Science.gov

Sample records for melanopsin-dependent nonvisual responses

  1. Identification of non-visual photomotor response cells in the vertebrate hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Kokel, David; Dunn, Timothy W.; Ahrens, Misha B.; Alshut, Rüdiger; Cheung, Chung Yan J.; Saint-Amant, Louis; Bruni, Giancarlo; Mateus, Rita; van Ham, Tjakko J.; Shiraki, Tomoya; Fukada, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Daisuke; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J.; Mikut, Ralf; von Lintig, Johannes; Engert, Florian; Peterson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Non-visual photosensation enables animals to sense light without sight. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of non-visual photobehaviors are poorly understood, especially in vertebrate animals. Here, we describe the photomotor response (PMR), a robust and reproducible series of motor behaviors in zebrafish that is elicited by visual wavelengths of light, but does not require the eyes, pineal gland or other canonical deep-brain photoreceptive organs. Unlike the relatively slow effects of canonical non-visual pathways, motor circuits are strongly and quickly (seconds) recruited during the PMR behavior. We find that the hindbrain is both necessary and sufficient to drive these behaviors. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we identify a discrete set of neurons within the hindbrain whose responses to light mirror the PMR behavior. Pharmacological inhibition of the visual cycle blocks PMR behaviors, suggesting that opsin-based photoreceptors control this behavior. These data represent the first known light-sensing circuit in the vertebrate hindbrain. PMID:23447595

  2. Melanopsin-dependent light avoidance in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Juliette; Wu, Vincent; Donovan, Michael; Majumdar, Sriparna; Rentería, René C.; Porco, Travis; Van Gelder, Russell N.; Copenhagen, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) form a light-sensitive system separate from rods and cones. Direct light stimulation of ipRGCs can regulate many nonimage-forming visual functions such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythms and pupil responses, and can intensify migraine headache in adults. In mice, ipRGCs are light responsive as early as the day of birth. In contrast, their eyelids do not open until 12–13 d after birth (P12–13), and light signaling from rods and cones does not begin until approximately P10. No physiological or behavioral function is established for ipRGCs in neonates before the onset of rod and cone signaling. Here we report that mouse pups as young as P6 will completely turn away from a light. Light-induced responses of ipRGCs could be readily recorded in retinas of pups younger than P9, and we found no evidence for rod- and cone-mediated visual signaling to the RGCs of these younger mice. These results confirm that negative phototaxis is evident before the onset of rod- and cone-mediated visual signaling, and well before the onset of image-forming vision. Negative phototaxis was absent in mice lacking melanopsin. We conclude that light activation of melanopsin ipRGCs is necessary and sufficient for negative phototaxis. These results strongly suggest that light activation of ipRGCs may regulate physiological functions such as sleep/wake cycles in preterm and neonatal infants. PMID:20855606

  3. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Münch, M.; Léon, L.; Collomb, S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  4. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Münch, M; Léon, L; Collomb, S; Kawasaki, A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  5. The Measurement of Stress in Nonvisual Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, Paul E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of stress in nonvisual travel was attempted with both an electromyograph and a galvonic skin response unit in four travel situations. Results revealed significantly greater stress response when unexpected contact with objects was made than with expected contacts and street crossings. Instructors' intervention also increased stress.…

  6. A role for the ciliary marginal zone in the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic pupillary light reflex.

    PubMed

    Semo, Ma'ayan; Gias, Carlos; Ahmado, Ahmad; Vugler, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    Maintenance of pupillary constriction in light-adapted rodents has traditionally been thought to involve a reflex between retina, brain and iris, with recent work identifying the melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) as the major conduits for retinal input to the brain. There is also a less well-understood phenomenon whereby the iris of some mammals, including mice, will constrict to light when either the eye, or the iris itself is physically isolated from the brain. The intrinsic pupillary light reflex (iPLR) is the term given to pupil constriction in the absence of retinal input to the brain. Here, using an intraocular axotomy approach, we show that the iPLR in conscious mice spans a dynamic range over 3 log units of irradiance. This iPLR response is absent in melanopsin knockout (MKO) mice and can be significantly inhibited by atropine. Immunohistochemistry for cfos and melanopsin, in combination with light exposure revealed a population of small ipRGCs in the retinal ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), which remain responsive to light in axotomised mice. We report that damage to the CMZ in a novel in vitro preparation removes a significant component of the iPLR response, while a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of the CMZ in wildtype mice revealed a melanopsin-rich plexus, which was consistently most intense in nasal retina. There were clear examples of melanopsin-positive, direct retino-ciliary projections, which appear to emanate from Brn3b negative, M1 type ipRGCs. These cells are clustered along the melanopsin-rich plexus nasally and may channel ipRGC signals from retina into the iris via ciliary body. Comparison between wildtype and MKO mice reveals that the ciliary body is also weakly stained for melanopsin. Our results show that the full extent of iPLR in mice requires cholinergic neurotransmission and intact signalling at the CMZ/ciliary body. This response may be mediated to some extent by ipRGCs, which send

  7. Cholescintigraphy: gallbladder nonvisualization secondary to neoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Lecklitner, M.L.; Rosen, P.R.; Nusynowitz, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Whereas the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis is characterized by nonvisualization of the gallbladder with Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives, nonvisualization is not specific for acute cholecystitis. The first reported case of nonvisualization of the gallbladder due to neoplasm is added to an expanding list of causes of nonvisualization other than the more frequent causes: acute and chronic cholecystitis.

  8. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep☆

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  9. Nonvisual Adaptive Devices for Measuring Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, M. E.; Hamilton, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents information on nonvisual adaptive devices for measuring insulin and offers some suggestions for rehabilitation professionals who instruct and supervise clients with diabetes and visual impairment in the use of these devices. (Author)

  10. Nonvisual complex spike signals in the rabbit cerebellar flocculus.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, Beerend H J; Belton, Tim; Suh, Minah; Coesmans, Michiel; Morpurgo, Menno M; Simpson, John I

    2014-02-26

    In addition to the well-known signals of retinal image slip, floccular complex spikes (CSs) also convey nonvisual signals. We recorded eye movement and CS activity from Purkinje cells in awake rabbits sinusoidally oscillated in the dark on a vestibular turntable. The stimulus frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 Hz, and the velocity amplitude ranged from 6.3 to 50°/s. The average CS modulation was evaluated at each combination of stimulus frequency and amplitude. More than 75% of the Purkinje cells carried nonvisual CS signals. The amplitude of this modulation remained relatively constant over the entire stimulus range. The phase response of the CS modulation in the dark was opposite to that during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in the light. With increased frequency, the phase response systematically shifted from being aligned with contraversive head velocity toward peak contralateral head position. At fixed frequency, the phase response was dependent on peak head velocity, indicating a system nonlinearity. The nonvisual CS modulation apparently reflects a competition between eye movement and vestibular signals, resulting in an eye movement error signal inferred from nonvisual sources. The combination of this error signal with the retinal slip signal in the inferior olive results in a net error signal reporting the discrepancy between the actual visually measured eye movement error and the inferred eye movement error derived from measures of the internal state. The presence of two error signals requires that the role of CSs in models of the floccular control of VOR adaption be expanded beyond retinal slip. PMID:24573280

  11. Nonvisual Complex Spike Signals in the Rabbit Cerebellar Flocculus

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Tim; Suh, Minah; Coesmans, Michiel; Morpurgo, Menno M.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the well-known signals of retinal image slip, floccular complex spikes (CSs) also convey nonvisual signals. We recorded eye movement and CS activity from Purkinje cells in awake rabbits sinusoidally oscillated in the dark on a vestibular turntable. The stimulus frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 Hz, and the velocity amplitude ranged from 6.3 to 50°/s. The average CS modulation was evaluated at each combination of stimulus frequency and amplitude. More than 75% of the Purkinje cells carried nonvisual CS signals. The amplitude of this modulation remained relatively constant over the entire stimulus range. The phase response of the CS modulation in the dark was opposite to that during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in the light. With increased frequency, the phase response systematically shifted from being aligned with contraversive head velocity toward peak contralateral head position. At fixed frequency, the phase response was dependent on peak head velocity, indicating a system nonlinearity. The nonvisual CS modulation apparently reflects a competition between eye movement and vestibular signals, resulting in an eye movement error signal inferred from nonvisual sources. The combination of this error signal with the retinal slip signal in the inferior olive results in a net error signal reporting the discrepancy between the actual visually measured eye movement error and the inferred eye movement error derived from measures of the internal state. The presence of two error signals requires that the role of CSs in models of the floccular control of VOR adaption be expanded beyond retinal slip. PMID:24573280

  12. Melanopsin and Mechanisms of Non-visual Ocular Photoreception*

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Timothy; Buhr, Ethan; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to rods and cones, the mammalian eye contains a third class of photoreceptor, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC). ipRGCs are heterogeneous irradiance-encoding neurons that primarily project to non-visual areas of the brain. Characteristics of ipRGC light responses differ significantly from those of rod and cone responses, including depolarization to light, slow on- and off-latencies, and relatively low light sensitivity. All ipRGCs use melanopsin (Opn4) as their photopigment. Melanopsin resembles invertebrate rhabdomeric photopigments more than vertebrate ciliary pigments and uses a Gq signaling pathway, in contrast to the Gt pathway used by rods and cones. ipRGCs can recycle chromophore in the absence of the retinal pigment epithelium and are highly resistant to vitamin A depletion. This suggests that melanopsin employs a bistable sequential photon absorption mechanism typical of rhabdomeric opsins. PMID:22074930

  13. Early Appearance of Nonvisual and Circadian Markers in the Developing Inner Retinal Cells of Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Nicolás M.; Morera, Luis P.; Verra, Daniela M.; Contin, María A.; Guido, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    The retina is a key component of the vertebrate circadian system; it is responsible for detecting and transmitting the environmental illumination conditions (day/night cycles) to the brain that synchronize the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). For this, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) project to the SCN and other nonvisual areas. In the chicken, intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin (Opn4) transmit photic information and regulate diverse nonvisual tasks. In nonmammalian vertebrates, two genes encode Opn4: the Xenopus (Opn4x) and the mammalian (Opn4m) orthologs. RGCs express both Opn4 genes but are not the only inner retinal cells expressing Opn4x: horizontal cells (HCs) also do so. Here, we further characterize primary cultures of both populations of inner retinal cells (RGCs and HCs) expressing Opn4x. The expression of this nonvisual photopigment, as well as that for different circadian markers such as the clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per2, and Cry1, and the key melatonin synthesizing enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), appears very early in development in both cell populations. The results clearly suggest that nonvisual Opn4 photoreceptors and endogenous clocks converge all together in these inner retinal cells at early developmental stages. PMID:24977155

  14. Absorption Characteristics of Vertebrate Non-Visual Opsin, Opn3

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Tomohiro; Nagata, Takashi; Mason, Benjamin; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    Most animals possess multiple opsins which sense light for visual and non-visual functions. Here, we show spectral characteristics of non-visual opsins, vertebrate Opn3s, which are widely distributed among vertebrates. We successfully expressed zebrafish Opn3 in mammalian cultured cells and measured its absorption spectrum spectroscopically. When incubated with 11-cis retinal, zebrafish Opn3 formed a blue-sensitive photopigment with an absorption maximum around 465 nm. The Opn3 converts to an all-trans retinal-bearing photoproduct with an absorption spectrum similar to the dark state following brief blue-light irradiation. The photoproduct experienced a remarkable blue-shift, with changes in position of the isosbestic point, during further irradiation. We then used a cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay to investigate light-dependent cAMP responses in cultured cells expressing zebrafish, pufferfish, anole and chicken Opn3. The wild type opsins did not produce responses, but cells expressing chimera mutants (WT Opn3s in which the third intracellular loops were replaced with the third intracellular loop of a Gs-coupled jellyfish opsin) displayed light-dependent changes in cAMP. The results suggest that Opn3 is capable of activating G protein(s) in a light-dependent manner. Finally, we used this assay to measure the relative wavelength-dependent response of cells expressing Opn3 chimeras to multiple quantally-matched stimuli. The inferred spectral sensitivity curve of zebrafish Opn3 accurately matched the measured absorption spectrum. We were unable to estimate the spectral sensitivity curve of mouse or anole Opn3, but, like zebrafish Opn3, the chicken and pufferfish Opn3-JiL3 chimeras also formed blue-sensitive pigments. These findings suggest that vertebrate Opn3s may form blue-sensitive G protein-coupled pigments. Further, we suggest that the method described here, combining a cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay with chimeric opsins possessing the third

  15. Looking for Answers: Eye Movements in Non-Visual Cognitive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlichman, Howard; Micic, Dragana; Sousa, Amber; Zhu, John

    2007-01-01

    It is not known why people move their eyes when engaged in non-visual cognition. The current study tested the hypothesis that differences in saccadic eye movement rate (EMR) during non-visual cognitive tasks reflect different requirements for searching long-term memory. Participants performed non-visual tasks requiring relatively low or high…

  16. Nonvisualized gallbladder on oral cholecystography: implications for lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, K; Ekberg, O; Laufer, I; Malet, P F; Arger, P

    1990-01-01

    Currently, most protocols evaluating the efficacy of gallstone lithotripsy require a visualized gallbladder on oral cholecystography (OCG). The primary purpose of the OCG is to establish that the cystic duct is patent. When the gallbladder is visualized on OCG, it can also be used to number and size gallstones accurately. Patients with non-visualization of the gallbladder on OCG are excluded from consideration for lithotripsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the ultrasonographic findings (i.e., number and sizes of stones in 32 patients with nonvisualization on the OCG). In 11 patients (34%) ultrasound (US) did not detect any stone, and it is presumed that the gallbladder failed to visualize for other reasons. Six patients (19%) had one or two stones and 15 (47%) patients had more than three stones. This suggests that 20% of patients with nonvisualization of the gallbladder on OCG would otherwise be eligible for lithotripsy provided that patency of the cystic duct can be demonstrated by other means, such as computed tomographic (CT) examination with oral biliary contrast or cholescintigraphy. PMID:2180774

  17. Tuning optical radiation for visual and nonvisual impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral tuning---the allocation of radiant energy emitted by a lamp---is a fundamental element of illuminating engineering. Proper placement of optical radiation allows for reduced energy consumption, increased brightness perception, and improved color rendition. It can also result in lamps that have a greater impact on nonvisual human functions such as circadian rhythms, sleep, mood, and cognition. For an architectural lighting system, careful consideration must be given to all of these areas; recent advancements in understanding nonvisual photoreception must be balanced with the traditional emphasis on visual quality and energy efficiency. The three research projects described herein investigated spectral tuning by examining the effects of optical radiation or seeking ideal spectral power distributions. In all three cases, emphasis was placed on developing an architectural lighting system based on red, green, and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs) that is capable of providing maximum stimulation to nonvisual systems while maintaining visual quality standards. In particular, the elderly were considered as a target population because they have an increased risk of developing disorders linked to illumination deficits. The three endeavors can be summarized as follows: Light Therapy for Seniors in Long-term Care AIM: To examine the effect of optical radiation on circadian rhythms, sleep, mood, and cognition for frail elderly in a long-term care environment. METHODOLOGY: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of light therapy was conducted using circadian-effective short-wavelength (blue) optical radiation to treat a sample of residents recruited for participation without bias for existing medical diagnoses. KEY FINDINGS: Light therapy treatment improved cognitive functioning compared to placebo but no changes were detected in nighttime sleep statistics, reports of daytime sleepiness, circadian rhythms, or depression inventory parameters. Perceived

  18. Nonvisual photoreceptors of the deep brain, pineal organs and retina.

    PubMed

    Vigh, B; Manzano, M J; Zádori, A; Frank, C L; Lukáts, A; Röhlich, P; Szél, A; Dávid, C

    2002-04-01

    The role of the nonvisual photoreception is to synchronise periodic functions of living organisms to the environmental light periods in order to help survival of various species in different biotopes. In vertebrates, the so-called deep brain (septal and hypothalamic) photoreceptors, the pineal organs (pineal- and parapineal organs, frontal- and parietal eye) and the retina (of the "lateral" eye) are involved in the light-based entrain of endogenous circadian clocks present in various organs. In humans, photoperiodicity was studied in connection with sleep disturbances in shift work, seasonal depression, and in jet-lag of transmeridional travellers. In the present review, experimental and molecular aspects are discussed, focusing on the histological and histochemical basis of the function of nonvisual photoreceptors. We also offer a view about functional changes of these photoreceptors during pre- and postnatal development as well as about its possible evolution. Our scope in some points is different from the generally accepted views on the nonvisual photoreceptive systems. The deep brain photoreceptors are hypothalamic and septal nuclei of the periventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neuronal system. Already present in the lancelet and representing the most ancient type of vertebrate nerve cells ("protoneurons"), CSF-contacting neurons are sensory-type cells sitting in the wall of the brain ventricles that send a ciliated dendritic process into the CSF. Various opsins and other members of the phototransduction cascade have been demonstrated in telencephalic and hypothalamic groups of these neurons. In all species examined so far, deep brain photoreceptors play a role in the circadian and circannual regulation of periodic functions. Mainly called pineal "glands" in the last decades, the pineal organs actually represent a differentiated form of encephalic photoreceptors. Supposed to be intra- and extracranially outgrown groups of deep brain photoreceptors

  19. Tuning optical radiation for visual and nonvisual impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral tuning---the allocation of radiant energy emitted by a lamp---is a fundamental element of illuminating engineering. Proper placement of optical radiation allows for reduced energy consumption, increased brightness perception, and improved color rendition. It can also result in lamps that have a greater impact on nonvisual human functions such as circadian rhythms, sleep, mood, and cognition. For an architectural lighting system, careful consideration must be given to all of these areas; recent advancements in understanding nonvisual photoreception must be balanced with the traditional emphasis on visual quality and energy efficiency. The three research projects described herein investigated spectral tuning by examining the effects of optical radiation or seeking ideal spectral power distributions. In all three cases, emphasis was placed on developing an architectural lighting system based on red, green, and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs) that is capable of providing maximum stimulation to nonvisual systems while maintaining visual quality standards. In particular, the elderly were considered as a target population because they have an increased risk of developing disorders linked to illumination deficits. The three endeavors can be summarized as follows: Light Therapy for Seniors in Long-term Care AIM: To examine the effect of optical radiation on circadian rhythms, sleep, mood, and cognition for frail elderly in a long-term care environment. METHODOLOGY: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of light therapy was conducted using circadian-effective short-wavelength (blue) optical radiation to treat a sample of residents recruited for participation without bias for existing medical diagnoses. KEY FINDINGS: Light therapy treatment improved cognitive functioning compared to placebo but no changes were detected in nighttime sleep statistics, reports of daytime sleepiness, circadian rhythms, or depression inventory parameters. Perceived

  20. Exploratory Activity in Drosophila Requires the kurtz Nonvisual Arrestin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingzhi; Davis, Ronald L.; Roman, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    When Drosophila adults are placed into an open field arena, they initially exhibit an elevated level of activity followed by a reduced stable level of spontaneous activity. We have found that the initial elevated component arises from the fly's interaction with the novel arena since: (1) the increased activity is independent of handling prior to placement within the arena, (2) the fly's elevated activity is proportional to the size of the arena, and (3) the decay in activity to spontaneous levels requires both visual and olfactory input. These data indicate that active exploration is the major component of elevated initial activity. There is a specific requirement for the kurtz nonvisual arrestin in the nervous system for both the exploration stimulated by the novel arena and the mechanically stimulated activity. kurtz is not required for spontaneous activity; kurtz mutants display normal levels of spontaneous activity and average the same velocities as wild-type controls. Inhibition of dopamine signaling has no effect on the elevated initial activity phase in either wild-type or krz1 mutants. Therefore, the exploratory phase of open field activity requires kurtz in the nervous system, but is independent of dopamine's stimulation of activity. PMID:17151232

  1. Melanopsin and the Non-visual Photochemistry in the Inner Retina of Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Nicolás M; Morera, Luis P; Guido, Mario E

    2016-01-01

    Melanopsin (Opn4), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, is a vitamin A-based opsin in the vertebrate retina that has been shown to be involved in the synchronization of circadian rhythms, pupillary light reflexes, melatonin suppression and other light-regulated tasks. In nonmammalian vertebrates there are two Opn4 genes, Opn4m and Opn4x, the mammalian and Xenopus orthologs respectively. Opn4x is only expressed in nonmammalian vertebrates including reptiles, fish and birds, while Opn4m is found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the intrinsically photosensitive (ip) RGCs of the inner retina of both mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates. All opsins described utilize retinaldehyde as chromophore, photoisomerized from 11-cis- to all-trans-retinal upon light exposure. Visual retinal photoreceptor cones and rods, responsible for day and night vision respectively, recycle retinoids through a process called the visual cycle that involves the retinal pigment epithelium or glial Müller cells. Although Opn4 has been characterized as a bistable photopigment, little is known about the mechanism/s involved in its chromophore regeneration. In this review, we will attempt to shed light on the visual cycle taking place in the inner retina and discuss the state of the art in the nonvisual photochemistry of vertebrates. PMID:26500165

  2. The value of radionuclide scintigraphy in patients with non-visualized gallbladders by oral cholecystography.

    PubMed

    Stadalnik, R C; Rosenquist, C J; Trudeau, W L; Hines, H H

    1981-11-01

    This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of Tc-99m-PyG cholescintigraphy in patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder after OCG. Nineteen patients with non-visualized gallbladder with OCG subsequently had Tc-99m-PyG cholescintigraphy performed. In nine patients the gallbladder visualized, whereas in ten it did not. Statistical analysis of this limited number of patients showed that Tc-99m-PyG cholescintigraphy was able to separate those patients with clinically significant gallbladder disease from those patients without significant gallbladder disease (p less than 0.05). PMID:7296997

  3. Aging of Non-Visual Spectral Sensitivity to Light in Humans: Compensatory Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Raymond P.; Chiquet, Christophe; Teikari, Petteri; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Claustrat, Bruno; Denis, Philippe; Gronfier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of sleep in the older population is a prevalent feature that contributes to a decrease in quality of life. Inappropriate entrainment of the circadian clock by light is considered to contribute to the alteration of sleep structure and circadian rhythms in the elderly. The present study investigates the effects of aging on non-visual spectral sensitivity to light and tests the hypothesis that circadian disturbances are related to a decreased light transmittance. In a within-subject design, eight aged and five young subjects were exposed at night to 60 minute monochromatic light stimulations at 9 different wavelengths (420–620 nm). Individual sensitivity spectra were derived from measures of melatonin suppression. Lens density was assessed using a validated psychophysical technique. Although lens transmittance was decreased for short wavelength light in the older participants, melatonin suppression was not reduced. Peak of non-visual sensitivity was, however, shifted to longer wavelengths in the aged participants (494 nm) compared to young (484 nm). Our results indicate that increased lens filtering does not necessarily lead to a decreased non-visual sensitivity to light. The lack of age-related decrease in non-visual sensitivity to light may involve as yet undefined adaptive mechanisms. PMID:24465738

  4. The Effect of Small Group Teaching on Acquisition and Transfer of Nonvisual Seriation Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael J.; Ollila, Lloyd

    The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) effectiveness of three small group teaching methods on the acquisition and retention of seriation abilities; (2) transfer of seriation abilities using the three treatments; and (3) relationship between visual and nonvisual seriation abilities. One hundred twenty first grade Canadian students were…

  5. Temporal properties of material categorization and material rating: visual vs non-visual material features.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Matsushima, Toshiki; Koida, Kowa; Tani, Yusuke; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    Humans can visually recognize material categories of objects, such as glass, stone, and plastic, easily. However, little is known about the kinds of surface quality features that contribute to such material class recognition. In this paper, we examine the relationship between perceptual surface features and material category discrimination performance for pictures of materials, focusing on temporal aspects, including reaction time and effects of stimulus duration. The stimuli were pictures of objects with an identical shape but made of different materials that could be categorized into seven classes (glass, plastic, metal, stone, wood, leather, and fabric). In a pre-experiment, observers rated the pictures on nine surface features, including visual (e.g., glossiness and transparency) and non-visual features (e.g., heaviness and warmness), on a 7-point scale. In the main experiments, observers judged whether two simultaneously presented pictures were classified as the same or different material category. Reaction times and effects of stimulus duration were measured. The results showed that visual feature ratings were correlated with material discrimination performance for short reaction times or short stimulus durations, while non-visual feature ratings were correlated only with performance for long reaction times or long stimulus durations. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying visual and non-visual feature processing may differ in terms of processing time, although the cause is unclear. Visual surface features may mainly contribute to material recognition in daily life, while non-visual features may contribute only weakly, if at all. PMID:25536464

  6. Aging of non-visual spectral sensitivity to light in humans: compensatory mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Najjar, Raymond P; Chiquet, Christophe; Teikari, Petteri; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Claustrat, Bruno; Denis, Philippe; Cooper, Howard M; Gronfier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of sleep in the older population is a prevalent feature that contributes to a decrease in quality of life. Inappropriate entrainment of the circadian clock by light is considered to contribute to the alteration of sleep structure and circadian rhythms in the elderly. The present study investigates the effects of aging on non-visual spectral sensitivity to light and tests the hypothesis that circadian disturbances are related to a decreased light transmittance. In a within-subject design, eight aged and five young subjects were exposed at night to 60 minute monochromatic light stimulations at 9 different wavelengths (420-620 nm). Individual sensitivity spectra were derived from measures of melatonin suppression. Lens density was assessed using a validated psychophysical technique. Although lens transmittance was decreased for short wavelength light in the older participants, melatonin suppression was not reduced. Peak of non-visual sensitivity was, however, shifted to longer wavelengths in the aged participants (494 nm) compared to young (484 nm). Our results indicate that increased lens filtering does not necessarily lead to a decreased non-visual sensitivity to light. The lack of age-related decrease in non-visual sensitivity to light may involve as yet undefined adaptive mechanisms. PMID:24465738

  7. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraph

    SciTech Connect

    Kempi, G.E.; Van Der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  8. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy in acute pancreatitis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, G.; Kempi, V.; van der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  9. Non-visual crypsis: a review of the empirical evidence for camouflage to senses other than vision

    PubMed Central

    Ruxton, Graeme D.

    2008-01-01

    I review the evidence that organisms have adaptations that confer difficulty of detection by predators and parasites that seek their targets primarily using sensory systems other than vision. In other words, I will answer the question of whether crypsis is a concept that can usefully be applied to non-visual sensory perception. Probably because vision is such an important sensory system in humans, research in this field is sparse. Thus, at present we have very few examples of chemical camouflage, and even these contain some ambiguity in deciding whether they are best seen as examples of background matching or mimicry. There are many examples of organisms that are adaptively silent at times or in locations when or where predation risk is higher or in response to detection of a predator. By contrast, evidence that the form (rather than use) of vocalizations and other sound-based signals has been influenced by issues of reducing detectability to unintended receivers is suggestive rather than conclusive. There is again suggestive but not completely conclusive evidence for crypsis against electro-sensing predators. Lastly, mechanoreception is highly understudied in this regard, but there are scattered reports that strongly suggest that some species can be thought of as being adapted to be cryptic in this modality. Hence, I conclude that crypsis is a concept that can usefully be applied to senses other than vision, and that this is a field very much worthy of more investigation. PMID:19000976

  10. Why Do We Move Our Eyes while Trying to Remember? The Relationship between Non-Visual Gaze Patterns and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micic, Dragana; Ehrlichman, Howard; Chen, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Non-visual gaze patterns (NVGPs) involve saccades and fixations that spontaneously occur in cognitive activities that are not ostensibly visual. While reasons for their appearance remain obscure, convergent empirical evidence suggests that NVGPs change according to processing requirements of tasks. We examined NVGPs in tasks with long-term memory…

  11. The guidance of saccadic eye movements to perceptually mislocalized visual and non-visual targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Levine, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    The present experiment examined whether saccadic eye movements to visual targets are dependent on the perceived directions of the targets or on their retinally specified directions. Perceptual mislocations of visual targets were induced by having the target light attached to a subject's stationary hand while his biceps or triceps muscle was vibrated. Such vibration leads to apparent extension or flexion of the subject's restrained forearm and perceived visual motion of the stationary target light. Subjects always made accurate saccadic eye movements to a visual target, even when the target was perceptually mislocalized by as much as 20 deg. By contrast, when subjects made saccadic eye movements to a nonvisual target, the location of their hand in the dark, they always looked to the perceived direction of the target even though it did not necessarily correspond to the true direction. These findings indicate that a distinction is maintained between 'reflexive aspects' of oculomotor control related to foveation and the computation of perceived visual direction.

  12. Nonvisual Multisensory Impairment of Body Perception in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Santino; Brooks, Samantha Jane; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence. Methods PubMed and PsycINFO were searched until March, 2014. To be included in the review, studies were mainly required to: investigate a sample of patients with current or past AN and a control group and use tasks that directly elicited one or more nonvisual sensory domains. Results Thirteen studies were included. They studied a total of 223 people with current or past AN and 273 control subjects. Overall, results show impairment in tactile and proprioceptive domains of body perception in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been poorly explored directly in AN patients. A limitation of this review is the relatively small amount of literature available. Conclusions Our results showed that AN patients had a multisensory impairment of body perception that goes beyond visual misperception and involves tactile and proprioceptive sensory components. Furthermore, impairment of tactile and proprioceptive components may be associated with parietal cortex alterations in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been weakly explored directly. Further research, using multisensory approaches as well as neuroimaging techniques, is needed to better define the complexity of body image distortion in AN. Key Findings The review suggests an altered capacity of AN patients in processing and integration of bodily signals: body parts are experienced as dissociated from their holistic and perceptive dimensions. Specifically, it is likely that not only perception but memory, and in particular sensorimotor/proprioceptive memory

  13. Nonvisualization of the Internal Carotid Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography: Discussion of Two Cases with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saran, Sonal; Rajagopal, Rengarajan; Khera, Pushpinder S.; Mehta, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Nonvisualization of the internal carotid artery (ICA) on cross-sectional imaging studies can be due to congenital (dysgenesis of the ICA) or acquired (complete occlusion of ICA) causes. We report two cases, one with absent carotid canal on bone window setting of computed tomography (CT) suggestive of congenital cause and the other with normal carotid canal, suggesting acquired cause. Development of aortic arches with six pathways of collateral circulation in brain is also discussed. PMID:27298744

  14. Reliability and relative weighting of visual and nonvisual information for perceiving direction of self-motion during walking.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°-2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visual information. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%-34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures. PMID:24648194

  15. City Forensics: Using Visual Elements to Predict Non-Visual City Attributes.

    PubMed

    Arietta, Sean M; Efros, Alexei A; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2014-12-01

    We present a method for automatically identifying and validating predictive relationships between the visual appearance of a city and its non-visual attributes (e.g. crime statistics, housing prices, population density etc.). Given a set of street-level images and (location, city-attribute-value) pairs of measurements, we first identify visual elements in the images that are discriminative of the attribute. We then train a predictor by learning a set of weights over these elements using non-linear Support Vector Regression. To perform these operations efficiently, we implement a scalable distributed processing framework that speeds up the main computational bottleneck (extracting visual elements) by an order of magnitude. This speedup allows us to investigate a variety of city attributes across 6 different American cities. We find that indeed there is a predictive relationship between visual elements and a number of city attributes including violent crime rates, theft rates, housing prices, population density, tree presence, graffiti presence, and the perception of danger. We also test human performance for predicting theft based on street-level images and show that our predictor outperforms this baseline with 33% higher accuracy on average. Finally, we present three prototype applications that use our system to (1) define the visual boundary of city neighborhoods, (2) generate walking directions that avoid or seek out exposure to city attributes, and (3) validate user-specified visual elements for prediction. PMID:26356976

  16. Creating Low Vision and Nonvisual Instructions for Diabetes Technology: An Empirically Validated Process

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nearly 20% of the adults with diagnosed diabetes in the United States also have visual impairment. Many individuals in this group perform routine diabetes self-management tasks independently, often using technology that was not specifically designed for use by people with visual impairment (e.g., insulin pumps and pens). Equitable care for persons with disabilities requires providing instructions in formats accessible for nonreaders. However, instructions in accessible formats, such as recordings, braille, or digital documents that are legible to screen readers, are seldom available. Method This article includes a summary of existing guidelines for creating accessible documents. The guidelines are followed by a description of the production of accessible nonvisual instructions for use of insulin pens used in a study of dosing accuracy. The study results indicate that the instructions were used successfully by 40 persons with visual impairment. Discussion and Conclusions Instructions in accessible formats can increase access to the benefits of diabetes technology for persons with visual impairment. Recorded instructions may also be useful to sighted persons who do not read well, such as those with dyslexia, low literacy, or who use English as a second language. Finally, they may have important benefits for fully sighted people who find it easier to learn to use technology by handling the equipment while listening to instructions. Manufacturers may also benefit from marketing to an increased pool of potential users. PMID:22538133

  17. The Neural Basis of Nonvisual Object Recognition Memory in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Albasser, Mathieu M.; Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M.; Amin, Eman; Horne, Murray R.; Newton, Michael J.; Warburton, E. Clea; Aggleton, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the neural basis of recognition memory has traditionally focused on the remembrance of visual stimuli. The present study examined the neural basis of object recognition memory in the dark, with a view to determining the extent to which it shares common pathways with visual-based object recognition. Experiment 1 assessed the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in rats that discriminated novel from familiar objects in the dark (Group Novel). Comparisons made with a control group that explored only familiar objects (Group Familiar) showed that Group Novel had higher c-fos activity in the rostral perirhinal cortex and the lateral entorhinal cortex. Outside the temporal region, Group Novel showed relatively increased c-fos activity in the anterior medial thalamic nucleus and the anterior cingulate cortex. Both the hippocampal CA fields and the granular retrosplenial cortex showed borderline increases in c-fos activity with object novelty. The hippocampal findings prompted Experiment 2. Here, rats with hippocampal lesions were tested in the dark for object recognition memory at different retention delays. Across two replications, no evidence was found that hippocampal lesions impair nonvisual object recognition. The results indicate that in the dark, as in the light, interrelated parahippocampal sites are activated when rats explore novel stimuli. These findings reveal a network of linked c-fos activations that share superficial features with those associated with visual recognition but differ in the fine details; for example, in the locus of the perirhinal cortex activation. While there may also be a relative increase in c-fos activation in the extended-hippocampal system to object recognition in the dark, there was no evidence that this recognition memory problem required an intact hippocampus. PMID:23244291

  18. [Study of non-visually induced smooth pursuit eye movements and their predictability using pseudorandom target motion].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Hashiba, M

    1997-12-01

    It has been found that the smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are elicited by not only visual stimuli but also non-visual information such as the subject's fingertip movement and a moving sound source. We have already reported the quantitative analysis of SPEM which were induced by somatosensory and acoustic information. In the previous study, we used a sinusoidal waveform that could be highly predictable. Since it is wellknown that predictive control has an important role in the normal SPEM, we expect the predictive control to function in non-visually induced SPEM (NVSPEM). We quantitatively analyzed NVSPEM and normal SPEM evoked by pseudorandom target motion in ten human subjects who had no ocular, oculomotor or vestibular disorders. NVSPEM were induced by the following two non-visual targets: 1, subjects' fingertip motion as a somatosensory target ("Somato"), 2, a small loudspeaker (3-cm diameter.) generating white noise with an intensity of about 60 dB (A) as an acoustic target ("Acoustic"). A servo-controlled swing arm of 50cm was used to drive the subject's fingertip and the acoustic target of the small loudspeaker. The horizontal motion of the swing arm was controlled by a personal computer. The pseudorandom target motion was generated by mixing four sinusoids (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 Hz) of which the phases were randomly selected and the peak velocities were equally set at 19 deg/s. The mean peak velocity of the target was 26.2 deg/s and the amplitude was limited within 15 deg. Horizontal eye movements were recorded by DC electro-oculography and on an analogue datatape. The experiment was performed for 30 s in complete darkness so that the subjects' fingertip and loudspeaker as such remain invisible to the subject. Signals from the data recorder were smoothed by a low pass analogue filter of 20Hz, after digitization with a sampling frequency of 200 Hz and precision of 12 bits, and stored on a computer. The slow and quick eye movement components, both of which

  19. FUNCTION OF NON-VISUAL ARRESTINS IN SIGNALING AND ENDOCYTOSIS OF THE GASTRIN-RELEASING PEPTIDE RECEPTOR (GRP RECEPTOR)

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Michael; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Mantey, Samuel A.; Howell, Brian; Jensen, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the role of arrestins in gastrointestinal hormone/neurotransmitter receptor endocytosis. With other G protein-coupled receptors, arrestins induce G protein-uncoupling and receptor endocytosis. In this study, we used arrestin wild-type and dominant-negative mutant constructs to analyze the arrestin dependence of endocytosis and desensitization of the gastrin- releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). Co-expression of the GRP-R with wild-type arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 increased not only GRP-R endocytosis but also GRP-R desensitization in arrestin-overexpressing cells. Co-expression of the dominant-negative mutants V53D-arrestin-2 or V54D-arrestin-3 reduced GRP-R endocytosis. Notably, different trafficking routes for agonist-activated GRPR-arrestin-2 and GRPR-arrestin-3 complexes were found. Arrestin-3 internalizes with GRP-R to intracellular vesicles, arrestin-2 splits from the GRP-R and localizes to the cell membrane. Also, the recycling pathway of the GRP-R was different if co-expressed with arrestin-2 or arrestin-3. Using different GRP-R mutants, the C-terminus and the 2nd intracellular loop of the GRP-R were found to be important for the GRPR-arrestin interaction and for the difference in GRP receptor trafficking with the two arrestin subtypes. Our results show that both non-visual arrestins play an important role in GRP-R internalization and desensitization. PMID:18199425

  20. Nonvisual navigation by blind and sighted: assessment of path integration ability.

    PubMed

    Loomis, J M; Klatzky, R L; Golledge, R G; Cicinelli, J G; Pellegrino, J W; Fry, P A

    1993-03-01

    Blindfolded sighted, adventitiously blind, and congenitally blind subjects performed a set of navigation tasks. The more complex tasks involved spatial inference and included retracing a multisegment route in reverse, returning directly to an origin after being led over linear segments, and pointing to targets after locomotion. As a group, subjects responded systematically to route manipulations in the complex tasks, but performance was poor. Patterns of error and response latency are informative about the internal representation used; in particular, they do not support the hypothesis that only a representation of the origin of locomotion is maintained. The slight performance differences between groups varying in visual experience were neither large nor consistent across tasks. Results provide little indication that spatial competence strongly depends on prior visual experience. PMID:8440978

  1. The evolution of irradiance detection: melanopsin and the non-visual opsins

    PubMed Central

    Peirson, Stuart N.; Halford, Stephanie; Foster, Russell G.

    2009-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24 h cycles that persist in the absence of external time cues. These rhythms provide an internal representation of day length and optimize physiology and behaviour to the varying demands of the solar cycle. These clocks require daily adjustment to local time and the primary time cue (zeitgeber) used by most vertebrates is the daily change in the amount of environmental light (irradiance) at dawn and dusk, a process termed photoentrainment. Attempts to understand the photoreceptor mechanisms mediating non-image-forming responses to light, such as photoentrainment, have resulted in the discovery of a remarkable array of different photoreceptors and photopigment families, all of which appear to use a basic opsin/vitamin A-based photopigment biochemistry. In non-mammalian vertebrates, specialized photoreceptors are located within the pineal complex, deep brain and dermal melanophores. There is also strong evidence in fish and amphibians for the direct photic regulation of circadian clocks in multiple tissues. By contrast, mammals possess only ocular photoreceptors. However, in addition to the image-forming rods and cones of the retina, there exists a third photoreceptor system based on a subset of melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs). In this review, we discuss the range of vertebrate photoreceptors and their opsin photopigments, describe the melanopsin/pRGC system in some detail and then finally consider the molecular evolution and sensory ecology of these non-image-forming photoreceptor systems. PMID:19720649

  2. The Melanopic Sensitivity Function Accounts for Melanopsin-Driven Responses in Mice under Diverse Lighting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy M.; Allen, Annette E.; al-Enezi, Jazi; Wynne, Jonathan; Schlangen, Luc; Hommes, Vanja; Lucas, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to rods and cones, photoreception in mammals extends to a third retinal cell type expressing the photopigment melanopsin. The influences of this novel opsin are widespread, ranging from pupillary and circadian responses to brightness perception, yet established approaches to quantifying the biological effects of light do not adequately account for melanopsin sensitivity. We have recently proposed a novel metric, the melanopic sensitivity function (VZλ), to address this deficiency. Here, we further validate this new measure with a variety of tests based on potential barriers to its applicability identified in the literature or relating to obvious practical benefits. Using electrophysiogical approaches and pupillometry, initially in rodless+coneless mice, our data demonstrate that under a very wide range of different conditions (including switching between stimuli with highly divergent spectral content) the VZλ function provides an accurate prediction of the sensitivity of melanopsin-dependent responses. We further show that VZλ provides the best available description of the spectral sensitivity of at least one aspect of the visual response in mice with functional rods and cones: tonic firing activity in the lateral geniculate nuclei. Together, these data establish VZλ as an important new approach for light measurement with widespread practical utility. PMID:23301090

  3. Principal component and cluster analysis of layer V pyramidal cells in visual and non-visual cortical areas projecting to the primary visual cortex of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Laramée, M E; Rockland, K S; Prince, S; Bronchti, G; Boire, D

    2013-03-01

    The long-distance corticocortical connections between visual and nonvisual sensory areas that arise from pyramidal neurons located within layer V can be considered as a subpopulation of feedback connections. The purpose of the present study is to determine if layer V pyramidal neurons from visual and nonvisual sensory cortical areas that project onto the visual cortex (V1) constitute a homogeneous population of cells. Additionally, we ask whether dendritic arborization relates to the target, the sensory modality, the hierarchical level, or laterality of the source cortical area. Complete 3D reconstructions of dendritic arbors of retrogradely labeled layer V pyramidal neurons were performed for neurons of the primary auditory (A1) and somatosensory (S1) cortices and from the lateral (V2L) and medial (V2M) parts of the secondary visual cortices of both hemispheres. The morphological parameters extracted from these reconstructions were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The PCA showed that neurons are distributed within a continuous range of morphologies and do not form discrete groups. Nevertheless, the cluster analysis defines neuronal groups that share similar features. Each cortical area includes neurons belonging to several clusters. We suggest that layer V feedback connections within a single cortical area comprise several cell types. PMID:22426333

  4. The value of ultrasound in predicting non-visualization of the gall-bladder on OCG: implications for imaging strategies in patient selection for non-surgical therapy of gallstones.

    PubMed

    Brakel, K; Laméris, J S; Nijs, H G; Ginai, A Z; Terpstra, O T

    1991-03-01

    Gall-bladder visualization on oral cholecystography (OCG) is required for most non-surgical therapies of gallstones. In this study we attempted to establish sonographic criteria which will predict non-visualization of the gall-bladder on OCG. For this purpose we compared the results of ultrasound (US) and OCG in 171 patients with gallstones being assessed for non-surgical therapy. Sonographic criteria for non-visualization were a contracted gall-bladder and stone impaction in the gall-bladder neck or cystic duct. In detecting findings which predict non-visualization on OCG, US had a sensitivity of 78.3% and a specificity of 97.6%. The predictive values were: positive findings 92.3% and negative findings 92.4%. The overall accuracy was 92.4%. We conclude that US can be used as a first step in selecting patients for non-surgical therapy and if US indicates a contracted gall-bladder, 11% of the patients can be excluded from further diagnostic imaging. PMID:2013195

  5. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  6. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  7. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light

    PubMed Central

    Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; De Vanssay, Wena; Flamant, Frédéric; Cooper, Howard M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Non-visual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse model that specifically lacks mid-wavelength (MW) cones we show that these photoreceptors play a significant role in light entrainment and in phase shifting of the circadian oscillator. The contribution of MW cones is mainly observed for light exposures of short duration and towards the longer wavelength region of the spectrum, consistent with the known properties of this opsin. Modelling the contributions of the various photoreceptors stresses the importance of considering the particular spectral, temporal and irradiance response domains of the photopigments when assessing their role and contribution in circadian responses to light. PMID:17329208

  8. Post-illumination pupil response after blue light: Reliability of optimized melanopsin-based phototransduction assessment.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Wisse P; te Lindert, Bart H W; Bijlenga, Denise; Coppens, Joris E; Gómez-Herrero, Germán; Bruijel, Jessica; Kooij, J J Sandra; Cajochen, Christian; Bourgin, Patrice; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2015-10-01

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells have recently been shown highly relevant to the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits that regulate alertness, mood and circadian rhythms. A quantitative assessment of functionality of the melanopsin-signaling pathway could be highly relevant in order to mechanistically understand individual differences in the effects of light on these regulatory systems. We here propose and validate a reliable quantification of the melanopsin-dependent Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR) after blue light, and evaluated its sensitivity to dark adaptation, time of day, body posture, and light exposure history. Pupil diameter of the left eye was continuously measured during a series of light exposures to the right eye, of which the pupil was dilated using tropicamide 0.5%. The light exposure paradigm consisted of the following five consecutive blocks of five minutes: baseline dark; monochromatic red light (peak wavelength: 630 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)) to maximize the effect of subsequent blue light; dark; monochromatic blue light (peak wavelength: 470 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)); and post-blue dark. PIPR was quantified as the difference between baseline dark pupil diameter and post-blue dark pupil diameter (PIPR-mm). In addition, a relative PIPR was calculated by dividing PIPR by baseline pupil diameter (PIPR-%). In total 54 PIPR assessments were obtained in 25 healthy young adults (10 males, mean age ± SD: 26.9 ± 4.0 yr). From repeated measurements on two consecutive days in 15 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 27.8 ± 4.3 yrs) test-retest reliability of both PIPR outcome parameters was calculated. In the presence of considerable between-subject differences, both outcome parameters had very high test-retest reliability: Cronbach's α > 0.90 and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.85. In 12 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 26.5

  9. Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Steven; Rodgers, Jessica; Hickey, Doron; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Hankins, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Gnat(-/-), Cnga3(-/-), Opn4(-/-) triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses. Furthermore, a distinctive pattern of light-induced c-fos expression is evident in the TKO retina, with c-fos expression largely restricted to a small subset of amacrine cells that express disabled-1 (Dab1) but lack expression of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1). Collectively these data are consistent with the persistence of a novel light sensing pathway in the TKO retina that originates in rod photoreceptors, potentially a rare subset of rods with distinct functional properties, and which is propagated to an atypical subtype of AII amacrine cells. Furthermore, the minimal responses observed following UV light stimulation suggest only a limited role for the non-visual opsin OPN5 in driving excitatory light responses within the mouse retina. PMID:27301998

  10. Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Steven; Rodgers, Jessica; Hickey, Doron; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Hankins, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Gnat−/−, Cnga3−/−, Opn4−/− triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses. Furthermore, a distinctive pattern of light-induced c-fos expression is evident in the TKO retina, with c-fos expression largely restricted to a small subset of amacrine cells that express disabled-1 (Dab1) but lack expression of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1). Collectively these data are consistent with the persistence of a novel light sensing pathway in the TKO retina that originates in rod photoreceptors, potentially a rare subset of rods with distinct functional properties, and which is propagated to an atypical subtype of AII amacrine cells. Furthermore, the minimal responses observed following UV light stimulation suggest only a limited role for the non-visual opsin OPN5 in driving excitatory light responses within the mouse retina. PMID:27301998

  11. Non-Visual Effects of Classroom Lighting on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1993-01-01

    A two-year study in Alberta on the effects of classroom lighting found that elementary school students exposed to full-spectrum lighting with measurable ultraviolet output had fewer dental caries, larger gains in height and weight, larger gains in achievement, and better attendance. Students exposed to high-pressure sodium vapor lamps had the…

  12. More Than Meets the Eye: Nonvisual Observations in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment intended for blind students that can be used to demonstrate acid-base reactions, carbonate reactions, or endothermic reactions. Includes both instructor information and a student activity sheet. (YDS)

  13. Non-Visual Effects of Classroom Lighting on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1994-01-01

    Results from a pilot study of four different lighting systems indicate that over a two-year period, light had measurable and significant effects on students. Under full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet enhancement, students developed fewer dental cavities and had better attendance, achievement, and growth and development than students…

  14. Think Spatial: The Representation in Mental Rotation Is Nonvisual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2013-01-01

    For mental rotation, introspection, theories, and interpretations of experimental results imply a certain type of mental representation, namely, visual mental images. Characteristics of the rotated representation can be examined by measuring the influence of stimulus characteristics on rotational speed. If the amount of a given type of information…

  15. Brain Responses to Violet, Blue, and Green Monochromatic Light Exposures in Humans: Prominent Role of Blue Light and the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Gilles; Schmidt, Christina; Albouy, Geneviève; Sterpenich, Virginie; Darsaud, Annabelle; Rauchs, Géraldine; Berken, Pierre-Yves; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Relatively long duration retinal light exposure elicits nonvisual responses in humans, including modulation of alertness and cognition. These responses are thought to be mediated in part by melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells which are more sensitive to blue light than violet or green light. The contribution of the melanopsin system and the brain mechanisms involved in the establishment of such responses to light remain to be established. Methodology/Principal Findings We exposed 15 participants to short duration (50 s) monochromatic violet (430 nm), blue (473 nm), and green (527 nm) light exposures of equal photon flux (1013ph/cm2/s) while they were performing a working memory task in fMRI. At light onset, blue light, as compared to green light, increased activity in the left hippocampus, left thalamus, and right amygdala. During the task, blue light, as compared to violet light, increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus, left thalamus and a bilateral area of the brainstem consistent with activation of the locus coeruleus. Conclusion/Significance These results support a prominent contribution of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells to brain responses to light within the very first seconds of an exposure. The results also demonstrate the implication of the brainstem in mediating these responses in humans and speak for a broad involvement of light in the regulation of brain function. PMID:18043754

  16. The emotional homunculus: ERP evidence for independent somatosensory responses during facial emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Sel, Alejandra; Forster, Bettina; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-02-26

    Current models of face perception propose that initial visual processing is followed by activation of nonvisual somatosensory areas that contributes to emotion recognition. To test whether there is a pure and independent involvement of somatosensory cortex (SCx) during face processing over and above visual responses, we directly measured participants' somatosensory-evoked activity by tactually probing (105 ms postvisual facial stimuli) the state of SCx during an emotion discrimination task while controlling for visual effects. Discrimination of emotional versus neutral expressions enhanced early somatosensory-evoked activity between 40 and 80 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting visual emotion processing in SCx. This effect was source localized within primary, secondary, and associative somatosensory cortex. Emotional face processing influenced somatosensory responses to both face (congruent body part) and finger (control site) tactile stimulation, suggesting a general process that includes nonfacial cortical representations. Gender discrimination of the same facial expressions did not modulate somatosensory-evoked activity. We provide novel evidence that SCx activation is not a byproduct of visual processing but is independently shaped by face emotion processing. PMID:24573285

  17. Clock genes and behavioral responses to light are altered in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lahouaoui, Hasna; Coutanson, Christine; Cooper, Howard M; Bennis, Mohamed; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are altered in retinal pathologies. Using a streptozotocin-induced (STZ) model of diabetes, we investigated the impact of diabetic retinopathy on non-visual functions by analyzing ipRGCs morphology and light-induced c-Fos and Period 1-2 clock genes in the central clock (SCN). The ability of STZ-diabetic mice to entrain to light was challenged by exposure animals to 1) successive light/dark (LD) cycle of decreasing or increasing light intensities during the light phase and 2) 6-h advance of the LD cycle. Our results show that diabetes induces morphological changes of ipRGCs, including soma swelling and dendritic varicosities, with no reduction in their total number, associated with decreased c-Fos and clock genes induction by light in the SCN at 12 weeks post-onset of diabetes. In addition, STZ-diabetic mice exhibited a reduction of overall locomotor activity, a decrease of circadian sensitivity to light at low intensities, and a delay in the time to re-entrain after a phase advance of the LD cycle. These novel findings demonstrate that diabetes alters clock genes and behavioral responses of the circadian timing system to light and suggest that diabetic patients may show an increased propensity for circadian disturbances, in particular when they are exposed to chronobiological challenges. PMID:25006976

  18. Effects of Vestibular Loss on Orthostatic Responses to Tilts in the Pitch Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Serrador, Jorge M.; Black, F. Owen; Rupert,Angus H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which vestibular loss might impair orthostatic responses to passive tilts in the pitch plane in human subjects. Data were obtained from six subjects having chronic bilateral vestibular loss and six healthy individuals matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Vestibular loss was assessed with a comprehensive battery including dynamic posturography, vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, and ocular counterrolling. Head up tilt tests were conducted using a motorized two-axis table that allowed subjects to be tilted in the pitch plane from either a supine or prone body orientation at a slow rate (8 deg/s). The sessions consisted of three tilts, each consisting of20 min rest in a horizontal position, tilt to 80 deg upright for 10 min, and then return to the horizontal position for 5 min. The tilts were performed in darkness (supine and prone) or in light (supine only). Background music was used to mask auditory orientation cues. Autonomic measurements included beat-to-beat recordings of blood pressure (Finapres), heart rate (ECG), cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), end tidal CO2, respiratory rate and volume (Respritrace), and stroke volume (impedance cardiography). For both patients and control subjects, cerebral blood flow appeared to exhibit the most rapid adjustment following transient changes in posture. Outside of a greater cerebral hypoperfusion in patients during the later stages of tilt, responses did not differ dramatically between the vestibular loss and control subjects, or between tilts performed in light and dark room conditions. Thus, with the 'exception of cerebrovascular regulation, we conclude that orthostatic responses during slow postural tilts are not substantially impaired in humans following chronic loss of vestibular function, a result that might reflect compensation by nonvisual graviceptor

  19. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  20. Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptors play different roles in mediating pupillary light responses during exposure to continuous light in humans.

    PubMed

    Gooley, Joshua J; Ho Mien, Ivan; St Hilaire, Melissa A; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; van Reen, Eliza; Hanley, Catherine J; Hull, Joseph T; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-10-10

    In mammals, the pupillary light reflex is mediated by intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells that also receive input from rod-cone photoreceptors. To assess the relative contribution of melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptors to the pupillary light reflex in humans, we compared pupillary light responses in normally sighted individuals (n = 24) with a blind individual lacking rod-cone function. Here, we show that visual photoreceptors are required for normal pupillary responses to continuous light exposure at low irradiance levels, and for sustained pupillary constriction during exposure to light in the long-wavelength portion of the visual spectrum. In the absence of rod-cone function, pupillomotor responses are slow and sustained, and cannot track intermittent light stimuli, suggesting that rods/cones are required for encoding fast modulations in light intensity. In sighted individuals, pupillary constriction decreased monotonically for at least 30 min during exposure to continuous low-irradiance light, indicating that steady-state pupillary responses are an order of magnitude slower than previously reported. Exposure to low-irradiance intermittent green light (543 nm; 0.1-4 Hz) for 30 min, which was given to activate cone photoreceptors repeatedly, elicited sustained pupillary constriction responses that were more than twice as great compared with exposure to continuous green light. Our findings demonstrate nonredundant roles for rod-cone photoreceptors and melanopsin in mediating pupillary responses to continuous light. Moreover, our results suggest that it might be possible to enhance nonvisual light responses to low-irradiance exposures by using intermittent light to activate cone photoreceptors repeatedly in humans. PMID:23055493

  1. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation ... If you drink alcohol, doctors advise limiting how much you drink. This is called drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible drinking means ...

  2. Top-down modulation of ventral occipito-temporal responses during visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Tae; Kawabata Duncan, Keith J.; Price, Cathy J.; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2011-01-01

    Although interactivity is considered a fundamental principle of cognitive (and computational) models of reading, it has received far less attention in neural models of reading that instead focus on serial stages of feed-forward processing from visual input to orthographic processing to accessing the corresponding phonological and semantic information. In particular, the left ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) cortex is proposed to be the first stage where visual word recognition occurs prior to accessing nonvisual information such as semantics and phonology. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether there is evidence that activation in vOT is influenced top-down by the interaction of visual and nonvisual properties of the stimuli during visual word recognition tasks. Participants performed two different types of lexical decision tasks that focused on either visual or nonvisual properties of the word or word-like stimuli. The design allowed us to investigate how vOT activation during visual word recognition was influenced by a task change to the same stimuli and by a stimulus change during the same task. We found both stimulus- and task-driven modulation of vOT activation that can only be explained by top-down processing of nonvisual aspects of the task and stimuli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that vOT acts as an interface linking visual form with nonvisual processing in both bottom up and top down directions. Such interactive processing at the neural level is in agreement with cognitive and computational models of reading but challenges some of the assumptions made by current neuro-anatomical models of reading. PMID:21232615

  3. Small molecule antagonists of melanopsin-mediated phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kenneth A.; Hatori, Megumi; Mure, Ludovic S.; Bramley, Jayne R.; Artymyshyn, Roman; Hong, Sang-Phyo; Marzabadi, Mohammad; Zhong, Huailing; Sprouse, Jeffrey; Zhu, Quansheng; Hartwick, Andrew T.E.; Sollars, Patricia J.; Pickard, Gary E.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2013-01-01

    Melanopsin, expressed in a subset of retinal ganglion cells, mediates behavioral adaptation to ambient light and other non-image forming photic responses. This has raised the possibility that pharmacological manipulation of melanopsin can modulate several CNS responses including photophobia, sleep, circadian rhythms and neuroendocrine function. Here we describe the identification of a potent synthetic melanopsin antagonist with in vivo activity. Novel sulfonamide compounds inhibiting melanopsin (opsinamides) compete with retinal binding to melanopsin and inhibit its function without affecting rod/cone mediated responses. In vivo administration of opsinamides to mice specifically and reversibly modified melanopsin-dependent light responses including the pupillary light reflex and light aversion. The discovery of opsinamides raises the prospect of therapeutic control of the melanopsin phototransduction system to regulate light-dependent behavior and remediate pathological conditions. PMID:23974117

  4. Rights & Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue guides teachers and students to annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with topics related to rights and responsibilities. Sidebar features discuss animal rights, handling money responsibly, and taking responsibility for the environment. (Contains Three…

  5. Spreading photoparoxysmal EEG response is associated with an abnormal cortical excitability pattern.

    PubMed

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR with occipital spikes only) or spread to anterior non-visual cortical regions (i.e. PPR with propagation). The mechanisms underlying the PPR and causing its spread remain to be clarified. In unmedicated PPR-positive individuals and PPR-negative control participants without any history of previous seizures, we used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the excitability of the visual or primary motor cortex (M1). In the first experiment [18 healthy control subjects (i.e. without PPR in electroencephalography: 6 females, mean age 26.5 +/- 7.34 years) and 17 healthy participants with PPR (7 females, mean age 25.18 +/- 12.2 years) were studied], occipital TMS was used to elicit phosphenes or to suppress the visual perception of letter trigrams. PPR-positive individuals with propagation had lower phosphene thresholds and steeper stimulus-response curves than individuals without PPR or with occipital spikes only. Occipital TMS also induced a stronger suppression of visual perception in PPR-positive subjects with propagation relative to subjects without PPR or with occipital spikes. In the second experiment, we applied TMS over the right M1 without concurrent IPS and measured the motor threshold, the stimulus response curve, and the duration of the cortical silent period (CSP) in PPR positive individuals with propagation and in PPR-negative control participants [15 right-handed healthy subjects without PPR (3 males, mean age 17.7 +/- 3.6 years) and 14 right-handed healthy individuals showing a PPR with propagation (3 males, mean age 17.4 +/- 3.9 years)]. PPR-positive individuals showed no changes in these

  6. Immune response

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cells. T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. This type of immunity becomes deficient in persons with HIV, the virus ... blood. B lymphocytes provide the body with humoral immunity as they circulate in the fluids in search ...

  7. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system ...

  8. The Role of Visual and Nonvisual Information in the Control of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2005-01-01

    During locomotion, retinal flow, gaze angle, and vestibular information can contribute to one's perception of self-motion. Their respective roles were investigated during active steering: Retinal flow and gaze angle were biased by altering the visual information during computer-simulated locomotion, and vestibular information was controlled…

  9. Walking between the Lines: Nonvisual Cues for Maintaining Headings during Street Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Five cues were evaluated with respect to their usefulness in directing the headings of pedestrians who were blind during street crossings. The study was conducted at a simulated crosswalk, with the angle of the crosswalk varied relative to the approach and direction of the slope of the ramp. Three cues worked well over the distance equivalent to…

  10. Non-visual numerical discrimination in a blind cavefish (Phreatichthys andruzzii).

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; Tagliapietra, Christian; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto; Agrillo, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Over a decade of comparative studies, researchers have found that rudimentary numerical abilities are widespread among vertebrates. While experiments in mammals and birds have employed a variety of stimuli (visual, auditory and tactile), all fish studies involved visual stimuli and it is unknown whether fish can process numbers in other sensory modalities. To fill this gap, we studied numerical abilities in Phreatichthys andruzzii, a blind cave-dwelling species that evolved in the phreatic layer of the Somalia desert. Fish were trained to receive a food reward to discriminate between two groups of objects placed in opposite positions of their home tank. In Experiment 1, subjects learned to discriminate between two and six objects, with stimuli not controlled for non-numerical continuous variables that co-vary with numbers, such as total area occupied by stimuli or density. In Experiment 2, the discrimination was two versus four, with half of the stimuli controlled for continuous quantities and half not controlled for continuous quantities. The subjects discriminated only the latter condition, indicating that they spontaneously used non-numerical information, as other vertebrates tested in similar experiments. In Experiments 3 and 4, cavefish trained from the beginning only with stimuli controlled for continuous quantities proved able to learn the discrimination of quantities based on the sole numerical information. However, their numerical acuity was lower than that reported in other teleost fish tested with visual stimuli. PMID:24871921

  11. Visual and non-visual factors associated with patient satisfaction and quality of life in LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Lazon de la Jara, P; Erickson, D; Erickson, P; Stapleton, F

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine how laser in situkeratomileusis (LASIK) affects quality of life (QOL) and to identify factors that may affect satisfaction after LASIK. Methods A total of 104 patients with a mean age of 29±6, treated with LASIK for myopia and astigmatism, were enrolled in a prospective study. High (90%) and low (10%) contrast visual acuity (CVA) were measured under photopic and scotopic conditions before surgery and at 3 months later. A multidimensional QOL scale (Institute for Eye Research multidimensional QOL scale), which assesses psychological characteristics, personality traits, cosmesis, frequency, and tolerance to disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, and overall satisfaction with vision correction, was also used. Paired rank tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative vision and QOL scores. Correlations and a multiple linear regression were used to describe the relationship between CVA, QOL, and satisfaction after LASIK. Results Significant postoperative changes included increased satisfaction following LASIK (P<0.001), reduced frequency of visual and ocular symptoms (P<0.001), and change in psychological characteristics (P=0.033). The change in satisfaction with LASIK can be predicted by a combination of preoperative satisfaction, postoperative frequency of disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, postoperative mean spherical equivalent, and postoperative scotopic high CVA (R 2=0.725, P<0.05). Conclusions Satisfaction with LASIK is related to visual function, preoperative expectations, psychological characteristics, and uncorrected CVA achieved. An increased sense of subjective well-being, adaptability, and self-efficacy was evident after LASIK. Patients reported a more optimistic attitude to life and increase perceived QOL after surgery. PMID:21720417

  12. A new type of putative non-visual photoreceptors in the optic lobe of beetles.

    PubMed

    Fleissner, G; Fleissner, G; Frisch, B

    1993-09-01

    A putative photoreceptor organ is described in the carabid beetle, Pachymorpha sexguttata. The elongated structure, about 20-40 microns wide and more than 300 microns long, is situated within the optic lobe at the fronto-dorsal rim of the lamina. It lies, deep in the head capsule, in front of the compound eyes and beneath window-like thinnings of the cuticle. The organ is composed of two types of cells: (1) clear sheath cells and (2) well-organized inner receptor cells that appear in a horseshoe-like or circular array in cross-section. Common histological features of all inner cells include a distal trunk ending in microvilli that form a rhabdom-like structure, an axon at the proximal end of the cell, lamellar and multivesicular bodies within the trunk, and clusters of small mitochondria. The organ has no shielding pigment. It is connected by thin axons to a circumscribed neuropil that parallels the organ, and thence via a fiber tract to the medulla accessoria, a possible site of the circadian pacemaker in insects. Immunoreactivity to anti-per(s), an antibody recognizing the Drosophila period (per) protein that plays a central role in the function of the circadian pacemaker in fruit flies, is demonstratable in thin efferent terminals within the organ, in the associated neuropil and in its fiber connection to the medulla. A second receptor organ displaying the same fine structure lies near the second optic chiasm. This set of putative photoreceptors also occurs in the tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas morio, and its pupa. The possible function of these receptor organs is discussed with respect to former chronobiological data and some recently described types of extraretinal photoreceptors in arthropods. PMID:8402826

  13. Stated Preferences for Components of a Personal Guidance System for Nonvisual Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Marston, James R.; Loomis, Jack M.; Klatzky, Roberta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of the preferences of visually impaired persons for a possible personal navigation device. The results showed that the majority of participants preferred speech input and output interfaces, were willing to use such a product, thought that they would make more trips with such a device, and had some concerns about…

  14. On the domain-specificity of the visual and non-visual face-selective regions.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    What happens in our brains when we see a face? The neural mechanisms of face processing - namely, the face-selective regions - have been extensively explored. Research has traditionally focused on visual cortex face-regions; more recently, the role of face-regions outside the visual cortex (i.e., non-visual-cortex face-regions) has been acknowledged as well. The major quest today is to reveal the functional role of each this region in face processing. To make progress in this direction, it is essential to understand the extent to which the face-regions, and particularly the non-visual-cortex face-regions, process only faces (i.e., face-specific, domain-specific processing) or rather are involved in a more domain-general cognitive processing. In the current functional MRI study, we systematically examined the activity of the whole face-network during face-unrelated reading task (i.e., written meaningful sentences with content unrelated to faces/people and non-words). We found that the non-visual-cortex (i.e., right lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus), but not the visual cortex face-regions, responded significantly stronger to sentences than to non-words. In general, some degree of sentence selectivity was found in all non-visual-cortex cortex. Present result highlights the possibility that the processing in the non-visual-cortex face-selective regions might not be exclusively face-specific, but rather more or even fully domain-general. In this paper, we illustrate how the knowledge about domain-general processing in face-regions can help to advance our general understanding of face processing mechanisms. Our results therefore suggest that the problem of face processing should be approached in the broader scope of cognition in general. PMID:27255921

  15. Using Digital Libraries Non-Visually: Understanding the Help-Seeking Situations of Blind Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…

  16. Individual Differences in (Non-Visual) Processing Style Predict the Face Inversion Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyer, Natalie A.; Martin, Douglas; Pickup, Tracey; Macrae, C. Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that individuals with relatively weak global precedence (i.e., a smaller propensity to view visual stimuli in a configural manner) show a reduced face inversion effect (FIE). Coupled with such findings, a number of recent studies have demonstrated links between an advantage for feature-based processing and the presentation…

  17. Accessibility and Usability of Web-Based Library Databases for Non-Visual Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerley, Suzanne L.; Chambers, Mary Beth

    2002-01-01

    Examined the accessibility of two Web-based abstracting and indexing services by blind users using screen-reading programs based on guidelines from the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Web Content Accessibility Guidelines by the WWW Consortium. Suggests Web developers need to conduct usability testing and librarians need to be aware of accessibility…

  18. Nonvisual Route Following with Guidance from a Simple Haptic or Auditory Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, James R.; Loomis, Jack M.; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Golledge, Reginald G.

    2007-01-01

    A path-following experiment, using a global positioning system, was conducted with participants who were legally blind. On- and off-course confirmations were delivered by either a vibrotactile or an audio stimulus. These simple binary cues were sufficient for guidance and point to the need to offer output options for guidance systems for people…

  19. Low velocity impact response of carbon fiber laminates fabricated by pulsed infusion: A review of damage investigation and semi-empirical models validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, V.; Caputo, F.; Ferraro, P.; Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ricciardi, M. R.; Riccio, A.; Toscano, C.

    2016-02-01

    The research reported in this paper was aimed mainly to investigate the different NDE techniques on specimens made by a new process labeled as "pulsed infusion", very crucial for voids content under critical loading conditions. The impact load, in fact, is critical for composite laminates due to their anisotropy, in particular in extreme temperature conditions due to their brittleness. An additional and very relevant aim was to collect a large number of experimental results to supply useful information for the numerical models needed to simulate the dynamic behavior of composite laminates. At the aim to investigate the response under dynamic loads of laminates fabricated by a new vacuum assisted technology labeled as "pulsed infusion", rectangular carbon fiber composite specimens were subjected to low velocity impact tests. Experimental tests up to complete penetration and at different energy levels, were carried out by a modular falling weight tower. All the parameters related to the phenomenon, like penetration energy, maximum force and indentation depths, were used to validate existing semi-empirical and numerical models. The largely used ultra sound technique (US) was adopted to investigate the delamination together with the thermo graphic technique. The results of the measurements were compared with data obtained on the same specimens by holographic analysis (ESPI). One of the scope was to investigate the crucial internal impact damage and assess the ability of an unconventional ND system (ESPI) in giving right information about non-visual damage generated inside composite laminates subjected to dynamic loads. Moreover, some of the specimens were cut to allow the fractographic analysis. The efficiency of the above mentioned new fabrication technology was studied also comparing the results with measurements from literature on impacted autoclave cured laminates. By the comparison between the results, good agreements were found denoting the efficiency and the

  20. A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    2000-01-01

    Presents John Wilson's response to the articles within this issue of the "Journal of Moral Education". Focuses on broad issues related to the disagreements that surfaced. Explains that one issue concerns the nature of philosophical or conceptual analysis. Addresses aspects of his own work. (CMK)

  1. Striking responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Brecher, R

    1985-06-01

    It is commonly held that National Health Service (NHS) workers are under a moral obligation not to go on strike, because doing so might well result in people's dying. Unless sainthood is demanded, however, this position is untenable: indeed, those most vociferously pursuing it are often those who bear the greatest responsibility, on their own grounds, for needless death and suffering. PMID:4009635

  2. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  3. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  4. Modeling Response Signal and Response Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) and the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA, Usher & McClelland, 2001) were tested against two-choice data collected from the same subjects with the standard response time procedure and the response signal procedure. In the response signal procedure, a stimulus is presented and then, at one of a number of…

  5. A Response to a Plethora of Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghassib, Hisham B.

    2010-01-01

    The author was truly overwhelmed by the plethora of responses to his paper (Ghassib, 2010) entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit Into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production". It would be pointless to go through all the responses point by point, as this would enlarge his response unmanageably and repetitively. In this article, the…

  6. The Responsibility of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses several kinds of responsibilities scientists have, including moral/ethical responsibilities related to research methodology. Areas addressed include use of science in war, approaches to decision-making, scientists and smoking, importance of education related to social responsibility. (JN)

  7. Assessment of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythms and melatonin response to light in disease states: lessons from cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Montagnese, Sara; Middleton, Benita; Corrias, Michela; Mani, Ali Reza; Skene, Debra J; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2015-03-01

    Circadian rhythmicity and non-visual sensitivity to light can be assessed, in healthy subjects, by measuring the rhythm of the urinary melatonin metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and by determining the response of plasma melatonin to nocturnal retinal light exposure, respectively. However, the validity of these techniques has not been assessed in disease states in which disruption of the circadian rhythm is known or suspected to occur. Thus, the aims of this study were as follows: (i) to assess the reliability of circadian aMT6s profile estimates derived from 36 h versus 56 h urine collections and (ii) to test different models for calculating melatonin suppression in response to light in healthy volunteers and patients with cirrhosis. Twenty patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis and 10 matched healthy volunteers undertook: (i) separate 36 - and 56-h urine collections, under controlled conditions, for cosinor analysis of the urinary aMT6s profile; (ii) a melatonin suppression test, comprising of a baseline night, during which subjects were woken and asked to sit in front of a switched off light sphere, and an experimental night, identically executed, except that the light sphere was switched on and the subjects were exposed to white light (4.1 × 10(14) photons/cm(2)/s) for 30 min. Alternative approaches to the calculation of melatonin suppression were taken, with/without inclusion of the baseline night. Eighteen patients and eight healthy volunteers had matched analysable 36 - and 56-h urinary samples. Cosinor analysis showed a significant fit in 88% of the remaining 56 h collections, and 48% of the remaining 36-h collections. Thus, eight patients and five healthy volunteers had matched analysable samples for cosinor analysis. In the healthy volunteers, aMT6s profile indices obtained using the 36 - and the 56-h collections did not differ significantly. In contrast, considerably more variability was observed in patients [i.e. the difference

  8. A spinal opsin controls early neural activity and drives a behavioral light response

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Drew; Hoagland, Adam; Berlin, Shai; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2014-01-01

    Non-visual detection of light by the vertebrate hypothalamus, pineal, and retina is known to govern seasonal and circadian behaviors [1]. However, the expression of opsins in multiple other brain structures [2–4] suggests a more expansive repertoire for light-regulation of physiology, behavior, and development. Translucent zebrafish embryos express extra-retinal opsins early on [5, 6], at a time when spontaneous activity in the developing central nervous system plays a role in neuronal maturation and circuit formation [7]. Though the presence of extra-retinal opsins is well documented, the function of direct photoreception by the central nervous system remains largely unknown. Here we show that early activity in the zebrafish spinal central pattern generator (CPG) and the earliest locomotory behavior are dramatically inhibited by physiological levels of environmental light. We find that the photo-sensitivity of this circuit is conferred by vertebrate ancient long opsin (VALopA), which we show to be a Gαi-coupled receptor that is expressed in the neurons of the spinal network. Sustained photo-activation of VALopA not only suppresses spontaneous activity but also alters the maturation of time-locked correlated network patterns. These results uncover a novel role for non-visual opsins and a mechanism for environmental regulation of spontaneous motor behavior and neural activity in a circuit previously thought to be governed only by intrinsic developmental programs. PMID:25484291

  9. Issues in Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Ronald C.; Rycus, Judith S.; Saunders-Adams, Stacey M.; Hughes, Laura K.; Hughes, Kelli N.

    2013-01-01

    Differential response (DR), also referred to as alternative response (AR), family assessment response (FAR), or multiple track response, was developed to incorporate family-centered, strengths-based practices into child protective services (CPS), primarily by diverting lower risk families into an assessment track rather than requiring the…

  10. The Response Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Caltagirone, Sergio; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-06-17

    Active response is a sequence of actions per- formed speci¯cally to mitigate a detected threat. Response decisions always follow detection: a decision to take `no ac- tion' remains a response decision. However, active response is a complex subject that has received insu±cient formal attention. To facilitate discussion, this paper provides a framework that proposes a common de¯nition, describes the role of response and the major issues surrounding response choices, and ¯nally, provides a model for the process of re- sponse. This provides a common starting point for discus- sion of the full response continuum as an integral part of contemporary computer security.

  11. Modification of radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    There has been a substantial and intense interest by laboratory and clinical investigators in the development of agents which modify the response of tissue to radiation differentially so as to increase the effect on tumor relative to normal tissue. These have included efforts to increase the response of tumor or to decrease response of normal tissue. The plan of this presentation is to: define radiation response modifiers; consider the impact of response modifiers on dose response curves; comment on problems inherent in assessment of results of clinical trials of response modifiers; and review briefly results of several trials of: sensitizers of hypoxic cells (hyperbaric oxygen, chemical sensitizer), pyrimidine analogs, and protectors.

  12. Distinct Contributions of Rod, Cone, and Melanopsin Photoreceptors to Encoding Irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Gurprit S.; Revell, Victoria L.; Momiji, Hiroshi; Al Enezi, Jazi; Altimus, Cara M.; Güler, Ali D.; Aguilar, Carlos; Cameron, Morven A.; Allender, Susan; Hankins, Mark W.; Lucas, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Photoreceptive, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) encode ambient light (irradiance) for the circadian clock, the pupillomotor system, and other influential behavioral/physiological responses. mRGCs are activated both by their intrinsic phototransduction cascade and by the rods and cones. However, the individual contribution of each photoreceptor class to irradiance responses remains unclear. We address this deficit using mice expressing human red cone opsin, in which rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-dependent responses can be identified by their distinct spectral sensitivity. Our data reveal an unexpectedly important role for rods. These photoreceptors define circadian responses at very dim “scotopic” light levels but also at irradiances at which pattern vision relies heavily on cones. By contrast, cone input to irradiance responses dissipates following light adaptation to the extent that these receptors make a very limited contribution to circadian and pupillary light responses under these conditions. Our data provide new insight into retinal circuitry upstream of mRGCs and optimal stimuli for eliciting irradiance responses. PMID:20471354

  13. The Effect of Non-Visual Working Memory Load on Top-Down Modulation of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Jesse; Gazzaley, Adam; D'Esposito, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While a core function of the working memory (WM) system is the active maintenance of behaviorally relevant sensory representations, it is also critical that distracting stimuli are appropriately ignored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the role of domain-general WM resources in the top-down attentional modulation of…

  14. Convergence of Sequences and Series 2: Interactions between Nonvisual Reasoning and the Learner's Beliefs about Their Own Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Lara; Simpson, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the work of students who, when reasoning about real analysis, do so almost exclusively by means of verbal and algebraic reasoning, and tend not to incorporate visual images into their work. It examines the work of students from two parallel courses of introductory real analysis, whose reasoning ranges from those who introduce…

  15. Role of visual and non-visual cues in constructing a rotation-invariant representation of heading in parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Adhira; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2015-01-01

    As we navigate through the world, eye and head movements add rotational velocity patterns to the retinal image. When such rotations accompany observer translation, the rotational velocity patterns must be discounted to accurately perceive heading. The conventional view holds that this computation requires efference copies of self-generated eye/head movements. Here we demonstrate that the brain implements an alternative solution in which retinal velocity patterns are themselves used to dissociate translations from rotations. These results reveal a novel role for visual cues in achieving a rotation-invariant representation of heading in the macaque ventral intraparietal area. Specifically, we show that the visual system utilizes both local motion parallax cues and global perspective distortions to estimate heading in the presence of rotations. These findings further suggest that the brain is capable of performing complex computations to infer eye movements and discount their sensory consequences based solely on visual cues. PMID:25693417

  16. Role of visual and non-visual cues in constructing a rotation-invariant representation of heading in parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Adhira

    2015-01-01

    As we navigate through the world, eye and head movements add rotational velocity patterns to the retinal image. When such rotations accompany observer translation, the rotational velocity patterns must be discounted to accurately perceive heading. The conventional view holds that this computation requires efference copies of self-generated eye/head movements. Here we demonstrate that the brain implements an alternative solution in which retinal velocity patterns are themselves used to dissociate translations from rotations. These results reveal a novel role for visual cues in achieving a rotation-invariant representation of heading in the macaque ventral intraparietal area. Specifically, we show that the visual system utilizes both local motion parallax cues and global perspective distortions to estimate heading in the presence of rotations. These findings further suggest that the brain is capable of performing complex computations to infer eye movements and discount their sensory consequences based solely on visual cues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04693.001 PMID:25693417

  17. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... which included the Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission was appointed by President Bill Clinton, ... role in making sure they have rights and responsibilities with regard to health improvement. The Consumer Bill ...

  18. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  19. Stimulus responsive nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  20. Caution: Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Beverley Holden; Kauffman, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors encourage caution in the implementation of Response to Intervention and dispel the false hopes that Response to Intervention will solve many of education's challenges. Outlined in this article are the reasons why Response to Intervention cannot be the solution to the identification of students for special education, why it can't…

  1. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in…

  2. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  3. Neuronal Organization of Deep Brain Opsin Photoreceptors in Adult Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Chong Yee; Kitahashi, Takashi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological impacts of light beyond vision, i.e., non-visual functions of light, signify the need to better understand light detection (or photoreception) systems in vertebrates. Photopigments, which comprise light-absorbing chromophores bound to a variety of G-protein coupled receptor opsins, are responsible for visual and non-visual photoreception. Non-visual opsin photopigments in the retina of mammals and extra-retinal tissues of non-mammals play an important role in non-image-forming functions of light, e.g., biological rhythms and seasonal reproduction. This review highlights the role of opsin photoreceptors in the deep brain, which could involve conserved neurochemical systems that control different time- and light-dependent physiologies in in non-mammalian vertebrates including teleost fish. PMID:27199680

  4. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  5. Space race functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis–Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka–Volterra predator–prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  6. Differential Response: Response to Hughes and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Bryan; Brown, Brett Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    In their critique of differential response (DR), Hughes and colleagues raise a number of important issues that are central to broader efforts at the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) including the need for greater reliance on evidence-based practice in child welfare, more rigorous evaluation methodologies, and a robust set of…

  7. Responsive aqueous foams.

    PubMed

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Carl, Adrian; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; von Klitzing, Regine

    2015-01-12

    Remarkable properties have emerged recently for aqueous foams, including ultrastability and responsiveness. Responsive aqueous foams refer to foams for which the stability can be switched between stable and unstable states with a change in environment or with external stimuli. Responsive foams have been obtained from various foam stabilizers, such as surfactants, proteins, polymers, and particles, and with various stimuli. Different strategies have been developed to design this type of soft material. We briefly review the two main approaches used to obtain responsive foams. The first approach is based on the responsiveness of the interfacial layer surrounding the gas bubbles, which leads to responsive foams. The second approach is based on modifications that occur in the aqueous phase inside the foam liquid channels to tune the foam stability. We will highlight the most sophisticated approaches, which use light, temperature, and magnetic fields and lead to switchable foam stability. PMID:25384466

  8. Vibration-Response Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic behaviors of structures analyzed interactively. Interactive steadystate vibration-response program, VIBRA, developed. Frequency-response analyses commonly used in evaluating dynamic behaviors of structures subjected to cyclic external forces. VIBRA calculates frequency response using modalsuperposition approach. Method applicable to single or multiple forces applied to linear, proportionally damped structure in which damping is viscous or structural. VIBRA written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution.

  9. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health care consumer's rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... In March 1998, the Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and ... Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission ...

  10. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  11. Response: persistent perplexities.

    PubMed

    Radin, M J

    2001-09-01

    This response to the preceding five articles highlights the stubborn persistence of the philosophical perplexities surrounding commodification in the realm of medicine and biotechnology. PMID:11700685

  12. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  13. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  14. Abortion and parental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Winston, M E

    1986-01-01

    A theory on the morality of abortion is derived from the presumption that parents have special moral obligations to nurture their immature children. Three alternative models of the acquisition of parental responsibilities are examined: one based on biological relationships, one based on consent, and one based on causal responsibility. Each of the models is examined in terms of its ability to handle cases involving nonstandard methods of procreation, such as surrogate motherhood, artificial insemination by donor, and embryo transfer. It is concluded that the model based on causal responsibility provides the most adequate criterion for the ascription of parental responsibility toward fetuses. PMID:11650732

  15. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light.

    PubMed

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C; Gorin, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior. PMID:27559310

  16. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated stimulation of retinal ganglion cell photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Puneet; Hartwick, Andrew T E

    2016-09-01

    Melanopsin-dependent phototransduction in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) involves a Gq-coupled phospholipase C (PLC) signaling cascade. Acetylcholine, released in the mammalian retina by starburst amacrine cells, can also activate Gq-PLC pathways through certain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Using multielectrode array recordings of rat retinas, we demonstrate that robust spiking responses can be evoked in neonatal and adult ipRGCs after bath application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol. The stimulatory action of carbachol on ipRGCs was a direct effect, as confirmed through calcium imaging experiments on isolated ipRGCs in purified cultures. Using flickering (6 Hz) yellow light stimuli at irradiances below the threshold for melanopsin activation, spiking responses could be elicited in ipRGCs that were suppressed by mAChR antagonism. Therefore, this work identified a novel melanopsin-independent pathway for stimulating sustained spiking in ganglion cell photoreceptors. This mAChR-mediated pathway could enhance ipRGC spiking responses in conditions known to evoke retinal acetylcholine release, such as those involving flickering or moving visual stimuli. Furthermore, this work identifies a pharmacological approach for light-independent ipRGC stimulation that could be targeted by mAChR agonists. PMID:27055770

  17. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light

    PubMed Central

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W.; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z.; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Gorin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior. PMID:27559310

  18. Responsibility and punishment: whose mind? A response.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Oliver R

    2004-11-29

    Cognitive neuroscience is challenging the Anglo-American approach to criminal responsibility. Critiques, in this issue and elsewhere, are pointing out the deeply flawed psychological assumptions underlying the legal tests for mental incapacity. The critiques themselves, however, may be flawed in looking, as the tests do, at the psychology of the offender. Introducing the strategic structure of punishment into the analysis leads us to consider the psychology of the punisher as the critical locus of cognition informing the responsibility rules. Such an approach both helps to make sense of the counterfactual assumptions about offender psychology embodied in the law and provides a possible explanation for the human conviction of the existence of free will, at least in others. PMID:15590621

  19. A Beta Item Response Model for Continuous Bounded Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Yvonnick; Dauvier, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    An item response model is proposed for the analysis of continuous response formats in an item response theory (IRT) framework. With such formats, respondents are asked to report their response as a mark on a fixed-length graphical segment whose ends are labeled with extreme responses. An interpolation process is proposed as the response mechanism…

  20. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  1. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  2. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  3. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  4. Responsibility and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Schafer, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Argues that scholars must be responsible for the use of their creations and ideas. Examines, through the use of such historical events as the Nazi holocaust and the United States' bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the implications of neglecting responsibility for scientific and scholarly creations. (JDH)

  5. Chores and Responsibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... not learn to accept responsibility. In unstructured home environments, or in families that are very permissive and where little is expected of children, youngsters are losing out on some valuable learning experiences, and their development of a sense of responsibility and initiative may ...

  6. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an individual's degree…

  7. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Michael; Hankins, Diana

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to encourage dialogue and reflection on matters of common concern and interest, the journal staff invite responses on selected articles from other educators, who engage the text critically and offer some reflections about its utility and validity. This article offers responses from Michael Fierro and Diana Hankins on the article…

  8. Clinical ethics revisited: responses

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Daar, Abdallah S; Hope, Tony; MacRae, Sue; Roberts, Laura W; Sharpe, Virginia A

    2001-01-01

    This series of responses was commissioned to accompany the article by Singer et al, which can be found at . If you would like to comment on the article by Singer et al or any of the responses, please email us on editorial@biomedcentral.com. PMID:11346457

  9. Neuroendocrine Responses to Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Tesfaye, Nolawit; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    The counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia is a complex and well-coordinated process. As blood glucose concentration declines, peripheral and central glucose sensors relay this information to central integrative centers to coordinate neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses and avert the progression of hypoglycemia. Diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, can perturb these counterregulatory responses. Moreover, defective counterregulation in the setting of diabetes can progress to hypoglycemia unawareness. While the mechanisms that underlie the development of hypoglycemia unawareness are not completely known, possible causes include altered sensing of hypoglycemia by the brain and/or impaired coordination of responses to hypoglycemia. Further study is needed to better understand the intricacies of the counterregulatory response and the mechanisms contributing to the development of hypoglycemia unawareness. PMID:21039590

  10. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  11. Geospatial Information Response Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  12. Frequency Response Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could leadmore » to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.« less

  13. Photodynamic therapy: first responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael

    2009-06-01

    During the irradiation of photosensitized cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated leading to a variety of effects including apoptosis and autophagy. These responses can occur within minutes after irradiation. Apoptosis is an irreversible pathway to death that can be triggered by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Autophagy is a recycling process that can occur as a result of Bcl-2 photodamage or as a response to organelle disruption. We have reported that autophagy is associated with a 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve. Although predominantly a survival pathway, autophagy can also play a role in cell death if cells attempt an excessive amount of recycling, beyond their ability to repair photodamage. Recent studies have been directed toward assessing the role of different ROS in the immediate response to PDT. While singlet oxygen is considered to be the major phototoxic ROS, it appears that catalase activity is also a determinant of the apoptotic response and that H2O2•OH can amplify the effects of singlet oxygen. An early response to PDT also involves inhibition of membrane trafficking systems related to the endocytic pathway. The extent and nature of these early responses appear to be among the determinants of subsequent tumor eradication.

  14. Frequency Response Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Chassin, PNNL David; Zhang, PNNL Yu; PNNL,

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could lead to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.

  15. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  16. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  17. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  18. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  19. Community Response to Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Donald G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes three trends--downsizing, reduction of government funding, and shift of decision making from federal to state and state to local agencies. Suggests that community response to these trends requires leadership, a role for adult educators. (SK)

  20. Human vestibular evoked responses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gamboa, C; Jiménez-Cruz, J

    1994-01-01

    The results of an experimental series dedicated to the acquisition of human vestibular evoked responses are presented. In these series, manual stimulation is applied to a normal group of subjects with rotational acceleration impulses. Every stimulus is large in magnitude and very short in duration, producing small head movements of only a few degrees through a specially designed head immobilization helmet. Results correspond to middle latency vestibular evoked responses. PMID:7968862

  1. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  2. Response deprivation, reinforcement, and economics

    PubMed Central

    Allison, James

    1993-01-01

    Reinforcement of an instrumental response results not from a special kind of response consequence known as a reinforcer, but from a special kind of schedule known as a response-deprivation schedule. Under the requirements of a response-deprivation schedule, the baseline rate of the instrumental response permits less than the baseline rate of the contingent response. Because reinforcement occurs only if the schedule deprives the organism of the contingent response, reinforcement cannot result from any intrinsic property of the contingent response or any property relative to the instrumental response. Two typical effects of response-deprivation schedules—facilitation of the instrumental response and suppression of the contingent response—are discussed in terms of economic concepts and models of instrumental performance. It is suggested that response deprivation makes the contingent response function as an economic good, the instrumental response as currency. PMID:16812695

  3. Auxin response factors.

    PubMed

    Chandler, John William

    2016-05-01

    Auxin signalling involves the activation or repression of gene expression by a class of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins that bind to auxin response elements in auxin-responsive gene promoters. The release of ARF repression in the presence of auxin by the degradation of their cognate auxin/indole-3-acetic acid repressors forms a paradigm of transcriptional response to auxin. However, this mechanism only applies to activating ARFs, and further layers of complexity of ARF function and regulation are being revealed, which partly reflect their highly modular domain structure. This review summarizes our knowledge concerning ARF binding site specificity, homodimer and heterodimer multimeric ARF association and cooperative function and how activator ARFs activate target genes via chromatin remodelling and evolutionary information derived from phylogenetic comparisons from ARFs from diverse species. ARFs are regulated in diverse ways, and their importance in non-auxin-regulated pathways is becoming evident. They are also embedded within higher-order transcription factor complexes that integrate signalling pathways from other hormones and in response to the environment. The ways in which new information concerning ARFs on many levels is causing a revision of existing paradigms of auxin response are discussed. PMID:26487015

  4. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Keers, Robert; Aitchison, Katherine J

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial interindividual variation in response to antidepressants. Family and twin studies suggest that genetic variation may, at least in part, explain these differences. Pharmacogenetic research attempts to identify the genetic variants associated with antidepressant response to both understand the mechanism of action of pharmacotherapies and to predict outcome. Genes implicated in the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodyamics of antidepressants have been shown to predict response; however, the failure of some findings to replicate has been disappointing. More recent hypothesis-free approaches have identified novel candidates for antidepressant response. However, results have been considerably modest and suggest that treatment outcome is determined by multiple genetic variants of small effect. The small effect sizes of genetic variants and heterogeneity between studies have significantly hindered attempts to find robust genetic predictors of response to antidepressants. To allow the direct comparison of findings, future pharmacogenetic studies should employ standardized methodology and consider using intermediate phenotypes of response, such as neurogenesis, that may more closely reflect the mechanism of action of antidepressants. PMID:21158559

  5. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Lagnado, David A; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in multiple agent contexts. We draw on the structural model account of actual causation (e.g., Halpern & Pearl, 2005) and its extension to responsibility judgments (Chockler & Halpern, 2004). We review the main theoretical and empirical issues that arise from this literature and propose a novel model of intuitive judgments of responsibility. This model is a function of both pivotality (whether an agent made a difference to the outcome) and criticality (how important the agent is perceived to be for the outcome, before any actions are taken). The model explains empirical results from previous studies and is supported by a new experiment that manipulates both pivotality and criticality. We also discuss possible extensions of this model to deal with a broader range of causal situations. Overall, our approach emphasizes the close interrelations between causality, counterfactuals, and responsibility attributions. PMID:23855451

  6. Structural building response review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations.

  7. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Response.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Rae, James M

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics attempts to predict treatment response using a patient's "germline" genome as the biomarker of interest. This chapter on pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response is divided into four sections. The first introduces readers to genetic variation and describes how variation in the germline genome can affect biology or pharmacology. The second section introduces the translational pathway for pharmacogenetic research and discusses the specific challenges to identifying pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response. The third section is divided into three subsections, each of which discusses a distinct category of pharmacogenetic response predictors; pharmacokinetics, cancer cell sensitivity, and effector cell activation. Within each subsection a specific pharmacogenetic association is described in detail; CYP2D6-tamoxifen, BRCA-PARP inhibitors, and FCGRA-trastuzumab, respectively, followed by a general discussion of other less well-established examples or areas for further research. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current status of pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response and a few predictions for the future of this field. PMID:26987536

  8. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  9. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  10. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  11. Free will and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, Eddy

    2012-07-01

    Free will is a set of capacities for conscious choice and control of actions and is essential for moral responsibility. While determinism is traditionally discussed as the main potential challenge to free will and responsibility, other potential challenges exist and need to be considered by philosophers and scientists. The cognitive sciences are relevant to free will both to study how people understand free will and potential challenges to it, and to study whether these challenges are supported by relevant scientific evidence. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:439-449. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1181 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301529

  12. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  13. [Myocardial responses to ischemia].

    PubMed

    Borisenko, V G; Gubareva, E A; Kade, A Kh

    2010-01-01

    The paper details the types of a myocardial response to impaired blood flow, such as myocardial stunning, hibernation, ischemic preconditioning, warm-up phenomenon, ischemic postconditioning, remodeling, and infarction. According to the pathogenesis, the authors identify several types of myocardial dysfunction in transient ischemic attack--uptake, delivery; and a mixed one. It is concluded the myocardial response to damage depends on a combination of influencing factors, a number of pathophysiological processes starting in the acute phase of ischemia achieve its peak in the late period. PMID:20564927

  14. DOE Response to Japan

    SciTech Connect

    and RaJah Mena, Wendy Pemberton

    2011-06-23

    DOE/NNSA NA-40 was requested to provide support with consequence management activities following the incident at the Fukushima Dai’ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The response involved the deployment of several DOE/NNSA NA-40 assets to provide specialized capabilities analysts, scientists, doctors, nurses, specialized equipment and systems to characterize the deposition for the protection of the public and the environment. General response activities revolved around the concepts of: predictive modeling; monitoring and data collection from the air and on the ground; assessing the collected data and other relevant information; interpreting the data; and coordinating the communication of the interpreted data to the appropriate stakeholders.

  15. Defining responsibility for screening.

    PubMed

    Sifri, R; Wender, R

    1999-10-01

    Patients commonly receive medical care from multiple providers and confusion as to who is responsible for cancer screening undoubtedly contributes to inadequate recommendations. Effective screening requires successful implementation of a series of steps that begin with the initial discussion of a screening test and proceed through obtaining results and instituting appropriate follow-up. Clear definition of generalist and specialist physician roles are necessary to optimally screen the public. This article explores the differences in how generalists and specialists approach screening, describes models of care that facilitate shared responsibility for screening, and suggests strategies on how to improve communication between physicians to maximize screening performance. PMID:10452930

  16. [Dental records and responsibility].

    PubMed

    Brands, W G

    2006-03-01

    Dental records are more than a small part of the bookkeeping. In most dental practises, keeping records is the task of a dental assistant. In civil court, the dentist is in most countries liable for the mistakes of his employees. In disciplinary court however there may be doubt whether the dentist is responsible for the mistakes of his assistant. Contrary to their American colleagues, Dutch dental assistants and dental hygienists cannot be summoned before a disciplinary court. As these para-medics perform more and more dental treatment, independently or after delegation, they should be assigned there own disciplinary responsibility. PMID:16566401

  17. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, Noel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". The author finds it very interesting to read James Hartley's reflections on the teaching of psychology and he thought it would be worth adding a rather different perspective, while agreeing with Hartley's main conclusions about the…

  18. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Thomas C.; Heft, James L.; Nuzzi, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents responses from Thomas C. Hunt, James L. Heft, S.M., and Ronald J. Nuzzi to the report of the Notre Dame Task Force on Catholic Education's (2006), "Making God Known, Loved and Served: The Future of Catholic Primary and Secondary Schools in the United States." Hunt analyzes the 12 recommendations offered by Notre Dame on…

  19. Teaching Responsibility through Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Toni A.

    2008-01-01

    As Literacy Outreach Coordinator for Opportunity to Read (OTR), the Watsonville (CA) Public Library literacy program, this author has recognized the concept of responsibility through example. Adult learners incorporate concepts easily when these concepts are specifically demonstrated for them by someone similar to them. Sounds simple, but putting…

  20. Vestibulo-Sympathetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bill J; Bolton, Philip S.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence accumulated over 30 years, from experiments on animals and human subjects, has conclusively demonstrated that inputs from the vestibular otolith organs contribute to the control of blood pressure during movement and changes in posture. This review considers the effects of gravity on the body axis, and the consequences of postural changes on blood distribution in the body. It then separately considers findings collected in experiments on animals and human subjects demonstrating that the vestibular system regulates blood distribution in the body during movement. Vestibulosympathetic reflexes differ from responses triggered by unloading of cardiovascular receptors such as baroreceptors and cardiopulmonary receptors, as they can be elicited before a change in blood distribution occurs in the body. Dissimilarities in the expression of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans and animals are also described. In particular, there is evidence from experiments in animals, but not humans, that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned, and differ between body regions. Results from neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies in animals are discussed that identify the neurons that mediate vestibulosympathetic responses, which include cells in the caudal aspect of the vestibular nucleus complex, interneurons in the lateral medullary reticular formation, and bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Recent findings showing that cognition can modify the gain of vestibulosympathetic responses are also presented, and neural pathways that could mediate adaptive plasticity in the responses are proposed, including connections of the posterior cerebellar vermis with the vestibular nuclei and brainstem nuclei that regulate blood pressure. PMID:24715571

  1. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  2. Responsible Internet Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Carol; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice for making school Internet-use guidelines. Outlines responsible proactive use of the Internet for educators and librarians, discusses strengths and weaknesses of Internet blocking software and rating systems, and describes acceptable-use policies (AUP). Lists resources for creating your own AUP, Internet filtering software, and…

  3. Response to Intervention Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of No Child Left Behind (2002) and the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) made it necessary for educators to examine achievement trends within their schools and implement a Response to Intervention (RTI) program. This study examines the achievement trends in one school district since its…

  4. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Richard J.; Tulchinsky, Nan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents responses from Richard J. McGrath, O.S.A., and Nan Tulchinsky to an article by John James entitled "How Much Does a Private School Student Count? A Critical Analysis of the Athletic Multiplier." McGrath shares that their principal heads the group of Catholic school leaders who fought the multiplier in Illinois by suing the…

  5. Toward Aesthetic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFurio, Anthony G.

    1979-01-01

    The view of aesthetic responding presented herein has grown out of a theory of contextual aesthetics as explicated by John Dewey and Stephen Pepper and a phenomenological inquiry into art by John Anderson. The method for entry into the responsive domain has evolved from a direction elaborated by Kenneth Beittel. (Author)

  6. Responses to the Rankings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Change, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Ten higher education professionals and one college senior comment on the "U.S. News and World Report" rankings of doctoral programs in six liberal arts disciplines. The authors' response to one set of comments and the comments of an executive editor from the magazine are also included. (MSE)

  7. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    ;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

  8. Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…

  9. Coombs' Type Response Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Roger A.

    This paper provides substantial evidence in favor of the continued use of conventional objective testing procedures in lieu of either the Coombs' cross-out technique or the Dressel and Schmid free-choice response procedure. From the studies presented in this paper, the tendency is for the cross-out and the free choice methods to yield a decrement…

  10. Response to Craig.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ben C.; Miller, Susan

    1994-01-01

    This response to Ashley Craig's critique (EC 608 043) of the authors' research (which found no significant differences on measures of anxiety and depression between stutterers and nonstutterers) refutes Craig's claim that results were confounded by subjects' previous treatment, self-diagnosis, and low number. (DB)

  11. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civille, John; Beckman, Mary; Green, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    This article offers responses from various authors to the article "Incarnational immersion-based learning in cultural contexts: A charity model," by Dr. John Trokan (2005.) Mount St. Joseph's program on incarnational immersion-based learning, as described in the article by Dr. John Trokan, will have the participating students' eyes opened to the…

  12. Airline accident response.

    PubMed

    Bettes, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines government regulations affecting accident response and offers guidelines for airline contingency plans in the face of major air disasters, such as those encountered on September 11, 2001. The author also touches upon the role of the corporate medical department in accident investigation and victim identification. PMID:11872433

  13. Comments in Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelson, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Responds to the articles in the issue's Academic Freedom and Responsibility Symposium by Robert M. O'Neil, J. Peter Byrne, and Richard T. De George, including critiques of the author's proposed "Academic Freedom Policy and Procedures." Concludes that academic freedom can only thrive when it is subject to rigorous analysis by many scholars. (EV)

  14. Response to Mackenzie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  15. Environmentally responsive graphene systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-06-12

    Graphene materials have been attracting significant research interest in the past few years, with the recent focuses on graphene-based electronic devices and smart stimulus-responsive systems that have a certain degree of automatism. Owing to its huge specific surface area, large room-temperature electron mobility, excellent mechanical flexibility, exceptionally high thermal conductivity and environmental stability, graphene is identified as a beneficial additive or an effective responding component by itself to improve the conductivity, flexibility, mechanical strength and/or the overall responsive performance of smart systems. In this review article, we aim to present the recent advances in graphene systems that are of spontaneous responses to external stimulations, such as environmental variation in pH, temperature, electric current, light, moisture and even gas ambient. These smart stimulus-responsive graphene systems are believed to have great theoretical and practical interests to a wide range of device applications including actuators, switches, robots, sensors, drug/gene deliveries, etc. PMID:24376152

  16. Response to Professor Mulcahy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellow, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to D.G. Mulcahy's "Energizing Liberal Education" which compellingly contends that the long-term viability of liberal education depends upon both methodological and curricular diversification aimed at the "many sided development" of the student. Professor Mulcahy thoughtfully espouses both the cultivation…

  17. Consecutive combined response spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Longjun; Zhao, Guochen; Liu, Qingyang; Xie, Yujian; Xie, Lili

    2014-12-01

    Appropriate estimates of earthquake response spectrum are essential for design of new structures, or seismic safety evaluation of existing structures. This paper presents an alternative procedure to construct design spectrum from a combined normalized response spectrum (NRSC) which is obtained from pseudo-velocity spectrum with the ordinate scaled by different peak ground amplitudes (PGA, PGV, PGD) in different period regions. And a consecutive function f( T) used to normalize the ordinates is defined. Based on a comprehensive study of 220 strong ground motions recorded during recent eleven large worldwide earthquakes, the features of the NRSC are discussed and compared with the traditional normalized acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra (NRSA, NRSV, NRSD). And the relationships between ground amplitudes are evaluated by using a weighted mean method instead of the arithmetic mean. Then the NRSC is used to define the design spectrum with given peak ground amplitudes. At last, the smooth spectrum is compared with those derived by the former approaches, and the accuracy of the proposed spectrum is tested through an analysis of the dispersion of ground motion response spectra.

  18. Responsibility and School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Mintrom, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The concept of responsibility is highly relevant to the organization of public schooling. Through public schools, adult citizens allow for the formal nurture and training of children to become full citizens, able to participate in our shared social, economic, and political life. With growing awareness of the importance of effective schooling to…

  19. Relatives' Responsibility; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and a policy statement on responsibility laws pertaining to relatives of applicants for public assistance. The laws are said to date to the Elizabethan Poor Laws, to vary state to state, and to mandate eligibility for public assistance on requirements of residence,…

  20. Response to Arend Flick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RiCharde, R. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Arend Flick. The author states that Flick is correct that the issue of rubrics is broader than interrater reliability, though it is the assessment practitioner's primary armament against what the author has heard dubbed "refried bean counting" (insinuating that assessment statistics are not just bean…

  1. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  2. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  3. A Response from Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim; Hill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The suggested role for assessment in developing "Roadmaps for Learning" has potentially important implications for the learning of second or foreign languages in school, a major concern of applied linguistics. In this response, the authors consider how the findings of a detailed ethnographic study of classroom-based assessment in two foreign…

  4. Comment and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College English, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Critics comment on three earlier "College English" articles: Mike Rose's "The Language of Exclusion: Writing Instruction at the University," Elizabeth A. Nist's "Tattle's Well's Faire: English Women Authors of the Sixteenth Century," and Patrick Hartwell's "Grammar, Grammars, and the Teaching of Grammar." Contains responses from Mike Rose and…

  5. Response to Trachtman's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardon, Jack I.

    1985-01-01

    This response to Trachtman's article (TM 510 399) argues that the Trachtman paper is inappropriate due to the time elapsed since the original Bardon proposal. The author acknowledges the difference in perspective between Trachtman and himself. He expresses the hope that discussion concerning this aspect of school psychology politics may be ended.…

  6. Surface Water Response Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    During response to spills, or for facility planning, the vulnerability of downstream water resources is a major concern. How long and at what concentration do spilled contaminants reach downstream receptors? Models have the potential to answer these questions, but only if they ...

  7. Rotating Responsibility Reaps Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara; Schullery, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a process used for group assignments in a business communication course which holds all group members accountable by using a structure of rotating responsibility. Discusses selecting assignments and implementing the process, noting how this structure requires equivalent advance preparation from all members and provides opportunities for…

  8. Evaluator Responsiveness to Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted in an attempt to examine how evaluators modify their evaluation design in response to differing stakeholder groups. In this study, evaluators were provided with a fictitious description of a school-based program. They were then asked to design an evaluation of the program. After the evaluation design decisions were…

  9. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance. PMID:20583648

  10. Environmental Quality & Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khare, R. S.; And Others

    Edited transcripts of presentations made at a conference sponsored by the University of Wisconsin--Green Bay are arranged in five sections: (1) "Mass Production, Mass Consumption, Mass Waste;" (2) "Man Versus Nature;" (3) "The Urban Social Environment: Problems of Affluence, Membership, and Security;" (4) "Institutional Response to Technological…

  11. EMERGENCY RESPONSE SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergency response program provides trained personnel and mobile and fixed laboratory resources to address radiological incidents or events that result in potential or actual radiation exposure of the public or environment. The primary product of the program is high quality,...

  12. Reasoning, Resilience, & Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Jeanine C.; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2006-01-01

    The Other 3Rs Project began with an investigation into the most important psychological components of academic success. The research pointed to reasoning, resilience, and responsibility. The objective of the project was to integrate these components into a useful problem solving model that could, with practice and guidance, be applied both inside…

  13. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, J.; Testori, A.

    1999-10-12

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  14. Improving Student Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Sara; Hughs, Leah; Wilder, Ronda

    This action research project implemented and evaluated an intervention for increasing student academic and social responsibility. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten, 1st, and 5th grade students in a growing middle-class community in central Illinois. The problems of irresponsible academic and social behavior were documented through…

  15. [Aesthetic Response to Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Helen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The "Bulletin of the Caucus on Social Theory and Art Education" is an annual publication, with each issue devoted to a unified theme. The theme of this issue is aesthetic response. The following papers focus on the audience and the persons responding to art: "Attitudes of Three Urban Appalachian Teenagers Toward Selected Early Modern American…

  16. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  17. Responsibility and Responsiveness. The HEW Potential for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elliot L.

    The Secretary of HEW presents an overview of departmental undertakings for the purpose of developing more responsible and responsive personnel. The major portion of the statement focuses on internal processes of responsibility and external processes of responsiveness. Departmental strategies, a planning cycle, an operational planning system,…

  18. Immune Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Saleem; Surendran, Naveen; Pichichero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have little immunological memory and a developing immune system, which increases their vulnerability to infectious agents. Recent advances in understanding of neonatal immunity indicate that both innate and adaptive responses are dependent on precursor frequency of lymphocytes, antigenic dose and mode of exposure. Studies in neonatal mouse models and human umbilical cord blood cells demonstrate the capability of neonatal immune cells to produce immune responses similar to adults in some aspects but not others. This review focuses mainly on the developmental and functional mechanisms of the human neonatal immune system. In particular, the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunity and the role of neutrophils, antigen presenting cells, differences in subclasses of T lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Tregs) and B cells are discussed. In addition, we have included the recent developments in neonatal mouse immune system. Understanding neonatal immunity is essential to development of therapeutic vaccines to combat newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:25088080

  19. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  20. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  1. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Stefano; Drago, Antonio; Fabbri, Chiara; Gibiino, Sara; Calati, Raffaella; Serretti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Personalized medicine — the adaptation of therapies based on an individual’s genetic and molecular profile — is one of the most promising aspects of modern medicine. The identification of the relation between genotype and drug response, including both the therapeutic effect and side effect profile, is expected to deeply affect medical practice. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the genes related to antidepressant treatment response and provide methodologic proposals for future studies. We have mainly focused on genes associated with pharmacodynamics, for which a list of promising genes has been identified despite some inconsistency across studies. We have also synthesized the main results for pharmacokinetic genes, although so far they seem less relevant than those for pharmacodynamic genes. We discuss possible reasons for these inconsistent findings and propose new study designs. PMID:21172166

  2. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  3. Structural response synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  4. Stress Responses of Shewanella

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2011-01-01

    The shewanellae are ubiquitous in aquatic and sedimentary systems that are chemically stratified on a permanent or seasonal basis. In addition to their ability to utilize a diverse array of terminal electron acceptors, the microorganisms have evolved both common and unique responding mechanisms to cope with various stresses. This paper focuses on the response and adaptive mechanism of the shewanellae, largely based on transcriptional data. PMID:21912550

  5. Response time of internauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Anders

    2001-07-01

    A new experiment measuring the dynamical response of the Internet population to a “point-like” perturbation has been performed. The nature of the perturbation was that of an announcement, specifically a web-interview on stock market crashes, which contained the URL to the author's articles on the subject. It was established that the download rate obeys the relation ≈1/ t in qualitative agreement with previously reported results.

  6. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  7. [About <responsibility> of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of <responsibility> that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy. PMID:23130746

  8. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible. PMID:27473408

  9. Gravity receptors and responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Allan H.

    1989-01-01

    The overall process of gravity sensing and response processes in plants may be divided conveniently into at least four components or stages: Stimulus susception (a physical event, characteristically the input to the G receptor system of environmental information about the G force magnitude, its vector direction, or both); information perception (an influence of susception on some biological structure or process that can be described as the transformation of environmental information into a biologicallly meaningful change); information transport (the export, if required, of an influence (often chemical) to cells and organs other than those at the sensor location); and biological response (almost always (in plants) a growth change of some kind). Some analysts of the process identify, between information perception and information transport, an additional stage, transduction, which would emphasize the importance of a transformation from one form of information to another, for example from mechanical statolith displacement to an electric, chemical, or other alteration that was its indirect result. These four (or five) stages are temporally sequential. Even if all that occurs at each stage can not be confidently identified, it seems evident that during transduction and transport, matters dealt with are found relatively late in the information flow rather than at the perception stage. As more and more is learned about the roles played by plant hormones which condition the G responses, the mechanism(s) of perception which should be are not necessarily better understood. However, if by asking the right questions and being lucky with experiments perhaps the discovery of how some process (such as sedimentation of protoplasmic organelles) dictates what happens down stream in the information flow sequence may be made.

  10. [Nurse/midwife responsibility].

    PubMed

    Lagneaux, M-C

    2008-11-01

    Blood transfusion is a medical act which a nurse or midwife can do with a medical consent and only if a doctor can intercede when he is called. The following presentation reminds us of the nurse's and midwife's responsability when doing a blood transfusion. All the guidelines are laid down in the Public Health Code for nurses and midwifes as well as in the circular of the 15 December 2003. The nurse or midwife doing the transfusion must at all times respect the security guidelines, doing so along with close collaboration between nurse, midwife and doctor enables all transfusions to be conducted safely. PMID:18951056

  11. Revolutionising the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Warner, Ann; Fisher, William F

    2011-01-01

    Individual behaviour change interventions and technological approaches to HIV prevention can only be effective over time if the broader social environment in which health-related decisions are made facilitate their uptake. People need to be not only willing but also able to take up and maintain preventive behaviours, seek testing, treatment and care for HIV. This paper presents findings and recommendations of the Social Drivers Working Group of the aids2031 initiative, which focus on how to ensure that efforts to address the root causes of HIV vulnerability are integrated into AIDS responses at the national level. Specific guidance is given on how to operationalise a structural approach. PMID:21970296

  12. DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damage can occur at any time on any genomic location, a specialized spatio-temporal orchestration of this defense apparatus is required. PMID:20980439

  13. A guide to hazmat response.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Dave

    2007-04-01

    The Emergency Response Guidebook provides responders with important first response information. It is intended to assist in managing the first 15-30 minutes of an emergency response and should not be used as the definitive response resource. It does, however, provide information that can be used to identify protective clothing and response procedures that can save lives and initiate successful control of the incident. Using the known product information, responders can use the ERG to determine response procedures for emergencies involving chemicals in a fixed facility. Responders should review and practice using the guidebook on a regular basis. PMID:17461387

  14. Skeletal responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of gravity in the determination of bone structure is elucidated by observations in adult humans and juvenile animals during spaceflight. The primary response of bone tissue to microgravity is at the interface of the mineral and matrix in the process of biomineralization. This response is manifested by demineralization or retarded growth in some regions of the skeleton and hypermineralization in others. The most pronounced effects are seen in the heelbone and skull, the most distally located bones relative to the heart. Ground based flight simulation models that focus on changes in bone structure at the molecular, organ, and whole body levels are described and compared to flight results. On Earth, the morphologic and compositional changes in the unloaded bones are very similar to changes during flight; however, the ground based changes appear to be more transient. In addition, a redistribution of bone mineral in gravity-dependent bones occurs both in space and during head down positioning on Earth. Longitudinal data provided considerable information on the influence of endocrine and muscular changes on bone structure after unloading.

  15. [Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response].

    PubMed

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Velázquez-Monroy, Oscar; Alvarez-Lucas, Carlos; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia,Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO) has asked member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs. PMID:16555537

  16. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand. PMID:27571696

  17. Automated security response robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Dominic A.; Everett, Hobart R.; Gilbreath, Gary A.; Tran, Tien T.

    1999-01-01

    ROBART III is intended as an advance demonstration platform for non-lethal response measures, extending the concepts of reflexive teleoperation into the realm of coordinated weapons control in law enforcement and urban warfare scenarios. A rich mix of ultrasonic and optical proximity and range sensors facilitates remote operation in unstructured and unexplored buildings with minimal operator supervision. Autonomous navigation and mapping of interior spaces is significantly enhanced by an innovative algorithm which exploits the fact that the majority of man-made structures are characterized by parallel and orthogonal walls. Extremely robust intruder detection and assessment capabilities are achieved through intelligent fusion of a multitude of inputs form various onboard motion sensors. Intruder detection is addressed by a 360-degree staring array of passive-IR motion detectors, augmented by a number of positionable head-mounted sensors. Automatic camera tracking of a moving target is accomplished using a video line digitizer. Non-lethal response systems include a six- barrelled pneumatically-powered Gatling gun, high-powered strobe lights, and three ear-piercing 103-decibel sirens.

  18. Human responses to cold.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    The thermoneutral ambient temperature for naked and resting humans is ca. 27 degrees C. Exposure to cold stimulates cold receptors of the skin which causes cold thermal sensations and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction in skin, arms and legs. Diminished skin and extremity blood flow increases the thermal insulation of superficial tissues more than 300% corresponding to 0.9 clo (0.13 degrees C x m(-2) x W(-1)). With thermoregulatory vasoconstriction/ vasodilatation the body heat balance can be maintained within a range of ca. 4 degrees C, the middle of the range being at ca. 21 degrees C when light clothing is used. Below the thermoneutral zone metabolic heat production (shivering) is stimulated and above the zone starts heat loss by evaporation (sweating). Cold induced vasoconstriction increases blood pressure and viscosity and decreases plasma volume consequently increasing cardiac work. Cold induced hypertensive response can be counteracted by light exercise, while starting heavy work in cold markedly increases blood pressure. Under very cold conditions the sympathetic stimulation opens the anastomoses between arterioles and venules which increases skin temperatures markedly but temporarily, especially in finger tips. Adaptation to cold takes ca. 2 weeks, whereafter the physiological responses to cold are attenuated and cold exposure is subjectively considered less stressful. PMID:17929604

  19. Human sexual response.

    PubMed

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. PMID:26003236

  20. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  1. A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

  2. The surgically induced stress response.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A; Herndon, David N

    2013-09-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes that induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Burn injuries provide an extreme model of trauma induced stress responses that can be used to study the long-term effects of a prolonged stress response. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to confer improved chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  3. NASA Parts Program Office responsibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilroy, Patrick L.

    1994-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: NASA Parts Program Office responsibilities; NASA Parts Project Office responsibilities; development priorities; and candidate functions for EPIMS baseline.

  4. [Pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses].

    PubMed

    Onodera, S

    1992-12-01

    Alterations in the physiological balance to maintain the pulmonary circulation at a normal low pressure level result in an elevation in pulmonary vascular tone. Pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses were analyzed under some experimental conditions, which included microembolism, administration of vasoactive agents, hypoxia, and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. It is widely accepted that these responses are highly localized and complex. In the present study, excised canine lung lobes, rat lungs, and pulmonary arterial rings from the rat were employed according to the particular experimental design. The mechanism of the initial rapid elevation followed by a gradual decline in perfusion pressure in microembolism was considered to be related not only to the size of the emboli, but to the degree of mechanical injury of the endothelium. The main sites of constriction of the pulmonary vasculature by several drugs were determined in the pulsatile perfused canine lung lobes, according to the degree of decrease in inflow wave amplitude during antegrade or retrograde perfusion. Further, by applying the same method it was confirmed that the site of hypoxic vasoconstriction is located in the peripheral pulmonary vascular bed between the muscular arteries and veins, which are constricted mainly by serotonin and histamine, respectively. A cross perfusion system was set up, employing two lobes from the same dog, in which normoxic blood was perfused into the hypoxic ventilated lobe and vice versa. As a result, the pulmonary vessels showed a response to ventilation hypoxia that was far more sensitive than that to perfusion hypoxia. The effects of a beta-agonist (isoproterenol) and beta-antagonists (propranolol, pindolol) on hypoxic vasoconstriction were observed. Although pindolol (a vasodilatory beta-blocker) abolished hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, which was similar to the effect of isoproterenol, the mechanism of action of pindolol was suggested to be different

  5. Responses to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  6. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  7. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  8. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  9. General stress response signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yi-Xin; Rosenthal, Adam Z.; Gralla, Jay D.

    2008-01-01

    E. coli responds to stress by a combination of specific and general transcription signaling pathways. The general pathways typically require the master stress regulator sigma38 (rpoS). Here we show that the signaling from multiple stresses that relax DNA is processed by a non-conserved 8 amino acid tail of the sigma 38 C-terminal domain (CTD). By contrast, responses to stresses that accumulate potassium glutamate do not rely on this short tail, but still require the overall CTD. In vitro transcription and footprinting studies suggest that multiple stresses can target a poised RNA polymerase and activate it by unwrapping DNA from a nucleosome-like state, allowing the RNA polymerase to escape into productive mode. This transition can be accomplished by either the DNA relaxation or potassium glutamate accumulation that characterizes many stresses. PMID:18761624

  10. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts. PMID:25708001

  11. Data Rights and Responsibilities

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    A human-rights-based analysis can be a useful tool for the scientific community and policy makers as they develop codes of conduct, harmonized standards, and national policies for data sharing. The human rights framework provides a shared set of values and norms across borders, defines rights and responsibilities of various actors involved in data sharing, addresses the potential harms as well as the benefits of data sharing, and offers a framework for balancing competing values. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications offers a particularly helpful lens through which to view data as both a tool of scientific inquiry to which access is vital and as a product of science from which everyone should benefit. PMID:26297755

  12. TEPC Response Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    The tissue equivalent proportional counter had the purpose of providing the energy absorbed from a radiation field and an estimate of the corresponding linear energy transfer (LET) for evaluation of radiation quality to convert to dose equivalent. It was the recognition of the limitations in estimating LET which lead to a new approach to dosimetry, microdosimetry, and the corresponding emphasis on energy deposit in a small tissue volume as the driver of biological response with the defined quantity of lineal energy. In many circumstances, the average of the lineal energy and LET are closely related and has provided a basis for estimating dose equivalent. Still in many cases the lineal is poorly related to LET and brings into question the usefulness as a general purpose device. These relationships are examined in this paper.

  13. Temperature responsive transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature responsive transmitter is provided in which frequency varies linearly with temperature. The transmitter includes two identically biased transistors connected in parallel. A capacitor, which reflects into the common bases to generate negative resistance effectively in parallel with the capacitor, is connected to the common emitters. A crystal is effectively in parallel with the capacitor and the negative resistance. Oscillations occur if the magnitude of the absolute value of the negative resistance is less than the positive resistive impedance of the capacitor and the inductance of the crystal. The crystal has a large linear temperature coefficient and a resonant frequency which is substantially less than the gain-bandwidth product of the transistors to ensure that the crystal primarily determines the frequency of oscillation. A high-Q tank circuit having an inductor and a capacitor is connected to the common collectors to increase the collector current flow which in turn enhances the radiation of the oscillator frequency by the inductor.

  14. Randomized Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

  15. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  16. Randomized Response Analysis in Mplus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hox, Joop; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a technique to analyze randomized response data using available structural equation modeling (SEM) software. The randomized response technique was developed to obtain estimates that are more valid when studying sensitive topics. The basic feature of all randomized response methods is that the data are deliberately…

  17. Teaching about Heterogeneous Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals vary in their responses to incentives and opportunities. For example, additional education will affect one person differently than another. In recent years, econometricians have given increased attention to such heterogeneous responses and to the consequences of such responses for interpreting regression estimates, especially…

  18. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  19. The effects of response cost and response restriction on a multiple-response repertoire with humans

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, John

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments a multiple-response repertoire of four free-operant responses was developed with university students as subjects using monetary gain as reinforcement. Following baseline, one of the responses was reduced either by making monetary loss contingent upon it (response cost) or by removing it from the repertoire (response restriction). In Experiment 1 a multielement baseline design was employed in which baseline and restriction or response-cost contingencies alternated semirandomly every 3 minutes. In Experiment 2 a reversal design was employed (i.e., baseline, restriction or response cost, then baseline), and each response required a different amount of effort. Both experiments had the following results: (a) The target response decreased substantially; (b) most nontarget responses increased, and the rest remained near their baseline levels; and (c) no support was found for Dunham's hierarchical, most frequent follower, or greatest temporal similarity rules. For several subjects, the least probable responses during baseline increased most, and the most probable responses increased least. Furthermore, in Experiment 2, responses with the lowest frequency of reinforcement increased most (for all 7 subjects), and those with the greatest frequency of reinforcement increased least (for 5 subjects). PMID:16812683

  20. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  1. Responsible opioid use.

    PubMed

    Compton, Peggy; Weaver, Michael F

    2015-06-01

    Editor's Note The journal is delighted to introduce a new feature in this issue that focuses on the complex and multifaceted issue of managing pain and related symptoms while responsibly attending to minimizing substance abuse. How should the seemingly disparate disciplines of drug abuse and symptom control interact? Should these be two separate fields or should practitioners/investigators in one also be qualified in the other? Is that even feasible? We are honored to have two leading, academically based clinician scientists coordinating this new feature. Peggy Compton is Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs at the School of Nursing & Health Studies, Georgetown University in Washington, DC. Many readers know of Peggy's work from her years on the faculty of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Peggy brings both clinical and scientific addictionology expertise as well as the invaluable perspective of nursing to this arena. Her collaborator is Michael F. Weaver. Mike is Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, and Medical Director of the Center for Neurobehavioral Research on Addictions, at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston. Prior to moving to Texas, Dr. Weaver became internationally known for his work in addiction medicine at the Medical College of Virginia. We look forward to detailed explorations of many interacting issues in symptom control and substance abuse in the articles featured in this new journal feature in coming issues. The commentary below, the article by Kanouse and Compton, the Issue Brief issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and my editorial, all of which appear in this journal issue, introduce the new feature, which I am confident will make valuable contributions to the pain management and substance abuse literature. Arthur G. Lipman, Editor ABSTRACT Abusers of prescription opioids represent two distinct populations: those who develop addiction via opioids prescribed

  2. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R. R.; Ray, S. L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  4. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248

  5. Temporal Scattering And Response

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  6. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  7. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  8. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software - Detector Response Function

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-05-13

    GADRAS-DRF uses a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the response of gamma-ray detectors incident radiation. The application includes provision for plotting measured and computed spectra and for characterizing detector response parameters based on measurements of a series of calibration sources (e.g., Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, and Th-228). An application program interface enables other programs to access the dynamic-link library that is used to compute spectra.

  9. Training for emergency response with RimSim:Response!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce D.; Schroder, Konrad A.

    2009-05-01

    Since developing and promoting a Pacific Rim community emergency response simulation software platform called RimSim, the PARVAC team at the University of Washington has developed a variety of first responder agents who can participate within a response simulation. Agents implement response heuristics and communications strategies in conjunction with live players trying to develop their own heuristics and communications strategies to participate in a successful community response crisis. The effort is facilitated by shared visualization of the affected geographical extent. We present initial findings from interacting with a wide variety of mixed agent simulation sessions and make the software available for others to perform their own experiments.e

  10. Bacterial tactic responses.

    PubMed

    Armitage, J P

    1999-01-01

    histidine protein kinase, CheA, via a linker protein, CheW. A reduction in an attractant generally leads to the increased autophosphorylation of CheA. CheA passes its phosphate to a small, single domain response regulator, CheY. CheY-P can interact with the flagellar motor to cause it to change rotational direction or stop. Signal termination either via a protein, CheZ, which increases the dephosphorylation rate of CheY-P or via a second CheY which acts as a phosphate sink, allows the cell to swim off again, usually in a new direction. In addition to signal termination the receptor must be reset, and this occurs via methylation of the receptor to return it to a non-signalling conformation. The way in which bacteria use these systems to move to optimum environments and the interaction of the different sensory pathways to produce species-specific behavioural response will be the subject of this review. PMID:10500847

  11. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  12. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  13. The Surgically Induced Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes which induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to improve chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  14. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  15. Who is responsible for what?

    PubMed

    Rouzioux, J M

    1990-01-01

    During the phase I trials, from the juridical point of view, the responsibilities are shared between the pharmaceutical company and the physician who manages the trial. The pharmaceutical company is responsible for the product, the choice of methodology and respect for the regulations. On the financial side, the company is liable for paying any damages. While the trial is being conducted, the physician is responsible both for the choice of the healthy volunteers and for their care. PMID:2093630

  16. [Unsatisfactory response: definition and involvement].

    PubMed

    Haffen, E; Poulet, E

    2016-02-01

    In the treatment of unipolar depression, treatment response is a key issue in terms of evolution and prognosis. Within this concept, the inadequate response includes the worsening, the lack of response, partial response and poor tolerance. This lack of response may be related to intrinsic factors to the individual, but also to more extrinsic environmental factors. In this review, we explore this concept through its links with adherence and treatment duration. In this field, the concept of early response can be a powerful indicator of therapeutic response, which conditions the prescription of antidepressants beyond the strict framework of the sufficient period of 4 to 6 weeks. In addition to its impact on prognosis, the literature data show that the insufficient response is a significant burden in terms of medical and economic cost, and somatic comorbidity; and justifies a systematic identification of this dimension. Therefore self-reports (QIDS; BDI) will be preferred to the clinician-rated depression symptom rating scales (MADRS, HAMD) that require a specific training. Identifying predictors of non-response would be an attractive target for prescribers but the results to date are not operative. PMID:26879255

  17. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  18. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  19. Psychophysiological responses to Salsa dance.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Saavedra, Francisco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Speculation exists whether dance provides physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits. Unfortunately, research to date has not addressed the affective and exertional responses to dance. These responses are of interest as positive affective and exertional responses experienced during physical activity may play an important role in predicting adherence. The present study aims to examine the psychophysiological responses of different Salsa dance styles. Ten pairs of dancers performed two different structured lessons of Salsa dance, including Typical Salsa and Rueda de Casino lessons, and a non-structured Salsa dance at a night club. Physiological responses (i.e., percent of heart rate reserve; %HRR) were continuously assessed and perceived exertion and affective valence were rated every 15 min throughout the trials. %HRR responses differed between the Salsa dance styles (%HRR from 41.3 to 51.9%), and participants were dancing at intensities near their ventilatory threshold. Specifically, Typical Salsa lesson elicited lower %HRR responses than Rueda de Casino lesson (p < 0.05), but similar %HRR responses to Salsa dance at a night club condition (p > 0.05). Surprisingly, exertional (from 8 to 11) and affective (from +3 to +5) responses were unaffected by Salsa dance styles (p > 0.05). These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits. PMID:25860568

  20. The Value of Response Times in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    A new and very interesting approach to the analysis of responses and response times is proposed by Goldhammer (this issue). In his approach, differences in the speed-ability compromise within respondents are considered to confound the differences in ability between respondents. These confounding effects of speed on the inferences about ability can…

  1. Motivation of chemical industry social responsibility through Responsible Care.

    PubMed

    Givel, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Advocates of corporate social responsibility argue corporations should not only meet the needs of shareholders, but other key stakeholders including the community, customers, suppliers, and employees. Since 1988, the chemical industry has engaged in a major self-regulatory "Responsible Care" industry-wide social responsibility campaign to ensure environmental, public health, safety, and security performance among member companies. Contrary to the arguments of advocates of corporate social responsibility that such efforts meet the needs of stakeholders other than shareholders such as the community, the primary goal of the Responsible Care effort has been to change public concerns and opinion about chemical industry environmental and public health practices while also opposing support for stronger and more expensive public health and environmental legislation and regulation of chemical products, even if warranted. PMID:16797774

  2. Middle Interhemispheric Variant of Holoprosencephaly – Presenting as Non-Visualized Cavum Septum Pellucidum and An Interhemispheric Cyst in A 19-Weeks Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Akhila; Nayak, Shalini S; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Girisha, Katta M

    2015-01-01

    Middle Interhemispheric variant (MIH) is a rare subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE), also known as syntelencephaly. We present a case of MIH, which was diagnosed as an interhemispheric cyst on antenatal sonography at 19 weeks, but later diagnosed as MIH variant of holoprosencephaly after a postabortal MRI and perinatal autopsy. PMID:26500966

  3. The Effect of Hand Position on Detection Distance for Object and Surface Preview When Using the Long Cane for Nonvisual Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrow, Steven J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of hand position when the long cane is used to assist travel for individuals with severe visual impairments. Subjects were 15 mobility instructors. The study found that the style with which one holds the cane when using the touch technique does affect detection distance for both surface and object preview. (DB)

  4. Middle Interhemispheric Variant of Holoprosencephaly - Presenting as Non-Visualized Cavum Septum Pellucidum and An Interhemispheric Cyst in A 19-Weeks Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Akhila; Nayak, Shalini S; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Girisha, Katta M; Shetty, Jyothi

    2015-09-01

    Middle Interhemispheric variant (MIH) is a rare subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE), also known as syntelencephaly. We present a case of MIH, which was diagnosed as an interhemispheric cyst on antenatal sonography at 19 weeks, but later diagnosed as MIH variant of holoprosencephaly after a postabortal MRI and perinatal autopsy. PMID:26500966

  5. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  6. Response to Intervention: What & Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is the practice of providing high quality-instruction and intervention matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying student response data to important education decisions. In essence, RTI expands the practice of looking at students' risk…

  7. Timesheet fraud: A nurse's responsibility.

    PubMed

    McCausland, Dermid

    2006-04-01

    A nurse is more important than ever in today's NHS. They not only have more responsibility when it comes to the treatment of patients but a greater say in the administration of wards and departments. With this responsibility comes a duty to protect the NHS from those who try to abuse it. PMID:16669363

  8. Text Rendering: Beginning Literary Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Sandra L.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that "text rendering"--responding to oral readings by saying back remembered words or phrases--forces students to prolong their initial responses to texts and opens initial response to the influence of other readers. Argues that silence following oral readings allows words to sink into students' minds, creating individual images and…

  9. Rorschach Responses of Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ann L.; Miles, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rorschach responses of 15 dyslexia children (eight-16 years old) were compared with those of 12 suitably matched controls. Dyslexic Ss made considerable use of card shape, but much less use of other determinants (color, texture, etc.). Unlike controls they seldom turned the cards around and the overall number of responses per person was…

  10. Brief Note: Response to Benatar.

    PubMed

    Kelland, Lindsay-Ann

    2015-11-01

    In his response to my article entitled 'The Harm of Male-on-Female Rape: A Response to David Benatar', Benatar argues that I take his claims out of context, misrepresent them, and set up a straw man, which means, he claims, that I fail to respond to anything he has actually said. In this brief note, I respond to these allegations. PMID:25592400

  11. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  12. Thermal Response Of Composite Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel B.; Smith, Marnell; Kolodziej, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Engineering model gives useful predictions. Pair of reports presents theoretical and experimental analyses of thermal responses of multiple-component, lightweight, porous, ceramic insulators. Particular materials examined destined for use in Space Shuttle thermal protection system, test methods and heat-transfer theory useful to chemical, metallurgical, and ceramic engineers needing to calculate transient thermal responses of refractory composites.

  13. Bringing Professional Responsibility Back in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Research on how higher education institutions work with professional formation indicates that insufficient attention is currently paid to issues of professional responsibility and ethics. In the light of such findings, there is increasing concern about issues related to learning professional responsibility. This article concentrates on different…

  14. Financial Responsibilities of Governing Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, William S.

    2001-01-01

    This completely redone edition is meant to be a primer on the financial responsibilities of trustees of colleges and universities and on complex trends and issues bearing on the responsibilities of governing boards. Trustees must deal with a complex blend of competing values, evolving information, and challenging analyses while taking into account…

  15. Foundations of Responsibility for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillen, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Children's vulnerability asks for people taking up responsibility for children. In this contribution, three different ways of thinking on foundations of (ethical and spiritual) responsibility for children are discussed, namely, a liberalist, a social-constructivist and a naturalist paradigm. The author argues that cultural and natural elements are…

  16. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  17. Electric response in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  18. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  19. Mapping Regional Laryngopharyngeal Mechanoreceptor Response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To map mechanoreceptor response in various regions of the laryngopharynx. Methods Five patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux and six healthy control subjects underwent stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the hypopharynx, interarytenoid area, arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and pyriform sinuses. The threshold stimuli evoking sensation and eliciting laryngeal adductor reflex were recorded. Results In controls, an air pulse with 2 mmHg pressure evoked mechanoreceptor response in all regions, except bilateral aryepiglottic folds of one control. In patients, stimulus intensity to elicit mechanoreceptor response ranged between 2 mmHg and 10 mmHg and varied among the regions. Air pulse intensity differed between right and left sides of laryngopharyngeal regions in the majority of patients. Conclusion Laryngopharyngeal mechanoreceptor response was uniform among regions and subjects in the healthy group. Patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux showed inter- and intra-regional variations in mechanoreceptor response. Laryngopharyngeal sensory deficit in patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux is not limited to aryepiglottic folds. PMID:25436053

  20. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Yin, Rongxin

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies. Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.

  1. Is fluency free-operant response-response chaining?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews behavioral fluency and its 10 products. Fluency development requires three of the four free-operant freedoms: the freedom to present stimuli at the learner's rhythm, the freedom to form the response, and the freedom to speed at the learner's maximum frequency. The article closes with several suggestions that fluent performing is really operant response-response (R-R) chaining, and recommends further controlled laboratory research on free-operant R-R chaining. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478259

  2. The responsibilities and rights of dental professionals 2. Professional responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Yamalik, Nermin

    2006-06-01

    Although dentists have well recognised legal, professional and ethical responsibilities, the definition of their role and the corresponding responsibilities broaden further as the profession evolves, the demands from dentistry increase and the context of professionalism changes. Thus, continuous evaluation of the role and responsibilities of dentists is vital for provision of quality care, improvement of professional standards and maintaining professional status. In addition, efforts must be made to uphold the credibility of the profession and the associated public trust as well as meeting the increasing expectations from the profession and individual dentists. PMID:16826884

  3. Dose-response model for teratological experiments involving quantal responses

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, K.; Van Ryzin, J.

    1985-03-01

    This paper introduces a dose-response model for teratological quantal response data where the probability of response for an offspring from a female at a given dose varies with the litter size. The maximum likelihood estimators for the parameters of the model are given as the solution of a nonlinear iterative algorithm. Two methods of low-dose extrapolation are presented, one based on the litter size distribution and the other a conservative method. The resulting procedures are then applied to a teratological data set from the literature.

  4. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  5. Multifocal ERG Responses in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Fulton, Anne B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess function of the central retina in 10 week old infants, multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG) were recorded. MfERG responses represent post-receptor retinal activity. Methods In infants (N = 23) and adults (N = 10), mfERG responses to both unscaled and scaled 61 hexagon arrays were recorded. The amplitude and implicit time of the negative (N1, N2) and positive (P1) peaks of the first order kernel were examined. The response from the entire area stimulated and responses to concentric rings were analyzed separately. The overall averaged response of the first slice of the second order kernel was also evaluated. Results from infants and adults were compared. Results The amplitude of the infants’ responses (N1, P1, N2) were significantly smaller and the implicit time significantly longer than those of adults. In infants, amplitude and implicit time varied little with eccentricity. In adults, amplitude decreased with eccentricity while implicit time varied little. The infants’ second order kernel was relatively more attenuated than their first order kernel. Conclusion The infants’ mfERG responses indicate immaturities of processing in the central retina. Infant-adult differences in the distribution of cones and bipolar cells may account for the results. PMID:18719077

  6. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  7. Neural activation during response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, E.; Poldrack, R.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The flanker task, introduced by Eriksen and Eriksen [Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143--149], provides a means to selectively manipulate the presence or absence of response competition while keeping other task demands constant. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the flanker task. In accordance with previous behavioral studies, trials in which the flanking stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus were performed significantly more slowly than trials in which all the stimuli indicated the same response. This reaction time effect was accompanied by increases in activity in four regions: the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the left superior parietal lobe, and the left anterior parietal cortex. The increases were not due to changes in stimulus complexity or the need to overcome previously learned associations between stimuli and responses. Correspondences between this study and other experiments manipulating response interference suggest that the frontal foci may be related to response inhibition processes whereas the posterior foci may be related to the activation of representations of the inappropriate responses.

  8. Can arousal modulate response inhibition?

    PubMed

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of salient events and can therefore enhance processing of a cue that indicates to withhold a response and improve response inhibition. In a stop-signal task, participants were required to withhold prepotent responses when a stop signal followed target onset. Abrupt alerting cues preceded the target in one half of the trials. The results showed that alerting improved response inhibition as indicated by shorter stop-signal reaction times following an alerting cue compared with a no-alerting condition. We conclude that modulation of low-level operations can influence what are considered to be higher cognitive functions to achieve optimal goal-directed behavior. However, we stress that such interactions should be treated cautiously as they do not always reflect direct links between lower and higher cognitive mechanisms. PMID:25867610

  9. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphicalmore » summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.« less

  10. Vaccination pattern affects immunological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchegoin, P. G.

    2005-08-01

    The response of the immune system to different vaccination patterns is studied with a simple model. It is argued that the history and characteristics of the pattern defines very different secondary immune responses in the case of infection. The memory function of the immune response can be set to work in very different modes depending on the pattern followed during immunizations. It is argued that the history and pattern of immunizations can be a decisive (and experimentally accessible) factor to tailor the effectiveness of a specific vaccine.

  11. Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:27012466

  12. The 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Raviola, Giuseppe; Severe, Jennifer; Therosme, Tatiana; Oswald, Cate; Belkin, Gary; Eustache, Eddy

    2013-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters. PMID:23954057

  13. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure. PMID:21707165

  14. Emergency Response Teams in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the value of proper crisis response training to help schools protect lives by avoiding adverse situations. Details the execution of a crisis management plan, which was developed following a cafeteria/kitchen explosion. (GR)

  15. Responsive foams for nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Christina; Xiao, Edward; Sinko, Patrick J; Szekely, Zoltan; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-09-01

    We have developed responsive foam systems for nanoparticle delivery. The foams are easy to make, stable at room temperature, and can be engineered to break in response to temperature or moisture. Temperature-responsive foams are based on the phase transition of long chain alcohols and could be produced using medical grade nitrous oxide as a propellant. These temperature-sensitive foams could be used for polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based nanoparticle delivery. We also discuss moisture-responsive foams made with soap pump dispensers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoparticles or PMMA latex nanoparticles were loaded into Tween 20 foams and the particle size was not affected by the foam formulation or foam break. Using biocompatible detergents, we anticipate this will be a versatile and simple approach to producing foams for nanoparticle delivery with many potential pharmaceutical and personal care applications. PMID:26091943

  16. Deciphering the DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Haber, James E

    2015-09-10

    This year's Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors Evelyn Witkin and Stephen J. Elledge, two pioneers in elucidating the DNA damage response, whose contributions span more than 40 years. PMID:26359974

  17. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs. PMID:26155754

  18. Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Martines, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. PMID:17242836

  19. The Chlamydomonas heat stress response.

    PubMed

    Schroda, Michael; Hemme, Dorothea; Mühlhaus, Timo

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves occurring at increased frequency as a consequence of global warming jeopardize crop yield safety. One way to encounter this problem is to genetically engineer crop plants toward increased thermotolerance. To identify entry points for genetic engineering, a thorough understanding of how plant cells perceive heat stress and respond to it is required. Using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system to study the fundamental mechanisms of the plant heat stress response has several advantages. Most prominent among them is the suitability of Chlamydomonas for studying stress responses system-wide and in a time-resolved manner under controlled conditions. Here we review current knowledge on how heat is sensed and signaled to trigger temporally and functionally grouped sub-responses termed response elements to prevent damage and to maintain cellular homeostasis in plant cells. PMID:25754362

  20. Immune response to H pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Giovanni; Reyes, Victor E; Beswick, Ellen J

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer, attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium. PMID:17007009

  1. EMERGENCY RESPONSE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM (ERNS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) is a database used to store information on notifications of oil discharges and hazardous substances releases. The ERNS program is a cooperative data sharing effort among the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters, the ...

  2. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  3. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  4. Spectral response from blackbody measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, W. J.

    1981-07-01

    Far-infrared and submillimeter detector responsivity and spectral response measurements can be performed simultaneously by sweeping the temperature of a cooled blackbody. Such measurements yield n simultaneous linear equations for n blackbody temperatures. Matrix inversion solutions are observed to fail due to a matrix ill-conditioned for inversion. However, an unconditionally convergent iterative solution can be performed. Results for a gallium-doped germanium detector are described.

  5. Feedback control indirect response models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-08-01

    A general framework is introduced for modeling pharmacodynamic processes that are subject to autoregulation, which combines the indirect response (IDR) model approach with methods from classical feedback control of engineered systems. The canonical IDR models are modified to incorporate linear combinations of feedback control terms related to the time course of the difference (the error signal) between the pharmacodynamic response and its basal value. Following the well-established approach of traditional engineering control theory, the proposed feedback control indirect response models incorporate terms proportional to the error signal itself, the integral of the error signal, the derivative of the error signal or combinations thereof. Simulations are presented to illustrate the types of responses produced by the proposed feedback control indirect response model framework, and to illustrate comparisons with other PK/PD modeling approaches incorporating feedback. In addition, four examples from literature are used to illustrate the implementation and applicability of the proposed feedback control framework. The examples reflect each of the four mechanisms of drug action as modeled by each of the four canonical IDR models and include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and extracellular serotonin; histamine H2-receptor antagonists and gastric acid; growth hormone secretagogues and circulating growth hormone; β2-selective adrenergic agonists and potassium. The proposed feedback control indirect response approach may serve as an exploratory modeling tool and may provide a bridge for development of more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. PMID:27394724

  6. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Christine N; Kajiura, Stephen M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. PMID:26631562

  7. Advanced crisis response and consequence management: enabling a coordinated response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert S.; Brush, Jennifer L.; Heinrich, Mark L.; Mantock, James M.; Jones, Brian E.; Henry, Kurt A.

    2002-08-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) envisioned a system to assist decision-makers during crisis situations ranging from terrorist attacks to large-scale natural disasters. This system would provide the tools for responders, incident commanders, and officials at all levels to share vital information during the planning and execution of a coordinated response. The system would offer custom configuration of components with capabilities including map-based situational awareness, situation-based response checklists, casualty tracking, and epidemiological surveillance. On-scene commanders would use this system to document the progress of a response, direct and coordinate responder activities, and manage the response as a whole. Off-scene responders (hospitals, command centers, and local, state and federal agencies) would have the ability to visually assess the state of assets and casualties to better anticipate the need for personnel and supplies. DARPA's Enhanced Consequence Management, Planning and Support System (ENCOMPASS), successfully demonstrated all of these capabilities. ENCOMPASS was successfully transitioned to a commercial program: the Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System, otherwise known as LEADERS.

  8. Design of responsive polymer surfaces with ultrafast response time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Jan; Ozcam, Evren; Willoughby, Julie

    2009-03-01

    Responsive surfaces with tailorable surface-reconstruction kinetics and switching hysteresis were prepared from poly(vinylmethylsiloxane) (PVMS) networks modified with thiol alkanes to provide hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface properties. The cooperative effects of polymer mobility, arising from the high flexibility of the siloxane backbone, and the enthalpic interactions between the contacting medium and the PVMS functionalized surface control the degree of responsiveness. Exposing the modified-elastomer surfaces to water resulted in rearrangement of the hydrophilic alkanes at the surface. The kinetics of reconstruction and reversibility were established by measuring the surface wettability via dynamic contact angle. By controlling the formation of semi-crystalline regions in our substrates we demonstrate either ``sluggish'' kinetics and eventual surface ``freezing'' and stability or stimuli-responsive substrates with a magnitude of change and repeated reversibility unparallel to most polymeric surfaces.

  9. Environmental crises of the 21st century: Response and responsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, E.L. )

    1994-08-01

    This editorial examines the environmental awareness of society today of problems such as ozone depletion, global climate change, oil spills, acid rain, etc.. First Schrader discusses the three major components of environmental problems: physical, biological or chemical manifestation of a crisis; who, what caused it; and what is the response to it. Responsibility and response are discussed in greater detail. The author concludes that it will be incumbent on those living in the 21st century to react to their environmental inheritance, and there must be a committment to the purpose that the ethical and quantitative wisdom necessary to meet these chanlenges are a basic component of undergraduate curriculum in all colleges and universities.

  10. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  11. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  12. 47 CFR 2.1073 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2.1073 Section 2.1073... Responsibilities. (a) The responsible party, as defined in § 2.909, must warrant that each unit of equipment... party, the new responsible party shall bear the responsibility of continued compliance of the...

  13. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  14. Facial variations in sensory responses.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Whittle, Ed; Basketter, David A

    2003-11-01

    Subjective effects such as stinging, itching and burning commonly occur in the absence of any visible irritation and give rise to discomfort, which may be enough to deter an individual from using even the most effective of skin care products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different anatomical regions of the face to determine which region displayed the most intense stinging response to the application of lactic acid. The effect of occlusion on the level of response was also investigated. 45 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid on the nasolabial fold, forehead, chin and cheek, occluded and unoccluded for 8 min. Sensory reactions were recorded at 2.5, 5 and 8 min. The response levels on the occluded sites were always significantly lower than on the unoccluded sites, despite the dose per unit area being comparable. Females showed a trend towards being more sensitive to the subjective effects elicited by lactic acid than males, but these results were not conclusive. Interestingly, there was not a complete correlation between individuals who reacted on the nasolabial fold and the other sites, particularly the forehead. A positive stinging response on the nasolabial fold may not necessarily predict subjective responses to a product when used on other areas of the face. PMID:14996043

  15. Response surface development using RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.E.; Sorensen, J.M.; May, R.S.; Doran, K.J. ); Trikouros, N.G.; Mozias, E.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and GPU Nuclear Corporation have completed a demonstration project that provides justification for relaxing the high-pressure setpoints for the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. The project was undertaken because an undesirable overlap had been identified in the high-pressure setpoints when accounting for measurement uncertainties experienced during plant operation. The project employed a statistical combination of uncertainties (SCU) process to provide increased margin for measurement uncertainties. This approach was used because previous experience indicated that there was insufficient margin to justify the desired setpoints using conventional deterministic inputs to the safety analysis and plant performance analysis processes. Through the use of SCU methodology and other deterministic analyses, it is possible to provide comprehensive bases for the desired technical specification changes to the high-pressure setpoints. The SCU process is based on the EPRI setpoint analysis guidelines, and it requires the development of response surfaces to simulate RETRAN peak pressure calculations for the limiting transient event. The use of response surfaces adds an intermediate step to the SCU process, but reduces the number of RETRAN cases required to make appropriate statistical statements about the result probabilities. Basically, each response surface is an approximation of the RETRAN code for one particular event and one output variable of interest, which is valid over a limited region. The response surfaces can be sampled very inexpensively using simple Monte Carlo methods. The basic input to the development of a response surface is a set of results obtained from specific RETRAN cases.

  16. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  17. Can site response be predicted?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large modifications of seismic waves are produced by variations of material properties near the Earth's surface and by both surface and buried topography. These modifications, usually referred to as "site response", in general lead to larger motions on soil sites than on rock-like sites. Because the soil amplifications can be as large as a factor of ten, they are important in engineering applications that require the quantitative specification of ground motions. This has been recognised for years by both seismologists and engineers, and it is hard to open an earthquake journal these days without finding an article on site response. What is often missing in these studies, however, are discussions of the uncertainty of the predicted response. A number of purely observational studies demonstrate that ground motions have large site-to-site variability for a single earthquake and large earthquake-location- dependent variability for a single site. This variability makes site-specific, earthquake-specific predictions of site response quite uncertain, even if detailed geotechnical and geological information is available near the site. Predictions of site response for average classes of sites exposed to the motions from many earthquakes can be made with much greater certainty if sufficient empirical observations are available.

  18. Hormonal control of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Farsky, Sandra P.

    1993-01-01

    Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormonal functions accounts for recognized pro- and anti-inflammatory effects exerted by these substances. Most hormone systems are capable of influencing inflammatory events. Insulin and glucocorticoids, however, exert direct regulatory effects at concentrations usually found in plasma. Insulin is endowed with facilitatory actions on vascular reactivity to inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell functions. Increased concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids at the early stages of inflammation results in downregulation of inflammatory responses. Oestrogens markedly reduce the response to injury in a variety of experimental models. Glucagon and thyroid hormones exert indirect anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the activity of the adrenal cortex. Accordingly, inflammation is not only merely a local response, but a hormone-controlled process. PMID:18475521

  19. Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2013-08-01

    Ever since I started pursuing research, AGU Fall Meetings have been the gathering to feel part of something grand. Hence to be recognized by such an organization is a real honor. Thank you, Cin-Ty, for the generous introduction. I'm really glad to have received the citation from a great colleague.

  20. Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2014-06-01

    I thank these authors (Buma et al., 2014), for their interest in my paper. The topic of postglacial tree migration has always been a controversial one, so it is not surprising that my review of the evidence for the postglacial establishment of Pacific Northwest forest species in southern Alaska would generate some additional controversy. Burma et al. are perfectly correct in their statement that I did not consider localized refugia for these tree species within southeast Alaska during the LGM. However, I take exception to their statement that I did not consider the ecology of these trees in my reconstruction of regional events during the last glacial maximum (LGM). On the contrary, a consideration of the ecological requirements of these PNW tree species is precisely the reason I excluded the possibility of their survival in southeast Alaska during the height of the last glaciation, as explained below.

  1. Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; Jameton, A.

    1982-09-01

    The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

  2. Drought stress responses in crops.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Arun K; Maheswari, M; Yadav, S K; Desai, S; Bhanu, Divya; Attal, Neha Bajaj; Venkateswarlu, B

    2014-03-01

    Among the effects of impending climate change, drought will have a profound impact on crop productivity in the future. Response to drought stress has been studied widely, and the model plant Arabidopsis has guided the studies on crop plants with genome sequence information viz., rice, wheat, maize and sorghum. Since the value of functions of genes, dynamics of pathways and interaction of networks for drought tolerance in plants can only be judged by evidence from field performance, this mini-review provides a research update focussing on the current developments on the response to drought in crop plants. Studies in Arabidopsis provide the basis for interpreting the available information in a systems biology perspective. In particular, the elucidation of the mechanism of drought stress response in crops is considered from evidence-based outputs emerging from recent omic studies in crops. PMID:24408129

  3. Anomalous relaxation and dielectric response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goychuk, Igor

    2007-10-01

    It is shown that all the known experimental (quasi)stationary dielectric response functions of glassy media can be derived from a standard generalized Langevin description of overdamped torsional dipole oscillators in trapping potentials with random orientations under some minimal assumptions. The non-Markovian theory obeys the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the Onsager regression theorem. Moreover, it displays no aging on the time scale of the dielectric response, all in assumption of local thermal (quasi)equilibrium. Aging might come from jumping among metastable traps. It occurs on a quite different time scale which is not related to the principal dielectric response. We put the old phenomenological theory of Cole and Cole, Davidson and Cole, and others on a firm basis within a stochastic, thermodynamically consistent approach.

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  5. Inflammatory response and extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (EC) frequently develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgical trauma, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxaemia and blood contact to nonendothelial circuit compounds promote the activation of coagulation pathways, complement factors and a cellular immune response. This review discusses the multiple pathways leading to endothelial cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. All these factors may induce cellular damage and subsequent organ injury. Multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with EC is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In addition to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction after EC, this review deals with different therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate the inflammatory response and consequently multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery. PMID:26060024

  6. Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the “classical” plant hormones, i.e. discovered at least 50 years ago, that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. This chapter reviews our current understanding of ABA synthesis, metabolism, transport, and signal transduction, emphasizing knowledge gained from studies of Arabidopsis. A combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical studies has identified nearly all of the enzymes involved in ABA metabolism, almost 200 loci regulating ABA response, and thousands of genes regulated by ABA in various contexts. Some of these regulators are implicated in cross-talk with other developmental, environmental or hormonal signals. Specific details of the ABA signaling mechanisms vary among tissues or developmental stages; these are discussed in the context of ABA effects on seed maturation, germination, seedling growth, vegetative stress responses, stomatal regulation, pathogen response, flowering, and senescence. PMID:24273463

  7. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. PMID:26561803

  8. Linking stressors and ecological responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gentile, J.H.; Solomon, K.R.; Butcher, J.B.; Harrass, M.; Landis, W.G.; Power, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Warren-Hicks, W.J.; Wenger, R.

    1999-01-01

    To characterize risk, it is necessary to quantify the linkages and interactions between chemical, physical and biological stressors and endpoints in the conceptual framework for ecological risk assessment (ERA). This can present challenges in a multiple stressor analysis, and it will not always be possible to develop a quantitative stressor-response profile. This review commences with a conceptual representation of the problem of developing a linkage analysis for multiple stressors and responses. The remainder of the review surveys a variety of mathematical and statistical methods (e.g., ranking methods, matrix models, multivariate dose-response for mixtures, indices, visualization, simulation modeling and decision-oriented methods) for accomplishing the linkage analysis for multiple stressors. Describing the relationships between multiple stressors and ecological effects are critical components of 'effects assessment' in the ecological risk assessment framework.

  9. Response: Critical Realism--Response to Longhofer and Floersch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses key challenges posed by critical realism, proposed by Longhofer and Floersch, as a philosophical underpinning for a science of social work. As a response to Longhofer and Floersch, it is argued that critical realism may be instructive in debates about structural conditions that dictate more inclusive interventions and…

  10. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  11. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  12. Responsibility, Complexity Science and Education: Dilemmas and Uncertain Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2009-01-01

    While complexity science is gaining interest among educational theorists, its constructs do not speak to educational responsibility or related core issues in education of power and ethics. Yet certain themes of complexity, as taken up in educational theory, can help unsettle the more controlling and problematic discourses of educational…

  13. Designing a Response Scale to Improve Average Group Response Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Randall

    2008-01-01

    Creating surveys is a common task in evaluation research; however, designing a survey instrument to gather average group response data that can be interpreted in a meaningful way over time can be challenging. When surveying groups of people for the purpose of longitudinal analysis, the reliability of the result is often determined by the response…

  14. Heterogeneity of neural mechanisms of response to pivotal response treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ventola, Pamela; Yang, Daniel Y. J.; Friedman, Hannah E.; Oosting, Devon; Wolf, Julie; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) improves social communication in a case series of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) identified brain responses during a biological motion perception task conducted prior to and following 16 weeks of PRT treatment. Overall, the neural systems supporting social perception in these 10 children were malleable through implementation of PRT; following treatment, neural responses were more similar to those of typically developing children (TD). However, at baseline, half of the children exhibited hypoactivation, relative to a group of TD children, in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and half exhibited hyperactivation in this region. Strikingly, the groups exhibited differential neural responses to treatment: The five children who exhibited hypoactivation at baseline evidenced increased activation in components of the reward system including the ventral striatum and putamen. The five children who exhibited hyperactivation at baseline evidenced decreased activation in subcortical regions critical for regulating the flow of stimulation and conveying signals of salience to the cortex—the thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Our results support further investigation into the differential effects of particular treatment strategies relative to specific neural targets. Identification of treatment strategies that address the patterns of neural vulnerability unique to each patient is consistent with the priority of creating individually tailored interventions customized to the behavioral and neural characteristics of a given person. PMID:25370452

  15. Creating Responsive Schools: Contextualizing Early Warning, Timely Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Kevin P.; Osher, David; Hoffman, Catherine C.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the Department of Education's 1998 publication, "Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools," stresses the importance of violence prevention by providing a supportive schoolwide climate and responding early to at-risk students' academic and behavioral problems. Early imminent warning signs are highlighted, as are…

  16. The path to corporate responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning". PMID:15605571

  17. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  18. Criminal responsibility in amphetamine psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, A

    1994-01-01

    Historical changes in forensic psychiatric evaluation on criminal responsibility and proceedings in psychopathological findings of amphetamine psychosis are reviewed at first. The classification of amphetamine related mental disorders are proposed in 6 types. Among them, the clinical characteristics and psychopathological features of "Anxiety-situational reaction type" (Fukushima) are described. According to some reasonable grounds, offenders diagnosed as anxiety-situational reaction type should be evaluated as diminished responsibility in place of irresponsibility. Finally, two cases of murder committed under the influence of amphetamine, are reported in detail. PMID:7799533

  19. 7 CFR 3407.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... indicated: (a) Administrator. The Administrator is responsible for providing leadership, formulating agency... Deputy Administrators are responsible for: (1) Ensuring that eligible institutions under CSREES formula..., and formula projects. (c) Program Managers. CSREES Program Managers are responsible for: (1)...

  20. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  1. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  2. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  3. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  4. A Shared Responsibility for Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Co-investment between the state, employer, and employee is an intrinsic feature of most vocational and education training systems. The government's strategy is to "profoundly" shift responsibility for funding learning and skills from the state to individuals and businesses. At a time of stringent cuts in publicly-funded further education and the…

  5. Information Science and Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive evaluation builds upon the methods of informal evaluation in disciplined ways: getting personally acquainted with the evaluand, observation of activities, interviewing people who are in different ways familiar with the evaluand, searching documents that reveal what happened in the past or somewhere else. It calls for sustained effort to…

  6. Reading Response Journals via Email.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Colleen

    This study discusses the successes and failures that resulted when fifth grade students used email to compose response journals. Every student was required to send at least one email a week to the teacher describing and reacting to the novel they were reading independently. The teacher would respond each evening. The study was conducted in an…

  7. Trustee Liability and Legal Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alton L.

    Litigation over actions and policies in higher education is becoming increasingly common, and college trustees can expect to be touched by it, as they are legally and ultimately responsible for what transpires on campus. Trustees must work as a team with college presidents in the development of institutional policies, as they will share the same…

  8. Mechanisms of subliminal response priming

    PubMed Central

    Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Subliminal response priming has been considered to operate on several stages, e.g. perceptual, central or motor stages might be affected. While primes’ impact on target perception has been clearly demonstrated, semantic response priming recently has been thrown into doubt (e.g. Klinger, Burton, & Pitts, 2000). Finally, LRP studies have revealed that subliminal primes evoke motor processes. Yet, the premises for such prime-evoked motor activation are not settled. A transfer of priming to stimuli that have never been presented as targets appears particularly interesting because it suggests a level of processing that goes beyond a reactivation of previously acquired S-R links. Yet, such transfer has not always withstood empirical testing. To account for these contradictory results, we proposed a two-process model (Kunde, Kiesel, & Hoffmann, 2003): First, participants build up expectations regarding imperative stimuli for the required responses according to experience and/or instructions. Second, stimuli that match these “action triggers” directly activate the corresponding motor responses irrespective of their conscious identification. In line with these assumptions, recent studies revealed that non-target primes induce priming when they fit the current task intentions and when they are expected in the experimental setting. PMID:20517516

  9. DNR Orders and School Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Angela Maynard; Balkman, Kathy

    This paper discusses the legal and ethical questions surrounding "Do Not Resuscitate" (DNR) orders in the school environment. It begins by reviewing federal and state case law that addresses the appropriateness of medical services and the responsibility of schools in terms of provision of medical services. The review finds that when medical-like…

  10. Online Course Evaluations Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Faruk; Malliaris, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the reasons for low response rates in online evaluations. Survey data are collected from the students to understand factors that might affect student participation in the course evaluation process. When course evaluations were opened to the student body, an email announcement was sent to all students, and a reminder email was…

  11. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are attributed to the…

  12. Vibration response of misaligned rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.

    2009-08-01

    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  13. Responsibility and choice in addiction.

    PubMed

    2002-06-01

    The treatment of patients with substance use disorders requires that providers be aware of their own views on the relative roles of personal responsibility and of forces outside personal control in the onset and progression of and recovery from these disorders. The authors review the role of responsibility for addiction from several viewpoints: biological, psychological, sociocultural, self-help, religious, and forensic. Factors that affect personal responsibility in addictive diseases include awareness of the problem, knowledge of a genetic predisposition, understanding of addictive processes, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, adequacy of the support network, nature of the early environment, degree of tolerance of substance abuse in the sociocultural context, and the availability of competent psychiatric, medical, and chemical dependency treatment. Factors that affect societal responsibility include degree of access to illicit drugs, society's level of tolerance of drug use, the courts' approach to deterring substance abuse (punishment versus treatment), individuals' refusal to obtain substance abuse treatment, presence of clear behavioral norms, availability of early assessment and prevention, presence of community education, and degree of access to outpatient and community treatment. PMID:12045307

  14. First Remembered Responses to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Duke, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Explores adult musicians' first remembrances of music. Reports that the first remembered responses appeared around ages 3-5; were associated with high affect, positive feelings, and "other persons present"; and indicated both the place where early music experience happened and the specific "music or genre." (CMK)

  15. Parenting: Responsibilities, Risks and Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Professor Carol Vincent gets the 2012 Professorial Lecture series underway with a thought provoking talk drawing on research projects conducted over the last twelve years. The lecture will explore factors identified in current policy, media, and other social and political forums as the risks and responsibilities of contemporary parenting, with a…

  16. Responsive starch-based materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch, a low-cost, annually renewable resource, is naturally hydrophilic and its properties change with relative humidity. Starch’s hygroscopic nature can be used to develop materials which change shape or volume in response to environmental changes (e.g. humidity). For example, starch-based graf...

  17. Reader Response in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles, Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on reader response in the classroom, the works collected in this book represent the results of a five-week summer institute in which 25 middle school, high school, and college teachers studied the principles and applications of literature instruction. The following essays are included: an introduction by G. Garber; "An Overview of the…

  18. Oil spill responses R D

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, F.R.; Nordvik, A.B.; Giammona, C.P.; Aurand, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC) was created as an industry response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The charter of MSRC includes as one of the primary functions the implementation of a spill response R D program to enhance future oil spill response decision-making. Funding for the program is provided largely by the Marine Preservation Association as part of an annual operating grant from that industry organization to MSRC. Research and development at MSRC is considered the key element in improving the future capability of MSRC and other oil spill responders. The major focus of the R D program is to advance knowledge and the technology needed to contain, clean up, and mitigate spills of persistent petroleum products in coastal and offshore waters while minimizing damage to marine and coastal resources and human health. The R D program is solidly in place today with more than 30 projects underway supporting more than $10 million targeted for research. By the end of 1994, more than 60 contracts will have been activated, and the results of many of these projects will be published.

  19. Moral Responsibility and Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Batya

    Noting a recent increase in the number of cases of computer crime and computer piracy, this paper takes up the question, "How can understanding the social context of computing help us--as parents, educators, and members of government and industry--to educate young people to become morally responsible members of an electronic information…

  20. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Thomas K.

    Increased Department of Education (ED) interest in rural education has been part of the awakening of federal concern for rural American issues. In response to a 1979 Presidential mandate to define and address the needs of rural America, the ED has identified basic problems of rural education that lend themselves to solution by the federal…

  1. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  2. Fostering Social Responsibility. Fastback 428.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Marvin

    This fastback outlines an approach to foster social responsibility in the classroom while simultaneously handling disruptive behavior simply and easily. The strategy that is considered will aid in establishing and maintaining a non-coercive, trusting environment, the first requirement of a quality classroom. Following the introduction, the…

  3. Rights and Responsibilities. Administrative Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert W.; And Others

    This handbook contains guidelines for the use of Ohio school districts in developing policy on student behavior, rights, and responsibilities. There are three main sections. The first describes current Federal and State law and practices relevant to student rights. The second deals with specific student behaviors that are often the subject of…

  4. Public Assistance, Rights and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Community Action Training Inst., Trenton.

    Based primarily on two official manuals of the Division of Public Welfare of the New Jersey Department of Institutions and Agencies, this handbook on public assistance rights and responsibilities can be used as a training manual for community action workers, and as a reference book for such workers and for those eligible for public assistance.…

  5. Electronic Citizenship and Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bergen, Marilyn

    1993-01-01

    Discusses access to information technology and technological change; examines the culture that has grown up around computers; discusses previous military funding of academic computing and the need to change focus; describes the use of computers to promote equity and access; and considers the Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for Electronic…

  6. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  7. Talking about Israel: 3 Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Alan Wolfe's article "Free Speech, Israel, and Jewish Illiberalism" prompted numerous responses on The Chronicle's online discussion forum. The essay commented on the debate that erupted following the Polish Consulate's decision to cancel a speech by the scholar Tony Judt--allegedly prompted by protests over his critical views of Israel from the…

  8. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment. PMID:27052306

  9. The Ethical Responsibilities of Referees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues of acting as review editor and as referees for scholarly journals. States that referees have ethical responsibilities to review manuscripts promptly, write constructive comments for authors, be tactful in their comments, and to avoid sectarian bias. Includes a list of ethical rules for refereeing. (NL)

  10. Culturally Responsive Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdal-Haqq, Ismat

    A widely held view of multicultural curricula sees them as strategies for improving academic performance and enhancing self-esteem among students whose racial, ethnic or language heritage differs from that of the Anglo-European population. There are others, however, who hold the view that culturally responsive curricula benefit all students. A…

  11. Ebola: is the response justified?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah; Chaudry, Aisha; Ndow, Gibril; Crossey, Mary ME; Garside, Debbie; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever, first discovered in 1976 in Sudan, where the outbreak infected over 284 people with a 53% case fatality ratio. There have been 34 further epidemics, the current major incident in West Africa having recorded more cases and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined. To date there have been over 27, 000 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11,000 reported deaths in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. With total funding and pledges to help control the outbreak amounting to more than US$2.4billion, many question how the disease has continued to spread in Sierra Leone and Guinea Conakry, and whether the response to the outbreak has been justified. This article aims to analyze the effectiveness of the responses to the outbreak in terms of economic, social, cultural and, to an extent, political impact. We argue that the response has been justified due to the awareness raised, the infrastructure and staffing improvements, the success in receiving financial aid and the minimal spread to other countries outside the main transmission zone. Despite this, some failures in communication and a slow early response were noted. PMID:26740851

  12. Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, James F.; Maynard, William S.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the possible implications of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for employee expectations and satisfactions. Specifically, interest centered on the question of how perceptions of an organization's involvement in the resolution of current societal problems might relate to members' expectations of equitable job rewards and…

  13. Response to "Back to Basics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Doug

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a response to Andrew McMartin's article "Back to Basics: Meditations on Quality vs. Quantity in Outdoor Education." In considering quality vs. quantity in outdoor education it is still important from the author's perspective to be conscious of one's viewpoint. He has taught and run trips from a survival…

  14. Socially Responsible Educational Technology Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that the growing demand for educational research to be more relevant and increasing concerns about the generalizability and utility of research findings are related to the concept of "socially responsible research." Identifies problems with educational technology research. Outlines major types of educational technology research goals and…

  15. Student Rights and Responsibilities Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ludwig A.; And Others

    To stimulate interest in student's rights and responsibilities, this resource contains incomplete scenarios dealing with the consequences of knowing and not knowing the law, as it is applied to modern practical situations. The scenarios can be used in high school courses such as government, social problems, history, psychology, and business law.…

  16. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Coast, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:11953791

  17. Theoretical response of condenser microphones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications to prior theory yield expressions for the frequency response and equivalent lumped elements of a condenser microphone in terms of its fundamental geometrical and material properties. Results of the analysis show excellent agreement with experimental data taken on B&K pressure microphone types 4134 and 4146.

  18. Changing Breton Responses to Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badone, Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Based on fieldwork conducted in Brittany, France, during 1983 and 1984, discusses changes in Breton responses to death which have accompanied modernization and economic development. Suggests that familiarity with death and acceptance of it are being replaced by the "denial of death" characteristic of contemporary Western culture. Notes parallel…

  19. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility. PMID:19847671

  20. Organismal Responses to Hypoxemic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Robert S; Dehghani, Gholam A; Kiihl, Samara

    2015-01-01

    As a counterpoint to the volumes of beautiful work exploring how the carotid bodies (CBs) sense and transduce stimuli into neural traffic, this study explored one organismal reflex response to such stimulation. We challenged the anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cat with two forms of acute hypoxemia: 10 % O(2)/balance N(2) (hypoxic hypoxia [HH] and carbon monoxide hypoxia [COH]). HH stimulates both CBs and aortic bodies (ABs), whereas COH stimulates only the ABs. Our design was to stimulate both with HH (HHint), then to stimulate only the ABs with COH (COHint); then, after aortic depressor nerve transaction, only the CBs with HH (HHabr), and finally neither with COH (COHabr). We recorded whole animal responses from Group 1 cats (e.g., cardiac output, arterial blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure/and vascular resistance) before and after sectioning the aortic depressor nerves. From Group 2 cats (intact) and Group 3 cats (aortic body resected) we recorded the vascular resistance in several organs (e.g., brain, heart, spleen, stomach, pancreas, adrenal glands, eyes). The HHint challenge was the most effective at keeping perfusion pressures adequate to maintain homeostasis in the face of a systemic wide hypoxemia with locally mediated vasodilation. The spleen and pancreas, however, showed a vasoconstrictive response. The adrenals and eyes showed a CB-mediated vasodilation. The ABs appeared to have a significant impact on the pulmonary vasculature as well as the stomach. Chemoreceptors via the sympathetic nervous system play the major role in this organism's response to hypoxemia. PMID:26303472

  1. Fast-response cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Wall structure keeps chambers at constant, uniform temperature, yet allows them to be cooled rapidly if necessary. Wall structure, used in fast-response cloud chamber, has surface heater and coolant shell separated by foam insulation. It is lightweight and requires relatively little power.

  2. Comparative Education: Challenge and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P.; Altbach, Philip G.

    1986-01-01

    Examines research reported in major books and journals of comparative education since 1977, focusing on challenges to established research traditions and the field's responses. Highlights work directing attention to new subjects of inquiry and challenging the nation-state as the exclusive research framework, input-output models and dominant…

  3. Education for Responsible Citizenship: Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature on citizenship education. This essay is an attempt to show how deliberation is used in university classroom pedagogy, to engender in students a commitment to becoming responsible citizens of a post-apartheid South Africa. Firstly, I show that controversy can be attended to through deliberation, with specific…

  4. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  5. Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard T.

    1970-01-01

    Critically analyzes the thesis of Christian responsibility for the ecological crisis and leads to its rejection. Present day environmental misuse results from greed, carelessness, and ignorance." Advocates ecological strategy of corrective action, with supplementary theological strategy" for church-influenced citizens. (AL)

  6. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  7. Realizing autonomy in responsive relationships

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Rob; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Widdershoven, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to augment the ethical discussion among nurses with the findings from empirical research on autonomy of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are many factors influencing autonomy. These include: health conditions, treatment, knowledge, experience and skills, personal approach as well as familial patterns, type of relationship, life history and social context. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were interviewed in a nurse-led diabetes clinic. These participants perceive three processes which support autonomy in responsive relationships: preserving patterns of concern and interaction, nurturing collaborative responsibilities and being closely engaged in trustful and helpful family relations. People with diabetes realize autonomy in various responsive relationships in their unique life context. Next, we performed a literature review of care ethics and caring in nursing with regard to relational autonomy. We classified the literature in five strands of care: attitude-oriented, dialogue-oriented, activity-oriented, relationship-oriented and life-oriented. According to our respondents, autonomy in responsive relationships is fostered when patient, nurses, professionals of the health team and family members carry out care activities supported by a relational attitude of care. They can best realize autonomy in relationships with others when several essential aspects of care and caring are present in their lives. Therefore, we advocate a comprehensive approach to care and caring. PMID:20339930

  8. [Responses, Rejoinder, and Editorial Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Responses discuss the following: unanswered questions (Gerald Greenberg); thinking critically about justice judgments (E. Allan Lind); just and virtuous leaders (Naomi M. Meara); voices of injustice victims (Debra L. Shapiro); justice research and practice (M. Susan Taylor); and the need for experimental research (Kees van der Bos); with rejoinder…

  9. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  10. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  11. Overview of Responsive Model Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimnicht, Glen P.

    The Responsive Model program assumes that the school environment should be designed to respond to the learner, and that school activities should be autotelic, or self-rewarding, not dependent upon rewards or punishment unrelated to the activity. Developmental theory, certain ideas of operant conditioning, and flexible learning sequences are used…

  12. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  13. Fast response liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yung-Hsun

    Liquid crystal (LC) has been widely used for displays, spatial light modulators, variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and other tunable photonic devices. The response time of these devices is mainly determined by the employed liquid crystal material. The response time of a LC device depends on the visco-elastic coefficient (gamma1/K11), LC cell gap (d), and applied voltage. Hence, low visco-elastic coefficient LC materials and thinner cell gap are favorable for reducing the response time. However, low visco-elastic coefficient LCs are usually associated with a low birefringence because of shorter molecular conjugation. For display applications, such as LCD TVs, low birefringence (Deltan<0.1) LCs are commonly used. However, for optical communications at 1550 nm, low birefringence requires to a thick cell gap which, in turn, increases the response time. How to obtain fast response for the LC devices is a fundamentally important and technically challenging task. In this dissertation, we investigate several methods to improve liquid crystal response time, for examples, using dual-frequency liquid crystals, polymer stabilized liquid crystals, and sheared polymer network liquid crystals. We discover a new class of material, denoted as sheared polymer network liquid crystal (SPNLC) which exhibits a submillisecond response time. Moreover, this response time is insensitive to the LC cell gap. This is the first LC device exhibiting such an interesting property. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the motivation and background of this dissertation. From chapter 3 to chapter 6, dual-frequency liquid crystals and polymer network methods are demonstrated as examples for the variable optical attenuators. Variable optical attenuator (VOA) is a key component in optical communications. Especially, the sheared PNLC VOA shows the best result; its dynamic range reaches 43 dB while the response time is in the submillisecond range at 1550 nm wavelength, which is 50 times faster than the commercial

  14. The Costs of Changing the Representation of Action: Response Repetition and Response-Response Compatibility in Dual Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuch, Stefanie; Koch, Iring

    2004-01-01

    In 5 experiments, the authors investigated the costs associated with repeating the same or a similar response in a dual-task setting. Using a psychological refractory period paradigm, they obtained response-repetition costs when the cognitive representation of a specific response (i.e., the category-response mapping) changed (Experiment 1) but…

  15. Responses to patronizing communication and factors that attenuate those responses.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Jessica A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate younger (n = 52, ages 18-24) and older (n = 69, ages 61-98) adults' responses to patronizing communication in terms of (a) performance on a cognitive task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) and (b) physiological responses (i.e., change in cortisol levels), as well as factors that may attenuate those responses. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions for the task using either a patronizing or nonpatronizing speech style. Participants also completed a measure of attitudes about aging and the quantity/quality of their intergenerational interaction. Older adults (relative to younger adults) were found to be more reactive to the patronizing speech style in terms of their performance on the task as well as the change in their cortisol levels. Older adults who had more positive attitudes about aging as well as more positive intergenerational interactions were protected from the performance deficits as a result of patronizing speech style. These findings could be used to inform social programs aimed at reducing age-based stigma and improving the life course outcomes of our aging population. PMID:26146886

  16. Excessive Response-Repetition Costs under Task Switching: How Response Inhibition Amplifies Response Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzyb, Kai Robin; Hubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The size of response-repetition (RR) costs, which are usually observed on task-switch trials, strongly varies between conditions with univalent and bivalent stimuli. To test whether top-down or bottom-up processes can account for this effect, we assessed in Experiment 1 baselines for univalent and bivalent stimulus conditions (i.e., for stimuli…

  17. Modulating macrophage response to biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Toral

    Macrophages recruited to the site of biomaterial implantation are the primary mediators of the chronic foreign body response to implanted materials. Since foreign body response limits performance and functional life of numerous implanted biomaterials/medical devices, various approaches have been investigated to modulate macrophage interactions with biomaterial surfaces to mitigate this response. In this work we have explored two independent approaches to modulate the macrophage inflammatory response to biomaterials. The first approach targets surface integrins, cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion to biomaterials through adhesive proteins spontaneously adsorbed on biomaterial surfaces. The second approach involves surface modification of biomaterials using nanotopographic features since nanotopography has been reported to modulate cell adhesion and viability in a cell type-dependent manner. More specifically, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface was investigated for its role in modulating macrophage adhesion and survival in vitro and foreign body response in vivo. For the first approach, we have investigated the role of integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in the in-vivo osteolysis response and macrophage inflammatory processes of phagocytosis as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to particulate biomaterials. We have also investigated the in vivo foreign body response (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted biomaterials by evaluating the thickness of fibrous capsule formed around the implants after 2 weeks of implantation. The role of Mac-1 integrin was isolated using a Mac-1 KO mouse and comparing it to a WT control. The role of RGD binding integrins in FBR was investigated by coating the implanted biomaterial with ELVAX(TM) polymer loaded with Echistatin which contains the RGD sequence. For the in-vivo osteolysis study and to study the in-vitro macrophage response to particulate biomaterials, we used the RGD peptide encapsulated in ELVAX

  18. 19 CFR 111.28 - Responsible supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsible supervision. 111.28 Section 111.28... TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.28 Responsible supervision... exercise responsible supervision and control (see § 111.1) over the transaction of the customs business...

  19. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  20. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  1. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  2. 30 CFR 282.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 282.12 Section 282... SULPHUR Jurisdiction and Responsibilities of Director § 282.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the regulation of activities to assure that all operations conducted under...

  3. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  4. 30 CFR 282.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 282.12 Section 282... Responsibilities of Director § 282.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  5. Communication Motives of Assertive and Responsive Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn M.; Martin, Matthew M.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that competent communicators (high assertive, high responsive) communicated from needs for affection, pleasure, and inclusion more than noncompetent (low assertive, low responsive), submissive (low assertive, high responsive), and aggressive (high assertive, low responsive) individuals. Shows that aggressive types communicated more from…

  6. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  7. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  8. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  9. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  10. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  11. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  12. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  13. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  14. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  15. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  16. 32 CFR 290.6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 290.6 Section 290.6 National... Responsibilities. (a) Headquarters. (1) The Assistant Director, Resources is responsible for: (i) The overall... Advisor, as required, in the discharge of their responsibilities. (iv) Coordinating Freedom of...

  17. 32 CFR 268.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 268.4 Section 268.4 National... COLLECTING AND REPORTING OF FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 268.4 Responsibilities..., or is otherwise assigned responsibility, is responsible for taking initial collection...

  18. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  19. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  20. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  1. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  2. 32 CFR 327.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 327.3 Section 327.3 National... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 327.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Director, DeCA. (1... requests received and prepares documentation to the office of primary responsibility (OPR) for response....

  3. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  4. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  5. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  6. 43 CFR 3480.0-6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3480.0-6 Section 3480.0... Exploration and Mining Operations Rules: General § 3480.0-6 Responsibilities. (a) Responsibilities of other Federal Agencies—(1) Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The responsibility...

  7. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  8. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.903 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities. 1274.903 Section 1274.903... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.903 Responsibilities. Responsibilities July 2002 (a.... NASA and the Recipient agree to the following Responsibilities, a statement of cooperative...

  10. 43 CFR 3480.0-6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3480.0-6 Section 3480.0... Exploration and Mining Operations Rules: General § 3480.0-6 Responsibilities. (a) Responsibilities of other Federal Agencies—(1) Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The responsibility...

  11. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  12. 48 CFR 201.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 201.602... Authority, and Responsibilities 201.602-2 Responsibilities. (d) Follow the procedures at PGI 201.602-2 regarding designation, assignment, and responsibilities of a contracting officer's representative (COR)....

  13. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  14. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  15. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  16. 43 CFR 20.103 - Employee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employee responsibilities. 20.103 Section 20.103 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 20.103 Employee responsibilities. It is the responsibility of each...

  17. 19 CFR 111.28 - Responsible supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsible supervision. 111.28 Section 111.28... TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.28 Responsible supervision... exercise responsible supervision and control (see § 111.1) over the transaction of the customs business...

  18. 19 CFR 111.28 - Responsible supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsible supervision. 111.28 Section 111.28... TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.28 Responsible supervision... exercise responsible supervision and control (see § 111.1) over the transaction of the customs business...

  19. 19 CFR 111.28 - Responsible supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsible supervision. 111.28 Section 111.28... TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.28 Responsible supervision... exercise responsible supervision and control (see § 111.1) over the transaction of the customs business...

  20. 48 CFR 201.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 201.602... Authority, and Responsibilities 201.602-2 Responsibilities. (1) Follow the procedures at PGI 201.602-2 regarding designation, assignment, and responsibilities of a contracting officer's representative (COR)....

  1. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  2. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR 707... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b)...

  3. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  4. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  5. 32 CFR 268.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 268.4 Section 268.4 National... COLLECTING AND REPORTING OF FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 268.4 Responsibilities..., or is otherwise assigned responsibility, is responsible for taking initial collection...

  6. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  7. 38 CFR 41.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 41.400... § 41.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities. Recipients expending more... audit work and reporting responsibilities among auditors to achieve the most cost-effective audit....

  8. 14 CFR 1274.903 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibilities. 1274.903 Section 1274.903... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.903 Responsibilities. Responsibilities July 2002 (a.... NASA and the Recipient agree to the following Responsibilities, a statement of cooperative...

  9. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.903 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities. 1274.903 Section 1274.903... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.903 Responsibilities. Responsibilities July 2002 (a.... NASA and the Recipient agree to the following Responsibilities, a statement of cooperative...

  11. 38 CFR 41.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 41.400... § 41.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities. Recipients expending more... audit work and reporting responsibilities among auditors to achieve the most cost-effective audit....

  12. 14 CFR 1274.903 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Responsibilities. 1274.903 Section 1274.903... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.903 Responsibilities. Responsibilities July 2002 (a.... NASA and the Recipient agree to the following Responsibilities, a statement of cooperative...

  13. 48 CFR 201.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 201.602... Authority, and Responsibilities 201.602-2 Responsibilities. (1) Follow the procedures at PGI 201.602-2 regarding designation, assignment, and responsibilities of a contracting officer's representative (COR)....

  14. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  15. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  16. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  17. 5 CFR 838.123 - Claimants' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Claimants' responsibilities. 838.123 Section 838.123 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Responsibilities § 838.123 Claimants' responsibilities. Claimants are responsible for— (a) Filing a certified...

  18. Static Response of Neutron Matter.

    PubMed

    Buraczynski, Mateusz; Gezerlis, Alexandros

    2016-04-15

    We generalize the problem of strongly interacting neutron matter by adding a periodic external modulation. This allows us to study from first principles a neutron system that is extended and inhomogeneous, with connections to the physics of both neutron-star crusts and neutron-rich nuclei. We carry out fully nonperturbative microscopic quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the energy of neutron matter at different densities, as well as different strengths and periodicities of the external potential. In order to remove systematic errors, we examine finite-size effects and the impact of the wave function ansatz. We also make contact with energy-density functional theories of nuclei and disentangle isovector gradient contributions from bulk properties. Finally, we calculate the static density-density linear response function of neutron matter and compare it with the response of other physical systems. PMID:27127963

  19. Static Response of Neutron Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraczynski, Mateusz; Gezerlis, Alexandros

    2016-04-01

    We generalize the problem of strongly interacting neutron matter by adding a periodic external modulation. This allows us to study from first principles a neutron system that is extended and inhomogeneous, with connections to the physics of both neutron-star crusts and neutron-rich nuclei. We carry out fully nonperturbative microscopic quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the energy of neutron matter at different densities, as well as different strengths and periodicities of the external potential. In order to remove systematic errors, we examine finite-size effects and the impact of the wave function ansatz. We also make contact with energy-density functional theories of nuclei and disentangle isovector gradient contributions from bulk properties. Finally, we calculate the static density-density linear response function of neutron matter and compare it with the response of other physical systems.

  20. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  1. Electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Vazifeh, M M; Franz, M

    2013-07-12

    It has been suggested recently, based on subtle field-theoretical considerations, that the electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals and the closely related Weyl insulators can be characterized by an axion term θE·B with space and time dependent axion angle θ(r,t). Here we construct a minimal lattice model of the Weyl medium and study its electromagnetic response by a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. We confirm the existence of the anomalous Hall effect expected on the basis of the field theory treatment. We find, contrary to the latter, that chiral magnetic effect (that is, ground state charge current induced by the applied magnetic field) is absent in both the semimetal and the insulator phase. We elucidate the reasons for this discrepancy. PMID:23889433

  2. Dynamic response of aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical and mathematical problems associated with the response of elastic structures to random excitations such as occurs during buffeting and other transonic phenomena were discussed. The following subjects were covered: (1) general dynamic system consisting of the aircraft structure, the aerodynamic driving forces due to separated flow, and the aerodynamic forces due to aircraft structural motion, (2) structural and aerodynamic quantities of the dynamic system with special emphasis given to the description of the aerodynamic forces, and including a treatment of similarity laws, scaling effects, and wind tunnel testing, and (3) methods for data processing of fluctuating pressure recordings and techniques for response analysis for random excitation. A general buffeting flutter model, which takes into account the interactions between the separated and motion induced flows was presented. Relaxations of this model leading to the forced vibration model were explained.

  3. The human auditory evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Figures are presented of computer-averaged auditory evoked responses (AERs) that point to the existence of a completely endogenous brain event. A series of regular clicks or tones was administered to the ear, and 'odd-balls' of different intensity or frequency respectively were included. Subjects were asked either to ignore the sounds (to read or do something else) or to attend to the stimuli. When they listened and counted the odd-balls, a P3 wave occurred at 300msec after stimulus. When the odd-balls consisted of omitted clicks or tone bursts, a similar response was observed. This could not have come from auditory nerve, but only from cortex. It is evidence of recognition, a conscious process.

  4. RORSCHACH SPACE RESPONSES AND ANGER.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Anna Maria; Chiorri, Carlo; Denevi, Simona

    2015-08-01

    In this study, three different subtypes of Space responses to the Rorschach test were hypothesized: S-fusion, S-reversal, and S-integration. The relationship between these subtypes and feelings of anger and aggression was investigated. The Rorschach test, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) were administered to 50 university students. Scores on the STAXI-2 were positively associated with S-fusion and negatively associated with S-integration. No significant associations of S subtypes with aggression were found. The findings support the hypothesis that different figure-ground relationships, shown in the subtypes of S responses, indicate different psychological processes. PMID:26107109

  5. Folate augmentation of antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Owen, R T

    2013-12-01

    The use of two antidepressants from the initiation of treatment in major depressive disorder has been investigated in several recent studies and forms a paradigm shift in the pharmacotherapy of the condition. Several, but not all, trials have claimed improved response and remission rates with the combinations as opposed to monotherapy. The use of folate preparations (folic and folinic acid and l-meth-ylfolate) have shown effective augmentation of antidepressant response in a variety of controlled and open-label settings in patients with normo- and hypofolatemic status. Several recent trials using L-methylfolate, the active and more bioavailable form of folic acid, have shown promising adjunctive use with a well-tolerated adverse event profile. PMID:24524097

  6. Frequency response of electrochemical cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Daniel L.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to examine the feasibility of using frequency response techniques (1) as a tool in destructive physical analysis of batteries, particularly for estimating electrode structural parameters such as specific area, porosity, and tortuosity and (2) as a non-destructive testing technique for obtaining information such as state of charge and acceptability for space flight. The phenomena that contribute to the frequency response of an electrode include: (1) double layer capacitance; (2) Faradaic reaction resistance; (3) mass transfer of Warburg impedance; and (4) ohmic solution resistance. Nickel cadmium cells were investigated in solutions of KOH. A significant amount of data was acquired. Quantitative data analysis, using the developed software, is planned for the future.

  7. Pharmacogenetics of Response to Statins

    PubMed Central

    Zineh, Issam

    2016-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. On average, statins improve lipid profiles and have been shown to have ancillary beneficial effects on inflammation, platelet activity, and endothelial function. However, variability in drug response exists regardless of the measured phenotype, and genetic variability may be a contributing factor. Recently, there has been an interesting shift in statin pharmacogenetic studies. Novel study designs have been employed and nontraditional candidate genes have been investigated in relation to both lipid and nonlipid responses to statins. This review outlines earlier pharmacogenetic studies and highlights newly published findings that expand on previous work. Furthermore, a framework is provided in which the necessary next steps in research are described, with the ultimate goal of translating pharmacogenetic findings into clinically meaningful changes in patient care. PMID:18241612

  8. Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-11-20

    The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) is a real-time emergency response modeling capability designed to advise Emergency Managers of the path, timing, and projected impacts from an atmospheric release. TRAC evaluates the effects of both radiological and non-radiological hazardous substances, gases and particulates. Using available surface and upper air meteorological information, TRAC realistically treats complex sources and atmospheric conditions, such as those found in mountainous terrain. TRAC calculates atmospheric concentration, deposition, and dose for more thanmore » 25,000 receptor locations within 80 km of the release point. Human-engineered output products support critical decisions on the type, location, and timing of protective actions for workers and the public during an emergency.« less

  9. Diagnosing dopamine-responsive dystonias.

    PubMed

    Malek, N; Fletcher, N; Newman, E

    2015-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of dopamine-responsive dystonias (DRDs) has expanded over the last decade to comprise several distinct disorders. At the milder end of the clinical spectrum is the autosomal-dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiency syndrome (GTPCH-DRD), and at the more severe end is the much less common autosomal recessive tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency syndrome (TH-DRD), with intermediate forms in between. Understanding the pathophysiology of DRDs can help in their optimal diagnosis and management. These are conditions with the potential to be either underdiagnosed when not considered or overdiagnosed if there is an equivocal L-dopa (levo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) response. In this article, we discuss the clinical phenotypes of these disorders, and we outline how investigations can help in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:26045581

  10. Identifying and managing clinical responsibility.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Mary; Shaw, Kirstyn; Drew, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Clinical responsibility is an area that requires extensive consideration and development to align with other changes in healthcare in the NHS. Increasing levels of litigation and investigation into the practice of medical practitioners have highlighted the need for clearer guidance for doctors. Using hypothetical case studies, this project explored the understandings and experiences of physicians and potential solutions in areas where there was ambiguity in clinical responsibility. In addition, existing policy and practice within trusts throughout the UK was analysed. The output from the focus group discussion and policy analysis led to the recommendations and guidance for doctors outlined in this paper, with the aim of illustrating the central themes that both doctors and trusts need to address in the future. PMID:18478855

  11. Response to Roger W. Hunt.

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    A response to a critique by Roger W. Hunt of my views on the eventual likely need to use age as a standard for the allocation of expensive, high-technology, life-extending medical care for the elderly. The response encompasses three elements: 1. that while the elderly have a substantial claim to publicly-provided health care, it cannot be an unlimited claim; 2. that a health care system which provided a decent, coherent set of medical and social services for the elderly would be sufficient, even if some limits had to be set; and 3. allocation and rationing decisions should not be made by individual doctors at the bedside but by regional or national policy. PMID:11643099

  12. Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.

    PubMed

    McSwain, Norman E

    2010-07-01

    The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios. PMID:20582507

  13. Physiology of the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Denburg, J. A.; Bienenstock, J.

    1979-01-01

    The established mechanisms of immune responsiveness to foreign or self components are reviewed, with particular reference to relevant clinical problems and current research. A multitiered immunological system of cellular and subcellular elements are involved when the body deals with perturbations from without or within. The concept exists that a delicate balance between positive ('helper') and negative ('suppressor') forces is essential to maintaining health. Brief discussion is given to diagnosis of immune abnormalities in the light of these facts. PMID:21297689

  14. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  15. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  16. Kerr response of nematic liquids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the results of recent observations of the Kerr effect in nematic liquid crystals in a temperature range just above their nematic-isotropic transition. These results indicate that the intermolecular ordering forces in a nematic substance can enhance the Kerr effect just above the nematic transition in their isotropic state. It is felt that existing theory provides a useful approximation for relating molecular size to response time.

  17. Thermomechanical response of WIPP repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.E.; Wahi, K.K.; Dial, B.

    1980-05-01

    Coarsely zoned STEALTH 2D calculations were used to investigate two candidate WIPP repositories. The grid was designed for one hundred thousand years of response with modest computing costs. As a result, the early time mechanical response was compromised by non-real oscillations that could not be damped completely before a few thousand years. In spite of these oscillations, it was possible to see that the dominant effects of stress and strain peaked between one and two thousand years, at the time of maximum heat in the site. This time corresponded to the condition that the surface heat loss rate balanced the heat generation rate. Though the creep strains were quite small, a large volume of salt was involved and the effects were significant. The peak surface uplift of 75HLW was increased by about 25% due to creep. However, the deviatoric stress relaxation due to creep produced large changes in the stress fields. The Rustler layer survived reasonable failure criterion for the 75HLW case with creep, and failed both in tension and shear, according to these same criterion, when the calculation was repeated without creep. The deviatoric stress fields, with and without salt creep, concentrated near the repository as expected and also in the Rustler layer due to its relatively high Young's modulus compared to the neighboring layers. Since the time of interest is so much smaller than the 100,000 years this calculation was designed to examine, it is possible to model the WIPP stratigraphy in much more detail and still be able to calculate the response for the time of interest. A finer zoned calculation of the response of the WIPP stratigraphy to a repository similar to the 75 K watt/acre repository is modeled in this report. In this calculation the Rustler formation is modeled as a five layered formation using material properties derived from data taken at the Nome site.

  18. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  19. Children's psychological responses to hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Vessey, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    The data-based literature addressing children's psychological responses to hospitalization was reviewed using methods outlined by Cooper (1989). Using a developmental science perspective, early research was reviewed and a model of variables that contribute to children's responses was constructed. This model consists of three major foci, including maturational and cognitive variables (developmental level, experience, coping style), ecological variables (family and hospital milieu), and biological variables (inborn factors and pathophysiology). Coping serves as the overarching framework for examining these variables and their contributions to children's responses to hospitalization. A variety of theoretical perspectives from the social sciences have been used, with psychoanalytic and stress and adaptation theories predominating. The majority of the research used simple case study, descriptive, or pre- and post-test designs. Methodologic issues were common. Little qualitative work has been done. Future research directions call for studies to adopt new theoretical and empirical models that are methodologically rigorous and clinically relevant and that embrace the precepts of developmental science. PMID:12858697

  20. Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2000-01-01

    Reduced atmospheric pressures will likely be used to minimize mass and engineering requirements for plant growth habitats used in extraterrestrial applications. This report provides a brief survey of key literature related to responses of plants to atmospheric variables and a broad rationale for designing minimal atmospheres for future plant growth structures on the Martian surface. The literature and recent work suggest that atmospheric pressure limits for normal plant function are likely to be 10 kPa or perhaps slightly lower. At Kennedy Space Center, a chamber with high vacuum capability was used to design and begin construction of a system for testing plant responses to reduced pressure atmospheres. A test rack with lighting provided by 3, high-pressure sodium vapor lamps was built to conduct measurements of short-term plant responses. Initial experiments with lettuce showed that a pressure of 10 kPa resulted in a 6.1-fold increase in the rate of water loss compared to water loss at ambient pressure (101 kPa).

  1. Hypothalamic neuronal responses to cytokines.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, M.

    1990-01-01

    Fever has been extensively studied in the past few decades. The hypothesis that hypothalamic thermosensitive neurons play a major role in both normal thermoregulation and in fever production and lysis has particularly helped to advance our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying the response to pyrogens. Furthermore, new data in the study of host defense responses induced by pyrogenic cytokines such as interleukin 1, interferon alpha 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6 have demonstrated that those factors have multiple, yet coordinated, regulatory activities in the central nervous system, so that our understanding of the role of the brain in the activity of these agents requires a new perspective and dimension. Thus, recent evidence from our laboratory indicates that blood-borne cytokines may be detected in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis and transduced there into neuronal signals. Such signals may then affect distinct, but partially overlapping, sets of neuronal systems in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, mediating directly and/or indirectly the array of various host defense responses characteristic of infection that are thought to be induced by blood-borne cytokines. PMID:2205055

  2. Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loukas, Alex; Prociv, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinoophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections. PMID:11585781

  3. Method for improving instrument response

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, David W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Johnsen, Howard A.; Flower, William L.

    2000-01-01

    This invention pertains generally to a method for improving the accuracy of particle analysis under conditions of discrete particle loading and particularly to a method for improving signal-to-noise ratio and instrument response in laser spark spectroscopic analysis of particulate emissions. Under conditions of low particle density loading (particles/m.sup.3) resulting from low overall metal concentrations and/or large particle size uniform sampling can not be guaranteed. The present invention discloses a technique for separating laser sparks that arise from sample particles from those that do not; that is, a process for systematically "gating" the instrument response arising from "sampled" particles from those responses which do not, is dislosed as a solution to his problem. The disclosed approach is based on random sampling combined with a conditional analysis of each pulse. A threshold value is determined for the ratio of the intensity of a spectral line for a given element to a baseline region. If the threshold value is exceeded, the pulse is classified as a "hit" and that data is collected and an average spectrum is generated from an arithmetic average of "hits". The true metal concentration is determined from the averaged spectrum.

  4. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  5. Cardiovascular response to punching tempo.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Len; Greene, Larry; Burkett, Zachary; Wongsathikun, Jataporn

    2003-02-01

    Eighteen trained volunteers (12 men and 6 women: age = 22.0 +/- 2.8 years, height = 170.79 +/- 7.67 cm, weight = 71.54 +/- 12.63 kg) participated in 2-minute, randomized fitness boxing trials, wearing 0.34-kg punching gloves, at various tempos (60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 b.min(-1)). During each trial, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), heart rate (HR), and ventilation (VE) were measured continuously. A rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was attained at the conclusion of each trial. Subjects were able to attain VO(2) values ranging from 26.83 to 29.75 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), which correspond to 67.7-72.5% of VO(2)max. The HR responses yielded results ranging from 167.4 to 182.2 b.min(-1), or 85 to 93% of HRmax. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was seen with VO(2) between trials, although a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed with HR, VE, and RPE. It appears that boxing speed is associated with increased VE, HR response, and perceived effort but not with VO(2). Energy expenditure values ranged from 9.8 to 11.2 kcal.min(-1) for the boxing trials. These results suggest that fitness boxing programs compare favorably with other exercise modalities in cardiovascular response and caloric expenditure. PMID:12580664

  6. Implicit dose-response curves.

    PubMed

    Pérez Millán, Mercedes; Dickenstein, Alicia

    2015-06-01

    We develop tools from computational algebraic geometry for the study of steady state features of autonomous polynomial dynamical systems via elimination of variables. In particular, we obtain nontrivial bounds for the steady state concentration of a given species in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. This species is understood as the output of the network and we thus bound the maximal response of the system. The improved bounds give smaller starting boxes to launch numerical methods. We apply our results to the sequential enzymatic network studied in Markevich et al. (J Cell Biol 164(3):353-359, 2004) to find nontrivial upper bounds for the different substrate concentrations at steady state. Our approach does not require any simulation, analytical expression to describe the output in terms of the input, or the absence of multistationarity. Instead, we show how to extract information from effectively computable implicit dose-response curves, with the use of resultants and discriminants. We moreover illustrate in the application to an enzymatic network, the relation between the exact implicit dose-response curve we obtain symbolically and the standard hysteresis diagram provided by a numerical ode solver. The setting and tools we propose could yield many other results adapted to any autonomous polynomial dynamical system, beyond those where it is possible to get explicit expressions. PMID:25008963

  7. Plant responses to water stress

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  8. ERGDB: Estrogen Responsive Genes Database.

    PubMed

    Tang, Suisheng; Han, Hao; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2004-01-01

    ERGDB is an integrated knowledge database dedicated to genes responsive to estrogen. Genes included in ERGDB are those whose expression levels are experimentally proven to be either up-regulated or down-regulated by estrogen. Genes included are identified based on publications from the PubMed database and each record has been manually examined, evaluated and selected for inclusion by biologists. ERGDB aims to be a unified gateway to store, search, retrieve and update information about estrogen responsive genes. Each record contains links to relevant databases, such as GenBank, LocusLink, Refseq, PubMed and ATCC. The unique feature of ERGDB is that it contains information on the dependence of gene reactions on experimental conditions. In addition to basic information about the genes, information for each record includes gene functional description, experimental methods used, tissue or cell type, gene reaction, estrogen exposure time and the summary of putative estrogen response elements if the gene's promoter sequence was available. Through a web interface at http://sdmc.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/ergdb/ cgi-bin/explore.pl users can either browse or query ERGDB. Access is free for academic and non-profit users. PMID:14681475

  9. The moral responsibility of the hospital.

    PubMed

    De George, R T

    1982-02-01

    The hospital has legal liability. Does it also have moral responsibility? Is it a moral agent, and if so in what sense? There are two issues involved, one conceptual and the other normative. The conceptual issue is whether a hospital can be morally responsible. If seen not only as a physical facility but as a formal organization, it can be said to act rationally, choose between alternatives, and affect human beings. It thus satisfies the criteria for moral responsibility, even though it is not a person. Though moral responsibility can be attributed intelligibly to a hospital, such responsibility can be assumed only by those within it who act for it. Such responsibility is agent responsibility and may be shared in a number of ways. Hospital responsibilities can be separated from the professional moral responsibility and the personal moral responsibility held by doctors, nurses, and others within a hospital. Assuming these three types of responsibility makes possible conflicts of responsibility for those who hold them. Normatively, the moral responsibility of the hospital is appropriately limited by its purpose and is primarily administrative. It has designatable moral responsibilities to its patients, doctors and nurses, and the public. These can be distinguished from the responsibilities of doctors and nurses to the public. The responsibility of a doctor on the hospital staff is different from the responsibility of a doctor who simply practices in the hospital; that of a staff nurse from that of a private nurse. The difference is in large part a function of the one sharing the responsibility of the hospital and the other not. An analysis of a hospital's moral responsibilities suggests structures appropriate to a hospital that wishes to meet its moral responsibilities. PMID:7086317

  10. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  11. Beyond Responsible Conduct: Taking Responsibility for the Responsible Conduct of Others

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Richard; Schneeweis, David M.; Hitsman, Brian; Daniels, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    A unique Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) course was created for Ph.D., M.D., and M.D./Ph.D. postdoctoral fellows and junior faculty at Northwestern University, some of whom had prior RCR training and some of whom did not. The unique feature of the course is its dual focus on learning the core elements of RCR and preparing participants for being responsible for guiding and monitoring RCR behaviors of others. These more advanced but still junior scientists are at a key junction where they are beginning to mentor and supervise others. A second unique element is a required conversation on at least two RCR topics with their current mentors, with a short written report, modeling explicit conversations about RCR prospectively. Overall response has been very positive with a high level of engagement. Formal and informal evaluation feedback reveals how participants see the value of the course and how it has shaped how they intend to guide others in the future. An important goal of the course is to also position high quality RCR and RCR training within the research environment, not just the classroom. PMID:25574255

  12. Caregiver Responsiveness to the Family Bereavement Program: What predicts responsiveness? What does responsiveness predict?

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfelder, Erin N.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Berkel, Cady; Ayers, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    The study developed a multi-dimensional measure to assess participant responsiveness to a preventive intervention, and applied this measure to study how participant baseline characteristics predict responsiveness and how responsiveness predicts program outcomes. The study was conducted with caregivers who participated in the parenting-focused component of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a prevention program for families that have experienced parental death. The sample consisted of 89 caregivers assigned to the intervention condition in the efficacy trial of the FBP. Positive parenting, caregiver depression, and child externalizing problems at baseline were found to predict caregivers’ use of program skills outside the group, and more child internalizing problems predicted more positive perceptions of the group environment. Higher levels of skill use during the program predicted increased positive parenting at the 11-month follow-up, whereas positive perceptions of the group environment predicted decreased caregiver depressive symptoms at follow-up. Caregiver skill use mediated the relation between baseline positive parenting and improvements in positive parenting at 11-month follow-up, and skill use and perceived group environment mediated changes in caregiver depression from baseline to 11-month follow-up. PMID:23404661

  13. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240

  14. Bearing response-ability: theater, ethics and medical education.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Kate

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses a growing concern within the medical humanities community regarding the perceived need for a more empathically-focused medical curricula, and advocates for the use of creative pedagogical forms as a means to attend to issues of suffering and relationality. Drawing from the ethical philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas, I critique the notion of empathy on the basis that it erases difference and disregards otherness. Rather, I propose that the concept of empathy may be usefully replaced with that of ethical responsibility, which suggests a shared sense of humanity outside the boundaries of presumed knowledge of the other. To illustrate this argument, I theorize the importance of theater within medical education. Theater, I argue, may engender ethical responsibility in the Levinasian sense, and thus may allow learners to differently engage with the experience of the suffering other. As such, I examine Margaret Edson's widely used play Wit as a platform for such an ethical encounter to occur. Thus, rather than working to understand the value of theater in medical education in terms of knowledge and skill acquisition, I theorize that its primacy within medical curricula arises from its ethical/relational potential, or potential to engender new forms of inter-human relationality. PMID:22109642

  15. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  16. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2's control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. PMID:27159240

  17. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  18. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  19. Are patients morally responsible for their errors?

    PubMed

    Buetow, S; Elwyn, G

    2006-05-01

    Amid neglect of patients' contribution to error has been a failure to ask whether patients are morally responsible for their errors. This paper aims to help answer this question and so define a worthy response to the errors. Recent work on medical errors has emphasised system deficiencies and discouraged finding people to blame. We scrutinize this approach from an incompatibilist, agent causation position and draw on Hart's taxonomy of four senses of moral responsibility: role responsibility; capacity responsibility; causal responsibility; and liability responsibility. Each sense is shown to contribute to an overall theoretical judgment as to whether patients are morally responsible for their errors (and success in avoiding them). Though how to weight the senses is unclear, patients appear to be morally responsible for the avoidable errors they make, contribute to or can influence. PMID:16648274

  20. Responsive space: Concept analysis and theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Dubos, Gregory F.

    2009-08-01

    Customers' needs are dynamic and evolve in response to unfolding environmental uncertainties. The ability of a company or an industry to address these changing customers' needs in a timely and cost-effective way is a measure of its responsiveness. In the space industry, a systemic discrepancy exists between the time constants associated with the change of customers' needs, and the response time of the industry in delivering on-orbit solutions to these needs. There are important penalties associated with such delays, and space responsiveness is recognized as a strategic imperative in commercial competitive and military environments. In this paper, we provide a critical assessment of the literature on responsive space and introduce a new multi-disciplinary framework for thinking about and addressing issues of space responsiveness. Our framework advocates three levels of responsiveness: a global industry-wide responsiveness, a local stakeholder responsiveness, and an interactive or inter-stakeholder responsiveness. We introduce and motivate the use of "responsiveness maps" for multiple stakeholders. We then identify "levers of responsiveness": technical spacecraft- and launch-centric, as well as "soft" levers (e.g., acquisition policies) for improving the responsiveness of the space industry. Finally, we propose a series of research questions to aggressively tackle problems associated with space responsiveness.