Science.gov

Sample records for melanogaster female x-chromatin

  1. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  2. Population transcriptomics of Drosophila melanogaster females

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Variation at the level of gene expression is abundant in natural populations and is thought to contribute to the adaptive divergence of populations and species. Gene expression also differs considerably between males and females. Here we report a microarray analysis of gene expression variation among females of 16 Drosophila melanogaster strains derived from natural populations, including eight strains from the putative ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa and eight strains from Europe. Gene expression variation among males of the same strains was reported previously. Results We detected relatively low levels of expression polymorphism within populations, but much higher expression divergence between populations. A total of 569 genes showed a significant expression difference between the African and European populations at a false discovery rate of 5%. Genes with significant over-expression in Europe included the insecticide resistance gene Cyp6g1, as well as genes involved in proteolysis and olfaction. Genes with functions in carbohydrate metabolism and vision were significantly over-expressed in the African population. There was little overlap between genes expressed differently between populations in females and males. Conclusions Our results suggest that adaptive changes in gene expression have accompanied the out-of-Africa migration of D. melanogaster. Comparison of female and male expression data indicates that the vast majority of genes differing in expression between populations do so in only one sex and suggests that most regulatory adaptation has been sex-specific. PMID:21276238

  3. Seminal Fluid Regulation of Female Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    1998-03-01

    Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.

  4. Causes of death in X chromatin positive males (Klinefelter's syndrome).

    PubMed Central

    Price, W H; Clayton, J F; Wilson, J; Collyer, S; De Mey, R

    1985-01-01

    The causes of death in 466 X chromatin positive males (Klinefelter's syndrome) studied prospectively over the last 25 years have been analysed. We have previously reported the overall mortality to be increased by 50% and life expectancy reduced by about five years. A highly significant increase in mortality from cerebrovascular disease was observed in the sub group considered to be most representative of X chromatin positive males in general. In the age group up to 45 years this increase could be attributed to deaths from subarachnoid haemorrhage. An increase in mortality from respiratory diseases was observed in those ascertained in psychiatric hospitals. In the sample as a whole there were small but highly significant numbers of deaths from carcinoma of the breast and aortic valve disease. The deaths from carcinoma of the breast were comparable with those expected if female mortality rates were applied. PMID:4086964

  5. Female mediation of competitive fertilization success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lüpold, Stefan; Pitnick, Scott; Berben, Kirstin S.; Blengini, Cecilia S.; Belote, John M.; Manier, Mollie K.

    2013-01-01

    How females store and use sperm after remating can generate postcopulatory sexual selection on male ejaculate traits. Variation in ejaculate performance traits generally is thought to be intrinsic to males but is likely to interact with the environment in which sperm compete (e.g., the female reproductive tract). Our understanding of female contributions to competitive fertilization success is limited, however, in part because of the challenges involved in observing events within the reproductive tract of internally fertilizing species while discriminating among sperm from competing males. Here, we used females from crosses among isogenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster, each mated to two genetically standardized males (the first with green- and the second with red-tagged sperm heads) to demonstrate heritable variation in female remating interval, progeny production rate, sperm-storage organ morphology, and a number of sperm performance, storage, and handling traits. We then used multivariate analyses to examine relationships between this female-mediated variation and competitive paternity. In particular, the timing of female ejection of excess second-male and displaced first-male sperm was genetically variable and, by terminating the process of sperm displacement, significantly influenced the relative numbers of sperm from each male competing for fertilization, and consequently biased paternity. Our results demonstrate that females do not simply provide a static arena for sperm competition but rather play an active and pivotal role in postcopulatory processes. Resolving the adaptive significance of genetic variation in female-mediated mechanisms of sperm handling is critical for understanding sexual selection, sexual conflict, and the coevolution of male and female reproductive traits. PMID:23757499

  6. Female and male genetic contributions to post-mating immune defence in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah M; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2010-12-01

    Post-mating reduction in immune defence is common in female insects, and a trade-off between mating and immunity could affect the evolution of immunity. In this work, we tested the capacity of virgin and mated female Drosophila melanogaster to defend against infection by four bacterial pathogens. We found that female D. melanogaster suffer post-mating immunosuppression in a pathogen-dependent manner. The effect of mating was seen after infection with two bacterial pathogens (Providencia rettgeri and Providencia alcalifaciens), though not after infection with two other bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). We then asked whether the evolution of post-mating immunosuppression is primarily a 'female' or 'male' trait by assaying for genetic variation among females for the degree of post-mating immune suppression they experience and among males for the level of post-mating immunosuppression they elicit in their mates. We also assayed for an interaction between male and female genotypes to test the specific hypothesis that the evolution of a trade-off between mating and immune defence in females might be being driven by sexual conflict. We found that females, but not males, harbour significant genetic variation for post-mating immunosuppression, and we did not detect an interaction between female and male genotypes. We thus conclude that post-mating immune depression is predominantly a 'female' trait, and find no evidence that it is evolving under sexual conflict. PMID:20573620

  7. The Drosophila melanogaster hybrid male rescue gene causes inviability in male and female species hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Barbash, D A; Roote, J; Ashburner, M

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster mutation Hmr rescues inviable hybrid sons from the cross of D. melanogaster females to males of its sibling species D. mauritiana, D. simulans, and D. sechellia. We have extended previous observations that hybrid daughters from this cross are poorly viable at high temperatures and have shown that this female lethality is suppressed by Hmr and the rescue mutations In(1)AB and D. simulans Lhr. Deficiencies defined here as Hmr(-) also suppressed lethality, demonstrating that reducing Hmr(+) activity can rescue otherwise inviable hybrids. An Hmr(+) duplication had the opposite effect of reducing the viability of female and sibling X-male hybrid progeny. Similar dose-dependent viability effects of Hmr were observed in the reciprocal cross of D. simulans females to D. melanogaster males. Finally, Lhr and Hmr(+) were shown to have mutually antagonistic effects on hybrid viability. These data suggest a model where the interaction of sibling species Lhr(+) and D. melanogaster Hmr(+) causes lethality in both sexes of species hybrids and in both directions of crossing. Our results further suggest that a twofold difference in Hmr(+) dosage accounts in part for the differential viability of male and female hybrid progeny, but also that additional, unidentified genes must be invoked to account for the invariant lethality of hybrid sons of D. melanogaster mothers. Implications of our findings for understanding Haldane's rule-the observation that hybrid breakdown is often specific to the heterogametic sex-are also discussed. PMID:10747067

  8. [dFOXO Transcription Factor Regulates Juvenile Hormone Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster Females].

    PubMed

    Rauschenbach, I Yu; Karpova, E K; Gruntenko, N E

    2015-09-01

    dFOXO transcription factor is a component of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway in Drosophila. Juvenile hormone negatively regulates dFOXO gene expression. In the present work, the effect of hypomorphic dFOXO mutation on juvenile hormone metabolism under normal and stressing conditions and on D. melanogaster female resistance to thermal stress was studied. It was demonstrated that dFOXO mutation in D. melanogaster females induces (1) an increase in the level of juvenile hormone degradation and in the intensity of the response of the juvenile hormone metabolism system to thermal stress and (2) a decrease in thermal stress resistance. These parameters are indicators of the level of juvenile hormone synthesis and indicate its decrease in females with decreased dFOXO expression. Thus, the presence of feedback in the regulation of dFOXO gene expression by juvenile hormone was established for the first time. PMID:26606805

  9. Genetic Variation and Covariation in Male Attractiveness and Female Mating Preferences in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ratterman, Nicholas L.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Carney, Ginger E.; Jones, Adam G.

    2013-01-01

    How mating preferences evolve remains one of the major unsolved mysteries in evolutionary biology. One major impediment to the study of ornament-preference coevolution is that many aspects of the theoretical literature remain loosely connected to empirical data. Theoretical models typically streamline mating preferences by describing preference functions with a single parameter, a modeling convenience that may veil important aspects of preference evolution. Here, we use a high-throughput behavioral assay in Drosophila melanogaster to quantify attractiveness and multiple components of preferences in both males and females. Females varied genetically with respect to how they ranked males in terms of attractiveness as well as the extent to which they discriminated among different males. Conversely, males showed consistent preferences for females, suggesting that D. melanogaster males tend to rank different female phenotypes in the same order in terms of attractiveness. Moreover, we reveal a heretofore undocumented positive genetic correlation between male attractiveness and female choosiness, which is a measure of the variability in a female’s response to different male phenotypes. This genetic correlation sets the stage for female choosiness to evolve via a correlated response to selection on male traits and potentially adds a new dimension to the Fisherian sexual selection process. PMID:24212081

  10. Distinct Biological Epochs in the Reproductive Life of Female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rogina, Blanka; Wolverton, Tom; Bross, Tyson G.; Chen, Kun; Müller, Hans-Georg; Carey, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Mating alters the physiology and behavior of female Drosophila melanogaster resulting in a surge of egg laying, a decrease in receptivity to other males, and a decrease in life span. Here, we show striking differences in patterns of Drosophila egg laying and mortality rate dependent upon mating history. Our data reveal previously unreported epochs in the reproductive life of females: optimal, vulnerable and declining-terminal. During the optimal period, mating induces females to respond with a surge in egg laying and has a reversible effect on mortality rate. In contrast, during the vulnerable period, mating does not induce females to respond with a surge in egg laying and causes an irreversible increase in mortality rate. The terminal period was always observed several days before death, irrespective of the chronological age, and is marked by sharp reductions in egg laying. The presence of these distinctive biological epochs may reflect increased female sensitivity to mating due to age-related decline. PMID:17681363

  11. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  12. The nutritional and hedonic value of food modulate sexual receptivity in Drosophila melanogaster females

    PubMed Central

    Gorter, Jenke A.; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Levine, Joel D.; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these foods should inform female reproductive behaviours. Yet mechanisms coupling food and sex are poorly understood. Here we show that yeast increases female sexual receptivity through interaction between its protein content and its odorous fermentation product acetic acid, sensed by the Ionotropic odorant receptor neuron Ir75a. A similar interaction between nutritional and hedonic value applies to sugars where taste and caloric value only increase sexual receptivity when combined. Integration of nutritional and sensory values would ensure that there are sufficient internal nutrients for egg production as well as sufficient environmental nutrients for offspring survival. These findings provide mechanisms through which females may maximize reproductive output in changing environments. PMID:26777264

  13. Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones.

    PubMed

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Males from many species ensure paternity by preventing their mates from copulating with other males. One mate-guarding strategy involves marking females with anti-aphrodisiac pheromones (AAPs), which reduces the females' attractiveness and dissuades other males from courting. Since females benefit from polyandry, sexual conflict theory predicts that females should develop mechanisms to counteract AAPs to achieve additional copulations, but no such mechanisms have been documented. Here we show that during copulation Drosophila melanogaster males transfer two AAPs: cis-Vaccenyl Acetate (cVA) to the females' reproductive tract, and 7-Tricosene (7-T) to the females' cuticle. A few hours after copulation, females actively eject cVA from their reproductive tract, which results in increased attractiveness and re-mating. Although 7-T remains on those females, we show that it is the combination of the two chemicals that reduces attractiveness. To our knowledge, female AAP ejection provides the first example of a female mechanism that counter-acts chemical mate-guarding. PMID:27484362

  14. Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Males from many species ensure paternity by preventing their mates from copulating with other males. One mate-guarding strategy involves marking females with anti-aphrodisiac pheromones (AAPs), which reduces the females' attractiveness and dissuades other males from courting. Since females benefit from polyandry, sexual conflict theory predicts that females should develop mechanisms to counteract AAPs to achieve additional copulations, but no such mechanisms have been documented. Here we show that during copulation Drosophila melanogaster males transfer two AAPs: cis-Vaccenyl Acetate (cVA) to the females' reproductive tract, and 7-Tricosene (7-T) to the females' cuticle. A few hours after copulation, females actively eject cVA from their reproductive tract, which results in increased attractiveness and re-mating. Although 7-T remains on those females, we show that it is the combination of the two chemicals that reduces attractiveness. To our knowledge, female AAP ejection provides the first example of a female mechanism that counter-acts chemical mate-guarding. PMID:27484362

  15. Insulin signalling mediates the response to male-induced harm in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sepil, Irem; Carazo, Pau; Perry, Jennifer C; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Genetic manipulations in nutrient-sensing pathways are known to both extend lifespan and modify responses to environmental stressors (e.g., starvation, oxidative and thermal stresses), suggesting that similar mechanisms regulate lifespan and stress resistance. However, despite being a key factor reducing female lifespan and affecting female fitness, male-induced harm has rarely been considered as a stressor mediated by nutrient sensing pathways. We explored whether a lifespan-extending manipulation also modifies female resistance to male-induced harm. To do so, we used long-lived female Drosophila melanogaster that had their insulin signalling pathway downregulated by genetically ablating the median neurosecretory cells (mNSC). We varied the level of exposure to males for control and ablated females and tested for interacting effects on female lifespan and fitness. As expected, we found that lifespan significantly declined with exposure to males. However, mNSC-ablated females maintained significantly increased lifespan across all male exposure treatments. Furthermore, lifespan extension and relative fitness of mNSC-ablated females were maximized under intermediate exposure to males, and minimized under low and high exposure to males. Overall, our results suggest that wild-type levels of insulin signalling reduce female susceptibility to male-induced harm under intense sexual conflict, and may also protect females when mating opportunities are sub-optimally low. PMID:27457757

  16. Insulin signalling mediates the response to male-induced harm in female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sepil, Irem; Carazo, Pau; Perry, Jennifer C.; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Genetic manipulations in nutrient-sensing pathways are known to both extend lifespan and modify responses to environmental stressors (e.g., starvation, oxidative and thermal stresses), suggesting that similar mechanisms regulate lifespan and stress resistance. However, despite being a key factor reducing female lifespan and affecting female fitness, male-induced harm has rarely been considered as a stressor mediated by nutrient sensing pathways. We explored whether a lifespan-extending manipulation also modifies female resistance to male-induced harm. To do so, we used long-lived female Drosophila melanogaster that had their insulin signalling pathway downregulated by genetically ablating the median neurosecretory cells (mNSC). We varied the level of exposure to males for control and ablated females and tested for interacting effects on female lifespan and fitness. As expected, we found that lifespan significantly declined with exposure to males. However, mNSC-ablated females maintained significantly increased lifespan across all male exposure treatments. Furthermore, lifespan extension and relative fitness of mNSC-ablated females were maximized under intermediate exposure to males, and minimized under low and high exposure to males. Overall, our results suggest that wild-type levels of insulin signalling reduce female susceptibility to male-induced harm under intense sexual conflict, and may also protect females when mating opportunities are sub-optimally low. PMID:27457757

  17. Female Sterile Mutations on the Second Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster. I. Maternal Effect Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schupbach, T.; Wieschaus, E.

    1989-01-01

    In mutagenesis screens for recessive female sterile mutations on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster 529 chromosomes were isolated which allow the homozygous females to survive, but cause them to be sterile. In 136 of these lines, mutant females produce morphologically normal eggs which cannot support normal embryonic development. These ``maternal-effect'' mutations fall into 67 complementation groups which define 23 multiply hit and 44 singly hit loci. In eggs from 14 complementation groups development is blocked before the formation of a syncytial blastoderm. In eggs from 12 complementation groups development is abnormal before cellularization, 17 complementation groups cause abnormal cellularization, 12 complementation groups cause changes in cellular morphology in early gastrulation stages, and 12 complementation groups seem to affect later embryonic development. PMID:2492966

  18. Mating-responsive genes in reproductive tissues of female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Paul D.; Kapelnikov, Anat; Heifetz, Yael; Bender, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Male-derived accessory gland proteins that are transferred to females during mating have profound effects on female reproductive physiology including increased ovulation, mating inhibition, and effects on sperm utilization and storage. The extreme rates of evolution seen in accessory gland proteins may be driven by sperm competition and sexual conflict, processes that may ultimately drive complex interactions between female- and male-derived molecules and sperm. However, little is known of how gene expression in female reproductive tissues changes in response to the presence of male molecules and sperm. To characterize this response, we conducted parallel genomic and proteomic analyses of gene expression in the reproductive tract of 3-day-old unmated and mated female Drosophila melanogaster. Using DNA microarrays, we identified 539 transcripts that are differentially expressed in unmated vs. mated females and revealed a striking peak in differential expression at 6 h postmating and a marked shift from primarily down-regulated to primarily up-regulated transcripts within 3 h after mating. Combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses, we identified 84 differentially expressed proteins at 3 h postmating, including proteins that appeared to undergo posttranslational modification. Together, our observations define transcriptional and translational response to mating within the female reproductive tract and suggest a bimodal model of postmating gene expression initially correlated with mating and the final stages of female reproductive tract maturation and later with the declining presence of male reproductive molecules and with sperm maintenance and utilization. PMID:16798875

  19. Developmental Environment Effects on Sexual Selection in Male and Female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliano; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes-high (low) densities for small (large) adults-and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities. Overall, large adult females (those reared at low larval density) had more matings, more mates and produced more offspring than small females (those reared at high larval density). The number of offspring produced by females was positively associated with their number of mates (i.e. there was a positive female Bateman gradient) in social groups where female size was experimentally varied, likely due to the covariance between female productivity and mating rate. For males, we found evidence that the larval environment affected the relative importance of sexual selection via mate number (Bateman gradients), mate productivity, paternity share, and their covariances. Mate number and mate productivity were significantly reduced for small males in social environments where males were of mixed sizes, versus social environments where all males were small, suggesting that social heterogeneity altered selection on this subset of males. Males are commonly assumed to benefit from mating with large females, but in contrast to expectations we found that in groups where both the male and female size varied, males did not gain more offspring per mating with large females. Collectively, our results indicate sex-specific effects of the developmental environment on the operation of sexual selection, via both the phenotype of individuals, and the phenotype of their competitors and mates. PMID:27167120

  20. Developmental Environment Effects on Sexual Selection in Male and Female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Juliano; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes–high (low) densities for small (large) adults–and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities. Overall, large adult females (those reared at low larval density) had more matings, more mates and produced more offspring than small females (those reared at high larval density). The number of offspring produced by females was positively associated with their number of mates (i.e. there was a positive female Bateman gradient) in social groups where female size was experimentally varied, likely due to the covariance between female productivity and mating rate. For males, we found evidence that the larval environment affected the relative importance of sexual selection via mate number (Bateman gradients), mate productivity, paternity share, and their covariances. Mate number and mate productivity were significantly reduced for small males in social environments where males were of mixed sizes, versus social environments where all males were small, suggesting that social heterogeneity altered selection on this subset of males. Males are commonly assumed to benefit from mating with large females, but in contrast to expectations we found that in groups where both the male and female size varied, males did not gain more offspring per mating with large females. Collectively, our results indicate sex-specific effects of the developmental environment on the operation of sexual selection, via both the phenotype of individuals, and the phenotype of their competitors and mates. PMID:27167120

  1. Behavior of Aberrant Chromosome Configurations in Drosophila melanogaster Female Meiosis I

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, William D.; Colwell, Eileen M.; Lane, Fiona M.; Snouffer, Ashley A.

    2014-01-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  2. Molecular spectrum of spontaneous de novo mutations in male and female germline cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yutaka; Takahashi, Aya; Itoh, Masanobu; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We carried out mutation screen experiments to understand the rate and molecular nature of spontaneous de novo mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, which are crucial for many evolutionary issues, but still poorly understood. We screened for eye-color and body-color mutations that occurred in the germline cells of the first generation offspring of wild-caught females. The offspring were from matings that had occurred in the field and therefore had a genetic composition close to that of flies in natural populations. We employed 1554 F(1) individuals from 374 wild-caught females for the experiments to avoid biased contributions of any particular genotype. From approximately 8.6 million alleles screened, we obtained 10 independent mutants: two point mutations (one for each sex), a single deletion of approximately 6 kb in a male, a single transposable element insertion in a female, five large deletions ranging in size from 40 to 500 kb in females, and a single mutation of unknown nature in a male. The five large deletions were presumably generated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between transposable elements at different locations, illustrating the mutagenic nature of recombination. The high occurrence of NAHR that we observed has important consequences for genome evolution through the production of segmental duplications. PMID:19114461

  3. Behavior of aberrant chromosome configurations in Drosophila melanogaster female meiosis I.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, William D; Colwell, Eileen M; Lane, Fiona M; Snouffer, Ashley A

    2015-02-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  4. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  5. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Chad M.; Robinson, Matthew C.; Aylor, David L.; Singh, Nadia D.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  6. Hemiclonal analysis of interacting phenotypes in male and female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying the sources of variation in mating interactions between males and females is important because this variation influences the strength and/or the direction of sexual selection that populations experience. While the origins and effects of variation in male attractiveness and ornamentation have received much scrutiny, the causes and consequences of intraspecific variation in females have been relatively overlooked. We used cytogenetic cloning techniques developed for Drosophila melanogaster to create “hemiclonal” males and females with whom we directly observed sexual interaction between individuals of different known genetic backgrounds and measured subsequent reproductive outcomes. Using this approach, we were able to quantify the genetic contribution of each mate to the observed phenotypic variation in biologically important traits including mating speed, copulation duration, and subsequent offspring production, as well as measure the magnitude and direction of intersexual genetic correlation between female choosiness and male attractiveness. Results We found significant additive genetic variation contributing to mating speed that can be attributed to male genetic identity, female genetic identity, but not their interaction. Furthermore we found that phenotypic variation in copulation duration had a significant male-associated genetic component. Female genetic identity and the interaction between male and female genetic identity accounted for a substantial amount of the observed phenotypic variation in egg size. Although previous research predicts a trade-off between egg size and fecundity, this was not evident in our results. We found a strong negative genetic correlation between female choosiness and male attractiveness, a result that suggests a potentially important role for sexually antagonistic alleles in sexual selection processes in our population. Conclusion These results further our understanding of sexual selection because they

  7. A genetic analysis of intersex, a gene regulating sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster females

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, B.A. |; Baker, B.S.

    1995-04-01

    Sex-type in Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by a hierarchically acting set of regulatory genes. At the terminus of this hierarchy lie those regulatory genes responsible for implementing sexual differentiation: genes that control the activity of target loci whose products give rise to sexually dimorphic phenotypes. The genetic analysis of the intersex (ix) gene presented here demonstrates that ix is such a terminally positioned regulatory locus. The ix locus has been localized to the cytogenetic interval between 47E3-6 and 47F11-18. A comparison of the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of homozygotes and hemizygotes for three point mutations at ix indicates that the null phenotypes of homozygotes diplo-X animals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. Analysis of X-ray induced, mitotic recombination clones lacking ix{sup +} function in the abdomen of diplo-X individuals indicates that the ix{sup +} product functions in a cell-autonomous manner and that it is required at least until the termination of cell division in this tissue. Taken together with previous analyses, our results indicate that the ix{sup +} product is required to function with the female-specific product of doublesex to implement appropriate female sexual differentiation in diplo-X animals. 55 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Topoisomerase II Is Required for the Proper Separation of Heterochromatic Regions during Drosophila melanogaster Female Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Stacie E.; Hawley, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatic homology ensures the segregation of achiasmate chromosomes during meiosis I in Drosophila melanogaster females, perhaps as a consequence of the heterochromatic threads that connect achiasmate homologs during prometaphase I. Here, we ask how these threads, and other possible heterochromatic entanglements, are resolved prior to anaphase I. We show that the knockdown of Topoisomerase II (Top2) by RNAi in the later stages of meiosis results in a specific defect in the separation of heterochromatic regions after spindle assembly. In Top2 RNAi-expressing oocytes, heterochromatic regions of both achiasmate and chiasmate chromosomes often failed to separate during prometaphase I and metaphase I. Heterochromatic regions were stretched into long, abnormal projections with centromeres localizing near the tips of the projections in some oocytes. Despite these anomalies, we observed bipolar spindles in most Top2 RNAi-expressing oocytes, although the obligately achiasmate 4th chromosomes exhibited a near complete failure to move toward the spindle poles during prometaphase I. Both achiasmate and chiasmate chromosomes displayed defects in biorientation. Given that euchromatic regions separate much earlier in prophase, no defects were expected or observed in the ability of euchromatic regions to separate during late prophase upon knockdown of Top2 at mid-prophase. Finally, embryos from Top2 RNAi-expressing females frequently failed to initiate mitotic divisions. These data suggest both that Topoisomerase II is involved in the resolution of heterochromatic DNA entanglements during meiosis I and that these entanglements must be resolved in order to complete meiosis. PMID:25340780

  9. A reappraisal of the hormonal regulation of larval fat body histolysis in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Richard, D S; Arnim, A E; Gilbert, L I

    1993-02-15

    The histolysis of larval fat body cells in adult female Drosophila melanogaster was examined in wild type and mutant animals. The fat body cells of wild type (Canton-S), apterous56f homozygotes, apterous78jts homozygotes and heterozygotes, apterous4/+, ecdysoneless1 homozygotes and heterozygotes all underwent histolysis normally during the 72 h following adult eclosion. Only in the case of ap4/ap4 adults did the cells fail to histolyze normally. The fat body cells of both diapausing and non-diapausing wild type females underwent histolysis at the same rate. Attempts to demonstrate histolysis in vitro were unsuccessful, even in the presence of juvenile hormones (JHs), larval ring glands, or adult ovaries. In all strains other than the ap4 homozygotes, a significant proportion of larval fat body cells were dead at any time while the ap4/ap4 animals, almost all cells remained viable. It is postulated that fat body cell lysis following eclosion is not a JH-mediated event, but is elicited by an as yet unidentified factor(s), possibly originating in the ovary. PMID:8440351

  10. Topoisomerase II is required for the proper separation of heterochromatic regions during Drosophila melanogaster female meiosis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stacie E; Hawley, R Scott

    2014-10-01

    Heterochromatic homology ensures the segregation of achiasmate chromosomes during meiosis I in Drosophila melanogaster females, perhaps as a consequence of the heterochromatic threads that connect achiasmate homologs during prometaphase I. Here, we ask how these threads, and other possible heterochromatic entanglements, are resolved prior to anaphase I. We show that the knockdown of Topoisomerase II (Top2) by RNAi in the later stages of meiosis results in a specific defect in the separation of heterochromatic regions after spindle assembly. In Top2 RNAi-expressing oocytes, heterochromatic regions of both achiasmate and chiasmate chromosomes often failed to separate during prometaphase I and metaphase I. Heterochromatic regions were stretched into long, abnormal projections with centromeres localizing near the tips of the projections in some oocytes. Despite these anomalies, we observed bipolar spindles in most Top2 RNAi-expressing oocytes, although the obligately achiasmate 4th chromosomes exhibited a near complete failure to move toward the spindle poles during prometaphase I. Both achiasmate and chiasmate chromosomes displayed defects in biorientation. Given that euchromatic regions separate much earlier in prophase, no defects were expected or observed in the ability of euchromatic regions to separate during late prophase upon knockdown of Top2 at mid-prophase. Finally, embryos from Top2 RNAi-expressing females frequently failed to initiate mitotic divisions. These data suggest both that Topoisomerase II is involved in the resolution of heterochromatic DNA entanglements during meiosis I and that these entanglements must be resolved in order to complete meiosis. PMID:25340780

  11. The Retired Fly: Detecting Life History Transition in Individual Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, James W

    2015-12-01

    Life history observations at the level of individual model organisms are relatively scarce, but highly informative. Here I analyze published data on the survival and lifetime fecundity of 3,971 individually housed, mated Drosophila melanogaster females from nine experimental populations. Data were collected from four laboratories and include counts of over 4.6 million eggs. Individual fecundity records are dominated by zero-egg-days (ZEDs). I show that the timing of ZEDs is informative about the survival and reproduction of individual flies. The first postmaturation ZED divides adult life into two functional stages: working and retired. The working stage is characterized by relatively high levels of oviposition and survival, while the retired stage is characterized by low levels of oviposition and reduced survival. The retired stage typically lasts one quarter of the total adult life span. The age of transition varies between flies; consequently age-synchronized cohorts will generally contain a mixture of working and retired flies, possibly influencing responses to experimental treatments. ZED can be used as a nonintrusive, real-time biomarker to distinguish live flies in the prime of life from those in a terminal state. PMID:26359246

  12. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  13. SEMINAL PROTEINS BUT NOT SPERM INDUCE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DURING SPERM STORAGE

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Erika M.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2007-01-01

    In most insects, sperm transferred by the male to the female during mating are stored within the female reproductive tract for subsequent use in fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, male accessory gland proteins (Acps) within the seminal fluid are required for efficient transfer and subsequent accumulation of sperm in the female's sperm storage organs. To determine the events within the female reproductive tract that occur during sperm storage, and the role that Acps and sperm play in these events, we identified morphological changes that take place during sperm storage in females mated to wild-type, Acp-deficient or sperm-deficient males. A reproducible set of morphological changes occurs in a wild-type mating. These were categorized into 10 stereotypic stages. Sperm are not needed for progression through these stages in females, but receipt of Acps is essential for progression beyond the first few stages of morphological changes. Furthermore, females that received small quantities of Acps reached slightly later stages than females that received no Acps. Our results suggest that timely morphological changes in the female reproductive tract, possibly muscular in nature, may be needed for successful sperm storage, and that Acps from the male are needed in order for these changes to occur. PMID:17276455

  14. The ecology of sexual conflict: ecologically dependent parallel evolution of male harm and female resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Dutton, Emily M; Agrawal, Aneil F; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of sexual conflict in nature, along with the potentially stochastic nature of the resulting coevolutionary trajectories, makes it an important driver of phenotypic divergence and speciation that can operate even in the absence of environmental differences. The majority of empirical work investigating sexual conflict's role in population divergence/speciation has therefore been done in uniform environments and any role of ecology has largely been ignored. However, theory suggests that natural selection can constrain phenotypes influenced by sexual conflict. We use replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to alternative environments to test how ecology influences the evolution of male effects on female longevity. The extent to which males reduce female longevity, as well as female resistance to such harm, both evolved in association with adaptation to the different environments. Our results demonstrate that ecology plays a central role in shaping patterns of population divergence in traits under sexual conflict. PMID:24215269

  15. Somatic mutation in the wings of Drosophila melanogaster females dysgenic due to P elements when reared at 29 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Getz, C; van Schaik, N

    1991-05-01

    The possibility of somatic mobilisation of P elements in Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Flies, trans-heterozygous for the genetic markers mwh and flr3, were obtained by crossing males containing transposition-competent P elements with females having M cytotype. The hybrid dysgenic flies were reared at 29 degrees C and their wings examined for mutant clones. The frequency of mutant spots found on the wings of the female flies was significantly higher than that of female control flies. We postulate that this increase in frequency may be due to P element mobilisation at high temperature in the wing cells of dysgenic hybrids. This is in direct contrast to the large body of research which indicates that P-transposition-mediated mutation is restricted to the germline. PMID:1851538

  16. Female Choice or Male Sex Drive? The Advantages of Male Body Size during Mating in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Shah, Ushma; Chakrabarti, Debarti; Singh, Rama S

    2015-01-01

    The mating success of larger male Drosophila melanogaster in the laboratory and the wild has been traditionally been explained by female choice, even though the reasons are generally hard to reconcile. Female choice can explain this success by virtue of females taking less time to mate with preferred males, but so can the more aggressive or persistent courtships efforts of large males. Since mating is a negotiation between the two sexes, the behaviors of both are likely to interact and influence mating outcomes. Using a series of assays, we explored these negotiations by testing for the relative influence of male behaviors and its effect on influencing female courtship arousal threshold, which is the time taken for females to accept copulation. Our results show that large males indeed have higher copulation success compared to smaller males. Competition between two males or an increasing number of males had no influence on female sexual arousal threshold;-females therefore may have a relatively fixed 'arousal threshold' that must be reached before they are ready to mate, and larger males appear to be able to manipulate this threshold sooner. On the other hand, the females' physiological and behavioral state drastically influences mating; once females have crossed the courtship arousal threshold they take less time to mate and mate indiscriminately with large and small males. Mating quicker with larger males may be misconstrued to be due to female choice; our results suggest that the mating advantage of larger males may be more a result of heightened male activity and relatively less of female choice. Body size per se may not be a trait under selection by female choice, but size likely amplifies male activity and signal outputs in courtship, allowing them to influence female arousal threshold faster. PMID:26658421

  17. Pheromonal Cues Deposited by Mated Females Convey Social Information about Egg-Laying Sites in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Duménil, Claire; Woud, David; Pinto, Francesco; Alkema, Jeroen T; Jansen, Ilse; Van Der Geest, Anne M; Roessingh, Sanne; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Individuals can make choices based on information learned from others, a phenomenon called social learning. How observers differentiate between which individual they should or should not learn from is, however, poorly understood. Here, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster females can influence the choice of egg-laying site of other females through pheromonal marking. Mated females mark territories of high quality food by ejecting surplus male sperm containing the aggregation pheromone cis-11-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) and, in addition, deposit several sex- and species-specific cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) pheromones. These pheromonal cues affect the choices of other females, which respond by preferentially laying eggs on the marked food. This system benefits both senders and responders, as communal egg laying increases offspring survival. Virgin females, however, do not elicit a change in the egg-laying decision of mated females, even when food has been supplemented with ejected sperm from mated females, thus indicating the necessity for additional cues. Genetic ablation of either a female's CHC pheromones or those of their mate results in loss of ability of mated females to attract other females. We conclude that mated females use a pheromonal marking system, comprising cVA acquired from male ejaculate with sex- and species-specific CHCs produced by both mates, to indicate egg-laying sites. This system ensures information reliability because mated, but not virgin, females have both the ability to generate the pheromone blend that attracts other flies to those sites and a direct interest in egg-laying site quality. PMID:26994611

  18. Analysis of the doublesex female protein in Drosophila melanogaster: role on sexual differentiation and behavior and dependence on intersex.

    PubMed Central

    Waterbury, J A; Jackson, L L; Schedl, P

    1999-01-01

    doublesex (dsx) is unusual among the known sex-determination genes of Drosophila melanogaster in that functional homologs are found in distantly related species. In flies, dsx occupies a position near the bottom of the sex determination hierarchy. It is expressed in male- and female-specific forms and these proteins function as sex-specific transcription factors. In the studies reported here, we have ectopically expressed the female Dsx protein (Dsx(F)) from a constitutive promoter and examined its regulatory activities independent of other upstream factors involved in female sex determination. We show that it functions as a positive regulator of female differentiation and a negative regulator of male differentiation. As predicted by the DNA-binding properties of the Dsx protein, Dsx(F) and Dsx(M) compete with each other for the regulation of target genes. In addition to directing sex-specific differentiation, Dsx(F) plays an important role in sexual behavior. Wild-type males ectopically expressing Dsx(F) are actively courted by other males. This acquisition of feminine sex appeal is likely due to the induction of female pheromones by Dsx(F). More extreme behavioral abnormalities are observed when Dsx(F) is ectopically expressed in dsx(-) XY animals; these animals are not only courted by, but also copulate with, wild-type males. Finally, we provide evidence that intersex is required for the feminizing activities of Dsx(F) and that it is not regulated by the sex-specific splicing cascade. PMID:10430590

  19. Female Sterile Mutations on the Second Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Mutations Blocking Oogenesis or Altering Egg Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Schupbach, T.; Wieschaus, E.

    1991-01-01

    In mutagenesis screens for recessive female sterile mutations on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster 528 lines were isolated which allow the homozygous females to survive but cause sterility. In 62 of these lines early stages of oogenesis are affected, and these females usually do not lay any eggs. In 333 lines oogenesis proceeds apparently normally to stage 8 of oogenesis, but morphological defects become often apparent during later stages of oogenesis, and are visible in the defective eggs produced by these females whereas 133 lay eggs that appear morphologically normal, but do not support normal embryonic development. Of the lines 341 have been genetically characterized and define a total of 140 loci on the second chromosome. Not all the loci are specific for oogenesis. From the numbers obtained we estimate that the second chromosome of Drosophila contains about 13 loci that are relatively specific for early oogenesis, 70 loci that are specifically required in mid to late oogenesis, and around 30 maternal-effect lethals. PMID:1783295

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Dominant Female Sterile Mutations of Drosophila Melanogaster. I. Mutations on the Third Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Erdelyi, M.; Szabad, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-one dominant female sterile (Fs) mutations linked to the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster are described. EMS induced Fs mutations arise with the frequency of one Fs per about 2500 recessive lethals. Complementation analysis of the revertants showed that these Fs mutations represent 27-34 loci, about 60% of the third chromosome units mutable to dominant female sterility by EMS. The Fs mutations were mapped on the basis of mitotic recombination induced in the female (in 16 cases also in the male) germ-line. Behavior of the revertants and the Fs(+) germ-line clones demonstrate the gain-of-function nature of the Fs alleles. With two exceptions, the Fs(3) mutations are germ-line dependent. Novel phenotypes appeared in most of the Fs mutations. With eight exceptions, the Fs(3) mutations are fully penetrant, in some cases with variable expressivity. One of the Fs(3) mutations is a non-ovary-dependent egg retention mutation, two others alter egg shape, and 27 bring about arrest in development at about the time of fertilization. In 21 of the Fs(3) mutations embryos develop to the larval stage of differentiation; this group includes 5 new alleles of Toll and 4 of easter. PMID:2499514

  1. Reconciling Differences in Pool-GWAS Between Populations: A Case Study of Female Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Endler, Lukas; Betancourt, Andrea J.; Nolte, Viola; Schlötterer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The degree of concordance between populations in the genetic architecture of a given trait is an important issue in medical and evolutionary genetics. Here, we address this problem, using a replicated pooled genome-wide association study approach (Pool-GWAS) to compare the genetic basis of variation in abdominal pigmentation in female European and South African Drosophila melanogaster. We find that, in both the European and the South African flies, variants near the tan and bric-à-brac 1 (bab1) genes are most strongly associated with pigmentation. However, the relative contribution of these loci differs: in the European populations, tan outranks bab1, while the converse is true for the South African flies. Using simulations, we show that this result can be explained parsimoniously, without invoking different causal variants between the populations, by a combination of frequency differences between the two populations and dominance for the causal alleles at the bab1 locus. Our results demonstrate the power of cost-effective, replicated Pool-GWAS to shed light on differences in the genetic architecture of a given trait between populations. PMID:26715669

  2. Proviral amplification of the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster involves env-independent invasion of the female germline.

    PubMed

    Chalvet, F; Teysset, L; Terzian, C; Prud'homme, N; Santamaria, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1999-05-01

    Gypsy is an infectious endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. The gypsy proviruses replicate very efficiently in the genome of the progeny of females homozygous for permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. This replicative transposition is correlated with derepression of gypsy expression, specifically in the somatic cells of the ovaries of the permissive mothers. The determinism of this amplification was studied further by making chimeric mothers containing different permissive/restrictive and somatic/germinal lineages. We show here that the derepression of active proviruses in the permissive soma is necessary and sufficient to induce proviral insertions in the progeny, even if the F1 flies derive from restrictive germ cells devoid of active proviruses. Therefore, gypsy endogenous multiplication results from the transfer of some gypsy-encoded genetic material from the soma towards the germen of the mother and its subsequent insertion into the chromosomes of the progeny. This transfer, however, is not likely to result from retroviral infection of the germline. Indeed, we also show here that the insertion of a tagged gypsy element, mutant for the env gene, occurs at high frequency, independently of the production of gypsy Env proteins by any transcomplementing helper. The possible role of the env gene for horizontal transfer to new hosts is discussed. PMID:10228177

  3. A mechanism for the elimination of the female gamete centrosome in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pimenta-Marques, A; Bento, I; Lopes, C A M; Duarte, P; Jana, S C; Bettencourt-Dias, M

    2016-07-01

    An important feature of fertilization is the asymmetric inheritance of centrioles. In most species it is the sperm that contributes the initial centriole, which builds the first centrosome that is essential for early development. However, given that centrioles are thought to be exceptionally stable structures, the mechanism behind centriole disappearance in the female germ line remains elusive and paradoxical. We elucidated a program for centriole maintenance in fruit flies, led by Polo kinase and the pericentriolar matrix (PCM): The PCM is down-regulated in the female germ line during oogenesis, which results in centriole loss. Perturbing this program prevents centriole loss, leading to abnormal meiotic and mitotic divisions, and thus to female sterility. This mechanism challenges the view that centrioles are intrinsically stable structures and reveals general functions for Polo kinase and the PCM in centriole maintenance. We propose that regulation of this maintenance program is essential for successful sexual reproduction and defines centriole life span in different tissues in homeostasis and disease, thereby shaping the cytoskeleton. PMID:27229142

  4. Evolution of pre- and post-copulatory traits in female Drosophila melanogaster as a correlated response to selection for resistance to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karan; Prasad, Nagaraj Guru

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to low temperatures reduces gamete viability and fecundity in females of insect species like Drosophila. Hence, adaptation to cold stress can in principle involve modifications in reproductive traits in females. Studies on resistance to cold stress have mostly addressed the evolution of adult survivorship post cold shock. Very few studies have addressed the evolution of reproductive traits in females in response to cold stress. We have successfully selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. After 50 generations of selection, we investigated pre- and post-copulatory traits i.e. mating latency, copulation duration, mating frequency and progeny production in female flies exposed to cold shock or control conditions. Post cold shock, females from the selected populations were better at recovery in terms of mating latency, mating success, and progeny production relative to females from the control populations. Performance of the two types of females was not different under control conditions. These findings clearly indicate that adaptation to cold stress involves rapid modification of the reproductive traits. PMID:27317621

  5. The virulent Wolbachia strain wMelPop increases the frequency of apoptosis in the female germline cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are bacterial endosymbionts of many arthropod species in which they manipulate reproductive functions. The distribution of these bacteria in the Drosophila ovarian cells at different stages of oogenesis has been amply described. The pathways along which Wolbachia influences Drosophila oogenesis have been, so far, little studied. It is known that Wolbachia are abundant in the somatic stem cell niche of the Drosophila germarium. A checkpoint, where programmed cell death, or apoptosis, can occur, is located in region 2a/2b of the germarium, which comprises niche cells. Here we address the question whether or not the presence of Wolbachia in germarium cells can affect the frequency of cyst apoptosis in the checkpoint. Results Our current fluorescent microscopic observations showed that the wMel and wMelPop strains had different effects on female germline cells of D. melanogaster. The Wolbachia strain wMel did not affect the frequency of apoptosis in cells of the germarium. The presence of the Wolbachia strain wMelPop in the D. melanogasterw1118 ovaries increased the number of germaria where cells underwent apoptosis in the checkpoint. Based on the appearance in the electron microscope, there was no difference in morphological features of apoptotic cystocytes between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected flies. Bacteria with normal ultrastructure and large numbers of degenerating bacteria were found in the dying cyst cells. Conclusions Our current study demonstrated that the Wolbachia strain wMelPop affects the egg chamber formation in the D. melanogaster ovaries. This led to an increase in the number of germaria containing apoptotic cells. It is suggested that Wolbachia can adversely interfere either with the cystocyte differentiation into the oocyte or with the division of somatic stem cells giving rise to follicle cells and, as a consequence, to improper ratio of germline cells to follicle cells and, ultimately, to apoptosis of cysts. There was no

  6. Evidence for an Inducible Repair-Recombination System in the Female Germ Line of Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Differential Sensitivity to Gamma Rays

    PubMed Central

    Laurencon, A.; Bregliano, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    In a previous paper, we reported that the reactivity level, which regulates the frequency of transposition of I factor, a LINE element-like retrotransposon, is enhanced by the same agents that induce the SOS response in Escherichia coli. In this report, we describe experimental evidence that, for identical genotypes, the reactivity levels correlate with the sensitivity of oogenesis to gamma rays, measured by the number of eggs laid and by frequency of dominant lethals. This strongly supports the hypothesis that the reactivity level is one manifestation of an inducible DNA repair system taking place in the female germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. The implications of this finding for the understanding of the regulation of I factor are discussed and some other possible biological roles of this system are outlined. PMID:8647394

  7. Male-Killing Spiroplasma Alters Behavior of the Dosage Compensation Complex during Drosophila melanogaster Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Becky; Kuppanda, Nitin; Aldrich, John C; Akbari, Omar S; Ferree, Patrick M

    2016-05-23

    Numerous arthropods harbor maternally transmitted bacteria that induce the preferential death of males [1-7]. This sex-specific lethality benefits the bacteria because males are "dead ends" regarding bacterial transmission, and their absence may result in additional resources for their viable female siblings who can thereby more successfully transmit the bacteria [5]. Although these symbionts disrupt a range of developmental processes [8-10], the underlying cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. It was previously shown that mutations in genes of the dosage compensation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster suppressed male killing caused by the bacterium, Spiroplasma [10]. This result suggested that dosage compensation is a target of Spiroplasma. However, it remains unclear how this pathway is affected, and whether the underlying interactions require the male-specific cellular environment. Here, we investigated the cellular basis of male embryonic lethality in D. melanogaster induced by Spiroplasma. We found that the dosage compensation complex (DCC), which acetylates X chromatin in males [11], becomes mis-localized to ectopic regions of the nucleus immediately prior to the killing phase. This effect was accompanied by inappropriate histone acetylation and genome-wide mis-regulation of gene expression. Artificially induced formation of the DCC in infected females, through transgenic expression of the DCC-specific gene msl-2, resulted in mis-localization of this complex to non-X regions and early Spiroplasma-induced death, mirroring the killing effects in males. These findings strongly suggest that Spiroplasma initiates male killing by targeting the dosage compensation machinery directly and independently of other cellular features characteristic of the male sex. PMID:27161498

  8. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control. PMID:26495040

  9. Live fast die young life history in females: evolutionary trade-off between early life mating and lifespan in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Travers, Laura M; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental to life history theory. Sexual selection is expected to favour a 'live fast die young' life history pattern in males due to increased risk of extrinsic mortality associated with obtaining mates. Sexual conflict may also drive a genetic trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in females. We found significant additive genetic variance in longevity independent of lifetime mating frequency, and in early life mating frequency. There was significant negative genetic covariance between these traits indicating that females from families characterized by high levels of multiple mating early in life die sooner than females that engage in less intense early life mating. Thus, despite heritable variation in both traits, their independent evolution is constrained by an evolutionary trade-off. Our findings indicate that, in addition to the well-known male-driven direct costs of mating on female lifespan (mediated by male harassment and harmful effects of seminal fluids), females with a genetic propensity to mate multiply live shorter lives. We discuss the potential role of sexual conflict in driving the evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in Drosophila. More generally, our data show that, like males, females can exhibit a live fast die young life history strategy. PMID:26482533

  10. Live fast die young life history in females: evolutionary trade-off between early life mating and lifespan in female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Laura M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental to life history theory. Sexual selection is expected to favour a ‘live fast die young’ life history pattern in males due to increased risk of extrinsic mortality associated with obtaining mates. Sexual conflict may also drive a genetic trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in females. We found significant additive genetic variance in longevity independent of lifetime mating frequency, and in early life mating frequency. There was significant negative genetic covariance between these traits indicating that females from families characterized by high levels of multiple mating early in life die sooner than females that engage in less intense early life mating. Thus, despite heritable variation in both traits, their independent evolution is constrained by an evolutionary trade-off. Our findings indicate that, in addition to the well-known male-driven direct costs of mating on female lifespan (mediated by male harassment and harmful effects of seminal fluids), females with a genetic propensity to mate multiply live shorter lives. We discuss the potential role of sexual conflict in driving the evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in Drosophila. More generally, our data show that, like males, females can exhibit a live fast die young life history strategy. PMID:26482533

  11. Potentially active copies of the gypsy retroelement are confined to the Y chromosome of some strains of Drosophila melanogaster possibly as the result of the female-specific effect of the flamenco gene.

    PubMed

    Chalvet, F; di Franco, C; Terrinoni, A; Pelisson, A; Junakovic, N; Bucheton, A

    1998-04-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus present in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. This element is mobilized only in the progeny of females which contain active gypsy elements and which are homozygous for permissive alleles of a host gene called flamenco (flam). Some data strongly suggest that gypsy elements bearing a diagnostic HindIII site in the central region of the retrovirus body represent a subfamily that appears to be much more active than elements devoid of this site. We have taken advantage of this structural difference to assess by the Southern blotting technique the genomic distribution of active gypsy elements. In some of the laboratory Drosophila stocks tested, active gypsy elements were found to be restricted to the Y chromosome. Further analyses of 14 strains tested for the permissive vs. restrictive status of their flamenco alleles suggest that the presence of permissive alleles of flam in a stock tends to be associated with the confinement of active gypsy elements to the Y chromosome. This might be the result of the female-specific effect of flamenco on gypsy activity. PMID:9541538

  12. Integrated 3D view of postmating responses by the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract, obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Alexandra L; Riccio, Mark L; Avila, Frank W; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-07-01

    Physiological changes in females during and after mating are triggered by seminal fluid components in conjunction with female-derived molecules. In insects, these changes include increased egg production, storage of sperm, and changes in muscle contraction within the reproductive tract (RT). Such postmating changes have been studied in dissected RT tissues, but understanding their coordination in vivo requires a holistic view of the tissues and their interrelationships. Here, we used high-resolution, multiscale micro-computed tomography (CT) scans to visualize and measure postmating changes in situ in the Drosophila female RT before, during, and after mating. These studies reveal previously unidentified dynamic changes in the conformation of the female RT that occur after mating. Our results also reveal how the reproductive organs temporally shift in concert within the confines of the abdomen. For example, we observed chiral loops in the uterus and in the upper common oviduct that relax and constrict throughout sperm storage and egg movement. We found that specific seminal fluid proteins or female secretions mediate some of the postmating changes in morphology. The morphological movements, in turn, can cause further changes due to the connections among organs. In addition, we observed apparent copulatory damage to the female intima, suggesting a mechanism for entry of seminal proteins, or other exogenous components, into the female's circulatory system. The 3D reconstructions provided by high-resolution micro-CT scans reveal how male and female molecules and anatomy interface to carry out and coordinate mating-dependent changes in the female's reproductive physiology. PMID:26041806

  13. Integrated 3D view of postmating responses by the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract, obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Alexandra L.; Riccio, Mark L.; Avila, Frank W.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological changes in females during and after mating are triggered by seminal fluid components in conjunction with female-derived molecules. In insects, these changes include increased egg production, storage of sperm, and changes in muscle contraction within the reproductive tract (RT). Such postmating changes have been studied in dissected RT tissues, but understanding their coordination in vivo requires a holistic view of the tissues and their interrelationships. Here, we used high-resolution, multiscale micro-computed tomography (CT) scans to visualize and measure postmating changes in situ in the Drosophila female RT before, during, and after mating. These studies reveal previously unidentified dynamic changes in the conformation of the female RT that occur after mating. Our results also reveal how the reproductive organs temporally shift in concert within the confines of the abdomen. For example, we observed chiral loops in the uterus and in the upper common oviduct that relax and constrict throughout sperm storage and egg movement. We found that specific seminal fluid proteins or female secretions mediate some of the postmating changes in morphology. The morphological movements, in turn, can cause further changes due to the connections among organs. In addition, we observed apparent copulatory damage to the female intima, suggesting a mechanism for entry of seminal proteins, or other exogenous components, into the female’s circulatory system. The 3D reconstructions provided by high-resolution micro-CT scans reveal how male and female molecules and anatomy interface to carry out and coordinate mating-dependent changes in the female’s reproductive physiology. PMID:26041806

  14. Differential effects of male nutrient balance on pre- and post-copulatory traits, and consequences for female reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliano; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Male fitness depends on the expression of costly traits involved in obtaining mates (pre-copulatory) and fertilization (post-copulatory). However, very little is known about the nutrient requirements for these traits and whether males compromise their diet to maximize one trait at the expense of another. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to investigate macronutrient requirements for pre- and post-copulatory traits in Drosophila, when males were the first or second to mate with females. We found no significant effects of male diet on sperm competitiveness. However, although males self-regulate their macronutrient intake at a protein-to-carbohydrate ratio ("P:C ratio") of 1:1.5, this ratio does not coincide with their optima for several key reproductive traits: both the short-term (~24 hr) rate of offspring production after a female's first mating, as well as the total offspring number sired when males were second to mate were maximized at a P:C ratio of 1:9, whereas male attractiveness (latency to mate), were maximised at a P:C ratio of 1:1. These results suggest a compromised optimum diet, and no single diet that simultaneously maximizes all male reproductive traits. The protein intake of first males also negatively affected female offspring production following remating, suggesting a long-term intersexual effect of male nutrition. PMID:27270223

  15. Differential effects of male nutrient balance on pre- and post-copulatory traits, and consequences for female reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Juliano; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Male fitness depends on the expression of costly traits involved in obtaining mates (pre-copulatory) and fertilization (post-copulatory). However, very little is known about the nutrient requirements for these traits and whether males compromise their diet to maximize one trait at the expense of another. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to investigate macronutrient requirements for pre- and post-copulatory traits in Drosophila, when males were the first or second to mate with females. We found no significant effects of male diet on sperm competitiveness. However, although males self-regulate their macronutrient intake at a protein-to-carbohydrate ratio (“P:C ratio”) of 1:1.5, this ratio does not coincide with their optima for several key reproductive traits: both the short-term (~24 hr) rate of offspring production after a female’s first mating, as well as the total offspring number sired when males were second to mate were maximized at a P:C ratio of 1:9, whereas male attractiveness (latency to mate), were maximised at a P:C ratio of 1:1. These results suggest a compromised optimum diet, and no single diet that simultaneously maximizes all male reproductive traits. The protein intake of first males also negatively affected female offspring production following remating, suggesting a long-term intersexual effect of male nutrition. PMID:27270223

  16. The Female Post-Mating Response Requires Genes Expressed in the Secondary Cells of the Male Accessory Gland in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, Jessica L; Gligorov, Dragan; Maeda, Robert K; Karch, François; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-03-01

    Seminal proteins from the Drosophila male accessory gland induce post-mating responses (PMR) in females. The PMR comprise behavioral and physiological changes that include increased egg laying, decreased receptivity to courting males, and changes in the storage and use of sperm. Many of these changes are induced by a "sex peptide" (SP) and are maintained by SP's binding to, and slow release from, sperm. The accessory gland contains two secretory cell types with distinct morphological and developmental characteristics. Products of these "main" and "secondary" cells work interdependently to induce and maintain the PMR. To identify individual genes needed for the morphology and function of secondary cells, we studied iab-6(cocu) males, whose secondary cells have abnormal morphology and fail to provide products to maintain the PMR. By RNA-seq, we identified 77 genes that are downregulated by a factor of >5× in iab-6(cocu) males. By functional assays and microscopy, we tested 20 candidate genes and found that at least 9 are required for normal storage and release of SP in mated females. Knockdown of each of these 9 genes consequently leads to a reduction in egg laying and an increase in receptivity over time, confirming a role for the secondary cells in maintaining the long-term PMR. Interestingly, only 1 of the 9 genes, CG3349, encodes a previously reported seminal fluid protein (Sfp), suggesting that secondary cells may perform essential functions beyond the production and modification of known Sfps. At least 3 of the 9 genes also regulate the size and/or abundance of secondary cell vacuoles, suggesting that the vacuoles' contents may be important for the machinery used to maintain the PMR. PMID:26746709

  17. Bisexual Hybrid Sterility in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, D. J.; Angus, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of hybrid sterility was investigated in D. melanogaster . Matings between strain 27 males from Para Wirra, South Australia, and Canton-S females produce 70–80% fully sterile male and female progeny. Strain 27 males produce sterile progeny when crossed to females of other geographic origins, but produce fertile progeny when crossed to a second sympatric strain. The sterility is avoided by lower rearing temperatures. Heat shock and tetracycline produce no improvement in the fertility of the hybrids. Normal flies produce sterile progeny when injected with, or fed, homogenates of sterile flies. A combination of maternal and paternal factors may interact to produce sterile hybrids by inhibiting gonad development. PMID:17248832

  18. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  19. Non-Nutritive Polyol Sweeteners Differ in Insecticidal Activity When Ingested by Adult Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Sean; Baudier, Kaitlin; Marenda, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work showed the non-nutritive polyol sweetener Erythritol was toxic when ingested by Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1930). This study assessed whether insect toxicity is a general property of polyols. Among tested compounds, toxicity was highest for erythritol. Adult fruit flies (D. melanogaster) fed erythritol had reduced longevity relative to controls. Other polyols did not reduce longevity; the only exception was a weaker but significant reduction of female (but not male) longevity when flies were fed D-mannitol. We conclude at least some non-nutritive polyols are not toxic to adult D. melanogaster when ingested for 17 days. The longer time course (relative to erythritol) and female specificity of D-mannitol mortality suggests different mechanisms for D-mannitol and erythritol toxicity to D. melanogaster. PMID:27271968

  20. Non-Nutritive Polyol Sweeteners Differ in Insecticidal Activity When Ingested by Adult Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sean; Baudier, Kaitlin; Marenda, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Previous work showed the non-nutritive polyol sweetener Erythritol was toxic when ingested by Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1930). This study assessed whether insect toxicity is a general property of polyols. Among tested compounds, toxicity was highest for erythritol. Adult fruit flies (D. melanogaster) fed erythritol had reduced longevity relative to controls. Other polyols did not reduce longevity; the only exception was a weaker but significant reduction of female (but not male) longevity when flies were fed D-mannitol. We conclude at least some non-nutritive polyols are not toxic to adult D. melanogaster when ingested for 17 days. The longer time course (relative to erythritol) and female specificity of D-mannitol mortality suggests different mechanisms for D-mannitol and erythritol toxicity to D. melanogaster. PMID:27271968

  1. The Sexually Antagonistic Genes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, Paolo; Morrow, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    When selective pressures differ between males and females, the genes experiencing these conflicting evolutionary forces are said to be sexually antagonistic. Although the phenotypic effect of these genes has been documented in both wild and laboratory populations, their identity, number, and location remains unknown. Here, by combining data on sex-specific fitness and genome-wide transcript abundance in a quantitative genetic framework, we identified a group of candidate genes experiencing sexually antagonistic selection in the adult, which correspond to 8% of Drosophila melanogaster genes. As predicted, the X chromosome is enriched for these genes, but surprisingly they represent only a small proportion of the total number of sex-biased transcripts, indicating that the latter is a poor predictor of sexual antagonism. Furthermore, the majority of genes whose expression profiles showed a significant relationship with either male or female adult fitness are also sexually antagonistic. These results provide a first insight into the genetic basis of intralocus sexual conflict and indicate that genetic variation for fitness is dominated and maintained by sexual antagonism, potentially neutralizing any indirect genetic benefits of sexual selection. PMID:20305719

  2. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Duff, Michael O.; Landolin, Jane M.; Yang, Li; Artieri, Carlo G.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Boley, Nathan; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brown, James B.; Cherbas, Lucy; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alex; Li, Renhua; Lin, Wei; Malone, John H.; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R.; Miller, David; Sturgill, David; Tuch, Brian B.; Zaleski, Chris; Zhang, Dayu; Blanchette, Marco; Dudoit, Sandrine; Eads, Brian; Green, Richard E.; Hammonds, Ann; Jiang, Lichun; Kapranov, Phil; Langton, Laura; Perrimon, Norbert; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Yi; Andrews, Justen; Bicke, Peter J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Peter; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Oliver, Brian; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-12-02

    . Whereas, 20% of Drosophila genes are annotated as encoding alternatively spliced premRNAs, splice-junction microarray experiments indicate that this number is at least 40% (ref. 7). Determining the diversity of mRNAs generated by alternative promoters, alternative splicing and RNA editing will substantially increase the inferred protein repertoire. Non-coding RNA genes (ncRNAs) including short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAS (miRNAs) (reviewed in ref. 10), and longer ncRNAs such as bxd (ref. 11) and rox (ref. 12), have important roles in gene regulation, whereas others such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs)and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are important components of macromolecular machines such as the ribosome and spliceosome. The transcription and processing of these ncRNAs must also be fully documented and mapped. As part of the modENCODE project to annotate the functional elements of the D. melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, we used RNA-Seq and tiling microarrays to sample the Drosophila transcriptome at unprecedented depth throughout development from early embryo to ageing male and female adults. We report on a high-resolution view of the discovery, structure and dynamic expression of the D. melanogaster transcriptome.

  3. [Functional analysis of Grp and Iris, the gag and env domesticated errantivirus genes, in the Drosophila melanogaster genome].

    PubMed

    Makhnovskii, P A; Kuzmin, I V; Nefedova, L N; Kima, A I

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is the only invertebrate that contains endogenous retroviruses, which are called errantiviruses. Two domesticated genes, Grp and Iris, which originate from errantivirus gag and env, respectively, have been found in the D. melanogaster genome. The functions performed by the genes in Drosophila are still unclear. To identify the functions of domesticated gag and env in the D. melanogaster genome, expression of Iris and Grp was studied in strains differing by the presence or absence of the functional gypsy errantivirus. In addition, the expression levels were measured after injection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which activate different immune response pathways, and exposure to various abiotic stress factors. The presence of functional D. melanogaster retrovirus gypsy was found to increase the Grp expression level in somatic tissues of the carcass, while exerting no effect on the Iris expression level. Activation of the immune response in D. melanogaster by bacteria Bacillus cereus increased the Grp expression level and did not affect Iris expression. As for the effects of abiotic stress factors (oxidative stress, starvation, and heat and cold stress), the Grp expression level increased in response to starvation in D. melanogaster females, and the Iris expression level was downregulated in heat shock and oxidative stress. Based on the findings, Grp was assumed to play a direct role in the immune response in D. melanogaster; Iris is not involved in immune responses, but and apparently performs a cell function that is inhibited in stress. PMID:27414781

  4. Role of Enhancer of zeste on the Production of Drosophila melanogaster Pheromonal Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicker-Thomas, C.; Jallon, J.-M.

    In a search for genes controlling the production of Drosophila melanogaster contact pheromones, the gene Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] was found to be one player. Flies mutant for either the amorphic or the antimorphic allele of E(z) showed a similar hydrocarbon phenotype as those with the overlapping Df lxd15deficiency: decreased amounts of total hydrocarbons and especially unsaturated ones in both sexes. The decrease in the level of D. melanogaster female sex pheromone 7,11-heptacosadiene was dramatic and was correlated with an increase in 7-heptacosene. Females mutant for a gain-of-function allele had increased amounts of total hydrocarbons with wild-type proportions of dienes. Thus the E(z) gene seems to affect hydrocarbon biosynthesis, especially its desaturation steps and even more so the female-specific desaturation step transforming 7-monoenic fatty acids to 7,11-dienic ones and leading to female pheromones.

  5. Mating success of wild type and sepia mutants Drosophila melanogaster in different choice.

    PubMed

    Stanić, Snezana; Pavković-Lucic, Sofija

    2005-01-01

    Mating behaviour of red-eyed (wt) and brown-eyed (sepia) Drosophila melanogaster was studied under light conditions. Mating success was directly observed in mating vials and techniques usually applied in the studies of sexual selection ("female choice" and "multiple choice"). The comparison of sexual activity of mutant and wild types clearly indicates that they are not equally successful in matings. Sepia eye colour mutation decreases sexual activity of Drosophila melanogaster males, influences the preference ability of females and decreases the number of progeny from homogamic mating of the se x se type, as well as from heterogamic copulations in which sepia females take part. Non-random mating of wild type males and sepia females (in "multiple-choice" situation), with genetically and phenotypically different individuals, could be another mechanism for conservation of genetic polymorphism in natural populations. PMID:16440285

  6. Solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) does not induce aneuploidy in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Traut, H.

    1983-01-01

    Both with a conventional method and with the ''aneuploidy pattern method'' the authors tested whether the solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is able to induce aneuploidy (numerical chromosome aberrations) in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster. DMSO was fed as a 2% solution to Drosophila females. No evidence for a mutagenic activity was obtained. This finding and the negative results reported by other authors for other types of mutation in Drosophila show that DMSO can be used as a solvent for chemical agents in mutagencity screening in Drosophila melanogaster.

  7. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  8. Incompatibility Between X Chromosome Factor and Pericentric Heterochromatic Region Causes Lethality in Hybrids Between Drosophila melanogaster and Its Sibling Species

    PubMed Central

    Cattani, M. Victoria; Presgraves, Daven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Dobzhansky–Muller model posits that postzygotic reproductive isolation results from the evolution of incompatible epistatic interactions between species: alleles that function in the genetic background of one species can cause sterility or lethality in the genetic background of another species. Progress in identifying and characterizing factors involved in postzygotic isolation in Drosophila has remained slow, mainly because Drosophila melanogaster, with all of its genetic tools, forms dead or sterile hybrids when crossed to its sister species, D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. To circumvent this problem, we used chromosome deletions and duplications from D. melanogaster to map two hybrid incompatibility loci in F1 hybrids with its sister species. We mapped a recessive factor to the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the X chromosome in D. simulans and D. mauritiana, which we call heterochromatin hybrid lethal (hhl), which causes lethality in F1 hybrid females with D. melanogaster. As F1 hybrid males hemizygous for a D. mauritiana (or D. simulans) X chromosome are viable, the lethality of deficiency hybrid females implies that a dominant incompatible partner locus exists on the D. melanogaster X. Using small segments of the D. melanogaster X chromosome duplicated onto the Y chromosome, we mapped a dominant factor that causes hybrid lethality to a small 24-gene region of the D. melanogaster X. We provide evidence suggesting that it interacts with hhlmau. The location of hhl is consistent with the emerging theme that hybrid incompatibilities in Drosophila involve heterochromatic regions and factors that interact with the heterochromatin. PMID:22446316

  9. Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein genes: Selection for duplications

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    The metallothionein genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Mtn and Mto, may play an important role in heavy-metal detoxification. In order to investigate the possibility of increased selection for duplications of these genes in natural populations exposed to high levels of heavy metals, I compared the frequencies of such duplications among flies collected from metal-contaminated and non-contaminated orchards in Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Georgia. Contaminated of collection sites and of local flies was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrosphotometry. Six-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis was used to screen 1666 wild third chromosomes for Mtn duplications. A subset (327) of these lines was screened for Mto duplications: none were found. Cadmium tolerance test performed on F{sub 2} progeny of wild females failed to detect a difference in tolerance levels between flies from contaminated orchards and flies from control orchards. Estimates of sequence diversity among a subsample (92) of the chromosomes used in the duplication survey, including all 27 Mtn duplication chromosomes, were obtained using four-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis.

  10. Contribution of larval nutrition to adult reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Jerell R; Hoshizaki, Deborah K; Gibbs, Allen G

    2013-02-01

    Within the complex life cycle of holometabolous insects, nutritional resources acquired during larval feeding are utilized by the pupa and the adult. The broad features of the transfer of larval resources to the pupae and the allocation of larval resources in the adult have been described by studies measuring and tracking macronutrients at different developmental stages. However, the mechanisms of resource transfer from the larva and the factors regulating the allocation of these resources in the adult between growth, reproduction and somatic maintenance are unknown. Drosophila melanogaster presents a tractable system in which to test cellular and tissue mechanisms of resource acquisition and allocation because of the detailed understanding of D. melanogaster development and the experimental tools to manipulate its tissues across developmental stages. In previous work, we demonstrated that the fat body of D. melanogaster larvae is important for survival of starvation stress in the young adult, and suggested that programmed cell death of the larval fat cells in the adult is important for allocation of resources for female reproduction. Here, we describe the temporal uptake of larval-derived carbon by the ovaries, and demonstrate the importance of larval fat-cell death in the maturation of the ovary and in fecundity. Larvae and adults were fed stable carbon isotopes to follow the acquisition of larval-derived carbon by the adult ovaries. We determined that over half of the nutrients acquired by the ovaries in 2-day-old adult females are dependent upon the death of the fat cells. Furthermore, when programmed cell death is inhibited in the larval fat cells, ovarian development was depressed and fecundity was reduced. PMID:23038728

  11. Behavioral role of the sexcombs in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    Cook, R M

    1977-09-01

    The sexcombs were amputated from males of three strains of Drosophila melanogaster and one strain of D. simulans in order to assess the importance of these structures in the sexual behavior of these species. In D. melanogaster the sexcombs are important in attempts to copulate with the female. Their removal delays copulation but does not suppress it entirely. Other aspects of courtship are not influenced by removal of the sexcombs. Strain differences in quanitative aspects of courtship were found, and also in the insemination rates of females by males without sexcombs. The present evidence suggests that the sexcombs are primarily structures adapted to grasping the female securely during the act of intromission. PMID:411471

  12. Leigh Syndrome in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Da-Rè, Caterina; von Stockum, Sophia; Biscontin, Alberto; Millino, Caterina; Cisotto, Paola; Zordan, Mauro A.; Zeviani, Massimo; Bernardi, Paolo; De Pittà, Cristiano; Costa, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Leigh Syndrome (LS) is the most common early-onset, progressive mitochondrial encephalopathy usually leading to early death. The single most prevalent cause of LS is occurrence of mutations in the SURF1 gene, and LSSurf1 patients show a ubiquitous and specific decrease in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, COX). SURF1 encodes an inner membrane mitochondrial protein involved in COX assembly. We established a Drosophila melanogaster model of LS based on the post-transcriptional silencing of CG9943, the Drosophila homolog of SURF1. Knockdown of Surf1 was induced ubiquitously in larvae and adults, which led to lethality; in the mesodermal derivatives, which led to pupal lethality; or in the central nervous system, which allowed survival. A biochemical characterization was carried out in knockdown individuals, which revealed that larvae unexpectedly displayed defects in all complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and in the F-ATP synthase, while adults had a COX-selective impairment. Silencing of Surf1 expression in Drosophila S2R+ cells led to selective loss of COX activity associated with decreased oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve. We conclude that Surf1 is essential for COX activity and mitochondrial function in D. melanogaster, thus providing a new tool that may help clarify the pathogenic mechanisms of LS. PMID:25164807

  13. Discovery of Supernumerary B Chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Bauerly, Elisabeth; Hughes, Stacie E.; Vietti, Dana R.; Miller, Danny E.; McDowell, William; Hawley, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    B chromosomes are small, heterochromatic chromosomes that are transmitted in a non-Mendelian manner. We have identified a stock of Drosophila melanogaster that recently (within the last decade) acquired an average of 10 B chromosomes per fly. These B chromosomes are transmitted by both males and females and can be maintained for multiple generations in a wild-type genetic background despite the fact that they cause high levels of 4th chromosome meiotic nondisjunction in females. Most curiously, these B chromosomes are mitotically unstable, suggesting either the absence of critical chromosomal sites or the inability of the meiotic or mitotic systems to cope with many additional chromosomes. These B chromosomes also contain centromeres and are primarily composed of the heterochromatic AATAT satellite sequence. Although the AATAT sequence comprises the majority of the 4th chromosome heterochromatin, the B chromosomes lack most, if not all, 4th chromosome euchromatin. Presumably as a consequence of their heterochromatic content, these B chromosomes significantly modify position-effect variegation in two separate reporter systems, acting as enhancers of variegation in one case and suppressors in the other. The identification of B chromosomes in a genetically tractable organism like D. melanogaster will facilitate studies of chromosome evolution and the analysis of the mechanisms by which meiotic and mitotic processes cope with additional chromosomes. PMID:24478336

  14. Drosophila melanogaster larvae make nutritional choices that minimize developmental time.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marisa A; Martins, Nelson E; Balancé, Lara F; Broom, Lara N; Dias, António J S; Fernandes, Ana Sofia D; Rodrigues, Fábio; Sucena, Élio; Mirth, Christen K

    2015-10-01

    Organisms from slime moulds to humans carefully regulate their macronutrient intake to optimize a wide range of life history characters including survival, stress resistance, and reproductive success. However, life history characters often differ in their response to nutrition, forcing organisms to make foraging decisions while balancing the trade-offs between these effects. To date, we have a limited understanding of how the nutritional environment shapes the relationship between life history characters and foraging decisions. To gain insight into the problem, we used a geometric framework for nutrition to assess how the protein and carbohydrate content of the larval diet affected key life history traits in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In no-choice assays, survival from egg to pupae, female and male body size, and ovariole number - a proxy for female fecundity - were maximized at the highest protein to carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (1.5:1). In contrast, development time was minimized at intermediate P:C ratios, around 1:2. Next, we subjected larvae to two-choice tests to determine how they regulated their protein and carbohydrate intake in relation to these life history traits. Our results show that larvae targeted their consumption to P:C ratios that minimized development time. Finally, we examined whether adult females also chose to lay their eggs in the P:C ratios that minimized developmental time. Using a three-choice assay, we found that adult females preferentially laid their eggs in food P:C ratios that were suboptimal for all larval life history traits. Our results demonstrate that D. melanogaster larvae make foraging decisions that trade-off developmental time with body size, ovariole number, and survival. In addition, adult females make oviposition decisions that do not appear to benefit the larvae. We propose that these decisions may reflect the living nature of the larval nutritional environment in rotting fruit. These studies illustrate the

  15. Hybrid Lethal Systems in the Drosophila Melanogaster Species Complex. I. the Maternal Hybrid Rescue (Mhr) Gene of Drosophila Simulans

    PubMed Central

    Sawamura, K.; Taira, T.; Watanabe, T. K.

    1993-01-01

    Hybrid females from Drosophila simulans females X Drosophila melanogaster males die as embryos while hybrid males from the reciprocal cross die as late larvae. The other two classes are sterile adults. Letting C, X, and Y designate egg cytoplasm, X, and Y chromosomes, respectively, and subscripts m and s stand for melanogaster and simulans, C(m)X(m)Y(s) males are lethal in the larval stage and are rescued by the previously reported genes, Lhr (Lethal hybrid rescue) in simulans or Hmr (Hybrid male rescue) in melanogaster. We report here another rescue gene located on the second chromosome of simulans, mhr (maternal hybrid rescue) that, when present in the mother, rescues C(s)X(m)X(s) females from embryonic lethality. It has been postulated that the hybrids not carrying the X(s) like C(m)X(m)Y(s) males are larval lethal and that the hybrids carrying both the C(s) and the X(m) like C(s)X(m)X(s) females are embryonic lethal. According to these postulates C(s)X(m)Y(s) males (obtained by mating attached-X simulans females to melanogaster males) should be doubly lethal, at both embryo and larval stages. When both rescuing genes are present, Hmr in the father and mhr in the mother, males of this genotype are fully viable, as predicted. PMID:8436276

  16. Investigating Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, Rafael S.; Eikenes, Åsmund H.; Haglund, Kaisa; Jones, D. Leanne

    2014-01-01

    The process of spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful model system to probe a variety of developmental and cell biological questions, such as the characterization of mechanisms that regulate stem cell behavior, cytokinesis, meiosis, and mitochondrial dynamics. Classical genetic approaches, together with binary expression systems, FRT-mediated recombination, and novel imaging systems to capture single cell behavior, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms regulating all aspects of spermatogenesis. This methods chapter provides a detailed description of the system, a review of key questions chapter that have been addressed or remain unanswered thus far, and an introduction to tools and techniques available to probe each stage of spermatogenesis. PMID:24798812

  17. Rapid desiccation hardening changes the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Sové, Richard J; Rundle, Howard D; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-02-01

    The success of insects in terrestrial environments is due in large part to their ability to resist desiccation stress. Since the majority of water is lost across the cuticle, a relatively water-impermeable cuticle is a major component of insect desiccation resistance. Cuticular permeability is affected by the properties and mixing effects of component hydrocarbons, and changes in cuticular hydrocarbons can affect desiccation tolerance. A pre-exposure to a mild desiccation stress increases duration of desiccation survival in adult female Drosophila melanogaster, via a decrease in cuticular permeability. To test whether this acute response to desiccation stress is due to a change in cuticular hydrocarbons, we treated male and female D. melanogaster to a rapid desiccation hardening (RDH) treatment and used gas chromatography to examine the effects on cuticular hydrocarbon composition. RDH led to reduced proportions of unsaturated and methylated hydrocarbons compared to controls in females, but although RDH modified the cuticular hydrocarbon profile in males, there was no coordinated pattern. These data suggest that the phenomenon of RDH leading to reduced cuticular water loss occurs via an acute change in cuticular hydrocarbons that enhances desiccation tolerance in female, but not male, D. melanogaster. PMID:25460832

  18. Substrate-borne vibratory communication during courtship in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Caroline C G; Hedwig, Berthold; Conduit, Graham; Lawrence, Peter A; Goodwin, Stephen F; Casal, José

    2012-11-20

    Courtship in Drosophila melanogaster has become an iconic example of an innate and interactive series of behaviors. The female signals her acceptance of copulation by becoming immobile in response to a male's display of stereotyped actions. The male and female communicate via vision, air-borne sounds, and pheromones, but what triggers the female's immobility is undetermined. Here, we describe an overlooked and important component of Drosophila courtship. Video recordings and laser vibrometry show that the male abdomen shakes ("quivers"), generating substrate-borne vibrations at about six pulses per second. We present evidence that the female becomes receptive and stops walking because she senses these vibrations, rather than as a response to air-borne songs produced by the male fluttering the wings. We also present evidence that the neural circuits expressing the sex-determination genes fruitless and doublesex drive quivering behavior. These abdominal quivers and associated vibrations, as well as their effect on female receptivity, are conserved in other Drosophila species. Substrate-borne vibrations are an ancient form of communication that is widespread in animals. Our findings in Drosophila open a door to study the neuromuscular circuitry responsible for these signals and the sensory systems needed for their reception. PMID:23103187

  19. Differential responses to artificial selection on oviposition site preferences in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans.

    PubMed

    Soto, Eduardo M; Betti, María I L; Hurtado, Juan; Hasson, Esteban

    2015-12-01

    The preference-performance relationship in plant-insect interactions is a central theme in evolutionary ecology. Among many insects, eggs are vulnerable and larvae have limited mobility, making the choice of an appropriate oviposition site one of the most important decisions for a female. We investigated the evolution of oviposition preferences in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and Drosophila simulans Sturtevant by artificially selecting for the preference for 2 natural resources, grape and quince. The main finding of our study is the differential responses of D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Although preferences evolved in the experimental populations of D. melanogaster, responses were not consistent with the selection regimes applied. In contrast, responses in D. simulans were consistent with expectations, demonstrating that this species has selectable genetic variation for the trait. Furthermore, crosses between D. simulans divergent lines showed that the genetic factors involved in grape preference appear to be largely recessive. In summary, our artificial selection study suggests that D. melanogaster and D. simulans possess different genetic architectures for this trait. PMID:25263841

  20. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  1. Iron absorption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-05-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  2. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently the gold standard for cardiac pacing. However, it is invasive and nonspecific for cardiac tissues. We recently developed a noninvasive cardiac pacing technique using optogenetic tools, which are widely used in neuroscience. Optogenetic pacing of the heart provides high spatial and temporal precisions, is specific for cardiac tissues, avoids artifacts associated with electrical stimulation, and therefore promises to be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research. We demonstrated optogenetic control of heart rhythm in a well-established model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. We developed transgenic flies expressing a light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), specifically in their hearts and demonstrated successful optogenetic pacing of ChR2-expressing Drosophila at different developmental stages, including the larva, pupa, and adult stages. A high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy imaging system that is capable of providing images at a rate of 130 frames/s with axial and transverse resolutions of 1.5 and 3.9 μm, respectively, was used to noninvasively monitor Drosophila cardiac function and its response to pacing stimulation. The development of a noninvasive integrated optical pacing and imaging system provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology. PMID:26601299

  3. Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Sleep in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Harbison, Susan T.; Sehgal, Amita

    2008-01-01

    Although intensively studied, the biological purpose of sleep is not known. To identify candidate genes affecting sleep, we assayed 136 isogenic P-element insertion lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Since sleep has been negatively correlated with energy reserves across taxa, we measured energy stores (whole-body protein, glycogen, and triglycerides) in these lines as well. Twenty-one insertions with known effects on physiology, development, and behavior affect 24-hr sleep time. Thirty-two candidate insertions significantly impact energy stores. Mutational genetic correlations among sleep parameters revealed that the genetic basis of the transition between sleep and waking states in males and females may be different. Furthermore, sleep bout number can be decoupled from waking activity in males, but not in females. Significant genetic correlations are present between sleep phenotypes and glycogen stores in males, while sleep phenotypes are correlated with triglycerides in females. Differences observed in male and female sleep behavior in flies may therefore be related to sex-specific differences in metabolic needs. Sleep thus emerges as a complex trait that exhibits extensive pleiotropy and sex specificity. The large mutational target that we observed implicates genes functioning in a variety of biological processes, suggesting that sleep may serve a number of different functions rather than a single purpose. PMID:18430954

  4. Frequency-dependent viability in mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, J W; Sheen, F M

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotypic frequencies on egg-to-adult viabilities in pairwise combinations of four strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The experiments involved mixture of a total of 42,000 eggs in varying proportions under controlled densities and observation of surviving adults. Viabilities were found to depend on frequencies in several genotypic combinations. In the most extreme case, the absolute viability of cn;bw females increased monotonically from 54% when common to 70% when rare. The results illustrate several statistical and methodological problems that might explain why some experiments have failed to detect frequency-dependent viabilities. These problems include heterogeneity between replications, sex differences in susceptibility to competition, and strong dependence of the experimental outcome on the choice of competitor genotypes. PMID:1901577

  5. When Choice Makes Sense: Menthol Influence on Mating, Oviposition and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Abed-Vieillard, Dehbia; Cortot, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The environment to which insects have been exposed as larvae and adults can affect subsequent behaviors, such as mating, oviposition, food preference or fitness. Experience can change female preference for oviposition, particularly in phytophagous insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, females avoid laying eggs on menthol rich-food when given the choice. Exposure to menthol during larval development reduces this aversion. However, this observation was not reproduced in the following generation. Recently, we have shown that oviposition-site preference (OSP) differs between wild-type D. melanogaster lines freely or forcibly exposed to menthol. After 12 generations, menthol “forced” lines still exhibit a persistent aversion to menthol whereas ‘free-choice’ lines show a decreased aversion for menthol rich-food. Here, we compare courtship behavior, mating and female fecundity in “forced” and “free-choice” lines, raised either on menthol rich-food (Menthol-lines) or on menthol-free food (Plain-lines). “Forced” males did not discriminate between decapitated virgin females of the two lines. They courted and mated with intact females of both “forced” lines in a comparable rate. However “forced” M-line males did mate significantly more rapidly with “forced” M-line females. In the “free-choice” procedure, P-line males show a similar pattern as “forced” males for discrimination ability and courtship. M-line males courted significantly more M-line females. Both ‘free-choice’ lines males mated significantly more with females of their own line. Female fecundity was assessed during 10 days in ‘free-choice’ lines. Menthol-line females laid more eggs during the first 4 days than female Plain-lines and parental control-line. The total number of eggs laid during the first 10 days of female adult life is comparable in M-line and parental control line. However, Menthol-line females laid eggs earlier than both parental control and Plain

  6. When Choice Makes Sense: Menthol Influence on Mating, Oviposition and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Abed-Vieillard, Dehbia; Cortot, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The environment to which insects have been exposed as larvae and adults can affect subsequent behaviors, such as mating, oviposition, food preference or fitness. Experience can change female preference for oviposition, particularly in phytophagous insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, females avoid laying eggs on menthol rich-food when given the choice. Exposure to menthol during larval development reduces this aversion. However, this observation was not reproduced in the following generation. Recently, we have shown that oviposition-site preference (OSP) differs between wild-type D. melanogaster lines freely or forcibly exposed to menthol. After 12 generations, menthol "forced" lines still exhibit a persistent aversion to menthol whereas 'free-choice' lines show a decreased aversion for menthol rich-food. Here, we compare courtship behavior, mating and female fecundity in "forced" and "free-choice" lines, raised either on menthol rich-food (Menthol-lines) or on menthol-free food (Plain-lines). "Forced" males did not discriminate between decapitated virgin females of the two lines. They courted and mated with intact females of both "forced" lines in a comparable rate. However "forced" M-line males did mate significantly more rapidly with "forced" M-line females. In the "free-choice" procedure, P-line males show a similar pattern as "forced" males for discrimination ability and courtship. M-line males courted significantly more M-line females. Both 'free-choice' lines males mated significantly more with females of their own line. Female fecundity was assessed during 10 days in 'free-choice' lines. Menthol-line females laid more eggs during the first 4 days than female Plain-lines and parental control-line. The total number of eggs laid during the first 10 days of female adult life is comparable in M-line and parental control line. However, Menthol-line females laid eggs earlier than both parental control and Plain-lines. Our findings show that in D. melanogaster, as

  7. Courtship Song Does Not Increase the Rate of Adaptation to a Thermally Stressful Environment in a Drosophila melanogaster Laboratory Population

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Larry G.; Holland, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Courtship song in D. melanogaster contributes substantially to male mating success through female selection. We used experimental evolution to test whether this display trait is maintained through adaptive female selection because it indicates heritable male quality for thermal stress tolerance. We used non-displaying, outbred populations of D. melanogaster (nub1) mutants and measured their rate of adaptation to a new, thermally stressful environment, relative to wild-type control populations that retained courtship song. This design retains sexually selected conflict in both treatments. Thermal stress should select across genomes for newly beneficial alleles, increasing the available genetic and phenotypic variation and, therefore, the magnitude of female benefit derived from courtship song. Following introduction to the thermally stressful environment, net reproductive rate decreased 50% over four generations, and then increased 19% over the following 16 generations. There were no differences between the treatments. Possible explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25365209

  8. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Prud`homme, N.; Gans, M.; Masson, M.; Terzian, C.; Bucheton, A.

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is table and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovo{sup D1} female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovo{sup D1} reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. 40 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, N; Gans, M; Masson, M; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is stable and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovoD1 female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovoD1 reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. PMID:7713426

  10. Sexual conflict is not counterbalanced by good genes in the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster model system.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A D; Hannes, A M; Mirzatuny, A; Rice, W R

    2008-11-01

    Sexual conflict theory is based on the observation that females of many species are harmed through their interactions with males. Direct harm to females, however, can potentially be counterbalanced by indirect genetic benefits, where females make up for a reduction in offspring quantity by an increase in offspring quality through a generic increase in offspring fitness (good genes) and/or one restricted to the context of sexual selection (sexy sons). Here, we quantify the magnitude of the good genes mechanism of indirect benefits in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that despite high-standing genetic variance for fitness, females gain at most only a modest benefit through the good genes form of indirect benefits--far too little to counterbalance the direct cost of male-induced harm. PMID:18681915

  11. Male seminal fluid proteins are essential for sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Tram, U; Wolfner, M F

    1999-01-01

    The seminal fluid that is transferred along with sperm during mating acts in many ways to maximize a male's reproductive success. Here, we use transgenic Drosophila melanogaster males deficient in the seminal fluid proteins derived from the accessory gland (Acps) to investigate the role of these proteins in the fate of sperm transferred to females during mating. Competitive PCR assays were used to show that while Acps contribute to the efficiency of sperm transfer, they are not essential for the transfer of sperm to the female. In contrast, we found that Acps are essential for storage of sperm by females. Direct counts of stored sperm showed that 10% of normal levels are stored by females whose mates transfer little or no Acps along with sperm. PMID:10511561

  12. Atrazine exposure affects longevity, development time and body size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Sarah R; Fiumera, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine is the one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States and non-target organisms may encounter it in the environment. Atrazine is known to affect male reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates but less is known about its effects on other fitness traits. Here we assessed the effects of five different chronic exposure levels on a variety of fitness traits in Drosophila melanogaster. We measured male and female longevity, development time, proportion pupated, proportion emerged, body size, female mating rate, fertility and fecundity. Atrazine exposure decreased the proportion pupated, the proportion emerged and adult survival. Development time was also affected by atrazine and exposed flies pupated and emerged earlier than controls. Although development time was accelerated, body size was actually larger in some of the exposures. Atrazine exposure had no effect on female mating rate and the effects on female fertility and fecundity were only observed in one of the two independent experimental blocks. Many of the traits showed non-monotonic dose response curves, where the intermediate concentrations showed the largest effects. Overall this study shows that atrazine influences a variety of life history traits in the model genetic system, D. melanogaster, and future studies should aim to identify the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:27317622

  13. Physiological effects of L-theanine on Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Li, Wenzhe; Yu, Huiyi; Yuan, Ruiqi; Yang, Yang; Pung, Kingston; Li, Ping; Xue, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Green tea has been consumed as the most popular drink in East Asia for centuries, and is believed to have a wide range of health benefits. L-Theanine, the major component of the free amino acids in green tea, has been reported to display neuronal protection and tumor inhibition in vitro, but its physiological effects on animal development and behavior remain elusive. In this report, we used Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, as a model organism to investigate the physiological effects of L-theanine. Flies were fed with three different concentrations of theanine as a dietary supplement after eclosion, and were examined for a variety of physiological parameters at different time points. We found theanine treatment results in significantly increased locomotion and courtship ability, and decreased resistance against wet and dry starvation in males, but not in females. Furthermore, theanine application diminished UV tolerance in females, but not in males. However, we did not perceive distinguishable effect of theanine on animal development, life span, weight, and tolerance of heat and anoxia. This work represents the first comprehensive physiological investigation of L-theanine at the whole animal level, and shall shed light on the mechanistic study of theanine in the future. PMID:24284483

  14. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) locomotion during a sounding rocket flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Keller, Tony S.

    2008-05-01

    The locomotor activity of young Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) was studied during a Nike-Orion sounding rocket flight, which included a short-duration microgravity exposure. An infrared monitoring system was used to determine the activity level, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity of 240 (120 male, 120 female) fruit flies. Individual flies were placed in chambers that limit their motion to walking. Chambers were oriented both vertically and horizontally with respect to the rocket's longitudinal axis. Significant changes in Drosophila locomotion patterns were observed throughout the sounding rocket flight, including launch, microgravity exposure, payload re-entry, and after ocean impact. During the microgravity portion of the flight (3.8 min), large increases in all locomotion measurements for both sexes were observed, with some measurements doubling compared to pad (1 G) data. Initial effects of microgravity were probably delayed due to large accelerations from the payload despining immediately before entering microgravity. The results indicate that short-duration microgravity exposure has a large effect on locomotor activity for both males and females, at least for a short period of time. The locomotion increases may explain the increased male aging observed during long-duration exposure to microgravity. Studies focusing on long-duration microgravity exposure are needed to confirm these findings, and the relationship of increased aging and locomotion.

  15. Heritable variation in courtship patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Bryn E; Ruedi, Elizabeth A; McCoy, Lenovia J; Moore, Jamie M; Wolfner, Mariana F; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the genetic basis of naturally occurring variation for sexually selected behavioral traits. Drosophila melanogaster, with its rich repertoire of courtship behavior and genomic and genetic resources, is an excellent model organism for addressing this question. We assayed a genetically diverse panel of lines with full genome sequences, the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, to assess the heritability of variation in courtship behavior and mating progression. We subsequently used these data to quantify natural variation in transition probabilities between courtship behaviors. We found heritable variation along the expected trajectory for courtship behaviors, including the tendency to initiate courtship and rate of progression through courtship, suggesting a genetic basis to male modulation of courtship behavior based on feedback from unrelated, outbred, and genetically identical females. We assessed the genetic basis of variation of the transition with the greatest heritability--from copulation to no engagement with the female--and identified variants in Serrate and Furin 1 as well as many other polymorphisms on the chromosome 3R associated with this transition. Our findings suggest that courtship is a highly dynamic behavior with both social and genetic inputs, and that males may play an important role in courtship initiation and duration. PMID:25650358

  16. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired. PMID:20739429

  17. Developmental acclimation to low or high humidity conditions affect starvation and heat resistance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-09-01

    Several Drosophila species originating from tropical humid localities are more resistant to starvation and heat stress than populations from high latitudes but mechanistic bases of such physiological changes are largely unknown. In order to test whether humidity levels affect starvation and heat resistance, we investigated developmental acclimation effects of low to high humidity conditions on the storage and utilization of energy resources, body mass, starvation survival, heat knockdown and heat survival of D. melanogaster. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity (85% RH) stored significantly higher level of lipids and showed greater starvation survival hours but smaller in body size. In contrast, lines reared at low humidity evidenced reduced levels of body lipids and starvation resistance. Starvation resistance and lipid storage level were higher in females than males. However, the rate of utilization of lipids under starvation stress was lower for lines reared under higher humidity. Adult flies of lines reared at 65% RH and acclimated under high or low humidity condition for 200 hours also showed changes in resistance to starvation and heat but such effects were significantly lower as compared with developmental acclimation. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity showed greater heat knockdown time and heat-shock survival. These laboratory observations on developmental and adult acclimation effects of low versus high humidity conditions have helped in explaining seasonal changes in resistance to starvation and heat of the wild-caught flies of D. melanogaster. Thus, we may suggest that wet versus drier conditions significantly affect starvation and heat resistance of D. melanogaster. PMID:24845200

  18. Anomalies in the expression profile of interspecific hybrids of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    Ranz, José M; Namgyal, Kalsang; Gibson, Greg; Hartl, Daniel L

    2004-03-01

    When females of Drosophila melanogaster and males of Drosophila simulans are mated, the male progeny are inviable, whereas the female progeny display manifold malformations and are sterile. These abnormalities result from genetic incompatibilities accumulated since the time the lineages of the species diverged, and may have their origin in aberrant gene transcription. Because compensatory changes within species may obscure differences at the regulatory level in conventional comparisons of the expression profile between species, we have compared the gene-expression profile of hybrid females with those of females of the parental species in order to identify regulatory incompatibilities. In the hybrid females, we find abnormal levels of messenger RNA for a large fraction of the Drosophila transcriptome. These include a gross underexpression of genes preferentially expressed in females, accompanying gonadal atrophy. The hybrid females also show significant overexpression of male-biased genes, which we attribute to incompatibilities in the regulatory mechanisms that normally act to control the expression of these genes in females. The net result of the multiple incompatibilities is that the gene-expression profiles of the parental females are more similar to each other than either is to that of the hybrid. PMID:14962989

  19. Increase in Drosophila melanogaster longevity due to rasayana diet: Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshini, S.; Ashadevi, J. S.; Nagarjun, V.; Prasanna, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report preliminary results from an ongoing series of experiments on lifespan extension by appropriately modified Ayurvedic rasayanas in animal models. Here data are presented indicating lifespan extensions of 51–55% (up to 70–95% in the pilot experiment) in a standard strain of Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon-K) using a standard rasayana (Ayurvedic herbal formulation for life-extension) suitably adapted for insects. In a first experiment, two groups of 20 unmated D. melanogaster strain Oregon-K kept at 22°C received either rasayana or standard yeast diet; days of death were recorded. Another experiment investigated possible sex differences; equal sized (N = 30) groups of similar males, females, and controls were compared. Life lengths of all controls were in the strain's usual range: in Experiment 1, control life lengths were minimum 40 to maximum 53 days; experimental group figures were 81–91 days; groups were completely separated, experimental group minimum life length being 28 days more than control group maximum life length, i.e., about 2.5 full distribution widths – a sign test for the null hypothesis yields p < 2–20, i.e., 10–6 as maximum p. Experiment 2 found no differences between life lengths of males and females; but the maximum life length of 30 controls (60 days in males and 66 days in females) was once again far shorter than the minimum life length of the 60 in the two experimental groups, strengthening the findings of Experiment 1. Despite group sizes being relatively small, results are conclusive: the rasayanas in question increase D. melanogaster strain Oregon-K life length. The complexity of the formulation suggests that multiple mechanisms are involved – worth further investigation. PMID:21836798

  20. Oviposition site preferences and performance in natural resources in the human commensals Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans.

    PubMed

    Soto, Eduardo M; Soto, Ignacio M; Cortese, Marcelo D; Hasson, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    The choice of egg laying site and progeny's performance in a rearing site are important components of habitat selection. Despite the huge amount of genetic, morphological, behavioral and physiological data regarding Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and D. simulans Sturtevant, oviposition site preferences remain poorly known. We investigated resource preference (acceptance and choice) and performance (measured as larval viability, developmental time and wing size) in Vitis vinifera Linneo (grape) and Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince), two fruit plants that D. melanogaster and D. simulans use as breeding substrates in Western Argentina. Females of both species preferred V. vinifera over C. oblonga when offered to lay eggs on grape and/or quince, with D. melanogaster showing a more biased preference for V. vinifera than its sibling. Concerning performance, flies reared in C. oblonga developed faster than in V. vinifera, regardless of the species and D. simulans had a shorter developmental time than D. melanogaster. We also observed inter and intraspecific (between flies reared in different resources) differences in wing size and shape. Our study provides novel data concerning ecological aspects scarcely addressed in these species, and suggest that the use of different resource may be a relevant factor in their recent evolutionary history. PMID:21540639

  1. Intrapopulation Genome Size Variation in D. melanogaster Reflects Life History Variation and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lisa L.; Huang, Wen; Quinn, Andrew M.; Ahuja, Astha; Alfrejd, Ben; Gomez, Francisco E.; Hjelmen, Carl E.; Moore, Kristi L.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Johnston, J. Spencer; Tarone, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    We determined female genome sizes using flow cytometry for 211 Drosophila melanogaster sequenced inbred strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and found significant conspecific and intrapopulation variation in genome size. We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates. Genome size accounted for up to 23% of the variation in developmental phenotypes, but the contribution of genome size to variation in life history traits was plastic and varied according to the thermal environment. Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation. These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species. Genome size variation accounts for a significant portion of life history variation in an environmentally dependent manner, suggesting that potential fitness effects associated with genome size variation also depend on environmental conditions. PMID:25057905

  2. The protective role of parsley extract against vincristine mutagenicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alakilli, Saleha Y.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Drosophila melanogaster males were treated with parsley plant extract and the anticancer drug vincristine (VCR) singly and in combined treatments (pre, co and post-treatments) to detect the mutagenic effects by using sex-linked recessive lethal test (SLRL) and estimation of cholinesterase enzyme (ChE) activities in order to compare the sensitivity of the two test systems. A wild type strain Oregon-R (Or-R) male flies of D. melanogaster were reared on a medium containing one concentration of each of VCR and parsley (4 ml/100 ml medium) in each single and combined treatment. Also the activity of ChE was estimated in some insects of the two generations: F1 females, F2 bar eye females (heterozygous) and F2 wild types males. The results indicate that both of parsley and vincristine did not cause significant increases of SLRL test in either the single or combined treatments. In contrast, estimation of ChE activities showed significant increase in all the broods within single and combination treatments, except female of the second generation of spermatid brood which treated with parsley and VCR at the same time. It is concluded that enzyme estimation is more sensitive than SLRL test for detection the mutagenic effect for parsley’s extract and vincristine. PMID:23961058

  3. Incestuous Sisters: Mate Preference for Brothers over Unrelated Males in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Adeline; Cornuau, Jérémie H.; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Étienne

    2012-01-01

    The literature is full of examples of inbreeding avoidance, while recent mathematical models predict that inbreeding tolerance or even inbreeding preference should be expected under several realistic conditions like e.g. polygyny. We investigated male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. Experiments offered the choice between a first order relative (full-sibling or parent) and an unrelated individual with the same age and mating history. We found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference. Moreover, females did not avoid mating with their fathers, and males did not avoid mating with their sisters, thus supporting inbreeding tolerance. Our experiments therefore add empirical evidence for inbreeding preference, which strengthens the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness. PMID:23251487

  4. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, Nils Egil; Clausen, Anders Ranegaard; Willer, Mette; Gojkovic, Zoran

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  6. Cellular immune defenses of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Brendon; Foley, Edan

    2016-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model for the characterization of blood cell development and function, with an array of protocols for the manipulation and visualization of fixed or live cells in vitro or in vivo. Researchers have deployed these techniques to reveal Drosophila hemocytes as a remarkably versatile cell type that engulfs apoptotic corpses; neutralizes invading parasites; seals epithelial wounds; and deposits extracellular matrix proteins. In this review, we will discuss the key features of Drosophila hemocyte development and function, and identify similarities with vertebrate counterparts. PMID:26748247

  7. [Molecular and cellular aspects of radiation hormesis in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Vaĭserman, A M; Litoshenko, A Ia; Kvitnitskaia-Ryzhova, T Iu; Koshel', N M; Mozzhukhina, T G; Mikhal'skiĭ, S A; Voĭtenko, V P

    2003-01-01

    The long-term effects of the R-irradiation of D. melanogaster at the 1-hour egg stage with the dosages of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy were investigated. DNA samples were isolated from whole 5-6-days adult males. The aliquots of DNA were digested by S1-nuclease. Preimaginal stage lethality increased with irradiation dose increasing. At the same time, decrease in imaginal LS (life span) was observed after irradiation with the greatest dose (4 Gy) only. Moreover, hormesis by LS has revealed: in males irradiation with 0.25, 0.75 and 1 Gy increased the mean LS, and with 0.25 and 0.5 Gy caused the maximum LS; in females exposures with 0.25, 0.75 and 2 Gy increased the maximum LS. The densitometric assay of DNA electrophoregrams showed decrease by 39.2% of the part of high-molecular-weight DNA in control as a result of S1-nuclease action. Samples of DNA from the irradiated flies were more stable to enzyme action. The higher stability of DNA originated from the irradiated flies could be the result of reparation system activation. Ultrastructural changes induced at the egg stage by irradiation at the dose of 0.75 Gy testify the increased transcriptional activity of the brain cells. PMID:12945182

  8. Genetic basis of transcriptome diversity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Magwire, Michael M.; Peiffer, Jason A.; Lyman, Richard F.; Stone, Eric A.; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how DNA sequence variation is translated into variation for complex phenotypes has remained elusive but is essential for predicting adaptive evolution, for selecting agriculturally important animals and crops, and for personalized medicine. Gene expression may provide a link between variation in DNA sequence and organismal phenotypes, and its abundance can be measured efficiently and accurately. Here we quantified genome-wide variation in gene expression in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), increasing the annotated Drosophila transcriptome by 11%, including thousands of novel transcribed regions (NTRs). We found that 42% of the Drosophila transcriptome is genetically variable in males and females, including the NTRs, and is organized into modules of genetically correlated transcripts. We found that NTRs often were negatively correlated with the expression of protein-coding genes, which we exploited to annotate NTRs functionally. We identified regulatory variants for the mean and variance of gene expression, which have largely independent genetic control. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for the mean, but not for the variance, of gene expression were concentrated near genes. Notably, the variance eQTLs often interacted epistatically with local variants in these genes to regulate gene expression. This comprehensive characterization of population-scale diversity of transcriptomes and its genetic basis in the DGRP is critically important for a systems understanding of quantitative trait variation. PMID:26483487

  9. Genetic basis of transcriptome diversity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Magwire, Michael M; Peiffer, Jason A; Lyman, Richard F; Stone, Eric A; Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how DNA sequence variation is translated into variation for complex phenotypes has remained elusive but is essential for predicting adaptive evolution, for selecting agriculturally important animals and crops, and for personalized medicine. Gene expression may provide a link between variation in DNA sequence and organismal phenotypes, and its abundance can be measured efficiently and accurately. Here we quantified genome-wide variation in gene expression in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), increasing the annotated Drosophila transcriptome by 11%, including thousands of novel transcribed regions (NTRs). We found that 42% of the Drosophila transcriptome is genetically variable in males and females, including the NTRs, and is organized into modules of genetically correlated transcripts. We found that NTRs often were negatively correlated with the expression of protein-coding genes, which we exploited to annotate NTRs functionally. We identified regulatory variants for the mean and variance of gene expression, which have largely independent genetic control. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for the mean, but not for the variance, of gene expression were concentrated near genes. Notably, the variance eQTLs often interacted epistatically with local variants in these genes to regulate gene expression. This comprehensive characterization of population-scale diversity of transcriptomes and its genetic basis in the DGRP is critically important for a systems understanding of quantitative trait variation. PMID:26483487

  10. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Promislow, D.E.L.; Tatar, M.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Peter Medawar proposed that senescence arises from an age-related decline in the force of selection, which allows late-acting deleterious mutations to accumulate. Subsequent workers have suggested that mutation accumulation could produce an age-related increase in additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits, as recently found in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report results from a genetic analysis of mortality in 65,134 D. melanogaster. Additive genetic variance for female mortality rates increases from 0.007 in the first week of life to 0.325 by the third week, and then declines to 0.002 by the seventh week. Males show a similar pattern, though total variance is lower than in females. In contrast to a predicted divergence in mortality curves, mortality curves of different genotypes are roughly parallel. Using a three-parameter model, we find significant V{sub A} for the slope and constant term of the curve describing age-specific mortality rates, and also for the rate at which mortality decelerates late in life. These results fail to support a prediction derived from Medawar`s {open_quotes}mutation accumulation{close_quotes} theory for the evolution of senescence. However, our results could be consistent with alternative interpretations of evolutionary models of aging. 65 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Between-sex genetic covariance constrains the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ingleby, F C; Innocenti, P; Rundle, H D; Morrow, E H

    2014-08-01

    Males and females share much of their genome, and as a result, intralocus sexual conflict is generated when selection on a shared trait differs between the sexes. This conflict can be partially or entirely resolved via the evolution of sex-specific genetic variation that allows each sex to approach, or possibly achieve, its optimum phenotype, thereby generating sexual dimorphism. However, shared genetic variation between the sexes can impose constraints on the independent expression of a shared trait in males and females, hindering the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Here, we examine genetic constraints on the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) expression. We use the extended G matrix, which includes the between-sex genetic covariances that constitute the B matrix, to compare genetic constraints on two sets of CHC traits that differ in the extent of their sexual dimorphism. We find significant genetic constraints on the evolution of further dimorphism in the least dimorphic traits, but no such constraints for the most dimorphic traits. We also show that the genetic constraints on the least dimorphic CHCs are asymmetrical between the sexes. Our results suggest that there is evidence both for resolved and ongoing sexual conflict in D. melanogaster CHC profiles. PMID:24893565

  12. Mate-choice copying in Drosophila melanogaster: Impact of demonstration conditions and male-male competition.

    PubMed

    Germain, M; Blanchet, S; Loyau, A; Danchin, É

    2016-04-01

    Individuals of many species, including invertebrates, have been shown to use social information in mate choice, notably by extracting information from the mating performance of opposite sex conspecifics, a process called "mate-choice copying" (MCC). Here, we performed four experiments with Drosophila melanogaster to investigate two aspects of MCC methodology: whether (i) providing positive and negative social information simultaneously or sequentially during the demonstration phase of the protocol, and (ii) male-male competition during the mate-choice test, affect MCC. We found that the simultaneous provision of positive and negative information during demonstrations hampered female MCC performance, compared to the sequential provision of information. This can be interpreted in two alternative, yet not exclusive, ways: (i) attentional mechanisms may restrict the focus of the brain to one source of information at a time, and/or (ii) the shorter duration of demonstrations in the simultaneous protocol may have not permit full social learning use and may explain the non-detection of MCC in that protocol. Moreover, we did not detect any significant effect of male-male competition on female choice. This study thus provides further evidence for MCC in D. melanogaster and expands on the necessary methodology for detailed studies. PMID:26851455

  13. Incipient Speciation by Sexual Isolation in Drosophila Melanogaster: Extensive Genetic Divergence without Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Hollocher, H.; Ting, C. T.; Wu, M. L.; Wu, C. I.

    1997-01-01

    The collection of Drosophila melanogaster from Zimbabwe and nearby regions (the Z-type) yield females who would not mate with the cosmopolitan D. melanogaster males (the M-type). To dissect the genetic basis of this sexual isolation, we constructed 16 whole-chromosome substitution lines between two standard Z-and M-lines. The results were as follows: (1) All substitution lines appear normal in viability and fertility in both sexes, indicating no strong postmating isolation. (2) The genes for the behaviors are mapped to all three major chromosomes with the same ranking and comparable magnitude of effects for both sexes: III > II >> X >/= 0 (III, II and X designate the effects of the three chromosomes). The results suggest less evolution on the X than on autosomes at loci of sexual behavior. (3) The genes for ``Z-maleness'' are many and somewhat redundant. Whole-chromosome effects for Z-maleness appear nearly additive and show little dominance. (4) In contrast, ``Z-femaleness'' has less redundancy as partial genotypes never exhibit full phenotypic effects. Epistatic interactions and incomplete dominance can sometimes be detected. (5) The extensive genetic divergence underlying sexual isolation has evolved in the absence of detectable reduction in hybrid fitnesses. Sexual selection has apparently been a driving force of multiple facets of speciation at the nascent stage without reinforcement. PMID:9383062

  14. Rapid screening of potential human bladder carcinogens: genotoxicity in meiosis repair deficient Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lamm, L M; Reichert, D F; Lamm, D L

    1989-11-01

    To find a quick screen of potential bladder carcinogens, a genotoxicity test in Drosophila melanogaster stocks containing DNA repair mutations was evaluated. Meiosis repair deficient male Drosophila melanogaster mei-9, mei-41, and the double mutant mei-9-41 were allowed to mate with attached -x females on media containing the test agent. Genotoxic agents produce DNA damage which accumulates and can be lethal in mei males, whereas the attached -x females are able to repair the damage and survive. Thus, the sex ratio of the progeny is a measure of genotoxicity which can be correlated with mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. In this study, tea, coffee, and saccharin were not genotoxic (p greater than 0.3). Dose dependent toxicity was observed in bracken fern (p less than 0.001). The known mutagen and bladder carcinogen, cyclophosphamide, was highly genotoxic (p less than .001). Drosophila genotoxicity not only permits rapid screening of mutagens, but may also have advantages over other systems in the screening of potential bladder carcinogens. PMID:2509735

  15. Cerebrolysin Accelerates Metamorphosis and Attenuates Aging-Accelerating Effect of High Temperature in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Navrotskaya, V.; Vorobyova, L.; Sharma, H.; Muresanu, D.; Summergrad, P.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrolysin® (CBL) is a neuroprotective drug used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. CBL’s mechanisms of action remain unclear. Involvement of tryptophan (TRP)–kynurenine (KYN) pathway in neuroprotective effect of CBL might be suggested considering that modulation of KYN pathway of TRP metabolism by CBL, and protection against eclosion defect and prolongation of life span of Drosophila melanogaster with pharmacologically or genetically-induced down-regulation of TRP conversion into KYN. To investigate possible involvement of TRP–KYN pathway in mechanisms of neuroprotective effect of CBL, we evaluated CBL effects on metamorphosis and life span of Drosophila melanogaster maintained at 23 °C and 28 °C ambient temperature. CBL accelerated metamorphosis, exerted strong tendency (p = 0.04) to prolong life span in female but not in male flies, and attenuated aging-accelerating effect of high (28 °C) ambient temperature in both female and male flies. Further research of CBL effects on metamorphosis and resistance to aging-accelerating effect of high temperature might offer new insights in mechanisms of its neuroprotective action and expand its clinical applications. PMID:25798213

  16. The phytoestrogen prunetin affects body composition and improves fitness and lifespan in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Piegholdt, Stefanie; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-01

    Dietary isoflavones, a group of secondary plant compounds that exhibit phytoestrogenic properties, are primarily found in soy. Prunetin, a representative isoflavone, was recently found to affect cell signaling in cultured cells; however, in vivo effects remain elusive. In this study, the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used to investigate the effects of prunetin in vivo with respect to lifespan, locomotion, body composition, metabolism, and gut health. Adult flies were chronically administered a prunetin-supplemented diet. Prunetin improved median survival by 3 d, and climbing activity increased by 54% in males. In comparison with the females, male flies exhibited lower climbing activity, which was reversed by prunetin intake. Furthermore, prunetin-fed males exhibited increased expression of the longevity gene Sirtuin 1 (Sir2) (22%), as well as elevated AMPK activation (51%) and triglyceride levels (29%), whereas glucose levels decreased (36%). As females are long-lived compared with their male counterparts and exhibit higher triglyceride levels, prunetin apparently "feminizes" male flies via its estrogenicity. We conclude that the lifespan-prolonging effects of prunetin in the male fruit fly depend on changes in AMPK-regulated energy homeostasis via male "feminization." Collectively, we identified prunetin as a plant bioactive compound capable of improving health status and survival in male D. melanogaster. PMID:26538555

  17. Induction of chromosome aberrations by cis-platinum(II)diamminodichloride in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Brodberg, R.K.; Lyman, R.F.; Woodruff, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have determined the in vivo effects of cis-platinum(II)diamminodichloride (cis-PDD) treatment on the induction of chromosome aberrations in Drosophila melanogaster germ cells. cis-PDD treatment induces significant increases in chromosome breakage in all stages of spermatogenesis in a battery of test systems using ring or rod-X males and repair-proficient or deficient females. Since no increase in nondisjunction was induced by cis-PDD in either male or female germ cells, any aneuploidy inducing effects of this compound should result from its clastogenic action. They also find that mei-9 excision repair function is involved in the repair of cis-PDD-induced DNA lesions in a manner that provides additional evidence that partital and ring chromosome losses are not completely homologous.

  18. Inbreeding removes sex differences in lifespan in a population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Pau; Green, Jared; Sepil, Irem; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in 'unguarded' heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we test a fundamental prediction of the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila melanogaster, namely that inbreeding shortens lifespan more in females (the homogametic sex in Drosophila) than in males. To test for additional sex-specific social effects, we studied the lifespan of males and females kept in isolation, in related same-sex groups, and in unrelated same-sex groups. As expected, outbred females outlived outbred males and inbreeding shortened lifespan. However, inbreeding-mediated reductions in lifespan were stronger for females, such that lifespan was similar in inbred females and males. We also show that the social environment, independent of inbreeding, affected male, but not female lifespan. In conjunction with recent studies, the present results suggest that asymmetric inheritance mechanisms may play an important role in the evolution of sex-specific lifespan and that social effects must be considered explicitly when studying these fundamental patterns. PMID:27354712

  19. Inbreeding removes sex differences in lifespan in a population of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jared; Sepil, Irem; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in ‘unguarded’ heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we test a fundamental prediction of the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila melanogaster, namely that inbreeding shortens lifespan more in females (the homogametic sex in Drosophila) than in males. To test for additional sex-specific social effects, we studied the lifespan of males and females kept in isolation, in related same-sex groups, and in unrelated same-sex groups. As expected, outbred females outlived outbred males and inbreeding shortened lifespan. However, inbreeding-mediated reductions in lifespan were stronger for females, such that lifespan was similar in inbred females and males. We also show that the social environment, independent of inbreeding, affected male, but not female lifespan. In conjunction with recent studies, the present results suggest that asymmetric inheritance mechanisms may play an important role in the evolution of sex-specific lifespan and that social effects must be considered explicitly when studying these fundamental patterns. PMID:27354712

  20. The digestive tract of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The digestive tract plays a central role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Far from being a passive tube, it provides the first line of defense against pathogens and maintains energy homeostasis by exchanging neuronal and endocrine signals with other organs. Historically neglected, the gut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has recently come to the forefront of Drosophila research. Areas as diverse as stem cell biology, neurobiology, metabolism, and immunity are benefitting from the ability to study the genetics of development, growth regulation, and physiology in the same organ. In this review, we summarize our knowledge of the Drosophila digestive tract, with an emphasis on the adult midgut and its functional underpinnings. PMID:24016187

  1. A Protein Interaction Map of Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giot, L.; Bader, J. S.; Brouwer, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Kuang, B.; Li, Y.; Hao, Y. L.; Ooi, C. E.; Godwin, B.; Vitols, E.; Vijayadamodar, G.; Pochart, P.; Machineni, H.; Welsh, M.; Kong, Y.; Zerhusen, B.; Malcolm, R.; Varrone, Z.; Collis, A.; Minto, M.; Burgess, S.; McDaniel, L.; Stimpson, E.; Spriggs, F.; Williams, J.; Neurath, K.; Ioime, N.; Agee, M.; Voss, E.; Furtak, K.; Renzulli, R.; Aanensen, N.; Carrolla, S.; Bickelhaupt, E.; Lazovatsky, Y.; DaSilva, A.; Zhong, J.; Stanyon, C. A.; Finley, R. L.; White, K. P.; Braverman, M.; Jarvie, T.; Gold, S.; Leach, M.; Knight, J.; Shimkets, R. A.; McKenna, M. P.; Chant, J.; Rothberg, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a proven model system for many aspects of human biology. Here we present a two-hybrid-based protein-interaction map of the fly proteome. A total of 10,623 predicted transcripts were isolated and screened against standard and normalized complementary DNA libraries to produce a draft map of 7048 proteins and 20,405 interactions. A computational method of rating two-hybrid interaction confidence was developed to refine this draft map to a higher confidence map of 4679 proteins and 4780 interactions. Statistical modeling of the network showed two levels of organization: a short-range organization, presumably corresponding to multiprotein complexes, and a more global organization, presumably corresponding to intercomplex connections. The network recapitulated known pathways, extended pathways, and uncovered previously unknown pathway components. This map serves as a starting point for a systems biology modeling of multicellular organisms, including humans.

  2. The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster.

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-24

    The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the {approximately}120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. Efforts are under way to close the remaining gaps; however, the sequence is of sufficient accuracy and contiguity to be declared substantially complete and to support an initial analysis of genome structure and preliminary gene annotation and interpretation. The genome encodes {approximately}13,600 genes, somewhat fewer than the smaller Caenorhabditis elegans genome, but with comparable functional diversity.

  3. Maintenance of a Drosophila melanogaster Population Cage

    PubMed Central

    Caravaca, Juan Manuel; Lei, Elissa P.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of DNA, RNA, proteins and other cellular components are often required for biochemistry and molecular biology experiments. The short life cycle of Drosophila enables collection of large quantities of material from embryos, larvae, pupae and adult flies, in a synchronized way, at a low economic cost. A major strategy for propagating large numbers of flies is the use of a fly population cage. This useful and common tool in the Drososphila community is an efficient way to regularly produce milligrams to tens of grams of embryos, depending on uniformity of developmental stage desired. While a population cage can be time consuming to set up, maintaining a cage over months takes much less time and enables rapid collection of biological material in a short period. This paper describes a detailed and flexible protocol for the maintenance of a Drosophila melanogaster population cage, starting with 1.5 g of harvested material from the previous cycle. PMID:27023790

  4. Live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parton, Richard M; Vallés, Ana Maria; Dobbie, Ian M; Davis, Ilan

    2010-04-01

    Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster are also used by the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties with regard to keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick, hazy cytoplasm. This article outlines the major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping the cells alive. It describes various imaging and associated techniques best suited to following changes in the distribution of fluorescently labeled molecules in real time in these tissues. Imaging, in general, is a rapidly developing discipline, and recent advances in imaging technology are able to greatly extend what can be achieved with live cell imaging of Drosophila tissues. As far as possible, this article includes the latest technical developments and discusses likely future developments in imaging methods that could have an impact on research using Drosophila. PMID:20360379

  5. Long-Term Resistance of Drosophila melanogaster to the Mushroom Toxin Alpha-Amanitin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Chelsea L.; Yeager, Roger D.; Johnson, Zachary J.; D’Annunzio, Stephanie E.; Vogel, Kara R.; Werner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance to toxins exerts not only a great impact on our economy, but also on the ecology of many species. Resistance to one toxin is often associated with cross-resistance to other, sometimes unrelated, chemicals. In this study, we investigated mushroom toxin resistance in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen). This fruit fly species does not feed on mushrooms in nature and may thus have evolved cross-resistance to α-amanitin, the principal toxin of deadly poisonous mushrooms, due to previous pesticide exposure. The three Asian D. melanogaster stocks used in this study, Ama-KTT, Ama-MI, and Ama-KLM, acquired α-amanitin resistance at least five decades ago in their natural habitats in Taiwan, India, and Malaysia, respectively. Here we show that all three stocks have not lost the resistance phenotype despite the absence of selective pressure over the past half century. In response to α-amanitin in the larval food, several signs of developmental retardation become apparent in a concentration-dependent manner: higher pre-adult mortality, prolonged larva-to-adult developmental time, decreased adult body size, and reduced adult longevity. In contrast, female fecundity nearly doubles in response to higher α-amanitin concentrations. Our results suggest that α-amanitin resistance has no fitness cost, which could explain why the resistance has persisted in all three stocks over the past five decades. If pesticides caused α-amanitin resistance in D. melanogaster, their use may go far beyond their intended effects and have long-lasting effects on ecosystems. PMID:25978397

  6. Related male Drosophila melanogaster reared together as larvae fight less and sire longer lived daughters

    PubMed Central

    Carazo, Pau; Perry, Jennifer C; Johnson, Fern; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Competition over access to reproductive opportunities can lead males to harm females. However, recent work has shown that, in Drosophila melanogaster, male competition and male harm of females are both reduced under conditions simulating male-specific population viscosity (i.e., in groups where males are related and reared with each other as larvae). Here, we seek to replicate these findings and investigate whether male population viscosity can have repercussions for the fitness of offspring in the next generation. We show that groups of unrelated-unfamiliar (i.e., unrelated individuals raised apart) males fight more intensely than groups of related-familiar males (i.e., full siblings raised together as larvae), supporting previous findings, and that exposure to a female is required to trigger these differential patterns of male–male competition. Importantly, we show that differences in male–male competition can be associated with transgenerational effects: the daughters of females exposed to unrelated-unfamiliar males suffered higher mortality than the daughters of females exposed to related-familiar males. Collectively, these results suggest that population structure (i.e., variation in the relatedness and/or larval familiarity of local male groups) can modulate male–male competition with important transgenerational consequences. PMID:26306167

  7. Genome-wide association study of sleep in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep is a highly conserved behavior, yet its duration and pattern vary extensively among species and between individuals within species. The genetic basis of natural variation in sleep remains unknown. Results We used the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to perform a genome-wide association (GWA) study of sleep in D. melanogaster. We identified candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with differences in the mean as well as the environmental sensitivity of sleep traits; these SNPs typically had sex-specific or sex-biased effects, and were generally located in non-coding regions. The majority of SNPs (80.3%) affecting sleep were at low frequency and had moderately large effects. Additive models incorporating multiple SNPs explained as much as 55% of the genetic variance for sleep in males and females. Many of these loci are known to interact physically and/or genetically, enabling us to place them in candidate genetic networks. We confirmed the role of seven novel loci on sleep using insertional mutagenesis and RNA interference. Conclusions We identified many SNPs in novel loci that are potentially associated with natural variation in sleep, as well as SNPs within genes previously known to affect Drosophila sleep. Several of the candidate genes have human homologues that were identified in studies of human sleep, suggesting that genes affecting variation in sleep are conserved across species. Our discovery of genetic variants that influence environmental sensitivity to sleep may have a wider application to all GWA studies, because individuals with highly plastic genotypes will not have consistent phenotypes. PMID:23617951

  8. The Genomic Basis of Postponed Senescence in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Megan Ulmer; Campbell, Terry; Huang, Wen; Butler, Daniel G.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Duncan, Laura H.; Harbajan, Sasha V.; King, Edward M.; Peterson, Kara R.; Weitzel, Alexander; Zhou, Shanshan; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations harbor considerable genetic variation for lifespan. While evolutionary theory provides general explanations for the existence of this variation, our knowledge of the genes harboring naturally occurring polymorphisms affecting lifespan is limited. Here, we assessed the genetic divergence between five Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for postponed senescence for over 170 generations (O lines) and five lines from the same base population maintained at a two week generation interval for over 850 generations (B lines). On average, O lines live 70% longer than B lines, are more productive at all ages, and have delayed senescence for other traits than reproduction. We performed population sequencing of pools of individuals from all B and O lines and identified 6,394 genetically divergent variants in or near 1,928 genes at a false discovery rate of 0.068. A 2.6 Mb region at the tip of the X chromosome contained many variants fixed for alternative alleles in the two populations, suggestive of a hard selective sweep. We also assessed genome wide gene expression of O and B lines at one and five weeks of age using RNA sequencing and identified genes with significant (false discovery rate < 0.05) effects on gene expression with age, population and the age by population interaction, separately for each sex. We identified transcripts that exhibited the transcriptional signature of postponed senescence and integrated the gene expression and genetic divergence data to identify 98 (175) top candidate genes in females (males) affecting postponed senescence and increased lifespan. While several of these genes have been previously associated with Drosophila lifespan, most are novel and constitute a rich resource for future functional validation. PMID:26378456

  9. The Many Landscapes of Recombination in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Comeron, Josep M.; Ratnappan, Ramesh; Bailin, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Recombination is a fundamental biological process with profound evolutionary implications. Theory predicts that recombination increases the effectiveness of selection in natural populations. Yet, direct tests of this prediction have been restricted to qualitative trends due to the lack of detailed characterization of recombination rate variation across genomes and within species. The use of imprecise recombination rates can also skew population genetic analyses designed to assess the presence and mode of selection across genomes. Here we report the first integrated high-resolution description of genomic and population variation in recombination, which also distinguishes between the two outcomes of meiotic recombination: crossing over (CO) and gene conversion (GC). We characterized the products of 5,860 female meioses in Drosophila melanogaster by genotyping a total of 139 million informative SNPs and mapped 106,964 recombination events at a resolution down to 2 kilobases. This approach allowed us to generate whole-genome CO and GC maps as well as a detailed description of variation in recombination among individuals of this species. We describe many levels of variation in recombination rates. At a large-scale (100 kb), CO rates exhibit extreme and highly punctuated variation along chromosomes, with hot and coldspots. We also show extensive intra-specific variation in CO landscapes that is associated with hotspots at low frequency in our sample. GC rates are more uniformly distributed across the genome than CO rates and detectable in regions with reduced or absent CO. At a local scale, recombination events are associated with numerous sequence motifs and tend to occur within transcript regions, thus suggesting that chromatin accessibility favors double-strand breaks. All these non-independent layers of variation in recombination across genomes and among individuals need to be taken into account in order to obtain relevant estimates of recombination rates, and should

  10. Regulation of the Gene Sex-Lethal: A Comparative Analysis of Drosophila Melanogaster and Drosophila Subobscura

    PubMed Central

    Penalva, LOF.; Sakamoto, H.; Navarro-Sabate, A.; Sakashita, E.; Granadino, B.; Segarra, C.; Sanchez, L.

    1996-01-01

    The Drosophila gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls the processes of sex determination and dosage compensation. A Drosophila subobscura genomic fragment containing all the exons and the late and early promotors in the Sxl gene of D. melanogaster was isolated. Early Sxl expression in D. subobscura seems to be controlled at the transcriptional level, possibly by the X:A signal. In the region upstream of the early Sxl transcription initiation site are two conserved regions suggested to be involved in the early activation of Sxl. Late Sxl expression in D. subobscura produces four transcripts in adult females and males. In males, the transcripts have an additional exon which contains three translational stop codons so that a truncated, presumably nonfunctional Sxl protein is produced. The Sxl pre-mRNA of D. subobscura lacks the poly-U sequence presented at the polypirimidine tract of the 3' splice site of the male-specific exon present in D. melanogaster. Introns 2 and 3 contain the Sxl-binding poly-U stretches, whose localization in intron 2 varies but in intron 3 is conserved. The Sxl protein is fully conserved at the amino acid level in both species. PMID:8978052

  11. Genome-Wide Gene Expression in relation to Age in Large Laboratory Cohorts of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kimberly A.; Gardner, Kylee; Pashaj, Anjeza; Carlson, Darby J.; Yu, Fang; Eudy, James D.; Zhang, Chi; Harshman, Lawrence G.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a complex process characterized by a steady decline in an organism's ability to perform life-sustaining tasks. In the present study, two cages of approximately 12,000 mated Drosophila melanogaster females were used as a source of RNA from individuals sampled frequently as a function of age. A linear model for microarray data method was used for the microarray analysis to adjust for the box effect; it identified 1,581 candidate aging genes. Cluster analyses using a self-organizing map algorithm on the 1,581 significant genes identified gene expression patterns across different ages. Genes involved in immune system function and regulation, chorion assembly and function, and metabolism were all significantly differentially expressed as a function of age. The temporal pattern of data indicated that gene expression related to aging is affected relatively early in life span. In addition, the temporal variance in gene expression in immune function genes was compared to a random set of genes. There was an increase in the variance of gene expression within each cohort, which was not observed in the set of random genes. This observation is compatible with the hypothesis that D. melanogaster immune function genes lose control of gene expression as flies age. PMID:26090231

  12. Partial Functional Diversification of Drosophila melanogaster Septin Genes Sep2 and Sep5

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Ryan S.; Clark, Denise V.

    2016-01-01

    The septin family of hetero-oligomeric complex-forming proteins can be divided into subgroups, and subgroup members are interchangeable at specific positions in the septin complex. Drosophila melanogaster has five septin genes, including the two SEPT6 subgroup members Sep2 and Sep5. We previously found that Sep2 has a unique function in oogenesis, which is not performed by Sep5. Here, we find that Sep2 is uniquely required for follicle cell encapsulation of female germline cysts, and that Sep2 and Sep5 are redundant for follicle cell proliferation. The five D. melanogaster septins localize similarly in oogenesis, including as rings flanking the germline ring canals. Pnut fails to localize in Sep5; Sep2 double mutant follicle cells, indicating that septin complexes fail to form in the absence of both Sep2 and Sep5. We also find that mutations in septins enhance the mutant phenotype of bazooka, a key component in the establishment of cell polarity, suggesting a link between septin function and cell polarity. Overall, this work suggests that Sep5 has undergone partial loss of ancestral protein function, and demonstrates redundant and unique functions of septins. PMID:27172205

  13. Phenotypic Plasticity through Transcriptional Regulation of the Evolutionary Hotspot Gene tan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Jean-Michel; Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle; De Castro, Sandra; Peronnet, Frédérique

    2016-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to distinct environmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive. Furthermore, it is thought to facilitate evolution. Although phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, its molecular mechanisms are only beginning to be unravelled. Environmental conditions can affect gene expression through modification of chromatin structure, mainly via histone modifications, nucleosome remodelling or DNA methylation, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity might partly be due to chromatin plasticity. As a model of phenotypic plasticity, we study abdominal pigmentation of Drosophila melanogaster females, which is temperature sensitive. Abdominal pigmentation is indeed darker in females grown at 18°C than at 29°C. This phenomenon is thought to be adaptive as the dark pigmentation produced at lower temperature increases body temperature. We show here that temperature modulates the expression of tan (t), a pigmentation gene involved in melanin production. t is expressed 7 times more at 18°C than at 29°C in female abdominal epidermis. Genetic experiments show that modulation of t expression by temperature is essential for female abdominal pigmentation plasticity. Temperature modulates the activity of an enhancer of t without modifying compaction of its chromatin or level of the active histone mark H3K27ac. By contrast, the active mark H3K4me3 on the t promoter is strongly modulated by temperature. The H3K4 methyl-transferase involved in this process is likely Trithorax, as we show that it regulates t expression and the H3K4me3 level on the t promoter and also participates in female pigmentation and its plasticity. Interestingly, t was previously shown to be involved in inter-individual variation of female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, and in abdominal pigmentation divergence between Drosophila species. Sensitivity of t expression to

  14. Phenotypic Plasticity through Transcriptional Regulation of the Evolutionary Hotspot Gene tan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle; De Castro, Sandra; Peronnet, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to distinct environmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive. Furthermore, it is thought to facilitate evolution. Although phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, its molecular mechanisms are only beginning to be unravelled. Environmental conditions can affect gene expression through modification of chromatin structure, mainly via histone modifications, nucleosome remodelling or DNA methylation, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity might partly be due to chromatin plasticity. As a model of phenotypic plasticity, we study abdominal pigmentation of Drosophila melanogaster females, which is temperature sensitive. Abdominal pigmentation is indeed darker in females grown at 18°C than at 29°C. This phenomenon is thought to be adaptive as the dark pigmentation produced at lower temperature increases body temperature. We show here that temperature modulates the expression of tan (t), a pigmentation gene involved in melanin production. t is expressed 7 times more at 18°C than at 29°C in female abdominal epidermis. Genetic experiments show that modulation of t expression by temperature is essential for female abdominal pigmentation plasticity. Temperature modulates the activity of an enhancer of t without modifying compaction of its chromatin or level of the active histone mark H3K27ac. By contrast, the active mark H3K4me3 on the t promoter is strongly modulated by temperature. The H3K4 methyl-transferase involved in this process is likely Trithorax, as we show that it regulates t expression and the H3K4me3 level on the t promoter and also participates in female pigmentation and its plasticity. Interestingly, t was previously shown to be involved in inter-individual variation of female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, and in abdominal pigmentation divergence between Drosophila species. Sensitivity of t expression to

  15. The 5S genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Artavanis-Tsakonas, S; Schedl, P; Tschudi, C; Pirrotta, V; Steward, R; Gehring, W J

    1977-12-01

    We have cloned embryonic Drosophila DNA using the poly (dA-DT) connector method (Lobban and Kaiser, 1973) and the ampicillin-resistant plasmid pSF2124 (So, Gill and Falkow, 1975) as a cloning vehicle. Two clones, containing hybrid plasmids with sequences complementary to a 5S RNA probe isolated from Drosophila tissue culture cells, were identified by the Grunstein and Hogness (1975) colony hybridization procedure. One hybrid plasmid has a Drosophila insert which is comprised solely of tandem repeats of the 5S gene plus spacer sequences. The other plasmid contains an insert which has about 20 tandem 5S repeat units plus an additional 4 kilobases of adjacent sequences. The size of the 5S repeat unit was determined by gel electrophoresis and was found to be approximately 375 base pairs. We present a restriction map of both plasmids, and a detailed map of of the5S repeat unit. The 5S repat unit shows slight length and sequence heterogeneity. We present evidence suggesting that the 5S genes in Drosophila melanogaster may be arranged in a single continuous cluster. PMID:413625

  16. Ferritin Assembly in Enterocytes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Arellano, Abraham; Vásquez-Procopio, Johana; Gambis, Alexis; Blowes, Liisa M; Steller, Hermann; Mollereau, Bertrand; Missirlis, Fanis

    2016-01-01

    Ferritins are protein nanocages that accumulate inside their cavity thousands of oxidized iron atoms bound to oxygen and phosphates. Both characteristic types of eukaryotic ferritin subunits are present in secreted ferritins from insects, but here dimers between Ferritin 1 Heavy Chain Homolog (Fer1HCH) and Ferritin 2 Light Chain Homolog (Fer2LCH) are further stabilized by disulfide-bridge in the 24-subunit complex. We addressed ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo using novel transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster. We concentrated on the intestine, where the ferritin induction process can be controlled experimentally by dietary iron manipulation. We showed that the expression pattern of Fer2LCH-Gal4 lines recapitulated iron-dependent endogenous expression of the ferritin subunits and used these lines to drive expression from UAS-mCherry-Fer2LCH transgenes. We found that the Gal4-mediated induction of mCherry-Fer2LCH subunits was too slow to effectively introduce them into newly formed ferritin complexes. Endogenous Fer2LCH and Fer1HCH assembled and stored excess dietary iron, instead. In contrast, when flies were genetically manipulated to co-express Fer2LCH and mCherry-Fer2LCH simultaneously, both subunits were incorporated with Fer1HCH in iron-loaded ferritin complexes. Our study provides fresh evidence that, in insects, ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo are tightly regulated. PMID:26861293

  17. Ferritin Assembly in Enterocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Arellano, Abraham; Vásquez-Procopio, Johana; Gambis, Alexis; Blowes, Liisa M.; Steller, Hermann; Mollereau, Bertrand; Missirlis, Fanis

    2016-01-01

    Ferritins are protein nanocages that accumulate inside their cavity thousands of oxidized iron atoms bound to oxygen and phosphates. Both characteristic types of eukaryotic ferritin subunits are present in secreted ferritins from insects, but here dimers between Ferritin 1 Heavy Chain Homolog (Fer1HCH) and Ferritin 2 Light Chain Homolog (Fer2LCH) are further stabilized by disulfide-bridge in the 24-subunit complex. We addressed ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo using novel transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster. We concentrated on the intestine, where the ferritin induction process can be controlled experimentally by dietary iron manipulation. We showed that the expression pattern of Fer2LCH-Gal4 lines recapitulated iron-dependent endogenous expression of the ferritin subunits and used these lines to drive expression from UAS-mCherry-Fer2LCH transgenes. We found that the Gal4-mediated induction of mCherry-Fer2LCH subunits was too slow to effectively introduce them into newly formed ferritin complexes. Endogenous Fer2LCH and Fer1HCH assembled and stored excess dietary iron, instead. In contrast, when flies were genetically manipulated to co-express Fer2LCH and mCherry-Fer2LCH simultaneously, both subunits were incorporated with Fer1HCH in iron-loaded ferritin complexes. Our study provides fresh evidence that, in insects, ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo are tightly regulated. PMID:26861293

  18. Patterns of Hermes transposition in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Guimond, N; Bideshi, D K; Pinkerton, A C; Atkinson, P W; O'Brochta, D A

    2003-03-01

    Transposable elements are being developed as tools for genomics and for the manipulation of insect genotypes for the purposes of biological control. An understanding of their transposition behavior will facilitate the use of these elements. The behavior of an autonomous Hermes transposable element from Musca domestica in the soma and germ-line of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated using the method of transposon display. In the germ-line, Hermes transposed at a rate of approximately 0.03 jumps per element per generation. Within the soma Hermes exhibited markedly non-random patterns of integration. Certain regions of the genome were distinctly preferred over others as integration targets, while other regions were underrepresented among the integration sites used. One particular site accounted for 4.4% of the transpositions recovered in this experiment, all of which were located within a 2.5-kb region of the actin5C promoter. This region was also present within the Hermes element itself, suggesting that this clustering is an example of transposable element "homing". Clusters of integration sites were also observed near the original donor sites; these represent examples of local hopping. The information content (sequence specificity) of the 8-bp target site was low, and the consensus target site resembles that determined from plasmid-based integration assays. PMID:12655404

  19. Conditions Affecting Social Space in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Alison R; Jolley, Sam N; Akinleye, Adesanya A; Nurilov, Marat; Rouzyi, Zulekha; Milunovich, Austin J; Chambers, Moria C; Simon, Anne F

    2015-01-01

    The social space assay described here can be used to quantify social interactions of Drosophila melanogaster - or other small insects - in a straightforward manner. As we previously demonstrated (1), in a two-dimensional chamber, we first force the flies to form a tight group, subsequently allowing them to take their preferred distance from each other. After the flies have settled, we measure the distance to the closest neighbor (or social space), processing a static picture with free online software (ImageJ). The analysis of the distance to the closest neighbor allows researchers to determine the effects of genetic and environmental factors on social interaction, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Diverse factors such as climbing ability, time of day, sex, and number of flies, can modify social spacing of flies. We thus propose a series of experimental controls to mitigate these confounding effects. This assay can be used for at least two purposes. First, researchers can determine how their favorite environmental shift (such as isolation, temperature, stress or toxins) will impact social spacing (1,2). Second, researchers can dissect the genetic and neural underpinnings of this basic form of social behavior (1,3). Specifically, we used it as a diagnostic tool to study the role of orthologous genes thought to be involved in social behavior in other organisms, such as candidate genes for autism in humans (4). PMID:26575105

  20. The Ran Pathway in Drosophila melanogaster Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jack W. C.; Barker, Amy R.; Wakefield, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the small GTPase Ran has emerged as a central regulator of both mitosis and meiosis, particularly in the generation, maintenance, and regulation of the microtubule (MT)-based bipolar spindle. Ran-regulated pathways in mitosis bear many similarities to the well-characterized functions of Ran in nuclear transport and, as with transport, the majority of these mitotic effects are mediated through affecting the physical interaction between karyopherins and Spindle Assembly Factors (SAFs)—a loose term describing proteins or protein complexes involved in spindle assembly through promoting nucleation, stabilization, and/or depolymerization of MTs, through anchoring MTs to specific structures such as centrosomes, chromatin or kinetochores, or through sliding MTs along each other to generate the force required to achieve bipolarity. As such, the Ran-mediated pathway represents a crucial functional module within the wider spindle assembly landscape. Research into mitosis using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster has contributed substantially to our understanding of centrosome and spindle function. However, in comparison to mammalian systems, very little is known about the contribution of Ran-mediated pathways in Drosophila mitosis. This article sets out to summarize our understanding of the roles of the Ran pathway components in Drosophila mitosis, focusing on the syncytial blastoderm embryo, arguing that it can provide important insights into the conserved functions on Ran during spindle formation. PMID:26636083

  1. Alzheimer's Disease, Drosophila melanogaster and Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an insidious neurological disorder that affects memory, one of the human brain's main cognitive functions. Around 5.2 million Americans currently have AD, and the number threatens to climb to 7 million by 2020. Our native country, Colombia, is no exception with an estimated 260,000 individuals to be affected by AD in 2020. A large, genetically-isolated community in Antioquia, Colombia, with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease due to a presenilin-1 mutation is ideally suited for the study of molecular mechanisms of AD, and hence accelerate the discovery of new or alternative treatment approaches. In this regard, polyphenols--also known as polyhydroxyphenols--have shown antioxidant activity, gene regulation, metal chelator and anti-amyloidogenic aggregation effects. However, further in vitro and in vivo investigations are warranted to validate their use in clinical trials. Drosophila melanogaster is increasingly being used as a valid in vivo model of AD. Here, we summarise data published within the past 16 years (1998-2014) on the molecular biology of AD and the use of polyphenols in the fly to understand the molecular actions and feasibility of these compounds in the treatment of AD. PMID:26092625

  2. Drosophila melanogaster locomotion in cold thin air.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael E; Frazier, Melanie R

    2006-01-01

    The alpine environment is likely to challenge insect locomotion because of low mean temperatures and reduced barometric pressure. In this study, we measured the direct and interactive effects of these factors on walking and flight performance of wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. We found that decreased temperature and decreased air pressure both reduced walking speed and flight performance. Flies walked more slowly at 18 degrees C and in the lowest air pressure treatment (34 kPa). This treatment, equivalent in air pressure to the top of Mount Everest, was the only air pressure that significantly reduced fly walking speed. Therefore, walking performance in the wild is likely limited by temperature, but not oxygen availability. In contrast to walking performance, low but ecologically realistic air pressures dramatically reduced overall flight performance. The effects of reduced air pressure on flight performance were more pronounced at colder temperatures. Reduced flight performance in high altitude conditions was primarily driven by an increased reluctance for flies to initiate flight rather than outright failure to fly. Such reluctance to fly in high altitude conditions may in part explain the prevalence of aptery and brachyptery in high altitude insects. The observed interactive effects of temperature and air pressure on flight performance confirm the importance of simultaneously manipulating both of these factors when studying the impact of altitudinal conditions on insect physiology and behavior. PMID:16391358

  3. Burkholderia thailandensis Is Virulent in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Pilátová, Martina; Dionne, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    Melioidosis is a serious infectious disease endemic to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. This disease is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei; Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely-related organism known to be avirulent in humans. B. thailandensis has not previously been used to infect Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effect of B. thailandensis infection on fly survival, on antimicrobial peptide expression, and on phagocytic cells. In the fruit fly, which possesses only an innate immune system, B. thailandensis is highly virulent, causing rapid death when injected or fed. One intriguing aspect of this infection is its temperature dependence: infected flies maintained at 25°C exhibit rapid bacterial proliferation and death in a few days, while infected animals maintained at 18°C exhibit very slow bacterial proliferation and take weeks to die; this effect is due in part to differences in immune activity of the host. Death in this infection is likely due at least in part to a secreted toxin, as injection of flies with sterile B. thailandensis-conditioned medium is able to kill. B. thailandensis infection strongly induces the expression of antimicrobial peptides, but this is insufficient to inhibit bacterial proliferation in infected flies. Finally, the function of fly phagocytes is not affected by B. thailandensis infection. The high virulence of B. thailandensis in the fly suggests the possibility that this organism is a natural pathogen of one or more invertebrates. PMID:23209596

  4. Macrophages and cellular immunity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gold, Katrina S; Brückner, Katja

    2015-12-01

    The invertebrate Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful model for understanding blood cell development and immunity. Drosophila is a holometabolous insect, which transitions through a series of life stages from embryo, larva and pupa to adulthood. In spite of this, remarkable parallels exist between Drosophila and vertebrate macrophages, both in terms of development and function. More than 90% of Drosophila blood cells (hemocytes) are macrophages (plasmatocytes), making this highly tractable genetic system attractive for studying a variety of questions in macrophage biology. In vertebrates, recent findings revealed that macrophages have two independent origins: self-renewing macrophages, which reside and proliferate in local microenvironments in a variety of tissues, and macrophages of the monocyte lineage, which derive from hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells. Like vertebrates, Drosophila possesses two macrophage lineages with a conserved dual ontogeny. These parallels allow us to take advantage of the Drosophila model when investigating macrophage lineage specification, maintenance and amplification, and the induction of macrophages and their progenitors by local microenvironments and systemic cues. Beyond macrophage development, Drosophila further serves as a paradigm for understanding the mechanisms underlying macrophage function and cellular immunity in infection, tissue homeostasis and cancer, throughout development and adult life. PMID:27117654

  5. Gut-associated microbes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using Drosophila melanogaster to elucidate mechanisms that underlie the complex relationships between a host and its microbiota. In addition to the many genetic resources and tools Drosophila provides, its associated microbiota is relatively simple (1–30 taxa), in contrast to the complex diversity associated with vertebrates (> 500 taxa). These attributes highlight the potential of this system to dissect the complex cellular and molecular interactions that occur between a host and its microbiota. In this review, we summarize what is known regarding the composition of gut-associated microbes of Drosophila and their impact on host physiology. We also discuss these interactions in the context of their natural history and ecology and describe some recent insights into mechanisms by which Drosophila and its gut microbiota interact. “Workers with Drosophila have been considered fortunate in that they deal with the first multicellular invertebrate to be cultured monoxenically (Delcourt and Guyenot, 1910); the first to be handled axenically on a semisynthetic diet (Guyenot, 1917); and the first to be grown on a defined diet (Schultz et al., 1946). This list of advantages is somewhat embarrassing, since it implies an interest in nutrition that, in reality, was only secondary. The very first studies were concerned with the reduction of variability in genetic experiments (Delcourt and Guyenot, 1910) and standardization of the nutritional environment.” -James Sang, 1959 Ann NY Acad 1 PMID:22572876

  6. Parallel geographic variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Josie A; Kolaczkowski, Bryan; Jones, Corbin D; Begun, David J; Kern, Andrew D

    2014-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, an ancestrally African species, has recently spread throughout the world, associated with human activity. The species has served as the focus of many studies investigating local adaptation relating to latitudinal variation in non-African populations, especially those from the United States and Australia. These studies have documented the existence of shared, genetically determined phenotypic clines for several life history and morphological traits. However, there are no studies designed to formally address the degree of shared latitudinal differentiation at the genomic level. Here we present our comparative analysis of such differentiation. Not surprisingly, we find evidence of substantial, shared selection responses on the two continents, probably resulting from selection on standing ancestral variation. The polymorphic inversion In(3R)P has an important effect on this pattern, but considerable parallelism is also observed across the genome in regions not associated with inversion polymorphism. Interestingly, parallel latitudinal differentiation is observed even for variants that are not particularly strongly differentiated, which suggests that very large numbers of polymorphisms are targets of spatially varying selection in this species. PMID:24610860

  7. Sexual interactions influence the molecular oscillations in DN1 pacemaker neurons in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, Shiho; Kawaguchi, Tomoaki; Umezaki, Yujiro; Tomioka, Kenji; Yoshii, Taishi

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms can synchronize to environmental time cues, such as light, temperature, humidity, and food availability. Previous studies have suggested that these rhythms can also be entrained by social interactions. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study the influence of socio-sexual interactions on the circadian clock in behavior and pacemaker neurons. If two flies of opposite sex were paired and kept in a small space, the daily activity patterns of the two flies were clearly different from the sum of the activity of single male and female flies. Compared with single flies, paired flies were more active in the night and morning, were more active during females' active phase, and were less active during males' active phase. These behavioral phenotypes are related to courtship behavior, but not to the circadian clock. Nevertheless, in male-female pairs of flies with clocks at different speeds (wild-type and per (S) flies), clock protein cycling in the DN1 pacemaker neurons in the male brain were slightly influenced by their partners. These results suggest that sexual interactions between male-female couples can serve as a weak zeitgeber for the DN1 pacemaker neurons, but the effect is not sufficient to alter rhythms of behavioral activity. PMID:24367668

  8. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

  9. Genetic-molecular basis for a simple Drosophila melanogaster somatic system that detects environmental mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.M.; Todo, T.; Ryo, H.; Fujikawa, K.

    1986-09-01

    We have developed a simple, objectively scorable test for the mutagenicity of chemical compounds which can be fed Drosophila melanogaster. The test depends upon the somatic reversion of the X chromosome, recessive eye color mutation, white-ivory (wi) to wild type (w+). Reversions are scored as clones of w+ facets in the wi eyes of eclosing adults. To increase the sensitivity, a tandem quadruplication containing four wi mutations was synthesized. Thus, in homozygous females eight wi mutations are potentially revertible. Six mutagenic compounds, all alkylating agents, all gave positive results at several concentrations tested. Molecular analysis demonstrates that the induced reversions, germinal and somatic, are associated with the loss of 2.9-kilobase DNA duplicated in the wi mutation.

  10. A Cell Marker System and Mosaic Patterns during Early Embryonic Development in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, Susan B.; Wieschaus, Eric

    1987-01-01

    An embryonic cell marker system has been developed in Drosophila melanogaster that has enabled us to identify the genotype of cells as early as the cellular blastoderm stage of development. This system allows unambiguous detection of embryos homozygous for most X-linked lethal mutations at stages prior to when their first defects become obvious. By examining gynandromorphs at this stage, we have observed that the number of nuclei per unit area in male regions is about half that in female regions. An examination of early cleavage stage embryos whose DNA has been stained with Hoechst 33258 and whose actin has been stained with phalloidin suggests that this difference is due to a cell cycle delay in cells losing the ring-X. These experiments also demonstrate the existence of a mechanism which controls the timing of nuclear divisions in cycle 10–14 embryos. PMID:3108074

  11. [Mating success and courtship ritual in strains of Drosophila melanogaster carrying mutation flamenco].

    PubMed

    Romanova, L G; Romanova, N I; Subocheva, E A; Kim, A I

    2000-04-01

    Mating success was examined in groups of Drosophila melanogaster carrying mutation flamMS (SS, MSn1-2, and MSn1-3) and in wild-type flies. The proportion of normally copulating males was significantly lower in the mutant strains. The reduction in mating efficiency was caused by changes in male behavior rather than in female attractiveness. Individual analyses showed that male mating behavior in strains carrying flamMS was qualitatively and quantitatively different from that in the wild-type strain Canton S. The proportion of males that performed consecutive courtship stages was significantly lower in the mutant strains. The sequence and duration of some courtship stages (in particular, orientation and wing vibration) in mutant flies was shown to be altered. The significance of the flamenco locus in regulation of processes occurring at the organismal level are discussed. PMID:10822811

  12. Analysis of Neurotransmitter Tissue Content of Drosophila melanogaster in Different Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  13. Some results of the effect of space flight factors on Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Filatova, L.P.; Vaulina, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosomal effects of space flight factors were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster flown aboard the Salyut 6 orbital station. Drosophila males heterozygous for four linked traits were exposed to space flight conditions for periods of eight days, and the progeny when the males were mated with homozygous recessive females were compared with those from control flies exposed to the same vibration and acceleration environment, and the progeny of laboratory controls. Increases in recombination and nondisjunction frequencies were observed in the flies exposed to the space environment, with recombinant flies also found in the F1 generation of the vibration and acceleration controls. Results suggest that it is the action of heavy particles that accounts for the major portion of the genetic effects observed. 17 references.

  14. Selection on Wing Allometry in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Weber, K. E.

    1990-01-01

    Five bivariate distributions of wing dimensions of Drosophila melanogaster were measured, in flies 1) subjected to four defined environmental regimes during development, 2) taken directly from nature in seven U.S. states, 3) selected in ten populations for change in wing form, and 4) sampled from 21 long inbred wild-type lines. Environmental stresses during development altered both wing size and the ratios of wing dimensions, but regardless of treatment all wing dimensions fell near a common allometric baseline in each bivariate distribution. The wings of wild-caught flies from seven widely separated localities, and of their laboratory-reared offspring, also fell along the same baselines. However, when flies were selected divergently for lateral offset from these developmental baselines, response to selection was rapid in every case. The mean divergence in offset between oppositely selected lines was 14.68 SD of the base population offset, after only 15 generations of selection at 20%. Measurements of 21 isofemale lines, founded from wild-caught flies and maintained in small populations for at least 22 years, showed large reductions in phenotypic variance of offsets within lines, but a large increase in the variance among lines. The variance of means of isofemale lines within collection localities was ten times the variance of means among localities of newly established wild lines. These observations show that much additive genetic variance exists for individual dimensions within the wing, such that bivariate developmental patterns can be changed in any direction by selection or by drift. The relative invariance of the allometric baselines of wing morphology in nature is most easily explained as the result of continuous natural selection around a local optimum of functional design. PMID:2127580

  15. How Drosophila melanogaster Forms its Mechanoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Furman, D.P; Bukharina, T.A

    2008-01-01

    A strictly determined number of external sensory organs, macrochaetes, acting as mechanoreceptors, are orderly located on drosophila head and body. Totally, they form the bristle pattern, which is a species-specific characteristic of drosophila. Each mechanoreceptor comprises four specialized cells derived from the single sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell. The conserved bristle pattern combined with a comparatively simple structure of each mechanosensory organ makes macrochaetes a convenient model for studying the formation spatial structures with a fixed number of elements at certain positions and the mechanism underlying cell differentiation. The macrochaete morphogenesis consists of three stages. At the first stage, the proneural clusters segregate from the massive of ectodermal cells of the wing imaginal disc. At the second stage, the SOP cell is determined and its position in the cluster is specified. At the third stage, the SOP cell undergoes two asymmetric divisions, and the daughter cells differentiate into the components of mechanoreceptor: shaft, socket, bipolar neuron, and sheath. The critical factor determining the neural pathway of cell development is the content of proneural proteins, products of the achaete-scute (AS-C) gene complex, reaching its maximum in the SOP cell. The experimental data on the main genes and their products involved in the control of bristle pattern formation are systematized. The roles of achaete-scute complex, EGFR and Notch signaling pathways, and selector genes in these processes are considered. An integral scheme describing the functioning of the system controlling macrochaete development in D. melanogaster is proposed based on analysis of literature data. PMID:19471605

  16. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  17. Genome-wide mapping of Painting of fourth on Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Larsson, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The protein Painting of fourth (POF) in Drosophila melanogaster specifically targets and stimulates expression output from the heterochromatic 4th chromosome, thereby representing an autosome specific protein [1,2]. Despite the high specificity for chromosome 4 genes, POF is occasionally observed binding to the cytological region 2L:31 in males and females [3] and two loci on the X-chromosome, PoX1 and PoX2 only in females [4]. Here we provide a detailed description of the experimental design and analysis of the tiling array data presented by Lundberg and colleagues in G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics 2013 [4], where the female specific POF binding to PoX1 and PoX2 loci on the X chromosome was reported. We show the genome-wide high resolution binding profile of the POF protein where these different POF binding sites are detected. The complete data set is available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/ (accession: GSE45402). PMID:26484072

  18. Effects of atrazine exposure on male reproductive performance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Andrea; Jocque, Harper; Sirot, Laura K.; Fiumera, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine is a commonly utilized herbicide to control broadleaf weeds in the agricultural setting. It can, however, have negative effects on male reproductive performance in a variety of vertebrate species. Much less is known, however, about the effects of atrazine on invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of several different concentrations of larval atrazine exposure on measures of reproductive performance in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. Atrazine exposure had significant effects on a male’s mating ability and the number of eggs his partner lays when he was successful at mating. Exposed males also sired a smaller proportion of the offspring under competitive conditions when they were the first male to mate to a doubly mated female. Atrazine exposure had no measurable effect on a male’s ability to prevent a mated female from mating to another male or on the proportion of offspring sired when the exposed males were the second male to mate. Exposure upregulated expression of one male reproductive gene, ovulin, but had no effect on expression of another, sex peptide. Exposed males produced and transferred more sex peptide protein to the female during mating but ovulin protein levels were not affected. In general, we observed non-monotonic responses such that the intermediate exposure levels showed the largest reduction in male reproductive performance. This study suggests that atrazine exposure affects male reproductive performance in insects and future studies should aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the fitness effects of exposure. PMID:25445663

  19. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this ‘Mother’s Curse’, their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COIIG177S, a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COIIG177S represents one of the clearest examples of a ‘male-harming’ mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COIIG177S might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COIIG177S -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16923.001 PMID:27481326

  20. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this 'Mother's Curse', their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COII(G177S), a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COII(G177S) represents one of the clearest examples of a 'male-harming' mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COII(G177S) might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COII(G177S) -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. PMID:27481326

  1. Structure, expression, and hormonal control of genes from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which encode proteins similar to the vitelline membrane proteins of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Hamblin, M T; Edwards, M J; Barillas-Mury, C; Kanost, M R; Knipple, D C; Wolfner, M F; Hagedorn, H H

    1993-02-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones of a gene expressed after a blood meal in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were identified as having significant similarity to the vitelline membrane protein genes of Drosophila melanogaster. The predicted protein had unusually high contents of alanine, histidine, and proline and contained a region of hydrophobic amino acids that was highly conserved in the predicted protein of the D. melanogaster vitelline membrane protein genes. The 15a gene was expressed from 5 to 40 hr after a blood meal. It was expressed only in the follicle cells of the ovary, particularly in the cells surrounding the oocyte. The 15a gene was expressed in ovaries of the blood-fed, decapitated female in response to an injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone, and in ovaries from non-blood-fed females incubated with the hormone, even in the presence of cycloheximide. A second gene, with weaker homology to 15a, is presumably another member of a family of related genes, as is the case with D. melanogaster vitelline membrane protein genes. This second gene contained a coding sequence similar to a decapeptide recently isolated from mosquito ovaries as an "oostatic factor" (Borovsky et al., FASEB J. 4, 3015-3020, 1990). PMID:8432405

  2. Transgenerational Effects of Parental Larval Diet on Offspring Development Time, Adult Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Terhi M.; Kangassalo, Katariina; Pölkki, Mari; Rantala, Markus J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either poor or standard diet and then mated in the four possible sex-by-parental diet crosses. Females that were raised on poor food produced larger offspring than females that were raised on standard food. Furthermore, male progeny sired by fathers that were raised on poor food were larger than male progeny sired by males raised on standard food. Development times were shortest for offspring whose one parent (mother or the father) was raised on standard and the other parent on poor food and longest for offspring whose parents both were raised on poor food. No evidence for transgenerational effects of parental diet on offspring disease resistance was found. Although paternal effects have been previously demonstrated in D. melanogaster, no earlier studies have investigated male-mediated transgenerational effects of diet in this species. The results highlight the importance of not only considering the relative contribution each parental sex has on progeny performance but also the combined effects that the two sexes may have on offspring performance. PMID:22359607

  3. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  4. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  5. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  6. Genotoxic damage induced by isopropanol in germinal and somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Ana María; Mudry, Marta Dolores

    2011-12-24

    Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol, 2-propanol, IPA) is a volatile solvent widely used in domestic or industrial environments and reported as innocuous in various test systems. The aim of this work was to search for in vivo genotoxic effects of IPA in Drosophila melanogaster, studying its ability to induce nondisjunction (ND) in females, sex linked recessive lethals (SLRL) in males, and somatic mutation and/or recombination (SMART) in larvae. Treatments were acute (60min) and were administered via inhalation. IPA had low toxicity in adult flies (75% IPA mortality index, MI=12.7% (females) and 2.6% (males)) and larvae (MI=14.3%, 75% IPA). Female fertility was severely affected during the first 24h (brood I, BI) after treatment, but, afterwards, control values were recovered. IPA induced a 50-fold increase of ND (%) in 24h old females, and a six-fold rise in 4-5 d old BI offspring. Nondisjunction frequencies (%) in the offspring of broods II to V (24h in each case) were similar to control values. IPA doses of 25% and 50% (v/v), tested in 24h old females, showed a significant dose-dependent increase of ND(%)in BI only, with control values in subsequent broods. Flies gave normal offspring when kept in regular media for 24h before mating. The eye spot test (SMART) showed a significant increase at 50% IPA (p<0.05, m=2), but the response was not dose-dependent. IPA failed to induce SLRL in any of the spermatogenesis stages tested. These findings suggest that the main effect of IPA is to induce chromosomal malsegregation; IPA must be present at the resumption of M-phase I after fertilization, to exert these effects. The alcohol does not affect DNA directly, but perturbations of the nuclear membrane may be responsible for induction of ND. PMID:22001194

  7. Behavior and single gene substitution in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mating and courtship differences with w, cn, and bw loci.

    PubMed

    Sciandra, R J; Bennett, J

    1976-04-01

    The effect of single allele substitutions into an isogenic background in Oregon-R inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster on courtship and mating patterns has been studied. A comparison has been made between the white locus w, wco, we, the wild type w+, cn, bw, and cn bw to test the effect of eye pigmentation in influencing courtship and mating patterns. It was found that w, we, wco, cn, and bw females were more successful in mating than were wild-type and cn bw females, cn bw females being less successful than wild-type females. Also, w and cn bw males were equally successful in mating but less successful than wild-type males during the 20-min test period. The mutant males performed as well as the wild-type after courtship was initiated. The behavioral parameters measured were (1) courtship latency, the time from exposure of male to female until orientation; (2) mating speed, the time from beginning of orientation of male to female until successful copulation, and (3) copulation time. PMID:817707

  8. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  9. Circadian rhythms of female mating activity governed by clock genes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Takaomi; Ishida, Norio

    2001-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral activities of many animals are restricted to specific times of the day. The daily fluctuation in the mating activity of some insects is controlled by an endogenous clock, but the genetic mechanism that controls it remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that wild-type Drosophila melanogaster display a robust circadian rhythm in the mating activity, and that these rhythms are abolished in period- or timeless-null mutant flies (per01 and tim01). Circadian rhythms were lost when rhythm mutant females were paired with wild-type males, demonstrating that female mating activity is governed by clock genes. Furthermore, we detected an antiphasic relationship in the circadian rhythms of mating activity between D. melanogaster and its sibling species Drosophila simulans. Female- and species-specific circadian rhythms in the mating activity of Drosophila seem to cause reproductive isolation. PMID:11470898

  10. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kubrak, Olga I; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  11. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  12. Pleiotropic actions of the male pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ejima, Aki

    2015-09-01

    The male-specific lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) has multiple functions in intra-species communication in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA in a male suppresses courtship motivation of other males and averts male-male courtship. Meanwhile, aggression behaviors between males are promoted by a high amount of cVA caused by increased densities of male flies. cVA also works as a modifier of courtship memory, which is suppressed courtship motivation driven by previous unsuccessful courtship experience. Conversely, cVA in the courting male stimulates female reproductive motivation and increases the probability of copulation success. It also works as an aggregation pheromone, attracting both males and females at the gathering spot. Thus, cVA is a unique example of a single molecule leading to different behaviors in response to the social context. However, despite recent advances in understanding the molecular and neural machinery for cVA sensing, it is still largely unknown how cVA triggers a specific behavior as the situation demands. In this review article, I discuss two potential machineries that might determine cVA actions for behavior selection at the sensory level. PMID:26105507

  13. Retired flies, hidden plateaus, and the evolution of senescence in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, James W

    2016-06-01

    Late-life plateaus in age-specific mortality have been an evolutionary and biodemographic puzzle for decades. Although classic theory on the evolution of senescence predicts late-life walls of death, observations in experimental organisms document the opposite trend: a slowing in the rate of increase of mortality at advanced ages. Here, I analyze published life-history data on individual Drosophila melanogaster females and argue for a fundamental change in our understanding of mortality in this important model system. Mortality plateaus are not, as widely assumed, exclusive to late life, and are not explained by population heterogeneity-they are intimately connected to individual fecundity. Female flies begin adult life in the working stage, a period of active oviposition and low but accelerating mortality. Later they transition to the retired stage, a terminal period characterized by limited fecundity and relatively constant mortality. Because ages of transition differ between flies, age-synchronized cohorts contain a mix of working and retired flies. Early- and mid-life plateaus are obscured by the presence of working flies, but can be detected when cohorts are stratified by retirement status. Stage-specificity may be an important component of Drosophila life-history evolution. PMID:27166620

  14. High sucrose consumption promotes obesity whereas its low consumption induces oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rovenko, Bohdana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Gospodaryov, Dmytro V; Perkhulyn, Natalia V; Yurkevych, Ihor S; Sanz, Alberto; Lushchak, Oleh V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-08-01

    The effects of sucrose in varied concentrations (0.25-20%) with constant amount of yeasts in larval diet on development and metabolic parameters of adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were studied. Larvae consumed more food at low sucrose diet, overeating with yeast. On high sucrose diet, larvae ingested more carbohydrates, despite consuming less food and obtaining less protein derived from yeast. High sucrose diet slowed down pupation and increased pupa mortality, enhanced levels of lipids and glycogen, increased dry body mass, decreased water content, i.e. resulted in obese phenotype. Furthermore, it suppressed reactive oxygen species-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase. The activity of catalase was gender-related. In males, at all sucrose concentrations used catalase activity was higher than at its concentration of 0.25%, whereas in females sucrose concentration virtually did not influence the activity. High sucrose diet increased content of protein thiols and the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The increase in sucrose concentration also enhanced uric acid level in females, but caused opposite effects in males. Development on high sucrose diets was accompanied by elevated steady-state insulin-like peptide 3 mRNA level. Finally, carbohydrate starvation at yeast overfeeding on low sucrose diets resulted in oxidative stress reflected by higher levels of oxidized lipids and proteins accompanied by increased superoxide dismutase activity. Potential mechanisms involved in regulation of redox processes by carbohydrates are discussed. PMID:26050918

  15. Drosophila melanogaster virgins are more likely to mate with strangers than familiar flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ödeen, Anders; Moray, Clea M.

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence shows that females of many species can discriminate against males and/or male phenotypes they have mated with previously. However, these studies have not tested whether actual mating is necessary to induce the avoidance behaviour. A preference for strangers may have evolved because it avoids multiple matings with similar genotypes. Alternatively, there may be selection against mating with familiar individuals directly. By choosing its first mate among unfamiliar individuals (which are less likely close relatives than are those encountered early in life), a virgin might disentangle some of the potential benefits of avoiding genetic incompatibility and inbreeding in the offspring from the costs of remating. In this study, we test whether Drosophila melanogaster flies bias their mate choice towards strangers according to previous, non-copulatory, experience. Based on 173 trials over 12 weeks, virgin females presented with two virgin males were 59% more likely to mate with a novel male than the one which she had been housed with for 8 h the day before. Hence we present the first report showing that a dipteran can distinguish between previously encountered and not previously encountered conspecifics.

  16. Effects of tannic acid on spontaneous and induced somatic mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Szakmary, A; Knasmüller, S

    1991-05-01

    The effects of tannic acid (TA) alone and in combination with direct acting chemical genotoxins and gamma-radiation were investigated in Somatic Mutation and Recombination Tests (SMARTs) using Drosophila melanogaster. Treatment with TA alone (2.5-15 mmol/l) resulted in a moderate but dose dependent induction of mosaic spots in males and females, indicating that the compound possesses mutagenic and recombinogenic activity. When TA (10 mmol/l) was given simultaneously with MMS, 4-NQO and cis-DDP, a potentiating effect on their mutagenicity was observed in males whereas in females no such increase was measured. The frequency of 4-NQO induced mosaic spots in males was raised more than threefold in presence of TA, for MMS and cis-DDP the enhancement was approximately 2-fold; with gamma-radiation no synergistic effect occurred. The different response in the two sexes indicates that TA preferentially induces gene mutations and deletions but has no enhancing effect on the number of mosaic spots which are formed as a consequence of recombinogenic events. PMID:1908938

  17. Genotoxicity testing with the somatic white-ivory system in the eye of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Würgler, F E; Kägi, A

    1991-05-01

    The white-ivory test in Drosophila melanogaster is designed to detect chemically induced reversions of the sex-linked, recessive unstable eye-color mutation white-ivory to the wild-type form. After exposure of larvae reversions are detectable as clones of red facets in the eye of newly enclosed adult flies. Tester strains containing a quadruplication of the white-ivory gene on the X-chromosome(s) were used. In a strain with males carrying 4 copies of the gene and females carrying 8 copies of the gene, spontaneous reversions occurred proportional to the gene copy number. In contrast to this, chemically induced reversions occurred only 1.36 times more frequently in females (carrying 8 copies of the gene) than in males (carrying 4 copies). Since chemicals inducing different lesions in DNA (bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, daunomycin, diethyl sulfate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) did induce statistically significant frequencies of reversions the test appears to be capable of detecting a wide variety of genotoxic chemicals with different modes of action. The recombinogen strychnine did not induce reversions. PMID:1903508

  18. Sexual antagonism for resistance and tolerance to infection in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Crystal M.; Sharp, Nathaniel P.

    2014-01-01

    A critical task in evolutionary genetics is to explain the persistence of heritable variation in fitness-related traits such as immunity. Ecological factors can maintain genetic variation in immunity, but less is known about the role of other factors, such as antagonistic pleiotropy, on immunity. Sexually dimorphic immunity—with females often being more immune-competent—may maintain variation in immunity in dioecious populations. Most eco-immunological studies assess host resistance to parasites rather than the host's ability to maintain fitness during infection (tolerance). Distinguishing between resistance and tolerance is important as they are thought to have markedly different evolutionary and epidemiological outcomes. Few studies have investigated tolerance in animals, and the extent of sexual dimorphism in tolerance is unknown. Using males and females from 50 Drosophila melanogaster genotypes, we investigated possible sources of genetic variation for immunity by assessing both resistance and tolerance to the common bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found evidence of sexual dimorphism and sexual antagonism for resistance and tolerance, and a trade-off between the two traits. Our findings suggest that antagonistic pleiotropy may be a major contributor to variation in immunity, with implications for host–parasite coevolution. PMID:24966317

  19. A Genetic Analysis of Male-Predominant Pheromones in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D.; Richmond, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical signals from males play an important role in stimulating Drosophila melanogaster females to mate, and male-predominant pheromones may influence a female's choice of mates. Male-predominant pheromones also inhibit courtship, thereby functioning as antiaphrodisiacs. Interstrain variation in the ratio of two male-predominant pheromones (7-tricosene and 7-pentacosene) has been reported, but the genetic basis for this potentially important variation has not been examined. In a series of crosses between strains that differ radically in the amounts of 7-tricosene and 7-pentacosene, we have identified both X-linked and autosomal contributions to interstrain variation in the amounts of these compounds. The X-linked loci act as enhancers for production of the compound predominant in the strain from which the X chromosome originated. Autosomal factors for each of the two compounds appear to segregate as high vs. low, with incomplete dominance of high 7-tricosene over low, and low 7-pentacosene over high. A significant negative correlation between the quantities of 7-pentacosene and 7-tricosene in the F(2) and backcross progeny, but not in the F(1)s or parentals, indicates linkage between autosomal loci regulating the expression of each compound. However, the phenotypic distributions of the backcross progeny indicate that additional unlinked loci are also directly involved in the production of these two hydrocarbons. PMID:3136054

  20. The involvement of several enzymes in methanol detoxification in Drosophila melanogaster adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Ping; Hu, Xing-Xing; Meng, Qing-Wei; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Li, Fei; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-09-01

    Methanol is among the most common short-chain alcohols in fermenting fruits, the natural food and oviposition sites of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Our previous results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) were associated with methanol detoxification in the larvae. Catalases, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), esterases (ESTs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were specifically inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT), 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethylmeleate (DEM), respectively. CYPs were inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT). In the present paper, the involvements of these enzymes in methanol metabolism were investigated in female and male adults by determining the combination indices of methanol and their corresponding inhibitors. When PBO, 1-ABT, 3-AT, 4-MP and TPP were individually mixed with methanol, they exhibited significant synergism to the mortality of the adults after 72h of dietary exposure. In contrast, the DEM and methanol mixture showed additive effects. Moreover, methanol exposure dramatically increased CYP activity and up-regulated mRNA expression levels of several Cyp genes. Bioassays using different strains revealed that the variation in ADH activity and RNAi-mediated knockdown of α-Est7 significantly changed LC50 values for methanol. These results suggest that CYPs, catalases, ADHs and ESTs are partially responsible for methanol elimination in adults. It seems that there are some differences in methanol metabolism between larvae and adults, but not between female and male adults. PMID:23751173

  1. Freeze-dried royal jelly maintains its developmental and physiological bioactivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Yasunari; Yamanashi, Keiko; Sato, Ayaka; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ), a honeybee-derived product, has been found to possess developmental and physiological bioactivity in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known about the in vivo bioactivity of freeze-dried RJ (FDRJ) powder, which is another form of RJ processed for human use. To address this, we used Drosophila as a model animal to examine the effects of FDRJ in multicellular organisms. When flies were reared on food supplemented with FDRJ, the developmental time from larva to adult was shortened, the adult male lifespan was prolonged, and female fecundity was increased without any significant morphological alterations. Moreover, the expression of dilp5, an insulin-like peptide, its receptor InR, and the nutrient sensing molecule TOR, the target of rapamycin, was significantly increased in FDRJ-fed female flies as compared with ones reared on standard and on protein-enriched food. These findings suggest that like RJ, FDRJ maintains its bioactivity even after processing from RJ, what is expected to have bioactivity for multicellular organisms, including humans. PMID:23132575

  2. Genotoxicity of lapachol evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the genotoxicity of Lapachol (LAP) evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in the descendants from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses. This assay detects the loss of heterozygosity of marker genes expressed phenotypically on the fly's wings. Drosophila has extensive genetic homology to mammals, which makes it a suitable model organism for genotoxic investigations. Three-day-old larvae from ST crosses (females flr3/TM3, Bds x males mwh/mwh), with basal levels of the cytochrome P450 and larvae of high metabolic bioactivity capacity (HB cross) (females ORR; flr3/TM3, Bds x males mwh/mwh), were used. The results showed that LAP is a promutagen, exhibiting genotoxic activity in larvae from the HB cross. In other words, an increase in the frequency of spots is exclusive of individuals with a high level of the cytochrome P450. The results also indicate that recombinogenicity is the main genotoxic event induced by LAP. PMID:21637432

  3. Aging differently: diet- and sex-dependent late-life mortality patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-06-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high) on mortality trajectories in late life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. According to the two theories that are mainly implicated in explaining the deceleration of mortality rate in late life (the heterogeneity/frailty theory and the Hamiltonian theory), we predict, in general, the occurrence of late-life mortality deceleration under most circumstances, independent of sex and dietary regime. However, the heterogeneity theory of late life is more flexible in allowing no mortality deceleration to occur under certain circumstances compared with the Hamiltonian theory. We applied a novel statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets suggests that the existence of mortality plateaus in late life is sex and diet dependent and, therefore, not a universal characteristic of large enough cohorts. PMID:24170671

  4. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster Selection for Survival after Infection with Bacillus cereus Spores: Evolutionary Genetic and Phenotypic Investigations of Respiration and Movement

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junjie; Benson, Andrew K.; Kachman, Stephen D.; Jacobsen, Deidra J.; Harshman, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory populations of D. melanogaster have been subjected to selection for survival after live spores of B. cereus were introduced as a pathogenic agent. The present study was designed to investigate correlated traits: respiration as a metabolic trait and movement as a behavioral trait. An underlying hypothesis was that the evolution of increased survival after B. cereus infection exerts a metabolic cost associated with elevated immunity and this would be detected by increased respiration rates. There was support for this hypothesis in the male response to selection, but not for selected-line females. Two phenotypic effects were also observed in the study. Females especially showed a marked increase in respiration after mating compared to the other assay stages regardless of whether respiration was measured per fly or adjusted by lean mass or dry weight. Given that mating stimulates egg production, it is feasible that elevated metabolism was needed to provision oocytes with yolk. Females also moved less than males, perhaps due to behaviors related to oviposition whereas elevated male activity might be due to behaviors associated with seeking females and courtship. Relatively low movement of females indicated that their elevated respiration after mating was not due to a change in locomotion. PMID:23634317

  6. Intra- and interspecies variation among Bari-1 elements of the melanogaster species group.

    PubMed Central

    Moschetti, R; Caggese, C; Barsanti, P; Caizzi, R

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the distribution of sequences homologous to Bari-1, a Tc1-like transposable element first identified in Drosophila melanogaster, in 87 species of the Drosophila genus. We have also isolated and sequenced Bari-1 homologues from D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia, the species constituting with D. melanogaster the melanogaster complex, and from D. diplacantha and D. erecta, two phylogenetically more distant species of the melanogaster group. Within the melanogaster complex the Bari-1 elements are extremely similar to each other, showing nucleotide identity values of at least 99.3%. In contrast, Bari-1-like elements from D. diplacantha and D. erecta are on average only 70% similar to D. melanogaster Bari-1 and are usually defective due to nucleotide deletions and/or insertions in the ORFs encoding their transposases. In D. erecta the defective copies are all located in the chromocenter and on chromosome 4. Surprisingly, while D. melanogaster Bari-1 elements possess 26-bp inverted terminal repeats, their D. diplacantha and D. erecta homologues possess long inverted terminal repeats similar to the terminal structures observed in the S elements of D. melanogaster and in several other Tc1-like elements of different organisms. This finding, together with the nucleotide and amino acid identity level between D. diplacantha and D. erecta elements and Bari-1 of D. melanogaster, suggests a common evolutionary origin and a rapid diversification of the termini of these Drosophila Tc1-like elements. PMID:9725843

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Père David's Vole, Eothenomys melanogaster (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunde; Chen, Guiying; Wei, Haixue; Wang, Qiong

    2016-07-01

    The Père David's Vole, Eothenomys melanogaster belongs to subfamily Arvicolinae. It is widespread in south China, and ranges into northern Southeast Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eothenomys melanogaster was determined. The mitogenome is 16,331 base pairs in length. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of E. melanogaster and other 17 rodents were used for phylogenetic analyses. Tree constructed using Bayesian phylogenetic methods demonstrated that E. melanogaster as a sister to E. chinensis, was clustered in subfamily Arvicolinae. The monophyly of the genus Eothenomys was supported as well with Eothenomys sister to the genus Myodes. PMID:26024146

  8. Inositols affect the mating circadian rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ito, Kumpei; Negishi, Osamu; Tsuno, Takuo; Tsuno, Hiromi; Yamazaki, Youta; Ishida, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the molecular circadian clock underlies the mating behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. However, information about which food components affect circadian mating behavior is scant. The ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum has recently become a popular functional food. Here, we showed that the close-proximity (CP) rhythm of D. melanogaster courtship behavior was damped under low-nutrient conditions, but significantly enhanced by feeding the flies with powdered ice plant. Among various components of ice plants, we found that myo-inositol increased the amplitude and slightly shortened the period of the CP rhythm. Real-time reporter assays showed that myo-inositol and D-pinitol shortened the period of the circadian reporter gene Per2-luc in NIH 3T3 cells. These data suggest that the ice plant is a useful functional food and that the ability of inositols to shorten rhythms is a general phenomenon in insects as well as mammals. PMID:26097456

  9. Insecticidal sesquiterpene from Alpinia oxyphylla against Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishikawa, Y

    2000-08-01

    In the course of screening for novel naturally occurring insecticides from Chinese crude drugs, an MeOH extract of Alpinia oxyphylla was found to possess insecticidal activity against larvae of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. From the extract, an insecticidal compound was isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as nootkatone (1) by GC, GC-MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. In bioassays for insecticidal activity, 1 showed an LC(50) value of 11.5 micromol/mL of diet against larvae of D. melanogaster and an LD(50) value of 96 microg/adult against adults. Epinootkatol (1A), however, showed slight insecticidal activity in both assays, indicating that the carbonyl group at the 2-position in 1 was the important function for enhanced activity of 1. PMID:10956162

  10. Mutagenicity of four hair dyes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Blijleven, W G

    1977-04-01

    The hair dye constituents p-phenylenediamine, 2,4-diaminoanisole sulfate, 2,4-diaminotoluene and 4-nitro-0-phenylenediamine were tested for mutagenicity in Drosophila melanogaster. The compounds were given orally to adult males. The induction of sex-linked recessive lethal mutation was used as a measure of mutagenicity. All four of the dyes tested were mutagenic with a peak mutagenic activity in metabolically active germ cells (spermatids and spermatocytes). PMID:406556

  11. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  12. Excess polymorphism at the Adh locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, M E; Aguadé, M

    1986-09-01

    The evolutionary history of a region of DNA encompassing the Adh locus is studied by comparing patterns of variation in Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species, D. simulans. An unexpectedly high level of silent polymorphism in the Adh coding region relative to the 5' and 3' flanking regions in D. melanogaster is revealed by a populational survey of restriction polymorphism using a four-cutter filter hybridization technique as well as by direct sequence comparisons. In both of these studies, a region of the Adh gene encompassing the three coding exons exhibits a frequency of polymorphism equal to that of a 4-kb 5' flanking region. In contrast, an interspecific sequence comparison shows a two-fold higher level of divergence in the 5' flanking sequence compared to the structural locus. Analysis of the patterns of variation suggest an excess of polymorphism within the D. melanogaster Adh locus, rather than lack of polymorphism in the 5' flanking region. An approach is outlined for testing neutral theory predictions about patterns of variation within and between species. This approach indicates that the observed patterns of variation are incompatible with an infinite site neutral model. PMID:3021568

  13. A portrait of copy-number polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dopman, Erik B; Hartl, Daniel L

    2007-12-11

    Thomas Hunt Morgan and colleagues identified variation in gene copy number in Drosophila in the 1920s and 1930s and linked such variation to phenotypic differences [Bridges CB (1936) Science 83:210]. Yet the extent of variation in the number of chromosomes, chromosomal regions, or gene copies, and the importance of this variation within species, remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on copy-number variation in Drosophila melanogaster. We characterize copy-number polymorphism (CNP) across genomic regions, and we contrast patterns to infer the evolutionary processes acting on this variation. Copy-number variation in D. melanogaster is nonrandomly distributed, presumably because of a mutational bias produced by tandem repeats or other mechanisms. Comparisons of coding and noncoding CNPs, however, reveal a strong effect of purifying selection in the removal of structural variation from functionally constrained regions. Most patterns of CNP in D. melanogaster suggest that negative selection and mutational biases are the primary agents responsible for shaping structural variation. PMID:18056801

  14. Principles of Genome Evolution in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Group

    PubMed Central

    Ranz, José M; Maurin, Damien; Chan, Yuk S; von Grotthuss, Marcin; Hillier, LaDeana W; Roote, John; Ashburner, Michael; Bergman, Casey M

    2007-01-01

    That closely related species often differ by chromosomal inversions was discovered by Sturtevant and Plunkett in 1926. Our knowledge of how these inversions originate is still very limited, although a prevailing view is that they are facilitated by ectopic recombination events between inverted repetitive sequences. The availability of genome sequences of related species now allows us to study in detail the mechanisms that generate interspecific inversions. We have analyzed the breakpoint regions of the 29 inversions that differentiate the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and two closely related species, D. simulans and D. yakuba, and reconstructed the molecular events that underlie their origin. Experimental and computational analysis revealed that the breakpoint regions of 59% of the inversions (17/29) are associated with inverted duplications of genes or other nonrepetitive sequences. In only two cases do we find evidence for inverted repetitive sequences in inversion breakpoints. We propose that the presence of inverted duplications associated with inversion breakpoint regions is the result of staggered breaks, either isochromatid or chromatid, and that this, rather than ectopic exchange between inverted repetitive sequences, is the prevalent mechanism for the generation of inversions in the melanogaster species group. Outgroup analysis also revealed evidence for widespread breakpoint recycling. Lastly, we have found that expression domains in D. melanogaster may be disrupted in D. yakuba, bringing into question their potential adaptive significance. PMID:17550304

  15. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  16. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains. PMID:26880435

  17. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  18. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  19. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  20. Using Fluorescent Reporters to Monitor Autophagy in the Female Germline Cells in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jacomin, Anne-Claire; Nezis, Ioannis P

    2016-01-01

    Oogenesis is a fundamental biological process for the transmission of genetic information to the next generations. Drosophila has proven to be a valuable model for elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this developmental process. It has been shown that autophagy participates in the maturation of the egg chamber. Here we provide a protocol for monitoring and quantification of the autophagic process in the Drosophila germline cells using the fluorescent reporters mCherry-DmAtg8a and GFP-mCherry-DmAtg8a. PMID:27557573

  1. [Study of male mating behavior in some Drosophila melanogaster strains in experiments with fertilized females].

    PubMed

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2004-07-01

    Male courtship ritual is among the main behavioral characteristics of Drosophila. This is a complex, genetically determined process consisting of four general stages: orientation, vibration, licking, and attempts at copulation (or successful copulation). Several genes are known that control some stages of this behavior. Most of them have pleiotropic effects and are involved in other biological processes. Earlier, we have shown that a mutation in locus flamenco (20A1-3), which controls transposition and infectivity of retrotransposon gypsy (MDG4), is involved in the genetic control of behavior. In strains mutant for this locus, the male mating activity is decreased and the structure of courtship ritual is changed. To understand the mechanisms of these changes, it is important to study all behavioral stages in genetically identical strains. For this purpose, the normal allele of gene flamenco from the X chromosome of the wild-type strain (stock) Canton S was introduced into strain SS carrying flamMS. This offers new opportunities in studying the role of gene flamenco in the control of mating behavior in Drosophila. PMID:15458200

  2. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects. PMID:25404225

  3. Remating and sperm competition in replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to alternative environments.

    PubMed

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Agrawal, Aneil F; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of sexual conflict in nature, as well as the supposedly arbitrary direction of the resulting coevolutionary trajectories, suggests that it may be an important driver of phenotypic divergence even in a constant environment. However, natural selection has long been central to the operation of sexual conflict within populations and may therefore constrain or otherwise direct divergence among populations. Ecological context may therefore matter with respect to the diversification of traits involved in sexual conflict, and if natural selection is sufficiently strong, such traits may evolve in correlation with environment, generating a pattern of ecologically-dependent parallel evolution. In this study we assess among-population divergence both within and between environments for several traits involved in sexual conflict. Using eight replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster from a long-term evolution experiment, we measured remating rates and subsequent offspring production of females when housed with two separate males in sequence. We found no evidence of any variation in male reproductive traits (offense or defense). However, the propensity of females to remate diverged significantly among the eight populations with no evidence of any environmental effect, consistent with sexual conflict promoting diversification even in the absence of ecological differences. On the other hand, females adapted to one environment (ethanol) tended to produce a higher proportion of offspring sired by their first mate as compared to those adapted to the other (cadmium) environment, suggesting ecologically-based divergence of this conflict phenotype. Because we find evidence for both stochastic population divergence operating outside of an ecological context and environment-dependent divergence of traits under sexual conflict, the interaction of these two processes is an important topic for future work. PMID:24587283

  4. Remating and Sperm Competition in Replicate Populations of Drosophila melanogaster Adapted to Alternative Environments

    PubMed Central

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Agrawal, Aneil F.; Rundle, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of sexual conflict in nature, as well as the supposedly arbitrary direction of the resulting coevolutionary trajectories, suggests that it may be an important driver of phenotypic divergence even in a constant environment. However, natural selection has long been central to the operation of sexual conflict within populations and may therefore constrain or otherwise direct divergence among populations. Ecological context may therefore matter with respect to the diversification of traits involved in sexual conflict, and if natural selection is sufficiently strong, such traits may evolve in correlation with environment, generating a pattern of ecologically-dependent parallel evolution. In this study we assess among-population divergence both within and between environments for several traits involved in sexual conflict. Using eight replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster from a long-term evolution experiment, we measured remating rates and subsequent offspring production of females when housed with two separate males in sequence. We found no evidence of any variation in male reproductive traits (offense or defense). However, the propensity of females to remate diverged significantly among the eight populations with no evidence of any environmental effect, consistent with sexual conflict promoting diversification even in the absence of ecological differences. On the other hand, females adapted to one environment (ethanol) tended to produce a higher proportion of offspring sired by their first mate as compared to those adapted to the other (cadmium) environment, suggesting ecologically-based divergence of this conflict phenotype. Because we find evidence for both stochastic population divergence operating outside of an ecological context and environment-dependent divergence of traits under sexual conflict, the interaction of these two processes is an important topic for future work. PMID:24587283

  5. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Touhara, Kazushige; Ejima, Aki

    2015-01-01

    A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment. PMID:26252206

  6. Heterosis for viability, fecundity, and male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster: comparison of mutational and standing variation.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, J D; Heinsohn, S L; Mackay, T F

    1998-01-01

    If genetic variation for fitness traits in natural populations ("standing" variation) is maintained by recurrent mutation, then quantitative-genetic properties of standing variation should resemble those of newly arisen mutations. One well-known property of standing variation for fitness traits is inbreeding depression, with its converse of heterosis or hybrid vigor. We measured heterosis for three fitness traits, pre-adult viability, female fecundity, and male fertility, among a set of inbred Drosophilia melanogaster lines recently derived from the wild, and also among a set of lines that had been allowed to accumulate spontaneous mutations for over 200 generations. The inbred lines but not the mutation-accumulation (MA) lines showed heterosis for pre-adult viability. Both sets of lines showed heterosis for female fecundity, but heterosis for male fertility was weak or absent. Crosses among a subset of the MA lines showed that they were strongly differentiated for male fertility, with the differences inherited in autosomal fashion; the absence of heterosis for male fertility among the MA lines was therefore not caused by an absence of mutations affecting this trait. Crosses among the inbred lines also gave some, albeit equivocal, evidence for male fertility variation. The contrast between the results for female fecundity and those for male fertility suggests that mutations affecting different fitness traits may differ in their average dominance properties, and that such differences may be reflected in properties of standing variation. The strong differentiation among the MA lines in male fertility further suggests that mutations affecting this trait occur at a high rate. PMID:9539433

  7. Genotoxic potency in Drosophila melanogaster of selected aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as assayed in the DNA repair test.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, K; Fort, F L; Samejima, K; Sakamoto, Y

    1993-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster stock consisting of meiotic recombination deficient (Rec-) double mutant mei-9a mei-41D5 males and Rec+ females was exposed at the larval stage to an aromatic amine or a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. After emergence as adult flies, the males and the females were scored separately. When the treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the male to female ratio from the control level; the experiment was repeated with a larval stock consisting of Rec+ males and Rec+ females under comparable conditions. A preferential killing effect upon Rec- larvae was taken as evidence of DNA damaging effect of the test compound. Among 16 compounds tested, 1-AP, B(a)P, 2-AF, DAF, 4-AAF, 2-AAF, 1-AA, 2-AA, DMA, B(a)A and DMBA were registered as positive; Py and 3-MC were weakly positive; and B(e)P, Fluo and Ant were negative. The selective killing effects of the compounds in each of the pyrene, fluorene and anthracene series varied drastically as a function of structure in a way similar to that reported for the genotoxicity in Drosophila and the carcinogenicity in rodents. The Drosophila DNA repair assay will serve as a simple adjunct to the already available means for studying the genotoxic potency of aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:7694108

  8. [Evaluation of effects of gamma-irradiation at low doses on repair and meiotic recombination mutants of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Iushkova, E A; Zaĭnullin, V G; Startseva, O A

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of the effects of gene mutations mus209, mus309, mei-41 and rad54 of Drosophila melanogaster on the sensitivity to low-level exposure of different duration was carried out. Taken into account was the survival rate at different stages of ontogeny, female fecundity, the frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and the DNA damage. mei-41 and rad-54 mutants were most sensitive to the action of low dose radiation (80 mGy) in terms of survival and DLM. However, at the level of DNA damage, an increased radiosensitivity is observed only at larger doses of low intensity irradiation. Based on these observations, we can conclude about the importance of repair and its genes in the formation of the effect of low level doses of ionizing radiation in Drosophila. PMID:22384721

  9. Sex-specific effects of inbreeding in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster under benign and stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Enders, L S; Nunney, L

    2010-11-01

    In animal populations, sib mating is often the primary source of inbreeding depression (ID). We used recently wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster to test whether such ID is amplified by environmental stress and, in males, by sexual selection. We also investigated whether increased ID because of stress (increased larval competition) persisted beyond the stressed stage and whether the effects of stress and sexual selection interacted. Sib mating resulted in substantial cumulative fitness losses (egg to adult reproduction) of 50% (benign) and 73% (stressed). Stress increased ID during the larval period (23% vs. 63%), but not during post-stress reproductive stages (36% vs. 31%), indicating larval stress may have purged some adult genetic load (although ID was uncorrelated across stages). Sexual selection exacerbated inbreeding depression, with inbred male offspring suffering a higher reproductive cost than females, independent of stress (57% vs. 14% benign, 49% vs. 11% stress). PMID:20874846

  10. Population Genomics of the Wolbachia Endosymbiont in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Mark F.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Welch, John J.; Linheiro, Raquel S.; Magwire, Michael M.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Bergman, Casey M.

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria, commonly found in arthropods, which are able to manipulate the reproduction of their host in order to maximise their transmission. The evolutionary history of endosymbionts like Wolbachia can be revealed by integrating information on infection status in natural populations with patterns of sequence variation in Wolbachia and host mitochondrial genomes. Here we use whole-genome resequencing data from 290 lines of Drosophila melanogaster from North America, Europe, and Africa to predict Wolbachia infection status, estimate relative cytoplasmic genome copy number, and reconstruct Wolbachia and mitochondrial genome sequences. Overall, 63% of Drosophila strains were predicted to be infected with Wolbachia by our in silico analysis pipeline, which shows 99% concordance with infection status determined by diagnostic PCR. Complete Wolbachia and mitochondrial genomes show congruent phylogenies, consistent with strict vertical transmission through the maternal cytoplasm and imperfect transmission of Wolbachia. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals that the most recent common ancestor of all Wolbachia and mitochondrial genomes in D. melanogaster dates to around 8,000 years ago. We find evidence for a recent global replacement of ancestral Wolbachia and mtDNA lineages, but our data suggest that the derived wMel lineage arose several thousand years ago, not in the 20th century as previously proposed. Our data also provide evidence that this global replacement event is incomplete and is likely to be one of several similar incomplete replacement events that have occurred since the out-of-Africa migration that allowed D. melanogaster to colonize worldwide habitats. This study provides a complete genomic analysis of the evolutionary mode and temporal dynamics of the D. melanogaster–Wolbachia symbiosis, as well as important resources for further analyses of the impact of Wolbachia on host biology. PMID:23284297

  11. Drosophila Melanogaster Show a Threshold Effect in Response to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Antosh, Michael; Fox, David; Hasselbacher, Thomas; Lanou, Robert; Neretti, Nicola; Cooper, Leon N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the biological effects of radiation using adult Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, focusing on gene expression and lifespan analysis to determine the effect of different radiation doses. Our results support a threshold effect in response to radiation: no effect on lifespan and no permanent effect on gene expression is seen at incident radiation levels below 100 J/kg. We also find that it is more appropriate to compare radiation effects in flies using the absorbed energy rather than incident radiation levels. PMID:25552957

  12. Host-microbe interactions in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kuraishi, Takayuki; Hori, Aki; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many insect species subsist on decaying and contaminated matter and are thus exposed to large quantities of microorganisms. To control beneficial commensals and combat infectious pathogens, insects must be armed with efficient systems for microbial recognition, signaling pathways, and effector molecules. The molecular mechanisms regulating these host-microbe interactions in insects have been largely clarified in Drosophila melanogaster with its powerful genetic and genomic tools. Here we review recent advances in this field, focusing mainly on the relationships between microbes and epithelial cells in the intestinal tract where the host exposure to the external environment is most frequent. PMID:24381562

  13. Modeling dietary influences on offspring metabolic programming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Brookheart, Rita T; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    The influence of nutrition on offspring metabolism has become a hot topic in recent years owing to the growing prevalence of maternal and childhood obesity. Studies in mammals have identified several factors correlating with parental and early offspring dietary influences on progeny health; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these factors remain undiscovered. Mammalian metabolic tissues and pathways are heavily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster, making the fly an invaluable genetic model organism for studying metabolism. In this review, we discuss the metabolic similarities between mammals and Drosophila and present evidence supporting its use as an emerging model of metabolic programming. PMID:27450801

  14. Acrolein genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Effects of metabolism modification.

    PubMed

    Barros, A R; Sierra, L M; Comendador, M A

    1994-05-01

    In order to investigate the role of metabolism in acrolein genotoxicity in D. melanogaster, the action of several metabolism modifiers, namely phenobarbital, an inducer of xenobiotic metabolism, phenylimidazole and iproniazid, inhibitors of oxidative activities of cytochrome P450, and diethyl maleate, a glutathione-depleting agent, have been assayed using the sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test, with two different administration routes (feeding and injection). The results support the hypothesis that acrolein is not only a direct mutagen but is also transformed, by oxidative activities of cytochrome P450 after glutathione conjugation, into an active metabolite, possibly glycidaldehyde. Moreover, acrolein is deactivated by an enzymatic activity induced by phenobarbital. PMID:7513061

  15. Determination of the Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jared K.; Kowalski, Suzanne; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an excellent model organism to study environmental and genetic manipulations that affect behavior. One such behavior is spontaneous locomotor activity. Here we describe our protocol that utilizes Drosophila population monitors and a tracking system that allows continuous monitoring of the spontaneous locomotor activity of flies for several days at a time. This method is simple, reliable, and objective and can be used to examine the effects of aging, sex, changes in caloric content of food, addition of drugs, or genetic manipulations that mimic human diseases. PMID:24747955

  16. Structure of psoralen-crosslinked ribosomal RNA from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenzien, P L; Youvan, D C; Hearst, J E

    1978-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA from Drosophila melanogaster photoreacted with hydroxymethyltrioxsalen has been examined by electron microscopy. Reproducible patterns of hairpins were found in both the 26S and 18S RNA. The frequency of these hairpins and the amount of incorporated drug were dependent upon the conditions under which the crosslinking was performed. A prominent central hairpin occurs in the 26S RNA and the break that interrupts the continuity of the RNA chain is located within it. In addition to several small hairpins, the crosslinked 18S RNA contains a large open loop. Images PMID:417342

  17. Determination of the spontaneous locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jared K; Kowalski, Suzanne; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an excellent model organism to study environmental and genetic manipulations that affect behavior. One such behavior is spontaneous locomotor activity. Here we describe our protocol that utilizes Drosophila population monitors and a tracking system that allows continuous monitoring of the spontaneous locomotor activity of flies for several days at a time. This method is simple, reliable, and objective and can be used to examine the effects of aging, sex, changes in caloric content of food, addition of drugs, or genetic manipulations that mimic human diseases. PMID:24747955

  18. Fitness and density-dependent population growth in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.D.; Ayala, F.J.

    1981-03-01

    The density-dependent rates of population growth were determined for 26 populations of Drosophila melanogaster maintained in the serial transfer system. Twenty-five populations were homozygous for an entire chromosome 2 sampled from nature; the other was a random heterozygous population. Rates of population growth around the carrying capacity cannot explain the large fitness depression of these lines. However, the homozygous lines show large differences in rates of population growth at low densities relative to the random heterozygous standard. The average relative fitness of the homozygous lines, as determined from the growth rates at the lowest density, is 0.51.

  19. Dietary stress does not strengthen selection against single deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    MacLellan, K; Kwan, L; Whitlock, M C; Rundle, H D

    2012-01-01

    Stress is generally thought to increase the strength of selection, although empirical results are mixed and general conclusions are difficult because data are limited. Here we compare the fitness effects of nine independent recessive mutations in Drosophila melanogaster in a high- and low-dietary-stress environment, estimating the strength of selection on these mutations arising from both a competitive measure of male reproductive success and productivity (female fecundity and the subsequent survival to adulthood of her offspring). The effect of stress on male reproductive success has not been addressed previously for individual loci and is of particular interest with respect to the alignment of natural and sexual selection. Our results do not support the hypothesis that stress increases the efficacy of selection arising from either fitness component. Results concerning the alignment of natural and sexual selection were mixed, although data are limited. In the low-stress environment, selection on mating success and productivity were concordant for five of nine mutations (four out of four when restricted to those with significant or near-significant productivity effects), whereas in the high-stress environment, selection aligned for seven of nine mutations (two out of two when restricted to those having significant productivity effects). General conclusions as to the effects of stress on the strength of selection and the alignment of natural and sexual selection await data from additional mutations, fitness components and stressors. PMID:21792225

  20. Microbe-dependent and nonspecific effects of procedures to eliminate the resident microbiota from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Emma V; Wong, Adam C N; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-05-01

    Comparisons of animals bearing and lacking microorganisms can offer valuable insight into the interactions between animal hosts and their resident microbiota. Most hosts are naturally infected, and therefore, these comparisons require specific procedures (e.g., antibiotic treatment or physical exclusion of microorganisms) to disrupt the microbiota, but the potential for confounding nonspecific effects of the procedure on the traits of the host exists. Microbe-dependent and nonspecific effects can be discriminated by using multiple procedures: microbe-dependent effects are evident in hosts made microbe free by different procedures, but nonspecific effects are unique to individual procedures. As a demonstration, two procedures, oral administration of chlortetracycline (50 μg ml(-1) diet) and microbiota removal by egg dechorionation, were applied to Drosophila melanogaster in a 2-by-2 factorial design. Microorganisms were undetectable in flies from dechorionated eggs and reduced by >99% in chlortetracycline-treated flies. Drosophila flies subjected to both protocols displayed an extended preadult development time, suggesting that the microbiota promotes the development rate. Female chlortetracycline-treated flies, whether from untreated or dechorionated eggs, displayed reduced protein content and egg fecundity, which could be attributed to the nonspecific effect of the antibiotic. We recommend that procedures used to disrupt the microbiota of animals should be selected, following systematic analysis of alternative mechanistically distinct procedures, on the basis of two criteria: those that achieve the greatest reduction (ideally, elimination) of the microbiota and those that achieve minimal nonspecific effects. PMID:23475620

  1. Circumventing Heterozygosity: Sequencing the Amplified Genome of a Single Haploid Drosophila melanogaster Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Charles H.; Crepeau, Marc; Cardeno, Charis; Corbett-Detig, Russell; Stevens, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Heterozygosity is a major challenge to efficient, high-quality genomic assembly and to the full genomic survey of polymorphism and divergence. In Drosophila melanogaster lines derived from equatorial populations are particularly resistant to inbreeding, thus imposing a major barrier to the determination and analyses of genomic variation in natural populations of this model organism. Here we present a simple genome sequencing protocol based on the whole-genome amplification of the gynogenetically derived haploid genome of a progeny of females mated to males homozygous for the recessive male sterile mutation, ms(3)K81. A single “lane” of paired-end sequences (2 × 76 bp) provides a good syntenic assembly with >95% high-quality coverage (more than five reads). The amplification of the genomic DNA moderately inflates the variation in coverage across the euchromatic portion of the genome. It also increases the frequency of chimeric clones. But the low frequency and random genomic distribution of the chimeric clones limits their impact on the final assemblies. This method provides a solid path forward for population genomic sequencing and offers applications to many other systems in which small amounts of genomic DNA have unique experimental relevance. PMID:21441209

  2. Influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on Drosophila melanogaster longevity.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Anton; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Shevchenko, Oksana; Zemskaya, Nadezhda; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Moskalev, Alexey

    2015-08-14

    Most age-related diseases and aging itself are associated with chronic inflammation. Thus pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory processes may be effective antiaging strategy. In this study we demonstrated that treatment of Drosophila melanogaster with 10 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: CAY10404, aspirin, APHS, SC-560, NS-398, SC-58125, valeroyl salicylate, trans-resveratrol, valdecoxib, licofelone) leads to extension of lifespan, delays age-dependent decline of locomotor activity and increases stress resistance. The effect of the lifespan increase was associated with decrease of fecundity. Depending on the concentration, NSAIDs demonstrated both anti- and pro-oxidant properties in Drosophila tissues. However, we failed to identify clear correlation between antioxidant properties of NSAIDs and their pro-longevity effects. The lifespan extending effects of APHS, SC-58125, valeroyl salicylate, trans-resveratrol, valdecoxib, and licofelone were more pronounced in males, valdecoxib and aspirin - in females. We demonstrated that lifespan extension effect of NSAIDs was abolished in flies with defective genes involved in Pkh2-ypk1-lem3-tat2 pathway. PMID:26305987

  3. Drosophila melanogaster brain invasion: pathogenic Wolbachia in central nervous system of the fly.

    PubMed

    Strunov, Anton; Kiseleva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenic Wolbachia strain wMelPop rapidly over-replicates in the brain, muscles, and retina of Drosophila melanogaster, causing severe tissue degeneration and premature death of the host. The unique features of this endosymbiont make it an excellent tool to be used for biological control of insects, pests, and vectors of human diseases. To follow the dynamics of bacterial morphology and titer in the nerve cells we used transmission electron microscopy of 3-d-old female brains. The neurons and glial cells from central brain of the fly had different Wolbachia titers ranging from single bacteria to large accumulations, tearing cell apart and invading extracellular space. The neuropile regions of the brain were free of wMelPop. Wolbachia tightly interacted with host cell organelles and underwent several morphological changes in nerve cells. Based on different morphological types of bacteria described we propose for the first time a scheme of wMelPop dynamics within the somatic tissue of the host. PMID:25394184

  4. Specificity of Chromosome Damage Caused by the Rex Element of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, L. G.

    1996-01-01

    Rex is a multicopy genetic element that maps within an X-linked ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) array of D. melanogaster. Acting maternally, Rex causes recombination between rDNA arrays in a few percent of early embryos. With target chromosomes that contain two rDNA arrays, the exchanges either delete all of the material between the two arrays or invert the entire intervening chromosomal segment. About a third of the embryos produced by Rex homozygotes have cytologically visible chromosome damage, nearly always involving a single chromosome. Most of these embryos die during early development, displaying a characteristic apoptosis-like phenotype. An experiment that tests whether the cytologically visible damage is rDNA-specific is reported here. In this experiment, females heterozygous for Rex and an rDNA-deficient X chromosome were crossed to males of two genotypes. Some of the progeny from the experimental cross entirely lacked rDNA, while all of the progeny from the control cross had at least one rDNA array. A significantly lower frequency of early-lethal embryos in the experimental cross, proportionate to the fraction of rDNA-deficient embryos, demonstrates that Rex preferentially damages rDNA. PMID:8878677

  5. Hybrid Dysgenesis-Induced Quantitative Variation on the X Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lai, C.; Mackay, TFC.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the ability of the P-M hybrid dysgenesis system of Drosophila melanogaster to generate mutations affecting quantitative traits, X chromosome lines were constructed in which replicates of isogenic M and P strain X chromosomes were exposed to a dysgenic cross, a nondysgenic cross, or a control cross, and recovered in common autosomal backgrounds. Mutational heritabilities of abdominal and sternopleural bristle score were in general exceptionally high-of the same magnitude as heritabilities of these traits in natural populations. P strain chromosomes were eight times more mutable than M strain chromosomes, and dysgenic crosses three times more effective than nondysgenic crosses in inducing polygenic variation. However, mutational heritabilities of the bristle traits were appreciable for P strain chromosomes passed through one nondysgenic cross, and for M strain chromosomes backcrossed for seven generations to inbred P strain females, a result consistent with previous observations on mutations affecting quantitative traits arising from nondysgenic crosses. The new variation resulting from one generation of mutagenesis was caused by a few lines with large effects on bristle score, and all mutations reduced bristle number. PMID:2155852

  6. Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate causes sterility and lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Dion D D; Xiao, Jiarong; Bindom, Sharell; Vincent, John B; O'Donnell, Janis

    2003-04-01

    The nutritional dietary supplement chromium picolinate, [Cr(pic)(3)], has gained much notoriety as a safe supplement that supposedly promotes fat loss and muscle enhancement in humans. Thus, a significant industry has materialized around the incorporation of [Cr(pic)(3)] in many sports foods and drinks and a variety of weight loss products. However, in vitro studies have suggested that low levels of [Cr(pic)(3)] in the presence of biological reducing agents can catalytically generate reactive oxygen species, and recent in vivo studies have detected oxidative damage in rats receiving the supplement. The potential deleterious in vivo effects of this activity were examined by using Drosophila melanogaster. [Cr(pic)(3)], but not CrCl(3), at levels of 260 microg Crkg food or less were found to lower the success rate of pupation and eclosion and to arrest development of pupae in a concentration dependent fashion. X-linked lethal analysis indicates that the supplement greatly enhances the rate of appearance of lethal mutations and dominant female sterility. PMID:12649323

  7. Influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on Drosophila melanogaster longevity

    PubMed Central

    Danilov, Anton; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Shevchenko, Oksana; Zemskaya, Nadezhda; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Moskalev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Most age-related diseases and aging itself are associated with chronic inflammation. Thus pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory processes may be effective antiaging strategy. In this study we demonstrated that treatment of Drosophila melanogaster with 10 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: CAY10404, aspirin, APHS, SC-560, NS-398, SC-58125, valeroyl salicylate, trans-resveratrol, valdecoxib, licofelone) leads to extension of lifespan, delays age-dependent decline of locomotor activity and increases stress resistance. The effect of the lifespan increase was associated with decrease of fecundity. Depending on the concentration, NSAIDs demonstrated both anti- and pro-oxidant properties in Drosophila tissues. However, we failed to identify clear correlation between antioxidant properties of NSAIDs and their pro-longevity effects. The lifespan extending effects of APHS, SC-58125, valeroyl salicylate, trans-resveratrol, valdecoxib, and licofelone were more pronounced in males, valdecoxib and aspirin - in females. We demonstrated that lifespan extension effect of NSAIDs was abolished in flies with defective genes involved in Pkh2-ypk1-lem3-tat2 pathway. PMID:26305987

  8. Green Tea Polyphenols Extend the Lifespan of Male Drosophila melanogaster While Impairing Reproductive Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E.; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T.; Huey, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans. PMID:25058464

  9. Tetracycline-exposed Drosophila melanogaster males produce fewer offspring but a relative excess of sons

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Kaitlyn L; Singh, Nadia D

    2015-01-01

    A large diversity of species possesses endosymbionts; these endosymbionts can exhibit mutualistic, parasitic, and commensal relationships with their hosts. Previous work has consistently revealed that depleting endosymbiont titer with antibiotic treatment can significantly alter host fitness and function, particularly with respect to reproductive phenotypes. Although these findings are often interpreted as resulting from the breakdown of highly coevolved symbioses, it is possible that antibiotic treatment itself rather than endosymbiont removal contributes to the observed perturbations in reproductive phenotypes. Here, we investigate the effect of tetracycline treatment on sex ratio and male reproductive fitness using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Our results indicate that tetracycline-treated males produce a relative excess of sons. We also find that tetracycline treatment reduces the number of progeny produced by treated males but not treated females. These findings are independent of the effects of tetracycline on Wolbachia titer and implicate the antibiotic itself as mediating these changes. It is yet unclear whether the sex ratio shift and reduction in male reproductive fitness are direct or indirect consequences of tetracycline exposure, and more work is needed to determine the molecular mechanisms by which these disturbances in reproductive phenotypes arise. Our data highlight the importance of considering the potentially confounding effects of antibiotic treatment when investigating the effects of endosymbiont depletion on host phenotypes. PMID:26357541

  10. Sex-peptide is the molecular basis of the sperm effect in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huanfa; Kubli, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Mating elicits two major changes in the reproductive behavior of many insect females. The egg-laying rate increases and the readiness to accept males (receptivity) is reduced. These postmating responses last ≈1 week in Drosophila melanogaster. Males that do not transfer sperm but transfer seminal fluid during mating induce a short-term response of 1 day. The long-term response of 1 week requires the presence of sperm (sperm effect). Hence, sperm is essential for the long-term persistence of the postmating responses. Three seminal fluid peptides elicit postmating responses: ovulin, sex-peptide (SP), and DUP99B. Using the technique of targeted mutagenesis by homologous recombination, we have produced males with mutant SP genes. Here, we report that males lacking functional SP elicit only a weak short-term response. However, these males do transfer sperm. Thus, (i) SP is the major agent eliciting the short-term and the long-term postmating responses and (ii) sperm is merely the carrier for SP. The second conclusion is supported by the finding that SP binds to sperm. The 36-aa-encoding SP gene is the first small Drosophila gene knocked out with the method of homologous recombination. PMID:12897240

  11. Mild mutations in the pan neural gene prospero affect male-specific behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Yaël; Savy, Mathilde; Soichot, Julien; Everaerts, Claude; Cézilly, Frank; Ferveur, Jean François

    2004-01-30

    The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most appropriate model organisms to study the genetics of behaviour. Here, we focus on prospero (pros), a key gene for the development of the nervous system which specifies multiple aspects from the early formation of the embryonic central nervous system to the formation of larval and adult sensory organs. We studied the effects on locomotion, courtship and mating behaviour of three mild pros mutations. These newly isolated pros mutations were induced after the incomplete excision of a transposable genomic element that, before excision, caused a lethal phenotype during larval development. Strikingly, these mutant strains, but not the strains with a clean excision, produced a high frequency of heterozygous flies, after more than 50 generations in the lab. We investigated the factors that could decrease the fitness of homozygotes relatively to heterozygous pros mutant flies. Flies of both genotypes had slightly different levels of fertility. More strikingly, homozygous mutant males had a lower sexual activity than heterozygous males and failed to mate in a competitive situation. No similar effect was detected in mutant females. These findings suggest that mild mutations in pros did not alter vital functions during development but drastically changed adult male behaviour and reproductive fitness. PMID:14744542

  12. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  13. Transposon insertions causing constitutive sex-lethal activity in Drosophila melanogaster affect Sxl sex-specific transcript splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Berstein, M.; Cline, T.W. |; Lersch, R.A.; Subrahmanyan, L.

    1995-02-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle {open_quotes}on{close_quotes} vs. {open_quotes}off{close_quotes} reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. {open_quotes}Male-lethal{close_quotes} (Sxl{sup M}) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, Sxl{sup M} haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and Sxl{sup m} chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Transcript analysis of double-mutant male-viable Sxl{sup M} derivatives in which the Sxl{sup M} insertion is cis to loss-of-function mutations, combined with other results reported here, indicates that the constitutive character of these Sxl{sup M} alleles is a consequence of an alteration of the structure of the pre-mRNA that allow some level of female splicing to occur even in the absence of functional SXL protein. Surprisingly, however, most of the constitutive character of Sxl{sup M} alleles appears to depend on the mutant alleles` responsiveness, perhaps greater than wild-type, to the autoregulatory splicing activity of the wild-type SXL proteins they produce. 47 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  15. Sodium chromate demonstrates some insulin-mimetic properties in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Perkhulyn, Natalia V; Rovenko, Bohdana M; Zvarych, Tetyana V; Lushchak, Oleh V; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of food supplementation with sodium chromate at concentrations of 1-500 μM on development of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and food intake, carbohydrate and lipid pools in adult fruit flies were investigated. Food supplementation with hexavalent chromium (Na2CrO4) at high concentrations delayed larval development and decreased the percentage of larvae that pupated which indicated a relatively low toxicity. The supplement decreased glucose levels in fly hemolymph, but at concentrations of 5-25 μM increased fly carbohydrate reserves: hemolymph trehalose and whole body trehalose and glycogen. The data on parameters of carbohydrate metabolism show that chromate possesses some insulin-mimetic properties. The changes in metabolism of carbohydrates under chromate exposure were also accompanied by an increase in total lipid levels and in the portion of triacylglycerides among all lipids. Chromate addition to fly food did not affect male or female body mass, but reduced food consumption by females at all concentrations used, whereas in males only 500 μM chromate decreased food consumption. The data show that: (1) Cr(6+) has many of the same effects as Cr(3+) suggesting that it might be just as effective to treat diabetic states, likely as a result of intracellular reduction of Cr(6+) ions, and (2) the Drosophila model can be used to develop new approaches to investigate the molecular mechanisms of chromium as an insulin-mimetic. Although it is usually believed that hexavalent chromium possesses higher toxicity than the trivalent ion, due to its easier penetration into the cell, application of hexavalent chromium may substantially decrease the chromium doses needed to get the desired effects. PMID:25220772

  16. Pomegranate Juice Enhances Healthy Lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Mohan, Jayaram; Chatterjee, Arunita; Patnaik, Esha; Kukkupuni, Subrahmanya Kumar; Nongthomba, Upendra; Venkatasubramanian, Padmavathy

    2014-01-01

    Exploring innovative ways to ensure healthy aging of populations is a pre-requisite to contain rising healthcare costs. Scientific research into the principles and practices of traditional medicines can provide new insights and simple solutions to lead a healthy life. Rasayana is a dedicated branch of Ayurveda (an Indian medicine) that deals with methods to increase vitality and delay aging through the use of diet, herbal supplements, and other lifestyle practices. The life-span and health-span enhancing actions of the fruits of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), a well-known Rasayana, were tested on Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) model. Supplementation of standard corn meal with 10% (v/v) pomegranate juice (PJ) extended the life-span of male and female flies by 18 and 8%, respectively. When male and female flies were mixed and reared together, there was 19% increase in the longevity of PJ fed flies, as assessed by MSD, the median survival day (24.8). MSD for control and resveratrol (RV) groups was at 20.8 and 23.1 days, respectively. A two-fold enhancement in fecundity, improved resistance to oxidative stress (H2O2 and paraquat induced) and to Candida albicans infection were observed in PJ fed flies. Further, the flies in the PJ fed group were physically active over an extended period of time, as assessed by the climbing assay. PJ thus outperformed both control and RV groups in the life-span and health-span parameters tested. This study provides the scope to explore the potential of PJ as a nutraceutical to improve health span and lifespan in human beings. PMID:25566518

  17. Pomegranate Juice Enhances Healthy Lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Mohan, Jayaram; Chatterjee, Arunita; Patnaik, Esha; Kukkupuni, Subrahmanya Kumar; Nongthomba, Upendra; Venkatasubramanian, Padmavathy

    2014-01-01

    Exploring innovative ways to ensure healthy aging of populations is a pre-requisite to contain rising healthcare costs. Scientific research into the principles and practices of traditional medicines can provide new insights and simple solutions to lead a healthy life. Rasayana is a dedicated branch of Ayurveda (an Indian medicine) that deals with methods to increase vitality and delay aging through the use of diet, herbal supplements, and other lifestyle practices. The life-span and health-span enhancing actions of the fruits of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), a well-known Rasayana, were tested on Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) model. Supplementation of standard corn meal with 10% (v/v) pomegranate juice (PJ) extended the life-span of male and female flies by 18 and 8%, respectively. When male and female flies were mixed and reared together, there was 19% increase in the longevity of PJ fed flies, as assessed by MSD, the median survival day (24.8). MSD for control and resveratrol (RV) groups was at 20.8 and 23.1 days, respectively. A two-fold enhancement in fecundity, improved resistance to oxidative stress (H2O2 and paraquat induced) and to Candida albicans infection were observed in PJ fed flies. Further, the flies in the PJ fed group were physically active over an extended period of time, as assessed by the climbing assay. PJ thus outperformed both control and RV groups in the life-span and health-span parameters tested. This study provides the scope to explore the potential of PJ as a nutraceutical to improve health span and lifespan in human beings. PMID:25566518

  18. Sex-specific Trans-regulatory Variation on the Drosophila melanogaster X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Michael; Dean, Rebecca; Rogell, Björn; Friberg, Urban

    2015-01-01

    The X chromosome constitutes a unique genomic environment because it is present in one copy in males, but two copies in females. This simple fact has motivated several theoretical predictions with respect to how standing genetic variation on the X chromosome should differ from the autosomes. Unmasked expression of deleterious mutations in males and a lower census size are expected to reduce variation, while allelic variants with sexually antagonistic effects, and potentially those with a sex-specific effect, could accumulate on the X chromosome and contribute to increased genetic variation. In addition, incomplete dosage compensation of the X chromosome could potentially dampen the male-specific effects of random mutations, and promote the accumulation of X-linked alleles with sexually dimorphic phenotypic effects. Here we test both the amount and the type of genetic variation on the X chromosome within a population of Drosophila melanogaster, by comparing the proportion of X linked and autosomal trans-regulatory SNPs with a sexually concordant and discordant effect on gene expression. We find that the X chromosome is depleted for SNPs with a sexually concordant effect, but hosts comparatively more SNPs with a sexually discordant effect. Interestingly, the contrasting results for SNPs with sexually concordant and discordant effects are driven by SNPs with a larger influence on expression in females than expression in males. Furthermore, the distribution of these SNPs is shifted towards regions where dosage compensation is predicted to be less complete. These results suggest that intrinsic properties of dosage compensation influence either the accumulation of different types of trans-factors and/or their propensity to accumulate mutations. Our findings document a potential mechanistic basis for sex-specific genetic variation, and identify the X as a reservoir for sexually dimorphic phenotypic variation. These results have general implications for X chromosome

  19. The poly(A) polymerase GLD2 is required for spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sartain, Caroline V.; Cui, Jun; Meisel, Richard P.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2011-01-01

    The DNA of a developing sperm is normally inaccessible for transcription for part of spermatogenesis in many animals. In Drosophila melanogaster, many transcripts needed for late spermatid differentiation are synthesized in pre-meiotic spermatocytes, but are not translated until later stages. Thus, post-transcriptional control mechanisms are required to decouple transcription and translation during spermatogenesis. In the female germline, developing germ cells accomplish similar decoupling through poly(A) tail alterations to ensure that dormant transcripts are not prematurely translated: a transcript with a short poly(A) tail will remain untranslated, whereas elongating the poly(A) tail permits protein production. In Drosophila, the ovary-expressed cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase WISPY is responsible for stage-specific poly(A) tail extension in the female germline. Here, we examine the possibility that a recently derived testis-expressed WISPY paralog, GLD2, plays a similar role in the Drosophila male germline. We show that knockdown of Gld2 transcripts causes male sterility, as GLD2-deficient males do not produce mature sperm. Spermatogenesis up to and including meiosis appears normal in the absence of GLD2, but post-meiotic spermatid development rapidly becomes abnormal. Nuclear bundling and F-actin assembly are defective in GLD2 knockdown testes and nuclei fail to undergo chromatin reorganization in elongated spermatids. GLD2 also affects the incorporation of protamines and the stability of dynamin and transition protein transcripts. Our results indicate that GLD2 is an important regulator of late spermatogenesis and is the first example of a Gld-2 family member that plays a significant role specifically in male gametogenesis. PMID:21427144

  20. Regulation of Sleep by Neuropeptide Y-Like System in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunxia; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Mingming; Price, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF), is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1) on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies. PMID:24040211

  1. Molecular Genetics of the Drosophila Melanogaster Ovo Locus, a Gene Required for Sex Determination of Germline Cells

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, M. D.; Lohe, A. R.; Mahowald, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovo gene is required for survival and differentiation of female germline cells, apparently playing a role in germline sex determination. We recovered 60 kb of genomic DNA from its genetic location at 4E1,2 on the X chromosome. A transcription unit coding for an apparently female-specific germline-dependent 5-kb poly(A)(+) RNA size class is located substantially in a 7-kb region, within which three DNA-detectable lesions for mutations that inactivate the ovo function are located at two sites &4 kb apart. The breakpoint of a deficiency that removes the neighboring lethal complementation group shavenbaby (svb) but leaves the ovo function intact maps &5 kb to the molecular left of the leftmost ovo mutant site. A class of mutations that inactivates both the svb function and the ovo function affects genomic DNA between the two ovo sites. Sequences required for the two genetic functions are partly overlapping. In spite of this overlap, P element-mediated gene transfer of a 10-kb genomic DNA segment containing the 5-kb poly(A)(+) RNA transcription unit rescues the female sterility phenotypes of ovo mutations, but not the svb lethality. PMID:1349870

  2. Stochastic model for gene transcription on Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, Guilherme N.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Ramos, Alexandre F.

    2016-02-01

    We examine immunostaining experimental data for the formation of stripe 2 of even-skipped (eve) transcripts on D. melanogaster embryos. An estimate of the factor converting immunofluorescence intensity units into molecular numbers is given. The analysis of the eve dynamics at the region of stripe 2 suggests that the promoter site of the gene has two distinct regimes: an earlier phase when it is predominantly activated until a critical time when it becomes mainly repressed. That suggests proposing a stochastic binary model for gene transcription on D. melanogaster embryos. Our model has two random variables: the transcripts number and the state of the source of mRNAs given as active or repressed. We are able to reproduce available experimental data for the average number of transcripts. An analysis of the random fluctuations on the number of eves and their consequences on the spatial precision of stripe 2 is presented. We show that the position of the anterior or posterior borders fluctuate around their average position by ˜1 % of the embryo length, which is similar to what is found experimentally. The fitting of data by such a simple model suggests that it can be useful to understand the functions of randomness during developmental processes.

  3. Aging modulates cuticular hydrocarbons and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tsung-Han; Yew, Joanne Y; Fedina, Tatyana Y; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Dierick, Herman A; Pletcher, Scott D

    2012-03-01

    Attractiveness is a major component of sexual selection that is dependent on sexual characteristics, such as pheromone production, which often reflect an individual's fitness and reproductive potential. Aging is a process that results in a steady decline in survival and reproductive output, yet little is known about its effect on specific aspects of attractiveness. In this report we asked how aging impacts pheromone production and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster. Evidence suggests that key pheromones in Drosophila are produced as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), whose functions in attracting mates and influencing behavior have been widely studied. We employed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to show that the composition of D. melanogaster CHC is significantly affected by aging in both sexes and that these changes are robust to different genetic backgrounds. Aging affected the relative levels of many individual CHC, and it shifted overall hydrocarbon profiles to favor compounds with longer chain lengths. We also show that the observed aging-related changes in CHC profiles are responsible for a significant reduction in sexual attractiveness. These studies illuminate causal links among pheromones, aging and attractiveness and suggest that CHC production may be an honest indicator of animal health and fertility. PMID:22323204

  4. Aging modulates cuticular hydrocarbons and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tsung-Han; Yew, Joanne Y.; Fedina, Tatyana Y.; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Dierick, Herman A.; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Attractiveness is a major component of sexual selection that is dependent on sexual characteristics, such as pheromone production, which often reflect an individual’s fitness and reproductive potential. Aging is a process that results in a steady decline in survival and reproductive output, yet little is known about its effect on specific aspects of attractiveness. In this report we asked how aging impacts pheromone production and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster. Evidence suggests that key pheromones in Drosophila are produced as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), whose functions in attracting mates and influencing behavior have been widely studied. We employed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to show that the composition of D. melanogaster CHC is significantly affected by aging in both sexes and that these changes are robust to different genetic backgrounds. Aging affected the relative levels of many individual CHC, and it shifted overall hydrocarbon profiles to favor compounds with longer chain lengths. We also show that the observed aging-related changes in CHC profiles are responsible for a significant reduction in sexual attractiveness. These studies illuminate causal links among pheromones, aging and attractiveness and suggest that CHC production may be an honest indicator of animal health and fertility. PMID:22323204

  5. Desiccation stress induces developmental heterochrony in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Leena; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Banerjee, Kaushik; Nath, Bimalendu B

    2016-09-01

    Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as a stressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In this study, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic development in response to desiccation exposure in Drosophila melanogaster and the associated trade-offs. We document a correlation between variations in 20-hydroxyecdysone levels and the altered timing of metamorphic events during the life cycle. Following desiccation, we observed an extension in the larval longevity whereas the duration of the pupal and adult stages was significantly shortened. Alternately, feeding of 20-hydroxyecdysone apparently led to the restoration of the normal temporal pattern of development in the desiccated group. In spite of the desiccation-responsive heterochronic shifts in development, the overall lifespan post recovery remained almost unaltered among the desiccated and undesiccated groups suggesting plasticity in developmental control. This observation reminisces 'canalization-like' phenomenon that buffers alterations in the overall lifespan. We thus identified a desiccationresponsive period in the lifespan of D. melanogaster during which variations in ecdysone levels are capable to alter the temporal course of development. PMID:27581925

  6. Genetic architecture of natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, John; Couch, Charlene; Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Peiffer, Jason; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression is an evolutionarily conserved complex behavior essential for survival and the organization of social hierarchies. With the exception of genetic variants associated with bioamine signaling, which have been implicated in aggression in many species, the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression is largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster is a favorable model system for exploring the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression. Here, we performed genome-wide association analyses using the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and replicate advanced intercross populations derived from the most and least aggressive DGRP lines. We identified genes that have been previously implicated in aggressive behavior as well as many novel loci, including gustatory receptor 63a (Gr63a), which encodes a subunit of the receptor for CO2, and genes associated with development and function of the nervous system. Although genes from the two association analyses were largely nonoverlapping, they mapped onto a genetic interaction network inferred from an analysis of pairwise epistasis in the DGRP. We used mutations and RNAi knock-down alleles to functionally validate 79% of the candidate genes and 75% of the candidate epistatic interactions tested. Epistasis for aggressive behavior causes cryptic genetic variation in the DGRP that is revealed by changing allele frequencies in the outbred populations derived from extreme DGRP lines. This phenomenon may pertain to other fitness traits and species, with implications for evolution, applied breeding, and human genetics. PMID:26100892

  7. DFak56 is a novel Drosophila melanogaster focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R H; Fessler, L I; Edeen, P T; Madigan, S J; McKeown, M; Hunter, T

    1999-12-10

    The mammalian focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family of nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinases have been implicated in controlling a multitude of cellular responses to the engagement of cell surface integrins and G protein-coupled receptors. We describe here a Drosophila melanogaster FAK homologue, DFak56, which maps to band 56D on the right arm of the second chromosome. Full-length DFak56 cDNA encodes a phosphoprotein of 140 kDa, which shares strong sequence similarity not only with mammalian p125(FAK) but also with the more recently described mammalian Pyk2 (also known as CAKbeta, RAFTK, FAK2, and CADTK) FAK family member. DFak56 has intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and is phosphorylated on tyrosine in vivo. As is the case for FAK, tyrosine phosphorylation of DFak56 is increased upon plating Drosophila embryo cells on extracellular matrix proteins. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining analysis showed that DFak56 is ubiquitously expressed with particularly high levels within the developing central nervous system. We utilized the UAS-GAL4 expression system to express DFak56 and analyze its function in vivo. Overexpression of DFak56 in the wing imaginal disc results in wing blistering in adults, a phenotype also observed with both position-specific integrin loss of function and position-specific integrin overexpression. Our results imply a role for DFak56 in adhesion-dependent signaling pathways in vivo during D. melanogaster development. PMID:10585440

  8. Hygienic grooming is induced by contact chemicals in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Aya; Guigue, Alexandra M. A.; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    In social insects, grooming is considered as a behavioral defense against pathogen and parasite infections since it contributes to remove microbes from their cuticle. However, stimuli which trigger this behavior are not well characterized yet. We examined if activating contact chemoreceptive sensilla could trigger grooming activities in Drosophila melanogaster. We monitored the grooming responses of decapitated flies to compounds known to activate the immune system, e.g., dead Escherichia coli (Ec) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and to tastants such as quinine, sucrose, and salt. LPS, quinine, and Ec were quite effective in triggering grooming movements when touching the distal border of the wings and the legs, while sucrose had no effect. Contact chemoreceptors are necessary and sufficient to elicit such responses, as grooming could not be elicited by LPS in poxn mutants deprived of external taste sensilla, and as grooming was elicited by light when a channel rhodopsin receptor was expressed in bitter-sensitive cells expressing Gr33a. Contact chemoreceptors distributed along the distal border of the wings respond to these tastants by an increased spiking activity, in response to quinine, Ec, LPS, sucrose, and KCl. These results demonstrate for the first time that bacterial compounds trigger grooming activities in D. melanogaster, and indicate that contact chemoreceptors located on the wings participate in the detection of such chemicals. PMID:25100963

  9. Stochastic model for gene transcription on Drosophila melanogaster embryos.

    PubMed

    Prata, Guilherme N; Hornos, José Eduardo M; Ramos, Alexandre F

    2016-02-01

    We examine immunostaining experimental data for the formation of stripe 2 of even-skipped (eve) transcripts on D. melanogaster embryos. An estimate of the factor converting immunofluorescence intensity units into molecular numbers is given. The analysis of the eve dynamics at the region of stripe 2 suggests that the promoter site of the gene has two distinct regimes: an earlier phase when it is predominantly activated until a critical time when it becomes mainly repressed. That suggests proposing a stochastic binary model for gene transcription on D. melanogaster embryos. Our model has two random variables: the transcripts number and the state of the source of mRNAs given as active or repressed. We are able to reproduce available experimental data for the average number of transcripts. An analysis of the random fluctuations on the number of eves and their consequences on the spatial precision of stripe 2 is presented. We show that the position of the anterior or posterior borders fluctuate around their average position by ∼1% of the embryo length, which is similar to what is found experimentally. The fitting of data by such a simple model suggests that it can be useful to understand the functions of randomness during developmental processes. PMID:26986358

  10. Genetic variation in rates of nondisjunction: association of two naturally occurring polymorphisms in the chromokinesin nod with increased rates of nondisjunction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Zwick, M E; Salstrom, J L; Langley, C H

    1999-01-01

    Genetic variation in nondisjunction frequency among X chromosomes from two Drosophila melanogaster natural populations is examined in a sensitized assay. A high level of genetic variation is observed (a range of 0.006-0.241). Two naturally occurring variants at the nod locus, a chromokinesin required for proper achiasmate chromosome segregation, are significantly associated with an increased frequency of nondisjunction. Both of these polymorphisms are found at intermediate frequency in widely distributed natural populations. To account for these observations, we propose a general model incorporating unique opportunities for meiotic drive during female meiosis. The oötid competition model can account for both high mean rates of female-specific nondisjunction in Drosophila and humans as well as the standing genetic variation in this critical fitness character in natural populations. PMID:10430586