. The present findings demonstrate that the acute and circadian time-dependent reduction of Per1 and/or Per2 mRNA in the hamster SCN by 8-OH DPAT is strongly correlated with the phase resetting in response to 8-OH DPAT. PMID:10908630

  18. Intratumoral administration of mRNA encoding a fusokine consisting of IFN-β and the ectodomain of the TGF-β receptor II potentiates antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Van der Jeught, Kevin; Joe, Patrick Tjok; Bialkowski, Lukasz; Heirman, Carlo; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Liechtenstein, Therese; Escors, David; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the success of immunotherapy depends on the presence of tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and the modulation of the tumor environment. In this study, we validated mRNA encoding soluble factors as a tool to modulate the tumor microenvironment to potentiate infiltration of tumor-specific T cells. Intratumoral delivery of mRNA encoding a fusion protein consisting of interferon-β and the ectodomain of the transforming growth factor-β receptor II, referred to as Fβ2, showed therapeutic potential. The treatment efficacy was dependent on CD8+ T cells and could be improved through blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. In vitro studies revealed that administration of Fβ2 to tumor cells resulted in a reduced proliferation and increased expression of MHC I but also PD-L1. Importantly, Fβ2 enhanced the antigen presenting capacity of dendritic cells, whilst reducing the suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that intratumoral delivery of mRNA encoding soluble proteins, such as Fβ2, can modulate the tumor microenvironment, leading to effective antitumor T cell responses, which can be further potentiated through combination therapy. PMID:25338019

  19. Gonadotrophins modulate hormone secretion and steady-state mRNA levels for activin receptors (type I, IIA, IIB) and inhibin co-receptor (betaglycan) in granulosa and theca cells from chicken prehierarchical and preovulatory follicles.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Tristan M; Al-Musawi, Sara L; Gladwell, Richard T; Knight, Philip G

    2007-06-01

    Ovarian follicle development is regulated through endocrine and local mechanisms. Increasing evidence indicates roles for transforming growth factor beta superfamily members, including inhibins and activins. We recently identified divergent expression of mRNAs encoding activin receptors (ActR) and inhibin co-receptor betaglycan in chicken follicles at different stages of maturation. Here, we compare the actions of LH and FSH (0, 1, 10, 100 ng/ml) on levels of mRNA for ActRI, ActRIIA, ActRIIB and betaglycan in chicken granulosa and theca cells (GC and TC) from preovulatory (F1) and prehierarchical (6-8 mm) follicles. The expression of mRNAs for LH-R and FSH-R and production of inhibin A, oestradiol and progesterone were also quantified. FSH decreased ActRIIB and ActRI mRNA levels in 6-8 mm GC, whereas LH increased the mRNA levels. Both LH and FSH enhanced ActRIIA (5- and 8.5-fold) and betaglycan mRNA expression (2- and 3.5-fold) in 6-8 mm GC. In 6-8 mm TC, LH and FSH both increased the betaglycan mRNA level (7- and 3.5-fold respectively) but did not affect ActRI, ActRIIA and ActRIIB transcript levels. In F1 GC, both LH and FSH stimulated ActRI (2- and 2.4-fold), ActRIIB (3.2- and 2.7-fold) and betaglycan (7- and 4-fold) mRNA levels, while ActRIIA mRNA was unaffected. In F1 TC, LH and FSH reduced ActRIIA (35-50%) and increased (4.5- and 7.6-fold) betaglycan mRNA, but had no effect on ActRI and ActRIIB transcript levels. Results support the hypothesis that expression of ActR and betaglycan are differentially regulated by gonadotrophins during follicle maturation in the hen. This may represent an important mechanism for fine-tuning follicle responsiveness to local and systemic activins and inhibins. PMID:17636170

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors Alpha, Beta, and Gamma mRNA and protein expression in human fetal tissues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study examine...

  1. Developmental programming: Impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Megan M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5 mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147 d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F{sub 2{alpha}}, just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female.

  2. Discovery of Novel Potent and Selective Agonists at the Melanocortin-3 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Alfonso; Merlino, Francesco; Cai, Minying; Brancaccio, Diego; Yousif, Ali Munaim; Novellino, Ettore; Hruby, Victor J; Grieco, Paolo

    2015-12-24

    The melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 control energy homeostasis, food-intake behavior, and correlated pathophysiological conditions. The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) has been broadly investigated. In contrast, the knowledge related to physiological roles of the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is lacking because of the limited number of known MC3R selective ligands. Here, we report the design, synthesis, biological activity, conformational analysis, and docking with receptors of two potent and selective agonists at the human MC3 receptor. PMID:26599352

  3. Production of VEGF receptor 1 and 2 mRNA and protein during endochondral bone repair is differential and healing phase specific

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Nair, Turya; Strachna, Olga; Boskey, Adele L.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological disturbances, including temporary hypoxia, are expected to drive angiogenesis during bone repair. Evidence suggests that the angiogenic ligand vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A plays an important role in this process. We characterized the expression of two receptors that are essential for mediating VEGF signaling, VEGFR1/Flt-1 and VEGFR2/Flk-1/KDR, in a mouse rib fracture model. Their mRNA and protein levels were assessed in four healing phases, which were characterized histologically as hemorrhage formation on postfracture day (PFD) 1, inflammatory response on PFD 3, initiation of callus development on PFD 7, and the presence of a mature callus on PFD 14. Transcript was detected for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, as well as VEGF. While mRNA expression of VEGFR1 was monophasic throughout all healing phases, VEGFR2 showed a biphasic profile with significantly increased mRNA expression during callus formation and maturation. Expression of VEGF mRNA was characterized by a more gradual increase during callus formation. The protein level for VEGFR1 was below detection sensitivity during the initial healing phase. It was then restored to a stable level, detectable through the subsequent healing phases. Hence, the VEGFR1 protein levels partially mirrored the transcript expression profile. In comparison, the protein level of VEGFR2 increased gradually during the healing phases and peaked at callus maturation. This correlated well with the transcriptional expression of VEGFR2. Intact bone from age-matched male mice had considerable protein levels of VEGFR1 and VEGF, but no detectable VEGFR2. Together, these findings uncovered expression signatures of the VEGF-VEGFR axis in endochondral bone repair. PMID:20947709

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: molecular characterization, mRNA expression and transcriptional regulation by insulin in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Luo, Zhi; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Song, Yu-Feng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Hu, Wei; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is ligand-inducible transcription factor and has important roles in lipid metabolism, cell proliferation and inflammation. In the present study, yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco PPARγ cDNA was isolated from liver by RT-PCR and RACE, and its molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation by insulin in vivo and in vitro were determined. The generation of PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 was due to alternative promoter of PPARγ gene. PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 mRNA covered 2426 bp and 2537 bp, respectively, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1584 bp encoding 527 amino acid residues. Yellow catfish PPARγ gene was organized in a manner similar to that of their mammalian homologs, implying a modular organization of the protein's domains. A comparison between the yellow catfish PPARγ amino acid sequence and the correspondent sequences of several other species revealed the identity of 55-76.2%. Two PPARγ transcripts (PPARγ1 and PPARγ2) mRNAs were expressed in a wide range of tissues, but the abundance of each PPARγ mRNA showed the tissue- and developmental stage-dependent expression patterns. Intraperitoneal injection of insulin in vivo significantly stimulated the mRNA expression of total PPARγ and PPARγ1, but not PPARγ2 in the liver of yellow catfish. In contrast, incubation of hepatocytes with insulin in vitro increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ1, PPARγ2 and total PPARγ. To our knowledge, for the first time, the present study provides evidence that PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 are differentially expressed with and among tissues during different developmental stages and also regulated by insulin both in vivo and in vitro, which serves to increase our understanding on PPARγ physiological function in fish. PMID:25637673

  5. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and VDR protein levels in relation to vitamin D status, insulin secretory capacity, and VDR genotype in Bangladeshi Asians.

    PubMed

    Ogunkolade, Babatunji-William; Boucher, Barbara J; Prahl, Jean M; Bustin, Stephen A; Burrin, Jacky M; Noonan, Kate; North, Bernard V; Mannan, Nassima; McDermott, Michael F; DeLuca, Hector F; Hitman, Graham A

    2002-07-01

    Associations have been reported between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, type 1 diabetes, insulin secretion, and the insulin resistance syndrome. As VDR polymorphisms have no known functional significance, these findings may implicate a variant of the VDR gene or a locus in linkage disequilibrium with the VDR. We have examined VDR mRNA and VDR protein levels in relation to VDR polymorphisms (41 Bangladeshi subjects) and analyzed insulin secretory capacity (143 Bangladeshi subjects), allowing for other known determinants. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from subjects who had been genotyped for BsmI, ApaI, TaqI, and FokI VDR restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used for both total VDR mRNA quantitation (using TaqMan) and measurement of VDR protein levels (using a specific micro-immunoassay). Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used (to P < 0.05) to analyze the data. For the insulin secretion index, the best-fit model (n = 143, P < 0.0001) gave age (P = 0.002), TaqI (P < 0.0001), and BMI (P = 0.001) as independent determinants; with the inclusion of VDR mRNA and VDR protein levels, VDR mRNA was the sole independent determinant (n = 41, P = 0.024). However, the best-fit model for VDR mRNA (P = 0.004) gave FokI (P = 0.044) and TaqI (P = 0.04) genotypes and insulin secretory capacity (P = 0.042) as independent determinants. For VDR protein levels, the best-fit model (P = 0.006) gave TaqI genotype (P = 0.005) and circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D levels (P = 0.03) as independent determinants. In conclusion, these studies confirm an association between VDR polymorphisms and insulin secretory capacity and demonstrate the VDR genotype to be a significant determinant of VDR mRNA and VDR protein levels in PBMCs, providing functional support to previously described genetic associations with the VDR gene. Furthermore, VDR expression has been shown to be a determinant of insulin secretory capacity. PMID:12086963

  6. HOMOLOGOUS UP-REGULATION OF THE GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE RECEPTOR IN A T3-1 CELLS IS ASSOCIATED WITH UNCHANGED RECEPTOR MESSENGER RNA (MRNA) LEVELS AND ALTERED MRNA ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Depending on the concentration and duration of agonist exposure, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number either increases or decreases in response to GnRH. he molecular basis of this regulation could involve a combination of modulation of gene transcription, RNA pro...

  7. The NR3C1 Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms May Modulate the TGF-beta mRNA Expression in Asthma Patients.

    PubMed

    Panek, Michał; Pietras, Tadeusz; Fabijan, Artur; Zioło, Jan; Wieteska, Łukasz; Małachowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Szemraj, Janusz; Kuna, Piotr

    2015-08-01

    Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) are basic drugs in therapy of a number of diseases, including chronic diseases of the respiratory system. They are the most important anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. GCs after binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) form the complex (transcription factor), which acts on promoter and regulatory parts of genes enhancing the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins and decreasing the proinflammatory protein synthesis, including numerous cytokines mediating inflammation in the course of asthma. Non-sensitivity or resistance to GCs favours an increase in the TGF-β expression. This cytokine plays a central role in asthma inducing fibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix synthesis. TGF-β isoforms, 1, 2 and 3, are located on chromosome 19q13, 1q41 and 14q24, respectively. GCs reduce TGF-β 1 and TGF-β 2 production and significantly decrease the expression of upregulated TGF-β 1 and TGF-β 2 mRNA induced by exogenous TGF-β. In asthma, TGF-β may play a role in the development of the peribronchiolar and subepithelial fibrosis, which contributes to a significant clinical exacerbation of asthma. Therefore, it is possible that NR3C1 glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms could exert varied effects on the TGF-β mRNA expression and fibrotic process in lungs of asthmatic patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of polymorphic forms (Tth111I, BclI, ER22/23EK, N363S) of the NR3C1 gene on the level of the TGF-β 1 mRNA expression. A total of 173 patients with asthma and 163 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Genotyping of Tth111I, BclI, ER22/23EK, and N363S polymorphisms of the NR3C1 gene was performed by using PCR-HRM and PCR-RFLP techniques. TGF-β mRNA was assessed by real time RT-PCR. Tth111I SNP significantly (p = 0.0115) correlated with the TGF-β 1 mRNA expression level. The significance of AA and GG genotypes of Tth111I SNP in increasing and decreasing the level of the TGF-β 1

  8. GABA-A and NMDA receptor subunit mRNA expression is altered in the caudate but not the putamen of the postmortem brains of alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Bhandage, Amol K.; Jin, Zhe; Bazov, Igor; Kononenko, Olga; Bakalkin, Georgy; Korpi, Esa R.; Birnir, Bryndis

    2014-01-01

    Chronic consumption of alcohol by humans has been shown to lead to impairment of executive and cognitive functions. Here, we have studied the mRNA expression of ion channel receptors for glutamate and GABA in the dorsal striatum of post-mortem brains from alcoholics (n = 29) and normal controls (n = 29), with the focus on the caudate nucleus that is associated with the frontal cortex executive functions and automatic thinking and on the putamen area that is linked to motor cortices and automatic movements. The results obtained by qPCR assay revealed significant changes in the expression of specific excitatory ionotropic glutamate and inhibitory GABA-A receptor subunit genes in the caudate but not the putamen. Thus, in the caudate we found reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the GluN2A glutamate receptor and the δ, ε, and ρ2 GABA-A receptor subunits, and increased levels of the mRNAs encoding GluD1, GluD2, and GABA-A γ1 subunits in the alcoholics as compared to controls. Interestingly in the controls, 11 glutamate and 5 GABA-A receptor genes were more prominently expressed in the caudate than the putamen (fold-increase varied from 1.24 to 2.91). Differences in gene expression patterns between the striatal regions may underlie differences in associated behavioral outputs. Our results suggest an altered balance between caudate-mediated voluntarily controlled and automatic behaviors in alcoholics, including diminished executive control on goal-directed alcohol-seeking behavior. PMID:25538565

  9. Exposure to morphine-associated cues increases mu opioid receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Torry S; Beck, Kevin D; Cominski, Tara P; Bobzean, Samara A M; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V; Servatius, Richard J; Perrotti, Linda I

    2016-10-15

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability as it exhibits pronounced behavioral inhibition, passive avoidance, exaggerated startle response, enhanced HPA-axis activation, and active avoidance that is resistant to extinction. Accumulating evidence suggests that WKY rats respond differently to rewarding stimuli when compared to outbred strains of rat. Conditioned responding to drug-associated cues is linked with alterations in the activation of mu opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa opioid receptors (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, alterations in KOR expression/activation in the NAc of WKY rats are implicated in the regulation of some of the components that make up the unique behavioral phenotype of this strain. The purpose of this study was to extend upon previous work from our laboratory by investigating conditioned morphine reward in adult male WKY and SD rats, and to examine levels of KOR mRNA and MOR mRNA in the NAc at baseline and after acquisition of morphine CPP. Our results demonstrate that SD rats displayed morphine-induced CPP to each of the six doses of morphine tested (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10mg/kg). Interestingly, WKY rats demonstrated CPP for only the 1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg doses, yet no preference at the lowest (0.5mg/kg) or highest (7.5 and 10mg/kg) doses. qPCR analysis of MOR and KOR in the NAc revealed no strain differences in basal levels of MOR, but higher levels of KOR in WKY rats compared to those of SD rats. Interestingly, after completion of the CPP task, WKY rats had overall higher levels of NAc MOR mRNA compared to SD rats; the initial basal differences in NAc KOR levels persisted without change due to CPP in either strain. These results demonstrate that the WKY rat exhibits a unique pattern of behavioral responding to morphine and implicates differences in NAc KOR signaling as a potential source of aversion to higher doses of morphine. Additionally, the CPP-induced upregulation of

  10. Regulation of expression of ovarian mRNA encoding steroidogenic enzymes and gonadotrophin receptors by FSH and GH in hypogonadotrophic cattle.

    PubMed

    Garverick, H A; Baxter, G; Gong, J; Armstrong, D G; Campbell, B K; Gutierrez, C G; Webb, R

    2002-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of FSH and bovine somatotrophin on the expression of mRNA encoding the gonadotrophin receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in ovarian follicles of cattle rendered hypogonadotrophic by treatment with a GnRH agonist. Hereford x Friesian heifers were allotted into two pretreatment groups: controls (n = 10) and GnRH agonist-treated (n = 20). Ovaries of control cows were removed on day 2 of the first follicular wave after synchronized oestrus. GnRH agonist-treated heifers were given either FSH or no FSH. FSH was infused at 50 microg h(-1) for 48 h. Ovaries in GnRH agonist-treated heifers were removed at the end of exogenous hormone treatment. The control, GnRH agonist and GnRH agonist plus FSH treatment groups were divided further into bovine somatotrophin or no bovine somatotrophin treatments (n = 5 per treatment). Bovine somatotrophin (25 mg day(-1) by s.c. injection) was administered for 3 days. Ovaries were scanned once a day by ultrasonography. Blood samples for hormone measurements were collected three times a day from oestrus until the time of removal of ovaries. Expression of mRNAs for the FSH and LH receptors and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase (P450c17) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) enzymes was localized by in situ hybridization and quantified by image analysis. Ovarian follicular growth was arrested at < or = 4.5 mm in diameter in GnRH agonist-treated heifers. There was no effect of bovine somatotrophin on follicular dynamics, gonadotrophin secretion or expression of mRNA for either the gonadotrophin receptors or steroidogenic enzymes. Infusion of FSH to GnRH agonist-treated heifers increased FSH concentrations in serum to the physiological concentrations observed in controls and stimulated growth of follicles to a size similar (5.5-8.0 mm in diameter) to recruited follicles in control cows. FSH induced mRNA expression of P450scc and P450arom in

  11. Prolonged food deprivation increases mRNA expression of deiodinase 1 and 2, and thyroid hormone receptor β-1 in a fasting-adapted mammal

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G.; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A.; MacKenzie, Duncan S.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and deiodinase content and activity to suppress metabolism. However, in prolonged-fasted, metabolically active elephant seal pups, TH levels are maintained, if not elevated. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox is unknown and demonstrates variability in the regulation of TH levels, metabolism and function in food-deprived mammals. To address our hypothesis that cellular TH-mediated activity is upregulated with fasting duration, we quantified the mRNA expression and protein content of adipose and muscle deiodinase type I (DI1) and type II (DI2), and TH receptor beta-1 (THrβ-1) after 1, 3 and 7 weeks of fasting in northern elephant seal pups (N=5–7 per week). Fasting did not decrease the concentrations of plasma thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (tT3), free T3, total thyroxine (tT4) or free T4, suggesting that the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is not suppressed, but rather maintained during fasting. Mean mRNA expression of adipose DI1 and DI2 increased threefold and fourfold, respectively, and 20- and 30-fold, respectively, in muscle. With the exception of adipose DI1, protein expression of adipose DI2 and muscle DI1 and DI2 increased twofold to fourfold. Fasting also increased adipose (fivefold) and muscle (fourfold) THrβ-1 mRNA expression, suggesting that the mechanisms mediating cellular TH activity are upregulated with prolonged fasting. The data demonstrate a unique, atypical mechanism of TH activity and regulation in mammals adapted to prolonged food deprivation in which the potential responsiveness of peripheral tissues and cellular TH activity are increased, which may contribute to their lipid-based metabolism. PMID:24307712

  12. Prolonged food deprivation increases mRNA expression of deiodinase 1 and 2, and thyroid hormone receptor β-1 in a fasting-adapted mammal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-12-15

    Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and deiodinase content and activity to suppress metabolism. However, in prolonged-fasted, metabolically active elephant seal pups, TH levels are maintained, if not elevated. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox is unknown and demonstrates variability in the regulation of TH levels, metabolism and function in food-deprived mammals. To address our hypothesis that cellular TH-mediated activity is upregulated with fasting duration, we quantified the mRNA expression and protein content of adipose and muscle deiodinase type I (DI1) and type II (DI2), and TH receptor beta-1 (THrβ-1) after 1, 3 and 7 weeks of fasting in northern elephant seal pups (N=5-7 per week). Fasting did not decrease the concentrations of plasma thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (tT3), free T3, total thyroxine (tT4) or free T4, suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is not suppressed, but rather maintained during fasting. Mean mRNA expression of adipose DI1 and DI2 increased threefold and fourfold, respectively, and 20- and 30-fold, respectively, in muscle. With the exception of adipose DI1, protein expression of adipose DI2 and muscle DI1 and DI2 increased twofold to fourfold. Fasting also increased adipose (fivefold) and muscle (fourfold) THrβ-1 mRNA expression, suggesting that the mechanisms mediating cellular TH activity are upregulated with prolonged fasting. The data demonstrate a unique, atypical mechanism of TH activity and regulation in mammals adapted to prolonged food deprivation in which the potential responsiveness of peripheral tissues and cellular TH activity are increased, which may contribute to their lipid-based metabolism. PMID:24307712

  13. Food intake inhibition in rainbow trout induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Mancebo, María J; Soengas, José L; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    In rainbow trout, the food intake inhibition induced by serotonin occurs through 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors, though the mechanisms involved are still unknown. Therefore, we assessed if a direct stimulation of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors (resulting in decreased food intake in rainbow trout), affects gene expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake, such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP). In a first set of experiments, the injection of the 5-HT2C receptor agonists MK212 (60 μg kg(-1) icv) and WAY 161503 (1 mg kg(-1) ip), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg kg(-1) ip and 30 μg kg(-1) icv) induced food intake inhibition. In a second set of experiments, we observed that the injection of MK212 or WAY 161503 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased hypothalamic POMC mRNA abundance. CART mRNA abundance in hypothalamus was enhanced by treatment with MK212 and unaffected by WAY 161503. The administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not induce any significant variation in the hypothalamic POMC or CART mRNA levels. CRF mRNA abundance was only affected by MK212 that increased hypothalamic values. Finally, hypothalamic AgRP mRNA abundance was only evaluated with the agonist 5-HT2C MK212 resulting in no significant effects. The results show that the reduction in food intake mediated by 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in hypothalamic POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance. PMID:26832922

  14. Pattern-Recognition Receptor Signaling Regulator mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice, and in Transient Inflammation or Progressive Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Günthner, Roman; Kumar, Vankayala Ramaiah Santhosh; Lorenz, Georg; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Lech, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The cell type-, organ-, and species-specific expression of the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are well described but little is known about the respective expression profiles of their negative regulators. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of A20, CYLD, DUBA, ST2, CD180, SIGIRR, TANK, SOCS1, SOCS3, SHIP, IRAK-M, DOK1, DOK2, SHP1, SHP2, TOLLIP, IRF4, SIKE, NLRX1, ERBIN, CENTB1, and Clec4a2 in human and mouse solid organs. Humans and mice displayed significant differences between their respective mRNA expression patterns of these factors. Additionally, we characterized their expression profiles in mononuclear blood cells upon bacterial endotoxin, which showed a consistent induction of A20, SOCS3, IRAK-M, and Clec4a2 in human and murine cells. Furthermore, we studied the expression pattern in transient kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury versus post-ischemic atrophy and fibrosis in mice. A20, CD180, ST2, SOCS1, SOCS3, SHIP, IRAK-M, DOK1, DOK2, IRF4, CENTB1, and Clec4a2 were all induced, albeit at different times of injury and repair. Progressive fibrosis was associated with a persistent induction of these factors. Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression patterns need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies related to PRR-mediated innate immunity, which seems to be involved in tissue injury, tissue regeneration and in progressive tissue scarring. PMID:24009023

  15. Toll-Like Receptor and Accessory Molecule mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice as Well as in Murine Autoimmunity, Transient Inflammation, and Progressive Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiah, Santhosh Kumar Vankayala; Günthner, Roman; Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The cell type-, organ-, and species-specific expression of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well described, but little is known about the respective expression profiles of their accessory molecules. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of LBP, MD2, CD36, CD14, granulin, HMGB1, LL37, GRP94, UNC93b1, TRIL, PRAT4A, AP3B1, AEP and the respective TLRs in human and mouse solid organs. Humans and mice displayed significant differences between their respective mRNA expression patterns of these factors. In addition, the expression profiles in transient tissue inflammation upon renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, in spleens and kidneys from mice with lupus-like systemic autoimmunity, and in progressive tissue fibrosis upon unilateral ureteral obstruction were studied. Several TLR co-factors were specifically regulated during the different phases of these disease entities, suggesting a functional involvement in the disease process. Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression patterns need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies related to TLR-mediated innate immunity, which seems to be involved in the tissue injury phase, in the phase of tissue regeneration, and in progressive tissue remodelling. PMID:23803655

  16. Second-Generation HSP90 Inhibitor Onalespib Blocks mRNA Splicing of Androgen Receptor Variant 7 in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Welti, Jonathan; Powers, Marissa V; Yuan, Wei; Smyth, Tomoko; Seed, George; Riisnaes, Ruth; Hedayat, Somaieh; Wang, Hannah; Crespo, Mateus; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Figueiredo, Ines; Miranda, Susana; Carreira, Suzanne; Lyons, John F; Sharp, Swee; Plymate, Stephen R; Attard, Gerhardt; Wallis, Nicola; Workman, Paul; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-05-01

    Resistance to available hormone therapies in prostate cancer has been associated with alternative splicing of androgen receptor (AR) and specifically, the expression of truncated and constitutively active AR variant 7 (AR-V7). The transcriptional activity of steroid receptors, including AR, is dependent on interactions with the HSP90 chaperone machinery, but it is unclear whether HSP90 modulates the activity or expression of AR variants. Here, we investigated the effects of HSP90 inhibition on AR-V7 in prostate cancer cell lines endogenously expressing this variant. We demonstrate that AR-V7 and full-length AR (AR-FL) were depleted upon inhibition of HSP90. However, the mechanisms underlying AR-V7 depletion differed from those for AR-FL. Whereas HSP90 inhibition destabilized AR-FL and induced its proteasomal degradation, AR-V7 protein exhibited higher stability than AR-FL and did not require HSP90 chaperone activity. Instead, HSP90 inhibition resulted in the reduction of AR-V7 mRNA levels but did not affect total AR transcript levels, indicating that HSP90 inhibition disrupted AR-V7 splicing. Bioinformatic analyses of transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing data confirmed that the second-generation HSP90 inhibitor onalespib altered the splicing of at least 557 genes in prostate cancer cells, including AR. These findings indicate that the effects of HSP90 inhibition on mRNA splicing may prove beneficial in prostate cancers expressing AR-V7, supporting further clinical investigation of HSP90 inhibitors in malignancies no longer responsive to androgen deprivation. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2731-42. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197266

  17. Up-regulation of serotonin receptor 2B mRNA and protein in the peri-infarcted area of aged rats and stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Buga, Ana-Maria; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Bădescu, George Mihai; Bogdan, Catalin; Weston, Ria; Slevin, Mark; Di Napoli, Mario; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that a high proportion of elderly stroke patients develop mood disorders, the mechanisms underlying late-onset neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms have so far received little attention in the field of neurobiology. In rodents, aged animals display depressive symptoms following stroke, whereas young animals recover fairly well. This finding has prompted us to investigate the expression of serotonin receptors 2A and 2B, which are directly linked to depression, in the brains of aged and young rats following stroke. Although the development of the infarct was more rapid in aged rats in the first 3 days after stroke, by day 14 the cortical infarcts were similar in size in both age groups i.e. 45% of total cortical volume in young rats and 55.7% in aged rats. We also found that the expression of serotonin receptor type B mRNA was markedly increased in the perilesional area of aged rats as compared to the younger counterparts. Furthermore, histologically, HTR2B protein expression in degenerating neurons was closely associated with activated microglia both in aged rats and human subjects. Treatment with fluoxetine attenuated the expression of Htr2B mRNA, stimulated post-stroke neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and was associated with an improved anhedonic behavior and an increased activity in the forced swim test in aged animals. We hypothesize that HTR2B expression in the infarcted territory may render degenerating neurons susceptible to attack by activated microglia and thus aggravate the consequences of stroke. PMID:27013593

  18. Up-regulation of serotonin receptor 2B mRNA and protein in the peri-infarcted area of aged rats and stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Bădescu, George Mihai; Bogdan, Catalin; Weston, Ria; Slevin, Mark; Di Napoli, Mario; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that a high proportion of elderly stroke patients develop mood disorders, the mechanisms underlying late-onset neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms have so far received little attention in the field of neurobiology. In rodents, aged animals display depressive symptoms following stroke, whereas young animals recover fairly well. This finding has prompted us to investigate the expression of serotonin receptors 2A and 2B, which are directly linked to depression, in the brains of aged and young rats following stroke. Although the development of the infarct was more rapid in aged rats in the first 3 days after stroke, by day 14 the cortical infarcts were similar in size in both age groups i.e. 45% of total cortical volume in young rats and 55.7% in aged rats. We also found that the expression of serotonin receptor type B mRNA was markedly increased in the perilesional area of aged rats as compared to the younger counterparts. Furthermore, histologically, HTR2B protein expression in degenerating neurons was closely associated with activated microglia both in aged rats and human subjects. Treatment with fluoxetine attenuated the expression of Htr2B mRNA, stimulated post-stroke neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and was associated with an improved anhedonic behavior and an increased activity in the forced swim test in aged animals. We hypothesize that HTR2B expression in the infarcted territory may render degenerating neurons susceptible to attack by activated microglia and thus aggravate the consequences of stroke. PMID:27013593

  19. Acute phase cytokines, TAC1, and toll-like receptor4 mRNA expression and health associated with group size in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, E M; Karousa, M M; Schutz, M M; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2015-04-15

    Chronic stressors are a major health and well-being issue in animals. Immune status of animals under chronic stress is compromised, thus reducing disease resistance and compromising well-being of the animal. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of group size of veal calves on immune status and leukocyte mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tachykinin 1 (TAC1) over a five-month finishing period. Holstein bull calves (n=168), 44±3 days of age were assigned to one of three treatments; 2, 4, or 8 calves/pen (pen space allowance of 1.82m(2)/calf). Jugular blood samples were collected at the day of grouping and then monthly for 4 months. The differential leukocyte counts were determined and mRNA was extracted from the leukocytes. Reverse transcription-qPCR was used to measure the gene expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1β), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), TLR4, and TAC1 in leukocytes. Health was evaluated before grouping and monthly for 4 months. On the 1st month after grouping, veal calves that were housed in groups of 8 have greater expression of IL-1β mRNA than calves housed in groups of 4 or 2 (treatment×month, P=0.04). Also at 1 month, groups of 8 had greater TAC1 expression (P<0.05) than calves housed in groups of 4 or 2. However, the expression of IL-1Ra, TNF-α, and TLR4 were not influenced by group size. In the first month of the trial, calves in groups of 8 coughed more (P<0.05) than calves in groups of 2 and coughed more than calves in groups of 4 and 2 during the 2nd month (treatment×month, P=0.03). Calves housed in groups of 8 tended to have greater neutrophil percentage (P=0.09), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (P=0.06), and had lower lymphocyte percentage (P=0.06) than those housed in groups of 4 or 2. In conclusion, the number of veal calves in a group, given the same space during the finishing period did not alter IL-1Ra, TNF-α, and TLR4 mRNA expression

  20. Mapping of Kisspeptin Receptor mRNA in the Whole Rat Brain and its Co-Localisation with Oxytocin in the Paraventricular Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Higo, S; Honda, S; Iijima, N; Ozawa, H

    2016-04-01

    The neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor play an essential role in reproduction as a potent modulator of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone. In addition to its reproductive function, kisspeptin signalling is also involved in extra-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis systems, including oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. By contrast to the accumulating information for kisspeptin neurones and kisspeptin fibres, the histological distribution and function of the kisspeptin receptor in the rat brain remain poorly characterised. Using in situ hybridisation combined with immunofluorescence, the present study aimed to determine the whole brain map of Kiss1r mRNA (encoding the kisspeptin receptor), and to examine whether oxytocin or AVP neurones express Kiss1r. Neurones with strong Kiss1r expression were observed in several rostral brain areas, including the olfactory bulb, medial septum, diagonal band of Broca and throughout the preoptic area, with the most concentrated population being around 0.5 mm rostral to the bregma. Co-immunofluorescence staining revealed that, in these rostral brain areas, the vast majority of the Kiss1r-expressing neurones co-expressed GnRH. Moderate levels of Kiss1r mRNA were also noted in the rostral periventricular area, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and throughout the arcuate nucleus. Relatively weak Kiss1r expression was observed in the supraoptic nucleus and supramammillary nuclei. Moderate to weak expression of Kiss1r was also observed in several regions in the midbrain, including the periaqueductal gray and dorsal raphe nucleus. We also examined whether oxytocin and AVP neurones in the PVN co-express Kiss1r. Immunofluorescence revealed the co-expression of Kiss1r in a subset of the oxytocin neurones but not in the AVP neurones in the PVN. The present study provides a fundamental anatomical basis for further examination of the kisspeptin signalling system in the extra-HPG axis, as well as in

  1. Identification of mRNA splicing factors as the endothelial receptor for carbohydrate-dependent lung colonization of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Shingo; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Jun; Akama, Tomoya O.; Wong, Shuk-Man Annie; Kawashima, Hiroto; Zhang, Jianing; Smith, David F.; Ohyama, Chikara; Fukuda, Minoru; Fukuda, Michiko N.

    2009-01-01

    Cell surfaces of epithelial cancer are covered by complex carbohydrates, whose structures function in malignancy and metastasis. However, the mechanism underlying carbohydrate-dependent cancer metastasis has not been defined. Previously, we identified a carbohydrate-mimicry peptide designated I-peptide, which inhibits carbohydrate-dependent lung colonization of sialyl Lewis X-expressing B16-FTIII-M cells in E/P-selectin doubly-deficient mice. We hypothesized that lung endothelial cells express an unknown carbohydrate receptor, designated as I-peptide receptor (IPR), responsible for lung colonization of B16-FTIII-M cells. Here, we visualized IPR by in vivo biotinylation, which revealed that the major IPR is a group of 35-kDa proteins. IPR proteins isolated by I-peptide affinity chromatography were identified by proteomics as Ser/Arg-rich alternative pre-mRNA splicing factors or Sfrs1, Sfrs2, Sfrs5, and Sfrs7 gene products. Bacterially expressed Sfrs1 protein bound to B16-FTIII-M cells but not to parental B16 cells. Recombinant Sfrs1 protein bound to a series of fucosylated oligosaccharides in glycan array and plate-binding assays. When anti-Sfrs antibodies were injected intravenously into mice, antibodies labeled a subset of lung capillaries. Anti-Sfrs antibodies inhibited homing of I-peptide-displaying phage to the lung colonization of B16-FTIII-M cells in vivo in the mouse. These results strongly suggest that Sfrs proteins are responsible for fucosylated carbohydrate-dependent lung metastasis of epithelial cancers. PMID:19218444

  2. Sexual maturation, serum steroid concentrations, and mRNA expression of IGF-1, luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors and survivin gene in Japanese quail hens.

    PubMed

    Shit, N; Sastry, K V H; Singh, R P; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2014-03-15

    In avian species, sexual maturation represents the evidence of start laying, which is a consequence of the development of ovarian follicles. These follicles are the functional reproductive unit whose maturation and viability critically depends on endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors beyond the signals from the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of sexual maturity with tissue growth, mRNA expression of certain genes, and serum steroid concentrations in Japanese quail hens. To carry out the present study, a total of forty Japanese quail hens (5 weeks) were housed individually under uniform husbandry condition with ad libitum quail layer ration and water at 14-hour photo schedule. On sixth week onwards, four birds were sacrificed at each time on 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 days. Serum was extracted aseptically to analyze the gonadal steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and corticosterone to investigate the liaison with sexual maturation of the species. Expression analyses of four genes i.e., insulin-like growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, and survivin were carried out in the three largest ovarian yellow follicles. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight gain and oviduct weight was recorded during the phase of sexual maturation. Smaller follicles revealed higher insulin-like growth factor-1 and survivin gene expression, whereas the reverse result was manifested in both the luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors. In biochemical study, the gonadal steroids (estrogen and progesterone) were recorded higher at the first half of the experiment when a gradual decrease in corticosterone concentration was confirmed from the very beginning of this study. This result substantiated that sexual maturation in Japanese quail may be completed by the time of 8 weeks after its birth in support of the analyzed information studied in the current investigation

  3. Quantitative characterization of regional differences in the GABAA-receptor alpha1-subunit mRNA expression in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pávai, Z; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Orbán-Kis, K; Szilágyi, T

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition in the central nervous system is largely mediated by local-circuit neurons that release GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid). GABAA-receptors play a major role in virtually all brain physiological functions and serve as targets for numerous classes of drugs, used both in clinical practice and as research tools. These receptors are heteropentamers, alpha1 being the most widely occurring subunit; therefore it is the best candidate to be studied in pathological conditions where the inhibitory system might be altered (e.g. epilepsy). We compared quantitatively the regional distribution of GABAA-receptor alpha1-subunit (GABAAR-alpha1) expression in three brain areas: neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum by RT-qPCR. TaqMan probe was used in order to avoid detection of non-specific amplification products and synaptophysin as internal control. This substance was chosen because it has a stable expression restricted to neurons, and contrary to GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene for expression analysis, synaptophysin expression is not modified in animal models of epilepsy. Expression of synaptophysin was higher than expression of GABAAR-alpha1 in all samples from the central nervous system. The latter was significantly different among the studied brain areas. It was the smallest in the hippocampus, intermediate in the neocortex and the highest in the cerebellum. Interanimal differences were small for any brain region under study. These results indicate that combination of TaqMan real-time PCR method with synaptophysin as internal control can reliably measure the relative expression of GABAAR-alpha1 mRNA, and are suitable for investigating the modifications that appear under pathological conditions and/or diverse experimental paradigms. PMID:20191118

  4. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression of the ryanodine receptor from the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Troczka, B J; Williams, A J; Bass, C; Williamson, M S; Field, L M; Davies, T G E

    2015-02-10

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most important agricultural pests of temperate climates. It is mainly controlled through the judicious application of insecticides; however, over time, aphids have developed resistance to many insecticidal classes. The recent introduction of synthetic diamide insecticides, with a novel mode of action, potentially offers new tools to control aphid populations. These diamides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a large endoplasmic calcium release channel. In this study we have cloned cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame of the RyR from M. persicae. The open reading frame is 15,306 base pairs long and encodes a protein of 5101 amino acids. The aphid RyR shares many of the features of other insect and vertebrate RyRs, including a highly conserved transmembrane region. However, unlike the other RyRs characterised to date, the M. persicae channel does not display alternative splicing at any stage of its developmental cycle, so it cannot generate functional variants of the channel. PMID:25447916

  5. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression of the ryanodine receptor from the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Troczka, B.J.; Williams, A.J.; Bass, C.; Williamson, M.S.; Field, L.M.; Davies, T.G.E.

    2015-01-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most important agricultural pests of temperate climates. It is mainly controlled through the judicious application of insecticides; however, over time, aphids have developed resistance to many insecticidal classes. The recent introduction of synthetic diamide insecticides, with a novel mode of action, potentially offers new tools to control aphid populations. These diamides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a large endoplasmic calcium release channel. In this study we have cloned cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame of the RyR from M. persicae. The open reading frame is 15,306 base pairs long and encodes a protein of 5101 amino acids. The aphid RyR shares many of the features of other insect and vertebrate RyRs, including a highly conserved transmembrane region. However, unlike the other RyRs characterised to date, the M. persicae channel does not display alternative splicing at any stage of its developmental cycle, so it cannot generate functional variants of the channel. PMID:25447916

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Mediates Proliferation, Survival, NF-κB Translocation, and Cytokine mRNA Expression in LIF-Maintained Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tammi; Kim, Young-June; Ou, Xuan; Derbigny, Wilbert

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation is important in immune responses and in differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. We detected mRNA expression of TLRs 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6, but not TLRs 4, 7, 8, and 9 in murine (m)ESC line E14, and noted high cell surface protein expression of TLR2, but not TLR4, for mESC lines R1, CGR8, and E14. ESC lines were cultured in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pam3Cys enhanced proliferation and survival of the 3 ESC lines. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased proliferation and survival. Pam3Cys and LPS effects on proliferation and survival were blocked by antibody to TLR2, suggesting that effects of both Pam3Cys and LPS on these mESC lines were likely mediated through TLR2. E14 ESC line expressed MyD88. Pam3Cys stimulation of E14 ESCs was associated with induced NF-κB translocation, enhanced phosphorylation of IKK-α/β, and enhanced mRNA, but not protein, expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and IL-6. TLR2 activation by Pam3Cys or inhibition by LPS was not associated with changes in morphology or expression of alkaline phosphatase, Oct4, SSEA1, KLF4, or Sox2, markers of undifferentiated mESCs. Our studies identify TLR2 as present and functional in E14, R1, and CGR8 mESC lines. PMID:20132051

  7. Liver X Receptor (LXR) in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular characterization, mRNA tissue expression and transcriptional regulation by insulin in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ya-Xiong; Luo, Zhi; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei; Wu, Kun; Shi, Xi; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2016-01-01

    Liver X Receptor (LXR) plays a pivotal role in metabolic regulation in mammals, but little is known about its function in fish. In this study, two lxra isoforms, namely lxra1 and lxra2, were isolated. Their molecular characterization, tissues distribution and transcriptional regulation by insulin in vivo and in vitro were determined. lxrα1 and lxrα2 cDNA covered 2775bp and 3093bp, encoding 446 and 515 amino acid residues, respectively. The protein sequence of yellow catfish lxra included characteristic feature of mammalian lxrs, including the DNA binding (DBD) (containing P-box), ligand binding (LBD) and activation function-2 (AF-2) domains, D-box, and D (hinge) region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that yellow catfish lxra grouped with lxra of zebrafish but was distant from those of medaka and stickleback. lxrβ clades was absent in teleosts in phylogenetic tree, proving gene loss of lxrβ in teleosts during evolution. The two lxra isoforms (lxra1 and lxra2) mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in 11 tested tissues. Compared to lxra2, lxra1 mRNA expression was predominant in all tested tissues. The expression of lxrα1 was the highest in testis, then in liver, and the lowest in other tissues. lxrα2 expression was the highest in liver, then in testis, and the lowest in ovary. Insulin significantly stimulated the mRNA expression of lxra1 in vitro and in vivo, while the expression of lxra2 remained unchanged after insulin treatment. The present study serves to increase our understanding into the function of lxra in fish. PMID:26342960

  8. Noise stress changes mRNA expressions of corticotropin-releasing hormone, its receptors in amygdala, and anxiety-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eraslan, Evren; Akyazi, Ibrahim; Ergül-Ekiz, Elif; Matur, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    Noise is a psychological, environmental stressor that activates limbic sites in the brain. Limbic sites such as the amygdala and the amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system play an important role in integrating stress response. We investigated the association between noise exposures, CRH-related molecules in the amygdala, and behavioral alterations. In total 54 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following three groups: Control (CON), acute noise exposure (ANE), and chronic noise exposure (CNE). The ANE group was exposed to 100 dB white noise only once in 4 h and the CNE group was exposed to the same for 4 h per day for 30 days. Expression profiles of CRH and its receptors CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The same stress procedure was applied to the ANE and CNE groups for behavior testing. The anxiety responses of the animals after acute and chronic stress exposure were measured in the defensive withdrawal test. CNE upregulated CRH and CRH-R1 mRNA levels but downregulated CRH-R2 mRNA levels. ANE led to a decrease in both CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 expression. In the defensive withdrawal test, while the ANE increased, CNE reduced anxiety-like behaviors. The present study shows that the exposure of rats to white noise (100 dB) leads to behavioral alterations and molecule-specific changes in the CRH system. Behavioral alterations can be related to these molecular changes in the amygdala. PMID:25913553

  9. Molecular Characterization, mRNA Expression and Alternative Splicing of Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shang, Feng; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a critical role in regulating the release of intracellular calcium, which enables them to be effectively targeted by the two novel classes of insecticides, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. However, less information is available about this target site in insects, although the sequence and structure information of target molecules are essential for designing new control agents of high selectivity and efficiency, as well as low non-target toxicity. Here, we provided sufficient information about the coding sequence and molecular structures of RyR in T. citricida (TciRyR), an economically important pest. The full-length TciRyR cDNA was characterized with an open reading frame of 15,306 nucleotides, encoding 5101 amino acid residues. TciRyR was predicted to embrace all the hallmarks of ryanodine receptor, typically as the conserved C-terminal domain with consensus calcium-biding EF-hands (calcium-binding motif) and six transmembrane domains, as well as a large N-terminal domain. qPCR analysis revealed that the highest mRNA expression levels of TciRyR were observed in the adults, especially in the heads. Alternative splicing in TciRyR was evidenced by an alternatively spliced exon, resulting from intron retention, which was different from the case of RyR in Myzus persicae characterized with no alternative splicing events. Diagnostic PCR analysis indicated that the splicing of this exon was not only regulated in a body-specific manner but also in a stage-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide useful information for new insecticide design and further insights into the molecular basis of insecticide action. PMID:26154764

  10. Molecular Characterization, mRNA Expression and Alternative Splicing of Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shang, Feng; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a critical role in regulating the release of intracellular calcium, which enables them to be effectively targeted by the two novel classes of insecticides, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. However, less information is available about this target site in insects, although the sequence and structure information of target molecules are essential for designing new control agents of high selectivity and efficiency, as well as low non-target toxicity. Here, we provided sufficient information about the coding sequence and molecular structures of RyR in T. citricida (TciRyR), an economically important pest. The full-length TciRyR cDNA was characterized with an open reading frame of 15,306 nucleotides, encoding 5101 amino acid residues. TciRyR was predicted to embrace all the hallmarks of ryanodine receptor, typically as the conserved C-terminal domain with consensus calcium-biding EF-hands (calcium-binding motif) and six transmembrane domains, as well as a large N-terminal domain. qPCR analysis revealed that the highest mRNA expression levels of TciRyR were observed in the adults, especially in the heads. Alternative splicing in TciRyR was evidenced by an alternatively spliced exon, resulting from intron retention, which was different from the case of RyR in Myzus persicae characterized with no alternative splicing events. Diagnostic PCR analysis indicated that the splicing of this exon was not only regulated in a body-specific manner but also in a stage-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide useful information for new insecticide design and further insights into the molecular basis of insecticide action. PMID:26154764

  11. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis: molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the female reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhu, Xue; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a central role in vertebrate reproduction, with the actions of FSH mediated by FSH receptors (FSHRs) on the granulosa cells of the ovary. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of FSHR in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis (caFSHR), and its tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the reproductive cycle. The mature protein of caFSHR displays typical features of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family, but also contains some remarkable differences when compared with other vertebrate FSHRs. The deduced amino acid sequence of the caFSHR shares identity of 85% with Chinese softshell turtle, 84-87% with birds, 77-78% with mammals, 67-73% with amphibians and 51-58% with fishes. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the FSHR amino acid sequence indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Tissue expression analysis showed that caFSHR was not only expressed in the ovary, but also in the stomach, intestine, pancreas liver and oviduct at similar levels, while it was not detectable in heart, thymus or thyroid. Expression of caFSHR in the ovary is high in May (breeding prophase) and peaks in July during the breeding period, where it is maintained at high levels through September (breeding anaphase). Expression decreases significantly in November (hibernating period) and then remains relatively low from January to March (hibernating period). These temporal changes in FSHR expression suggest that it plays an important role in promoting ovarian development during the female reproductive cycle of Chinese alligator. PMID:25765682

  12. Unexpected effects of voluntary exercise training on natriuretic peptide and receptor mRNA expression in the ob/ob mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Tom L; Wang, Donghao; Jankowski, Marek; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2014-01-10

    Regular exercise is generally recommended for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Exercise reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and cardiovascular (CV) function. This study was designed to determine the impact of voluntary wheel running on the cardiac oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system and plasma CV risk factors in the ob/ob mouse, a model of insulin resistance coupled with severe obesity. Five-week-old male ob/ob mice and non-obese heterozygote control littermates were assigned to either a sedentary or running group. Voluntary running was performed using a wheel system for a period of 8 weeks. Compared to non-obese mice, daily running activity expressed in kilometers, was significantly lower in ob/ob mice. In these mice, voluntary running improved body weight, but exacerbated CV markers, including plasma glucose and triglyceride levels. OT receptor gene expression was decreased in hearts of ob/ob mice compared to non-obese mice, and no improvement in the expression of this receptor was observed after voluntary running. Hearts from ob/ob mice also expressed lower BNP mRNA, whereas no differences in A- and C-type NP were observed between non-obese and ob/ob mice. After voluntary running, a downregulation in the expression of all three NPs coupled with increased apoptosis was observed in ob/ob hearts. Our results show that voluntary exercise running activity was decreased in the ob/ob mouse. Surprisingly, this was associated with a worsening of common CV plasma markers, reduced expression of peptides linked to the cardioprotective OT-NP system, and increased expression of cardiac apoptotic markers. PMID:24365091

  13. Changes in social instigation- and food restriction-induced aggressive behaviors and hippocampal 5HT1B mRNA receptor expression in male mice from early weaning.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kayo; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2008-03-01

    The time of weaning has numerous effects on neurobehavioral development. Previous findings suggest that the early weaning influences development of aggressive behaviors. Behavioral and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stressors in the adulthood are also influenced by maternal care received early in life, and early-weaned male mice and rats show higher responsiveness to acute stresses than do normally weaned males. Therefore, it is conceivable that early weaning influences stress-related aggressive behaviors. We investigated the effects of early weaning on aggressive behaviors under two stress conditions: social stress (social instigation) and ecological stress (food restriction), both of which augment aggression. Male ICR mice were divided into two groups based on weaning period. Normally weaned mice (weaned PD21) showed twice the baseline level of attack bites after 5 min of social instigation, whereas early-weaned animals (weaned PD14) were not more aggressive following social instigation. However, the early-weaned mice were more aggressive after food restriction stress than were the normally weaned mice, suggesting lower threshold for aggressive behavior after food shortage. We also measured 5HT1A and 5HT1B receptor mRNA expression in the hippocampus which involved in aggression using real-time PCR. Early-weaned mice had lower 5HT1B expression levels than did normally weaned mice; no effect was found for 5HT1A expression. These results suggest that manipulation of weaning time modulates adult aggressive behavior depending on the stressors imposed and that this change may involve the 5HT1B receptor system in the hippocampus. PMID:18022705

  14. Genetically-induced Estrogen Receptor Alpha mRNA (Esr1) Overexpression Does Not Adversely Affect Fertility or Penile Development in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heath, John; Abdelmageed, Yazeed; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Paulose, Tessie; Hernandez-Ochoa, Isabel; Gupta, Rupesh; Flaws, Jodi A.; Goyal, Hari O.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that estrogen receptor alpha mRNA (Esr1) or protein (ESR1) overexpression resulting from neonatal exposure to estrogens in rats was associated with infertility and mal-developed penis characterized by reduced length and weight and abnormal accumulation of fat cells. The objective of this study was to determine if mutant male mice overexpressing Esr1 are naturally infertile or have reduced fertility and/or develop abnormal penis. The fertility parameters, including fertility and fecundity indices, numbers of days from the day of cohabitation to the day of delivery, and numbers of pups per female, were not altered from controls, as a result of Esr1 overexpression. Likewise, penile morphology, including the length, weight, and diameter and os penis development, was not altered from controls. Conversely, weights of the seminal vesicles and bulbospongiosus and levator ani (BS/LA) muscles were significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to controls; however, the weight of the testis, the morphology of the testis and epididymis, and the plasma and testicular testosterone concentration were not different from controls. Hence, the genetically-induced Esr1 overexpression alone, without an exogenous estrogen exposure during the neonatal period, is unable to adversely affect the development of the penis as well as other male reproductive organs, except limited, but significant, reductions in weights of the seminal vesicles and BS/LA muscles. PMID:20930192

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ controls ingestive behavior, agouti-related protein, and neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Garretson, John T; Teubner, Brett J W; Grove, Kevin L; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-03-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. PMID:25788674

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Controls Ingestive Behavior, Agouti-Related Protein, and Neuropeptide Y mRNA in the Arcuate Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Garretson, John T.; Teubner, Brett J.W.; Grove, Kevin L.; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. PMID:25788674

  17. D-4F reduces EO6 immunoreactivity, SREBP-1c mRNA levels, and renal inflammation in LDL receptor-null mice fed a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Buga, Georgette M; Frank, Joy S; Mottino, Giuliano A; Hakhamian, Ashkan; Narasimha, Ajay; Watson, Andrew D; Yekta, Babak; Navab, Mohamad; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Anantharamaiah, G M; Fogelman, Alan M

    2008-01-01

    LDL receptor-null (LDLR(-/-)) mice on a Western diet (WD) develop endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which are improved by the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide D-4F. Focusing on the kidney, LDLR(-/-)mice were fed a WD with D-4F or the inactive control peptide scrambled D-4F (ScD-4F) added to their drinking water. The control mice (ScD-4F) developed glomerular changes, increased immunostaining for MCP-1/CCL2 chemokine, increased macrophage CD68 and F4/80 antigens, and increased oxidized phospholipids recognized by the EO6 monoclonal antibody in both glomerular and tublo-interstitial areas. All of these parameters were significantly reduced by D-4F treatment, approaching levels found in wild-type C57BL/6J or LDLR(-/-) mice fed a chow diet. Sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA levels and triglyceride levels were elevated in the kidneys of the control mice (ScD-4F) fed the WD compared with C57BL/6J and LDLR(-/-) mice on chow (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) and compared with D-4F-treated mice on the WD (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in plasma lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, blood pressure, or renal apoB levels between D-4F- and ScD-4F-treated mice. We conclude that D-4F reduced renal oxidized phospholipids, resulting in lower expression of SREBP-1c, which, in turn, resulted in lower triglyceride content and reduced renal inflammation. PMID:17925450

  18. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3…

  19. Differential expression of dopamine D2 and D4 receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in mice prone, or resistant, to chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-Feng; Yu, Yinghua; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Han, Mei; Storlien, Len

    2005-04-27

    The present study examined brain dopamine D2 and D4 receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression in chronic high-fat diet-induced obese (cDIO) and obese-resistant (cDR) mice. Twenty-eight mice were fed a high-fat diet (HF: 40% of calories from fat) for 6 weeks and then classified as cDIO (n = 8) or cDR (n = 8) mice according to the highest and lowest body weight gainers, respectively. Seven mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF: 10% of calories from fat) and used as controls. After 20 weeks of feeding, visceral fat per gram of initial body weight was significantly higher in the cDIO group (ratio: 0.25, 0.09, and 0.04; P < 0.01 cDIO vs. cDR and LF, respectively). Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, the levels of D2 and D4 receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNAs were measured in multiple brain sections. The cDIO mice had a significantly higher level of D2 receptor mRNA expression in the core of the nucleus accumbens (AcbC, +16%) and ventral parts of caudate putamen (CPu, 21% and 24%) compared to the cDR and LF mice. The levels of D2 receptor mRNA expression in the AcbC and ventromedial part of the CPu were positively related to the final body weight. This study is the first to systematically examine the D4 mRNA expression in the mouse brain using in situ hybridization method. D4 receptor mRNA expression in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and the ventral part of the lateral septal nucleus were also significantly higher in the cDIO mice compared to the cDR and LF mice (+31% and +60%; P < 0.05). TH mRNA expression was significantly higher in the ventral tegmental area (+17%, P receptor and TH mRNA expression in specific brain regions of cDIO and cDR mice. It provides evidence that D4 receptors may play an important role influencing satiety via the

  20. 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA modulation by antidepressant treatment in the chronic mild stress model of depression: sex differences exposed.

    PubMed

    Pitychoutis, P M; Dalla, C; Sideris, A C; Tsonis, P A; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z

    2012-05-17

    It is well established that women experience major depression at roughly twice the rate of men. Interestingly, accumulating clinical and experimental evidence shows that the responsiveness of males and females to antidepressant pharmacotherapy, and particularly to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), is sex-differentiated. Herein, we investigated whether exposure of male and female rats to the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, as well as treatment with the TCA clomipramine may affect serotonergic receptors' (5-HTRs) mRNA expression in a sex-dependent manner. Male and female rats were subjected to CMS for 4 weeks and during the next 4 weeks they concurrently received clomipramine treatment (10 mg/ml/kg). CMS and clomipramine's effects on 5-HT(1A)R, 5-HT(2A)R, and 5-HT(2C)R mRNA expression were assessed by in situ hybridization histochemistry in selected subfields of the hippocampus and in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), two regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. CMS and clomipramine treatment induced sex-differentiated effects on rats' hedonic status and enhanced 5-HT(1A)R mRNA expression in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampal region of male rats. Additionally, CMS attenuated 5-HT(1A)R mRNA expression in the OFC of male rats and clomipramine reversed this effect. Moreover, 5-HT(2A)R mRNA levels in the OFC were enhanced in females but decreased in males, while clomipramine reversed this effect only in females. CMS increased 5-HT2CR mRNA expression in the CA4 region of both sexes and this effect was attenuated by clomipramine. Present data exposed that both CMS and clomipramine treatment may induce sex-differentiated and region-distinctive effects on 5-HTRs mRNA expression and further implicate the serotonergic system in the manifestation of sexually dimorphic neurobehavioral responses to stress. PMID:22441040

  1. Improvement in verbal memory following SSRI augmentation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with changes in the expression of mRNA encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in PMC of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Mandiuk, Nina; Einoch, Reef; Susser, Ehud; Danovich, Lena; Bilker, Warren; Youdim, Moussa; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-05-01

    Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) systems. Recent evidence from animal and clinical studies that adding fluvoxamine to antipsychotics alters the expression of transcripts encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF led us to postulate that fluvoxamine augmentation may improve memory in schizophrenia. To test this, we examined the effect of add-on fluvoxamine on verbal memory and other cognitive functions and related it to the expression of mRNA coding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMC) of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients completed a 6-week study in which fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Verbal memory, abstraction working memory, object and face recognition, and psychomotor speed and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weeks 1, 3, and 6 and PMC was assayed for the GABA-A beta3 receptor and BDNF mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Associative and logical verbal memory improved significantly and showed a significant correlation with changes in PMC BDNF and GABA-A beta3 receptor mRNA, which increased during treatment. Abstraction and object recognition improved, but this did not correlate with PMC measures. Negative and positive symptoms improved significantly; the latter showed significant correlations with changes in PMC measures. Addition of fluvoxamine to antipsychotics improves verbal memory. It is postulated that the mechanism involves enhanced GABA-A receptor/BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:25756551

  2. Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3, 25OHD3, and EB1089 on cell growth and Vitamin D receptor mRNA and 1alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in primary cultures of the canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Kunakornsawat, S; Rosol, T J; Capen, C C; Omdahl, J L; Leroy, B E; Inpanbutr, N

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (calcitriol), 25OHD(3), and EB1089 on cell growth and on Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase) mRNA expression in normal canine prostatic primary cultures. Canine prostatic epithelial cells were isolated, cultured, and treated with vehicle (ethanol), calcitriol, 25OHD(3), and EB1089 at 10(-9) and 10(-7)M. The VDR was present in epithelial and stromal cells of the canine prostate gland. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), 25OHD(3), and EB1089 inhibited epithelial cell growth at 10(-7)M compared to vehicle-treated controls [calcitriol (P < 0.01), EB1089 (P < 0.01), and 25OHD(3) (P < 0.05)]. Epithelial cells treated with calcitriol and EB1089 at 10(-7)M had slightly increased VDR mRNA expression (0.2-0.3-fold) at 6 and 12h compared to controls. There was no difference in 1alpha-OHase mRNA expression in epithelial cells treated with these three compounds. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its analogs may be effective antiproliferative agents of epithelial cells in certain types of prostate cancer. PMID:15225811

  3. Wheel running alters patterns of uncontrollable stress-induced cfos mRNA expression in rat dorsal striatum direct and indirect pathways: a possible role for plasticity in adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter J.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Mika, Agnieszka; Day, Heidi E.; Herrera, Jonathan J.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that adenosine is a major regulator of striatum activity, in part, through the antagonistic modulation of dopaminergic function. Exercise can influence adenosine and dopamine activity, which may subsequently promote plasticity in striatum adenosine and dopamine systems. Such changes could alter activity of medium spiny neurons and impact striatum function. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to characterize the effect of long-term wheel running on adenosine 1 (A1R), adenosine 2A (A2AR), dopamine 1 (D1R), and dopamine 2 (D2R) receptor mRNA expression in adult rat dorsal and ventral striatum structures using in situ hybridization. The second was to determine if changes to adenosine and dopamine receptor mRNA from running are associated with altered cfos mRNA induction in dynorphin- (direct pathway) and enkephalin- (indirect pathway) expressing neurons of the dorsal striatum following stress exposure. We report that chronic running, as well as acute uncontrollable stress, reduced A1R and A2AR mRNA levels in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Running also modestly elevated D2R mRNA levels in striatum regions. Finally, stress-induced cfos was potentiated in dynorphin and attenuated in enkephalin expressing neurons of running rats. These data suggest striatum adenosine and dopamine systems are targets for neuroplasticity from exercise, which may contribute to changes in direct and indirect pathway activity. These findings may have implications for striatum mediated motor and cognitive processes, as well as exercise facilitated stress-resistance. PMID:25017571

  4. Evolution of the Antisense Overlap between Genes for Thyroid Hormone Receptor and Rev-erbα and Characterization of an Exonic G-Rich Element That Regulates Splicing of TRα2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Stephen H.; Morales, Christopher H.; Duyck, Tessa H.; Waters, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    The α-thyroid hormone receptor gene (TRα) codes for two functionally distinct proteins: TRα1, the α-thyroid hormone receptor; and TRα2, a non-hormone-binding variant. The final exon of TRα2 mRNA overlaps the 3’ end of Rev-erbα mRNA, which encodes another nuclear receptor on the opposite strand of DNA. To understand the evolution of this antisense overlap, we sequenced these genes and mRNAs in the platypus Orthorhynchus anatinus. Despite its strong homology with other mammals, the platypus TRα/Rev-erbα locus lacks elements essential for expression of TRα2. Comparative analysis suggests that alternative splicing of TRα2 mRNA expression evolved in a stepwise fashion before the divergence of eutherian and marsupial mammals. A short G-rich element (G30) located downstream of the alternative 3’splice site of TRα2 mRNA and antisense to the 3’UTR of Rev-erbα plays an important role in regulating TRα2 splicing. G30 is tightly conserved in eutherian mammals, but is absent in marsupials and monotremes. Systematic deletions and substitutions within G30 have dramatically different effects on TRα2 splicing, leading to either its inhibition or its enhancement. Mutations that disrupt one or more clusters of G residues enhance splicing two- to three-fold. These results suggest the G30 sequence can adopt a highly structured conformation, possibly a G-quadruplex, and that it is part of a complex splicing regulatory element which exerts both positive and negative effects on TRα2 expression. Since mutations that strongly enhance splicing in vivo have no effect on splicing in vitro, it is likely that the regulatory role of G30 is mediated through linkage of transcription and splicing. PMID:26368571

  5. Evolution of the Antisense Overlap between Genes for Thyroid Hormone Receptor and Rev-erbα and Characterization of an Exonic G-Rich Element That Regulates Splicing of TRα2 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Stephen H; Morales, Christopher H; Duyck, Tessa H; Waters, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The α-thyroid hormone receptor gene (TRα) codes for two functionally distinct proteins: TRα1, the α-thyroid hormone receptor; and TRα2, a non-hormone-binding variant. The final exon of TRα2 mRNA overlaps the 3' end of Rev-erbα mRNA, which encodes another nuclear receptor on the opposite strand of DNA. To understand the evolution of this antisense overlap, we sequenced these genes and mRNAs in the platypus Orthorhynchus anatinus. Despite its strong homology with other mammals, the platypus TRα/Rev-erbα locus lacks elements essential for expression of TRα2. Comparative analysis suggests that alternative splicing of TRα2 mRNA expression evolved in a stepwise fashion before the divergence of eutherian and marsupial mammals. A short G-rich element (G30) located downstream of the alternative 3'splice site of TRα2 mRNA and antisense to the 3'UTR of Rev-erbα plays an important role in regulating TRα2 splicing. G30 is tightly conserved in eutherian mammals, but is absent in marsupials and monotremes. Systematic deletions and substitutions within G30 have dramatically different effects on TRα2 splicing, leading to either its inhibition or its enhancement. Mutations that disrupt one or more clusters of G residues enhance splicing two- to three-fold. These results suggest the G30 sequence can adopt a highly structured conformation, possibly a G-quadruplex, and that it is part of a complex splicing regulatory element which exerts both positive and negative effects on TRα2 expression. Since mutations that strongly enhance splicing in vivo have no effect on splicing in vitro, it is likely that the regulatory role of G30 is mediated through linkage of transcription and splicing. PMID:26368571

  6. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Results Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but

  7. Decreased stability and translation of T cell receptor zeta mRNA with an alternatively spliced 3'-untranslated region contribute to zeta chain down-regulation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Bhabadeb; Tsokos, Christos G; Krishnan, Sandeep; Robertson, James; Fisher, Carolyn U; Warke, Rahul G; Warke, Vishal G; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Tsokos, George C

    2005-05-13

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the aberrant expression of T cell receptor (TCR) zeta chain of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are not known. Previously we demonstrated that although normal T cells express high levels of TCR zeta mRNA with wild-type (WT) 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), systemic lupus erythematosus T cells display significantly high levels of TCR zeta mRNA with the alternatively spliced (AS) 3' UTR form, which is derived by splice deletion of nucleotides 672-1233 of the TCR zeta transcript. Here we report that the stability of TCR zeta mRNA with an AS 3' UTR is low compared with TCR zeta mRNA with WT 3' UTR. AS 3' UTR, but not WT 3' UTR, conferred similar instability to the luciferase gene. Immunoblotting of cell lysates derived from transfected COS-7 cells demonstrated that TCR zeta with AS 3' UTR produced low amounts of 16-kDa protein. In vitro transcription and translation also produced low amounts of protein from TCR zeta with AS 3' UTR. Taken together our findings suggest that nucleotides 672-1233 bp of TCR zeta 3' UTR play a critical role in its stability and also have elements required for the translational regulation of TCR zeta chain expression in human T cells. PMID:15743765

  8. Medium dose ultraviolet A1 phototherapy and mRNA expression of interleukin 8, interferon γ, and chemokine receptor 4 in acute skin lesions in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Karolina; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Wozniacka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms responsible for UVA1 efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully elucidated. Aim To investigate IL-8, CCR-4, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in AD before and after UVA1, to identify correlations among them, and to determine whether and to what degree mRNA expression is influenced by UVA1. Material and methods Twenty-five patients with AD underwent medium dose UVA1-phototherapy at daily dosages of 10, 20, 30, 45, and then continuing 45 J/cm2 up to 20 days, from Monday to Friday for 4 weeks. Before and after UVA1, biopsies from acute skin lesions were studied using reverse-transcription and RT-PCR. Results The levels of CCR-4 mRNA correlated with those of IFN-γ, both before and after UVA1 phototherapy (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found after UVA1 between mRNA levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ (p < 0.05). After UVA1 an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression in comparison to the baseline assessment (p = 0.02) was found, while no significant difference was revealed in the expression of CCR-4 and IFN-γ mRNA. UVA1 improved both SCORAD and severity of AD (p < 0.001). SCORAD and the severity of AD did not correlate with the degree of expression of measured cytokine mRNA, neither before nor after UVA1. Conclusions CCR-4 is expressed in parallel with IFN-γ in acute skin lesions of patients with AD both before and after UVA1 phototherapy. UVA1 significantly improves SCORAD index, lessens the severity of AD and increases the expression of IL-8, with no direct effects on other studied molecules. PMID:27512350

  9. Methamphetamine-induced stereotypy correlates negatively with patch-enhanced prodynorphin and arc mRNA expression in the rat caudate putamen: the role of mu opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Noble, Erika S; Gilbert, Yamiece E

    2010-06-01

    Amphetamines induce stereotypy, which correlates with patch-enhanced c-Fos expression the patch compartment of caudate putamen (CPu). Methamphetamine (METH) treatment also induces patch-enhanced expression of prodynorphin (PD), arc and zif/268 in the CPu. Whether patch-enhanced activation of any of these genes correlates with METH-induced stereotypy is unknown, and the factors that contribute to this pattern of expression are poorly understood. Activation of mu opioid receptors, which are expressed by the neurons of the patch compartment, may underlie METH-induced patch-enhanced gene expression and stereotypy. The current study examined whether striatal mu opioid receptor blockade altered METH-induced stereotypy and patch-enhanced gene expression, and if there was a correlation between the two responses. Animals were intrastriatally infused with the mu antagonist CTAP (10 microg/microl), treated with METH (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), placed in activity chambers for 3h, and then sacrificed. CTAP pretreatment attenuated METH-induced increases in PD, arc and zif/268 mRNA expression and significantly reduced METH-induced stereotypy. Patch-enhanced PD and arc mRNA expression in the dorsolateral CPu correlated negatively with METH-induced stereotypy. These data indicate that mu opioid receptor activation contributes to METH-induced gene expression in the CPu and stereotypy, and that patch-enhanced PD and arc expression may be a homeostatic response to METH treatment. PMID:20298714

  10. Decreases in mineralocorticoid but not glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression during the short Arctic breeding season in free-living Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).

    PubMed

    Krause, J S; McGuigan, M A; Bishop, V R; Wingfield, J C; Meddle, S L

    2015-01-01

    The acute stress response in vertebrates is a highly adaptive suite of physiological and behavioural mechanisms that promote survival in the face of deleterious stimuli from the environment. Facultative changes of physiology and behaviour are mediated through changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids (corticosterone, cortisol) and their subsequent binding to the high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) or the low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Free-living male wild Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) display annual fluctuations in the stress response with marked attenuation during the transition from the pre-parental to the parental stage. We investigated whether this rapid reduction in the stress response is mediated through changes in MR and GR mRNA expression in the brain using in situ hybridisation. MR mRNA expression was found to be significantly lower in the hippocampus as the male birds became parental. No changes were observed in GR mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or preoptic area (POA) at this time. No significant correlations were found between initial capture levels of corticosterone and GR or MR mRNA expression. No differences were found in basal levels of corticosterone between pre-parental and parental in birds collected for in situ hybridisation. Stress response data revealed no difference at baseline but reductions in peak levels of corticosterone as birds became parental. These data suggest that changes in MR expression may be important for the regulation of the stress response or behavioural stress sensitivity with respect to promoting parental care and investment. PMID:25411901

  11. Effects of hypothyroidism and high-fat feeding on mRNA concentrations for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor and on acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Salter, A M; Hayashi, R; al-Seeni, M; Brown, N F; Bruce, J; Sorensen, O; Atkinson, E A; Middleton, B; Bleackley, R C; Brindley, D N

    1991-01-01

    1. Induction of hypothyroidism in rats by feeding propylthiouracil (PTU) significantly increased serum cholesterol concentrations, and the effect was more pronounced for cholesterol in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) rather than high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The concentrations of serum triacylglycerol were decreased in hypothyroidism. These effects on serum lipids were also seen when the normal rats were pair-fed with the PTU-treated group. 2. Feeding a diet rich in saturated fat and cholesterol further increased cholesterol concentrations in LDL and also elevated that in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) of hypothyroid rats. In euthyroid rats such a diet resulted in a relatively small increase in VLDL cholesterol, whereas LDL cholesterol was decreased. 3. Steady-state concentrations of mRNA for the hepatic LDL receptor were significantly decreased in the livers of hypothyroid rats, but were not significantly changed by high-fat feeding in euthyroid or hypothyroid rats. 4. The expression of the LDL receptor in hepatocytes cultured from hypothyroid rats was decreased relative to the euthyroid controls. 5. Whereas the esterification of cholesterol with oleate in hepatocytes cultured from hypothyroid rats was decreased, the activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in the livers of these animals was not changed. 6. High-fat feeding increased the hepatic ACAT activity in normal and hypothyroid rats. 7. Incubation of rat hepatocytes with 10 nM-tri-iodothyronine for 4 h increased the relative concentration of the mRNA for the LDL receptor by 25%. 8. It is therefore concluded that thyroid hormones stimulate the synthesis and expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. Elevated cholesterol concentrations in LDL in hypothyroidism probably result from a primary defect in the expression of the hepatic receptor, rather than indirectly via changes in ACAT activity. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2064617

  12. Sequence analysis, characterization and mRNA distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) chemokine (C-X-C Motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript. The fu...

  13. Differential mRNA expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 between heterophils from Salmonella-susceptible and -resistant chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for recognition of conserved molecular constituents found on infectious microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the PRR repertoire and are coupled to downstream production of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptide...

  14. Morpholino antisense oligo inhibits trans-splicing of pre-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor mRNA of Trypanosoma cruzi and suppresses parasite growth and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Muneaki; Nara, Takeshi; Mita, Toshihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Morpholino antisense oligos (MAOs) are used to investigate physiological gene function by inhibiting gene translation or construction of specific alternative splicing variants by blocking cis-splicing. MAOs are attractive drug candidates for viral- and bacterial-infectious disease therapy because of properties such as in vivo stability and specificity to target genes. Recently, we showed that phosphorothioate antisense oligos against Trypanosoma cruzi inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (TcIP3R) mRNA inhibit the parasite host cell infection. In the present study, we identified the spliced leader (SL) acceptor of pre-TcIP3R mRNA and synthesized MAO, which inhibited trans-splicing of the transcript (MAO-1). MAO-1 was found to inhibit the addition of SL-RNA to pre-TcIP3R mRNA by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Treatment of the parasites with MAO-1 significantly impaired the growth and infectivity into host cells. These results indicate that MAO-1 is a potential novel drug for Chagas disease and that MAOs inhibiting trans-splicing can be used to investigate the physiology of trypanosomal genes leading to the development of novel drugs. PMID:26680159

  15. Immunohistochemical localization and quantitative assessment of GnRH-, FSH-, and LH-receptor mRNA Expression in canine skin: a powerful tool to study the pathogenesis of side effects after spaying.

    PubMed

    Welle, Monika M; Reichler, Iris M; Barth, Andrea; Forster, Ursula; Sattler, Ursula; Arnold, Susi

    2006-11-01

    It has been proposed that gonadotropins and/or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) could be involved in the pathophysiology of the side effects after spaying in bitches, such as urinary incontinence and an increased production of a woolly undercoat. In order to provide tools to investigate the role of these hormones in dogs we developed immunohistochemical techniques and real-time RT-PCR to study whether GnRH-, LH-, and FSH-receptors exist in canine skin and urinary bladder. Tissue samples from the skin of the flank region and the ventral midline of the urinary bladder from euthanised dogs were examined. We were able to quantify mRNA expression of GnRH-, FSH-, and LH-receptors in canine skin and bladder biopsies with a high primer efficacy. Immunohistochemical studies showed that GnRH-, FSH-, and LH-receptors are expressed in vessel walls, the epidermis, the hair follicle and in sebaceous and sweat glands in canine skin and in transitional epithelium, and smooth muscle tissue in the urinary bladder. Our data provide the fundamentals to examine the distribution of FSH-, LH-, and GnRH-receptors in canine skin and urinary bladder and to assess gene activity at the transcriptional level by real-time RT-PCR. PMID:16715322

  16. The 5' leader of the mRNA encoding the mouse neurotrophin receptor TrkB contains two internal ribosomal entry sites that are differentially regulated.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Stephanie L; Pfingsten, Jennifer S; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Krushel, Les A

    2008-01-01

    A single internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in conjunction with IRES transactivating factors (ITAFs) is sufficient to recruit the translational machinery to a eukaryotic mRNA independent of the cap structure. However, we demonstrate that the mouse TrkB mRNA contains two independent IRESes. The mouse TrkB mRNA consists of one of two 5' leaders (1428 nt and 448 nt), both of which include the common 3' exon (Ex2, 344 nt). Dicistronic RNA transfections and in vitro translation of monocistronic RNA demonstrated that both full-length 5' leaders, as well as Ex2, exhibit IRES activity indicating the IRES is located within Ex2. Additional analysis of the upstream sequences demonstrated that the first 260 nt of exon 1 (Ex1a) also contains an IRES. Dicistronic RNA transfections into SH-SY5Y cells showed the Ex1a IRES is constitutively active. However, the Ex2 IRES is only active in response to retinoic acid induced neural differentiation, a state which correlates with the synthesis of the ITAF polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB1). Correspondingly, addition or knock-down of PTB1 altered Ex2, but not Ex1a IRES activity in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. These results demonstrate that the two functionally independent IRESes within the mouse TrkB 5' leader are differentially regulated, in part by PTB1. PMID:18779873

  17. Effects of intracerebroventricular infusion of genistein on gonadotrophin subunit mRNA and immunoreactivity of gonadotrophins and oestrogen receptor-alpha in the pituitary cells of the anoestrous ewe.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Jolanta; Ridderstråle, Yvonne; Wańkowska, Marta; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Madej, Andrzej

    2004-12-01

    The present study was designed to demonstrate whether genistein, a synthetic phytoestrogen, infused into the third ventricle of the brain could affect the gonadotrophic cells regarding the presence of oestrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity and gonadotrophin subunit mRNA hybridising reaction in the ewe. Ewes (n=7), aged 2 years, in early anoestrous season were infused with Ringer-Locke solution (control, n=3) or 10 microg/100 microl/h of genistein (n=4) into the third ventricle over a 5 h period and slaughtered the following morning. Immunoreactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) was determined in the adenohypophysis by immunohistochemistry using antibodies raised against LHbeta, FSHbeta, and ERalpha. Messenger RNA analyses were performed by non-isotope in situ hybridisation using sense and antisense riboprobes produced from beta subunits of LH and FSH cDNA clones. Computer image analysis was used to determine the percent of cells exhibiting immunohistochemical and/or hybridising reaction. It was found that in ewes infused with genistein, the percentage of LH-positive cells and the density of immunoreactive-LHbeta material decreased significantly (PmRNA LHbeta-expressing cells and the intensity of the hybridisation signal increased significantly (PmRNA for FSHbeta. The percentage of ERalpha-positive cells increased significantly after genistein infusions (P

  18. Sex- and region-specific alterations of progesterone receptor mRNA levels and estrogen sensitivity in rat brain following developmental exposure to the estrogenic UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor.

    PubMed

    Maerkel, Kirsten; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Durrer, Stefan; Conscience, Marianne; Schlumpf, Margret

    2005-05-01

    Recently, we reported on in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of UV filters and on developmental toxicity of 4-methylbenzylidene (4-MBC) camphor [Schlumpf, M., Cotton, B., Conscience, M., Haller, V., Steinmann, B., Lichtensteiger, W., 2001a. In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity of UV screens. Environ. Health Perspect. 109, 239; Schlumpf, M., Berger, L., Cotton, B., Conscience-Egli, M., Durrer, S., Fleischmann, I., Haller, V., Maerkel, K., Lichtensteiger, W., 2001b. Estrogen active UV screens. SÖFW-J. 7, 10]. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47mg/(kgday)) was administered in chow to long Evans rats from 10 weeks before mating of the parent (F0) generation until adulthood of the F1 generation. Peripheral reproductive organs and central nervous system were studied in adult offspring. mRNA expression of progesterone receptor (PR), an estrogen-regulated gene, was investigated in medial preoptic area (MPO) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) by real-time RT-PCR. We analyzed intact 12-week-old male and female offspring under steady state conditions and adult gonadectomized offspring 6h after a single s.c. injection of estradiol-17β (E2) (10 or 50μg/kg) in order to assess estrogen sensitivity. At steady state conditions we observed significantly higher PR mRNA expression in VMH of control females versus control males. 4-MBC exposed females exhibited a decrease in PR mRNA to levels of control males. The increase in PR mRNA in response to E2 was higher in VMH of males of both 4-MBC groups as compared to control males. PR mRNA levels were similar in MPO of control males and females. Developmental 4-MBC exposure increased PR mRNA levels in male MPO, but did not significantly change female levels. The acute response to the lower E2 dose was decreased in MPO of 4-MBC-exposed males, whereas females of the 7mg/kg dose group exhibited an increased reaction to 50μg/kg of E2. Our data indicate that developmental exposure to endocrine active chemicals such as the UV filter 4-MBC can

  19. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R.; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-01-01

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R2 of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system. PMID:27460882

  20. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-01-01

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system. PMID:27460882

  1. Ligand, receptor, and cell type-dependent regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA in prostate cancer epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence suggests that the liver X receptor (LXR) is a potential anti-cancer target in prostate carcinoma. There is little characterization, however, of how the two major isoforms LXRa or LXRß regulate the LXR-responsive genes ATP-binding cassette sub-family A 1 (ABCA1) and sub-family member ...

  2. Photoperiod and stress regulation of corticosteroid receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glucose transporter GLUT3 mRNA in the hippocampus of male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Walton, J C; Grier, A J; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J

    2012-06-28

    In response to changing day lengths, small photoperiodic rodents have evolved a suite of adaptations to survive the energetic bottlenecks of winter. Among these adaptations are changes in metabolism, adiposity, and energy balance. Whereas hypothalamic and neuroendocrine regulation of these adaptations has been extensively studied, the impact of day length, and interaction of day length and stress, on the energy balance of neurons within the central nervous system remains unspecified. Thus, we exposed male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to either short or long day lengths for 14 weeks to induce the full suite of adaptive responses, exposed them to 4h of restraint, and then measured relative mRNA expression in the hippocampus for low- and high-affinity glucocorticoid receptors (glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and the neuron-specific glucose transporter GLUT3. Independent of photoperiod, restraint elevated plasma cortisol (CORT) concentrations and reduced expression of GR, MR, and BDNF. Neither restraint nor photoperiod significantly altered GLUT3 expression. Among all groups, plasma cortisol concentrations were negatively correlated with GR and MR expression. MR, BDNF, and GLUT3 levels were positively correlated with one another, even when controlling for photoperiod and CORT. Taken together, these results suggest that, as peripheral energy balance changes across day length in this photoperiodic species, the neurons of the hippocampus do not alter relative gene expression levels of three proteins involved in monitoring neuronal glucose regulation and morphology. PMID:22521589

  3. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  4. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  5. Molecular aspects, genomic arrangement and immune responsive mRNA expression profiles of two CXC chemokine receptor homologs (CXCR1 and CXCR2) from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Wan, Qiang; Revathy, Kasthuri Saranya; Whang, Ilson; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Seokryel; Park, Myoung-Ae; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    The CXCR1 and CXCR2 are the prototypical receptors and are the only known receptors for mammalian ELR+ (Glu-Leu-Arg) CXC chemokines, including CXCL8 (interleukin 8). These receptors transduce the ELR+ chemokine signals and operate the downstream signaling pathways in inflammation and innate immunity. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of CXCR1 and CXCR2 genes from rock bream fish (OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2) at the molecular level. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 were identified from a transcriptome library and a custom-constructed BAC library, respectively. Both OfCXCR genes consisted of two exons, separated by an intron. The 5'-flanking regions of OfCXCR genes possessed multiple putative transcription factor binding sites related to immune response. The coding sequences of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 encoded putative peptides of 355 and 360 amino acids (aa), respectively. The deduced aa sequences of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 comprised of a G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family 1 profile with a GPCR signature and a DRY motif. In addition, seven conserved transmembrane regions were predicted in both OfCXCRs. While our multiple alignment study revealed the functionally significant conserved elements of the OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2, phylogeny analyses further confirmed their position in teleost sub clade, in which they manifested an evolutionary relatedness with other fish counterparts. Based on comparative analyses, teleost CXC chemokine receptors appear to be distinct from their non-fish orthologs in terms of evolution (both CXCR1 and CXCR2) and genomic organization (CXCR2). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 in eleven examined tissues, with higher levels in head kidney, kidney and spleen highlighting their crucial importance in immunity. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) with concanavalin A (Con A) resulted in modulation of OfCXCR2 transcription, but not

  6. Selective estrogen receptor-beta (SERM-beta) compounds modulate raphe nuclei tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) mRNA expression and cause antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Clark, J A; Alves, S; Gundlah, C; Rocha, B; Birzin, E T; Cai, S-J; Flick, R; Hayes, E; Ho, K; Warrier, S; Pai, L; Yudkovitz, J; Fleischer, R; Colwell, L; Li, S; Wilkinson, H; Schaeffer, J; Wilkening, R; Mattingly, E; Hammond, M; Rohrer, S P

    2012-11-01

    Estrogen acts through two molecularly distinct receptors termed estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) which bind estradiol with similar affinities and mediate the effects of estrogen throughout the body. ERα plays a major role in reproductive physiology and behavior, and mediates classic estrogen signaling in such tissues as the uterus, mammary gland, and skeleton. ERβ, however, modulates estrogen signaling in the ovary, the immune system, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, and hypothalamus, and there is some evidence that ERβ can regulate ERα activity. Moreover, ERβ knockout studies and receptor distribution analyses in the CNS suggest that this receptor may play a role in the modulation of mood and cognition. In recent years several ERβ-specific compounds (selective estrogen receptor beta modulators; SERM-beta) have become available, and research suggests potential utility of these compounds in menopausal symptom relief, breast cancer prevention, diseases that have an inflammatory component, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as modulation of mood, and anxiety. Here we demonstrate an antidepressant-like effect obtained using two SERM-beta compounds, SERM-beta1 and SERM-beta2. These compounds exhibit full agonist activity at ERβ in a cell based estrogen response element (ERE) transactivation assay. SERM-beta1 and 2 are non-proliferative with respect to breast as determined using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell-based assay and non-proliferative in the uterus as determined by assessing the effects of SERM-beta compounds on immature rat uterine weight and murine uterine weight. In vivo SERM-beta1 and 2 are brain penetrant and display dose dependent efficacy in the murine dorsal raphe assays for induction of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA and progesterone receptor protein. These compounds show activity in the murine forced swim test and promote hippocampal neurogenesis acutely in rats. Taken

  7. Linear scaffolds for multivalent targeting of melanocortin receptors.

    PubMed

    Dehigaspitiya, Dilani Chathurika; Anglin, Bobbi L; Smith, Kara R; Weber, Craig S; Lynch, Ronald M; Mash, Eugene A

    2015-12-21

    Molecules bearing one, two, three, or four copies of the tetrapeptide His-dPhe-Arg-Trp were attached to scaffolds based on ethylene glycol, glycerol, and d-mannitol by means of the copper-assisted azide-alkyne cyclization. The abilities of these compounds to block binding of a probe at the melanocortin 4 receptor were evaluated using a competitive binding assay. All of the multivalent molecules studied exhibited 30- to 40-fold higher apparent affinites when compared to a monovalent control. These results are consistent with divalent binding to receptor dimers. No evidence for tri- or tetravalent binding was obtained. Differences in the interligand spacing required for divalent binding, as opposed to tri- or tetravalent binding, may be responsible for these results. PMID:26461460

  8. mRNA Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-{beta} and C-KIT: Correlation With Pathologic Response to Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Erben, Philipp Horisberger, Karoline; Muessle, Benjamin; Mueller, Martin Christian; Treschl, Anne; Ernst, Thomas; Kaehler, Georg; Stroebel, Philipp; Wenz, Frederik; Kienle, Peter; Post, Stefan; Hochhaus, Andreas; Willeke, Frank; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Deviant expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-{beta} (PDGFR{beta}) and c-kit was shown in patients with colorectal cancer. In the present study, mRNA expression of PDGFR{beta} and c-kit in 33 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy with cetuximab/capecitabine/irinotecan in correlation with the tumor regression rate was investigated. Methods and Materials: Pretherapeutic biopsy cores and tumor material from the resected specimens were collected in parallel with normal rectal mucosa. The expression levels of PDGFR{beta} and c-kit were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Tumors were classified as good responders (tumor regression grade [TRG], 2-3) or poor responders (TRG, 0-1). Results: The TRG evaluation of the resected specimen was TRG 0-1 in 11 and TRG 2-3 in 22. The median normalized ratios in the pretreatment mucosa vs. tumor biopsy cores was as follows: PDGFR{beta} ratio of 15.2 vs. 49.5 (p <0.0001) and c-kit ratio of 0.94 vs. 0.67 (p = 0.014). The same tendency was observed for the median PDGFR{beta} ratios after chemoradiotherapy completion: 34.2 vs. 170.0 (p <0.0001). The PDGFR{beta} and c-kit mRNA expression values in the pretreatment tumor biopsy cores were lower than the values in the resected specimens: PDGFR{beta} ratio 49.5 vs. 170.0 (p = 0.0002) and c-kit ratio 0.67 vs. 1.1 (p = 0.0003). Nevertheless, no correlation was seen between the pretherapeutic PDGFR{beta} and c-kit mRNA expression and the pathologic regression rate. Conclusion: Cetuximab-based chemoradiotherapy increased PDGFR{beta} levels even further compared with the pretreatment samples and deserves further investigation.

  9. Acute hypoxia differentially affects the NMDA receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit mRNA levels in the developing chick optic tectum: stage-dependent plasticity in the 2B-2A ratio.

    PubMed

    Vacotto, Marina; Rapacioli, Melina; Flores, Vladimir; de Plazas, Sara Fiszer

    2010-10-01

    It is known that the NMDA-R NR1 subunit is needed for the receptor activity and that under hypoxia the evolution toward apoptosis or neuronal survival depends on the balance NR2A/NR2B subunits. This paper analyzes the effect of acute hypoxia on the above mentioned subunits mRNAs during development. The mean percentage of NR1+ neurons displayed the higher plasticity during development while the NR2A+ neurons the higher stability. Acute hypoxia increased the mean percentage of NR1+ and NR2B+ neurons at ED12 but only that of NR1+ neurons at ED18. Acute hypoxia increased the levels of expression of NR1 and NR2B mRNAs at ED12 without changes in the NR2A mRNA. During early stages there is a higher sensitivity to change the subunits mRNA levels under a hypoxic treatment. At ED12 acute hypoxia increased the probability of co-expression of the NR1-NR2A and NR1-NR2B subunits combinations, the level of NR1 and NR2B and the ratio NR2B/NR2A. These conditions facilitate the evolution towards apoptosis. PMID:20596770

  10. Role of T-helper type 2 cytokines in down-modulation of fas mRNA and receptor on the surface of activated CD4(+) T cells: molecular basis for the persistence of the allergic immune response.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Fizzotti, M; Bassotti, G; Russano, A; Droetto, S; Bistoni, O; Grignani, F; Bertotto, A

    1998-12-01

    The mechanisms responsible for persistence of T lymphocytes at the sites of allergic inflammation are not completely understood. Activated T cells, usually expressing Fas on their surface, undergo activation-induced apoptotic death, thus limiting the dangerous consequences of a persistent immune reaction. We have previously shown that pulmonary T lymphocytes from untreated asthmatic subjects do not express surface Fas receptors nor do they contain Fas mRNA, yet they display normal levels of Fas ligand. This is not an inherited defect and is confined to mucosal T cells. To gain insights into the mechanism responsible for these findings, we performed a set of experiments with both purified Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen and recombinant human cytokines: interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, transforming growth factor beta1, interferon gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In vitro exposure of purified CD4(+) lymphocytes to allergen yielded only transient up-regulation of surface Fas but did not influence susceptibility to Fas-mediated cell death. T-helper type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and GM-CSF) had a dose-dependent and specific inhibitory effect on Fas mRNA, suggesting a new fundamental biological role in the survival of inflammatory cells during allergen exposure. PMID:9837865