Science.gov

Sample records for membrane devices deployed

  1. Self-Deployable Membrane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.; Willis, Paul B.; Tan, Seng C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently existing approaches for deployment of large, ultra-lightweight gossamer structures in space rely typically upon electromechanical mechanisms and mechanically expandable or inflatable booms for deployment and to maintain them in a fully deployed, operational configuration. These support structures, with the associated deployment mechanisms, launch restraints, inflation systems, and controls, can comprise more than 90 percent of the total mass budget. In addition, they significantly increase the stowage volume, cost, and complexity. A CHEM (cold hibernated elastic memory) membrane structure without any deployable mechanism and support booms/structure is deployed by using shape memory and elastic recovery. The use of CHEM micro-foams reinforced with carbon nanotubes is considered for thin-membrane structure applications. In this advanced structural concept, the CHEM membrane structure is warmed up to allow packaging and stowing prior to launch, and then cooled to induce hibernation of the internal restoring forces. In space, the membrane remembers its original shape and size when warmed up. After the internal restoring forces deploy the structure, it is then cooled to achieve rigidization. For this type of structure, the solar radiation could be utilized as the heat energy used for deployment and space ambient temperature for rigidization. The overall simplicity of the CHEM self-deployable membrane is one of its greatest assets. In present approaches to space-deployable structures, the stow age and deployment are difficult and challenging, and introduce a significant risk, heavy mass, and high cost. Simple procedures provided by CHEM membrane greatly simplify the overall end-to-end process for designing, fabricating, deploying, and rigidizing large structures. The CHEM membrane avoids the complexities associated with other methods for deploying and rigidizing structures by eliminating deployable booms, deployment mechanisms, and inflation and control systems

  2. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Semi-permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) Deployed in the Ambient Air of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. H.; Cahill, C. F.

    2005-12-01

    Triolein containing semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in the ambient air of Alaska at five locations (Barrow, Poker Flat Research Range, Denali National Park and Preserve, Trapper Creek and Homer) during a one year study. Samples were screened for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorine compounds (OCPs). Total PCBs ranged from 5-30 ng/SPMD for three-month time-integrated samples. Measurements of selected PAH ratios suggest mixed sources (petrogenic and pyrogenic) at the five locations. The percent ratio of pp-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane] to total DDT (DDT and all metabolites) ranged from 17-66%. A higher percentage may indicate the presence of a fresh input of DDT into the atmosphere or non-metabolized DDT that has remained in the environment. Ratio of trans-chlordane (TC) to cis-chlordane (CC) varied from 0.7-1.2. Higher ratios of TC to CC may indicate fresh input into Alaska from various source regions during deployment of SPMDs.

  3. Umbilical Deployment Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Gallon, John C.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2011-01-01

    The landing scheme for NASA's next-generation Mars rover will encompass a novel landing technique (see figure). The rover will be lowered from a rocket-powered descent stage and then placed onto the surface while hanging from three bridles. Communication between the rover and descent stage will be maintained through an electrical umbilical cable, which will be deployed in parallel with structural bridles. The -inch (13-mm) umbilical cable contains a Kevlar rope core, around which wires are wrapped to create a cable. This cable is helically coiled between two concentric truncated cones. It is deployed by pulling one end of the cable from the cone. A retractable mechanism maintains tension on the cable after deployment. A break-tie tethers the umbilical end attached to the rover even after the cable is cut after touchdown. This break-tie allows the descent stage to develop some velocity away from the rover prior to the cable releasing from the rover deck, then breaks away once the cable is fully extended. The descent stage pulls the cable up so that recontact is not made. The packaging and deployment technique can store a long length of cable in a relatively small volume while maintaining compliance with the minimum bend radius requirement for the cable being deployed. While the packaging technique could be implemented without the use of break-ties, they were needed in this design due to the vibratory environment and the retraction required by the cable. The break-ties used created a series of load-spikes in the deployment signature. The load spikes during the deployment of the initial three coils of umbilical showed no increase between the different temperature trials. The cold deployment did show an increased load requirement for cable extraction in the region where no break-ties were used. This increase in cable drag was superimposed on the loads required to rupture the last set of break-ties, and as such, these loads saw significant increase when compared to

  4. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  5. Water-quality data from semipermeable-membrane devices and polar organic chemical integrative samplers deployed in the McKenzie River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Two types of passive samplers—the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS)—are being used to collect data from the McKenzie River, Oregon. The McKenzie River is the source of drinking water for the City of Eugene, Oregon, and passive-sampler data are part of an ongoing monitoring effort designed to help understand and protect the drinking water source. Data from the passive samplers are reported here. This data report is dynamic and will be appended with additional data as they become available.

  6. A SURVEY OF INDOOR AIR CONTAMINATES USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in indoor areas in approximately 50 residences along the border between Arizona and Mexico to measure airborne contaminants. The results of the primary analyses and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation for org...

  7. Conformal Membrane Reflectors for Deployable Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Patrick J.; Keys, Andrew S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation reports the Phase I results on NASA's Gossamer Spacecraft Exploratory Research and Technology Program. Cornerstone Research Group, Inc., the University of Rochester, and International Photonics Consultants collaborated to investigate the feasibility of free-standing, liquid-crystal-polymer (LCP) reflectors for integration into space-based optical systems. The goal of the program was to achieve large-diameter, broadband. reflective membranes that are resistant to the effects of space, specifically cryogenic environments and gamma-ray irradiation. Additionally, we assessed the applicability of utilizing the technology as tight sails, since, by their very nature, these films offer high-reflectivity at specified wavelengths. Previous research programs have demonstrated all-polymer, narrow-band Specular reflectors and diffuse membrane reflectors. The feasibility of fabricating an all-polymer broadband specular reflector and a narrow-band specular membrane reflector was assessed in the Phase I Gossamer program. In addition, preliminary gamma irradiation studies were conducted to determine the stability of the polymer reflectors to radiation. Materials and process technology were developed to fabricate coupon-scale reflectors of both broad- and narrow-band specular reflectors in Phase 1. This presentation will report the results of these studies, including, the performance of a narrow-band specular membrane. Gamma irradiation exposures indicate limited impact on the optical performance although additional exposure studies are warranted. Plans to scale up the membrane fabrication process will be presented.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Large In-Space Deployable Membrane Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Yang, Bingen; Ding, Hongli; Hah, John; Quijano, Ubaldo; Huang, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a vibration analysis of an eight-meter diameter membrane reflectarray antenna, which is composed of a thin membrane and a deployable frame. This analysis process has two main steps. In the first step, a two-variable-parameter (2-VP) membrane model is developed to determine the in-plane stress distribution of the membrane due to pre-tensioning, which eventually yields the differential stiffness of the membrane. In the second step, the obtained differential stiffness is incorporated in a dynamic equation governing the transverse vibration of the membrane-frame assembly. This dynamic equation is then solved by a semi-analytical method, called the Distributed Transfer Function Method (DTFM), which produces the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the antenna. The combination of the 2-VP model and the DTFM provides an accurate prediction of the in-plane stress distribution and modes of vibration for the antenna.

  9. Optimization Techniques for 3D Graphics Deployment on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskela, Timo; Vatjus-Anttila, Jarkko

    2015-03-01

    3D Internet technologies are becoming essential enablers in many application areas including games, education, collaboration, navigation and social networking. The use of 3D Internet applications with mobile devices provides location-independent access and richer use context, but also performance issues. Therefore, one of the important challenges facing 3D Internet applications is the deployment of 3D graphics on mobile devices. In this article, we present an extensive survey on optimization techniques for 3D graphics deployment on mobile devices and qualitatively analyze the applicability of each technique from the standpoints of visual quality, performance and energy consumption. The analysis focuses on optimization techniques related to data-driven 3D graphics deployment, because it supports off-line use, multi-user interaction, user-created 3D graphics and creation of arbitrary 3D graphics. The outcome of the analysis facilitates the development and deployment of 3D Internet applications on mobile devices and provides guidelines for future research.

  10. Inflatably Deployed Membrane Waveguide Array Antenna for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichodziejewski, David; Cravey, Robin; Hopkins, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    As an alternative to parabolic antennas and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems, waveguide arrays offer another method of providing RF transmit/receive communication apertures for spacecraft. The advantage of the membrane waveguide array concept, in addition to its lightweight and low packaged volume, is its inherent shape. Relative to parabolic antennas, the requirement to make an accurate doubly curved surface is removed. L'Garde and Langley Research Center (LaRC), are currently working in this area to develop lightweight waveguide array technologies utilizing thin film membrane structures. Coupled with an ultra-lightweight inflatably deployed rigidizable planar support structure, the system offers a very compelling technology in the fields of space-based radar, communications, and earth resource mapping.

  11. Using ERF Devices to Control Deployments of Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Salama, Moktar; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Steward; Jenkins, Christopher; Vinogradov, Aleksandra

    2003-01-01

    A report proposes devices containing electrorheological fluids (ERFs) damper for controlling deployments of lightweight, flexible structures in outer space. The structures would include spring members that could be wound or compressed for compact stowage during transport. The ERF based damper would keep the structures compacted and/or regulate the speeds with which the structures would spring out for deployment. After deployment, ERF based dampening mechanism could be used to rigidize the structures or damp their vibrations. An experimental ERF deployment controlled structure described in the report comprised two metal carpenter s measuring tapes sandwiched together, held slightly apart by rubber-band spacers, and placed in a bag filled with an ERF. The viscosity of the ERF varied with the voltage applied to the tapes, such that it was possible to hold the tapes in the wound condition or slow the speed with which they sprung from the wound to the straight condition. The report describes several potential variations on the basic concept of an ERF-controlled structural member, including compartmentalization of the interior volume to prevent total loss of the ERF in case of a leak and the use of multiple, individually addressable electrode pairs to enable more localized control.

  12. Caging mechanisms for the Mars Exploration Rover instrument deployment device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billing, Rius

    2003-09-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) program will land two rovers on the Martian surface in January 2004. Each will be equipped with a 5 degree-of-freedom, 1-meter long robotic arm known as the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD). The IDD will position instruments mounted to its end effector with greater precision than any previous Martian arm. Two dual-use caging mechanisms were designed for the IDD. The mechanisms are very small in size, and act as launch restraints as well as passive cradling (re-stowing) features during rover excursions on the Martian surface. The caging mechanisms are designed to use existing structural elements of the IDD to minimize mass and volume. The design also uses the IDD actuators to deploy and re-stow subsequent to the arm's release from the launch locks. Unique design elements are employed because typical release interfaces, such as those using shear-pins in engagement with spherical bearings, could not be utilized due to volume constraints. The final designs, however, do not sacrifice release performance. A cable-cutter and pin-puller, both with standard NSI pyrotechnic initiators, are used to unlatch the IDD after landing. The cable-cutter is used at the end effector in the area of the IDD instruments, which have the highest susceptibility to pyrotechnic shock. This paper discusses design tradeoffs and considerations for the two mechanisms, reasons for choosing each pyrotechnic device, lubrication methodology, thermal-vacuum system testing, and lessons learned.

  13. Evaluation of Absorbable Mesh Fixation Devices at Various Deployment Angles

    PubMed Central

    Zihni, Ahmed M.; Cavallo, Jaime A.; Thompson, Dominic M.; Chowdhury, Nabeel H.; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.; Deeken, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hernia repair failure may occur due to suboptimal mesh fixation by mechanical constructs before mesh integration. Construct design and acute penetration angle may alter mesh-tissue fixation strength. We compared acute fixation strengths of absorbable fixation devices at various deployment angles, directions of loading, and construct orientations. METHODS Porcine abdominal walls were sectioned. Constructs were deployed at 30, 45, 60, and 90 degree angles to fix mesh to the tissue specimens. Lap-shear testing was performed in upward, downward, and lateral directions in relation to the abdominal wall cranial-caudal axis to evaluate fixation. Absorbatack™ (AT), SorbaFix™ (SF), and SecureStrap™ in vertical (SSV) and horizontal (SSH) orientations in relation to the abdominal wall cranial-caudal axis were tested. Ten tests were performed for each combination of device, angle, and loading direction. Failure types and strength data were recorded. ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer adjustments for multiple comparisons and chi-square tests were performed as appropriate (p<0.05 considered significant). RESULTS At 30 degrees, SSH and SSV had greater fixation strengths (12.95 N, 12.98 N, respectively) than SF (5.70 N; p=0.0057, p=0.0053, respectively). At 45 degrees, mean fixation strength of SSH was significantly greater than SF (18.14 N, 11.40 N; p=0.0002). No differences in strength were identified at 60 or 90 degrees. No differences in strength were noted between SSV and SSH with different directions of loading. No differences were noted between SS and AT at any angle. Immediate failure was associated with SF (p<0.0001) and the 30 degree tacking angle (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Mesh-tissue fixation was stronger at acute deployment angles with SS compared to SF constructs. The 30 degree angle and the SF device were associated with increased immediate failures. Varying construct and loading direction did not generate statistically significant differences in the fixation

  14. Semipermeable membrane devices used to estimate bioconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas chromatography. All deployed devices sequestered quantifiable amounts of Aroclor 1254. Water-column SPMDs accumulated PCBs far in excess of ambient water concentrations. The devices contacting sediments accumulated PCBs at all sites, though accumulated concentrations did not exceed concentrations in sediment. Patterns of PCB concentration in the devices corresponded to the identified gradient at the site. Results from the water-column SPMDs were used to estimate the concentration of the dissolved, bioavailable fraction of PCBs present in the water column. These concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 ??g/L of bioavailable Aroclor 1254.

  15. Concept-Development of a Structure Supported Membrane for Deployable Space Applications - From Nature to Manufacture and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, Martin; Belvin, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Current space applications of membrane structures include large area solar power arrays, solar sails, antennas, and numerous other large aperture devices like the solar shades of the new James Webb Space Telescope. These expandable structural systems, deployed in-orbit to achieve the desired geometry, are used to collect, reflect and/or transmit electromagnetic radiation. This work, a feasibility study supporting a diploma thesis, describes the systematic process for developing a biologically inspired concept for a structure supported (integrated) membrane, that features a rip stop principle, makes self-deployment possible and is part of an ultra-light weight space application. Novel manufacturing of membrane prototypes and test results are presented for the rip-stop concepts. Test data showed that the new membrane concept has a higher tear resistance than neat film of equivalent mass.

  16. Design and demonstration of a high-temperature, deployable, membrane heat-pipe radiator element

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, V.L.; Keddy, E.S.; Merrigan, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Demonstration of a high-temperature, deployable, membrane heat-pipe radiator element has been conducted. Membrane heat pipes offer the potential for compact storage, ease of transportation, self-deployment, and a high specific radiator performance (kg/kW) for use in thermal reflection systems of space nuclear power plants. A demonstration heat pipe 8-cm wide and 100-cm long was fabricated. The heat pipe containment and wick structure were made of stainless steel and sodium used as the working fluid. The tests demonstrated passive deployment of the high-temperature membrane radiator, simulating a single segment in a flat array, at a temperature of 800 K. Details of test procedures and results of the tests are presented in this paper together with a discussion of the design and development of a full-scale, segmented high-temperature, deployable membrane heat pipe. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Development of a Device to Deploy Fluid Droplets in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.; Chai, An-Ti

    1997-01-01

    A free-floating droplet in microgravity is ideal for scientific observation since it is free of confounding factors such as wetting and nonsymmetrical heat transfer introduced by contact with surfaces. However, the technology to reliably deploy in microgravity has not yet been developed. In some recent fluid deployment experiments, droplets are either shaken off the dispenser or the dispenser is quickly retracted from the droplet. These solutions impart random residual motion to deployed droplet, which can be undesirable for certain investigations. In the present study, two new types of droplet injectors were built and tested. Testing of the droplet injectors consisted of neutral buoyancy tank tests, 5-sec drop tower tests at the NASA Lewis Zero Gravity Facility, and DC-9 tests. One type, the concentric injector, worked well in the neutral buoyancy tank but did not do well in low-gravity. However, it appeared that it makes a fine apparatus for constructing bubbles in low-gravity conditions. The other type, the T-injector, showed the most promise for future development. In both neutral buoyancy and DC-9 tests, water droplets were formed and deployed with some control and repeatability, although in low-gravity the residual velocities were higher than desirable. Based on our observations, further refinements are suggested for future development work.

  18. Design of a new membrane stretching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yiran

    Cell stretching device has been applied into the lab use for many years to help researchers study about the behavior of cells during the stretching process. Because the cell responses to the different mechanical stimuli, especially in the case of disease, the cell stretching device is a necessary tool to study the cell behavior in a controlled environment. However existing devices have limitations, such as too big to fit the culture chamber, unable to be observed during the stretching process and too expensive to fabricate. In this thesis, a new cell stretcher is designed to resolve these limitations. Many typical cell stretching devices only work under simple conditions. For instance they can only apply the strain on the cell in uniaxial or equibiaxial directions. On the other hand the environment of cells' survival is varying. Many new cell stretchers have been developed, which have the same property that cells can be stretched via the radical deformation of the elastomeric membrane. The aim of this new design is to create a cell stretching device that fits in general lab conditions. This device is designed to fit on a microscope to observe, as well as in the incubator. In addition, two small step motors are used to control the strain, adjust the frequency, and maintain the stability precisely. Problems such as the culture media leakage and the membrane breakage are solved by the usage of multiple materials for both the cell stretcher and the membrane. Based on the experimental results, this device can satisfy the requirements of target users with a reduced manufacturing cost. In the future, an auto-focus tracking function will be developed to allow real time observation of the cells' behavior.

  19. Deployable Emergency Shutoff Device Blocks High-Velocity Fluid Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a device and method for blocking the flow of fluid from an open pipe. Motivated by the sea-bed oil-drilling catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, NASA innovators designed the device to plug, control, and meter the flow of gases and liquids. Anchored with friction fittings, spikes, or explosively activated fasteners, the device is well-suited for harsh environments and high fluid velocities and pressures. With the addition of instrumentation, it can also be used as a variable area flow metering valve that can be set based upon flow conditions. With robotic additions, this patent-pending innovation can be configured to crawl into a pipe then anchor and activate itself to block or control fluid flow.

  20. Rapid deployment of internet-connected environmental monitoring devices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in electronic sensing and monitoring systems and the growth of the communications infrastructure have enabled users to gain immediate access to information and interaction with physical devices. To facilitate the uploading, viewing, and sharing of data via the internet, while avoiding the ...

  1. StarClose Vascular Closure Device: Prospective Study on 222 Deployments in an Interventional Radiology Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, Atique; Carter, Ranjana M. S. Phillips-Hughes, Jane; Boardman, Philip; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-07-15

    The StarClose device (Abbott Vascular Devices; Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA) utilizes an externally placed Nitinol clip to achieve arterial closure following femoral artery puncture. The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy and complications of the StarClose device in patients undergoing interventional radiological procedures. Preprocedural clotting status, pulse and blood pressure, severity of vessel calcification, sheath size, and time to deployment were recorded. Postdeployment complications immediately postprocedure, at 1 h, at 2 h, and at 1 week were recorded. A duplex scan was performed in the first 10 patients to assess any immediate vascular complications. Deployments were successful in 96% achieving immediate hemostasis. Mean deployment time was 48 s. There were no major complications. The StarClose device was found to have a high technical and clinical efficacy.

  2. Compositionally-Graded Shape Memory Film for Self-Deployment of Membrane Reflectors and Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Lisa; Carman, Greg; Brantley, Lott W., Sr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The next generation of space systems will require large apertures in order to image faint targets or cover large areas of Earth. These large apertures must be able to fit inside a launch vehicle fairing, be light enough for launch into orbit, and deploy on orbit with repeatability and reliability. The current state-of-the-art in flight optics is represented by the 4 meter LAMP telescope, with an areal density of 10 km sq m. Development of a Beryllium mirror demonstration article for NGST (Next Generation Space Telescope) at the University of Arizona indicate areal densities of 0.5 kg sq m with flight hardware in the 12 meter range. With progressive improvements in existing deployment, packaging, and structural technologies, the size of optics and reflectors will continue to increase, while mass is reduced. However, without a breakthrough in materials, packaging and/or deployment technologies, the goal for Gossamer structures of 0.1 kg sq m is unachievable for the near and mid-term NASA missions. Membrane technology provides the best hope of achieving such low areal densities. In combination with advances in membrane materials and structures, development of revolutionary techniques for deployment systems can provide significant improvements in large aperture technology. In this paper, the results of a six-month Phase I research effort to demonstrate the application of thin film NiTi to aerospace-qualified membrane and mesh materials are presented. Deposition of shape memory thin film was achieved Astromesh (trademark) metal mesh and CP-1, and optical-quality polymer membrane. Not only was full-coating deposition demonstrated, but also small segment deposition which holds potential for local surface control. Deployment of these materials was also demonstrated, setting the stage for the development of a larger test article.

  3. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  4. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  5. Optimization design combined with coupled structural-electrostatic analysis for the electrostatically controlled deployable membrane reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Yang, Guigeng; Zhang, Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatically controlled deployable membrane reflector (ECDMR) is a promising scheme to construct large size and high precision space deployable reflector antennas. This paper presents a novel design method for the large size and small F/D ECDMR considering the coupled structure-electrostatic problem. First, the fully coupled structural-electrostatic system is described by a three field formulation, in which the structure and passive electrical field is modeled by finite element method, and the deformation of the electrostatic domain is predicted by a finite element formulation of a fictitious elastic structure. A residual formulation of the structural-electrostatic field finite element model is established and solved by Newton-Raphson method. The coupled structural-electrostatic analysis procedure is summarized. Then, with the aid of this coupled analysis procedure, an integrated optimization method of membrane shape accuracy and stress uniformity is proposed, which is divided into inner and outer iterative loops. The initial state of relatively high shape accuracy and uniform stress distribution is achieved by applying the uniform prestress on the membrane design shape and optimizing the voltages, in which the optimal voltage is computed by a sensitivity analysis. The shape accuracy is further improved by the iterative prestress modification using the reposition balance method. Finally, the results of the uncoupled and coupled methods are compared and the proposed optimization method is applied to design an ECDMR. The results validate the effectiveness of this proposed methods.

  6. Study on Mini Re-Entry System Using Deployable Membrane Aeroshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Masashi; Suzuki, Kojiro; Imamura, Osamu; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    An aeroshell made from membrane material have an advantage of reduction in the aerodynamic heating, because its small mass and large area enable us to make the low-ballistic-coefficient flight, in which the vehicle decelerates at very high altitude with low atmospheric density. In this paper, we propose a new concept of mini re-entry system for small satellites. This vehicle is called "FEATHER" (Flexible Expanded Aeroshell with Tiny payload Harness for Entry and Recovery). "FEATHER" is a novel re-entry and recovery system, featuring the autonomous aeroshell deployment, the low-ballistic-coefficient re-entry with less severe aerodynamicc heating and so on. FEATHER is composed of the membrane aeroshell made from the high-temperature cloth called ZYLON®, an outer frame made of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) and a payload. When the aeroshell receives the aerodynamic heating, the temperature of SMA frame rises and restores the circular shape as memorized beforehand. Then the membrane aeroshell is automatically deployed. Therefore the vehicle can achieve the low-ballistic-coefficient flight with a drastic reduction in the aerodynamic heating without any additional sensors, controllers and actuators. The preliminary studies made on FEATHER system so far including the hypersonic wind tunnel experiments are presented in this paper.

  7. Acute limb ischemia caused by incorrect deployment of a clip-based arterial closure device

    PubMed Central

    Dzieciuchowicz, Łukasz; Stefaniak, Karolina; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Failure of a vascular closure device most commonly results in a hemorrhage or pseudoaneurysm formation. In this paper a rare case of severe acute limb ischemia following incorrect deployment of a clip-based closure device (Starclose SE, Abbott Vascular) in a 31-year-old woman is presented. Symptoms of acute limb ischemia occurred at the start of the ambulation, 6 h after completion of the procedure. Because of the severity of ischemia the patient was treated surgically, and limb perfusion was successfully restored. An attempt of closure of an inadvertently punctured narrow superficial femoral artery was identified as the cause of this complication. PMID:27458492

  8. SCREENING BIOAVAILABLE HYDROPHOBIC TOXICANTS IN SURFACE WATERS WITH SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES: ROLE OF INHERENT OLEIC ACID IN TOXICITY EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed for 4 weeks in two rivers in Lithuania, The SPMD dialysates were tested in the Microtox assay and, surprisingly, the sample from the relatively clean (U) over bar la River exhibited three times more toxicity than the sample fro...

  9. Deployable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A deployable antenna and method for using wherein the deployable antenna comprises a collapsible membrane having at least one radiating element for transmitting electromagnetic waves, receiving electromagnetic waves, or both.

  10. Enhancement of a Spring-mass System Model for Numerical Simulations of Centrifugal Deployment Dynamics of Folded Square Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuizumi, Nobukatsu; Muta, Azusa; Matunaga, Saburo

    In this paper, the spring-mass system model developed for simple numerical simulations of thin membranes is enhanced by taking into account the properties of buckling and creases. The model is applied to the numerical simulations of centrifugal deployments of folded square membranes that are small-scale models for solar sail spacecraft “IKAROS”. First the folding and deployment methods are reviewed. Then the formulation of the enhanced spring-mass system model is explained. Numerical simulations of the centrifugal deployments of two kinds of folded square membranes with different crease intervals are performed and the numerical results are compared with the corresponding experimental results. The deployment behaviors are discussed and the validity of the spring-mass system model is examined.

  11. Shape memory alloy film for deployment and control of membrane apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Lisa R.; Carman, Greg; Lee, Dong-Gun; Patrick, Brian

    2004-02-01

    Nickel Titanium (NiTi) film shape memory alloy (SMA) is integrated with space-qualified polymer and mesh materials for potential use as deployment mechanisms and actuation of flexible space apertures. SMA thin film is successfully applied to Astromesh metal mesh, Kapton, Upilex, and CP-1 polymer films. Sputter deposition of NiTi onto the substrate is used to validate the material system process and demonstrate the NiTi deployment capability. Although successful, the relatively high processing temperatures required to crystallize NiTi onto the substrates requires care. A second approach is demonstrated that deposits NiTi onto a silicon substrate, followed by coating the NiTi with the desired polymer, e.g. CP-1. Micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) processing steps are then used to remove the silicon substrate beneath the NiTi, thus freeing up the composite membrane (i.e. NiTi + CP-1). Using MEMS fabrication techniques, a hot-shaped small dome shape structure is shaped into the NiTi before deposition of the CP-1 polymer. Activation of the integrated SMA/CP-1 produces deformation of this composite structure without damage. The test articles demonstrate the feasibility to both grossly deploy and locally actuate space-qualified polymer materials.

  12. Use of Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) in Petroleum Polluted Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Passive samplers, in particular semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), can be used in monitoring petroleum spills. This document is intended to provide a brief discussion of issues surrounding the use and capabilities of the SPMD.

  13. Development of active-transport membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-07-01

    This report introduces the concept of Air Products` AT membranes for the separation of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} from process gas streams and presents results from the first year fabrication concept development studies.

  14. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  15. A new attachment device for deployment of monitoring equipment in estuaries and other high-energy environments.

    PubMed

    Riley, Lance W; Dix, Nicole; Phlips, Edward J

    2011-02-01

    Biomonitoring is an important component of estuarine research and monitoring programs because living organisms integrate biological, chemical, and physical conditions over time. The deployment of biomonitoring devices in ecosystems that are subject to changes in water level and flow can be very challenging. This paper describes a new device, which facilitates such applications such as the deployment of periphytometers. The device is designed to encircle posts, poles, or pilings, such as channel markers common in many waterways. This device has been evaluated and approved for use by the US Coast Guard, needed for attachment to navigational aids. It allows attachment of monitoring devices requiring in situ deployment at fixed water depths in systems with dynamic water levels or velocities while minimizing the potential for shading, damage, theft, or poor long-term performance. PMID:20238240

  16. Use of mussels and semipermeable membrane devices to assess bioavailability of residual polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons three years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Shigenaka, G.; Henry, C.B. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels (Mytilus cf. trossulus) were transplanted to a heavily oiled and extensively treated site on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1992. A new monitoring and assessment tool, the semipermeable membrane device, was also deployed to compare hydrocarbon uptake with mussels and to evaluate the route of exposure to mussels. Both mussels and semipermeable membrane devices accumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during 14- and 52-day deployments, particularly at the oiled site. Accumulation levels were similar between mussels and the semipermeable membrane devices, but the distribution of individual hydrocarbons differed. The results permit some inference about route of exposure to mussels. Sheens leaching from subsurface deposits of residual oil, and particulate material with adsorbed hydrocarbons were apparently more important exposure pathways than dissolved hydrocarbons in water. Semipermeable membrane devices show promise as monitoring tools and to provide insights into exposure pathways for biota. 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Justin H.; Bassett, Erik K.; Penson, Elliot J. N.; Hoganson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m2 of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m2 of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions. PMID:26020102

  18. ACTIVE DELIVERY CABLE TUNED TO DEVICE DEPLOYMENT STATE: ENHANCED VISIBILITY OF NITINOL OCCLUDERS DURING PRE-CLINICAL INTERVENTIONAL MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jamie A.; Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Franson, Dominique N.; Sonmez, Merdim; Slack, Michael C.; Lederman, Robert J.; Kocaturk, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop an active delivery system that enhances visualization of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during deployment under real-time MRI. Materials and Methods We constructed an active delivery cable incorporating a loopless antenna and a custom titanium microscrew to secure the occluder devices. The delivery cable was tuned and matched to 50Ω at 64 MHz with the occluder device attached. We used real-time balanced SSFP in a wide-bore 1.5T scanner. Device-related images were reconstructed separately and combined with surface-coil images. The delivery cable was tested in vitro in a phantom and in vivo in swine using a variety of nitinol cardiac occluder devices. Results In vitro, the active delivery cable provided little signal when the occluder device was detached and maximal signal with the device attached. In vivo, signal from the active delivery cable enabled clear visualization of occluder device during positioning and deployment. Device release resulted in decreased signal from the active cable. Post-mortem examination confirmed proper device placement. Conclusions The active delivery cable enhanced the MRI depiction of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during positioning and deployment, both in conventional and novel applications. We expect enhanced visibility to contribute to effectiveness and safety of new and emerging MRI-guided treatments. PMID:22707441

  19. High-Precision Shape Control of In-Space Deployable Large Membrane/Thin-Shell Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Ronald; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This innovation has been developed to improve the resolutions of future spacebased active and passive microwave antennas for earth-science remote sensing missions by maintaining surface figure precisions of large membrane/thin-shell reflectors during orbiting. The intention is for these sensing instruments to be deployable at orbit altitudes one or two orders of magnitude higher than Low Earth Orbit (LEO), but still being able to acquire measurements at spatial resolution and sensitivity similar to those of LEO. Because active and passive microwave remote sensors are able to penetrate through clouds to acquire vertical profile measurements of geophysical parameters, it is desirable to elevate them to the higher orbits to obtain orbital geometries that offer large spatial coverage and more frequent observations. This capability is essential for monitoring and for detailed understanding of the life cycles of natural hazards, such as hurricanes, tropical storms, flash floods, and tsunamis. Major components of this high-precision antenna-surface-control system include a membrane/thin shell reflector, a metrology sensor, a controller, actuators, and corresponding power amplifier and signal conditioning electronics (see figure). Actuators are attached to the back of the reflector to produce contraction/ expansion forces to adjust the shape of the thin-material reflector. The wavefront-sensing metrology system continuously measures the surface figure of the reflector, converts the surface figure to digital data and feeds the data to the controller. The controller determines the control parameters and generates commands to the actuator system. The flexible, piezoelectric polymer actuators are thus activated, providing the control forces needed to correct any distortions that exist in the reflector surface. Piezoelectric polymer actuators are very thin and flexible. They can be implemented on the back of the membrane/thin-shell reflector without introducing significant

  20. A new integrated membrane filtration and chromatographic device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanke; Sirkar, Kamalesh K; Dai, Xiao-Ping; Luo, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    To improve protein separation, a novel integrated device combining membrane filtration and chromatography has been developed. The device basically consists of a hollow fiber filtration module whose shell side is filled with chromatographic resin beads. However, there is an essentially impermeable coated zone near the hollow fiber module outlet. The integrated device enjoys the advantages of both membrane filtration and chromatography; it also allows one to load the chromatographic media directly from the fermentation broth or lysate and separate the adsorbed proteins through the subsequent elution step in a cyclic process. Interfacial polymerization was carried out to coat the bottom section of the hollow fiber membrane; the rest of the hollow fiber membrane remained unaffected. Myoglobin (Mb) and alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) were primarily used as model proteins in a binary mixture; binary mixtures of Mb and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were also investigated. Separation behaviors of binary protein mixtures were studied in devices having either an ultrafiltration (UF) or a microfiltration (MF) membrane. Experimental results show that the breakthrough time and the protein loading capacities were dramatically improved after introducing the impermeable coating in both UF and MF modules. For a synthetic yeast fermentation broth feed, four loading-washing-elution-reequilibration-based cyclic runs for separation of Mb and alpha-LA were performed in the device using a MF membrane with a coated zone without cleaning in between. The Mb and alpha-LA elution profiles for the four consecutive runs were almost superimposable. Due to lower transmembrane flux in this device plus the periodical washing-elution during the chromatographic separation, fouling was not a problem, unlike in conventional microfiltration. PMID:15801803

  1. Event monitoring of herbicides with naked and membrane-covered Empore disk integrative passive sampling devices.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B Scott; Kapernick, Anita P; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-08-01

    Subsequent to an initial wet season flood event in the Brisbane River, Australia, both fast (naked disk) and slow (membrane-covered) variants of SDB-RPS Empore disk passive sampling devices were deployed with an automated grab sampling program. A trend increase in the aquatic dissolved concentrations of diuron and simazine was observed over a 10-day period. Kinetic and equilibrium parameters for each sampler were calculated based on the dynamic concentration. Absolute percent difference for duplicate passive samples was <10% in the fast and <25% in the slow samplers. For kinetic sampling, significantly shortened integrative periods are available with the fast compared with the slow variant, with higher sampling rates offering improved detection limits. The study demonstrates a method for determining kinetic parameters of passive samplers in a variable concentration field deployment, and illustrates the differences in quality between active and passive data, in terms of capturing changes in concentration associated with rainfall events. PMID:19520390

  2. Deployment of Mobile Learning Course Materials to Android Powered Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to facilitate mobile teaching and learning by providing an alternative course material deployment method. This article suggests a course material deployment platform for small universities or individual instructors. Different from traditional course material deployment methods, the method discussed deploys course…

  3. Optimised design and development of a bio-medical healthcare device through quality function deployment (QFD).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jitendra

    2012-01-01

    Technology is major stimulus for change and is imbibed in various forms; especially in the field of medical devices and bio-medical instruments used in life and death situations. Cardiotocograph (CTG), a foetal heart rate and uterine contraction monitoring and measurement machine, is a valuable tool in the process of childbirth. The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is an engineering technique with the number one priority being to satisfy the customer. The aim of using QFD in this paper is to highlight the limitations and complexities of the present instrument. The paper attempts to first discuss out the operational details of the instrument along with a brief review of the relevant literature. Following this, its functional analysis is carried out through QFD - a TQM tool. The resultant outcome enlists CTG functions with their Raw Weight and Priority Score. A detailed theoretical analysis of results pinpoints basic functional limitation of exiting machine. PMID:23008844

  4. Concurrent actuator development for the Mars Exploration Rover instrument deployment device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischner, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Five unique rotary actuators were developed for the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD), a five degree-of-freedom robotic arm designed to give the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) the ability to gain physical access to the rocks and soil in the Martian environment. These actuators enable the IDD to accurately position each of four separate instruments attached to its end effector against and near geological specimens selected for scientific investigation. This paper describes developmental challenges encountered during the design, fabrication, and testing of the IDD actuators. Shown is that these challenges were associated with fulfilling high torque, high accuracy, low mass, and low volume requirements imposed upon the actuators. In addition, development of the actuators involved integrating their designs into the IDD system. The IDD system is comprised of its actuators, interconnecting structural components, flexible power and signal cables with a corresponding cable management system, launch restraint and re-stow components, and the IDD payload of four scientific instruments.

  5. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    SciTech Connect

    DiMambro, Joseph; Roach, Dennis P; Rackow, Kirk A; Nelson, Ciji L; Dasch, Cameron J; Moore, David G

    2013-02-12

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  6. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    SciTech Connect

    DiMambro, Joseph; Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk A.; Nelson, Ciji L.; Dasch, Cameron J.; Moore, David G.

    2012-01-03

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  7. Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Membranes for Cellular Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Anthony P.

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membranes can be fabricated with a highly tunable pore structure making them a suitable candidate for cellular hybrid devices with single-molecule selectivity. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular response of AAO membranes with varying pore sizes to serve as a proof-of-concept for an artificial material/cell synapse system. AAO membranes with pore diameters ranging from 34-117 nm were achieved via anodization at a temperature of -1°C in a 2.7% oxalic acid electrolyte. An operating window was established for this setup to create membranes with through-pore and disordered pore morphologies. C17.2 neural stem cells were seeded onto the membranes and differentiated via serum withdrawal. The data suggests a highly tunable correlation between AAO pore diameter and differentiated cell populations. Analysis of membranes before and after cell culture indicated no breakdown of the through-pore structure. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) showed that AAO membranes had increased neurite outgrowth when compared to tissue culture treated (TCT) glass, and neurite outgrowth varied with pore diameter. Additionally, lower neuronal percentages were found on AAO as compared to TCT glass; however, neuronal population was also found to vary with pore diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ICC images suggested the presence of a tissue-like layer with a mixed-phenotype population. AAO membranes appear to be an excellent candidate for cellular devices, but more work must be completed to understand the surface chemistry of the AAO membranes as it relates to cellular response.

  8. Smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Menendez, Michael; Minei, Brenden; Wong, Kyle; Gabrick, Caton; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    This paper explains the development of smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting, or Deployable Disaster Devices (D3), where wind turbines and solar panels are developed in modular forms, which can be tied together depending on the needed power. The D3 packages/units can be used: (1) as a standalone unit in case of a disaster where no source of power is available, (2) for a remote location such as a farm, camp site, or desert (3) for a community that converts energy usage from fossil fuels to Renewable Energy (RE) sources, or (4) in a community system as a source of renewable energy for grid-tie or off-grid operation. In Smart D3 system, the power is generated (1) for consumer energy needs, (2) charge storage devices (such as batteries, capacitors, etc.), (3) to deliver power to the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is larger than consumption and storage recharge needs, or (4) to draw power from the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is less than consumption and storage recharge needs. The power generated by the Smart D3 systems are routed through high efficiency inverters for proper DC to DC or DC to AC for final use or grid-tie operations. The power delivery from the D3 is 220v AC, 110v AC and 12v DC provide proper power for most electrical and electronic devices worldwide. The power supply is scalable, using a modular system that connects multiple units together. This are facilitated through devices such as external Input-Output or I/O ports. The size of the system can be scaled depending on how many accessory units are connected to the I/O ports on the primary unit. The primary unit is the brain of the system allowing for smart switching and load balancing of power input and smart regulation of power output. The Smart D3 systems are protected by ruggedized weather proof casings allowing for operation

  9. ActiviTeen: A Protocol for Deployment of a Consumer Wearable Device in an Academic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Tueller, Stephen J; Cook, Sarah L; Furberg, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) can be an important indicator of health across an individual’s life span. Consumer wearables, such as Fitbit or Jawbone, are becoming increasingly popular to track PA. With the increased adoption of activity trackers comes the increased generation of valuable individual-based data. Generated data has the potential to provide detailed insights into the user’s behavior and lifestyle. Objective The primary objective of the described study is to evaluate the feasibility of individual data collection from the selected consumer wearable device (the Fitbit Zip). The rate of user attrition and barriers preventing the use of consumer wearable devices will also be evaluated as secondary objectives. Methods The pilot study will occur in two stages and employs a long-term review and analysis with a convenience sample of 30 students attending Research Triangle High School. For the first stage, students will initially be asked to wear the Fitbit Zip over the course of 4 weeks. During which time, their activity data and step count will be collected. Students will also be asked to complete a self-administered survey at the beginning and conclusion of the first stage. The second stage will continue to collect students’ activity data and step count over an additional 3-month period. Results We are anticipating results for this study by the end of 2016. Conclusion This study will provide insight into the data collection procedures surrounding consumer wearable devices and could serve as the future foundation for other studies deploying consumer wearable devices in educational settings. PMID:27457824

  10. APPLICATION OF SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES TO INDOOR AIR SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a relatively new passive sampling technique for nonpolar organic compounds that have been extensively used for surface water sampling. A small body of literature indicates that SPMDs are also useful for air sampling. Because SPMDs ha...

  11. The data protection and medical device frameworks - obstacles to the deployment of mHealth across Europe?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Paul; Habbig, Ann-Katrin; Mantovani, Eugenio; De Hert, Paul

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the receptivity of the current EU legal regime towards innovative mHealth technologies and their deployment on a pan-European basis. At present, a coherent legal strategy towards the development of mHealth technologies does not exist. The deployment of such technologies is influenced in an uncoordinated way by various disparate European legislative initiatives. This article focuses on problems that may be encountered by mHealth platforms through application of the Medical Device and Data Protection Frameworks. Theses frameworks are analysed in this article through the lens of a pan-European deployment of mHealth technologies. The aim throughout is to look for potential problems for the deployment of such technologies posed by these frameworks and, where possible, to suggest improvements. PMID:23772463

  12. Mathematical modeling of a flat-membrane-controlled release device

    SciTech Connect

    Ramraj, R.; Farrell, S.; Loney, N.W.

    1999-08-01

    The closed form solution to a mathematical model of a flat membrane device successfully predicts the release profile of benzoic acid. Physically, the device consists of a given concentration of benzoic acid in octanol (reservoir) bounded by a microporous flat film (Cellgard 2400) with water-filled pores. The prediction shows excellent agreement with the experimentally derived release profile (maximum difference < 10%). Predicted results are obtained from the use of the steady state plus the first term of the transient solution (infinite series) and with the use of the first nonzero eigenvalue.

  13. A venturi device reduces membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kayaalp, Necati; Ozturkmen, Gokmen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, for the first time, a venturi device was integrated into a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) to improve membrane surface cleaning and bioreactor oxygenation. The performances of a blower and the venturi device were compared in terms of membrane fouling and bioreactor oxygenation. Upon comparing membrane fouling, the performances were similar for a low operation flux (18 L/m(2).h); however, at a medium flux (32 L/m(2).h), the venturi system operated 3.4 times longer than the blower system, and the final transmembrane pressure was one-third that of the blower system. At the highest flux studied (50 L/m(2).h), the venturi system operated 5.4 times longer than the blower system. The most notable advantage of using a venturi device was that the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the MBR was in the range of 7 to 8 mg/L at a 3 L/min aeration rate, while the DO concentration of the MBR was inadequate (a maximum of 0.29 mg/L) in the blower system. A clean water oxygenation test at a 3 L/min aeration rate indicated that the standard oxygen transfer rate for the venturi system was 9.5 times higher than that of the blower system. PMID:27386992

  14. Separation of bioactive peptides by membrane processes: technologies and devices.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Laurent; Firdaous, Loubna

    2013-04-01

    Although many patents reported bioactive peptides with numerous demonstrated bioactivities and potential applications, there exist some limitations to the production of large quantities to satisfy the growing market demands. Indeed, considering that most functional peptides are present in complex matrices containing a large number of hydrolyzed protein fractions, their separation and purification are required. Some advances have been made in the use of conventional pressure-driven processes for the continuous production and separation of peptides, however, most of these patented technologies are not scalable and demonstrate a low selectivity when separating similar sized biomolecules. To improve the separation efficiency, the use of an external electric field during pressure-driven filtration was proposed and patented. However, whatever the claims, the pressure gradient brings about the accumulation of peptides at the nearby membrane surface and affects the membrane transport selectivity. To overcome these drawbacks, a recent patent proposed the simultaneous fractionation of acidic and basic peptides, using a conventional electrodialysis cell, in which some ion exchange membranes are replaced by ultrafiltration ones. The perspectives in the field of peptide separation will be the development of new membrane materials and new equipments such as microfluidic devices to improve selectivity and yield of production. PMID:23003009

  15. A Novel Teflon-membrane Gas Tension Device for Denitrification-studies in Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, A. C.; McNeil, C. L.; D'Asaro, E. A.; Altabet, M. A.; Johnson, B.; Bourbonnais, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) are global hotspots for the biogeochemical transformation of biologically-available forms of nitrogen to unusable nitrogen-gas. We present a new Teflon-membrane based Gas Tension Device (GTD) for measuring the excess N2 signal generated by denitrification and anammox in OMZs, with a hydrostatic pressure-independent response and a depth range from 0 - 550 m, a significant advancement from previous GTD models. The GTD consists of a 4/1000" thick by 2" diameter Teflon-membrane with a water-side plenum connected to SeaBird 5T pump. Dissolved gases in the water equilibrate across the membrane with a low-dead-volume housing connected to a high-precision quart pressure sensor. Laboratory data characterizing the GTD will be presented. The e-folding (response) time ranges from 14 min at continuous (100%) pumping to 28 min at pulse (10%) pumping. We also demonstrate the pressure dependence of the partial pressures from Henry's Law in the laboratory for pure nitrogen, pure oxygen, and standard atmospheric ratios of gases. GTD's were field tested on two floats deployed in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) OMZ for 15 days that targeted a productive mesoscale surface eddy originating from the Mexican coast. We anticipated that high organic carbon export should stimulate denitrification within the OMZ below. The floats profiled between the surface and 400 m depth and concurrently measured T, S, PAR, O2 (SBE 43 and Optode), and nitrate (SUNA). The N2-profiles from the GTDs are validated against independently measured N2/Ar ratio data collected during the deployment.

  16. Nanoscale pressure sensors realized from suspended graphene membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera-Servin, Juan; Miao, Tengfei; Bockrath, Marc

    2015-02-23

    We study the transport properties of graphene layers placed over ∼200 nm triangular holes via attached electrodes under applied pressure. We find that the injected current division between counter electrodes depends on pressure and can be used to realize a nanoscale pressure sensor. Estimating various potential contributions to the resistivity change of the deflected graphene membrane including piezoresistivity, changing gate capacitance, and the valley Hall effect due to the pressure-induced synthetic magnetic field, we find that the valley Hall effect yields the largest expected contribution to the longitudinal resistivity modulation for accessible device parameters. Such devices in the ballistic transport regime may enable the realization of tunable valley polarized electron sources.

  17. Spatial and temporal benthic species assemblage responses with a deployed marine tidal energy device: a small scaled study.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Melanie; Orme, C David L

    2014-08-01

    The addition of man-made structures to the marine environment is known to increase the physical complexity of the seafloor, which can influence benthic species community patterns and habitat structure. However, knowledge of how deployed tidal energy device structures influence benthic communities is currently lacking. Here we examined species biodiversity, composition and habitat type surrounding a tidal energy device within the European Marine Energy Centre test site, Orkney. Commercial fishing and towed video camera techniques were used over three temporal periods, from 2009 to 2010. Our results showed increased species biodiversity and compositional differences within the device site, compared to a control site. Both sites largely comprised of crustacean species, omnivore or predatory feeding regimes and marine tide-swept EUNIS habitat types, which varied over the time. We conclude that the device could act as a localised artificial reef structure, but that further in-depth investigations are required. PMID:24840255

  18. Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of the Tympanic Membrane Contact Hearing Aid. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-01-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the tympanic membrane contact hearing aid into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the tympanic membrane contact hearing aid's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26803881

  19. Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

  20. Design and Sizing of a 40M2 Deployable Membrane SAR Space Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straubel, Marco; Huhne, Christian; Arlt, Christine; Langlois, Stephane; Sinapius, Michael

    2012-07-01

    As there is still a demand for large SAR apertures for L and P-band, DLR and ESA decide in 2007 to start a collaborative study on VERY LARGE STABLE MEMBRANE ANTENNA ARCHITECTURES that is focussed on gossamer structures. The results of this study are shown in the paper. It contains a brief discussion on available conventional and gossamer antenna designs and introduces the elaborated design of our study. In addition, the sizing of the antenna parts is presented in extracts. An automated sizing approach involving routines in MATLAB and ANSYS is introduces that performs an autonomous sizing of such antenna structure for launch and operation loads within a time frame of about 8 minutes. Finally, this automatic sizing approach is used to do a parameter study and show the consequence of changed requirements or antenna membrane specification on the over all mass and mass spreading.

  1. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as universal environmental monitors for trace contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Prest, H.F.; Hodgins, M.M.; Jacobson, L.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Brown, J.; Wilson, M.

    1995-12-31

    The vast majority of data complied on trace contaminants in water has been acquired through biomonitoring; using organisms as bioconcentrators of trace substances. A particularly successful and widely applied approach utilizes bivalves in local, national, and international mussel watch programs. Attractive features of this approach are the widespread occurrence of bivalves, their high tolerance and viability, ease of analysis, and high bioconcentration factors for a wide range of compounds. However, uncertainties about uptake, deputation and biotransformation of contaminants convolute the data and make quantitative statements about water concentrations difficult. Recent developments demonstrate semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are a promising new tool for biomonitoring. SPMDs are inexpensive, tolerant of extreme conditions, and concentrations of analytes sequestered by SPMDs can be used to infer bioconcentration potential and average ambient concentrations. The authors present data from freshwater systems such as the San Juan River comparing spatial trends in PAH metabolites in fish bile and PAHs sequestered by SPMDs, and marine environments such as PAHs in SPMDs deployed in Cook Inlet, Alaska. These data support the case for SPMDs as universal monitoring devices or pseudo-organisms that will provide a standardized approach to measuring and monitoring trace contaminants on both local and global scales.

  2. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  3. 78 FR 1158 - Anesthesiology Devices; Reclassification of Membrane Lung for Long-Term Pulmonary Support...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ..., 1979 (44 FR 63387), FDA published a proposed rule for classification of membrane lungs for long-term... rule and on July 16, 1982 (47 FR 31130), a final rule was published for membrane lungs for long- term... requirement for premarket approval for membrane lungs for long-term pulmonary support devices (52 FR 17732...

  4. Device and method for the measurement of gas permeability through membranes

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Ackerman, John; Borgialli, Ron; Hamann, Jerry; Muknahalliptna, Suresh

    2006-08-08

    A device for the measuring membrane permeability in electrical/electrochemical/photo-electrochemical fields is provided. The device is a permeation cell and a tube mounted within the cell. An electrode is mounted at one end of the tube. A membrane is mounted within the cell wherein a corona is discharged from the electrode in a general direction toward the membrane thereby generating heated hydrogen atoms adjacent the membrane. A method for measuring the effects of temperature and pressure on membrane permeability and selectivity is also provided.

  5. Purification of triolein for use in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lebo, J.A.; Almeida, F.V.; Cranor, W.L.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Rastall, A.; Alvarez, D.A.; Mogensen, B.B.; Johnson, B.T.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have sometimes been impeded by interferences caused by impurities endemic to triolein that codialyze with the analytes. Oleic acid and methyl oleate have been the most troublesome of these impurities because of their relatively high concentrations in triolein and because significant residues of both can persist even after size exclusion chromatographic (SEC) fractionation. These residues have also been blamed for false-positive signals during bioindicator testing of SPMD dialysates. To prevent these problems, a simple, cost-effective procedure was developed for purifying triolein destined for use in SPMDs: the bulk triolein is repeatedly (6x) partitioned against methanol. Tests of the procedure show that 14C-oleic acid is completely removed from the triolein. After SEC fractionation, dialysates of standard-size SPMDs made with the purified triolein contain less than 5 ??g of methyl oleate as compared to sometimes more than 500 ??g for dialysates (also after SEC) of SPMDs made with unpurified triolein. Gas chromatographic analyses with flame ionization and electron capture detection show that the purification treatment also greatly reduces the number and size of peaks caused by unidentified contaminants in the triolein. Microtox basic assay of dialysates of SPMDs shows that those made with the purified triolein have lower acute toxicities than dialysates of SPMDs made with unpurified triolein. Yeast estrogen screen (YES) testing of SPMDs fabricated with unpurified and purified triolein demonstrates that the purification process removes all background estrogenic activity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Deployable Reflector for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    Unfoldable-membrane-reflector concept leads to mobile photovoltaic generators. Hinged containers swing open for deployment, and counterbalance beam swings into position. Folded reflector membranes are unfolded as deployment mast is extended, until stretched out flat.

  7. Advanced membrane devices. Interim report for October 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.; Langsam, M.; Lewnard, J.J.; Reichart, G.C.

    1997-12-31

    Under this Cooperative Agreement, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has continued to investigate and develop improved membrane technology for removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. The task schedule for this reporting period included a detailed assessment of the market opportunity (Chapter 2), continued development and evaluation of membranes and membrane polymers (Chapter 3) and a detailed economic analysis comparing the potential of Air Products membranes to that of established acid gas removal processes (Chapter 4).

  8. A MEMS Device Capable of Measuring Near-Field Thermal Radiation between Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chong; Tang, Zhenan; Yu, Jun; Sun, Changyu

    2013-01-01

    For sensors constructed by freestanding membranes, when the gap between a freestanding membrane and the substrate or between membranes is at micron scale, the effects of near-field radiative heat transfer on the sensors' thermal performance should be considered during sensor design. The radiative heat flux is transferred from a membrane to a plane or from a membrane to a membrane. In the current study of the near-field thermal radiation, the scanning probe technology has difficulty in making a membrane separated at micron scale parallel to a plane or another membrane. A novel MEMS (micro electromechanical system) device was developed by sacrificial layer technique in this work to realize a double parallel freestanding membrane structure. Each freestanding membrane has a platinum thin-film resistor and the distance between the two membranes is 1 μm. After evaluating the electrical and thermal characteristics of the lower freestanding membrane,experimental measurements of near-field radiative heat transfer between the lower membrane and the upper membrane were carried out by setting the lower membrane as a heat emitter and the upper membrane as a heat receiver. The near-field radiative heat transfer between the two membranes was validated by finding a larger-than-blackbody radiative heat transfer based on the experimental data. PMID:23385413

  9. Autonomous field-deployable device for the measurement of phosphate in natural water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Conor; Cleary, John; McGraw, Christina M.; Yerazunis, William S.; Lau, King Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2007-09-01

    This work describes the ongoing development of an autonomous platform for the measurement of phosphate levels in river water. This device is designed to operate unassisted for one year, taking a measurement every hour and relaying the result to a laptop computer. A first generation prototype has already been developed and successfully field tested. The system contains the sampling, chemical storage, fluid handling, colorimetric data acquisition and waste storage capabilities necessary to perform the phosphate measurement. In addition to this, the device has the embedded control, GSM communications system and power supply to allow independent operation. The entire system is placed inside a compact and rugged enclosure. Further work discussed here builds on the successes of the prototype design to deliver a system capable of one full year of operation. The second generation system has been built from the ground up. Although identical in operation to the prototype its design has a greater emphasis on power efficient components and power management to allow for a longer lifetime. Other improvements include an automated two-point calibration to compensate for drift and a more rugged design to further increase the lifetime of the device.

  10. Development of bioassay techniques with extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T.L.; White, P.; Mackay, D.; Metcalfe, C.

    1995-12-31

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), consisting of polyethylene bags filled with triolein, have been used to monitor for lipophilic organic contaminants in water. Although extracts from SPMDs have most often been analyzed for concentrations of organic contaminants, there is also the potential to monitor the toxicity of these extracts using in vitro and in vivo bioassays. SPMDs were deployed for four weeks at several sites along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie to monitor the distribution of toxic organic contaminants in the water. Analysis of the extracts from the SPMDs for concentrations of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicated that the regions in the Detroit River within the Trenton Channel and near Zug Island were the most highly contaminated. Bioassays conducted with extracts from the SPMDs included the in vitro SOS Chromotest for genotoxic activity, an acute lethality test with Daphnia magna, and a fish embryotoxicity test with embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These bioassay data generally indicated that the toxicity and concentrations of organic contaminants in the SPMD extracts were correlated. This study indicates that there is potential to use short-term bioassays of extracts from SPMDs to monitor for in situ contamination in the aquatic environment.

  11. Caged mussels and semipermeable membrane devices as indicators of organic contaminant uptake in Dorchester and Duxbury Bays, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Peven, C.S.; Uhler, A.D.; Querzoli, F.J.

    1996-02-01

    An experiment to measure organic contaminant depuration by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was carried out by transplanting mussels in stainless steel cages from a known contaminated site in Dorchester Bay, Massachusetts to a documented clean site in Duxbury Bay, Massachusetts approximately 30 nmi south of the original collection site. A parallel contaminant uptake experiment was performed in which mussels from Duxbury Bay were collected and deployed in similar cages in Dorchester Bay. The bivalves were collected from each transplant site at set intervals over a period of 95 days to monitor the rates and selectivity of depuration and uptake, respectively, of polynuclear atomic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and chlorinated pesticides. In a related study, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD: polyethylene bags) containing the lipid material triolein were deployed in Dorchester Bay and collected at the same frequency as the caged mussels to evaluate their effectiveness as models for estimating bioconcentration of target organic contaminants. At the Duxbury site, results suggest that the caged mussels depurated contaminants within 68 days to levels found in native animals at the site. At the Dorchester site, bivalves concentrated the contaminants to a level similar to the native M. edulis. PCB and DDT uptake rates were found to be similar between caged mussels and SPMDs; PAH uptake by the SPMDs was initially lower than by transplanted bivalves. PCB and PAH assemblages were noticeably different between bivalves and SPMDs deployed at the same site.

  12. Membrane processes and devices for separation of bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Laurent; Firdaous, Loubna

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, functional foods and nutraceuticals has attracted much attention, particularly for their impact on human health and prevention of certain diseases. Consequently, the production and properties of bioactive peptides has received an increasing scientific interest over the past few years. Considering that most functional peptides are present in complex matrices containing a large number of hydrolyzed protein fractions, their separation and purification are required. Conventional pressure-driven processes can be used for amino acids and peptides separation but are limited by their fouling problems and their low selectivity when separating similar sized biomolecules. To improve the separation efficiency, an external electric field was applied during pressure-driven filtration. However, the pressure gradient brings about the accumulation of peptides at the nearby membrane surface and affects the membrane transport selectivity. Processes combining an electrical field as a driving force to porous membranes have been developed for the separation of biopeptides to obtain better purified products. Compounds of higher molecular weights than the membrane cut-off can be separated. The first trials were carried-out to perform the separation of amino acids and peptides with a filtration module specially designed and using one ultrafiltration membrane. More recently, electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes has been developed to fractionate simultaneously acidic and basic peptides, using a conventional electrodialysis cell, in which some ion exchange membranes are replaced by ultrafiltration ones. The perspectives in this field will be the understanding of the interactions of peptides and membrane as well as the development of new membrane materials limitating or increasing these interactions to improve the selectivity and the yield of production of specific peptides. This review article also discusses recent patents related to bioactive peptides. PMID

  13. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  14. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  15. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  16. Berlin Heart EXCOR Ventricular Assist Device: Multilayer Membrane Rupture in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Filippelli, Sergio; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Secinaro, Aurelio; Zielinski, Krystzof; Amodeo, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    A 2-year-old child was implanted with an Berlin Heart EXCOR Ventricular Assist Device (Berlin Heart, Berlin, Germany) as a bridge to heart transplantation for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. At postoperative day 296, a significant reduction of membrane movement was observed. The device was explanted and tested on a hydronumerical circulation simulator. Findings suggested that the integrity of the multilayered membrane had been compromised. This was confirmed by a computed tomography scan of the device. The computed tomography evidenced a detachment of the 3-layered membrane, with a thinner, convex layer on the side of the air chamber and an opposite convexity of the remaining membranes. These showed an additional air space within the layers. PMID:27449447

  17. Sol-Gel Based Polybenzimidazole Membranes for Hydrogen Pumping Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, Brian

    2014-02-26

    Electrochemical hydrogen pumping using a high temperature (>100°C) PBI membrane was demonstrated under non-humidified and humidified conditions at ambient pressures. Relatively low voltages were required to operate the pump over a wide range of hydrogen flow rates. The advantages of the high temperature capability were shown by operating the pump on reformate feed gas mixtures containing various amounts of CO and CO{sub 2}. Gas purity measurements on the cathode gas product were conducted and significant reductions in gas impurities were detected. The applicability of the PBI membrane for electrochemical hydrogen pumping and its durability under typical operating conditions was established with tests that lasted for nearly 4000 hours.

  18. A Wheeled Mobile Device for Deployment of Surface and Subsurface Instruments and for Subsurface Sampling on Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Bernasconi, M.; Haapanala, S.; Steiner, R.; Coste, P.

    2003-04-01

    As a result of the ESA TRP activity MIDD (Mobile Instrument Deployment Device), an advanced Breadboard Model of a wheeled mobile device for use on planetary surfaces has recently been completed and functionally tested. The vehicle is based on previous mechanical component development work for small wheeled devices performed since 1995 and serves to demonstrate the scientific potential of a 4 kg-class system for supporting surface and subsurface science on a planetary landing mission. Moreover, the device is being extensively used to study general problems of locomotion on regolith-like surface materials and of obstacle negotiation. As payload elements, two spectrometers for mineralogical and elemental studies on surface materials - including rocks - have been foreseen, as well as an acoustic subsurface sounder, a close-up imager and a self-penetrating "Mole" for subsurface measurements and sampling. In addition, a dust removal device was accommodated for preparing rock surfaces for measurements. The mass of the payload, excluding their electronics, amounts to 1.5 kg. Following an accommodation study for the instruments, the vehicle chassis was sized by taking into account planetary surface rock distributions with ground clearance as well as mean straight path constraints, while restricting the number of wheels to four for reasons of simplicity and mass. The two front wheels are mounted on folding levers which allow to contact the soil with the cab and to place the spectrometers and the close-up imager against their targets. Also for operations of the Mole sampling system - reaching depths of more than 1 m and being derived from the "Beagle 2" Mole - , the front wheels are preferably rotated upwards to achieve a larger vehicle base. In order to minimize the stowage volume, a dual wheel configuration was chosen which allows the front wheels to be folded back while overlapping the rear wheels. The folding lever feature also provides a re-righting capability by

  19. Polymeric barrier membranes for device packaging, diffusive control and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasikiewicz, J. M.; Roohpour, N.; Paul, D.; Grahn, M.; Ateh, D.; Rehman, I.; Vadgama, P.

    2008-11-01

    Current state-of-the-art implantable micron feature electronic devices are capable of monitoring and stimulating functions in vivo. Within an EU Framework VI project a further step was taken in developing key microsystem technologies and communication methods that could bring intelligence directly to the human interface, in the form of reactive medical implants and ambulatory measurement systems. Information from these devices is planned to be transmitted out into the wider environment for remote processing. However, the packaging of such state-of-the-art devices to enhance tissue biocompatibility, and to protect conducting elements from in vivo corrosion during extended use, along with protecting the body from toxins leaching from implant components, remains a concern. Candidate polymeric barriers as hydration resistant and solute impermeable interfaces to mitigate such major problems of chronic implantation were investigated. Materials studied included silicone rubber, PVC, polyurethane, and diamond-like carbon (DLC). Polymer permeability to water solutes was marginally improved through incorporation of lipid into these structures. Surface biocompatibility was assessed on the basis of protein film deposition in vitro and by cell viability studies in tissue culture. Short-term toxicity was not observed for any of the tested materials, though there were substantial differences in hydration. Additionally, polypyrrole over active electrodes shows feasibility for controlled tissue interfacing whilst retaining electrical conductivity.

  20. Field-based evaluation of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive air samplers of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkow, Michael E.; Huckins, James N.; Müller, Jochen F.

    2004-11-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been used as passive air samplers of semivolatile organic compounds in a range of studies. However, due to a lack of calibration data for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), SPMD data have not been used to estimate air concentrations of target PAHs. In this study, SPMDs were deployed for 32 days at two sites in a major metropolitan area in Australia. High-volume active sampling systems (HiVol) were co-deployed at both sites. Using the HiVol air concentration data from one site, SPMD sampling rates were measured for 12 US EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs and then these values were used to determine air concentrations at the second site from SPMD concentrations. Air concentrations were also measured at the second site with co-deployed HiVols to validate the SPMD results. PAHs mostly associated with the vapour phase (Fluorene to Pyrene) dominated both the HiVol and passive air samples. Reproducibility between replicate passive samplers was satisfactory (CV<20%) for the majority of compounds. Sampling rates ranged between 0.6 and 6.1 m3 d-1. SPMD-based air concentrations were calculated at the second site for each compound using these sampling rates and the differences between SPMD-derived air concentrations and those measured using a HiVol were, on average, within a factor of 1.5. The dominant processes for the uptake of PAHs by SPMDs were also assessed. Using the SPMD method described herein, estimates of particulate sorbed airborne PAHs with five rings or greater were within 1.8-fold of HiVol measured values.

  1. Field-based evaluation of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive air samplers of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartkow, M.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Muller, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been used as passive air samplers of semivolatile organic compounds in a range of studies. However, due to a lack of calibration data for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), SPMD data have not been used to estimate air concentrations of target PAHs. In this study, SPMDs were deployed for 32 days at two sites in a major metropolitan area in Australia. High-volume active sampling systems (HiVol) were co-deployed at both sites. Using the HiVol air concentration data from one site, SPMD sampling rates were measured for 12 US EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs and then these values were used to determine air concentrations at the second site from SPMD concentrations. Air concentrations were also measured at the second site with co-deployed HiVols to validate the SPMD results. PAHs mostly associated with the vapour phase (Fluorene to Pyrene) dominated both the HiVol and passive air samples. Reproducibility between replicate passive samplers was satisfactory (CV<20%) for the majority of compounds. Sampling rates ranged between 0.6 and 6.1 m3 d-1. SPMD-based air concentrations were calculated at the second site for each compound using these sampling rates and the differences between SPMD-derived air concentrations and those measured using a HiVol were, on average, within a factor of 1.5. The dominant processes for the uptake of PAHs by SPMDs were also assessed. Using the SPMD method described herein, estimates of particulate sorbed airborne PAHs with five rings or greater were within 1.8-fold of HiVol measured values. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell Selection Game for Densely-Deployed Sensor and Mobile Devices In 5G Networks Integrating Heterogeneous Cells and the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lusheng; Wang, Yamei; Ding, Zhizhong; Wang, Xiumin

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless networking technologies, the Internet of Things and heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) tend to be integrated to form a promising wireless network paradigm for 5G. Hyper-dense sensor and mobile devices will be deployed under the coverage of heterogeneous cells, so that each of them could freely select any available cell covering it and compete for resource with others selecting the same cell, forming a cell selection (CS) game between these devices. Since different types of cells usually share the same portion of the spectrum, devices selecting overlapped cells can experience severe inter-cell interference (ICI). In this article, we study the CS game among a large amount of densely-deployed sensor and mobile devices for their uplink transmissions in a two-tier HCN. ICI is embedded with the traditional congestion game (TCG), forming a congestion game with ICI (CGI) and a congestion game with capacity (CGC). For the three games above, we theoretically find the circular boundaries between the devices selecting the macrocell and those selecting the picocells, indicated by the pure strategy Nash equilibria (PSNE). Meanwhile, through a number of simulations with different picocell radii and different path loss exponents, the collapse of the PSNE impacted by severe ICI (i.e., a large number of picocell devices change their CS preferences to the macrocell) is profoundly revealed, and the collapse points are identified. PMID:26393617

  3. Cell Selection Game for Densely-Deployed Sensor and Mobile Devices In 5G Networks Integrating Heterogeneous Cells and the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lusheng; Wang, Yamei; Ding, Zhizhong; Wang, Xiumin

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless networking technologies, the Internet of Things and heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) tend to be integrated to form a promising wireless network paradigm for 5G. Hyper-dense sensor and mobile devices will be deployed under the coverage of heterogeneous cells, so that each of them could freely select any available cell covering it and compete for resource with others selecting the same cell, forming a cell selection (CS) game between these devices. Since different types of cells usually share the same portion of the spectrum, devices selecting overlapped cells can experience severe inter-cell interference (ICI). In this article, we study the CS game among a large amount of densely-deployed sensor and mobile devices for their uplink transmissions in a two-tier HCN. ICI is embedded with the traditional congestion game (TCG), forming a congestion game with ICI (CGI) and a congestion game with capacity (CGC). For the three games above, we theoretically find the circular boundaries between the devices selecting the macrocell and those selecting the picocells, indicated by the pure strategy Nash equilibria (PSNE). Meanwhile, through a number of simulations with different picocell radii and different path loss exponents, the collapse of the PSNE impacted by severe ICI (i.e., a large number of picocell devices change their CS preferences to the macrocell) is profoundly revealed, and the collapse points are identified. PMID:26393617

  4. Nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane for continuous fluid transport in micro cooling device

    SciTech Connect

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Cheng, Jim C.

    2013-10-14

    We report an efficient passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of nanowires and micropores. This nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane was created to feed coolant continuously onto the surface of the wick in a micro cooling device to ensure it remains hydrated and in case of dryout, allow for regeneration of the system. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to form micropores followed by hydrothermal growth of nanowires. This study shows a promising approach to address thermal management challenges for next generation electronic devices with absence of external power.

  5. Occurrence and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and clams in three urban streams of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J.B.; Rose, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and Asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea (MuLLER), were deployed at stream sites in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area to assess the presence of bioavailable, dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twenty-four PAHs were detected in SPMDs, 20 of which occurred at all sites. Only three PAHs were detected in the co-deployed clams. Throughout all sites, non-alkylated PAHs were found at greater levels in SPMDs than alkylated forms. Nine of 16 Priority Pollutant PAHs were detected in SPMDs. Estimated concentrations of PAHs in water were generally two to three orders of magnitude less than standard minimum analytical reporting levels; however, for bent (a) anthracene, benzo (a) pyrene, and chrysene, estimated concentrations in water exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's human health criteria for these carcinogens in water and aquatic organisms.

  6. Fast isolation of hydrophobic organic environmental contaminants from exposed semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) prior to GC analysis.

    PubMed

    Setková, Lucie; Hajslová, Jana; Bergqvist, Per-Anders; Kocourek, Vladimír; Kazda, Radek; Suchan, Petr

    2005-10-28

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) represent a passive sampling technology that is becoming widely used for monitoring of surface waters pollution. While "classic" procedures employ dialysis to recover target compounds from exposed SPMDs, in the present study analytes were isolated from cut membrane together with sequestering medium (triolein) using hexane as an extraction solvent. This approach allowed us to reduce the time needed for accomplishment of isolation step from 48 h to only 1 h. Automated gel permeation chromatography (GPC) clean-up is employed in the following step to separate triolein from analytes fraction. Musk compounds (MCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and several other persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the respective fraction by GC method employing selective detectors (MSD, ECD). As shown in a series of analyses of SPMDs deployed in various aquatic ecosystems, high recoveries and good repeatability of results together with a possibility to obtain the information on the pollution of sampling site at the day of sample arrival to laboratory make this newly implemented procedure an interesting alternative to time consuming dialysis. PMID:16199223

  7. Develpment of Higher Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assembly (MEA) for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Agro, Anthony DeCarmine, Shari Williams

    2005-12-30

    Our work will fucus on developing higher temperature MEAs based on SPEKK polymer blends. Thse MEAs will be designed to operatre at 120 degrees C Higher temperatures, up to 200 degrees C will also be explored. This project will develop Nafion-free MEAs using only SPEKK blends in both membrane and catalytic layers.

  8. Using Consumer Electronics and Apps in Industrial Environments - Development of a Framework for Dynamic Feature Deployment and Extension by Using Apps on Field Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Mathias

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a preliminary insight regarding the current work in the field of mobile interaction in industrial environments by using established interaction technologies and metaphors from the consumer goods industry. The major objective is the development and implementation of a holistic app-framework, which enables dynamic feature deployment and extension by using mobile apps on industrial field devices. As a result, field device functionalities can be updated and adapted effectively in accordance with well-known appconcepts from consumer electronics to comply with the urgent requirements of more flexible and changeable factory systems of the future. In addition, a much more user-friendly and utilizable interaction with field devices can be realized. Proprietary software solutions and device-stationary user interfaces can be overcome and replaced by uniform, cross-vendor solutions

  9. Hollow-Fiber Membrane Chamber as a Device for In Situ Environmental Cultivation▿

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Yoshiteru; Kinoshita, Tomoyuki; Hata, Toru; Ohta, Hiroaki; Obokata, Haruko; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    A hollow-fiber membrane chamber (HFMC) was developed as an in situ cultivation device for environmental microorganisms. The HFMC system consists of 48 to 96 pieces of porous hollow-fiber membrane connected with injectors. The system allows rapid exchange of chemical compounds, thereby simulating a natural environment. Comparative analysis through the cultivation of three types of environmental samples was performed using this newly designed device and a conventional agar-based petri dish. The results show that the ratios of novel phylotypes in isolates, species-level diversities, and cultivabilities in HFMC-based cultivation are higher than those in an agar-based petri dish for all three samples, suggesting that the new in situ cultivation device is effective for cultivation of various environmental microorganisms. PMID:19329655

  10. Engineered Asymmetric Heterogeneous Membrane: A Concentration-Gradient-Driven Energy Harvesting Device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xiao, Kai; Liu, Qian; Xie, Ganhua; Li, Pei; Ma, Jie; Tian, Ye; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2015-11-25

    Engineered asymmetric membranes for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have gained significant attention and offer prospects for broad application in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Therefore, it is desirable to construct a high-performance heterogeneous membrane capable of coordinating highly selective and rectified ionic transport with a simple, versatile, engineered method to mimic the delicate functionality of biological channels. Here, we demonstrate an engineered asymmetric heterogeneous membrane by combining a porous block copolymer (BCP) membrane, polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS48400-b-P4VP21300), with a track-etched asymmetric porous polyethylene terephthalate membrane. The introduction of chemical, geometrical, and electrostatic heterostructures provides our heterogeneous membrane with excellent anion selectivity and ultrahigh ionic rectification with a ratio of ca. 1075, which is considerably higher than that of existing ionic rectifying systems. This anion-selective heterogeneous membrane was further developed into an energy conversion device to harvest the energy stored in an electrochemical concentration gradient. The concentration polarization phenomenon that commonly exists in traditional reverse electrodialysis can be eliminated with an asymmetric bipolar structure, which considerably increases the output power density. This work presents an important paradigm for the use of versatile BCPs in nanofluidic systems and opens new and promising routes to various breakthroughs in the fields of chemistry, materials science, bioscience, and nanotechnology. PMID:26535954

  11. Production of Fluconazole-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Using Membrane and Microfluidic Dispersion Devices.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Chowdhury, Danial; Vladisavljević, Goran T; Koutroumanis, Konstantinos; Georgiadou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric micelles with a controlled size in the range between 41 and 80 nm were prepared by injecting the organic phase through a microengineered nickel membrane or a tapered-end glass capillary into an aqueous phase. The organic phase was composed of 1 mg·mL(-1) of PEG-b-PCL diblock copolymers with variable molecular weights, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or acetone. The pore size of the membrane was 20 μm and the aqueous/organic phase volumetric flow rate ratio ranged from 1.5 to 10. Block copolymers were successfully synthesized with Mn ranging from ~9700 to 16,000 g·mol(-1) and polymeric micelles were successfully produced from both devices. Micelles produced from the membrane device were smaller than those produced from the microfluidic device, due to the much smaller pore size compared with the orifice size in a co-flow device. The micelles were found to be relatively stable in terms of their size with an initial decrease in size attributed to evaporation of residual solvent rather than their structural disintegration. Fluconazole was loaded into the cores of micelles by injecting the organic phase composed of 0.5-2.5 mg·mL(-1) fluconazole and 1.5 mg·mL(-1) copolymer. The size of the drug-loaded micelles was found to be significantly larger than the size of empty micelles. PMID:27231945

  12. Production of Fluconazole-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Using Membrane and Microfluidic Dispersion Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Chowdhury, Danial; Vladisavljević, Goran T.; Koutroumanis, Konstantinos; Georgiadou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric micelles with a controlled size in the range between 41 and 80 nm were prepared by injecting the organic phase through a microengineered nickel membrane or a tapered-end glass capillary into an aqueous phase. The organic phase was composed of 1 mg·mL−1 of PEG-b-PCL diblock copolymers with variable molecular weights, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or acetone. The pore size of the membrane was 20 μm and the aqueous/organic phase volumetric flow rate ratio ranged from 1.5 to 10. Block copolymers were successfully synthesized with Mn ranging from ~9700 to 16,000 g·mol−1 and polymeric micelles were successfully produced from both devices. Micelles produced from the membrane device were smaller than those produced from the microfluidic device, due to the much smaller pore size compared with the orifice size in a co-flow device. The micelles were found to be relatively stable in terms of their size with an initial decrease in size attributed to evaporation of residual solvent rather than their structural disintegration. Fluconazole was loaded into the cores of micelles by injecting the organic phase composed of 0.5–2.5 mg·mL−1 fluconazole and 1.5 mg·mL−1 copolymer. The size of the drug-loaded micelles was found to be significantly larger than the size of empty micelles. PMID:27231945

  13. Gelatin- and DNA-based ionic conducting membranes for electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlicka, A.; Firmino, A.; Vieira, D.; Sentanin, F.; Grote, J. G.; Kajzar, F.

    2009-09-01

    Gelatin and DNA are abundant natural products with very good biodegradation properties and can be used to obtain acetic acid or LiClO4-based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) with high ionic conductivity and good stability. This article presents the results of the ionic conductivity measurements of GPEs membranes based on crosslinked and plasticized gelatin and on plasticized DNA as well as on inserted/extracted charge density of electrochemical devices (ECDs) obtained with these samples. The membranes were analyzed by impedance spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and the ECDs by charge density measurements, respectively. At room temperature the measured ionic conductivity of the membranes is in the range of 10-4-10-5 S/cm. It obeys predominantly an Arrhenius relationship in function of temperature. The ECD with red gelatin changed the color from red to deep red and the ECD with DNA-based electrolyte changes from transparent to blue. The inserted charge density values of these ECDs were of -3.0 mC/cm2 for the device with red gelatin and -6.6 mC/cm2 for the ECD with DNA-based electrolyte. The reverse potential application promoted a charge extraction and, as consequence, bleaching of the devices. Good ionic conductivity results combined with transparency and good adhesion to the electrodes and promising preliminary results of small ECDs have shown that gelatin and DNA-based GPEs are very promising materials to be used as gel polymer electrolytes in electrochromic devices.

  14. A thin permeable-membrane device for single-molecule manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Young; Jacobson, David R.; Nguyen, Dan T.; Willardson, Sam; Saleh, Omar A.

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation instruments have unparalleled abilities to interrogate the structure and elasticity of single biomolecules. Key insights are derived by measuring the system response in varying solution conditions; yet, typical solution control strategies require imposing a direct fluid flow on the measured biomolecule that perturbs the high-sensitivity measurement and/or removes interacting molecules by advection. An alternate approach is to fabricate devices that permit solution changes by diffusion of the introduced species through permeable membranes, rather than by direct solution flow through the sensing region. Prior implementations of permeable-membrane devices are relatively thick, disallowing their use in apparatus that require the simultaneous close approach of external instrumentation from two sides, as occurs in single-molecule manipulation devices like the magnetic tweezer. Here, we describe the construction and use of a thin microfluidic device appropriate for single-molecule studies. We create a flow cell of only ˜500 μm total thickness by sandwiching glass coverslips around a thin plastic gasket and then create permeable walls between laterally separated channels in situ through photo-induced cross-linking of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels. We show that these membranes permit passage of ions and small molecules (thus permitting solution equilibration in the absence of direct flow), but the membranes block the passage of larger biomolecules (thus retaining precious samples). Finally, we demonstrate the suitability of the device for high-resolution magnetic-tweezer experiments by measuring the salt-dependent folding of a single RNA hairpin under force.

  15. A novel membrane device for the removal of water vapor and water droplets from air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Rod; Newbold, David D.; Mccray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kliss, Mark

    1992-01-01

    One of the key challenges facing NASA engineers is the development of systems for separating liquids and gases in microgravity environments. In this paper, a novel membrane-based phase separator is described. This device, known as a water recovery heat exchanger (WRHEX), overcomes the inherent deficiencies of current phase-separation technology. Specifically, the WRHEX cools and removes water vapor or water droplets from feed-air streams without the use of a vacuum or centrifugal force. As is shown in this paper, only a low-power air blower and a small stream of recirculated cool water is required for WRHEX operation. This paper presents the results of tests using this novel membrane device over a wide range of operating conditions. The data show that the WRHEX produces a dry air stream containing no entrained or liquid water - even when the feed air contains water droplets or mist. An analysis of the operation of the WRHEX is presented.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of an integrated ionic device from suspended polypyrrole and alamethicin-reconstituted lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northcutt, Robert; Sundaresan, Vishnu-Baba

    2012-09-01

    Conducting polymers are electroactive materials that undergo conformal relaxation of the polymer backbone in the presence of an electrical field through ion exchange with solid or aqueous electrolytes. This conformal relaxation and the associated morphological changes make conducting polymers highly suitable for actuation and sensing applications. Among smart materials, bioderived active materials also use ion transport for sensing and actuation functions via selective ion transport. The transporter proteins extracted from biological cell membranes and reconstituted into a bilayer lipid membrane in bioderived active materials regulate ion transport for engineering functions. The protein transporter reconstituted in the bilayer lipid membrane is referred to as the bioderived membrane and serves as the active component in bioderived active materials. Inspired by the similarities in the physics of transduction in conducting polymers and bioderived active materials, an integrated ionic device is formed from the bioderived membrane and the conducting polymer membrane. This ionic device is fabricated into a laminated thin-film membrane and a common ion that can be processed by the bioderived and the conducting polymer membranes couple the ionic function of these two membranes. An integrated ionic device, fabricated from polypyrrole (PPy) doped with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDBS) and an alamethicin-reconstituted DPhPC bilayer lipid membrane, is presented in this paper. A voltage-gated sodium current regulates the electrochemical response in the PPy(DBS) layer. The integrated device is fabricated on silicon-based substrates through microfabrication, electropolymerization, and vesicle fusion, and ionic activity is characterized through electrochemical measurements.

  17. Assessment of the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for long-term watershed monitoring in an urban slough system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at eight sites within the Buffalo Slough, near Portland, Oregon, to (1) measure the spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and organochlorine (OC) compounds in the slough, (2) assess the usefulness of SPMDs as a tool for investigating and monitoring hydrophobic compounds throughout the Columbia Slough system, and (3) evaluate the utility of SPMDs as a tool for measuring the long-term effects of watershed improvement activities. Data from the SPMDs revealed clear spatial and seasonal differences in water quality within the slough and indicate that for hydrophobic compounds, this time-integrated passive-sampling technique is a useful tool for long-term watershed monitoring. In addition, the data suggest that a spiking rate of 2-5 ??g/SPMD of permeability/performance reference compounds, including at least one compound that is not susceptible to photodegradation, may be optimum for the conditions encountered here. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  18. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Controlled systemic delivery of indomethacin using membrane-moderated, cream formulation-based transdermal devices.

    PubMed

    Rao, P Rama; Chalasani, Kishore B; Chauhan, Abhay S; Jain, Akhlesh K; Diwan, Prakash V; Ram, Meduri Kodanda

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to design a viable and practically effective transdermal systems of indomethacin using cream-based drug reservoirs and suitable rate controlling membranes. As vehicles, a more lipophilic base (F(1)) and a cream formulation containing predominant aqueous phase (F(2)) were chosen to study the influence of vehicle nature and role of permeation enhancers that increases thermodynamic activity and to provide diffusible species of drug to skin. Rate controlling membranes of cellulose acetate (CA) and ethyl cellulose (EC) with polyvinyl pyrollidine and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose were used to design transdermal devices. In vivo, effective plasma concentrations of indomethacin are maintained up to 24 hr whereas oral formulation showed only up to 8 hr. Although the plasma drug levels between both EC films differ insignificantly, PVP film showed a better pharmacokinetic profile. The pharmacodynamic performance of the transdermal devices exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity over 24 hr compared with orally administered indomethacin. In vivo studies indicate the superiority of CA films over the EC films. Further, enhancement may be achieved with other classic enhancers/enhancement strategies with such devices containing aqueous cream vehicle and the optimum membranes. PMID:16556573

  20. Using SPMDs To Assess Natural Recovery Of PCB-Contaminated Sediments In Lake Hartwell, SC: I. A Field Test Of New In-Situ Deployment Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from the field testing of some innovative sampling methods developed to evaluate risk management strategies for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments are presented. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were combined with novel deployment methods to quan...

  1. Comparison of organic contaminant accumulation by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and the caged mussel species Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofelt, C.; Shea, D.

    1995-12-31

    The accumulation of anthropogenic contaminants by sentinel species such as the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is common in many monitoring programs such as the National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program. Bivalves are used because they are filter-feeding organisms with a high lipid content and therefore accumulate pollutants readily, and they do not appear to metabolize contaminants to a large extent. There are difficulties associated with this approach however, such as mortality, changing lipid mass and respiration rates, and interspecies differences; therefore the use of a non-living substrate may be more practical. The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) consists of a length of thin-walled polyethylene tubing with a film of high molecular weight neutral lipid (triolein) sealed inside. The SPMD, when suspended in the water column, will concentrate lipophilic organic contaminants from the surrounding environment. The authors deployed SPMDs and caged Mytilus edulis side-by-side at five sites near New Bedford Harbor, MA; an area highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A good correlation was observed between the SPMDs and the caged blue mussels, with R{sup 2} ranging from 0.57 to 0.85 (N = 16) for chlorinated pesticides and from 0.81 to 0.96 (N = 20) for PCBs. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) based on water column concentrations were also calculated and a good correlation was obtained between the SPMD BCFs and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. Unlike previous investigations, the authors found good agreement even with the highest chlorinated PCBs suggesting that there was no steric hindrance of uptake through the SPMD membrane.

  2. Semipermeable membrane devices link site-specific contaminants to effects: Part 1 - Induction of CYP1A in rainbow trout from contaminants in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Springman, Kathrine R; Short, Jeffrey W; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Maselko, Jacek M; Khan, Colin; Hodson, Peter V; Rice, Stanley D

    2008-12-01

    Extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) deployed on beaches in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, were used to evaluate if complex contaminant mixtures from different sources can be distinguished by the resulting cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity in exposed test animals. Deployment sites included canneries, salmon hatcheries, and beaches where lingering oil remains from discharges during the 1964 earthquake or the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Other sites were selected at random to evaluate region-wide contaminant inputs or were located in salmon streams to evaluate contaminants carried and released by migrating salmon carcasses following reproduction. Following standard deployments of approximately 28 d, an aliquot of the accumulated contaminants was intraperitoneally injected without cleanup into juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After 2 d and 7 d, the activity of CYP1A was measured by the ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) assay. Exposure to extracts from the oiled sites and one hatchery site with numerous creosote pilings elicited strong EROD responses, whereas fish exposed to salmon stream extracts elicited weak but significant responses during late summer compared to late spring. Responses from the other sites were not significant, indicating contaminants from these sources are unlikely to cause CYP1A induction in resident biota. Rather than simply assessing extant contaminants, this method evaluates the potency of the different sites for bringing about aryl hydrocarbon receptor responses in resident biota. PMID:18845333

  3. Real-world personal conversations using a hands-free embedded wireless device while driving: effect on airbag-deployment crash rates.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A; Schreiner, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    A wireless device embedded in the vehicle allowed the user to engage in a personal hands-free conversation (HFC), and automatically placed an emergency notification call to an OnStar call center if the vehicle was involved in a crash in which its airbag deployed. A database stored the exact counts, start timestamps, and billed durations of all HFC and airbag notification calls. In 30 months of naturalistic driving, there were 91 million HFC calls from an average of 323,994 drivers per month who made calls. There were 14 airbag deployments in 276 million driver-minutes of HFC conversation for an exposed incidence rate of 5.08 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. There were 2,023 airbag deployments in an estimated 24.7 billion driver-minutes of no HFC conversation for a not-exposed incidence rate of 8.18 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. The crash incidence rate ratio (IRR) is the ratio of these two rates or 0.62 (95% C.I. 0.37 to 1.05). Sensitivity analyses controlled for the impact on the crash IRR of estimated time spent driving per day and calls by passengers. Counting all crashes as much as 20 minutes later than a call as related to that call gave similar results. We conclude that for personal conversations using a hands-free embedded device the risk of an airbag crash is somewhere in a range from a moderately lower risk to a risk near that of driving without a recent personal conversation. These results are not consistent with the large increase in crash risk reported in epidemiological studies using the case-crossover method. PMID:19000076

  4. A Potential Nanofiber Membrane Device for Filling Surgical Residual Cavity to Prevent Glioma Recurrence and Improve Local Neural Tissue Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Daoxiang; Lin, Chao; Wen, Xuejun; Gu, Shuying; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a novel device with nanofiber membrane capable of sustained release of temozolomide (TMZ) and neuron growth factor (NGF). An improved bio-availability of TMZ and NGF in surroundings proximal to the device was expected to be attained for a prolonged period of time. The device was developed by integrating TMZ-doped polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber (TP) membrane and NGF-coated PCL (NGFP) membrane using sodium alginate hydrogel. TP was prepared by direct electrospinning of TMZ/PCL. NGFP membrane was developed by layer-by-layer assembling technology. The incorporation of TMZ-doped nanofiber and NGFP nanofiber in the device was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The number of NGF layer in NGF-coated PCL membrane could be readily measured with energy spectrum analysis. The in vitro release study showed that TP-NGFP-TP membrane could efficiently liberate TMZ to inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cells, and sufficient NGF to induce the differentiation of PC12 neuron cells over four weeks. Such TP-NGFP-TP membrane device can be employed as a tampon to fill up surgical residual cavity and afford residual glioma removal, structural support, hemostasis, and local neural tissue reconstruction in the surgical treatment of glioma. The study opens a horizon to develop multifunctional biomaterial device for maximized glioma treatment efficacy. PMID:27548322

  5. A Potential Nanofiber Membrane Device for Filling Surgical Residual Cavity to Prevent Glioma Recurrence and Improve Local Neural Tissue Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Daoxiang; Lin, Chao; Wen, Xuejun; Gu, Shuying; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a novel device with nanofiber membrane capable of sustained release of temozolomide (TMZ) and neuron growth factor (NGF). An improved bio-availability of TMZ and NGF in surroundings proximal to the device was expected to be attained for a prolonged period of time. The device was developed by integrating TMZ-doped polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber (TP) membrane and NGF-coated PCL (NGFP) membrane using sodium alginate hydrogel. TP was prepared by direct electrospinning of TMZ/PCL. NGFP membrane was developed by layer-by-layer assembling technology. The incorporation of TMZ-doped nanofiber and NGFP nanofiber in the device was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The number of NGF layer in NGF-coated PCL membrane could be readily measured with energy spectrum analysis. The in vitro release study showed that TP-NGFP-TP membrane could efficiently liberate TMZ to inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cells, and sufficient NGF to induce the differentiation of PC12 neuron cells over four weeks. Such TP-NGFP-TP membrane device can be employed as a tampon to fill up surgical residual cavity and afford residual glioma removal, structural support, hemostasis, and local neural tissue reconstruction in the surgical treatment of glioma. The study opens a horizon to develop multifunctional biomaterial device for maximized glioma treatment efficacy. PMID:27548322

  6. An analysis of using semi-permeable membrane devices to assess persistent organic pollutants in ambient air of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ted Hsin-Yeh

    A region of concern for persistent organic pollutants (POPS) contamination is the Arctic, because of POPs' ability to migrate long distances through the atmosphere toward cold regions, condense out of the atmosphere in those region, deposit in sensitive arctic ecosystems and bioaccumulate in Arctic species. Thus, monitoring of POP concentrations in the Arctic is necessary. However, traditional active air monitoring techniques for POPs may not be feasible in the Arctic, because of logistics and cost. While these issues may be overcome using passive air sampling devices, questions arise about the interpretation of the contaminant concentrations detected using the passive air samplers. In this dissertation semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) containing triolein were characterized and evaluated for use in sampling the ambient air of Alaska for three classes of POPS (organochlorines [OCs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]). In addition, a SPMD-based sampling campaign for POPS was conducted simultaneously at five sites in Alaska during a one-year period. The POP concentrations obtained from the SPMDs were examined to determine the spatial and seasonal variability at the locations. POP concentrations detected in SPMDs were influenced by exposure to sunlight, concentrations of particulate-bound contaminants and changes in temperature. PAH concentrations in a SPMD mounted in a sunlight-blocking deployment unit were higher than in a SPMD exposed to sunlight (P = 0.007). PCB concentrations in SPMD exposed to filtered and non-filtered air were significantly different (P < 0.0001). Derived PAH air concentrations measured using SPMD were within a factor of approximately 7 of those obtained from an air sampler in Barrow, Alaska. The field study showed three distinct groups of samples. Barrow was separated from the sub-Arctic samples and a Homer sample (September-December) was distinct from the sub-Arctic samples. The separations suggest

  7. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Sabrina; Leber, Regina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2015-11-01

    Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity. However, the addition of the repeat (di-peptide) and the retro-repeat (di-retro-peptide) sequences highly improved cancer cell toxicity up to 100% at 20 μM peptide concentration. Compared to the complete parent sequence hLFcin the derivatives showed toxicity on the melanoma cell line A375 increased by 10-fold and on the glioblastoma cell line U-87mg by 2-3-fold. Reduced killing velocity, apoptotic blebbing, activation of caspase 3/7 and formation of apoptotic DNA fragments proved that the active and cancer selective peptides, e.g. R-DIM-P-LF11-322, trigger apoptosis, whereas highly active, though non-selective peptides, such as DIM-LF11-318 and RW-AH seem to kill rapidly via necrosis inducing membrane lyses. Structural studies revealed specific toxicity on cancer cells by peptide derivatives with loop structures, whereas non-specific peptides comprised α-helical structures without loop. Model studies with the cancer membrane mimic phosphatidylserine (PS) gave strong evidence that PS only exposed by cancer cells is an important target for specific hLFcin derivatives. Other negatively charged membrane exposed molecules as sialic acid, heparan and chondroitin sulfate were shown to have minor impact on peptide activity. PMID:26239537

  8. Smartphone-interfaced lab-on-a-chip devices for field-deployable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Arnold; Wang, Royal; Bever, Candace R. S.; Xing, Siyuan; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-01-01

    The emerging technologies on mobile-based diagnosis and bioanalytical detection have enabled powerful laboratory assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be conducted in field-use lab-on-a-chip devices. In this paper, we present a low-cost universal serial bus (USB)-interfaced mobile platform to perform microfluidic ELISA operations in detecting the presence and concentrations of BDE-47 (2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), an environmental contaminant found in our food supply with adverse health impact. Our point-of-care diagnostic device utilizes flexible interdigitated carbon black electrodes to convert electric current into a microfluidic pump via gas bubble expansion during electrolytic reaction. The micropump receives power from a mobile phone and transports BDE-47 analytes through the microfluidic device conducting competitive ELISA. Using variable domain of heavy chain antibodies (commonly referred to as single domain antibodies or Nanobodies), the proposed device is sensitive for a BDE-47 concentration range of 10−3–104 μg/l, with a comparable performance to that uses a standard competitive ELISA protocol. It is anticipated that the potential impact in mobile detection of health and environmental contaminants will prove beneficial to our community and low-resource environments. PMID:25553178

  9. Sensor-actuator coupled device for active tracheal tube using solid polymer electrolyte membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, Tadashi; Nakamura, Taro; Mukai, Toshiharu; Asaka, Kinji

    2007-04-01

    A sensor-actuator coupled device was developed using solid polymer electrolyte membrane (SPM) as an active tracheal tube for ventilator. Active tracheal tube is a novel type of tube for ventilator that removes patient's phlegm automatically upon sensing the narrowing of trachea by phlegm. This type of active tube is extremely useful in clinical settings as currently the sole measure to remove phlegm from patient's tube is to do it manually by a nurse every few hours. As SPM works both as a sensor and an actuator, an effective compact device was developed. SPM based sensor-actuator coupled device was fabricated with modified gold plating method. Prepared SPM was fixed as an array on a plastic pipe of diameter 22 mm and was connected to a ventilator circuit and driven by a ventilator with a volume control ventilation (VCV) mode. SPM was connected both to a sensing unit and an actuation unit. Generated voltage developed by the membrane with the setting of the maximum pressure from 5 cmH IIO to 20 cmH IIO was in order of several hundred μV. SPM sensor demonstrated a biphasic response to the ventilator flow. The sensor data showed nearly linearly proportional voltage development to the intra-tracheal pressure. The sensed signal was filtered and digitized with an A/D converting unit on a PC board. A real time operating program was used to detect the sensed signal that indicates the narrowing of trachea. The program then activated a driving signal to control the actuation of the membrane. The signal was sent to a D/A converting unit. The output of the D/A unit was sent to an amplifier and the galvanostat unit which drives the membrane with constant current regardless of the change in the load. It was demonstrated that the sensor-actuator unit detects the narrowing of trachea within several hundreds milli-seconds and responds by actuating the same membrane with the driving voltage of 3-4 V and driving current of several hundred milli-ampere for each membrane. SPM array

  10. HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

  11. Impact of high power interference sources in planning and deployment of wireless sensor networks and devices in the 2.4 GHz frequency band in heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Iturri, Peio López; Nazábal, Juan Antonio; Azpilicueta, Leire; Rodriguez, Pablo; Beruete, Miguel; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Falcone, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the impact of radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens and its effect on 802.15.4 ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor networks operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band is analyzed. By means of a novel radioplanning approach, based on electromagnetic field simulation of a microwave oven and determination of equivalent radiation sources applied to an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, estimation of the microwave oven’s power leakage is obtained for the complete volume of an indoor scenario. The magnitude and the variable nature of the interference is analyzed and the impact in the radio link quality in operating wireless sensors is estimated and compared with radio channel measurements as well as packet measurements. The measurement results reveal the importance of selecting an adequate 802.15.4 channel, as well as the Wireless Sensor Network deployment strategy within this type of environment, in order to optimize energy consumption and increase the overall network performance. The proposed method enables one to estimate potential interference effects in devices operating within the 2.4 GHz band in the complete scenario, prior to wireless sensor network deployment, which can aid in achieving the most optimal network topology. PMID:23202228

  12. Impact of High Power Interference Sources in Planning and Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks and Devices in the 2.4 GHz Frequency Band in Heterogeneous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Iturri, Peio López; Nazábal, Juan Antonio; Azpilicueta, Leire; Rodriguez, Pablo; Beruete, Miguel; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Falcone, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the impact of radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens and its effect on 802.15.4 ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor networks operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band is analyzed. By means of a novel radioplanning approach, based on electromagnetic field simulation of a microwave oven and determination of equivalent radiation sources applied to an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, estimation of the microwave oven's power leakage is obtained for the complete volume of an indoor scenario. The magnitude and the variable nature of the interference is analyzed and the impact in the radio link quality in operating wireless sensors is estimated and compared with radio channel measurements as well as packet measurements. The measurement results reveal the importance of selecting an adequate 802.15.4 channel, as well as the Wireless Sensor Network deployment strategy within this type of environment, in order to optimize energy consumption and increase the overall network performance. The proposed method enables one to estimate potential interference effects in devices operating within the 2.4 GHz band in the complete scenario, prior to wireless sensor network deployment, which can aid in achieving the most optimal network topology. PMID:23202228

  13. USE OF FIELD-DEPLOYED GAS CHROMATOGRAPH AND MEMBRANE INTERPHASE PROBE (MIP) TECHNOLOGY TO AID IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS IN SOIL AT THE PEACH ORCHARD ROAD SITE, AUGUSTA, GA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used a field-deployed gas chromatograph and a direct-push membrane interface probe (MIP) to give real-time characterization of the chlorinated-solvent content of soil at various depths. Soil was screened at one-foot intervals from one to 62 feet below land surface at a...

  14. Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Interferometry of the Terrestrial Nightglow with a Bare Charge-Coupled Device: Remote Field Site Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niciejewski, Rick; Killeen, Timothy L.; Turnbull, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) to the study of upper atmosphere thermodynamics has largely been restricted by the very low light levels in the terrestrial airglow as well as the limited range in wavelength of photomultiplier tube (PMT) technology. During the past decade, the development of the scientific grade charge-coupled device (CCD) has progressed to the stage in which this detector has become the logical replacement for the PMT. Small fast microcomputers have made it possible to "upgrade" our remote field sites with bare CCDs and not only retain the previous capabilities of the existing FPls but expand the data coverage in both temporal and wavelength domains. The problems encountered and the solutions applied to the deployment of a bare CCD, with data acquisition and image reduction techniques, are discussed. Sample geophysical data determined from the FPI fringe profiles are shown for our stations at Peach Mountain, Michigan, and Watson Lake, Yukon Territory.

  15. Ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometry of the terrestrial nightglow with a bare charge-coupled device: remote field site deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niciejewski, Rick J.; Killeen, Timothy L.; Turnbull, Matthew

    1994-02-01

    The application of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) to the study of upper atmosphere thermodynamics has largely been restricted by the very low light levels in the terrestrial airglow as well as the limited range in wavelength of photomultiplier tube (PMT) technology. During the past decade, the development of the scientific grade charge-coupled device (CCD) has progressed to the stage in which this detector has become the logical replacement for the PMT. Small fast microcomputers have made it possible to 'upgrade' our remote field sites with bare CCDs and not only retain the previous capabilities of the existing FPIs but expand the data coverage in both temporal and wavelength domains. The problems encountered and the solutions applied to the deployment of a bare CCD, with data acquisition and image reduction techniques, are discussed. Sample geophysical data determined from the FPI fringe profiles are shown for our stations at Peach Mountain, Michigan, and Watson Lake, Yukon Territory.

  16. Considerations involved with the use of semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Gale, R.W.; Lebo, J.A.; Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Cranor, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are used with increasing frequency, and throughout the world as samplers of organic contaminants. The devices can be used to detect a variety of lipophilic chemicals in water, sediment/soil, and air. SPMDs are designed to sample nonpolar, hydrophobic chemicals. The maximum concentration factor achievable for a particular chemical is proportional to its octanol-water partition coefficient. Techniques used for cleanup of SPMD extracts for targeted analytes and for general screening by full-scan mass spectrometry do not differ greatly from techniques used for extracts of other matrices. However, SPMD extracts contain potential interferences that are specific to the membrane-lipid matrix. Procedures have been developed or modified to alleviate these potential interferences. The SPMD approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to sequestering and analyzing a wide array of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, selected organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid insecticides, and other nonpolar organic chemicals. We present herein an overview of effective procedural steps for analyzing exposed SPMDs for trace to ultra-trace levels of contaminants sequestered from environmental matrices. Copyright (C) 2000.

  17. Three-compartment model for contaminant accumulation by semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Passive sampling of dissolved hydrophobic contaminants with lipid (triolein)-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) has been gaining acceptance for environmental monitoring. Understanding of the accumulation process has employed a simple polymer film-control model of uptake by the polymer-enclosed lipid, while aqueous film control has been only briefly discussed. A more complete three-compartment model incorporating both aqueous film (turbulent-diffusive) and polymer film (diffusive) mass transfer is developed here and is fit to data from accumulation studies conducted in constant-concentration, flow-through dilutors. This model predicts aqueous film control of the whole device for moderate to high K(ow) compounds, rather than polymer film control. Uptake rates for phenanthrene and 2,2',5,5'- tetrachlorobiphenyl were about 4.8 and 4.2 L/day/standard SPMD, respectively. Maximum 28 day SPMD concentration factors of 30 000 are predicted for solutes with log K(ow) values of >5.5. Effects of varying aqueous and polymer film thicknesses and solute diffusivities in the polymer film are modeled, and overall accumulation by the whole device is predicted to remain under aqueous film control, although accumulation in the triolein may be subject to polymer film control. The predicted half-life and integrative response of SPMDs to pulsed concentration events is proportional to log K(SPMD).Passive sampling of dissolved hydrophobic contaminants with lipid (triolein)-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) has been gaining acceptance for environmental monitoring. Understanding of the accumulation process has employed a simple polymer film-control model of uptake by the polymer-enclosed lipid, while aqueous film control has been only briefly discussed. A more complete three-compartment model incorporating both aqueous film (turbulent-diffusive) and polymer film (diffusive) mass transfer is developed here and is fit to data from accumulation studies conducted in

  18. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel. PMID:26892762

  19. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  20. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel. PMID:26892762

  1. Large Deployable Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Huang, John; Lou, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a 7-meter-diameter reflectarray antenna that has been conceived in a continuing effort to develop large reflectarray antennas to be deployed in outer space. Major underlying concepts were reported in three prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Inflatable Reflectarray Antennas" (NPO-20433), Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 50; "Tape-Spring Reinforcements for Inflatable Structural Tubes" (NPO-20615), Vol. 24, No. 7 (July 2000), page 58; and "Self-Inflatable/Self-Rigidizable Reflectarray Antenna" (NPO-30662), Vol. 28, No. 1 (January 2004), page 61. Like previous antennas in the series, the antenna now proposed would include a reflectarray membrane stretched flat on a frame of multiple inflatable booms. The membrane and booms would be rolled up and folded for compact stowage during transport. Deployment in outer space would be effected by inflating the booms to unroll and then to unfold the membrane, thereby stretching the membrane out flat to its full size. The membrane would achieve the flatness for a Ka-band application. The report gives considerable emphasis to designing the booms to rigidify themselves upon deployment: for this purpose, the booms could be made as spring-tape-reinforced aluminum laminate tubes like those described in two of the cited prior articles.

  2. Recovery of DNA and fingermarks following deployment of render-safe tools for vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED).

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, S; Houspian, A; Knott, F

    2011-07-15

    Improvised explosive devices (IED) are responsible for a significant proportion of combat and civilian deaths around the world. Given the ease with which IEDs can be made, the large quantity of explosive which can be contained within or on a vehicle, and the use of VBIED in the past (for example the 2002 Bali bombing) in terrorist activities, VBIED are an ongoing concern for Defence and law enforcement agencies. Fingermark and DNA analyses are routinely used by police and forensic analysts to identify suspects involved in illegal activities. There is limited information available on the feasibility of obtaining fingermarks, fibres, hair and DNA samples following an explosive incident, or a situation whereby an IED has been rendered safe following the utilisation of an appropriate defeat or render-safe tool. The main objective of this study was to determine if fingermarks and/or DNA (from saliva and hair samples) placed on the interior and exterior of road vehicles, and on inanimate objects (such as plastic or glass bottles), are able to be obtained and analysed following the use of a vehicle-borne IED (VBIED) render-safe tool on a vehicle containing simulated explosives. The identification of fingermarks on the exterior (67.2±8.5%) and interior (43.8±17.8%) of the vehicles was possible following the use of the render-safe tool, though this was more challenging in the latter than the former. Fingermarks were also able to be identified from both plastic and glass bottles placed inside the vehicles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques yielded DNA profiles that were able to be identified from saliva and hair samples. These preliminary results suggest that both fingermarks and DNA profiles, obtained from vehicles that have been subjected to a VBIED render-safe tool, may be used to identify persons of interest. PMID:21482051

  3. (13) C Breath Tests Are Feasible in Patients With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Devices.

    PubMed

    Bednarsch, Jan; Menk, Mario; Malinowski, Maciej; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Pratschke, Johann; Stockmann, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Temporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been established as an essential part of therapy in patients with pulmonary or cardiac failure. As physiological gaseous exchange is artificially altered in this patient group, it is debatable whether a (13) C-breath test can be carried out. In this proof of technical feasibility report, we assess the viability of the (13) C-breath test LiMAx (maximum liver function capacity) in patients on ECMO therapy. All breath probes for the test device were obtained directly via the membrane oxygenator. Data of four patients receiving liver function assessment with the (13) C-breath test LiMAx while having ECMO therapy were analyzed. All results were compared with validated scenarios of the testing procedures. The LiMAx test could successfully be carried out in every case without changing ECMO settings. Clinical course of the patients ranging from multiorgan failure to no sign of liver insufficiency was in accordance with the results of the LiMAx liver function test. The (13) C-breath test is technically feasible in the context of ECMO. Further evaluation of (13) C-breath test in general would be worthwhile. The LiMAx test as a (13) C-breath test accessing liver function might be of particular predictive interest if patients with ECMO therapy develop multiorgan failure. PMID:26527580

  4. Development of a microfluidic device for determination of cell osmotic behavior and membrane transport properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Purtteman, Jester J P; Heimfeld, Shelly; Folch, Albert; Gao, Dayong

    2007-12-01

    An understanding of cell osmotic behavior and membrane transport properties is indispensable for cryobiology research and development of cell-type-specific, optimal cryopreservation conditions. A microfluidic perfusion system is developed here to measure the kinetic changes of cell volume under various extracellular conditions, in order to determine cell osmotic behavior and membrane transport properties. The system is fabricated using soft lithography and is comprised of microfluidic channels and a perfusion chamber for trapping cells. During experiments, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-1 line) cells were injected into the inlet of the device, allowed to flow downstream, and were trapped within a perfusion chamber. The fluid continues to flow to the outlet due to suction produced by a Hamilton Syringe. Two sets of experiments have been performed: the cells were perfused by (1) hypertonic solutions with different concentrations of non-permeating solutes and (2) solutions containing a permeating cryoprotective agent (CPA), dimethylsulfoxide (Me(2)SO), plus non-permeating solute (sodium chloride (NaCl)), respectively. From experiment (1), cell osmotically inactive volume (V(b)) and the permeability coefficient of water (L(p)) for RBL cells are determined to be 41% [n=18, correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.903] of original/isotonic volume, and 0.32+/-0.05 microm/min/atm (n=8, r(2)>0.963), respectively, for room temperature (22 degrees C). From experiment (2), the permeability coefficient of water (L(p)) and of Me(2)SO (P(s)) for RBL cells are 0.38+/-0.09 microm/min/atm and (0.49+/-0.13) x 10(-3)cm/min (n=5, r(2)>0.86), respectively. We conclude that this device enables us to: (1) readily monitor the changes of extracellular conditions by perfusing single or a group of cells with prepared media; (2) confine cells (or a cell) within a monolayer chamber, which prevents imaging ambiguity, such as cells overlapping or moving out of the focus plane; (3) study individual cell

  5. Topographically-patterned porous membranes in a microfluidic device as an in vitro model of renal reabsorptive barriers

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Else M.; Alonso, José Luis; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Xin; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2015-01-01

    Models of reabsorptive barriers require both a means to provide realistic physiologic cues to and quantify transport across a layer of cells forming the barrier. Here we have topographically-patterned porous membranes with several user-defined pattern types. To demonstrate the utility of the patterned membranes, we selected one type of pattern and applied it to a membrane to serve as a cell culture support in a microfluidic model of a renal reabsorptive barrier. The topographic cues in the model resemble physiological cues found in vivo while the porous structure allows quantification of transport across the cell layer. Sub-micron surface topography generated via hot-embossing onto a track-etched polycarbonate membrane, fully replicated topographical features and preserved porous architecture. Pore size and shape were analyzed with SEM and image analysis to determine the effect of hot embossing on pore morphology. The membrane was assembled into a bilayer microfluidic device and a human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cell line (HK-2) and primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) were cultured to confluency on the membrane. Immunofluorescent staining of both cell types revealed protein expression indicative of the formation of a reabsorptive barrier responsive to mechanical stimulation: ZO-1 (tight junction), paxillin (focal adhesions) and acetylated α-tubulin (primary cilia). HK-2 and RPTEC aligned in the direction of ridge/groove topography of the membrane in the device, evidence that the device has mechanical control over cell response. This topographically-patterned porous membrane provides an in vitro platform on which to model reabsorptive barriers with meaningful applications for understanding biological transport phenomenon, underlying disease mechanisms, and drug toxicity. PMID:23636129

  6. Membrane Protein Incorporation into Nano-Bioelectronics: An insight into Rhodopsin Controlled SiNW-FET Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Ramya

    Biological systems use different energy sources to interact with their environments by creating ion gradients, membrane electric potentials, or a proton motive force to accomplish strikingly complex tasks on the nanometer length scale, such as energy harvesting, and whole organism replication. Most of this activity involves a vast arsenal of active and passive ion channels, membrane receptors and ion pumps that mediate complex and precise transport across biological membranes. Despite the remarkable rate of progress exhibited by modern microelectronic devices, they still cannot compete with the efficiency and precision of biological systems on the component level. At the same time, the sophistication of these molecular machines provides an excellent opportunity to use them in hybrid bioelectronic devices where such a combination could deliver enhanced electronic functionality and enable seamless bi-directional interfaces between man-made and biological assemblies. Artificial membrane systems allow researchers to study the structure and function of membrane proteins in a matrix that approximates their natural environment and to integrate these proteins in ex-vivo devices such as electronic biosensors, thin-film protein arrays, or bio-fuel cells. Since most membrane proteins have vectorial functions, both functional studies and applications require effective control over protein orientation within a lipid bilayer. In our work, we have explored the role of the bilayer surface charge in determining transmembrane protein orientation and functionality during formation of proteoliposomes. We reconstituted a model vectorial ion pump, proteorhodopsin, in liposomes of opposite charges and varying charge densities and determined the resultant protein orientation. Antibody-binding assay and proteolysis of proteoliposomes showed physical evidence of preferential orientation, and functional assays verified vectorial nature of ion transport in this system. Our results indicate

  7. Development of Novel active transport membrane devices. Phase I. Final report, 31 October 1988--31 January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.; Quinn, R.; Choe, G.S.; Cook, P.J.; Tsai, Fu-Jya

    1994-08-01

    The main objective of this program was to identify and develop a technique for fabricating Active Transport Materials (ATM) into lab-scale membrane devices. Air Products met this objective by applying thin film, multilayer fabrication techniques to support the AT material on a substrate membrane. In Phase IA, spiral-wound hollow fiber membrane modules were fabricated and evaluated. These nonoptimized devices were used to demonstrate the AT-based separation of carbon dioxide from methane, hydrogen sulfide from methane, and ammonia from hydrogen. It was determined that a need exists for a more cost efficient and less energy intensive process for upgrading subquality natural gas. Air Products estimated the effectiveness of ATM for this application and concluded that an optimized ATM system could compete effectively with both conventional acid gas scrubbing technology and current membrane technology. In addition, the optimized ATM system would have lower methane loss and consume less energy than current alternative processes. Air Products made significant progress toward the ultimate goal of commercializing an advanced membrane for upgrading subquality natural gas. The laboratory program focused on developing a high performance hollow fiber substrate and fabricating and evaluating ATM-coated lab-scale hollow fiber membrane modules. Selection criteria for hollow fiber composite membrane supports were developed and used to evaluate candidate polymer compositions. A poly(amide-imide), PAI, was identified for further study. Conditions were identified which produced microporous PAI support membrane with tunable surface porosity in the range 100-1000{Angstrom}. The support fibers exhibited good hydrocarbon resistance and acceptable tensile strength though a higher elongation may ultimately be desirable. ATM materials were coated onto commercial and PAI substrate fiber. Modules containing 1-50 fibers were evaluated for permselectivity, pressure stability, and lifetime.

  8. Semipermeable-membrane devices as an in situ and laboratory testing chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The use of semipermeable-membrane devices (SPMDs) to measure the bioavailability of dissolved (< 10{angstrom}) hydrophobic-organic-compounds has recently been established. These low-density polyethylene bags are effective and relatively easy in situ devices for evaluating bioaccumulation potentials of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins. The authors believe SPMDs may also be effective in situ and laboratory testing chambers for evaluating dissolved contaminant effects on sensitive life stages of freshwater/marine fish and invertebrates. Applications may include dissolved contaminant toxicity of effluents, porewater, water-column, and surface microlayer. In laboratory tests, the applicability of SPMD-testing chambers was explored with marine bivalve larvae (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Test solutions were filtered seawater, dissolved copper, ammonia, and an elutriate preparation that included both organic and inorganic contaminants. SPMDs were filled with seawater, immersed in test solutions for 24-h, then spiked with fertilized M. galloprovincialis embryos. Following 48-h exposures, >90% survival and normal development was observed in the controls, indicating that incubation in the SPMDs did not adversely affect larval development. Incubation in test treatments resulted in slight, but not significantly different, reductions in normal development, relative to the controls. The authors believe longer SPMD immersion prior to testing will likely be required to allow SPMD contents to reach equilibrium with test solutions before eliciting a significant toxicological response. While this may limit the application of SPMDs for short term in situ exposures, they may be used for field/laboratory exposures of a week or more or for collecting equilibrated field samples for laboratory testing.

  9. Centrifugal regulator for control of deployment rates of deployable elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermalle, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements, design, and performance of a centrifugal regulator aimed at limiting deployment rates of deployable elements are discussed. The overall mechanism is comprised of four distinct functional parts in a machined housing: (1) the centrifugal brake device, which checks the payout of a deployment cable; (2) the reducing gear, which produces the spin rate necesary for the braking device; (3) the payout device, which allows the unwinding of the cable; and (4) the locking device, which prevents untimely unwinding. The centrifugal regulator is set into operation by a threshold tension of the cable which unlocks the mechanism and allows unwinding. The pulley of the windout device drives the centrifugal brake with the help of the reducing gear. The centrifugal force pushes aside weights that produce friction of the studs in a cylindrical housing. The mechanism behaved well at qualification temperature and vibrations.

  10. Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kelly S; Petty, Jimmie D; Huckins, James N; Lebo, Jon A; Kaiser, Edwin M

    2002-11-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri-Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue--PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment. PMID:12431008

  11. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants (kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient (Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07??m3??g-1??d-1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values (n??=??3) of anthracene and p,p???-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57??m3??g-1??d-1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  12. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  13. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranor, Walter L.; Alvarez, David A.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants ( kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient ( Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07 m 3 g -1 d -1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values ( n = 3) of anthracene and p, p'-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57 m 3 g -1 d -1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  14. Sequestration of priority pollutant PAHs from sediment pore water employing semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were employed to sample sediment pore water in static exposure studies under controlled laboratory conditions using (control pond and formulated) sediments fortified with 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs). The sediment fortification level of 750 ng/g was selected on the basis of what might be detected in a sediment sample from a contaminated area. The sampling interval consisted of 0, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days for each study. The analytical methodologies, as well as the extraction and sample cleanup procedures used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs at different fortification levels in SPMDs, water, and sediment were reported previously (Williamson, M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri - Columbia, USA; Williamson et al., Chemosphere (This issue - PII: S0045-6535(02)00394-6)) and used for this project. Average (mean) extraction recoveries for each PPPAH congener in each matrix are reported and discussed. No procedural blank extracts (controls) were found to contain any PPPAH residues above the method quantitation limit, therefore, no matrix interferences were detected. The focus of this publication is to demonstrate the ability to sequester environmental contaminants, specifically PPPAHs, from sediment pore water using SPMDs and two different types of fortified sediment.

  15. Low-temperature bonded glass-membrane microfluidic device for in vitro organ-on-a-chip cell culture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organson- a-chip", which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass based devices have long been utilised in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multi-layered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimised on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650 °C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050 °C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150 °C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 hours, indicating sufficient bond strength for long term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  16. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  17. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in relation to water column phase distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Naes, K.; Naef, C.; Broman, D.

    1999-11-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were deployed at a site contaminated by discharges of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aluminium reduction plant, and at a reference site. The accumulation of PAHs in SPMDs versus mussels, along with the ability of the two matrices to predict contaminant concentrations in the ambient environment, were evaluated through concurrent measurements of particulate, dissolved, and colloidal PAHs in the water column. Analysis of the results showed that blue mussels were more efficient at sequestering PAHs than were SPMDs. The PAH profile (i.e,, the relative abundance of individual PAHs) in the two matrices were similar, but differed significantly from the profile in the dissolved phase. Further, back-calculation of the ambient dissolved concentrations from SPMDs indicated systematic overtrapping with increasing hydrophobicity. Calculation of in situ bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the blue mussels at the smelter site indicated that uptake via particles or from colloids dominated over direct uptake from the dissolved phase, as opposed to the reference site. The in situ BCFs differed markedly from literature values, which implies that the use of mussels to predict ambient concentrations would require that site-specific BCFs be applied.

  18. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  19. Quantification of the specific membrane capacitance of single cells using a microfluidic device and impedance spectroscopy measurement.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qingyuan; Ferrier, Graham A; Chen, Brandon K; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2012-09-01

    The specific membrane capacitance (SMC) is an electrical parameter that correlates with both the electrical activity and morphology of the plasma membrane, which are physiological markers for cellular phenotype and health. We have developed a microfluidic device that enables impedance spectroscopy measurements of the SMC of single biological cells. Impedance spectra induced by single cells aspirated into the device are captured over a moderate frequency range (5 kHz-1 MHz). Maximum impedance sensitivity is achieved using a tapered microfluidic channel, which effectively routes electric fields across the cell membranes. The SMC is extracted by curve-fitting impedance spectra to an equivalent circuit model. From our measurement, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are found to exhibit larger SMC values in hypertonic solutions as compared with those in isotonic solutions. In addition, AML cell phenotypes (AML2 and NB4) exhibiting varying metastatic potential yield distinct SMC values (AML2: 16.9 ± 1.9 mF/m(2) (n = 23); NB4: 22.5 ± 4.7 mF/m(2) (n = 23)). Three-dimensional finite element simulations of the microfluidic device confirm the feasibility of this approach. PMID:23940502

  20. Lab-on-a-Membrane Foldable Devices for Duplex Drop-Volume Electrochemical Biosensing Using Quantum Dot Tags.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Christos; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Economou, Anastasios; Prodromidis, Mamas; Florou, Ageliki; Haasnoot, Willem; Petrou, Panagiota; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2016-07-01

    This work describes a new type of integrated lab-on-a-membrane foldable device suitable for on-site duplex electrochemical biosensing using drop-size sample volumes. The devices are fabricated entirely by screen-printing on a nylon membrane and feature two assay zones which are located symmetrically on either side of a three-electrode voltammetric cell with a bismuth citrate-loaded graphite working electrode. After the completion of two spatially separated drop-volume competitive immunoassays on the assay zones using biotinylated antibodies labeled with streptavidin-conjugated Pb- and Cd-based quantum dots (QDs), respectively, the QD labels are dissolved releasing Pb(II) and Cd(II) in the assay zones. Then, the two assay zones are folded over, and they are brought in contact with the voltammetric cell for simultaneous anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) at the bismuth nanostructured layer formed on the working electrode by reduction of the bismuth citrate during the preconcentration step. The fabrication of the devices is discussed in detail, and their operational characteristics are exhaustively studied. In order to demonstrate their applicability to the analysis in complex matrices, duplex ASV-QDs-based determination of bovine casein and bovine immunoglobulin G is carried out in milk samples yielding limits of detection of 0.04 μg mL(-1) and 0.02 μg mL(-1), respectively. The potential of the devices to detect milk adulteration is further demonstrated. These new membrane devices enable duplex biosensing with distinct advantages over existing approaches in terms of cost, fabrication, and operational simplicity and rapidity, portability, sample size, disposability, sensitivity, and suitability for field analysis. PMID:27257985

  1. Surgical Membranes as Directional Delivery Devices to Generate Tissue: Testing in an Ovine Critical Sized Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L.; Chang, Hana; Moore, Shannon R.; Knothe, Ulf R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pluripotent cells residing in the periosteum, a bi-layered membrane enveloping all bones, exhibit a remarkable regenerative capacity to fill in critical sized defects of the ovine femur within two weeks of treatment. Harnessing the regenerative power of the periosteum appears to be limited only by the amount of healthy periosteum available. Here we use a substitute periosteum, a delivery device cum implant, to test the hypothesis that directional delivery of endogenous periosteal factors enhances bone defect healing. Methods Newly adapted surgical protocols were used to create critical sized, middiaphyseal femur defects in four groups of five skeletally mature Swiss alpine sheep. Each group was treated using a periosteum substitute for the controlled addition of periosteal factors including the presence of collagen in the periosteum (Group 1), periosteum derived cells (Group 2), and autogenic periosteal strips (Group 3). Control group animals were treated with an isotropic elastomer membrane alone. We hypothesized that periosteal substitute membranes incorporating the most periosteal factors would show superior defect infilling compared to substitute membranes integrating fewer factors (i.e. Group 3>Group 2>Group 1>Control). Results Based on micro-computed tomography data, bone defects enveloped by substitute periosteum enabling directional delivery of periosteal factors exhibit superior bony bridging compared to those sheathed with isotropic membrane controls (Group 3>Group 2>Group 1, Control). Quantitative histological analysis shows significantly increased de novo tissue generation with delivery of periosteal factors, compared to the substitute periosteum containing a collagen membrane alone (Group 1) as well as compared to the isotropic control membrane. Greatest tissue generation and maximal defect bridging was observed when autologous periosteal transplant strips were included in the periosteum substitute. Conclusion Periosteum-derived cells as well

  2. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  3. USE OF SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES TO MONITOR POLLUTANTS IN WATER AND ASSESS THEIR EFFECTS: A LABORATORY TEST AND FIELD VERIFICATION. (U915464)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake of eight pesticides of different classes (organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, dinitroanilines, amides) by semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) was studied in a laboratory continuous-flow system. After 20 days of exposure, membrane concentration factors were in th...

  4. Anesthesiology Devices; Reclassification of Membrane Lung for Long-Term Pulmonary Support; Redesignation as Extracorporeal Circuit and Accessories for Long-Term Respiratory/Cardiopulmonary Failure. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to redesignate membrane lung devices for long-term pulmonary support, a preamendments class III device, as extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure, and to reclassify the device to class II (special controls) in patients with acute respiratory failure or acute cardiopulmonary failure where other available treatment options have failed, and continued clinical deterioration is expected or the risk of death is imminent. A membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support (>6 hours) refers to the oxygenator in an extracorporeal circuit used during long-term procedures, commonly referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Because a number of other devices and accessories are used with the oxygenator in the circuit, the title and identification of the regulation are revised to include extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure. Although an individual device or accessory used in an ECMO circuit may already have its own classification regulation when the device or accessory is intended for short-term use (<=6 hours), such device or accessory will be subject to the same regulatory controls applied to the oxygenator (i.e., class II, special controls) when evaluated as part of the ECMO circuit for long-term use (>6 hours). On its own initiative, based on new information, FDA is revising the classification of the membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support. PMID:26878739

  5. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Zeng, Juqin; Di Lupo, Francesca; Garino, Nadia; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Francia, Carlotta; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices. PMID:24958178

  6. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices. PMID:24958425

  7. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices. PMID:24958425

  8. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Zeng, Juqin; Lupo, Francesca Di; Garino, Nadia; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Francia, Carlotta; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10−3 S cm−1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices. PMID:24958178

  9. Development of the permeability/performance reference compound approach for in situ calibration of semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Lebo, J.A.; Almeida, F.V.; Booij, K.; Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Clark, R.C.; Mogensen, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    Permeability/performance reference compounds (PRCs) are analytically noninterfering organic compounds with moderate to high fugacity from semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) that are added to the lipid prior to membrane enclosure. Assuming that isotropic exchange kinetics (IEK) apply and that SPMD-water partition coefficients are known, measurement of PRC dissipation rate constants during SPMD field exposures and laboratory calibration studies permits the calculation of an exposure adjustment factor (EAF). In theory, PRC-derived EAF ratios reflect changes in SPMD sampling rates (relative to laboratory data) due to differences in exposure temperature, membrane biofouling, and flow velocity-turbulence at the membrane surface. Thus, the PRC approach should allow for more accurate estimates of target solute/vapor concentrations in an exposure medium. Under some exposure conditions, the impact of environmental variables on SPMD sampling rates may approach an order of magnitude. The results of this study suggest that most of the effects of temperature, facial velocity-turbulence, and biofouling on the uptake rates of analytes with a wide range of hydrophobicities can be deduced from PRCs with a much narrower range of hydrophobicities. Finally, our findings indicate that the use of PRCs permits prediction of in situ SPMD sampling rates within 2-fold of directly measured values.

  10. Membrane-based microchannel device for continuous quantitative extraction of dissolved free sulfide from water and from oil.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Ebisu, Yuki; Hirota, Kazutoshi; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2012-09-01

    Underground fluids are important natural sources of drinking water, geothermal energy, and oil-based fuels. To facilitate the surveying of such underground fluids, a novel microchannel extraction device was investigated for in-line continuous analysis and flow injection analysis of sulfide levels in water and in oil. Of the four designs investigated, the honeycomb-patterned microchannel extraction (HMCE) device was found to offer the most effective liquid-liquid extraction. In the HMCE device, a thin silicone membrane was sandwiched between two polydimethylsiloxane plates in which honeycomb-patterned microchannels had been fabricated. The identical patterns on the two plates were accurately aligned. The extracted sulfide was detected by quenching monitoring of fluorescein mercuric acetate (FMA). The sulfide extraction efficiencies from water and oil samples of the HMCE device and of three other designs (two annular and one rectangular channel) were examined theoretically and experimentally. The best performance was obtained with the HMCE device because of its thin sample layer (small diffusion distance) and large interface area. Quantitative extraction from both water and oil could be obtained using the HMCE device. The estimated limit of detection for continuous monitoring was 0.05 μM, and sulfide concentrations in the range of 0.15-10 μM could be determined when the acceptor was 5 μM FMA alkaline solution. The method was applied to natural water analysis using flow injection mode, and the data agreed with those obtained using headspace gas chromatography-flame photometric detection. The analysis of hydrogen sulfide levels in prepared oil samples was also performed. The proposed device is expected to be used for real time survey of oil wells and groundwater wells. PMID:22840703

  11. Deployment simulation of a deployable reflector for earth science application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaokai; Fang, Houfei; Cai, Bei; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-10-01

    A novel mission concept namely NEXRAD-In-Space (NIS) has been developed for monitoring hurricanes, cyclones and other severe storms from a geostationary orbit. It requires a space deployable 35-meter diameter Ka-band (35 GHz) reflector. NIS can measure hurricane precipitation intensity, dynamics and its life cycle. These information is necessary for predicting the track, intensity, rain rate and hurricane-induced floods. To meet the requirements of the radar system, a Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) reflector technology has been developed and several technologies have been evaluated. However, the deployment analysis of this large size and high-precision reflector has not been investigated. For a pre-studies, a scaled tetrahedral truss reflector with spring driving deployment system has been made and tested, deployment dynamics analysis of this scaled reflector has been performed using ADAMS to understand its deployment dynamic behaviors. Eliminating the redundant constraints in the reflector system with a large number of moving parts is a challenging issue. A primitive joint and flexible struts were introduced to the analytical model and they can effectively eliminate over constraints of the model. By using a high-speed camera and a force transducer, a deployment experiment of a single-bay tetrahedral module has been conducted. With the tested results, an optimization process has been performed by using the parameter optimization module of ADAMS to obtain the parameters of the analytical model. These parameters were incorporated to the analytical model of the whole reflector. It is observed from the analysis results that the deployment process of the reflector with a fixed boundary experiences three stages. These stages are rapid deployment stage, slow deployment stage and impact stage. The insight of the force peak distributions of the reflector can help the optimization design of the structure.

  12. Assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential using an on-chip microelectrode in a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, Antonio; Wallace, Douglas C.; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial membrane potential is used to generate and regulate energy in living systems, driving the conversion of ADP to ATP, regulating ion homeostasis, and controlling apoptosis, all central to human health and disease. Therefore, there is a need for tools to study its regulation in a controlled environment for potential clinical and scientific applications. For this aim, an on-chip tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) selective microelectrode sensor was constructed in a microfluidic environment. The concentration of isolated mitochondria (Heb7A) used in a membrane potential measurement was 0.3 ng μL−1, four orders of magnitude smaller than the concentration used in conventional assays (3 μg μL−1). In addition, the volume of the chamber (85 μL) is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than traditional experiments. As a demonstration, changes in the membrane potential are clearly measured in response to a barrage of well-known substrates and inhibitors of the electron transport chain. This general approach, which to date has not been demonstrated for study of mitochondrial function and bio-energetics in generally, can be instrumental in advancing the field of mitochondrial research and clinical applications by allowing high throughput studies of the regulation, dynamics, and statistical properties of the mitochondrial membrane potential in response to inhibitors and inducers of apoptosis in a controlled (microfluidic) chemical environment. PMID:20383402

  13. Time-integrated, flux-based monitoring using semipermeable membrane devices to estimate the contribution of industrial facilities to regional polychlorinated biphenyl budgets

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Ham, K.D.; Palmer, J.A.

    2000-02-01

    Passive monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) was employed to evaluate the contribution of point and nonpoint sources to the flux of PCB in a drainage system encompassing three US Department of Energy (US DOE) industrial and research facilities in eastern Tennessee, USA. Polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations were highest at outfalls containing process waste from the DOE industrial facilities. The significance of these releases was evaluated by calculating the PCB flux (mass per unit time) at different monitoring locations. The flux was calculated from the time-integrated estimates of the aqueous concentrations of PCB and estimates of the volumetric flow rates of discharges and receiving streams during the deployment period. The DOE discharges accounted for most of the flux of PCB entering the Clinch River from the DOE drainage areas, but these sources constituted only 10% of the flux in the Clinch River about the DOE sources. Principal components analysis was helpful in attributing sources of PCB. In a stream receiving multiple inputs of PCB, congener profiles from upstream sources and discrete discharges were consistent with a mixture of those congener profiles in the downstream receiving water. In another stream with a single upstream source of PCB, changes in PCB flux and congener profiles suggested an apparent steady-state distribution between dissolved PCB and PCB adsorbed to organic matter on the streambed. The flux of dissolved PCB along different stream reaches reflected changes in the sediment organic content. Subtle alterations in congener profiles moving downstream suggested preferential desorption of less chlorinated congeners and sorption of more highly chlorinated congeners to sediment. Time-integrated, flux-based monitoring can be useful across a range of spatial scales for evaluating the significance of point and nonpoint contaminant sources and can help identify and prioritize feasible remedial

  14. Comparison of the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides by semipermeable membrane devices and caged fish (Carassius carassius) in Taihu Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ke, R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, S.; Wang, Z.; Huckins, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by crucian carp (Carassius carassius) was studied in Taihu Lake, a shallow, freshwater lake in China. Crucian carp and SPMDs were deployed side by side for 32 d. The first-order uptake rate constants of individual PAHs and OCPs for the two matrices were calculated and compared to relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the matrices to dissolved water concentrations. On a wet-weight basis, total concentrations of PAHs and OCPs in crucian carp fillets averaged 49.5 and 13.6 ng/g, respectively, after the 32-d exposure, whereas concentrations in whole SPMDs averaged 716.9 and 62.3 ng/g, respectively. The uptake rate constants of PAHs and OCPs by SPMDs averaged seven- and fivefold higher, respectively, than those for crucian carp; however, the patterns of uptake rate constants derived from test chemical concentrations in the crucian carp and SPMDs were similar. Although equilibrium was not reached for some PAHs and OCPs during the 32-d exposure period, a reasonably good correlation between the concentration factors (CFs) and octanol/water partition coefficient (K ow) values of PAHs and OCPs in SPMDs (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) was observed when potential sorption to dissolved organic carbon was taken into account. Similar efforts to correlate the CFs and Kow values of PAHs and OCPs in crucian carp (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) were less successful, likely because of PAH metabolism by finfish. Overall, the present results suggest that SPMDs may serve as a surrogate for contaminant monitoring with fish in freshwater lake environments. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  15. Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the Lower Columbia River using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of suspended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contaminants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques.

  16. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high-capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Water Loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for the ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System. The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of crewed spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System hardware.

  17. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2013-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  18. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2011-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a clear demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  19. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A water loop maintenance device and process to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been undergoing a performance evaluation. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the water recirculation maintenance device and process is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance process further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware. This

  20. Deployable Wireless Camera Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Jones, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power camera dart has been designed and tested for context imaging of sampling sites and ground surveys from an aerobot or an orbiting spacecraft in a microgravity environment. The camera penetrators also can be used to image any line-of-sight surface, such as cliff walls, that is difficult to access. Tethered cameras to inspect the surfaces of planetary bodies use both power and signal transmission lines to operate. A tether adds the possibility of inadvertently anchoring the aerobot, and requires some form of station-keeping capability of the aerobot if extended examination time is required. The new camera penetrators are deployed without a tether, weigh less than 30 grams, and are disposable. They are designed to drop from any altitude with the boost in transmitting power currently demonstrated at approximately 100-m line-of-sight. The penetrators also can be deployed to monitor lander or rover operations from a distance, and can be used for surface surveys or for context information gathering from a touch-and-go sampling site. Thanks to wireless operation, the complexity of the sampling or survey mechanisms may be reduced. The penetrators may be battery powered for short-duration missions, or have solar panels for longer or intermittent duration missions. The imaging device is embedded in the penetrator, which is dropped or projected at the surface of a study site at 90 to the surface. Mirrors can be used in the design to image the ground or the horizon. Some of the camera features were tested using commercial "nanny" or "spy" camera components with the charge-coupled device (CCD) looking at a direction parallel to the ground. Figure 1 shows components of one camera that weighs less than 8 g and occupies a volume of 11 cm3. This camera could transmit a standard television signal, including sound, up to 100 m. Figure 2 shows the CAD models of a version of the penetrator. A low-volume array of such penetrator cameras could be deployed from an

  1. Integrated SDS removal and protein digestion by hollow fiber membrane based device for SDS-assisted proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Simin; Yuan, Huiming; Chen, Yuanbo; Liang, Zheng; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-08-15

    In this work, a novel integrated sample preparation device for SDS-assisted proteome analysis was developed, by which proteins dissolved in 4% (w/v) SDS were first diluted by 50% methanol, and then SDS was online removed by a hollow fiber membrane interface (HFMI) with 50mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0) as an exchange buffer, finally digested by an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). To evaluate the performance of such an integrated device, bovine serum albumin dissolved in 4% (w/v) SDS as a model sample was analyzed; it could be found that similar to that obtained by direct analysis of BSA digests without SDS (the sequence coverage of 60.3±1.0%, n=3), with HFMI as an interface for SDS removal, BSA was identified with the sequence coverage of 61.0±1.0% (n=3). However, without SDS removal by HFMI, BSA could not be digested by the IMER and none peptides could be detected. In addition, such an integrated sample preparation device was also applied for the analysis of SDS extracted proteins from rat brain, compared to those obtained by filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), not only the identified protein group and unique peptide number were increased by 12% and 39% respectively, but also the sample pretreatment time was shortened from 24h to 4h. All these results demonstrated that such an integrated sample preparation device would provide an alternative tool for SDS assisted proteome analysis. PMID:25966408

  2. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  3. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  4. An insulated isothermal PCR method on a field-deployable device for rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 at points of need.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T

    2015-08-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), including subtypes 2a, 2b and 2c, causes an acute enteric disease in both domestic and wild animals. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis aids effective disease management at points of need (PON). A commercially available, field-deployable and user-friendly system, designed with insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) technology, displays excellent sensitivity and specificity for nucleic acid detection. An iiPCR method was developed for on-site detection of all circulating CPV-2 strains. Limit of detection was determined using plasmid DNA. CPV-2a, 2b and 2c strains, a feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) strain, and nine canine pathogens were tested to evaluate assay specificity. Reaction sensitivity and performance were compared with an in-house real-time PCR using serial dilutions of a CPV-2b strain and 100 canine fecal clinical samples collected from 2010 to 2014, respectively. The 95% limit of detection of the iiPCR method was 13 copies of standard DNA and detection limits for CPV-2b DNA were equivalent for iiPCR and real-time PCR. The iiPCR reaction detected CPV-2a, 2b and 2c and FPV. Non-targeted pathogens were not detected. Test results of real-time PCR and iiPCR from 99 fecal samples agreed with each other, while one real-time PCR-positive sample tested negative by iiPCR. Therefore, excellent agreement (k = 0.98) with sensitivity of 98.41% and specificity of 100% in detecting CPV-2 in feces was found between the two methods. In conclusion, the iiPCR system has potential to serve as a useful tool for rapid and accurate PON, molecular detection of CPV-2. PMID:25889355

  5. Potential Usage of Thermoelectric Devices in a High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System: Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Chen, Min; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-06-01

    Methanol-fueled, high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) power systems are promising as the next generation of vehicle engines, efficient and environmentally friendly. Currently, their performance still needs to be improved, and they still rely on a large Li-ion battery for system startup. In this article, to handle these two issues, the potential of thermoelectric (TE) devices applied in a HTPEMFC power system has been preliminarily evaluated. First, right after the fuel cell stack or the methanol reformer, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are embedded inside a gas-liquid heat exchanger to form a heat recovery subsystem jointly for electricity production. It is calculated that the recovered power can increase the system efficiency and mitigate the dependence on Li-ion battery during system startup. To improve the TEG subsystem performance, a finite-difference model is then employed and two main parameters are identified. Second, TE coolers are integrated into the methanol steam reformer to regulate heat fluxes herein and improve the system dynamic performance. Similar modification is also done on the evaporator to improve its dynamic performance as well as to reduce the heat loss during system startup. The results demonstrate that the TE-assisted heat flux regulation and heat-loss reduction can also effectively help solve the abovementioned two issues. The preliminary analysis in this article shows that a TE device application inside HTPEMFC power systems is of great value and worthy of further study.

  6. Bioacceptable and calcification-resistant membranes and interfaces for implantable sensors and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeska, Izabela Ewa

    The rational design and characterization of biocompatible, semipermeable and calcification resistant materials to serve as an outer membrane for implantable glucose biosensors, was the primary focus of this research. Multilayered films of polyanions (i.e. Nafion(TM), a perfluorinated ionomer, and Humic Acids (HAs), naturally occurring biopolymers), fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly with oppositely charged ferric ions were investigated as potential membranes. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance studies point towards a stepwise film growth, with growth rates of 47 and 24.3 nm per layer (for Nafion and HAs respectively) that can be altered depending on the pH and ionic strength of the polyanion solution. Nafion/Fe3+ assembled films exhibited an order of magnitude lower calcification as compared to dip-coated Nafion films and did not require annealing to impart insolubility. Similarly the HAs/Fe3+ films were also devoid of calcification, even after four-week immersion in DMEM cell culture media. Significantly, in vivo studies on the HAs/Fe3 films point to their biocompatibility as demonstrated by mild tissue reaction. These results, along with controllable glucose permeability, could prove vital in prolonging the lifetime of implantable biosensors. Additionally in effort to minimize tissue trauma upon implantation, novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel composites were investigated for dexamethasone delivery. A release rate of 25 to 40% over one month, following a zero order profile, was achieved by preferential adsorption of surface active polyacids (poly(acrylic acid), Nafion and HAs) on the hydrogel dispersed microspheres. Environmental scanning electron microscopy investigation on the degradation mechanism of the microspheres pointed towards their slow homogeneous degradation in the PVA hydrogels that was significantly surface-accelerated in the presence of polyacids. The physico

  7. Using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to assess the toxicity and teratogenicity of aquatic amphibian habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental contamination has been suspected of being partially responsible for recent declines in amphibian populations. It is often not feasible to identify all of the compounds in an environment, nor the concentrations in which they are present. SPMDs are passive sampling devices that uptake lipophilic compounds from the environment in a manner similar to aquatic organisms. The extracts from the SPMDs, therefore, contain a composite sample of the compounds that are present in the environment. In this paper, we outline the methods from studies in which we have used extracts from SPMDs in toxicity tests on amphibian larvae. Using SPMD extracts makes it possible to establish potential links between amphibian deformities and declines and environmental contamination by lipophilic compounds.

  8. Photodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in passive air samplers: Field testing different deployment chambers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartkow, M.E.; Kennedy, K.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Holling, N.; Komarova, T.; Muller, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were loaded with deuterated anthracene and pyrene as performance reference compounds (PRCs) and deployed at a test site in four different chambers (open and closed box chamber, bowl chamber and cage chamber) for 29 days. The losses of PRCs and the uptake of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the ambient air were quantified. UV-B levels measured in each deployment chamber indicated that SPMDs would be exposed to the most UV-B in the cage chamber and open box chamber. Significantly less PAHs were quantified in SPMDs deployed in the cage chamber and open box chamber compared to samplers from the other two chambers, suggesting that photodegradation of PAHs had occurred. The loss of PRCs confirmed these results but also showed that photodegradation was occurring in the closed box chamber. The bowl chamber appears to provide the best protection from the influence of direct photodegradation. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The large-scale deployment of fish aggregation devices alters environmentally-based migratory behavior of skipjack tuna in the Western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefang; Chen, Yong; Truesdell, Samuel; Xu, Liuxiong; Cao, Jie; Guan, Wenjiang

    2014-01-01

    Fish aggregation devices (FADs) have been used extensively in the tuna purse seine fishery since the 1980s. This long-term modification of natural habitat has generated discussions as to whether FADs impact movement patterns of tuna species. We examined this question using data collected from the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishery. We used the longitudinal gravitational center of catch (G) to examine temporal variability in skipjack movement in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, and related this to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. We found that in most cases G for free-swimming school sets changed with the onset of ENSO events, while G for floating-object-associated school sets remained relatively constant. This suggests that skipjack exhibit distinguishable behavioral strategies in response to ENSO events: they either react by moving long distances or they associate with floating objects. There has been no previous attempt to evaluate the interaction between FADs and the environmentally-determined movement of skipjack; this study shows evidence of an interaction, which should be considered when managing skipjack populations. PMID:24849561

  10. The Large-Scale Deployment of Fish Aggregation Devices Alters Environmentally-Based Migratory Behavior of Skipjack Tuna in the Western Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefang; Chen, Yong; Truesdell, Samuel; Xu, Liuxiong; Cao, Jie; Guan, Wenjiang

    2014-01-01

    Fish aggregation devices (FADs) have been used extensively in the tuna purse seine fishery since the 1980s. This long-term modification of natural habitat has generated discussions as to whether FADs impact movement patterns of tuna species. We examined this question using data collected from the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishery. We used the longitudinal gravitational center of catch (G) to examine temporal variability in skipjack movement in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, and related this to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. We found that in most cases G for free-swimming school sets changed with the onset of ENSO events, while G for floating-object-associated school sets remained relatively constant. This suggests that skipjack exhibit distinguishable behavioral strategies in response to ENSO events: they either react by moving long distances or they associate with floating objects. There has been no previous attempt to evaluate the interaction between FADs and the environmentally-determined movement of skipjack; this study shows evidence of an interaction, which should be considered when managing skipjack populations. PMID:24849561

  11. Clinical and Subclinical Femoral Vascular Complications after Deployment of two Different Vascular Closure Devices or Manual Compression in the Setting of Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yeni, Hakan; Axel, Meissner; Örnek, Ahmet; Butz, Thomas; Maagh, Petra; Plehn, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past two decades vascular closure devices (VCD) have been increasingly utilized as an alternative to manual compression after percutaneous femoral artery access. However, there is a lack of data confirming a significant reduction of vascular complication in a routine interventional setting. Systematic assessment of puncture sites with ultrasound was hardly performed. Methods: 620 consecutive patients undergoing elective or urgent percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly allocated to either Angioseal (AS; n = 210), or Starclose (SC; n = 196) or manual compression (MC; n = 214). As an adjunct to clinical evaluation vascular ultrasonography was used to assess the safety of each hemostatic method in terms of major and minor vascular complications. The efficacy of VCDs was assessed by achievement of puncture site hemostasis. Results: No major complications needing transfusion or vascular surgery were observed. Furthermore, the overall incidence of clinical and subclinical minor complications was similar among the three groups. There was no differences in the occurrence of pseudoaneurysmata (AS = 10; SC = 6; MC = 10), arteriovenous fistula (AS = 1; SC = 4; MC = 2) and large hematoma (AS = 11; SC = 10; MC = 14). The choice of access site treatment had no impact in the duration of hospital stay (AS = 6.7; SC = 7.4; MS = 6.4 days). Conclusions: In the setting of routine coronary intervention AS and SC provide a similar efficacy and safety as manual compression. Subclinical vascular injuries are rare and not related to VCD use. PMID:27076781

  12. Comparing polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and patterns in the Saginaw River using sediment, caged fish, and semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Gale, R.W.; Schwartz, T.R.; Huckins, J.N.; Williams, L.L.; Meadows, J.C.; Morse, D.; Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Three techniques of assessing bioavailable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Saginaw River, MI, were compared: sediments, caged fish, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). SPMDs and caged fish were placed in the river for 28 days at five sites where sediments were also sampled. The samples were analyzed for PCB congeners to determine concentrations and patterns. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 33 to 280 ng/g (dry weight) in sediments, 46 to 290 ng/g (wet weight) in caged fish, and 77 to 790 ng/g in SPMDs. Previously reported rates of PCB accumulation by SPMDs were used to estimate aqueous concentrations from the PCB concentrations detected in the SPMDs. Sediment-water partition coefficients were used to estimate aqueous PCB concentrations from sediment. Steady-state bioconcentration factors and depuration rate constants were used to estimate dissolved PCB concentrations from caged channel catfish. Relative PCB patterns from the SPMDs, caged fish, and sediment were compared using principal components analysis. SPMD and sediment samples provide complementary information. Sediments reflect long-term accumulation and weathering, while SPMDs integrate water concentrations only during the sampling period. Because of higher water solubilities of lower-chlorinated PCBs these predominate in the SPMDs as compared to in the fish and sediments. Contaminant profile differences between caged fish and SPMDs are likely due to metabolism and depuration of certain PCB congeners by fish.Three techniques of assessing bioavailable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Saginaw River, Ml, were compared: sediments, caged fish, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). SPMDs and caged fish were placed in the river for 28 days at five sites where sediments were also sampled. The samples were analyzed for PCB congeners to determine concentrations and patterns. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 33 to 280 ng/g (dry weight) in sediments, 46 to 290 ng/g (wet weight) in

  13. Using semi-permeable membrane devices and stable nitrogen isotopes to detect anthropogenic influences on the Truckee River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, L.; Rosen, Michael R.; Chandra, S.; Fritsen, C.H.; Arufe, J.A.; Redd, C.

    2008-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes (??15N) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used together to provide evidence of potential anthropogenic connections to aquatic organisms in the Truckee River, which flows through the Reno/Sparks metropolitan area in Nevada. Crayfish, snail, and periphyton ??15N values, and SPMD toxicity data collected during high and low flow periods at seven primary sites on the river were used with water quality and flow data for the assessment. All biota showed an increase of ??15N on both dates at sites downstream of inflows of a water-quality impaired tributary and urban drain relative to upstream. In addition, most of the lowest ??15N values on each date occurred at the most downstream site on the river. SPMDs sample lipophilic organic contaminants and can be used to assess organic contaminant toxicity to aquatic organisms because they use a membrane that mimics organic contaminant uptake by fish. In this study, results from a fluoroscan test [pyrene index (PI)] of SPMD extracts that responds to higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed patterns similar to stable isotope data, although observed peaks in PI values occurred in the urban area upstream of where peak ??15N values occurred. The CYP1A biomarker test, which responds to PAHs, certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorines, showed peak toxic equivalents (TEQ) values farther downstream of the urban area. Thus, it is likely that PAHs were contributing to toxicity in the urban area, whereas other nonurban sources of organic carbon may have been present farther downstream. The combined use of stable isotope measurements and SPMDs provided a means of simultaneously examining whether aquatic biota are incorporating constituents from potential food sources (via stable isotopes) or exposure through water (via SPMDs). ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2008.

  14. Estimation of uptake rate constants for PCB congeners accumulated by semipermeable membrane devices and brown treat (Salmo trutta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Huckins, J.N.; Borsuk, F.A.; Carline, R.F.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMD to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB- contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and dissolved concentrations averaged 4.9 and 3.7 ??g/L, respectively, during the exposure. Total concentrations of PCBs in fish rose from 0.06 to 118.3 ??g/g during the 28-day exposure, while concentrations in the SPMD rose from 0.03 to 203.4 ??g/ g. Uptake rate constants (k1) estimated for SPMDs and brown trout were very similar, with k1 values for SPMDs ranging from one to two times those of the fish. The pattern of congener uptake by the fish and SPMDs was also similar. The rates of uptake generally increased or decreased with increasing K(ow), depending on the assumption of presence or absence of TOC.The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMB to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB-contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and

  15. Darcy Permeability of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bundles Made from Membrana Polymethylpentene Fibers Used in Respiratory Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Madhani, Shalv P; D'Aloiso, Brandon D; Frankowski, Brian; Federspiel, William J

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are used in blood oxygenators for cardiopulmonary bypass or in next generation artificial lungs. Flow analyses of these devices is typically done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling HFM bundles as porous media, using a Darcy permeability coefficient estimated from the Blake-Kozeny (BK) equation to account for viscous drag from fibers. We recently published how well this approach can predict Darcy permeability for fiber bundles made from polypropylene HFMs, showing the prediction can be significantly improved using an experimentally derived correlation between the BK constant (A) and bundle porosity (ε). In this study, we assessed how well our correlation for A worked for predicting the Darcy permeability of fiber bundles made from Membrana polymethylpentene (PMP) HFMs, which are increasingly being used clinically. Swatches in the porosity range of 0.4 to 0.8 were assessed in which sheets of fiber were stacked in parallel, perpendicular, and angled configurations. Our previously published correlation predicted Darcy within ±8%. A new correlation based on current and past measured permeability was determined: A = 497ε - 103; using this correlation measured Darcy permeability was within ±6%. This correlation varied from 8% to -3.5% of our prior correlation over the tested porosity range. PMID:26809086

  16. Numerical study of a novel micro-diaphragm flow channel with piezoelectric device for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H. K.; Huang, S. H.; Chen, B. R.; Cheng, L. W.

    Previous studies have shown that the amplitude of the vibration of a piezoelectric (PZT) device produces an oscillating flow that changes the chamber volume along with a curvature variation of the diaphragm. In this study, an actuating micro-diaphragm with piezoelectric effects is utilized as an air-flow channel in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems, called PZT-PEMFC. This newly designed gas pump, with a piezoelectric actuation structure, can feed air into the system of an air-breathing PEMFC. When the actuator moves outward to increase the cathode channel volume, the air is sucked into the chamber; moving inward decreases the channel's volume and thereby compresses air into the catalyst layer and enhancing the chemical reaction. The air-standard PZT-PEMFC cycle is proposed to describe an air-breathing PZT-PEMFC. A novel design for PZT-PEMFCs has been proposed and a three-dimensional, transitional model has been successfully built to account for its major phenomena and performance. Moreover, at high frequencies, PZT actuation leads to a more stable current output, more drained water, higher sucked air, higher hydrogen consumption, and also overcomes concentration losses.

  17. Development of Deployment System for Small Size Solar Sail Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Osamu; Sawada, Hirotaka; Hanaoka, Fuminori; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Shirasawa, Yoji; Sugita, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Sakamoto, Hiraku; Funase, Ryu

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is studying the feasibility of using the solar power sail as a new propulsion engine for deep space exploration missions. In this paper, the sail shape and equipment layout for missions utilizing small-sized solar power sails are proposed. The two-stage deployment method of the sail is also proposed. The sail need to be deployed statically at the first stage, and two types of deployment mechanisms are introduced. On the other hand the second stage of the deployment can be performed dynamically, and the oscillating motion of the membrane is converged by tethers connecting the membrane to the main body. The deployment motions are analyzed by numerical simulations using multi-particle models in order to verify the deployment. They are compared with the results calculated by finite element method models. The numerical simulation results are discussed from the technological viewpoint of the sail deployment dynamics and mechanisms.

  18. Block Copolymer Membranes for Efficient Capture of a Chemotherapy Drug

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the use of block copolymer membranes for an emerging application, “drug capture”. The polymer is incorporated in a new class of biomedical devices, referred to as ChemoFilter, which is an image-guided temporarily deployable endovascular device designed to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy-based cancer treatment. We show that block copolymer membranes consisting of functional sulfonated polystyrene end blocks and a structural polyethylene middle block (S-SES) are capable of capturing doxorubicin, a chemotherapy drug. We focus on the relationship between morphology of the membrane in the ChemoFilter device and efficacy of doxorubicin capture measured in vitro. Using small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy, we discovered that rapid doxorubicin capture is associated with the presence of water-rich channels in the lamellar-forming S-SES membranes in aqueous environment. PMID:27547493

  19. Analysis of NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H cofactors by imprinted polymer membranes associated with ion-sensitive field-effect transistor devices and Au-quartz crystals.

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, Svetlana P; Zayats, Maya; Bourenko, Tatyana; Kharitonov, Andrei B; Lioubashevski, Oleg; Katz, Eugenii; Willner, Itamar

    2003-02-01

    Specific recognition sites for the NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H cofactors are imprinted in a cross-linked acrylamide-acrylamidophenylboronic acid copolymer membrane. The imprinted membranes, associated with pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) or Au-quartz piezoelectric crystals, enable the potentiometric or microgravimetric analysis of the oxidized NAD(P)+ cofactors and the reduced NAD(P)H cofactors, respectively. The NAD+- and NADP+-imprinted membranes associated with the ISFET allow the analysis of NAD+ and NADP+ with sensitivities that correspond to 15.0 and 18.0 mVdecade(-1) and detection limits of 4 x 10(-7) and 2 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The NADH- and NADPH-imprinted membranes associated with the ISFET device enable the analysis of NADH and NADPH with sensitivities that correspond to 24.2 and 21.8 mV x decade(-1) and lower detection limits that are 1 x 10(-7) and 2 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The ISFET devices functionalized with the NADH and NADPH membranes are employed in the analysis of the biocatalyzed oxidation of lactic acid and ethanol in the presence of lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. PMID:12585477

  20. Simple Host−Guest Chemistry To Modulate the Process of Concentration and Crystallization of Membrane Proteins by Detergent Capture in a Microfluidic Device

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Seddon, Annela M.; Tereshko, Valentina; Ponomarenko, Nina; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2009-01-15

    This paper utilizes cyclodextrin-based host-guest chemistry in a microfluidic device to modulate the crystallization of membrane proteins and the process of concentration of membrane protein samples. Methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MBCD) can efficiently capture a wide variety of detergents commonly used for the stabilization of membrane proteins by sequestering detergent monomers. Reaction Center (RC) from Blastochloris viridis was used here as a model system. In the process of concentrating membrane protein samples, MBCD was shown to break up free detergent micelles and prevent them from being concentrated. The addition of an optimal amount of MBCD to the RC sample captured loosely bound detergent from the protein-detergent complex and improved sample homogeneity, as characterized by dynamic light scattering. Using plug-based microfluidics, RC crystals were grown in the presence of MBCD, giving a different morphology and space group than crystals grown without MBCD. The crystal structure of RC crystallized in the presence of MBCD was consistent with the changes in packing and crystal contacts hypothesized for removal of loosely bound detergent. The incorporation of MBCD into a plug-based microfluidic crystallization method allows efficient use of limited membrane protein sample by reducing the amount of protein required and combining sparse matrix screening and optimization in one experiment. The use of MBCD for detergent capture can be expanded to develop cyclodextrin-derived molecules for fine-tuned detergent capture and thus modulate membrane protein crystallization in an even more controllable way.

  1. Light-addressed electrodeposition of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes for multiplexed enzyme-based bioassays using a digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Wei, Lu-Shiuan; Chu, Hsiao-Tzu; Jiang, Yeu-Long

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a light-addressed electrolytic system used to perform an electrodeposition of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes for multiplexed enzyme-based bioassays using a digital micromirror device (DMD). In this system, a patterned light illumination is projected onto a photoconductive substrate serving as a photo-cathode to electrolytically produce hydroxide ions, which leads to an increased pH gradient. The high pH generated at the cathode can cause a local gelation of chitosan through sol-gel transition. By controlling the illumination pattern on the DMD, a light-addressed electrodeposition of chitosan membranes with different shapes and sizes, as well as multiplexed micropatterning, was performed. The effect of the illumination time of the light pattern on the dimensional resolution of chitosan membrane formation was examined experimentally. Moreover, multiplexed enzyme-based bioassay of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes was also successfully demonstrated through the electrodeposition of the chitosan membranes with various shapes/sizes and entrapping different enzymes. As a model experiment, glucose and ethanol were simultaneously detected in a single detection chamber without cross-talk using shape-coded chitosan membranes entrapped with glucose oxidase (GOX), peroxidase (POD), and Amplex Red (AmR) or alcohol oxidase (AOX), POD, and AmR by using same fluorescence indicator (AmR). PMID:23959236

  2. Deployable Wide-Aperture Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Chu, Andrew; Scully, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Inexpensive, lightweight array antennas on flexible substrates are under development to satisfy a need for large-aperture antennas that can be stored compactly during transport and deployed to full size in the field. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, antennas of this type also have potential terrestrial uses . most likely, as means to extend the ranges of cellular telephones in rural settings. Several simple deployment mechanisms are envisioned. One example is shown in the figure, where the deployment mechanism, a springlike material contained in a sleeve around the perimeter of a flexible membrane, is based on a common automobile window shade. The array can be formed of antenna elements that are printed on small sections of semi-flexible laminates, or preferably, elements that are constructed of conducting fabric. Likewise, a distribution network connecting the elements can be created from conventional technologies such as lightweight, flexible coaxial cable and a surface mount power divider, or preferably, from elements formed from conductive fabrics. Conventional technologies may be stitched onto a supporting flexible membrane or contained within pockets that are stitched onto a flexible membrane. Components created from conductive fabrics may be attached by stitching conductive strips to a nonconductive membrane, embroidering conductive threads into a nonconductive membrane, or weaving predetermined patterns directly into the membrane. The deployable antenna may comprise multiple types of antenna elements. For example, thin profile antenna elements above a ground plane, both attached to the supporting flexible membrane, can be used to create a unidirectional boresight radiation pattern. Or, antenna elements without a ground plane, such as bow-tie dipoles, can be attached to the membrane to create a bidirectional array such as that shown in the figure. For either type of antenna element, the dual configuration, i.e., elements formed of slots in a conductive

  3. DRAGON - 8U Nanosatellite Orbital Deployer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrowolski, Marcin; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kedziora, Bartosz; Tokarz, Marta; Borys, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (SRC PAS) together with Astronika company have developed an Orbital Deployer called DRAGON for ejection of the Polish scientific nanosatellite BRITE-PL Heweliusz (Fig. 1). The device has three unique mechanisms including an adopted and scaled lock and release mechanism from the ESA Rosetta mission MUPUS instrument. This paper discusses major design restrictions of the deployer, unique design features, and lessons learned from development through testing.

  4. Overview and comparison of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) for assessing organic chemical exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huckins, J.N.; Prest, H.F.; Petty, J.D.; Lebo, J.A.; Hodgins, M.M.; Clark, R.C.; Alvarez, D.A.; Gala, W.R.; Steen, A.; Gale, R.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    We performed 20-d, flow-through exposures of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to three concentrations (nominally 10, 100, and 250 ng/L) of a diverse mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure water was seawater free of particulates larger than 0.1 ??m. The results of these controlled laboratory studies demonstrated that SPMDs and oysters concentrate the same chemicals but that the relative amounts accumulated are different. For oysters, the 20-d mean (across treatments) concentration factors (CFs) of test compounds with log Kow ??? 4.8 were much lower (4.0- to 20-fold lower) than those of the same compounds in SPMDs. In contrast, the 20-d CFs of PAHs with log K ow ??? 5.6 in oysters from the low-level treatment were higher than the corresponding CFs for SPMDs. The CFs of these compounds in oysters from the low-level treatment ranged from approximately 3.0- to 13-fold higher than those in oysters from the high-level treatment. This physiologically mediated difference in oyster CFs appears to be linked to active feeding in the low-level treatment and to apparent toxicity-induced cessation of feeding (i.e., valve closure) in the high-level treatment. Because CFs for these compounds in oysters were not independent of exposure concentrations, it follows that tissue levels were not proportional to exposure concentration. However, both sampling approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and the appropriateness of their use depends on the goals of a given study.

  5. How useful are the "other" semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs); the mini-unit (15.2 cm long)?

    PubMed

    Goodbred, Steven L; Bryant, Wade L; Rosen, Michael R; Alvarez, David; Spencer, Terri

    2009-06-15

    Mini (15.2 cm) semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used successfully in 169 streams from six metropolitan areas of the US to sequester hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) that are indicative of urbanization. A microscale assay the P450RGS, which responds to compounds that bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the Fluoroscan, a chemical screen for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were performed on each mini SPMD extract. Results show both tests were sensitive enough to respond in streams with low urbanization and responded exponentially in a predictable way to a gradient of urbanization. Mini SPMDs had sufficient sampling rates to detect HOCs using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) in streams with low levels of urbanization. The total number of HOCs in streams had a linear response to a gradient of urbanization, where 73 of 140 targeted compounds were detected. A diverse group of compounds was found in urban streams including, PAHs, insecticides, herbicides, musk fragrances, waste water treatment compounds and flame retardants. Pentachloroanisole (PCA), a breakdown product of pentachlorophenol (wood preservative), was the most ubiquitous HOC, and was detected in 71% of streams. An evaluation of mini SPMD performance showed they can detect concentrations in water below toxicity benchmarks for many HOCs with the exception of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. A comparison of mini SPMDs with full sized (91.4 cm) SPMDs showed they have several distinct advantages. The most notable advantages are their low cost, small size, and reduced chance of vandalism. The greatest limitation is the inability to detect compounds at low concentrations (pg/L). Mini SPMDs perform quite well in a wide array of environmental settings and applications and should be considered as an option in environmental studies. PMID:19328522

  6. How useful are the "other" semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs); the mini-unit (15.2 cm long)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Bryant, Wade L.; Rosen, Michael R.; Alvarez, David; Spencer, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Mini (15.2 cm) semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used successfully in 169 streams from six metropolitan areas of the US to sequester hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) that are indicative of urbanization. A microscale assay the P450RGS, which responds to compounds that bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the Fluoroscan, a chemical screen for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were performed on each mini SPMD extract. Results show both tests were sensitive enough to respond in streams with low urbanization and responded exponentially in a predictable way to a gradient of urbanization. Mini SPMDs had sufficient sampling rates to detect HOCs using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) in streams with low levels of urbanization. The total number of HOCs in streams had a linear response to a gradient of urbanization, where 73 of 140 targeted compounds were detected. A diverse group of compounds was found in urban streams including, PAHs, insecticides, herbicides, musk fragrances, waste water treatment compounds and flame retardants. Pentachloroanisole (PCA), a breakdown product of pentachlorophenol (wood preservative), was the most ubiquitous HOC, and was detected in 71% of streams. An evaluation of mini SPMD performance showed they can detect concentrations in water below toxicity benchmarks for many HOCs with the exception of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. A comparison of mini SPMDs with full sized (91.4 cm) SPMDs showed they have several distinct advantages. The most notable advantages are their low cost, small size, and reduced chance of vandalism. The greatest limitation is the inability to detect compounds at low concentrations (pg/L). Mini SPMDs perform quite well in a wide array of environmental settings and applications and should be considered as an option in environmental studies.

  7. Tether Deployer And Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

  8. Deployable geodesic truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Simonton, J. Wayne (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A deployable geodesic truss structure which can be deployed from a stowed state to an erected state is described. The truss structure includes a series of bays, each bay having sets of battens connected by longitudinal cross members which give the bay its axial and torsional stiffness. The cross members are hinged at their mid point by a joint so that the cross members are foldable for deployment or collapsing. The bays are deployed and stabilized by actuator means connected between the mid point joints of the cross members. Hinged longerons may be provided to also connect the sets of battens and to collapse for stowing with the rest of the truss structure.

  9. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  10. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, K. A.; Hostick, D. J.; Belzer, D. B.; Livingston, O. V.

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  11. Deployable Geodesic Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Rhodes, M. D.; Simonton, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Efficiently packaged structure deployed or retracted easily. In preliminary two-bay model each bay has sets of battens connected by two longitudinal crossed members that give bay axial and torsional stiffness. Cross-members hinged in center to fold for packaging. Bays deployed and stabilized by actuators connected between center hinges of cross-members.

  12. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  13. Magnetic Membrane System

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael W.; ; Lucas, Matthew S.

    2004-12-30

    The present invention provides a membrane with magnetic particles. In one embodiment the membrane is created by mixing particles in a non-magnetic base. The membrane may act as an actuator, a sensor, a pump, a valve, or other device. A magnet is operatively connected to the membrane. The magnet acts on and changes the shape of the membrane.

  14. Burst-Disk Device Simulates Effect Of Pyrotechnic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James P.; Sexton, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Expendable disks substituted for costly pyrotechnic devices for testing actuators. Burst-disk device produces rush of pressurized gas similar to pyrotechnic device. Designed to reduce cost of testing pyrotechnically driven emergency actuators (parachute-deploying mechanisms in original application).

  15. Surface Characterization of Asymmetric Bi-Soft Segment Poly(ester urethane urea) Membranes for Blood-Oxygenation Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Mónica; Geraldes, Vítor; de Pinho, Maria Norberta

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric bi-soft segment poly(ester urethane urea) (PEUU) membranes containing polycaprolactone (PCL) as a second soft segment are synthesized with PCL-diol ranging from 0% to 15% (w/w). Bulk and surface characteristics of the PEUU membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static water contact angles, and surface streaming potentials and were correlated to hemocompatibility properties, namely, hemolysis and thrombosis degrees. SEM analysis reveals PEUU membranes with asymmetric cross-sections and top dense surfaces with distinct morphologies. The increase in PCL-diol content yields PEUU membranes with blood-contacting surfaces that are smoother, more hydrophilic, and with higher maximum zeta potentials. The results obtained in this work give no evidence of a correlation between hydrophilicity/zeta potentials and the hemolysis/thrombosis degree of blood-contacting surfaces of the PEUU membranes. In contrast, other hemocompatibility aspects reveal that the more hydrophilic membranes are associated with lower platelet deposition and inhibition of extreme states of platelet activation. PMID:22164163

  16. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, K. A.; Hostick, D. J.; Belzer, D. B.; Livingston, O. V.

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  17. Glory Solar Array Deployment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Glory spacecraft uses Orbital Sciences Corporation Space Systems Group's LEOStar-1 bus design, with deployable, four-panel solar arrays. This conceptual animation reveals Glory's unique solar a...

  18. [Evaluation of non-invasive hemoglobin measurements using the Masimo Rainbow Radical-7® device in a patient with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation].

    PubMed

    Moreno, I; Artieda, O; Vicente, R; Zarragoikoetxea, I; Vicente, J L; Barberá, M

    2014-01-01

    Circulatory assist devices such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are indicated in cases of cardiogenic shock refractory to optimal conventional treatment. Bleeding is a serious complication of such systems, mainly due to coagulation disorders caused by continuous administration of heparin, as well as platelet dysfunction. Serial coagulation and hemoglobin (Hb) measurements are essential. Hb measurements can be performed through repeated arterial blood gasometry, and more recently with a new spectrophotometric sensor, Masimo Rainbow Radical-7® device, which gives Hb values continuously and non-invasively. We report a case of a patient undergoing cardiac surgery who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe cardiogenic shock immediately after surgery. We compare the correlation and the level of agreement with Hb levels measured by 2 existing systems in clinical practice. Our results indicate that the Masimo® spectrophotometric monitor showed statistically comparable Hb values, in the correlation (r=.85; P<.01) and in agreement with those obtained by serial blood gas analyzer, ABL800 FLEX® (wavelength). In view of these results we consider the Masimo® device as a valid alternative for the continuous follow-up of the Hb and control of bleeding in these patients. PMID:24370278

  19. Concerted sampling of water for trace organic contaminants by bivalves and semipermeable membrane devices in south San Francisco Bay and Elkhorn Slough

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgins, M.M.; Jacobson, L.A.; Prest, H.F.

    1995-12-31

    Bivalves have been widely applied as biomonitors in detecting organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Recently semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDS) have been shown to be effective pre-concentrators of trace levels of organic compounds in water and air. This study compares accumulation of trace organic compounds in oysters (Crassotrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus califorianus) to those in SPMDs in south San Francisco Bay and Elkhorn Slough. The authors report concentration levels and trends in the profiles for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in SPMDs and bivalves from a series of locations in both areas.

  20. In-line sample concentration by evaporation through porous hollow fibers and micromachined membranes embedded in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hainan; Tiggelaar, Roald M; Schlautmann, Stefan; Bart, Jacob; Gardeniers, Han

    2016-02-01

    Two types of microfluidic systems, a porous hollow fiber and a thin supported membrane with an array of micromachined holes, are investigated for concentrating mass-limited analyte samples. Water evaporation is driven by the partial pressure difference across the hydrophobic membrane, induced by dry sweeping gas on the permeate side. An analytical model permitting clarification of the contribution of design and process parameters on acquisition of concentrated solution and prediction of achievable concentration factors is presented. Concentrating an exemplary solution utilizing the two systems has been studied at different experimental conditions to validate the model. The results show that the hollow fiber gives controllable concentration factors of more than 10. For the micromachined membrane concentrator concentration factors of 6-8 were achieved, at much lower flow rates than predicted by the model. Because of the asymptotic dependence of concentration factor on flow rate, accurate control of the liquid feed is extremely critical in the flow rate range where high concentration factors are obtained, and the smallest variations in liquid flow rate may easily lead to supersaturation and deposition of solutes in the pores. This changes membrane porosity in an unpredictable way and limits the maximum attainable concentration factor. PMID:26331575

  1. Synchronously deployable truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G. (Inventor); Mikulas, M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A collapsible-expandable truss structure, including first and second spaced surface truss layers having an attached core layer is described. The surface truss layers are composed of a plurality of linear struts arranged in multiple triangular configurations. Each linear strut is hinged at the center and hinge connected at each end to a nodular joint. A passive spring serves as the expansion force to move the folded struts from a stowed collapsed position to a deployed operative final truss configuration. A damper controls the rate of spring expansion for the synchronized deployment of the truss as the folded configuration is released for deployment by the restrain belts. The truss is synchronously extended under the control of motor driven spools.

  2. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  3. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  4. Induced- and alternating-current electro-osmotic control of the diffusion layer growth in a microchannel-membrane interface device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2014-11-01

    The passage of an electric current through an ionic permselective medium under an applied electric field is characterized by the formation of ionic concentration gradients, which result in regions of depleted and enriched ionic concentration at opposite ends of the medium. Induced-current electro-osmosis (ICEO) and alternating-current-electro-osmosis (ACEO) are shown to control the growth of the diffusion layer (DL) which, in turn, controls the diffusion limited ion transport through the microchannel-membrane system. We fabricated and tested devices made of a Nafion membrane connecting two opposite PDMS microchannels. An interdigitated electrode array was embedded within the microchannel with various distances from the microchannel-membrane interface. The induced ICEO (floating electrodes) / ACEO (active electrodes) vortices formed at the electrode array stir the fluid and thereby suppress the growth of the DL. The intensity of the ACEO vortices is controlled by either varying the voltage amplitude or the frequency, each having its own unique effect. Enhancement of the limiting current by on-demand control of the diffusion length is of importance in on-chip electro-dialysis, desalination and preconcentration of analytes.

  5. Arthroscopically confirmed femoral button deployment.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Rezende, Fernando C; Martins Neto, Ayrton; Fayard, Jean M; Thaunat, Mathieu; Kader, Deiary F

    2014-06-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament TightRope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is a graft suspension device for cruciate ligament reconstruction. It is an adjustable-length graft loop cortical fixation device designed to eliminate the requirement for loop length calculation and to facilitate complete graft fill of short femoral sockets that are common with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament placement. The adjustable loop length means "one size fits all," thus removing the need for multiple implant sizes and allowing graft tensioning even after fixation. However, the device has been associated with the same complications that have been described with EndoButton (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA) fixation. The button of the TightRope RT may remain in the femoral tunnel rather than flipping outside of the tunnel to rest on the lateral femoral cortex, or it may become jammed inside the femoral canal. Conversely, the button may be pulled too far off the femoral cortex into the overlying soft tissue and flip in the substance of the vastus lateralis. We describe a new and simple arthroscopic technique to directly visualize the deployment and seating of the TightRope button on the lateral cortex of the femur to avoid all the aforementioned complications. PMID:25126492

  6. Microfluidic device and methods for focusing fluid streams using electroosmotically induced pressures

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Stephen C.; Ramsey, J. Michael

    2010-06-01

    A microfabricated device employing a bridging membrane and methods for electrokinetic transport of a liquid phase biological or chemical material using the same are described. The bridging membrane is deployed in or adjacent to a microchannel and permits either electric current flow or the transport of gas species, while inhibiting the bulk flow of material. The use of bridging membranes in accordance with this invention is applicable to electrokinetically inducing fluid flow to confine a selected material in a region of a microchannel that is not influenced by an electric field. Other structures for inducing fluid flow in accordance with this invention include nanochannel bridging membranes and alternating current fluid pumping devices. Applications of the bridging membranes according to this invention include the separation of species from a sample material, valving of fluids in a microchannel network, mixing of different materials in a microchannel, and the pumping of fluids.

  7. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  8. Parametric Cost Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

  9. Deployable video conference table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Lissol, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A deployable table is presented. The table is stowed in and deployed from a storage compartment based upon a non-self rigidizing, 4-hinge, arch support structure that folds upon itself to stow and that expands to deploy. The work surfaces bypass each other above and below to allow the deployment mechanism to operate. This assembly includes the following: first and second primary pivot hinges placed at the opposite ends of the storage compartment; first and second lateral frame members with proximal ends connected to the first and second pivot hinges; a medial frame member offset from and pivotally connected to distal ends of the first and second members through third and fourth medial pivot hinges; and left-side, right-side, and middle trays connected respectively to the first, second, and third frame members and being foldable into and out of the storage compartment by articulation of the first, second, third, and fourth joints. At least one of the third and fourth joints are locked to set the first, second, and third frame members in a desired angular orientation with respect to each other.

  10. North American neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) devices and team roles: 2008 survey results of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, D Scott; Lawson, Andrea F; Walczak, Rich; McRobb, Craig; McDermott, Patty; Shearer, Ian R; Lodge, Andrew; Jaggers, James

    2008-09-01

    In early 2008, surveys of active extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers in North America were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal ECMO equipment and professional staff. Eighty of 103 (78%) North American ECMO centers listed in the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 82.5% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, and the remaining 17.5% used centrifugal pumps. Silicone membrane oxygenators were used by 67% of the respondents, whereas 19% used micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators, and 14% used polymethylpentene hollow fiber oxygenators. Of the silicone membrane oxygenator users, 86% used the Medtronic Ecmotherm heat exchanger, 10% used the Gish HE-4 heat exchanger, and 4% used the Terumo Conducer device. Sixty-four percent of the responding centers used some form of in-line blood gas monitoring. Six percent of the centers used a bubble trap in the arterial line, and 5% used an arterial line filter. A bladder was used by 85% of the centers, and 4% of these used a mechanical bladder box for servo regulation; the remaining 96% used pressure servo regulation. An air bubble detector was used by 88% of the responding centers. A surface coating was used by 44% of the centers on all their neonatal ECMO patients. Thirty-one percent of the centers use an activated clotting time of 180-220 seconds. At 54% of the responding centers, perfusionists were involved with the ECMO program, registered nurses were involved at 70% of the centers, and respiratory therapists were involved at 46% of the centers. Compared with a 2002 survey, silicone membrane use is declining, and the use of centrifugal blood pumps and coated ECMO circuits is becoming more apparent. ECMO teams are still multidisciplinary, made up of combinations of registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and perfusionists. PMID:18853828

  11. Ground Deployment Demonstration and Material Testing for Solar Sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoqi; Cheng, Zhengai; Liu, Yufei; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Solar Sail is a kind of spacecraft that can achieve extremely high velocity by light pressure instead of chemical fuel. The great accelerate rely on its high area-to-mass ratio. So solar sail is always designed in huge size and it use ultra thin and light weight materials. For 100-meter class solar sail, two key points must be considered in the design process. They are fold-deployment method, and material property change in space environment. To test and verify the fold-deployment technology, a 8*8m principle prototype was developed. Sail membrane folding in method of IKAROS, Nanosail-D , and new proposed L-shape folding pattern were tested on this prototype. Their deployment properties were investigated in detail, and comparisons were made between them. Also, the space environment suitability of ultra thin polyimide films as candidate solar sail material was analyzed. The preliminary test results showed that membrane by all the folding method could deploy well. Moreover, sail membrane folding by L-shape pattern deployed more rapidly and more organized among the three folding pattern tested. The mechanical properties of the polyimide had no significant change after electron irradiation. As the preliminary research on the key technology of solar sail spacecraft, in this paper, the results of the study would provide important basis on large-scale solar sail membrane select and fold-deploying method design.

  12. Molecular assessment of the membrane menaquinones of irradiated micrococcus on disposable medical devices with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghojaie, M.

    1993-10-01

    The genus of micrococcus and its main species like; M. Roseus, M. Nishinomiyansis consist of upto 10% of microbial contamination of disposable medical devices. Chemical alteration of Menuquinones Mainly [MK-7-(H2), MK-8(H2),…] from some Irradiated species of the micrococcus at different doses (500 Gy to 25 kGy; the sterilization dose) are quantitatively evaluated by HPLC.

  13. A novel tape spring hinge mechanism for quasi-static deployment of a satellite deployable using shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ju Won; Yoo, Young Ik; Shin, Dong Kil; Lim, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Won; Lee, Jung Ju

    2014-02-01

    A tape spring hinge (TSH) is a typical flexible deployment device for a satellite and becomes frequently used due to its simplicity, lightweight, low cost, and high deployment reliability. However, the performance of a TSH is quite limited due to trade-offs among deployed stiffness, deployment torque, and latch-up shock despite its many advantages. In this study, a novel conceptual design that circumvents the trade-offs among functional requirements (FRs) is proposed. The trade-offs are obviated by a newly proposed shape memory alloy damper that converts the deployment behavior of a conventional TSH from unstable dynamic to stable quasi-static. This makes it possible to maximize the deployment stiffness and deployment torque of a conventional TSH, which are larger-the-better FR, without any increase in the latch-up shock. Therefore, in view of conceptual design, it is possible to design a highly improved TSH that has much higher deployed stiffness and deployment torque compared to a conventional TSH while minimizing latch-up shock and deployment unstableness. Detailed design was performed through response surface method and finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was manufactured and tested in order to verify its performance (four point, deployment torque, and latch-up shock tests). The test results confirm the feasibility of the proposed TSH mechanism.

  14. Effect of electrode geometry on field strength in plastic microfluidic devices and application to cell membrane permeabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chooljian, Marc; Paredes, Jacobo; Liepmann, Dorian

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a method that allows embedding of electrodes in up to 3 walls of a plastic microfluidic channel. Electric field strength and homogeneity of various electrode geometries is analyzed theoretically and experimentally by evaluating the efficiency of on-chip lysis of cells. Electric field-mediated disruption of membranes is an important tool in diagnostics, basic biology, and synthetic biology due to the ability to permeabilize the cell membrane without changing the chemical composition of the buffer. Typically, fields of the required magnitude are applied to the cell by discharging a capacitor through a mixture of cells in a cuvette, resulting in a transient high-voltage pulse. We demonstrate that is possible to substitute a spatially varied DC electric field along a microchannel and to control the timing of the pulses by changing the electrode spacing and the flow rate. Homogeneity of the field with respect to the cross section of the channel is key to achieving critical field strength regardless of the cell's lateral position in the channel. A comparison of 2D versus 3D electrode geometries on the efficiency of electroporation and on side-effects arising due to the electric field (recirculating flows and hydrolysis) is presented.

  15. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alff, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility and costs were determined for a 1 m to 30 m diameter ambient temperature, infrared to submillimeter orbiting astronomical telescope which is to be shuttle-deployed, free-flying, and have a 10 year orbital life. Baseline concepts, constraints on delivery and deployment, and the sunshield required are examined. Reflector concepts, the optical configuration, alignment and pointing, and materials are also discussed. Technology studies show that a 10 m to 30 m diameter system which is background and diffraction limited at 30 micron m is feasible within the stated time frame. A 10 m system is feasible with current mirror technology, while a 30 m system requires technology still in development.

  16. Deployable tensegrity towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaud, Jean-Paul

    The design of a complete tensegrity system involves the analysis of static equilibria, the mechanical properties of the configuration, the deployment of the structure, and the regulation and dynamics of the system. This dissertation will explore these steps for two different types of structures. The first structure is the traditional Snelson Tower, where struts are disjointed, and is referred to as a Class 1 tensegrity. The second structure of interest is referred to as a Class 2 structure, where two struts come in contact at a joint. The first part of the thesis involves the dynamics of these tensegrity structures. Two complete nonlinear formulations for the dynamics of tensegrity systems are derived. In addition, a general formulation for the statics for an arbitrary tensegrity structure resulted from one of the dynamic formulations and is presented with symmetric and nonsymmetric tensegrity configurations. The second part of the thesis involves statics. The analysis of static equilibria and the implementation of this analysis into an open loop control law that will deploy the tensegrity structures along an equilibrium manifold are derived. The analysis of small stable tensegrity units allow for a modular design, where a collection of these units can be assembled into a larger structure that obeys the same control laws for deployment concepts. In addition, a loaded structure is analyzed to determine the optimal number of units required to obtain a minimal mass configuration. The third part of the thesis involves laboratory hardware that demonstrates the practical use of the methodology presented. A Class 2 symmetric structure is constructed, deployed, and stowed using the analysis from part two. In addition, the static equilibria of a Class 1 structure is computed to obtain nonsymmetric reconfigurations. The final part of the thesis involves the attenuation of white noise disturbances acting on nodes of both structures. The structures are simulated using linear

  17. Phoenix Deploying its Wrist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif shows a series of images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) on Sol 3. It illustrates the actions that Phoenix's Robotic Arm took to deploy its wrist.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Deployable Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The deployable crew quarters (DCQ) have been designed for the International Space Station (ISS). Each DCQ would be a relatively inexpensive, deployable boxlike structure that is designed to fit in a rack bay. It is to be occupied by one crewmember to provide privacy and sleeping functions for the crew. A DCQ comprises mostly hard panels, made of a lightweight honeycomb or matrix/fiber material, attached to each other by cloth hinges. Both faces of each panel are covered with a layer of Nomex cloth and noise-suppression material to provide noise isolation from ISS. On Earth, the unit is folded flat and attached to a rigid pallet for transport to the ISS. On the ISS, crewmembers unfold the unit and install it in place, attaching it to ISS structural members by use of soft cords (which also help to isolate noise and vibration). A few hard pieces of equipment (principally, a ventilator and a smoke detector) are shipped separately and installed in the DCQ unit by use of a system of holes, slots, and quarter-turn fasteners. Full-scale tests showed that the time required to install a DCQ unit amounts to tens of minutes. The basic DCQ design could be adapted to terrestrial applications to satisfy requirements for rapid deployable emergency shelters that would be lightweight, portable, and quickly erected. The Temporary Early Sleep Station (TeSS) currently on-orbit is a spin-off of the DCQ.

  19. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Rynearson; M. M. Plum

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE-owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that a treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  20. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Plum, Martin Michael

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE -owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that the treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  1. Newly Deployed Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 8-image mosaic was acquired during the late afternoon (near 5pm LST, note the long shadows) on Sol 2 as part of the predeploy 'insurance panorama' and shows the newly deployed rover sitting on the Martian surface. This color image was generated from images acquired at 530,600, and 750 nm. The insurance panorama was designed as 'insurance' against camera failure upon deployment. Had the camera failed, the losslessly-compressed, multispectral insurance panorama would have been the main source of image data from the IMP.

    However, the camera deployment was successful, leaving the insurance panorama to be downlinked to Earth several weeks later. Ironically enough, the insurance panorama contains some of the best quality image data because of the lossless data compression and relatively dust-free state of the camera and associated lander/rover hardware on Sol 2.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal investigator.

  2. Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuqing; Pello, Josselin; Mejia, Alonso Millan; Shen, Longfei; Smalbrugge, Barry; Geluk, Erik Jan; Smit, Meint; van der Tol, Jos

    2014-03-15

    In this Letter, we present a method to prepare a mixed electron-beam resist composed of a positive resist (ZEP520A) and C60 fullerene. The addition of C60 to the ZEP resist changes the material properties under electron beam exposure significantly. An improvement in the thermal resistance of the mixed material has been demonstrated by fabricating multimode interference couplers and coupling regions of microring resonators. The fabrication of distributed Bragg reflector structures has shown improvement in terms of pattern definition accuracy with respect to the same structures fabricated with normal ZEP resist. Straight InP membrane waveguides with different lengths have been fabricated using this mixed resist. A decrease of the propagation loss from 6.6 to 3.3  dB/cm has been demonstrated. PMID:24690859

  3. Miniaturized supported liquid membrane device for selective on-line enrichment of basic drugs in plasma combined with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pálmarsdóttir, S; Thordarson, E; Edholm, L E; Jönsson, J A; Mathiasson, L

    1997-05-01

    A hollow fiber miniaturized supported liquid membrane (SLM) device for sample preparation is connected on-line with capillary electrophoresis and used for determination of a basic drug, bambuterol, in human plasma. The analyte is extracted from the outside of the hollow fiber (donor) through the liquid membrane (pores of the fiber impregnated with organic solvent) into the acceptor solution in the fiber lumen. The process is driven by differences in pH between the donor and acceptor solution. The whole volume of the acceptor solution can then be injected into the CZE capillary by using the double-stacking procedure for large volume-injection. Very clean extracts of low ionic strength are obtained from the SLM treatment, making this sample pretreatment method compatible with the CZE double-stacking procedure, which in turn makes it possible to inject large volumes of sample onto the separation capillary. Good performance of the whole procedure is demonstrated, and detection limits in the low nanomolar range were obtained in spite of the relatively weak UV absorbance of bambuterol. Extractions through the miniaturized SLM unit can be performed for 5-6 h without regenerating the fiber. The regeneration procedure was tested, and no relevant changes in the performance of the extraction could be found after seven regenerations, allowing the same fiber to be used for a week. PMID:9145027

  4. Deployment of a Curved Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Structures capable of deployment into complex, three-dimensional trusses have well known space technology applications such as the support of spacecraft payloads, communications antennas, radar reflectors, and solar concentrators. Such deployable trusses could also be useful in terrestrial applications such as the rapid establishment of structures in military and emergency service situations, in particular with regard to the deployment of enclosures for habitat or storage. To minimize the time required to deploy such an enclosure, a single arch-shaped truss is preferable to multiple straight trusses arranged vertically and horizontally. To further minimize the time required to deploy such an enclosure, a synchronous deployment with a single degree of freedom is also preferable. One method of synchronizing deployment of a truss is the use of a series of gears; this makes the deployment sequence predictable and testable, allows the truss to have a minimal stowage volume, and the deployed structure exhibits the excellent stiffness-to-mass and strength-to-mass ratios characteristic of a truss. A concept for using gears with varying ratios to deploy a truss into a curved shape has been developed and appears to be compatible with both space technology applications as well as potential use in terrestrial applications such as enclosure deployment. As is the case with other deployable trusses, this truss is formed using rigid elements (e.g., composite tubes) along the edges, one set of diagonal elements composed of either cables or folding/hinged rigid members, and the other set of diagonal elements formed by a continuous cable that is tightened by a motor or hand crank in order to deploy the truss. Gears of varying ratios are used to constrain the deployment to a single degree of freedom, making the deployment synchronous, predictable, and repeatable. The relative sizes of the gears and the relative dimensions of the diagonal elements determine the deployed geometry (e

  5. Hybrid Deployable Foam Antennas and Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tommaso; Willis, Paul; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid deployable radio antennas and reflectors of a proposed type would feature rigid narrower apertures plus wider adjoining apertures comprising reflective surfaces supported by open-cell polymeric foam structures (see figure). The open-cell foam structure of such an antenna would be compressed for compact stowage during transport. To initiate deployment of the antenna, the foam structure would simply be released from its stowage mechanical restraint. The elasticity of the foam would drive the expansion of the foam structure to its full size and shape. There are several alternatives for fabricating a reflective surface supported by a polymeric foam structure. One approach would be to coat the foam with a metal. Another approach would be to attach a metal film or a metal-coated polymeric membrane to the foam. Yet another approach would be to attach a metal mesh to the foam. The hybrid antenna design and deployment concept as proposed offers significant advantages over other concepts for deployable antennas: 1) In the unlikely event of failure to deploy, the rigid narrow portion of the antenna would still function, providing a minimum level of assured performance. In contrast, most other concepts for deploying a large antenna from compact stowage are of an "all or nothing" nature: the antenna is not useful at all until and unless it is fully deployed. 2) Stowage and deployment would not depend on complex mechanisms or actuators, nor would it involve the use of inflatable structures. Therefore, relative to antennas deployed by use of mechanisms, actuators, or inflation systems, this antenna could be lighter, cheaper, amenable to stowage in a smaller volume, and more reliable. An open-cell polymeric (e.g., polyurethane) foam offers several advantages for use as a compressible/expandable structural material to support a large antenna or reflector aperture. A few of these advantages are the following: 3) The open cellular structure is amenable to compression to a very

  6. Assessment of the significance of direct and indirect pollution inputs to a major salmon-producing river using polyethylene membrane devices.

    PubMed

    Moles, Adam; Holland, Larry; Andersson, Ole

    2006-08-01

    Conventional passive sampling devices for monitoring pollution input often prove to be cost-prohibitive when assessing large spatial and temporal scales. The Kenai River, a major salmon-producing river in Alaska (USA), served as the perfect laboratory to test the utility of polyethylene membrane devices for assessing chronic nonpoint-source inputs to a large riverine watershed. Comparison of the relative levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a large number of locations over time allowed us to assess the significance and potential source of these compounds in the river. Concentrations of PAH were greatest near urban areas and peaked during the late winter, when streams flows and dilution were low. Vessel activity and PAH levels peaked in July and were heaviest in the lower 16 km of the river, where fishing activity was concentrated. Nearly one-third of the vessels observed on the river were powered by two-stroke engines, which release a higher proportion of unburned fuel into the water than the cleaner burning four-stroke engines. The low concentrations of hydrocarbons upriver of the boat traffic suggest very little remote delivery of these contaminants to the watershed. Polyethylene strips proved to be an excellent, low-cost tool for determining the PAH patterns in a large watershed. PMID:16916019

  7. When Loved Ones Get Deployed

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? When Loved Ones Get Deployed KidsHealth > For Teens > When Loved Ones Get Deployed Print A A A Text Size ... for you and your family while your loved one is away. If your parent is deployed, you ...

  8. Joint for deployable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  9. ALMR deployment economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This analysis seeks to model and evaluate the economics of the use of Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors (ALMR) as a component of this country`s future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel). While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment.

  10. Membrane with supported internal passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Salinas, Carlos E. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface comprising permanent tubes preferably placed at the ends of the fluid passages. The invention also provides an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane.

  11. Development of a membrane-less dynamic field gradient focusing device for the separation of low-molecular-weight molecules

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Colin D.; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic field gradient focusing uses an electric field gradient generated by controlling the voltage profile of an electrode array to separate and concentrate charged analytes according to their individual electrophoretic mobilities. This study describes a new instrument in which the electrodes have been placed within the separation channel. The major challenge faced with this device is that when applied voltages to the electrodes are larger than the redox potential of water, electrolysis will occur, producing hydrogen ions (H+) plus oxygen gas on the anodes and hydroxide (OH−) plus hydrogen gas on the cathodes. The resulting gas bubbles and pH excursions can cause problems with system performance and reproducibility. An on-column, degassing system that can remove gas bubbles “on-the-fly” is described. In addition, the use of a high capacity, low-conductivity buffer to address the problem of the pH shift that occurs due to the production of H+ on the anodes is illustrated. Finally, the successful separation of three, low-molecular-weight dyes (amaranth, bromophenol blue and methyl red) is described. PMID:20191553

  12. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  13. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  14. Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

  15. Determination of uptake kinetics (sampling rates) by lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Lebo, J.A.; Clark, R.C.; Gibson, V.L.; Gala, W.R.; Echols, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (R(s)s; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery- corrected R(s) values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by significant changes (relative to this study) in water temperature, degree of biofouling, and current velocity- turbulence. Included in this paper is a discussion of the effects of temperature and octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)); the impacts of biofouling and hydrodynamics are reported separately. Overall, SPMDs responded proportionally to aqueous PAH concentrations; i.e., SPMD R(s) values and SPMD-water concentration factors were independent of aqueous concentrations. Temperature effects (10, 18, and 26 ??C) on Rs values appeared to be complex but were relatively small.The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (Rss; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery-corrected Rs values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by

  16. Pesticide sequestration in passive samplers (SPMDs): considerations for deployment time, biofouling, and stream flow in a tropical watershed.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Morra, Matthew J; Ruepert, Clemens; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia

    2009-10-01

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) provide an informative and cost-effective approach for monitoring contaminants in remote tropical streams. Estimation and interpretation of contaminant concentrations in streams derived from SPMDs can vary based on a number of environmental factors, including stream flow, biofouling, and deployment time. In three one-month long trials, SPMDs were concurrently deployed for 4, 15, and 28 days at three stream sites in an extensive agricultural area of southeastern Costa Rica. Water, bottom sediment, and suspended solids grab samples were also collected and several environmental variables were monitored at corresponding time intervals during each month-long study period. At all three sites, SPMD concentrations of the widely used insecticide chlorpyrifos increased with deployment time, with no relationship between SPMD biofouling and pesticide sequestration. Differences in SPMD chlorpyrifos sequestration among sites are likely due to differences in stream chlorpyrifos concentration rather than differences in SPMD sampling rates. The longer exposure period of SPMDs allowed for the detection of lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, terbufos, and difenoconazole compared to water grab samples. In addition to the use of appropriate performance reference compounds (PRCs), other environmental variables such as stream turbidity, flow regime, stream morphology, and knowledge of pesticide application methods are important considerations for optimizing SPMD deployment and data interpretation in tropical regions. PMID:19809710

  17. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Identifying Key Environmental Concerns This is the second report in the sequence and describes the results of conceptual feasibility studies of tidal power plants deployed in Tacoma Narrows, Washington. The Narrows contain many of the same competing stakeholder interactions identified at other tidal power sites and serves as a representative case study. Tidal power remains at an early stage of development. As such, a wide range of different technologies are being pursued by different manufacturers. In order to properly characterize impacts, it is useful to characterize the range of technologies that could be deployed at the site of interest. An industry survey informs the process of selecting representative tidal power devices. The selection criteria is that such devices are at an advanced stage of development to reduce technical uncertainties and that enough data are available from the manufacturers to inform the conceptual design process of this study. Further, an attempt is made to cover the range of different technologies under development to capture variations in potential environmental effects. A number of other developers are also at an advanced stage of development including Verdant Power, which has demonstrated an array of turbines in the East River of New York, Clean Current, which has demonstrated a device off Race Rocks, BC, and OpenHydro, which has demonstrated a device at the European Marine Energy Test Center and is on the verge of deploying a larger device in the Bay of Fundy. MCT demonstrated their device both at Devon (UK) and Strangford Narrows (Northern Ireland). Furthermore OpenHydro, CleanCurrent, and MCT are the three devices being installed at the Minas Passage (Canada). Environmental effects will largely scale with the size of tidal power development. In many cases, the effects of a single device may not be measurable, while larger scale device arrays may have cumulative impacts that differ significantly from smaller scale deployments. In order to

  18. Mechanism Design and Testing of a Self-Deploying Structure Using Flexible Composite Tape Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Footdale, Joseph N.; Murphey, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed mechanical design of a novel deployable support structure that positions and tensions a membrane optic for space imagining applications is presented. This is a complex three-dimensional deployment using freely deploying rollable composite tape spring booms that become load bearing structural members at full deployment. The deployment tests successfully demonstrate a new architecture based on rolled and freely deployed composite tape spring members that achieve simultaneous deployment without mechanical synchronization. Proper design of the flexible component mounting interface and constraint systems, which were critical in achieving a functioning unit, are described. These flexible composite components have much potential for advancing the state of the art in deployable structures, but have yet to be widely adopted. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of implementing flexible composite components, including the design details on how to integrate with required traditional mechanisms.

  19. Long Cable Deployments During Martian Touchdown: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Sell, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    The launch of NASA/JPL's next generation Mars rover is planned for the fall of 2011. The landing scheme chosen for this rover represents a step forward in unmanned payload delivery. The rover will be lowered from a rocket powered descent stage and then placed onto the surface while hanging from three bridles. During this touchdown event, the communication between the rover and descent stage is maintained by an electrical umbilical cable which is deployed in parallel with the structural bridles. During the development of the deployment device for the electrical umbilical, many obstacles were identified and overcome. Many of these challenges were due in large part to the helical nature of the packing geometry of the umbilical cable. And although none of these issues resulted in the failure of the design, they increased both development and assembly time. Many of the issues and some of the benefits of a helical deployment were not immediately apparent during the trade studies carried out during the deployment selection process. Tests were conducted upon completion of the device in order to characterize both the deployment and separation characteristics of the cable. Extraction loads were needed for inputs to touchdown models and separation dynamics were required to assess cable-rover recontact risk. Understanding the pros and cons surrounding the deployment of a helically packed cable would most certainly influence the outcome of future trade studies surrounding the selection of cable deployment options.

  20. Introduction to deployable recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.

    1985-08-01

    This report provides an introduction to deployable recovery systems for persons with little or no background in parachutes but who are knowledgeable in aerodynamics. A historical review of parachute development is given along with a description of the basic components of most deployable recovery systems. Descriptions are given of the function of each component and of problems that occur if a component fails to perform adequately. Models are presented for deployable recovery systems. Possible directions for future work are suggested in the summary.

  1. PAH assessment in the main Brazilian offshore oil and gas production area using semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) and transplanted bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Lourenço, Rafael; Francisco de Oliveira, Fábio; Haddad Nudi, Adriana; Rebello Wagener, Ângela de Luca; Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria de Fátima; Francioni, Eleine

    2015-06-01

    The Campos Basin is Brazil's main oil and gas production area. In 2013, more than 50 million cubic meters of produced water (PW) was discharged into these offshore waters. Despite the large volumes of PW that are discharged in the Campos Basin each day, the ecological concern of the chemicals in the PW are not completely understood. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the most important contributors to the ecological hazards that are posed by discharged PW. This study aimed to evaluate the potential bioaccumulation of PAH using transplanted bivalves (Nodipecten nodosus) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The study was conducted in two platforms that discharge PW (P19 and P40). Another platform that does not discharge PW (P25) was investigated for comparison with the obtained results. Time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations using SPMD and transplanted bivalves were estimated from the seawater near the three platforms. The bioaccumulation of the PAH in the transplanted bivalves at platforms P19 and P40 were up to fivefold greater than the bioaccumulation of the PAH at platform P25. The lowest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P25 (4.3-6.2 ng L-1), and the highest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P19 (9.2-37.3 ng L-1). Both techniques were effective for determining the bioavailability of the PAH and for providing time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations regarding oil and gas production activities.

  2. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  3. A bionic approach to mathematical modeling the fold geometry of deployable reflector antennas on satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, C. M.; Liu, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    Inspired from biology, this study presents a method for designing the fold geometry of deployable reflectors. Since the space available inside rockets for transporting satellites with reflector antennas is typically cylindrical in shape, and its cross-sectional area is considerably smaller than the reflector antenna after deployment, the cross-sectional area of the folded reflector must be smaller than the available rocket interior space. Membrane reflectors in aerospace are a type of lightweight structure that can be packaged compactly. To design membrane reflectors from the perspective of deployment processes, bionic applications from morphological changes of plants are investigated. Creating biologically inspired reflectors, this paper deals with fold geometry of reflectors, which imitate flower buds. This study uses mathematical formulation to describe geometric profiles of flower buds. Based on the formulation, new designs for deployable membrane reflectors derived from bionics are proposed. Adjusting parameters in the formulation of these designs leads to decreases in reflector area before deployment.

  4. Two Concepts for Deployable Trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renfro, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Two concepts that could be applied separately or together have been suggested to enhance the utility of deployable truss structures. The concepts were intended originally for application to a truss structure to be folded for compact stowage during transport and subsequently deployed in outer space. The concepts may also be applicable, with some limitations, to deployable truss structures designed to be used on Earth. The first concept involves a combination of features that would help to maximize reliability of a structure while minimizing its overall mass, the complexity of its deployment system, and the expenditure of energy for deployment. The deployment system would be integrated into the truss: some of the truss members would contain folding/unfolding-detent mechanisms similar to those in umbrellas; other truss members would contain shape-memory-alloy (SMA) coil actuators (see Figure 1). Upon exposure to sunlight, the SMA actuators would be heated above their transition temperature, causing them to extend to their deployment lengths. The extension of the actuators would cause the structure to unfold and, upon completion of unfolding, the umbrellalike mechanisms would lock the unfolded truss in the fully deployed configuration. The use of solar heating to drive deployment would eliminate the need to carry a deployment power source. The actuation scheme would offer high reliability in that the truss geometry would be such that deployment could be completed even if all actuators were not functioning. Of course, in designing for operation in normal Earth gravitation, it would be necessary to ensure that the SMA actuators could apply forces large enough to overcome the deploymentresisting forces attributable to the weights of the members. The second concept is that of an improved design for the joints in folding members. Before describing this design,

  5. Transcatheter closure of membranous ventricular septal defects with a new nitinol prosthesis in a natural swine model.

    PubMed

    Gu, X; Han, Y M; Titus, J L; Amin, Z; Berry, J M; Kong, H; Rickers, C; Urness, M; Bass, J L

    2000-08-01

    Transcatheter closure of a membranous ventricular septal defect (MVSD) is much more difficult than closure of other intracardiac defects because of the proximity to the aortic and tricuspid valves and their relatively large size in small children. In this report, transcatheter closure of naturally occurring membranous VSDs was attempted in 12 Yucatan minipigs. The prosthesis is constructed from fine Nitinol wires in the shape of two buttons and a connecting waist filled with polyester fiber. Two kinds of prosthesis were used in this study: concentric and eccentric left-sided retention disks. A 6 or 7 Fr delivery sheath was advanced across the membranous VSD over a wire from femoral vein. The prosthesis was inserted through the sheath by pushing the delivery cable to deploy a button into left ventricle and the second button was then deployed into right ventricle by withdrawing the sheath. Successful implantation of the device was achieved in all animals except one. Complete closure rate was 58.3% immediately after placement, 100% at 1 week, 90.9% at 1 month and 3 months, and 100% at 6 months. An associated aneurysm of the membranous septum increased significantly in size in two of three animals using the concentric device, and in none of the animals using the eccentric device. A trace to mild aortic regurgitation was present in two of the three animals using the concentric device, and only in one of the eight animals using the eccentric device. Five animals developed a trace to mild tricuspid regurgitation. Pathologic examination showed all devices to be covered by smooth neoendothelium at 3 months. This report presents the first experimental study where closure of membranous ventricular septal defects in a swine model was attempted by specially constructed devices. Procedural success and occlusion rates are very encouraging but overall results cannot equal surgery. Further experimentation is needed with devices that are redesigned according to the experience gained

  6. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  7. Overview of Deployed EDS Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C

    2009-09-24

    The term explosive detection system (EDS) is used by the TSA to describe equipment that is certified to detect explosives in checked bags. The EDS, as certified, by the TSL must consist of device for interrogating a bag and an automated detection algorithm (ATD) for evaluating the results of the interrogation. We only consider CT as the interrogation device in this report. A schematic drawing of a CT-based EDS is shown in Figure 2. The output of the ATD is the binary decision of alarm or non-alarm. Alarms may true- or false-positives. Non-alarms may be true- or false-negatives. False positives are also denoted false alarms. The true detection means that the ATD reports an alarm when a threat is present in the scanned bag. The probability of detecting a threat given that a threat is present is denoted the probability of detection (PD). The probability of false alarm (PFA) is the case when an alarm is reported when a threat is not present in a bag. Certification in this context means passing tests for PD and PFA at the TSL. The results of the EDS include CT cross-sectional images of the bag and specifics about the alarmed objects generated by ATD. These results are presented on a display so that a person may override the decision of ATD and declare the alarm to be a non-alarm. This process is denoted clearing. Bags that are not cleared by the person are sent to a secondary inspection process. Here the bags may be opened or assessed with explosive trace detection (ETD) in order to clear the bags. Bags that are not cleared at this point are evaluated by an ordinance disposal team. The CT scanner along with ATD is denoted Level 1 screening. The process of clearing on a display is denoted Level 2 screening. Secondary inspection is denoted Level 3 screening. Vendors of the deployed EDSs supply the TSA with equipment for all three levels. Therefore, the term EDS may include the equipment provided for Levels 1, 2 and 3. A schematic diagram of an EDS and the levels of

  8. Guidelines for the use of the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in environmental monitoring studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.

    2010-01-01

    the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS). The tips given in this document focus on these two samplers but are applicable to most types of passive sampling devices. The information in this guide is heavily weighted towards the sampling of water; however, information specific to the use of SPMDs for air sampling will also be covered.

  9. Tether deployment monitoring system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An operational Tether Deployment Monitoring System (TEDEMS) was constructed that would show system functionality in a terrestrial environment. The principle function of the TEDEMS system is the launching and attachment of reflective targets onto the tether during its deployment. These targets would be tracked with a radar antenna that was pointed towards the targets by a positioning system. A spring powered launcher for the targets was designed and fabricated. An instrumentation platform and launcher were also developed. These modules are relatively heavy and will influence tether deployment scenarios, unless they are released with a velocity and trajectory closely matching that of the tether. Owing to the tracking range limitations encountered during field trails of the Radar system, final TEDEMS system integration was not completed. The major module not finished was the system control computer. The lack of this device prevented any subsystem testing or field trials to be conducted. Other items only partially complete were the instrumentation platform launcher and modules and the radar target launcher. The work completed and the tests performed suggest that the proposed system continues to be a feasible approach to tether monitoring, although additional effort is still necessary to increase the range at which modules can be detected. The equipment completed and tested, to the extent stated, is available to NASA for use on any future program that requires tether tracking capability.

  10. Vibration and shape control of inflatable deployment structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingyu; Tian, Zhenhui; Tan, Huifeng

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the status of on-going work at the vibration and shape control of large inflatable deployment structures. It presents a brief summary of the related concepts in inflatable deployment structures, smart structures and the applications between them. Inflatable deployment structures which made of thin membrane can hardly achieve high surface precision and good dynamic properties. Smart materials and structures can be used to adjust boundary and membrane surface, which give the ability of vibration and shape control. Results indicated that the use of smart materials and structures might easily help inflatable deployment structures reduce vibration and achieve higher surface precision. A large-scale and light weight reflector model mixed with inflatable deployment and rib-support structure was developed. It is constructed by five parts: central connection tank, radial supporting ribs, inflation bags, meshed reflective surface and supporting booms. To improve surface precision, some sensors and actuators made of smart materials could be designed to guarantee the reflector model has more control authority over the whole structure.

  11. Deployment Mechanism for the Space Technology 5 Micro Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossoni, Peter; Cooperrider, Caner; Durback, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a technology mission that will send three spin-stabilized, 25-kg satellites into a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Each of these satellites must be deployed separately from the same launch vehicle with a spin rate of 3.4 rad/s (32.4 rpm). Because of the satellite's small size and the requirement to achieve its mission spin rate on deploy, typical spin table, pyrotechnic deployment devices or spin up thrusters could not be used. Instead, this new mechanism design employs a 'Frisbee' spin up strategy with a shape memory alloy actuated Pinpuller to deploy each satellite. The mechanism has undergone several design and test iterations and has been successfully qualified for flight.

  12. Deployment Mechanism for the Space Technology 5 Micro Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossoni, Peter; Cooperrider, Caner; Durback, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a technology mission that will send three spin-stabilized, 25-kg satellites into a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Each of these satellites must be deployed separately from the same launch vehicle with a spin rate of 3.4 rads (32.4 rpm). Because of the satellite's small size and the requirement to achieve its mission spin rate on deploy, typical spin table, pyrotechnic deployment devices or spin up thrusters could not be used. Instead, this new mechanism design employs a "Frisbee" spin up strategy with a shape memory alloy actuated Pinpuller to deploy each satellite. The mechanism has undergone several design and test iterations and has been successfully qualified for flight.

  13. EDITORIAL Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James

    2010-12-01

    modalities and (iv) system solutions with high end-user added value and cost benefits. The common thread is deployment and deployment evaluation. In particular, satisfaction of application requirements, involvement of the end-user in the design and deployment process, satisfactory system performance and user acceptance are concerns addressed in many of the contributions. The contributions form a valuable set, which help to identify the priorities for research in this burgeoning area: Robust, reliable and efficient data collection in embedded wireless multi-hop networks are essential elements in creating a true deploy-and-forget user experience. Maintaining full connectivity within a WSN, in a real world environment populated by other WSNs, WiFi networks or Bluetooth devices that constitute sources of interference is a key element in any application, but more so for those that are safety-critical, such as disaster response. Awareness of the effects of wireless channel, physical position and line-of-sight on received signal strength in real-world, outdoor environments will shape the design of many outdoor applications. Thus, the quantification of such effects is valuable knowledge for designers. Sensors' failure detection, scalability and commercialization are common challenges in many long-term monitoring applications; transferable solutions are evidenced here in the context of pollutant detection and water quality. Innovative, alternative thinking is often needed to achieve the desired long-lived networks when power-hungry sensors are foreseen components; in some instances, the very problems of wireless technology, such as RF irregularity, can be transformed into advantages. The importance of an iterative design and evaluation methodology—from analysis to simulation to real-life deployment—should be well understood by all WSN developers. The value of this is highlighted in the context of a challenging WPAN video-surveillance application based on a novel Nomadic Access

  14. Formal evaluation of the ADVANCE targeted deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.; Belella, P.A.; Koppelman, F.S.; Schofer, J.L.; Sen, A.K.

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation Concept (ADVANCE) advanced traveler information system (ATIS) demonstration project in northeastern Illinois was re-scoped in late 1994 from its originally-planned deployment of 3,000--5,000 in-vehicle navigation units to a so-called ``targeted`` deployment in which up to 75 vehicles were equipped with devices enabling them to receive real-time traffic information. These devices included (1) global positioning system (GPS) transmitters/receivers that enabled the vehicles while in the ADVANCE study area to serve as dynamic traffic probes as well as recipients of location data; and (2) navigation units that employed a comprehensive map data base and average (static) link travel times by time of day, stored on CD-ROM, which together computed efficient (least duration) routes between any origin and destination in the northwest portion of the Chicago metropolitan area. Experiments were designed to dispatch these equipped vehicles along links at headways or frequencies comparable to what would have been observed had full deployment actually occurred. Thus, within the limitations of this controlled environment, valuative experiments were conducted to assess the quality of several of the key sub-systems of ADVANCE in the context of structured performance hypotheses. Focused on-road tests began on June 1 and continued through December 14, 1995, followed by a period of data evaluation, documentation of results, and development of conclusions about the findings and usefulness of the project. This paper describes the tests, discusses development of the overall evaluation plan and the evaluation management concept which guided them, and reports on issuses and results of data analysis known at time of writing.

  15. High acceleration cable deployment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, T. N.; Barns, C. E.; Murphy, J. P.; Gin, B.; King, R. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A deployment system that will safely pay one cable from a ballistic forebody when the forebody is separated from an afterbody (to which the cable is secured and when the separation is marked by high acceleration and velocity) is described.

  16. SMAP Launch and Deployment Sequence

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video combines file footage of a Delta II rocket and computer animation to depict the launch and deployment of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite. SMAP is scheduled to launch on Nov...

  17. Use of depuration compounds in passive air samplers: results from active sampling-supported field deployment, potential uses, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Moeckel, Claudia; Harner, Tom; Nizzetto, Luca; Strandberg, Bo; Lindroth, Anders; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-05-01

    Depuration compounds (DCs) are added to passive air samplers (PAS) prior to deployment to account for the wind-dependency of the sampling rate for gas-phase compounds. This correction is particularly useful for providing comparable data for samplers that are deployed in different environments and subject to different meteorological conditions such as wind speeds. Two types of PAS--the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk sampler and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--were deployed at eight heights on a 100 m tower to test whether the DC approach could yield air concentrations profiles for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides and account for the wind speed gradient with height. Average wind speeds ranged from 0.3 to 4.5 m s(-1) over the 40 day deployment, increasing with height Two low volume active air samples (AAS), one collected at 25 m and one at 73 m over the 40 day deployment showed no significant concentration differences for target compounds. As expected, the target compounds taken up by PAS reflected the wind profile with height This wind-dependency of the PAS was also reflected in the results of the DCs. A correction based on the DC approach successfully accounted for the effect of wind on PAS sampling rates, yielding a profile consistent with the AAS. Interestingly, in terms of absolute air concentrations, there were differences between the AAS and PAS-derived values for some target compounds. These were attributed to different sampling characteristics of the two approaches that may have resulted in slightly different air masses being sampled. Based on the results of this study, guidelines are presented for the use of DCs and for the calibration of PAS using AAS. PMID:19534139

  18. Deployable antenna phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, J.; Bernstein, J.; Fischer, G.; Jacobson, G.; Kadar, I.; Marshall, R.; Pflugel, G.; Valentine, J.

    1979-01-01

    Applications for large deployable antennas were re-examined, flight demonstration objectives were defined, the flight article (antenna) was preliminarily designed, and the flight program and ground development program, including the support equipment, were defined for a proposed space transportation system flight experiment to demonstrate a large (50 to 200 meter) deployable antenna system. Tasks described include: (1) performance requirements analysis; (2) system design and definition; (3) orbital operations analysis; and (4) programmatic analysis.

  19. Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Bonnet, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Brief history of CdTe PV devices * Initial attempts towards commercial modules * Review of present commercial industry/device designs * General CdTe material properties * Layer-specific process description for superstrate CdTe devices * Where is the junction? * Considerations for large-scale deployment * Conclusions * Acknowledgements * References

  20. The parenting cycle of deployment.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Ellen R; Ross, Abigail

    2012-02-01

    Parents of dependent children comprise approximately 42% of Active Duty and National Guard/Reserve military members serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Recent estimates indicate that more than two million children have experienced parental deployment since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. This article seeks to characterize the impact of the deployment life cycle on parenting roles among service members and at-home partners/caregivers of dependent children. Specifically, a new conceptual framework is presented for considering the ways in which parenting and co-parenting processes are affected by the demands and transitions inherent in contemporary deployment to a war zone. Although the phase-based emotional cycle of deployment continues to offer an instructive description of the broad challenges faced by military couples, a parenting cycle of deployment model shifts the perspective to the critical and largely ignored processes of parenting in the context of deployment and war, and to the realities faced by parents serving in the U.S. military. Implications for prevention, intervention, and future research related to military families are addressed. PMID:22360065

  1. Miniature field deployable terahertz source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Mark G.

    2006-05-01

    Developments in terahertz sources include compacted electron beam systems, optical mixing techniques, and multiplication of microwave frequencies. Although significant advances in THz science have been achieved, efforts continue to obtain source technologies that are more mobile and suitable for field deployment. Strategies in source development have approached generation from either end of the THz spectrum, from up-conversion of high-frequency microwave to down-conversion of optical frequencies. In this paper, we present the design of a THz source which employs an up-conversion method in an assembly that integrates power supply, electronics, and radiative component into a man-portable unit for situations in which a lab system is not feasible. This unit will ultimately evolve into a ruggedized package suitable for use in extreme conditions, e.g. temporary security check points or emergency response teams, in conditions where THz diagnostics are needed with minimal planning or logistical support. In order to meet design goals of reduced size and complexity, the inner workings of the unit ideally would be condensed into a monolithic active element, with ancillary systems, e.g. user interface and power, coupled to the element. To attain these goals, the fundamental component of our design is a THz source and lens array that may be fabricated with either printed circuit board or wafer substrate. To reduce the volume occupied by the source array, the design employs a metamaterial composed of a periodic lattice of resonant elements. Each resonant element is an LC oscillator, or tank circuit, with inductance, capacitance, and center frequency determined by dimensioning and material parameters. The source array and supporting electronics are designed so that the radiative elements are driven in-phase to yield THz radiation with a high degree of partial coherence. Simulation indicates that the spectral width of operation may be controlled by detuning of critical dimensions

  2. Use of Chemical Analysis and Assays of Semipermeable Membrane Devices Extracts to Assess the Response of Bioavailable Organic Pollutants in Streams to Urbanization in Six Metropolitan Areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Wade L.; Goodbred, Steve L.; Leiker, Thomas L.; Inouye, Laura; Johnson, B. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Studies to assess the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems are being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The overall objectives of these studies are to (1) determine how hydrologic, geomorphic, water quality, habitat, and biological characteristics respond to land-use changes associated with urbanization in specific environmental settings, and (2) compare these responses across environmental settings. As part of an integrated assessment, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; and Denver-Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004. Sites were selected to avoid point-source discharge and to minimize natural variability within each of the six metropolitan areas. In addition to standard chemical analysis for hydrophobic organic contaminants, three assays were used to address mixtures and potential toxicity: (1) Fluoroscan provides an estimate of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) the P450RGS assay indicates the presence and levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists; and (3) Microtox? measures toxicological effects on photo-luminescent bacteria. Of the 140 compounds targeted or identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis in this study, 67 were not detected. In terms of numbers and types of compounds, the following were detected: 2 wood preservatives, 6 insecticides (parent compounds), 5 herbicides, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2 dibenzofurans, 4 polychlorinated biphenyls, 7 compounds associated with fragrances or personal care products, 4 steroids associated with wastewater, 5 polydibromated diphenyl ethers (flame retardants), 3 plasticizers, 3 antimicrobials/disinfectants, and 3 detergent metabolites. Of the 73 compounds

  3. Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Adaptable, Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project will test and demonstrate a deployable aeroshell concept as a viable thermal protection system for entry, descent, and landing o...

  4. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C

    2012-03-21

    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  5. Deployable robotic woven wire structures and joints for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahinpoor, MO; Smith, Bradford

    1991-01-01

    Deployable robotic structures are basically expandable and contractable structures that may be transported or launched to space in a compact form. These structures may then be intelligently deployed by suitable actuators. The deployment may also be done by means of either airbag or spring-loaded typed mechanisms. The actuators may be pneumatic, hydraulic, ball-screw type, or electromagnetic. The means to trigger actuation may be on-board EPROMS, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that trigger actuation based on some input caused by the placement of the structure in the space environment. The actuation may also be performed remotely by suitable remote triggering devices. Several deployable woven wire structures are examined. These woven wire structures possess a unique form of joint, the woven wire joint, which is capable of moving and changing its position and orientation with respect to the structure itself. Due to the highly dynamic and articulate nature of these joints the 3-D structures built using them are uniquely and highly expandable, deployable, and dynamic. The 3-D structure naturally gives rise to a new generation of deployable three-dimensional spatial structures.

  6. Sample acquisition and instrument deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing the Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID) system, a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. The systems have been fabricated and tested in environmental chambers, as well as soil testing and robotic control testing.

  7. Lessons Learned from Deployment of Wireless LAN Technology

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Spencer L.; Duncan, Ray

    2001-01-01

    The adoption of IEEE standard 802.11b for wireless LAN technology fostered the rapid development of devices that utilize the 2.45Ghz ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) frequency band. In the healthcare setting, this provides some unique opportunities to provide better, low cost mobile access to data for clinical use as well as providing some economic solutions for wide deployment of bandwidth-intensive applications over a large geographical area This poster details some the lessons we have learned as we deploy this technology.

  8. Lightweight, Self-Deployable Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur; Sokolowski, Witold; Rand, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-lightweight, self-deployable wheels made of polymer foams have been demonstrated. These wheels are an addition to the roster of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structural applications. Intended originally for use on nanorovers (very small planetary-exploration robotic vehicles), CHEM wheels could also be used for many commercial applications, such as in toys. The CHEM concept was reported in "Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory (CHEM) Expandable Structures" (NPO-20394), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 56. To recapitulate: A CHEM structure is fabricated from a shape-memory polymer (SMP) foam. The structure is compressed to a very small volume while in its rubbery state above its glass-transition temperature (Tg). Once compressed, the structure can be cooled below Tg to its glassy state. As long as the temperature remains deploy) to its original size and shape. Once thus deployed, the CHEM structure can be rigidified by cooling below Tg to the glassy state. The structure could be subsequently reheated above Tg and recompacted. The compaction/deployment/rigidification cycle could be repeated as many times as needed.

  9. Optimal deployment of solar index

    SciTech Connect

    Croucher, Matt

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing trend, generally caused by state-specific renewable portfolio standards, to increase the importance of renewable electricity generation within generation portfolios. While RPS assist with determining the composition of generation they do not, for the most part, dictate the location of generation. Using data from various public sources, the authors create an optimal index for solar deployment. (author)

  10. Deployment of MAGDAS in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Kakinami, Y.; Tokunaga, T.; Fujimoto, A.; Ikeda, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, S.; Sakai, M.; Eto, N.; Terada, H.; Shinohara, M.; Fujita, Y.; Matsuyama, K.

    2011-12-01

    The deployment of MAGDAS (MAGnetic Data Acquisition System) began in Africa in the Year 2006 with installations along the dip equator (or "geomagnetic equator") in three countries. In 2008, the 96 Deg. MM Chain was established, running from Hermanus, South Africa, to Fayum, Egypt. In 2010, a major upgrade was performed on the equatorial stations of MAGDAS.

  11. SATWG networked quality function deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Don

    1992-01-01

    The initiative of this work is to develop a cooperative process for continual evolution of an integrated, time phased avionics technology plan that involves customers, technologists, developers, and managers. This will be accomplished by demonstrating a computer network technology to augment the Quality Function Deployment (QFD). All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  12. Military Deployments: Evaluating Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the possible influence of a military deployment online tutorial on teacher knowledge. DoDEA and public school teachers were the two groups used for the study. From this exploratory study, the researcher also wanted to explore if teachers would find professional development provided in an online tutorial relevant…

  13. Geometrical deployment for braided stent.

    PubMed

    Bouillot, Pierre; Brina, Olivier; Ouared, Rafik; Yilmaz, Hasan; Farhat, Mohamed; Erceg, Gorislav; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Kulcsar, Zsolt; Pereira, Vitor Mendes

    2016-05-01

    The prediction of flow diverter stent (FDS) implantation for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is being increasingly required for hemodynamic simulations and procedural planning. In this paper, a deployment model was developed based on geometrical properties of braided stents. The proposed mathematical description is first applied on idealized toroidal vessels demonstrating the stent shortening in curved vessels. It is subsequently generalized to patient specific vasculature predicting the position of the filaments along with the length and local porosity of the stent. In parallel, in-vitro and in-vivo FDS deployments were measured by contrast-enhanced cone beam CT (CBCT) in idealized and patient-specific geometries. These measurements showed a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the virtual deployments and provided experimental validations of the underlying geometrical assumptions. In particular, they highlighted the importance of the stent radius assessment in the accuracy of the deployment prediction. Thanks to its low computational cost, the proposed model is potentially implementable in clinical practice providing critical information for patient safety and treatment outcome assessment. PMID:26891065

  14. Evaluation of the measurement of Cu(II) bioavailability in complex aqueous media using a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane device (HFSLM) and two microalgae species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Scenedesmus acutus).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morales, Erik A; Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; de Gyves, Josefina

    2015-11-01

    The environmental bioavailability of copper was determined using a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) device as a chemical surrogate and two microalgae species (Scenedesmus acutus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Several experimental conditions were studied: pH, the presence of organic matter, inorganic anions, and concomitant cations. The results indicated a strong relationship between the response given by the HFSLM and the microalgae species with free copper concentrations measured by an ion selective electrode (ISE), in accordance with the free-ion activity model (FIAM). A significant positive correlation was evident when comparing the bioavailability results measured by the HFSLM and the S. acutus microalga species, showing that the synthetic device may emulate biological uptake and, consequently, be used as a chemical test for bioavailability measurements using this alga as a biological reference. PMID:26431807

  15. Kawasaki Disease With Giant Coronary Aneurysms Requiring a Ventricular Assist Device to Separate From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Coronary Issues Can Be a Pediatric Problem Too!

    PubMed

    Adler, Adam C; Kodavatiganti, Ramesh

    2016-08-15

    Kawasaki disease, although common in children, may rarely affect the coronary arteries, leading to aneurysm formation and potential for coronary thrombus formation. Extremely rarely, coronary aneurysms from Kawasaki disease can thrombose, resulting in ischemic myocardium. We present a case of a 31-month-old patient requiring a left ventricular assist device after thrombosis of giant coronary aneurysms led to ischemic cardiomyopathy. At the termination of the surgical procedure, we encountered 2 periods of ventricular assist device dropout requiring intervention. With the increase in the number of pediatric patients with assist devices, we review the basic care for a patient requiring emergent surgery. PMID:27310902

  16. EDITORIAL Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James

    2010-12-01

    modalities and (iv) system solutions with high end-user added value and cost benefits. The common thread is deployment and deployment evaluation. In particular, satisfaction of application requirements, involvement of the end-user in the design and deployment process, satisfactory system performance and user acceptance are concerns addressed in many of the contributions. The contributions form a valuable set, which help to identify the priorities for research in this burgeoning area: Robust, reliable and efficient data collection in embedded wireless multi-hop networks are essential elements in creating a true deploy-and-forget user experience. Maintaining full connectivity within a WSN, in a real world environment populated by other WSNs, WiFi networks or Bluetooth devices that constitute sources of interference is a key element in any application, but more so for those that are safety-critical, such as disaster response. Awareness of the effects of wireless channel, physical position and line-of-sight on received signal strength in real-world, outdoor environments will shape the design of many outdoor applications. Thus, the quantification of such effects is valuable knowledge for designers. Sensors' failure detection, scalability and commercialization are common challenges in many long-term monitoring applications; transferable solutions are evidenced here in the context of pollutant detection and water quality. Innovative, alternative thinking is often needed to achieve the desired long-lived networks when power-hungry sensors are foreseen components; in some instances, the very problems of wireless technology, such as RF irregularity, can be transformed into advantages. The importance of an iterative design and evaluation methodology—from analysis to simulation to real-life deployment—should be well understood by all WSN developers. The value of this is highlighted in the context of a challenging WPAN video-surveillance application based on a novel Nomadic Access

  17. Rapidly deployable emergency communication system

    DOEpatents

    Gladden, Charles A.; Parelman, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A highly versatile, highly portable emergency communication system which permits deployment in a very short time to cover both wide areas and distant isolated areas depending upon mission requirements. The system employs a plurality of lightweight, fully self-contained repeaters which are deployed within the mission area to provide communication between field teams, and between each field team and a mobile communication control center. Each repeater contains a microcomputer controller, the program for which may be changed from the control center by the transmission of digital data within the audible range (300-3,000 Hz). Repeaters are accessed by portable/mobile transceivers, other repeaters, and the control center through the transmission and recognition of digital data code words in the subaudible range.

  18. Arusha Rover Deployable Medical Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boswell, Tyrone; Hopson, Sonya; Marzette, Russell; Monroe, Gilena; Mustafa, Ruqayyah

    2014-01-01

    The NSBE Arusha rover concept offers a means of human transport and habitation during long-term exploration missions on the moon. This conceptual rover calls for the availability of medical supplies and equipment for crew members in order to aid in mission success. This paper addresses the need for a dedicated medical work station aboard the Arusha rover. The project team investigated multiple options for implementing a feasible deployable station to address both the medical and workstation layout needs of the rover and crew. Based on layout specifications and medical workstation requirements, the team has proposed a deployable workstation concept that can be accommodated within the volumetric constraints of the Arusha rover spacecraft

  19. An ARM Mobile Facility Designed for Marine Deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Program is designing a Mobile Facility exclusively for marine deployments. This marine facility is patterned after ARM's land Mobile Facility, which had its inaugural deployment at Point Reyes, California, in 2005, followed by deployments to Niger in 2006 and Germany in 2007 (ongoing), and a planned deployment to China in 2008. These facilities are primarily intended for the study of clouds, radiation, aerosols, and surface processes with a goal to include these processes accurately in climate models. They are preferably embedded within larger field campaigns which provide context. They carry extensive instrumentation (in several large containers) including: cloud radar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared spectrometers, broadband and narrowband radiometers, sonde-launching facilities, extensive surface aerosol measurements, sky imagers, and surface latent and sensible heat flux devices. ARM's Mobile Facilities are designed for 6-10 month deployments in order to capture climatically-relevant datasets. They are available to any scientist, U.S. or international, who wishes to submit a proposal during the annual Spring call. The marine facility will be adapted to, and ruggedized for, the harsh marine environment and will add a scanning two-frequency radar, a boundary-layer wind profiler, a shortwave spectrometer, and aerosol instrumentation adapted to typical marine aerosols like sea salt. Plans also include the use of roving small UAVs, automated small boats, and undersea autonomous vehicles in order to address the point-to-area-average problem which is so crucial for informing climate models. Initial deployments are planned for small islands in climatically- interesting cloud regimes, followed by deployments on oceanic platforms (like decommissioned oil rigs and the quasi-permanent platform of this session's title) and eventually on large ships like car carriers plying routine routes.

  20. Lunar roving vehicle deployment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, A. B.; Spacey, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    The space support equipment that supports the lunar roving vehicle during the flight to the moon and permits the vehicle to be deployed from the lunar module onto the lunar surface with a minimum amount of astronaut participation is discussed. The design and evolution of the equipment are reviewed. The success of the overall lunar roving vehicle design, including the space support equipment, was demonstrated on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions.

  1. Deployable M-Braced Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Rhodes, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Tension/compression and shear separated structurally in deployable beam. M-Braced Sections Packaged using combination of hinges and telescoping sections. When upper sections telescope into base, diagonals hinge, telescope, and rotate along batten. Components of M-braced truss fabricated from conventional metallic materials or nonmetallic materials such as graphite/epoxy. Applications include masts for antenna feed horns and ribs for solar array blankets.

  2. Expected Deployment Dynamics of Proseds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M. L.; Welzyn, K.

    2003-01-01

    The control law for The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployment System (ProSEDS) deployment is a modification of the control routine that was successfully used in the flight of SEDS-II. Unlike SEDS, the tether of ProSEDS consists of different sections with different mechanical characteristics. A non-linear control trajectory in phase-space (i.e., the reference profile) is fed forward to the controller to guide the satellite, at the tether tip, to the desired final state under nominal conditions and no external perturbations. A linear feedback control is applied by the brake to keep the actual trajectory as close as possible to the reference. The paper also shows the results of simulations of deployment dynamics with and without noise. The control law has thus far been developed and tested on the ground for the original ProSEDS tether configuration of 15 km. A new reference will have to be designed and tested for other tether configurations.

  3. Deployment Simulation Methods for Ultra-Lightweight Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    2003-01-01

    Two dynamic inflation simulation methods are employed for modeling the deployment of folded thin-membrane tubes. The simulations are necessary because ground tests include gravity effects and may poorly represent deployment in space. The two simulation methods are referred to as the Control Volume (CV) method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method. They are available in the LS-DYNA nonlinear dynamic finite element code. Both methods are suitable for modeling the interactions between the inflation gas and the thin-membrane tube structures. The CV method only considers the pressure induced by the inflation gas in the simulation, while the ALE method models the actual flow of the inflation gas. Thus, the transient fluid properties at any location within the tube can be predicted by the ALE method. Deployment simulations of three packaged tube models; namely coiled, Z-folded, and telescopically-folded configurations, are performed. Results predicted by both methods for the telescopically-folded configuration are correlated and computational efficiency issues are discussed.

  4. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  5. Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Devices, Techniques and Team Roles: 2011 Survey Results of the United States’ Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Centers

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Scott; Ellis, Cory; Butler, Katie; McRobb, Craig; Mejak, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: In early 2011, surveys of active Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers within the United States were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) equipment and professional staff. Seventy-four of 111 (67%) U.S. centers listed in the ELSO directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 53% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, 15% reported using centrifugal pumps and 32% reported using a combination of both. Of the centers using centrifugal pumps, 51% reported that they do not use a compliance bladder in the circuit. The majority (95%) of roller pump users reported using a compliance bladder and 97% reported using Tygon® S-97-E tubing in the raceway of their ECMO circuits. Silicone membrane oxygenators were reportedly used by 25% of the respondents, 5% reported using micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators (MPHF), 70%reported using polymethylpentene (PMP) hollow fiber oxygenators and 5% reported using a combination of the different types. Some form of in-line blood monitoring was used by 88% of the responding centers and 63% of responding centers reported using a circuit surface coating. Anticoagulation monitoring via the activated clotting time (ACT) was reported by 100% of the reporting centers. The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) was reported by 53% of the responding centers with 82% of those centers using a crystalloid primed circuit to initiate ECPR. A cooling protocol was used by 77% of the centers which have an ECPR program. When these data are compared with surveys from 2002 and 2008 it shows that the use of silicone membrane oxygenators continues to decline, the use of centrifugal pumps continues to increase and ECMO personnel continues to be comprised of multidisciplinary groups of dedicated allied health care professionals. PMID:22416604

  6. Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation devices, techniques and team roles: 2011 survey results of the United States' Extracorporeal Life Support Organization centers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Scott; Ellis, Cory; Butler, Katie; McRobb, Craig; Mejak, Brian

    2011-12-01

    In early 2011, surveys of active Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers within the United States were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) equipment and professional staff. Seventy-four of 111 (67%) U.S. centers listed in the ELSO directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 53% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, 15% reported using centrifugal pumps and 32% reported using a combination of both. Of the centers using centrifugal pumps, 51% reported that they do not use a compliance bladder in the circuit. The majority (95%) of roller pump users reported using a compliance bladder and 97% reported using Tygon" S-97-E tubing in the raceway of their ECMO circuits. Silicone membrane oxygenators were reportedly used by 25% of the respondents, 5% reported using micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators (MPHF), 70% reported using polymethylpentene (PMP) hollow fiber oxygenators and 5% reported using a combination of the different types. Some form of in-line blood monitoring was used by 88% of the responding centers and 63% of responding centers reported using a circuit surface coating. Anticoagulation monitoring via the activated clotting time (ACT) was reported by 100% of the reporting centers. The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) was reported by 53% of the responding centers with 82% of those centers using a crystalloid primed circuit to initiate ECPR. A cooling protocol was used by 77% of the centers which have an ECPR program. When these data are compared with surveys from 2002 and 2008 it shows that the use of silicone membrane oxygenators continues to decline, the use of centrifugal pumps continues to increase and ECMO personnel continues to be comprised of multidisciplinary groups of dedicated allied health care professionals. PMID:22416604

  7. Test progress on the electrostatic membrane reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihora, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An extemely lightweight type of precision reflector antenna, being developed for potential deployment from the space shuttle, uses electrostatic forces to tension a thin membrane and form it into a concave reflector surface. The typical shuttle-deployed antenna would have a diameter of 100 meters and an RMS surface smoothness of 10 to 1 mm for operation at 1 to 10 GHz. NASA Langley Research Center built and is currently testing a subscale (16 foot diameter) model of the membrane reflector portion of such an antenna. Preliminary test results and principal factors affecting surface quality are addressed. Factors included are the effect of the perimeter boundary, splicing of the membrane, the long-scale smoothness of commercial membranes, and the spatial controllability of the membrane using voltage adjustments to alter the electrostatic pressure. Only readily available commercial membranes are considered.

  8. Entrapment of the StarClose Vascular Closure System After Attempted Common Femoral Artery Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Durack, Jeremy C. Thor Johnson, D.; Fidelman, Nicholas; Kerlan, Robert K.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.

    2012-08-15

    A complication of the StarClose Vascular Closure System (Abbott, Des Plaines, IL) after a transarterial hepatic chemoembolization is described. After attempted clip deployment, the entire device became lodged in the tissues overlying the common femoral artery and could not be removed percutaneously. Successful removal of the device required surgical cutdown for removal and arterial repair. Entrapment of the StarClose vascular closure deployment system is a potentially serious complication that has been reported in the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database, but has not been recognized in the literature.

  9. Sequentially deployable maneuverable tetrahedral beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Crawford, R. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A tetrahedral beam that can be compactly stowed, sequentially deployed, and widely manipulated to provide a structurally sound yet highly maneuverable truss structure is comprised of a number of repeating units of tandem tetralhedral sharing common sides. Fixed length battens are jointed into equilateral triangles called batten frames. Apexes of adjacent triangles are interconnected by longerons having a mid-point folding hinge. Joints, comprised of gussets pivotabley connected by links, permit two independent degrees of rotational freedom between joined adjacent batten frames, and provide a stable structure from packaged configuration to complete deployment. The longerons and joints can be actuated in any sequence, independently of one another. The beam is suited to remote actuation. Longerons may be provided with powered mid-point hinges enabling beam erection and packaging under remote control. Providing one or more longerons with powered telescoping segments permits the shape of the beam central axis to be remotely manipulated so that the beam may function as a remote manipulator arm.

  10. Sequentially deployable maneuverable tetrahedral beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Crawford, R. F.

    1985-12-01

    A tetrahedral beam that can be compactly stowed, sequentially deployed, and widely manipulated to provide a structurally sound yet highly maneuverable truss structure is comprised of a number of repeating units of tandem tetralhedral sharing common sides. Fixed length battens are jointed into equilateral triangles called batten frames. Apexes of adjacent triangles are interconnected by longerons having a mid-point folding hinge. Joints, comprised of gussets pivotabley connected by links, permit two independent degrees of rotational freedom between joined adjacent batten frames, and provide a stable structure from packaged configuration to complete deployment. The longerons and joints can be actuated in any sequence, independently of one another. The beam is suited to remote actuation. Longerons may be provided with powered mid-point hinges enabling beam erection and packaging under remote control. Providing one or more longerons with powered telescoping segments permits the shape of the beam central axis to be remotely manipulated so that the beam may function as a remote manipulator arm.

  11. Solid Surface Wetting and the Deployment of Drops in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Depew, J.

    1994-01-01

    The complete or partial deployment of liquid samples in low gravity is primarily influenced by the interfacial properties of the specific liquid and solid materials used because the overwhelming bias of the Earth gravitational acceleration is removed. This study addresses the engineering aspects of injecting and deploying drops of prescribed volume into an acoustic positioning chamber in microgravity. The specific problems of interest are the design, testing, and implementation of injector tips to be used in a simuttaneously retracting dual-injector system used in the Drop Physics Module microgravity experiment facility. Prior to release, the liquid to be deployed must be retained within a restricted area at the very end of the injectors even under dynamic stimuli due to continuous injection flow as well as to the stepped motion of the injectors, and the final released drop must have a well determined volume as well as negligible residual linear or angular momentum from the deployment process. The outcome of Earthbased short-duration low gravity experiments had been the selection of two types of injector tips which were flown as back-up parts and were successfully utilized during the USML-1 Spacelab mission. The combination of a larger contact surface, liquid pinning with a sharp edge, and selective coating of strategic tip surfaces with a non-wetting compound has allowed a significant increase in the success rate of deployment of simple and compound drops of aqueous solutions of glycerol and silicone oil. The diameter of the samples studied in the Drop Physics Module ranged between 0.3 and 2.7 cm. The tests conducted onsrbit with a manually operated small device have allowed the calibration of the volume deployed for a few drop sizes. The design for improved tips to be used during the next USML flight is based on these results.

  12. Deployment Mechanism for Thermal Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koski, Kraig

    2014-01-01

    The Deployment Mechanism for the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) is responsible for bringing the Thermal Pointing System (TPS) from its stowed, launch locked position to the on-orbit deployed, operational position. The Deployment Mechanism also provides structural support for the TSIS optical bench and two-axis gimbal. An engineering model of the Deployment Mechanism has been environmentally qualified and life tested. This paper will give an overview of the TSIS mission and then describe the development, design, and testing of the Deployment Mechanism.

  13. Supporting Knowledge Transfer in IS Deployment Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönström, Mikael

    To deploy new information systems is an expensive and complex task, and does seldom result in successful usage where the system adds strategic value to the firm (e.g. Sharma et al. 2003). It has been argued that innovation diffusion is a knowledge integration problem (Newell et al. 2000). Knowledge about business processes, deployment processes, information systems and technology are needed in a large-scale deployment of a corporate IS. These deployments can therefore to a large extent be argued to be a knowledge management (KM) problem. An effective deployment requires that knowledge about the system is effectively transferred to the target organization (Ko et al. 2005).

  14. Supported membrane nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Anrather, Dorothea; Smetazko, Michaela; Saba, Miriam; Alguel, Yilmaz; Schalkhammer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Supported membrane nanodevices are based on natural or artificial ion channels embedded in a lipid membrane deposited on a chip wafer. Membrane conductance is modulated by biorecognitive events, with the use of intrinsic binding sites of the ion channel or via artificial sites fused to the channel protein. Artificial ion gates are constructed by coupling a specific ligand for the analyte near the channel entrance or a site important to triggering channel conformation. The binding event leads to the closure of the ion channel or induces a conformational change of the channel, reducing the ion flux. The signal transduced from the device is the decrease in the ion flux-induced electron current at a silver-silver chloride electrode at ultimate single-molecule sensitivity. Among the natural ion channels, gramicidin A, a transport antibiotic, was found to be most suitable, and thus was used by AMBRI, Australia, to set up prototypes of membrane biochips, using self-association of the dimer. Covalent dimerization-based devices, developed by the Vienna group, make use of the down-regulation of the permanently open membrane-spanning bisgramicidine ion channel. The reactive group at the C-terminus, a hydroxy group, allows precise coupling of the analyte-binding moiety in gramicidin as well as bisgramicidin. The device is set up with bilayer membranes deposited on apertures of a hydrophobic frame structure produced via microlithography, facing an aqueous or hydro-gel micro-environment on both sides, constructing black lipid membranes or patch-clamp devices "on chip." The setup of the device needs gel membrane supports that allow membrane formation and contribute to the stability of the bilayer by exposure of functional groups that promote electrostatic interaction and formation of hydrogen bridges and enable the introduction of covalent spacers and anchors. Photo-cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyacrylamide, electropolymerized polydiaminobenzene and coated agarose, as

  15. Minimally invasive implantation of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit used as a temporary left ventricular assist device: a new concept for bridging to permanent cardiac support.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shunsuke; Fleischer, Bernhard; Maeß, Christoph; Baraki, Hassina; Kutschka, Ingo

    2015-03-01

    The implantation of cardiac assist devices is associated with poor outcome in patients with multiple organ failure and unknown neurologic status. Therefore, temporary left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) using, for example, extracorporeal centrifugal pumps may provide the chance to further evaluate the patient's clinical course and a potential qualification for implantable LVAD therapy. On the other hand, a main disadvantage of the temporary LVAD implantation is the need for redo surgery, increasing the risk of the final LVAD Implantation. To minimize this drawback of the temporary LVAD implantation, we implanted the temporary LVAD using a minimally invasive technique. The operation was done without cardiopulmonary bypass support, and the temporary LVAD was implanted through upper hemisternotomy and left anterior mini-thoracotomy. The patient recovered from multiple organ failure and was successfully bridged to a permanent LVAD therapy. PMID:25370719

  16. Pediatric diseases and operational deployments.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2000-04-01

    Many nations now export military health as a proactive arm of the nation's contribution to the maintenance of international peace in trouble regions of the world; and all nations are called upon from time to time in emergency and disaster situations to help out in their regions of interest. Children and young teenagers constitute some 50% of war-stricken populations. This paper explores this increasingly important role of military medicine from the point of view of a practicing pediatrician and career doctor-soldier. Many international operational deployments undertaken in the last 5 years have required the insertion of pediatric clinical and preventive health resources. Deployments to Rwanda, the countries of the former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Bougainville (in Papua New Guinea), Irian Jaya (in Indonesia), and the Aitape tsunami disaster response (the Sepik region of Papua New Guinea) have all necessitated major pediatric interventions. In some operational deployments, in excess of one-third of patient and clinical contacts have involved the care of children, including clinical treatments ranging from life-saving resuscitation to the care of children with both tropical and subtropical illnesses. They have also involved mass immunization campaigns (e.g., in Rwanda) to prevent measles and meningococcal septicemia. In developing countries, at any time approximately 1 to 4 teenage and adult women is pregnant; and of these, 1 in 15 is suffering a miscarriage during any 2-week period. The implications of this audit are that service members must be multi-skilled not only in the traditional aspects of military medicine and nursing but also in (a) the developmental aspects of childhood; (b) the prevention of infectious childhood diseases by immunization and other means; (c) the recognition and management of diseases of childhood; and (d) the management of the normal neonate and infant, especially those orphaned in refugee disaster and other emergency situations. Doctor

  17. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zelenak, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  18. Role of ENT Surgeon in Managing Battle Trauma During Deployment.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Renu

    2013-01-01

    With technological improvements in body armour and increasing use of improvised explosive devices, it is the injuries to head, face and neck are the cause for maximum fatalities as military personnel are surviving wounds that would have otherwise been fatal. The priorities of battlefield surgical treatment are to save life, eyesight and limbs and then to give the best functional and aesthetic outcome for other wounds. Modern day battlefields pose unique demands on the deployed surgical teams and management of head and neck wounds demands multispecialty approach. Optimal result will depend on teamwork of head and neck trauma management team, which should also include otolaryngologist. Data collected by various deployed HFN surgical teams is studied and quoted in the article to give factual figures. Otorhinolaryngology becomes a crucial sub-speciality in the care of the injured and military otorhinolaryngologists need to be trained and deployed accordingly. The otolaryngologist's clinical knowledge base and surgical domain allows the ENT surgeon to uniquely contribute in response to mass casualty incident. Military planners need to recognize the felt need and respond by deploying teams of specialist head and neck surgeons which should also include otorhinolaryngologists. PMID:24381930

  19. Method for deploying multiple spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

  20. Membrane Based Thermal Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdoch, Karen

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of the feasibility of using a membrane device as a water boiler for thermal control is reported. The membrane device permits water vapor to escape to the vacuum of space but prevents the loss of liquid water. The vaporization of the water provides cooling to the water loop. This type of cooling device would have application for various types of short duration cooling needs where expenditure of water is allowed and a low pressure source is available such as in space or on a planet's surface. A variety of membrane samples, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, were purchased to test for this thermal control application. An initial screening test determined if the membrane could pose a sufficient barrier to maintain water against vacuum. Further testing compared the heat transfer performance of those membranes that passed the screening test.

  1. Electrostatic Inflation of Membrane Space Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, Laura A.

    Membrane space structures provide a lightweight and cost effective alternative to traditional mechanical systems. The low-mass and high deployed-to-stored volume ratios allow for larger structures to be launched, expanding on-orbit science and technology capabilities. This research explores a novel method for deployment of membrane space structures using electrostatic pressure as the inflation mechanism. Applying electric charge to a layered gossamer structure provides an inflationary pressure due to the repulsive electrostatic forces between the charged layers. The electrostatic inflation of membrane structures (EIMS) concept is particularly applicable to non-precision structures such as sunshields or drag de-orbiting devices. This research addresses three fundamental topics: necessary conditions for EIMS in a vacuum, necessary conditions for EIMS in a plasma, and charging methods. Vacuum demonstrations show that less than 10 kiloVolts are required for electrostatic inflation of membrane structures in 1-g. On-orbit perturbation forces can be much smaller, suggesting feasible voltage requirements. Numerical simulation enables a relationship between required inflation pressure (to offset disturbances) and voltage. 100's of Volts are required for inflation in geosynchronous orbits (GEO) and a few kiloVolts in low Earth orbit (LEO). While GEO plasma has a small impact on the EIMS performance, Debye shielding at LEO reduces the electrostatic pressure. The classic Debye shielding prediction is far worse than actual shielding, raising the `effective' Debye length to the meter scale in LEO, suggesting feasibility for EIMS in LEO. Charged particle emission and remote charging methods are explored as inflation mechanisms. Secondary electron emission characteristics of EIMS materials were determined experimentally. Nonlinear fits to the Sternglass curve determined a maximum yield of 1.83 at 433 eV for Aluminized Kapton and a maximum yield of 1.78 at 511 eV for Aluminized

  2. Endovascular retrieval of a prematurely deployed covered stent

    PubMed Central

    Miley, Jefferson T; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques have been reported to address different endovascular device failures. We report the case of a premature deployment of a covered balloon mounted stent during endovascular repair of a post-traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). A 50-year-old male suffered a fall resulting in loss of consciousness and multiple facial fractures. Five weeks later, he developed decreased left visual acuity, proptosis, chemosis, limited eye movements and cranial/orbit bruit. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a direct left CCF and endovascular repair with a 5.0 mm × 19 mm covered stent was planned. Once in the lacerum segment, increased resistance was encountered and the stent was withdrawn resulting in premature deployment. A 3 mm × 9 mm balloon was advanced over an exchange length microwire and through the stent lumen. Once distal to the stent, the balloon was inflated and slowly pulled back in contact with the stent. All devices were successfully withdrawn as a unit. The use of a balloon to retrieve a prematurely deployed balloon mounted stent is a potential rescue option if leaving the stent in situ carries risks. PMID:26120384

  3. Electrophoresis device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  4. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  5. Field deployable EEG monitor for nerve agent casualties.

    PubMed

    McDonnall, Daniel; Hiatt, Scott; Yatsenko, Dimitri; Guillory, K Shane

    2009-01-01

    Early recognition and aggressive management of seizure activity is important in the treatment of patients with nerve agent exposure. However, these patients can experience non-convulsive seizures that are difficult to identify without EEG monitoring. In this paper, we discuss the development and testing of a low-cost, field-deployable device that records and displays patient EEG trends over time. The device is optimized for early levels of care for military and mass casualty patients until they can be relocated to medical facilities with more comprehensive monitoring. The device also records pulse oximetry and acceleration information, and patient data are available for later analysis and improvement of treatment protocols. PMID:19964118

  6. Bacteria/virus filter membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lysaght, M. S.; Goodwin, F.; Roebelen, G.

    1977-01-01

    Hollow acrylate fiber membrane that filters bacterial and viral organisms can be used with closed-cycle life-support systems for underwater habitations or laboratories. Membrane also has applications in fields of medicine, gnotobiotics, pharmaceutical production, and industries and research facilities that require sterile water. Device eliminates need for strong chemicals or sterilizing agents, thereby reducing costs.

  7. Dynamic performance of the mechanism of an automatically deployable ROPS.

    PubMed

    Etherton, J R; Cutlip, R G; Harris, J R; Ronaghi, M; Means, K H; Howard, S

    2002-02-01

    The mechanism for an automatically deployable ROPS (AutoROPS) has been designed and tested. This mechanism is part of an innovative project to provide passive protection against rollover fatality to operators of new tractors used in both low-clearance and unrestricted-clearance tasks. The device is a spring-action, telescoping structure that releases on signal to pyrotechnic squibs that actuate release pins. Upper post motion begins when the release pins clear an internal piston. The structure extends until the piston impacts an elastomeric ring and latches at the top position. In lab tests the two-post structure consistently deployed in less than 0.3 s and latched securely. Static load tests of the telescoping structure and field upset tests of the fully functional AutoROPS have been successfully completed. PMID:12002370

  8. Relatchable launch restraint mechanism for deployable booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A new Relatchable Launch Mechanism was developed which enables a deployable system to be restrained and released repeatedly rather than the normal one shot release systems of the past. The deployable systems are of the self extending type which rely on a lanyard attached to a drive motor to control the deployment and retraction. The Relatch Mechanism uses the existing drive motor to also actuate the latch. The design and kinematics of the Relatch Mechanism as used on two flight programs are described.

  9. Effects of Manufacturing and Deployment on Thin Films for the NGTS Sunshade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Powers, Charles E.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Peters, Wanda C.; Cadogan, David P.; Lin, John K. H.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is being developed as an advanced astronomical observatory. The NGST proposes to utilize several thin film membrane layers to create a shield for protection of the telescope from solar thermal energy and stray light, The shield will take the form of a polygon, approximately 15 x 30 m, with individual membrane layers positioned so that they do not come in contact with one another. The membrane shield will be deployed and supported by a series of booms, which will be packed into a small volume for launch. Finally, the shield will be deployed on orbit. Several film materials are being considered for the membrane shield, including CPI, Kapton E, Kapton RN, and Upilex. Each of these polyimide materials was tested to determine their durability over the 10-year mission. New facets of materials testing have been introduced in this study to develop performance data with greater realism to actual use, particularly that of degradation from packing, launch and deployment processing. Materials were exposed to handling that simulated the life of the materials from manufacture through deployment with standardized fixtures and then exposed to a simulated, L2, 10-year radiation environment. Mechanical and thermal radiative properties were measured before and after each phase of testing. This paper summarizes the program and test results.

  10. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  11. KOMPSAT Satellite Launch and Deployment Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Chang, Young-Keun; Lee, Jin-Ho

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, KOMPSAT satellite launch and deployment operations are discussed. The U.S. Taurus launch vehicle delivers KOMPSAT satellite into the mission orbit directly. Launch and deployment operations is monitored and controlled by several international ground stations including Korean Ground Station (KGS). After separation from launch vehicle, KOMPSAT spacecraft deploys solar array by on-board autonomous stored commands without ground inter-vention and stabilizes the satellite such that solar arrays point to the sun. Autonomous ground communication is designed for KOMPSAT for the early orbit ground contact. KOMPSAT space-craft has capability of handing contingency situation by on-board fault management design to retry deployment sequence.

  12. Deployment mechanisms on Pioneer Venus probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. L.; Miyakawa, R. H.; Meadows, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Deployment mechanisms were developed to position scientific instruments during probe descent into the Venus atmosphere. Each mechanism includes a provision for pyrotechnic release of the enclosure door, negator springs for positive deployment torque, and an active damper using a shunted dc motor. The deployment time requirement is under 2 seconds, and the deployment shock must be less than 100 g's. The mechanism is completely dry lubricated and constructed mainly of titanium for high strength and high temperature stability. The mechanism was qualified for descent decelerations up to 565 g's and for instrument alignment up to 940 F. The mechanism requirements, the hardware design details, the analytical simulations, and the qualification testing are described.

  13. GPM Solar Array Gravity Negated Deployment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, Jonathan; Johnson, Chris; Lewis, Jesse; Dear, Trevin; Stewart, Alphonso

    2014-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) successfully developed a g-negation support system for use on the solar arrays of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Satellite. This system provides full deployment capability at the subsystem and observatory levels. In addition, the system provides capability for deployed configuration first mode frequency verification testing. The system consists of air pads, a support structure, an air supply, and support tables. The g-negation support system was used to support all deployment activities for flight solar array deployment testing.

  14. Solid surface wetting and the deployment of drops in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Depew, J.

    1994-02-01

    The complete or partial deployment of liquid samples in low gravity is primarily influenced by the interfacial properties of the specific liquid and solid materials used because the overwhelming bias of the Earth gravitational acceleration is removed. This study addresses the engineering aspects of injecting and deploying drops of prescribed volume into an acoustic positioning chamber in microgravity. The specific problems of interest are the design, testing, and implementation of injector tips to be used in a simultaneously retracting dual-injector system in the Drop Physics Module microgravity experiment facility. Prior to release, the liquid to be deployed must be retained within a restricted area at the very end of the injectors under dynamic stimuli from the continuous injection flow as well as from the stepped motion of the injectors. The final released drop must have a well determined volume and negligible residual linear or angular momentum. The outcome of Earth-based short-duration low gravity experiments had been the selection of two types of injector tips which were flown as back-up parts. They were successfully utilized during the USML-1 Spacelab mission as the primary tips. The combination of a larger contact surface, liquid pinning with a sharp edge, and selective coating of strategic tip surfaces with a non-wetting compound has allowed a significant increase in the success rate of deployment of simple and compound drops of aqueous solutions of glycerol and silicone oil. The diameter of the samples studied in the Drop Physics Module range between 0.3 and 2.7 cm. The tests conducted on-orbit with a manually operated small device have allowed the calibration of the volume deployed for a few drop sizes. The design for improved tips to be used during the next USML flight is based on these results.

  15. Solid surface wetting and the deployment of drops in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Depew, J.

    1994-01-01

    The complete or partial deployment of liquid samples in low gravity is primarily influenced by the interfacial properties of the specific liquid and solid materials used because the overwhelming bias of the Earth gravitational acceleration is removed. This study addresses the engineering aspects of injecting and deploying drops of prescribed volume into an acoustic positioning chamber in microgravity. The specific problems of interest are the design, testing, and implementation of injector tips to be used in a simultaneously retracting dual-injector system in the Drop Physics Module microgravity experiment facility. Prior to release, the liquid to be deployed must be retained within a restricted area at the very end of the injectors under dynamic stimuli from the continuous injection flow as well as from the stepped motion of the injectors. The final released drop must have a well determined volume and negligible residual linear or angular momentum. The outcome of Earth-based short-duration low gravity experiments had been the selection of two types of injector tips which were flown as back-up parts. They were successfully utilized during the USML-1 Spacelab mission as the primary tips. The combination of a larger contact surface, liquid pinning with a sharp edge, and selective coating of strategic tip surfaces with a non-wetting compound has allowed a significant increase in the success rate of deployment of simple and compound drops of aqueous solutions of glycerol and silicone oil. The diameter of the samples studied in the Drop Physics Module range between 0.3 and 2.7 cm. The tests conducted on-orbit with a manually operated small device have allowed the calibration of the volume deployed for a few drop sizes. The design for improved tips to be used during the next USML flight is based on these results.

  16. Design and Experimental Verification of Deployable/Inflatable Ultra-Lightweight Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Because launch cost of a space structural system is often proportional to the launch volume and mass and there is no significant gravity in space, NASA's space exploration programs and various science missions have stimulated extensive use of ultra-lightweight deployable/inflatable structures. These structures are named here as Highly Flexible Structures (HFSs) because they are designed to undergo large displacements, rotations, and/or buckling without plastic deformation under normal operation conditions. Except recent applications to space structural systems, HFSs have been used in many mechanical systems, civil structures, aerospace vehicles, home appliances, and medical devices to satisfy space limitations, provide special mechanisms, and/or reduce structural weight. The extensive use of HFSs in today's structural engineering reveals the need of a design and analysis software and a database system with design guidelines for practicing engineers to perform computer-aided design and rapid prototyping of HFSs. Also to prepare engineering students for future structural engineering requires a new and easy-to- understand method of presenting the complex mathematics of the modeling and analysis of HFSs. However, because of the high flexibility of HFSs, many unique challenging problems in the modeling, design and analysis of HFSs need to be studied. The current state of research on HFSs needs advances in the following areas: (1) modeling of large rotations using appropriate strain measures, (2) modeling of cross-section warpings of structures, (3) how to account for both large rotations and cross- section warpings in 2D (two-dimensional) and 1D structural theories, (4) modeling of thickness thinning of membranes due to inflation pressure, pretension, and temperature change, (5) prediction of inflated shapes and wrinkles of inflatable structures, (6) development of efficient numerical methods for nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, and (7) filling the gap between

  17. Gripper deploying and inverting linkage

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, Richard L.; Killian, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    An end effector deploying and inverting linkage. The linkage comprises an air cylinder mounted in a frame or tube, a sliding bracket next to the air cylinder, a stopping bracket depending from the frame and three, pivotally-attached links that are attached to the end effector and to each other in such a way as to be capable of inverting the end effector and translating it laterally. The first of the three links is a straight element that is moved up and down by the shaft of the air cylinder. The second link is attached at one end to the stopping bracket and to the side of the end effector at the other end. The first link is attached near the middle of the second, sharply angled link so that, as the shaft of the air cylinder moves up and down, the second link rotates about an axis perpendicular to the frame and inverts and translates the end effector. The rotation of the second link is stopped at both ends when the link engages stops on the stopping bracket. The third link, slightly angled, is attached to the sliding bracket at one end and to the end of the end effector at the other. The third helps to control the end effector in its motion.

  18. Gripper deploying and inverting linkage

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, R.L.; Killian, M.A.

    1993-03-02

    An end effector deploying and inverting linkage. The linkage comprises an air cylinder mounted in a frame or tube, a sliding bracket next to the air cylinder, a stopping bracket depending from the frame and three, pivotally-attached links that are attached to the end effector and to each other in such a way as to be capable of inverting the end effector and translating it laterally. The first of the three links is a straight element that is moved up and down by the shaft of the air cylinder. The second link is attached at one end to the stopping bracket and to the side of the end effector at the other end. The first link is attached near the middle of the second, sharply angled link so that, as the shaft of the air cylinder moves up and down, the second link rotates about an axis perpendicular to the frame and inverts and translates the end effector. The rotation of the second link is stopped at both ends when the link engages stops on the stopping bracket. The third link, slightly angled, is attached to the sliding bracket at one end and to the end of the end effector at the other. The third helps to control the end effector in its motion.

  19. Mechanically scanned deployable antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Mechanically Scanned Deployable Antenna which is launched by the STS (Space Shuttle) to provide radiometric brightness temperature maps of the Earth and oceans at selected frequency bands in the frequency range of 1.4 GHz to 11 GHz is presented. Unlike previous scanning radiometric systems, multiple radiometers for each frequency are required in order to fill in the resolution cells across the swath created by the 15 meter diameter spin stabilized system. This multiple beam radiometric system is sometimes designated as a ""whiskbroom'' system in that it combines the techniques of the scanning and ""pushbroom'' type systems. The definition of the feed system including possible feed elements and location, determination of the fundamental reflector feed offset geometry including offset angles and f/D ratio, preliminary estimates of the beam efficiency of the feed reflector system, a summary of reflector mesh losses at the proposed radiometric frequency bands, an overall conceptual configuration design and preliminary structural and thermal analyses are included.

  20. Family adjustment of deployed and non-deployed mothers in families with a parent deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Hanson, Sheila; Davis, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the family and individual adjustment of military mothers who have deployed to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan (Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn; OIF, OEF, OND), constituting a gap in psychologists’ knowledge about how best to help this population. We report baseline data on maternal, child, parenting, and couple adjustment for mothers in 181 families in which a parent deployed to OIF/OEF/OND. Among this sample, 34 mothers had deployed at least once, and 147 mothers had experienced the deployment of a male spouse/partner. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires assessing past year adverse life events, war experiences (for deployed mothers only), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, difficulties in emotion regulation, parenting, couple adjustment, and child functioning. Mothers who had deployed reported greater distress than non-deployed mothers (higher scores on measures of PTSD and depression symptoms), and slightly more past year adverse events. A moderate number of war experiences (combat and post-battle aftermath events) were reported, consistent with previous studies of women in current and prior conflicts. However, no differences were found between the two groups on measures of couple adjustment, parenting, or child functioning. Results are discussed in terms of the dearth of knowledge about deployed mothers, and implications for psychologists serving military families. PMID:25663739

  1. Highly Efficient Capture and Enumeration of Low Abundance Prostate Cancer Cells Using Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Aptamers Immobilized to a Polymeric Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    Dharmasiri, Udara; Balamurugan, Subramanian; Adams, André A.; Okagbare, Paul I.; Obubuafo, Annie; Soper, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate tumor cells over-express a prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) that can be used as a marker to select these cells from highly heterogeneous clinical samples, even when found in low abundance. Antibodies and aptamers have been developed that specifically bind to PSMA. In this study, anti-PSMA aptamers were immobilized onto the surface of a capture bed poised within a poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, microchip, which was fabricated into a high throughput micro-sampling unit (HTMSU) used for the selective isolation of rare circulating prostate tumor cells resident in a peripheral blood matrix. The HTMSU capture bed consisted of 51 ultra-high aspect ratio parallel curvilinear channels with a width similar to the prostate cancer cell dimensions. The surface density of the PSMA-specific aptamers on a UV-modified PMMA microfluidic capture bed surface was determined to be 8.4 × 1012 molecules/cm2. Using a linear velocity for optimal cell capture in the aptamer-tethered HTMSU (2.5 mm/s), a recovery of 90% of LNCaP cells (prostate cancer cell line; used as a model in this example) was found. Due to the low abundance of these cells, the input volume required was 1 mL and this could be processed in approximately 29 min using an optimized linear flow rate of 2.5 mm/s. Captured cells were subsequently released intact from the affinity surface using 0.25% (w/v) trypsin followed by counting individual cells using a contact conductivity sensor integrated into the HTMSU that provided high detection and sampling efficiency (~100%) and did not require staining of the cells for enumeration. PMID:19722212

  2. Nanoengineered field induced charge separation membranes manufacture thereof

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Kevin C.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Bourcier, William L.; Floyd, III, William Clary

    2016-08-02

    A device according to one embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge and pore configuration characterized by a double layer overlap effect being present in pores of the membrane, where the porous membrane includes functional groups that preferentially interact with either cations or anions. A device according to another embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge in pores thereof sufficient to impart anion or cation selectivity in the pores. Additional devices, systems and methods are also presented.

  3. Evolution of Barrier Membranes in Periodontal Regeneration-"Are the third Generation Membranes really here?".

    PubMed

    Sam, George; Pillai, Baiju Radhamoni Madhavan

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, Guide Tissue Regeneration (GTR) technique has been applied for the treatment of various periodontal defects such as intrabony defects, furcation involvements and localized gingival recession defects. From early days of using membranes with the simple aim of minimizing toxic response in the host, membranes have come a long way. Third generation membranes not only act as barriers but also as delivery devices to release specific agents. Many clinical trials have focused on using membranes as delivery devices for antibiotics and growth factors. In this article we take a brief look at the evolution of barrier membranes and future avenues with regard to third generation membranes. PMID:25654055

  4. Experimental Study of a Membrane Antenna Surface Adaptive Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, H.; Quijano, U.; Bach, V.; Hill, J.; Wang, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their ultra lightweight and high packaging efficiency, membrane reflectors are getting more and more attentions for mission architectures that need extremely large inspace deployable antennas. However how to maintain the surface shape of a membrane reflector to the instrument precision requirements is a very challenging problem. This experimental study investigated using PVDF membrane piezoelectric material as actuators to control the surface figures of membrane reflectors. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by several sets of test results.

  5. Self-deploying photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A lightweight flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is attached to a support structure of initially stowed telescoping members. The deployment mechanism comprises a series of extendable and rotatable columns. As these columns are extended the PV blanket is deployed to its proper configuration.

  6. Military Children: When Parents Are Deployed Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Virginia M.; Krause-Parello, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the Armed Services and Reserve Unit Members, both male and female, are being deployed to distant lands for long periods of time, disrupting family life and causing stressful times for the adults and children in the family. Traditionally, the mother of the military family was left to be the caregiver after the deployment of the…

  7. Deployable System for Crash-Load Attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    An externally deployable honeycomb structure is investigated with respect to crash energy management for light aircraft. The new concept utilizes an expandable honeycomb-like structure to absorb impact energy by crushing. Distinguished by flexible hinges between cell wall junctions that enable effortless deployment, the new energy absorber offers most of the desirable features of an external airbag system without the limitations of poor shear stability, system complexity, and timing sensitivity. Like conventional honeycomb, once expanded, the energy absorber is transformed into a crush efficient and stable cellular structure. Other advantages, afforded by the flexible hinge feature, include a variety of deployment options such as linear, radial, and/or hybrid deployment methods. Radial deployment is utilized when omnidirectional cushioning is required. Linear deployment offers better efficiency, which is preferred when the impact orientation is known in advance. Several energy absorbers utilizing different deployment modes could also be combined to optimize overall performance and/or improve system reliability as outlined in the paper. Results from a series of component and full scale demonstration tests are presented as well as typical deployment techniques and mechanisms. LS-DYNA analytical simulations of selected tests are also presented.

  8. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  9. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  10. Subsurface fluids screening by an analytical system employing a diffusion-limited and implantable sampling module deployable with a cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, D.P.; Ilgner, R.H.; Smith, R.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1997-03-01

    An analytical system employing a diffusion-limited sampling module and a direct sampling ion trap for quantitative assessment of subsurface fluids was developed and field tested. The sampling module is deployable with a cone penetrometer. It can be retrieved and/or remain as an implant for an indefinite time period. The device geometry, comprised of two planar membranes enclosing a diffusion cell, provides good implant ruggedness and reliable service in the field. Also, the sampling module is protected within a push pipe housing to extend implant service life. Subsurface volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors, in nanoliter amounts, diffuse through the sampler membrane wall by a diffusion-limited process that is independent of the soil permeability. Sample vapors are transported to the surface for analysis by direct sampling ion trap, or other analytical devices. Metered pressurized or reduced pressure transport (carrier) gas is utilized for sample transport to the surface. The vapors obtained are a function only of the fluid partial pressure and the vapor conductance of the sampler. Thus, quantitative analytical data is obtained regardless of soil conditions. The sampling module was deployed in the field at Dover Air Force Base at depths of 5 to 8.5 feet by the US Army Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS). Relatively small 1.75 inch diameter push pipe and the relatively small vapor samples extracted cause minimal soil disturbance which preserves the integrity of the sampler subsurface surroundings. Analytical results were obtained for the system sampler operating in real time and as an implant where equilibrium was obtained between sampler interior and the external surroundings.

  11. Membrane tension and membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michael M; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2015-08-01

    Diverse cell biological processes that involve shaping and remodeling of cell membranes are regulated by membrane lateral tension. Here we focus on the role of tension in driving membrane fusion. We discuss the physics of membrane tension, forces that can generate the tension in plasma membrane of a cell, and the hypothesis that tension powers expansion of membrane fusion pores in late stages of cell-to-cell and exocytotic fusion. We propose that fusion pore expansion can require unusually large membrane tensions or, alternatively, low line tensions of the pore resulting from accumulation in the pore rim of membrane-bending proteins. Increase of the inter-membrane distance facilitates the reaction. PMID:26282924

  12. Membrane tethering

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Membrane trafficking depends on transport vesicles and carriers docking and fusing with the target organelle for the delivery of cargo. Membrane tethers and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) mediate the docking of transport vesicles/carriers to enhance the efficiency of the subsequent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated fusion event with the target membrane bilayer. Different classes of membrane tethers and their specific intracellular location throughout the endomembrane system are now well defined. Recent biochemical and structural studies have led to a deeper understanding of the mechanism by which membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers as well as an appreciation of the role of tethers in coordinating the correct SNARE complex and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. This review will summarize the properties and roles of membrane tethers of both secretory and endocytic systems. PMID:25343031

  13. Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy S; Seelig, Amber D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Jones, Jason M; Hooper, Tomoko I; Jacobson, Isabel G; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs. PMID:25599756

  14. Concepts, analysis and development for precision deployable space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard K.; Thomson, Mark; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Several issues surrounding the development of large Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) designs are investigated. The concerns include nonlinear dynamics of large unruly masses such as the multi-layer thermal insulation of sunshades for instruments such as the precision pointing 20-m-diameter Large Deployable Reflector (LDR). A study of the residual oscillations after bang-bang reorientation maneuvers of a rigid satellite with a string appendage is presented. Application is made to the design of a sunshade (thermal blanket) for the LDE satellite. Another concern is the development of a deployable truss that has minimum structural redundancy (such as the tetrahedral truss) and that can be configured with planar and doubly curved geometries. A kinematically synchronized articulation scheme for a deployable tetrahedral truss is presented. Called the Tetrapac, this truss is currently limited to a planar configuration that has two rings. The final concern is the development and demonstration of hardware that enables astronauts to attach large, cumbersome, and fragile precision reflector segments to an erectable truss structure. This task must be accomplished with a high degree of precision and with relative ease. A design for a Panel Attachment Device (PAD) was developed and manufactured for neutral buoyancy simulations to be performed by LaRC.

  15. Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Timothy S.; Seelig, Amber D.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Jones, Jason M.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Boyko, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs. PMID:25599756

  16. MARSIS antenna flight deployment anomaly and resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Douglas S.; Mobrem, Mehran

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the resolution of an in flight anomaly that occurred during the deployment of the first of three MARSIS antenna booms. Characteristics of this deployment are described, along with a correlation to finite element models and measured spacecraft inertias, which allowed the intermediate state of the boom to be accurately determined. Based on this information, a spacecraft maneuver was performed that warmed the stalled hinge and led to the first boom successfully locking into its designed geometry. The confirmed partially deployed boom shape was then used to develop a thermal model of the stalled hinge both in its initial solar attitude and during the successful spacecraft maneuver. Results from the hinge thermal model and component level testing were evaluated in order to determine the root cause of the anomaly and the probability of its recurrence on subsequent deployments. These conclusions were then utilized in planning mitigating actions that were implemented during the remaining two boom deployments. Final flight data are presented for both dipole booms indicating a correctly deployed and healthy antenna. The monopole boom deployment was detected but the final state of the boom is unknown.

  17. Starshade Shape Tolerances and Mechanical Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Dean; Glassman, T.; NWO Study Team

    2009-01-01

    Starshade Shape Tolerances and Mechanical Deployment Dean Dailey, Tiffany Glassman, NWO Study Team The primary purpose of the New Worlds Observer (NWO) Starshade is to suppress the light from a star to 10-10 without blocking the light from planets in the habitable zone of that star. In order to successfully deploy a properly functioning Starshade 10s of meters in diameter, we must know precisely how much the shape of the Starshade is allowed to deviate from the theoretical profile without causing its performance to fall below the established threshold. We use a simulation of the optical performance of the Starshade to establish the tolerance of the Starshade to various shape deformations. These Starshade shape tolerance terms are combined into a budget set of the maximum level of tolerable deformations. These budgets become the deployed dimensional stability requirements for structural engineering to use in accessing competing deployment concepts. The effects that we consider to determine if a deployment scheme will meet the shape tolerance requirements include: 1. Mechanical piece-part manufacturing error 2. Mechanical assembly errors 3. 1 G assembly shape verification error 4. Launch Shift 5. Deployment repeatability errors 6. Thermal distortion errors 7. On-orbit dynamics - jitter 8. CME errors (coefficient of moisture expansion) 9. Contamination errors Deployed dimensional stability performance margins can then be determined for each deployment concept over each shape distortion effect and a suitable deployment concept can be selected. Each of these effects are described along with the sensitivity analysis to their contribution to the overall performance.

  18. Middleware Automated Deployment Utilities - MRW Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mathew; Bowen, Brian; Coles, Dwight; Cleal, Thomas; Quarles, Elliott; Gurule, Kaitlyn; Kagie, Matthew

    2014-09-18

    The Middleware Automated Deployment Utilities consists the these three components: MAD: Utility designed to automate the deployment of java applications to multiple java application servers. The product contains a front end web utility and backend deployment scripts. MAR: Web front end to maintain and update the components inside database. MWR-Encrypt: Web utility to convert a text string to an encrypted string that is used by the Oracle Weblogic application server. The encryption is done using the built in functions if the Oracle Weblogic product and is mainly used to create an encrypted version of a database password.

  19. Deployable M-braced truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, M. D. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A deployable M-braced truss structure, efficiently packaged into a compact stowed position and expandable to an operative position at the use site is described. The M-braced configuration effectively separates tension compression and shear in the structure and permits efficient structural design. Both diagonals and longerons telescope from an M-braced base unit and deploy either pneumatically, mechanically by springs or cables, or by powered reciprocating mechanisms. Upon full deployment, the diagonals and longerons lock into place with a simple latch mechanism.

  20. Middleware Automated Deployment Utilities - MRW Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-09-18

    The Middleware Automated Deployment Utilities consists the these three components: MAD: Utility designed to automate the deployment of java applications to multiple java application servers. The product contains a front end web utility and backend deployment scripts. MAR: Web front end to maintain and update the components inside database. MWR-Encrypt: Web utility to convert a text string to an encrypted string that is used by the Oracle Weblogic application server. The encryption is done usingmore » the built in functions if the Oracle Weblogic product and is mainly used to create an encrypted version of a database password.« less

  1. Dynamic Deployment Simulations of Inflatable Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of using Control Volume (CV) method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method in LSDYNA to simulate the dynamic deployment of inflatable space structures is investigated. The CV and ALE methods were used to predict the inflation deployments of three folded tube configurations. The CV method was found to be a simple and computationally efficient method that may be adequate for modeling slow inflation deployment sine the inertia of the inflation gas can be neglected. The ALE method was found to be very computationally intensive since it involves the solving of three conservative equations of fluid as well as dealing with complex fluid structure interactions.

  2. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley

    2005-10-28

    SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and

  3. Large deployable antenna reflector trimming mechanism (LDA-RTM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Miguel; Vázquez, Jorge

    2003-09-01

    Future projects dealing with radars or telecommunications require deployable antennas. ESA Contract no. 15230 for the "Development of Large Deployable Antenna Reflector for Advanced Mobile Communication" has the objective of developing this critical technology in Europe for the commercial market. The Reflector Trimming Mechanism (RTM) allows the fine adjustment of the huge Reflector Dish (12 meters projected aperture diameter) in such a way to recover the mispointing induced by all sources inclusive of the S/C, the Antenna Arm, the feed and the Reflector. The RTM design is modular and allows its implementation in different reflector types and dimensions changing the distance between movable and fixed points and the lateral stiffener. In each linear actuator, it is implemented a device which is able to decouple the top and the bottom part. This is required because of imposed displacements of the interfaces during launch. The decoupling device is latched before starting normal operating condition. It is actuated with the same stepper motor used for trimming. The RTM has been designed to be operated with the electronic box already developed for moving the Antenna Pointing Mechanism in Hispasat 1-C.

  4. Underwing Compression Vortex-Attenuation Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Underwing compression vortex-attenuation device designed to provide method for attenuating lift-induced vortex generated by wings of airplane. Includes compression panel attached to lower surface of wing, facing perpendicular to streamwise airflow. Concept effective on all types of aircraft. Causes increase in wing lift rather than reduction when deployed. Device of interest to aircraft designers and enhances air safety in general.

  5. Cooler Deployment, GOES J on ATLAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center video release presents footage of workcrews overseeing the cooler deployment on the GOES-J weather satellite that will be launched on the Atlas Centaur rocket from Complex 36 at the Cape Canaveral Air Station.

  6. Coronary angioscopy before and after stent deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardo, Scott J.; Schatz, Richard A.; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J.; Wong, S. Chiu; Morris, Nancy A.; Strumpf, Robert K.; Heuser, Richard R.; Teirstein, Paul

    1993-09-01

    Coronary angioscopy was used in an attempt to visualize the internal architecture of cardiac vessels before and after deployment of Palmaz-Schatz stents in 50 patients. The vessel was successfully visualized in 48 (96%) of these patients. In 24 patients, angioscopy was performed both after preliminary balloon angioplasty and then again after stent deployment. In all 24 patients the diameter of the lumen appeared larger after stent deployment as compared to after balloon angioplasty. In 16 of these 24 patients a dissection was documented by angioscopy after balloon angioplasty. The dissection was absent after stent deployment in all 16 patients. In seven patients, thrombus that was not apparent by angiography was visualized by angioscopy. Moreover, in four patients, thrombus that was suggested by angiography could not be confirmed by angioscopy.

  7. Thermally isolated deployable shield for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, John W., Jr. (Inventor); Miller, Andre E. (Inventor); Lawson, Bobby E. (Inventor); Cobb, William E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A thermally isolated deployable shield for spacecraft is provided utilizing a plurality of lattice panels stowable generally against the craft and deployable to some fixed distance from the craft. The lattice panels are formed from replaceable shield panels affixed to lattice structures. The lattice panels generally encircle the craft providing 360 degree coverage therearound. Actuation means are provided from translating the shield radially outward from the craft and thermally isolating the shield from the craft. The lattice panels are relatively flexible, allowing the shield to deploy to variable diameters while retaining uniform curvature thereof. Restraining means are provided for holding the shield relatively tight in its stowed configuration. Close-out assemblies provide light sealing and protection of the annular spaces between the deployed shield and the crafts end structure.

  8. Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-05-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop, held on March 12–13, 2014, at Argonne National Laboratory.

  9. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55-m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  10. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, T.

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  11. Deployable radiator with flexible line loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, Bryan V. (Inventor); Lehtinen, Arthur Mathias (Inventor); McGee, Billy W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Radiator assembly (10) for use on a spacecraft (12) is provided including at least one radiator panel assembly (26) repeatably movable between a panel stowed position (28) and a panel deployed position (36), at least two flexible lines (40) in fluid communication with the at least one radiator panel assembly (26) and repeatably movable between a stowage loop (42) and a flattened deployed loop (44).

  12. The Galileo high gain antenna deployment anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    On April 11, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft executed a sequence that would open the spacecraft's High Gain Antenna. The Antenna's launch restraint had been released just after deployment sequence, the antenna, which opens like an umbrella, never reached the fully deployed position. The analyses and tests that followed allowed a conclusive determination of the likely failure mechanisms and pointed to some strategies to use for recovery of the high gain antenna.

  13. Offloading techniques for large deployable space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caravaggio, Levino; Golob, Alex

    1992-01-01

    The validation and verification of large deployable space structures are continual challenges which face the integration and test engineer today. Spar Aerospace Limited has worked on various programs in which such structure validation was required and faces similar tasks in the future. This testing is reported and the different offloading and deployment methods which were used, as well as the proposed methods which will be used on future programs, are described. Past programs discussed include the Olympus solar array ambient and thermal vacuum deployments, and the Anik-E array and reflector deployments. The proposed MSAT reflector and boom ambient deployment tests, as well as the proposed RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ambient and thermal vacuum deployment tests will also be presented. A series of tests relating to various component parts of the offloading equipment systems was required. These tests included the characterization and understanding of linear bearings and large (180 in-lbf) constant force spring motors in a thermal vacuum environment, and the results from these tests are presented.

  14. A gendered perspective on military deployment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J; Nilsson, Johanna; Berkel, Laverne

    2014-01-01

    Military deployment, especially in combat or dangerous areas, can have a strong influence on subsequent mental health. This effect may be intensified as a result of the potential stigma that admission of mental health problems indicates weakness. Additional mental health issues exist for female soldiers from the National Guard who are pulled from non-military environments to work under dangerous conditions far from home and traditional social support. Minimal documentation is available about the day-to-day, gendered experiences of deployment for this group of female soldiers. To provide background for appropriate training and support, the aim of this study was to understand better the experiences of military deployment for women in the National Guard. We used content analysis to analyze individual, semi-structured interviews with a sample of 42 women from 7 U.S. National Guard units who were deployed in combat areas. Four general themes emerged about deployment experience: the general environment of stress, heterogeneous job responsibilities, home comes with you, and gendered stress. Military efforts are needed to address gender-specific issues associated with deployment and to develop resilience training that will optimize the mental health of female soldiers. PMID:24279913

  15. New Antenna Deployment, Pointing and Supporting Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costabile, V.; Lumaca, F.; Marsili, P.; Noni, G.; Portelli, C.

    1996-01-01

    On ITALSAT Flight 2, the Italian telecommunications satellite, the two L-Ka antennas (Tx and Rx) use two large deployable reflectors (2000-mm diameter), whose deployment and fine pointing functions are accomplished by means of an innovative mechanism concept. The Antenna Deployment & Pointing Mechanism and Supporting Structure (ADPMSS) is based on a new configuration solution, where the reflector and mechanisms are conceived as an integrated, self-contained assembly. This approach is different from the traditional configuration solution. Typically, a rigid arm is used to deploy and then support the reflector in the operating position, and an Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM) is normally interposed between the reflector and the arm for steering operation. The main characteristics of the ADPMSS are: combined implementation of deployment, pointing, and reflector support; optimum integration of active components and interface matching with the satellite platform; structural link distribution to avoid hyperstatic connections; very light weight and; high performance in terms of deployment torque margin and pointing range/accuracy. After having successfully been subjected to all component-level qualification and system-level acceptance tests, two flight ADPMSS mechanisms (one for each antenna) are now integrated on ITALSAT F2 and are ready for launch. This paper deals with the design concept, development, and testing program performed to qualify the ADPMSS mechanism.

  16. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction a nd ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror. Keywords: precision deployment, hinge joint, latch joint, deployable structures, fabrication, space telescopes, optical instruments, microdynamics.

  17. Thermal-Structural Analysis of Sunshield Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John; Parrish, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Future large infrared space telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), will require deployable sunshields to provide passive cooling for optics and instruments. Deployable sunshield structures for such applications typically consist of multiple thin-film membrane layers supported by deployable booms. The mechanical design of the sunshield must accommodate thermal strains due to layer-to-layer temperature differences as well as potentially large in-plane temperature gradients within individual film layers. This paper describes a thermal-structural analysis for predicting the stress state in a thin-film membrane subject to both mechanical thermal loads that could aid in the mechanical design of future sunshield structures. First the temperature field predicted by a thermal analysis is mapped to a structural finite element model, and then the structural response is predicted using a nonlinear static analysis. The structural model uses membrane elements in conjunction with a tension field material model to predict the response of the thin-film membrane layer. The tension field material model accounts for no-compression behavior associated with wrinkling and slackness. This approach was used to study the problem of a single membrane layer from the NASA reference concept for the JWST sunshield. Results from the analysis show that the membrane can experience a loss of tensile preload due to the presence of an in-plane temperature gradient representative of the cold-side layer temperature distribution predicted for the reference concept JWST.

  18. Rocket experiment on microwave power transmission with Furoshiki deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Nobuyuki; Iwashita, Masashi; Tanaka, Kohei; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Summerer, Leopold

    2009-07-01

    Huge antennas has many useful applications in space as well as on the ground, for example, Solar Power Satellite to provide electricity to the ground, telecommunication for cellular phones, radars for remote sensing, navigation and observation, and so on. The S-310-36 sounding rocket was successfully launched on 22 January 2006 to verify our newly proposed scheme to construct huge antennas under microgravity condition in space. The rocket experiment has three main objectives, the first objective of which is to verify the Furoshiki deployment system [S. Nakasuka, R. Funase, K. Nakada, N. Kaya, J. Mankins, Large membrane "FUROSHIKI Satellite" applied to phased array antenna and its sounding rocket experiment, in: Proceedings of the 54th International Astronautical Congress, 2003. [1

  19. 21 CFR 874.3930 - Tympanostomy tube with semipermeable membrane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3930... membrane is a device intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of the middle ear and for preventing fluids from entering the middle ear cavity. The device is inserted through the tympanic...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3930 - Tympanostomy tube with semipermeable membrane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3930... membrane is a device intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of the middle ear and for preventing fluids from entering the middle ear cavity. The device is inserted through the tympanic...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3930 - Tympanostomy tube with semipermeable membrane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3930... membrane is a device intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of the middle ear and for preventing fluids from entering the middle ear cavity. The device is inserted through the tympanic...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3930 - Tympanostomy tube with semipermeable membrane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3930... membrane is a device intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of the middle ear and for preventing fluids from entering the middle ear cavity. The device is inserted through the tympanic...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3930 - Tympanostomy tube with semipermeable membrane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3930... membrane is a device intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of the middle ear and for preventing fluids from entering the middle ear cavity. The device is inserted through the tympanic...

  4. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory issues (Pacific Energy Ventures) and navigational issues (PCCI). The results of this study are structured into three reports: (1) Wave power scenario description (2) Tidal power scenario description (3) Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns This is the first report in the sequence and describes the results of conceptual feasibility studies of wave power plants deployed in Humboldt County, California and Oahu, Hawaii. These two sites contain many of the same competing stakeholder interactions identified at other wave power sites in the U.S. and serve as representative case studies. Wave power remains at an early stage of development. As such, a wide range of different technologies are being pursued by different manufacturers. In order to properly characterize potential effects, it is useful to characterize the range of technologies that could be deployed at the site of interest. An industry survey informed the process of selecting representative wave power devices. The selection criteria requires that devices are at an advanced stage of development to reduce technical uncertainties, and that enough data are available from the manufacturers to inform the conceptual design process of this study. Further, an attempt is made to cover the range of different technologies under development to capture variations in potential environmental effects. Table 1 summarizes the selected wave power technologies. A number of other developers are also at an advanced stage of development, but are not directly mentioned here. Many environmental effects will largely scale with the size of the wave power plant. In many cases, the effects of a single device may not be measurable, while larger scale device arrays may have cumulative impacts that differ significantly from smaller scale deployments. In order to characterize these effects, scenarios are established at three deployment scales which nominally represent

  5. Membrane Processes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  6. Membrane Processes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  7. A module concept for a cable-mesh deployable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meguro, Akira

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the design, manufacture, and deployment tests of a modular mesh deployable antenna. Reaction forces and moments created by a mesh and cable network are estimated using CASA. Deployment analysis is carried out using DADS. Three types of deployable antenna modules are developed and fabricated. Their design approach and deployment characteristics are also presented. Ground deployment tests are performed to verify design criteria.

  8. [Posttraumtic stress disorder after deployment of German soldiers : does the risk increase with deployment duration?].

    PubMed

    Trautmann, S; Schönfeld, S; Höfler, M; Heinrich, A; Hauffa, R; Zimmermann, P; Wittchen, H-U

    2013-07-01

    International studies suggest a growing risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with an increasing duration of deployment. There are no data available for the German armed forces that would allow an assessment of the average mission duration of about 4 months. Analyses are based on a stratified random sample of 1,483 ISAF soldiers. Standardized diagnostic interviews were conducted about 12 months after soldiers returned from mission. Deployment duration was categorized into 1-2 months, 3-5 months, and 5-8 months. Additionally, dimensional analyses of deployment duration were performed. Deployment duration was associated with the number of stressful and traumatic events. Notwithstanding, we found no linear relationship between mission duration and PTSD risk, neither in the total sample nor in the defined subgroups. However, we found a bimodal distribution suggesting an increased PTSD risk in the first 2 months and - less pronounced and limited to the Kunduz location - for deployment durations of at least 6 months. There was no general increase in PTSD risk with increasing deployment durations for German soldiers in this naturalistic study. The higher risk for soldiers with short deployments might be explained by selection of vulnerable subjects and different deployment characteristics. Further, there is some evidence of an increased PTSD risk for soldiers deployed for longer periods to high-risk locations (e.g., Kunduz). PMID:23712322

  9. Multicomponent membranes

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  10. Microreactor array device.

    PubMed

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented. PMID:25736721

  11. Microreactor Array Device

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented. PMID:25736721

  12. Microreactor Array Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Labaer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented.

  13. Determination of mercury in river water by diffusive gradients in thin films using P81 membrane as binding layer.

    PubMed

    Colaço, Camila Destro; Yabuki, Lauren Nozomi Marques; Rolisola, Ana Marta; Menegário, Amauri Antonio; de Almeida, Eduardo; Suárez, Carlos Alfredo; Gao, Yue; Corns, Warren T; do Nascimento Filho, Virgílio Franco

    2014-11-01

    In this work, a device based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) was evaluated for the determination of Hg(II) in river water. The DGT device was assembled with a cellulose phosphate ion exchange membrane (P81 Whatman) as a binding phase and agarose gel 1.5% (m/v) as a diffusive layer. Laboratory deployments showed that the binding of Hg(2+) ([Hg(DGT)]/[Hg(solution)]) by P81 membrane was more effective (97%) than the Chelex 100 resin (80%).The effect of ionic strength, pH and potential interfering ions on Hg binding with DGT׳s was investigated. The results showed no significant effect on the binding of Hg(II) at pH range from 3.5 to 8.5 and at an ionic strength range from 0.0005 to 0.1 mol L(-1). Uptakes of 50 µg L(-1) Hg(II) by P81 membrane were not affected by Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ca and Mg at the concentration range of 200-1800 µg L(-1). Finally, the DGT device using the P81 as the binding layer was applied for in situ measurements of Hg in river water. For in situ measurements, the labile Hg concentration (from <2 to 13 ng L(-1)) was lower than 10% of the dissolved fraction (from 155 to 446 ng L(-1)). PMID:25127614

  14. Inflatable rescue device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses, in one aspect, a personal rescue device for use in outer space which has an inflatable flexible tube with a shaper apparatus herein. Gas under pressure flows through the shaper apparatus and into the flexible tube. The flexible tube is mounted to the shaper so that as it inflates it expands and deploys lengthwise away from the shaper. In one embodiment a housing contains the shaper and the flexible tube and the housing is designed to facilitate movement of the expanding tube from the housing so the expanding tube does not bunch up in the housing.

  15. Lightweight, Self-Deploying Foam Antenna Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold; Levin, Steven; Rand, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight, deployable antennas for a variety of outer-space and terrestrial applications would be designed and fabricated according to the concept of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structures, according to a proposal. Mechanically deployable antennas now in use are heavy, complex, and unreliable, and they utilize packaging volume inefficiently. The proposed CHEM antenna structures would be simple and would deploy themselves without need for any mechanisms and, therefore, would be more reliable. The proposed CHEM antenna structures would also weigh less, could be packaged in smaller volumes, and would cost less, relative to mechanically deployable antennas. The CHEM concept was described in two prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory (CHEM) Expandable Structures" (NPO-20394), Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 56; and "Solar Heating for Deployment of Foam Structures" (NPO-20961), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 36. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The CHEM concept is one of utilizing opencell foams of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) to make lightweight, reliable, simple, and inexpensive structures that can be alternately (1) compressed and stowed compactly or (2) expanded, then rigidified for use. A CHEM structure is fabricated at full size from a block of SMP foam in its glassy state [at a temperature below the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the SMP]. The structure is heated to the rubbery state of the SMP (that is, to a temperature above Tg) and compacted to a small volume. After compaction, the structure is cooled to the glassy state of the SMP. The compacting force can then be released and the structure remains compact as long as the temperature is kept below Tg. Upon subsequent heating of the structure above Tg, the simultaneous elastic recovery of the foam and its shape-memory effect cause the structure to expand to its original size and shape. Once thus deployed, the structure can be rigidified by

  16. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  17. Multifunctional Deployment Hinges Rigidified by Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Simburger, Edward J.; Matusmoto, James; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander; Perry, Alan; Rawal, Suraj; Marshall, Craig; Lin, John Kun Hung; Day, Jonathan Robert; Scarborough, Stephen Emerson

    2005-01-01

    Multifunctional hinges have been developed for deploying and electrically connecting panels comprising planar arrays of thin-film solar photovoltaic cells. In the original intended application of these hinges, the panels would be facets of a 32-sided (and approximately spherical) polyhedral microsatellite (see figure), denoted a PowerSphere, that would be delivered to orbit in a compact folded configuration, then deployed by expansion of gas in inflation bladders. Once deployment was complete, the hinges would be rigidified to provide structural connections that would hold the panels in their assigned relative positions without backlash. Such hinges could also be used on Earth for electrically connecting and structurally supporting solar panels that are similarly shipped in compact form and deployed at their destinations. As shown in section A-A in the figure, a hinge of this type is partly integrated with an inflation bladder and partly integrated with the frame of a solar panel. During assembly of the hinge, strip extensions from a flexible circuit harness on the bladder are connected to corresponding thin-film conductors on the solar panel by use of laser welding and wrap-around contacts. The main structural component of the hinge is a layer of glass fiber impregnated with an ultraviolet-curable resin. After deployment, exposure to ultraviolet light from the Sun cures the resin, thereby rigidifying the hinge.

  18. Autonomous and rapid deployment of a compact taut-wire mooring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillebrand, Theo; van Heerwaarden, Johan; Laan, Martin; Bakker, Roel; Groenewegen, Ruud; van Haren, Hans

    2011-12-01

    The deployment time of a taut-wire mooring is reduced to the time any transportation/hoisting device needs to put a payload at the sea surface. This is a matter of minutes rather than hours needed for deployment of long deep-ocean moorings in the regular way. It is achieved by extending the basic function of mooring parts to temporarily form a Launcher for Oceanographic Equipment and Instruments (LOEI). Full preparation of the mooring is done onshore where the instruments are prepared and programmed, and spooled onto the top-buoy together with the line. At sea, no other gear is required than a device that is able to lift a load of, say, 2000 kg, even for long deep-ocean moorings. The compact mooring method realizes considerable budget savings through deployments from non-research vessels and airborne transportation-deployment. Limitations lay in size and weight of the oceanographic instruments. We present a test-design shaped as a barbell and loaded with 940 m line and 3 current meters. Unfurling speed was maximally 2.3 m s -1 and the descent speed amounted 1.2 m s -1 until landing on the seabed. These speeds are comparable to those acquired during a conventional free-falling mooring deployment.

  19. Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation After Intracardiac Parachute Device Removal.

    PubMed

    Abu Saleh, Walid K; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Bruckner, Brian A; Suarez, Erik E; Estep, Jerry D; Loebe, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Left ventricular assist device implantation is a proven and efficient modality for the treatment of end-stage heart failure. Left ventricular assist device versatility as a bridge to heart transplantation or destination therapy has led to improved patient outcomes with a concomitant rise in its overall use. Other less invasive treatment modalities are being developed to improve heart function and morbidity and mortality for the heart failure population. Percutaneous ventricular restoration is a new investigational therapy that deploys an intracardiac parachute to wall off damaged myocardium in patients with dilated left ventricles and ischemic heart failure. Clinical trials are under way to test the efficacy of percutaneous ventricular restoration using the parachute device. This review describes our encounter with the parachute device, its explantation due to refractory heart failure, and surgical replacement with a left ventricular assist device. PMID:26234850

  20. Antenna deployment mechanism for use with a spacecraft. [extensible and retractable telescopic antenna mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavy, W. A.; Griffin, C. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical system is disclosed to deploy an antenna on a support which may, for example, be a spacecraft. A series of telescoping tubes are nested one within the other when the antenna is in a retracted stowed position. The outermost tube is rigidly attached to the support and the inner tubes are latched in the stowed position by a caging mechanism. The antenna is driven toward a deployed position by a dual motor driven cable which is terminated in a driving tube at the lower end of the innermost tube, from whence the cable is trained about pulleys at the tops and bottoms of successively large tubes of the antenna. The cable is wound on a drum at the lower end of the antenna and coaxial therewith. During deployment of the antenna, the drum rotates, thereby reeling in the deployment cable. The initial movement of the cable causes cam releasing of the latches in the caging device. Thereafter, the antenna tubes are extended until the final deployed position of the antenna is reached. A ratchet attached to the drum prevents reverse rotation of the drum and locks the antenna in the deployed position until the ratchet is released.

  1. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  2. Deploying Darter A Cray XC30 System

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R; Budiardja, Reuben D; Crosby, Lonnie D; McNally, Stephen T

    2014-01-01

    TheUniversityofTennessee,KnoxvilleacquiredaCrayXC30 supercomputer, called Darter, with a peak performance of 248.9 Ter- aflops. Darter was deployed in late March of 2013 with a very aggressive production timeline - the system was deployed, accepted, and placed into production in only 2 weeks. The Spring Experiment for the Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms (CAPS) largely drove the accelerated timeline, as the experiment was scheduled to start in mid-April. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) project also needed access and was able to meet their tight deadlines on the newly acquired XC30. Darter s accelerated deployment and op- erations schedule resulted in substantial scientific impacts within the re- search community as well as immediate real-world impacts such as early severe tornado warnings

  3. Deployment of human-machine dialogue systems.

    PubMed Central

    Roe, D B

    1995-01-01

    The deployment of systems for human-to-machine communication by voice requires overcoming a variety of obstacles that affect the speech-processing technologies. Problems encountered in the field might include variation in speaking style, acoustic noise, ambiguity of language, or confusion on the part of the speaker. The diversity of these practical problems encountered in the "real world" leads to the perceived gap between laboratory and "real-world" performance. To answer the question "What applications can speech technology support today?" the concept of the "degree of difficulty" of an application is introduced. The degree of difficulty depends not only on the demands placed on the speech recognition and speech synthesis technologies but also on the expectations of the user of the system. Experience has shown that deployment of effective speech communication systems requires an iterative process. This paper discusses general deployment principles, which are illustrated by several examples of human-machine communication systems. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7479719

  4. Deployment of Galileo and the IUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft and its Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster were deployed from the cargo bay of STS-34 Atlantis. Deployment occurred at 7:15 P.M. EDT on October 18, 1989. Beginning an hour after deployment, two rocket stages of the IUS fired in succession. Galileo separated from the IUS' second stage at 9:05 P.M. and began its ballistic flight to Venus for the first of three gravity-assisted flybys, which will take Galileo to Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  5. Thermal static bending of deployable interlocked booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staugaitis, C. L.; Predmore, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Metal ribbons processed with a heat-forming treatment are enabled to form tubelike structures when deployed from a roll. Deployable booms of this have been utilized for gravity-gradient stabilization on the RAE, ATS, and Nimbus D satellites. An experimental thermal-mechanics test apparatus was developed to measure the thermal static bending and twist of booms up to 3 meters long. The apparatus was calibrated by using the correlation between calculated and observed thermal bending of a seamless tube. Thermal static bending values of 16 interlocked deployable booms were observed to be within a factor of 2.5 of the values calculated from seamless-tube theory. Out-of-Sun-plane thermal bending was caused by complex heat transfer across the interlocked seam. Significant thermal static twisting was not observed.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  10. Pyrotechnic devices and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himelblau, Harry

    2002-05-01

    Pyroshock is mechanical shock transmitted through structures from explosive devices, sometimes accompanied by structural impact. These devices are designed to cause the intentional separation of structures, or to cause the deployment of various mechanisms or subsystems required for mission operation. Separation devices usually fall into two categories: (a) line sources, such as linear shaped charges, and (b) point sources, such as explosive bolts, pin puller and pushers, and gas generators. The advantages of these devices are high reliability (especially when redundantly activated), low cost and weight, high activation speed, and low structural deformation a short distance from the source. The major limitation is pyroshock, a severe high-frequency transient capable of causing failure or malfunction to small nearby elements, especially electronic and optical components located close to the source. This pyroshock tutorial, which is intended to summarize recent improvements to the technology, is initiated with a review of explosive and companion devices.

  11. Mars pathfinder Rover egress deployable ramp assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian R.; Sword, Lee F.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Program is a NASA Discovery Mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to launch and place a small planetary Rover for exploration on the Martian surface. To enable safe and successful egress of the Rover vehicle from the spacecraft, a pair of flight-qualified, deployable ramp assemblies have been developed. This paper focuses on the unique, lightweight deployable ramp assemblies. A brief mission overview and key design requirements are discussed. Design and development activities leading to qualification and flight systems are presented.

  12. Magnetometer deployment mechanism for Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    A three segment, 15-foot boom mechanism was developed to deploy magnetometers from the Pioneer Venus orbiter spinning shelf. The stowage mechanism is designed to contain the magnetometers during launch and to deploy these instruments by centrifugal force upon pyrotechnic release. Unique graphite-epoxy boom segments are used for a lightweight design with sufficient strength to withstand a 7.5 g orbit insertion force while extended. The detailed design is described along with the test methods developed for qualification in a one-g field.

  13. Magnetometer deployment mechanism for Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    A three segment, 15-foot boom mechanism was developed to deploy magnetometers from the Pioneer Venus orbiter spinning shelf. The stowage mechanism is designed to contain the magnetometers during launch and to deploy these instruments by centrifugal force upon pyrotechnic release. Unique graphite-epoxy boom segments are used for a lightweight design with sufficient strength to withstand a 7.5 g orbit insertion force while extended. The detailed design is described, along with the test methods developed for qualification in a one-g field.

  14. Dynamics of spacecraft with deploying flexible appendages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, Janice D.; Park, K. C.

    1992-01-01

    A computational formulation for the dynamic analysis of spacecraft with deploying appendages is presented. The appendage model is based on a geometrically nonlinear beam formulation which accurately accounts for large rotational and large deformation motions. A moving finite element reference grid is incorporated within the nonlinear beam formulation to model the deployment motion. Hamilton's Law is used to formulate the general equations of motion, and a transient integration solution procedure is derived from a space-time finite element discretization of the Hamiltonian variational statement. Computational results of the methodology are presented for a classical gravity gradient stabilized satellite configuration.

  15. Carousel deployment mechanism for coilable lattice truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert M.; Jones, P. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The development of a mechanism for instrumentation and solar-array deployment is discussed. One part of the technology consists of a smart motor which can operate in either an analog mode to provide high speed and torque, or in the stepper mode to provide accurate positioning. The second technology consists of a coilable lattice mast which is deployed and rotated about its axis with a common drive system. A review of the design and function of the system is presented. Structural and thermal test data are included.

  16. Laceration of the Common Femoral Artery Following Deployment of the StarClose{sup TM} Vascular Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Michael Walkden, Miles Belli, Anna Maria

    2008-07-15

    StarClose is a novel arterial closure device which achieves hemostasis, following arteriotomy, via a nitinol clip deployed on the outer arterial wall. Since its introduction to the market, several studies have shown StarClose to be both safe and effective, with few major complications encountered. We report a case of common femoral artery laceration following deployment of the StarClose vascular closure system. We conclude that the injury occurred secondary to intravascular misplacement of the nitinol clip.

  17. FalconSAT-7: Towards Rapidly Deployable Space-Based Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; McHarg, M.; Asmolova, O.; Dearborn, M.

    2013-09-01

    The USAF Academy Department of Physics is building FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve - a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny holes in an otherwise opaque polymer sheet. The membrane, its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control/recording electronics are all packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space the supporting pantograph structure is deployed to pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be steered towards the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. Due for launch in 2015, FalconSAT-7 will serve as a pathfinder for future mission in lightweight, high-resolution space-based surveillance. We are currently investigating two possible options optimized for Earth observing and SSA. Our preliminary designs have a 0.3m aperture deployed from a 6-12U satellite. Such a telescope would be capable of providing sub-meter resolution of ground or space-based objects depending on the orbital characteristics.

  18. Intelligent video storage of visual evidences on site in fast deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desurmont, Xavier; Bastide, Arnaud; Delaigle, Jean-Francois

    2004-07-01

    In this article we present a generic, flexible, scalable and robust approach for an intelligent real-time forensic visual system. The proposed implementation could be rapidly deployable and integrates minimum logistic support as it embeds low complexity devices (PCs and cameras) that communicate through wireless network. The goal of these advanced tools is to provide intelligent video storage of potential video evidences for fast intervention during deployment around a hazardous sector after a terrorism attack, a disaster, an air crash or before attempt of it. Advanced video analysis tools, such as segmentation and tracking are provided to support intelligent storage and annotation.

  19. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  20. Study of stent deployment mechanics using a high-resolution x-ray imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiyuan; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    To treat or prevent some of the 795,000 annual strokes in the U.S., self-expanding endo-vascular stents deployed under fluoroscopic image guidance are often used. Neuro-interventionalists need to know the deployment behavior of each stent in order to place them in the correct position. Using the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) which has about 3 times higher resolution than commercially available flat panel detectors (FPD) we studied the deployment mechanics of two of the most important commercially available nitinol stents: the Pipeline embolization device (EV3), and the Enterprise stent (Codman). The Pipeline stent's length extends to about 3 times that of its deployed length when it is contained inside a catheter. From the high-resolution images with the MAF we found that upon the sudden release of the distal end of the Pipeline from a helical wire cap, the stent expands radially but retracts to about 30% (larger than for patient deployments) of its length. When released from the catheter proximally, it retracts additionally about 50% contributing to large uncertainty in the final deployed location. In contrast, the MAF images clearly show that the Enterprise stent self expands with minimal length retraction during deployment from its catheter and can be retrieved and repositioned until the proximal markers are released from clasping structures on its guide-wire thus enabling more accurate placement at the center of an aneurysm or stenosis. The high-resolution imaging demonstrated in this study should help neurointerventionalists understand and control endovascular stent deployment mechanisms and hence perform more precise treatments.

  1. Shape optimization of pulsatile ventricular assist devices using FSI to minimize thrombotic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. C.; Marsden, A. L.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we perform shape optimization of a pediatric pulsatile ventricular assist device (PVAD). The device simulation is carried out using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling techniques within a computational framework that combines FEM for fluid mechanics and isogeometric analysis for structural mechanics modeling. The PVAD FSI simulations are performed under realistic conditions (i.e., flow speeds, pressure levels, boundary conditions, etc.), and account for the interaction of air, blood, and a thin structural membrane separating the two fluid subdomains. The shape optimization study is designed to reduce thrombotic risk, a major clinical problem in PVADs. Thrombotic risk is quantified in terms of particle residence time in the device blood chamber. Methods to compute particle residence time in the context of moving spatial domains are presented in a companion paper published in the same issue (Comput Mech, doi: 10.1007/s00466-013-0931-y, 2013). The surrogate management framework, a derivative-free pattern search optimization method that relies on surrogates for increased efficiency, is employed in this work. For the optimization study shown here, particle residence time is used to define a suitable cost or objective function, while four adjustable design optimization parameters are used to define the device geometry. The FSI-based optimization framework is implemented in a parallel computing environment, and deployed with minimal user intervention. Using five SEARCH/ POLL steps the optimization scheme identifies a PVAD design with significantly better throughput efficiency than the original device.

  2. Membrane Shell Reflector Segment Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    The mesh reflector is the only type of large, in-space deployable antenna that has successfully flown in space. However, state-of-the-art large deployable mesh antenna systems are RF-frequency-limited by both global shape accuracy and local surface quality. The limitations of mesh reflectors stem from two factors. First, at higher frequencies, the porosity and surface roughness of the mesh results in loss and scattering of the signal. Second, the mesh material does not have any bending stiffness and thus cannot be formed into true parabolic (or other desired) shapes. To advance the deployable reflector technology at high RF frequencies from the current state-of-the-art, significant improvements need to be made in three major aspects: a high-stability and highprecision deployable truss; a continuously curved RF reflecting surface (the function of the surface as well as its first derivative are both continuous); and the RF reflecting surface should be made of a continuous material. To meet these three requirements, the Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) antenna was developed.

  3. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  4. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  5. A programmable autosampler for a field deployable tritium analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Cable, P.R.; Beals, D.M.; Jones, J.

    1996-08-01

    Researchers in the Environmental Technology Section of the Savannah River Technology Center, in cooperation with Sampling Systems, Inc. are developing a fully programmable, remotely operated, fixed volume, automatic sampler for use with the field deployable tritium analysis system currently under development at U. of GA`s Center for Applied Isotope Studies. The sampler will collect a limited-volume sample and perform on-line sample purification for tritium analyses from multiple collection sites. Pneumatically operated stainless steel samplers operate satisfactorily upon remote activation. The one-step purification system removes all impurities with interfere with tritium analysis by liquid scintillation. Field testing has confirmed system operation. The autosampler may act as a stand-alone device and is enclosed in a rugged, field-portable case with wheels. The system weighs about 40 lbs.

  6. A Large Motion Suspension System for Simulation of Orbital Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straube, T. M.; Peterson, L. D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a vertical degree of freedom suspension system which provides a constant force off-load condition to counter gravity over large displacements. By accommodating motions up to one meter for structures weighing up to 100 pounds, the system is useful for experiments which simulate the on-orbit deployment of spacecraft components. A unique aspect of this system is the combination of a large stroke passive off-load device augmented by electromotive torque actuated force feedback. The active force feedback has the effect of reducing breakaway friction by an order of magnitude over the passive system alone. The paper describes the development of the suspension hardware and the feedback control algorithm. Experiments were performed to verify the suspensions system's ability to provide a gravity off-load as well as its effect on the modal characteristics of a test article.

  7. Enabling affordable and efficiently deployed location based smart home systems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Damian; McLoone, Sean; Dishongh, Terry

    2009-01-01

    With the obvious eldercare capabilities of smart environments it is a question of "when", rather than "if", these technologies will be routinely integrated into the design of future houses. In the meantime, health monitoring applications must be integrated into already complete home environments. However, there is significant effort involved in installing the hardware necessary to monitor the movements of an elder throughout an environment. Our work seeks to address the high infrastructure requirements of traditional location-based smart home systems by developing an extremely low infrastructure localisation technique. A study of the most efficient method of obtaining calibration data for an environment is conducted and different mobile devices are compared for localisation accuracy and cost trade-off. It is believed that these developments will contribute towards more efficiently deployed location-based smart home systems. PMID:19641259

  8. Deployment of the SBS-4 communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Deployment of the SBS-4 communications satellite by the STS 41-D crew. The cylindrical spacecraft spins and rises from the its protective shield in the space shuttle payload bay. Behind it is another, closed protective cradle for the Syncom IV communications satllite. The earth's surface can be seen to the left of the frame.

  9. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  10. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  11. Deployment of the Telstar communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Deployment of the Telstar communications satellite by the STS 41-D crew. The cylindrical spacecraft spins and rises past the shuttle stabilizer from its protective shield in the space shuttle payload bay. Behind it is another, closed protective cradle. Heavy clouds cover much of the water and land mass of earth in the background.

  12. Design, Implementation and Deployment of PAIRwise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Allan; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Increased access to the Internet has dramatically increased the sources from which students can deliberately or accidentally copy information. This article discusses our motivation to design, implement, and deploy an Internet based plagiarism detection system, called PAIRwise, to address this growing problem. We give details as to how we detect…

  13. Launch Deployment Assembly Human Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the human engineering analysis performed by the Systems Branch in support of the 6A cargo element design. The human engineering analysis is limited to the extra vehicular activities (EVA) which are involved in removal of various cargo items from the LDA and specific activities concerning deployment of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS).

  14. Perception for a large deployable reflector telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. M.; Swanson, P. N.; Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Optical science and technology concepts for a large deployable reflector for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy from above the earth's atmosphere are discussed. Requirements given at the Asilomar Conference are reviewed. The technical challenges of this large-aperture (about 20-meter) telescope, which will be diffraction limited in the infrared, are highlighted in a brief discussion of one particular configuration.

  15. Supporting Children and Families throughout Military Deployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    A military deployment is a challenging time for all family members. Young children are especially vulnerable, because they often do not have skills to handle all of the change and uncertainty and are still learning to manage their emotions and behaviors. They do not have a wealth of past experiences to rely on as adults do. They also do not have…

  16. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  17. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  18. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  19. Deployment simulation for 3rd generation solar array GSR3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verne, C.; Rouchon, M.

    1989-01-01

    Deployment tests for different solar arrays are described. The Spacebus solar array deployment is tested in two dimensions. The Spot 4 array deployment is tested in three dimensions. A mock-up deployment test on an air cushion is compared to results obtained using simulation software. The third generation solar array concept equipped with Adele hinges is compared to previous solar array models. The need for greater accuracy and reliability in the deployment analysis of these third generation solar arrays is stressed.

  20. Biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes allow life as we know it to exist. They form cells and enable separation between the inside and outside of an organism, controlling by means of their selective permeability which substances enter and leave. By allowing gradients of ions to be created across them, membranes also enable living organisms to generate energy. In addition, they control the flow of messages between cells by sending, receiving and processing information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. This essay summarizes the structure and function of membranes and the proteins within them, and describes their role in trafficking and transport, and their involvement in health and disease. Techniques for studying membranes are also discussed. PMID:26504250

  1. Membranous nephropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels (most often statins) may be recommended. A low-salt diet may ... of membranous nephropathy Your symptoms get worse or don't go away You develop new symptoms You have ...

  2. A passively controlled appendage deployment system for the San Marco D/L spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, W. E.; Frisch, H. P.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical simulation of deployment dynamics of these two axis concepts as well as the evolution of practical designs for the add on deployable inertia boom units is described. With the boom free to swing back in response to Coriolis forces as well as outwards in response to centrifugal forces, the kinematics of motion are complex but admit the possibility of absorbing deployment energy in frictional or other damping devices about the radial axis, where large amplitude motions can occur and where the design envelope allows more available volume. An acceptable range is defined for frictional damping for any given spin rate. Inadequate damping allows boom motions which strike the spacecraft; excessive damping causes the boom to swing out and latch with damaging violence. The acceptable range is a design parameter and must accommodate spin rate tolerance and also the tolerance and repeatability of the damping mechanisms.

  3. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  4. Photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  5. Wing Deployment Sequence #2: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #2: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings continue deploying following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  6. Wing Deployment Sequence #1: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #1: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings begin deploying following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  7. Wing Deployment Sequence #3: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #3: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings fully deployed during flight following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Californiaornia. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  8. Capability 9.3 Assembly and Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John

    2005-01-01

    Large space systems are required for a range of operational, commercial and scientific missions objectives however, current launch vehicle capacities substantially limit the size of space systems (on-orbit or planetary). Assembly and Deployment is the process of constructing a spacecraft or system from modules which may in turn have been constructed from sub-modules in a hierarchical fashion. In-situ assembly of space exploration vehicles and systems will require a broad range of operational capabilities, including: Component transfer and storage, fluid handling, construction and assembly, test and verification. Efficient execution of these functions will require supporting infrastructure, that can: Receive, store and protect (materials, components, etc.); hold and secure; position, align and control; deploy; connect/disconnect; construct; join; assemble/disassemble; dock/undock; and mate/demate.

  9. Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  10. PEP Deployment and Bandwidth Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younghusband, Charles; Slade, Peter; Weaver, Jeff

    This paper will discuss current deployment scenarios for Performance Enhancement Proxies (PEP) technologies in broadband satellite access systems from the perspective of one PEP technology provider. Recent improvements such as DVB-S2 can provide substantial gains at the link layer. In order to achieve further efficiency gains, the satellite industry is now forced to look elsewhere - namely other layers in the data communications network stack. Satellite terminal manufacturers are now moving beyond basic TCP acceleration techniques to more comprehensive optimization techniques that incorporate advances in data compression and flexibility for more deployment scenarios. Some of the advances for PEP technology are in part due to CPU and memory technology advances, resulting in increasingly affordable access to computing power, allowing PEP manufacturers deliver substantial performance and bandwidth savings gains.

  11. Portable Source Identification Device

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2005-08-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation’s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

  12. Portable source identification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2005-05-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet (7.3 m) in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

  13. Local multipoint distribution services: deployment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Narisa N.

    1999-01-01

    A process to estimate LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service) equipment costs is provided for deployment planning purposes. Crucial LMDS network design parameters are reviewed. The composite effects of the LMDS cell propagation are investigated by taking into account the rainfall level, size of the area, business density, antenna height, and foliage. A composite multiplier is derived for a few example cities. The derivation needs to be verified with field measurements.

  14. Quality Function Deployment for Large Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1992-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is typically applied to small subsystems. This paper describes efforts to extend QFD to large scale systems. It links QFD to the system engineering process, the concurrent engineering process, the robust design process, and the costing process. The effect is to generate a tightly linked project management process of high dimensionality which flushes out issues early to provide a high quality, low cost, and, hence, competitive product. A pre-QFD matrix linking customers to customer desires is described.

  15. Progress Report on the Deployment of MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.

    2009-04-01

    As Japan’s leading contribution to the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Space Environment Research Center (SERC) of Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan is in the process of deploying globally 50 state-of-the-art magnetometers. In this brief article, we outline our progress to date (23 Sept 2007). We also briefly describe our magnetometer, which is able to send its data in near realtime to a central server, where data from all units can be compared with relative ease and quickness.

  16. Reactor power system deployment and startup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetch, J. R.; Nelin, C. J.; Britt, E. J.; Klein, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses issues that should receive further examination in the near-term as concept selection for development of a U.S. space reactor power system is approached. The issues include: the economics, practicality and system reliability associated with transfer of nuclear spacecraft from low earth shuttle orbits to operational orbits, via chemical propulsion versus nuclear electric propulsion; possible astronaut supervised reactor and nuclear electric propulsion startup in low altitude Shuttle orbit; potential deployment methods for nuclear powered spacecraft from Shuttle; the general public safety of low altitude startup and nuclear safe and disposal orbits; the question of preferred reactor power level; and the question of frozen versus molten alkali metal coolant during launch and deployment. These issues must be considered now because they impact the SP-100 concept selection, power level selection, weight and size limits, use of deployable radiators, reliability requirements, and economics, as well as the degree of need for and the urgency of developing space reactor power systems.

  17. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.

    2014-02-01

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  18. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  19. Workforce deployment--a critical organizational competency.

    PubMed

    Harms, Roxanne

    2009-01-01

    Staff scheduling has historically been embedded within hospital operations, often defined by each new manager of a unit or program, and notably absent from the organization's practice and standards infrastructure and accountabilities of the executive team. Silvestro and Silvestro contend that "there is a need to recognize that hospital performance relies critically on the competence and effectiveness of roster planning activities, and that these activities are therefore of strategic importance." This article highlights the importance of including staff scheduling--or workforce deployment--in health care organizations' long-term strategic solutions to cope with the deepening workforce shortage (which is likely to hit harder than ever as the economy begins to recover). Viewing workforce deployment as a key organizational competency is a critical success factor for health care in the next decade, and the Workforce Deployment Maturity Model is discussed as a framework to enable organizations to measure their current capabilities, identify priorities and set goals for increasing organizational competency using a methodical and deliberate approach. PMID:19999370

  20. Hybrid deployable support truss designs for LDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J.

    1988-01-01

    Concepts for a 20-meter diameter Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) deployable truss backup structure, and analytical predictions of its structural characteristics are discussed. The concept shown is referred to as the SIXPAC; It is a combination of the PACTRUSS concept and a single-fold beam, which would make up the desired backup structure. One advantage of retaining the PACTRUSS concept is its packaging density and its capability for synchronous deployment. Various 2-meter hexagonal panel arrangements are possible for this Hybrid PACTRUSS structure depending on the panel-to-structure attachment strategies used. Static analyses of the SIXPAC using various assumptions for truss designs and panel masses of 10 kg sq meters were performed to predict the tip displacement of the structure when supported at the center. The tip displacement ranged from 0.20 to 0.44 mm without the panel mass, and from 0.9 to 3.9 mm with the panel mass (in a 1-g field). The data indicate that the structure can be adequately ground tested to validate its required performance in space, assuming the required performance in space is approximately 100 microns. The static displacement at the tip of the structure when subjected to an angular acceleration of 0.001 rad/sec squared were estimated to range from 0.8 to 7.5 microns, depending on the type of truss elements.

  1. Structures for remotely deployable precision antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Future space missions such as the Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP) will require highly accurate antennas with apertures that cannot be launched fully formed. The operational orbits are often inaccessible to manned flight and will involve expendable launch vehicles such as the Delta or Titan. There is therefore a need for completely deployable antenna reflectors of large size capable of efficiently handling millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation. The parameters for the type of mission are illustrated. The logarithmic plot of frequency versus aperture diameter shows the regions of interest for a large variety of space antenna applications, ranging from a 1500-meter-diameter radio telescope for low frequencies to a 20-meter-diameter infrared telescope. For the ESGP, a major application is the microwave radiometry at high frequencies for atmospheric sounding. Almost all existing large antenna reflectors for space employ a mesh-type reflecting surface. Examples are shown and discussed which deal with the various structural concepts for mesh antennas. Fortunately, those concepts are appropriate for creating the very large apertures required at the lower frequencies for good resolution. The emphasis is on the structural concepts and technologies that are appropriate to fully automated deployment of dish-type antennas with solid reflector surfaces. First the structural requirements are discussed. Existing concepts for fully deployable antennas are then described and assessed relative to the requirements. Finally, several analyses are presented that evaluate the effects of beam steering and segmented reflector design on the accuracy of the antenna.

  2. Ultralightweight Space Deployable Primary Reflector Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Zeiders, Glenn W.; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A concept has been developed and analyzed and several generational prototypes built for a gossamer-class deployable truss for a mirror or reflector with many smaller precisely-figured solid elements attached will, for at least the next several decades, minimize the mass of a large primary mirror assembly while still providing the high image quality essential for planet-finding and cosmological astronomical missions. Primary mirror segments are mounted in turn on ultralightweight thermally-formed plastic panels that hold clusters of mirror segments in rigid arrays whose tip/tilt and piston would be corrected over the scale of the plastic panels by the control segments. Prototype panels developed under this program are 45 cm wide and fabricated from commercially available Kaplan sheets. A three-strut octahedral tensegrity is the basis for the overall support structure. Each fundamental is composed of two such octahedrons, rotated oppositely about a common triangular face. Adjacent modules are joined at the nodes of the upper and lower triangles to form a deployable structure that could be made arbitrarily large. A seven-module dowel-and-wire prototype has been constructed. Deployment techniques based on the use of collapsing toggled struts with diagonal tensional elements allows an assembly of tensegrities to be fully collapsed and redeployed. The prototype designs will be described and results of a test program for measuring strength and deformation will be presented.

  3. Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    This report details the interim progress for contract NASW-4818, Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID), a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. A passively braked shape memory actuator with the ability to measure load has been developed. The wrist also contains a mechanism which locks the lid output to the bucket so that objects can be grasped and released for instrument deployment. The wrist actuator has been tested for operational power and mechanical functionality at Mars environmental conditions. The torque which the actuator can produce has been measured. Also, testing in Mars analogous soils has been performed.

  4. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries. PMID:11226663

  5. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  6. Membrane with internal passages to permit fluid flow and an electrochemical cell containing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface, an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane for purposes of hydration.

  7. Bio-Inspired Cyber Security for Smart Grid Deployments

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, Archibald D.; Thompson, Seth R.; Doroshchuk, Ruslan A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2013-05-01

    mart grid technologies are transforming the electric power grid into a grid with bi-directional flows of both power and information. Operating millions of new smart meters and smart appliances will significantly impact electric distribution systems resulting in greater efficiency. However, the scale of the grid and the new types of information transmitted will potentially introduce several security risks that cannot be addressed by traditional, centralized security techniques. We propose a new bio-inspired cyber security approach. Social insects, such as ants and bees, have developed complex-adaptive systems that emerge from the collective application of simple, light-weight behaviors. The Digital Ants framework is a bio-inspired framework that uses mobile light-weight agents. Sensors within the framework use digital pheromones to communicate with each other and to alert each other of possible cyber security issues. All communication and coordination is both localized and decentralized thereby allowing the framework to scale across the large numbers of devices that will exist in the smart grid. Furthermore, the sensors are light-weight and therefore suitable for implementation on devices with limited computational resources. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Digital Ants framework and then present results from test bed-based demonstrations that show that Digital Ants can identify a cyber attack scenario against smart meter deployments.

  8. Boundary layer control device for duct silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.

  9. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  10. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  11. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  12. Electronic polymers in lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Patrik K.; Jullesson, David; Elfwing, Anders; Liin, Sara I.; Musumeci, Chiara; Zeglio, Erica; Elinder, Fredrik; Solin, Niclas; Inganäs, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Electrical interfaces between biological cells and man-made electrical devices exist in many forms, but it remains a challenge to bridge the different mechanical and chemical environments of electronic conductors (metals, semiconductors) and biosystems. Here we demonstrate soft electrical interfaces, by integrating the metallic polymer PEDOT-S into lipid membranes. By preparing complexes between alkyl-ammonium salts and PEDOT-S we were able to integrate PEDOT-S into both liposomes and in lipid bilayers on solid surfaces. This is a step towards efficient electronic conduction within lipid membranes. We also demonstrate that the PEDOT-S@alkyl-ammonium:lipid hybrid structures created in this work affect ion channels in the membrane of Xenopus oocytes, which shows the possibility to access and control cell membrane structures with conductive polyelectrolytes. PMID:26059023

  13. Deployable Aeroshell Flexible Thermal Protection System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Ware, Joanne S.; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Lugo, Rafael A.

    2009-01-01

    Deployable aeroshells offer the promise of achieving larger aeroshell surface areas for entry vehicles than otherwise attainable without deployment. With the larger surface area comes the ability to decelerate high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. However, for an aeroshell to perform even at the low ballistic coefficients attainable with deployable aeroshells, a flexible thermal protection system (TPS) is required that is capable of surviving reasonably high heat flux and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction handling, high density packing, deployment, aerodynamic loading and aerothermal heating. The Program for the Advancement of Inflatable Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is tasked with developing the technologies required to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of inflatable deployable aeroshells, and one of several of the technologies PAIDAE is developing for use on inflatable aeroshells is flexible TPS. Several flexible TPS layups were designed, based on commercially available materials, and tested in NASA Langley Research Center's 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8ft HTT). The TPS layups were designed for, and tested at three different conditions that are representative of conditions seen in entry simulation analyses of inflatable aeroshell concepts. Two conditions were produced in a single run with a sting-mounted dual wedge test fixture. The dual wedge test fixture had one row of sample mounting locations (forward) at about half the running length of the top surface of the wedge. At about two thirds of the running length of the wedge, a second test surface drafted up at five degrees relative to the first test surface established the remaining running length of the wedge test fixture. A second row of sample mounting locations (aft) was positioned in the middle of the running length of the second test surface. Once the desired flow conditions were established in the test section the dual wedge

  14. Modular VO oriented Java EE service deployer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinaro, Marco; Cepparo, Francesco; De Marco, Marco; Knapic, Cristina; Apollo, Pietro; Smareglia, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) has produced many standards and recommendations whose aim is to generate an architecture that starts from astrophysical resources, in a general sense, and ends up in deployed consumable services (that are themselves astrophysical resources). Focusing on the Data Access Layer (DAL) system architecture, that these standards define, in the last years a web based application has been developed and maintained at INAF-OATs IA2 (Italian National institute for Astrophysics - Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italian center of Astronomical Archives) to try to deploy and manage multiple VO (Virtual Observatory) services in a uniform way: VO-Dance. However a set of criticalities have arisen since when the VO-Dance idea has been produced, plus some major changes underwent and are undergoing at the IVOA DAL layer (and related standards): this urged IA2 to identify a new solution for its own service layer. Keeping on the basic ideas from VO-Dance (simple service configuration, service instantiation at call time and modularity) while switching to different software technologies (e.g. dismissing Java Reflection in favour of Enterprise Java Bean, EJB, based solution), the new solution has been sketched out and tested for feasibility. Here we present the results originating from this test study. The main constraints for this new project come from various fields. A better homogenized solution rising from IVOA DAL standards: for example the new DALI (Data Access Layer Interface) specification that acts as a common interface system for previous and oncoming access protocols. The need for a modular system where each component is based upon a single VO specification allowing services to rely on common capabilities instead of homogenizing them inside service components directly. The search for a scalable system that takes advantage from distributed systems. The constraints find answer in the adopted solutions hereafter sketched. The

  15. Technical Error During Deployment Leads to Vena Cava Filter Migration and Massive Pulmonary Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiadis, Nikolas I. Sabharwal, Tarun; Dourado, Renato; Fikrat, Shabbo; Adam, Andreas

    2008-07-15

    The Guenther Tulip vena cava filter is a safe, effective, well-established device for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. We report a patient in whom there was migration of the filter to the right atrium, 2 weeks after insertion, caused by a technical error during deployment. An attempt to retrieve the filter percutaneously failed, necessitating removal at open-heart surgery. The potential causes of migration are described and the lessons learned from this unusual case are outlined.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Flow Velocity and Temperature Mapping of a Shape Memory Polymer Foam Device

    SciTech Connect

    Small IV, W; Gjersing, E; Herberg, J L; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2008-10-29

    Interventional medical devices based on thermally responsive shape memory polymer (SMP) are under development to treat stroke victims. The goals of these catheter-delivered devices include re-establishing blood flow in occluded arteries and preventing aneurysm rupture. Because these devices alter the hemodynamics and dissipate thermal energy during the therapeutic procedure, a first step in the device development process is to investigate fluid velocity and temperature changes following device deployment. A laser-heated SMP foam device was deployed in a simplified in vitro vascular model. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques were used to assess the fluid dynamics and thermal changes associated with device deployment. Spatial maps of the steady-state fluid velocity and temperature change inside and outside the laser-heated SMP foam device were acquired. Though non-physiological conditions were used in this initial study, the utility of MRI in the development of a thermally-activated SMP foam device has been demonstrated.

  17. Monitoring North Sea oil production discharges using passive sampling devices coupled with in vitro bioassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Harman, Christopher; Farmen, Eivind; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2010-09-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic integrative chemical samplers (POCIS) were deployed in vicinity of an offshore oil production platform discharging production water (produced water) to the North Sea. Extracts from SPMDs and POCIS were subjected to chemical analysis for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APs) respectively, and also assessed for acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated production of vitellogenin (Vtg) and induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in primary hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Chemical analysis of the extracts revealed a gradient of exposure away from the platform for low molecular weight PAH and AP, whereas no exposure gradient was apparent for high molecular weight PAH, as expected. These data coupled with earlier work allowed a tentative general exposure scenario to be determined. The passive sampler extracts also caused modulation of the bioassay toxicity endpoints, although a clear gradient of response relative to the discharge point could not be identified. PMID:20683536

  18. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  19. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  20. Sealing device

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  1. Deployment Testing of the ADEPT Ground Test Article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yount, B. C.; Kruger, C. E.; Cassell, A. M.; Kazemba, C. D.

    2014-06-01

    The ADEPT concept provides a low ballistic coefficient for planetary entry by employing an umbrella-like deployable aerodynamic decelerator. Findings from the development and deployment testing of a ground test article are presented.

  2. Deployable Landing Leg Concept for Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Solano, Paul; Bartos, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Exploration program is investigating the merits of land landing concepts for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Four options are under investigation: retro-rockets which fire and slow the vehicle before contact with the landing surface, deployable crushable material which deploys just before landing and crushes during land contact, airbags which deploy just before landing and deflate during land contact, and deployable legs which deploy before landing and contain material that absorbs energy during land contact. The purpose of the present work is to determine the effectiveness of the deployable leg concept. To accomplish this goal, structural models of the deployable leg concept are integrated with the Crew Model (CM) and computational simulations are performed to determine vehicle and component loadings and acceleration levels. Details of the modeling approach, deployable leg design, and resulting accelerations are provided.

  3. STEP flight experiments Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Flight testing plans for a large deployable infrared reflector telescope to be tested on a space platform are discussed. Subsystem parts, subassemblies, and whole assemblies are discussed. Assurance of operational deployability, rigidization, alignment, and serviceability will be sought.

  4. WE WISH Deploys From the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    JAXA astronaut Aki Hoshide commanded the first deployment from the station, with the second commanded from the ground control team. This video shows footage of the satellite WE WISH, as it deploys ...

  5. Membrane magic

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.

    2005-09-01

    The Kansas Power and Light Co.'s La Cyne generating station has found success with membrane filtration water pretreatment technology. The article recounts the process followed in late 2004 to install a Pall Aria 4 microfilter in Unit 1 makeup water system at the plant to produce cleaner water for reverse osmosis feed. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  6. The need for a thoughtful deployment strategy: evaluating clinicians' perceptions of critical deployment issues.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K E; Altamore, R; Chapko, M; Miner, M; McGann, M; Hill, E; Van Duesen-Lucas, C; Bates, M; Weir, C; Lincoln, T

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents data collected from 899 clinicians across three Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers where existing terminal-based architecture was being replaced with client-server architecture. Surveys were conducted with physicians (n = 184), nurses (n = 355) and other clinicians (n = 360) gathering user characteristics and their perceptions of five deployment issues (e.g. adequacy of technical and institutional support and perceptions of the soon-to-be-implemented clinical workstation). Mean scores for the five deployment issues for all clinicians indicates perceptions are somewhat neutral. However, when data is analyzed according to job classification, significant (p = 0.05) differences in perceptions were noted among groups of clinicians (e.g., physicians and registered nurses). Results of analyzing data grouped by VA site (n = 3) indicates significant (p = 0.05) differences exist among sites in clinicians' perceptions of the deployment issues. A thoughtful deployment strategy including an in-depth assessment of clinician users by job classification and by location may produce important information, critical to the successful deployment of new technologies, in very large health management institutions. PMID:10384582

  7. High Temperature Membrane with Humidification-Independent Cluster Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, Ludwig

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this project was to develop high temperature membranes to facilitate the wide-spread deployment of hydrogen fuel cells. High temperature membranes offer significant advantages in PEM system operation, overall capital and operating costs. State-of-the-art Nafion-based membranes are inadequate for the high temperature operation. These conventional membranes become unstable at higher temperatures (90-120°C) and lose their conductivity, particularly at low relative humidity. In this program, alternate materials were developed to enable fabrication of novel high performance composite membranes. FCE’s concept for the multi-component composite membrane, named mC2, has been used in the design of more conductive membranes.

  8. Psychiatric Effects of Military Deployment on Children and Families

    PubMed Central

    James, Trenton

    2012-01-01

    Deployments in the United States military have increased greatly in the past 10 years. Families and children are psychiatrically affected by these deployments, and recent studies are clarifying these effects. This article focuses on the psychiatric effects of deployment on children and uses a composite case example to review the use of play therapy to treat children who are having psychiatric issues related to the deployment of one or both parents. PMID:22468239

  9. Field-Deployable Acoustic Digital Systems for Noise Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Wright, Kenneth D.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Smith, Charlie D.

    2000-01-01

    Langley Research Center (LaRC) has for years been a leader in field acoustic array measurement technique. Two field-deployable digital measurement systems have been developed to support acoustic research programs at LaRC. For several years, LaRC has used the Digital Acoustic Measurement System (DAMS) for measuring the acoustic noise levels from rotorcraft and tiltrotor aircraft. Recently, a second system called Remote Acquisition and Storage System (RASS) was developed and deployed for the first time in the field along with DAMS system for the Community Noise Flight Test using the NASA LaRC-757 aircraft during April, 2000. The test was performed at Airborne Airport in Wilmington, OH to validate predicted noise reduction benefits from alternative operational procedures. The test matrix was composed of various combinations of altitude, cutback power, and aircraft weight. The DAMS digitizes the acoustic inputs at the microphone site and can be located up to 2000 feet from the van which houses the acquisition, storage and analysis equipment. Digitized data from up to 10 microphones is recorded on a Jaz disk and is analyzed post-test by microcomputer system. The RASS digitizes and stores acoustic inputs at the microphone site that can be located up to three miles from the base station and can compose a 3 mile by 3 mile array of microphones. 16-bit digitized data from the microphones is stored on removable Jaz disk and is transferred through a high speed array to a very large high speed permanent storage device. Up to 30 microphones can be utilized in the array. System control and monitoring is accomplished via Radio Frequency (RF) link. This paper will present a detailed description of both systems, along with acoustic data analysis from both systems.

  10. Outer Membrane Permeability and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Delcour, Anne H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary To date most antibiotics are targeted at intracellular processes, and must be able to penetrate the bacterial cell envelope. In particular, the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria provides a formidable barrier that must be overcome. There are essentially two pathways that antibiotics can take through the outer membrane: a lipid-mediated pathway for hydrophobic antibiotics, and general diffusion porins for hydrophilic antibiotics. The lipid and protein compositions of the outer membrane have a strong impact on the sensitivity of bacteria to many types of antibiotics, and drug resistance involving modifications of these macromolecules is common. This review will describe the molecular mechanisms for permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane, and the strategies that bacteria have deployed to resist antibiotics by modifications of these pathways. PMID:19100346

  11. Test progress on the electrostatic membrane reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goslee, J. W.; Mihora, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA is currently developing a low mass antenna which derives its reflector surface quality from the application of electrostatic forces to form a thin membrane into the desired concave reflector surface. The shuttle-deployed antenna would have a diameter of 100 m and an RMS surface smoothness of 10 to 1 mm for operation at 1 to 10 GHz. Surface quality measurements have been made on a highly deformable elastic membrane, pressurized by electrostatic forces. Included are the effects of the perimeter boundary, splicing of the membrane, the long-scale smoothness of commercial membranes, and the spatial controllability of the membrane using voltage adjustments to alter the electrostatic forces. The electrostatic membrane was found to operate well in an open-loop sense, showing a high degree of position stability and negligible power consumption in dry air. Visco-electric creep was not evident, but the polymer membrane did expand and contract considerably due to its hygroscopic expansion coefficient. A residual roughness of about 0.75 mm existed with the polymer used in these tests; this error is attributed to seams and membrane anisotropy where the material is stiffer in one direction.

  12. Energy scavenging for long-term deployable wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Mathúna, Cian O; O'Donnell, Terence; Martinez-Catala, Rafael V; Rohan, James; O'Flynn, Brendan

    2008-05-15

    The coming decade will see the rapid emergence of low cost, intelligent, wireless sensors and their widespread deployment throughout our environment. While wearable systems will operate over communications ranges of less than a meter, building management systems will operate with inter-node communications ranges of the order of meters to tens of meters and remote environmental monitoring systems will require communications systems and associated energy systems that will allow reliable operation over kilometers. Autonomous power should allow wireless sensor nodes to operate in a "deploy and forget" mode. The use of rechargeable battery technology is problematic due to battery lifetime issues related to node power budget, battery self-discharge, number of recharge cycles and long-term environmental impact. Duty cycling of wireless sensor nodes with long "SLEEP" times minimises energy usage. A case study of a multi-sensor, wireless, building management system operating using the Zigbee protocol demonstrates that, even with a 1 min cycle time for an 864 ms "ACTIVE" mode, the sensor module is already in SLEEP mode for almost 99% of the time. For a 20-min cycle time, the energy utilisation in SLEEP mode exceeds the ACTIVE mode energy by almost a factor of three and thus dominates the module energy utilisation thereby providing the ultimate limit to the power system lifetime. Energy harvesting techniques can deliver energy densities of 7.5 mW/cm(2) from outdoor solar, 100 microW/cm(2) from indoor lighting, 100 microW/cm(3) from vibrational energy and 60 microW/cm(2) from thermal energy typically found in a building environment. A truly autonomous, "deploy and forget" battery-less system can be achieved by scaling the energy harvesting system to provide all the system energy needs. In the building management case study discussed, for duty cycles of less than 0.07% (i.e. in ACTIVE mode for 0.864 s every 20 min), energy harvester device dimensions of approximately 2 cm on a

  13. Development of Formation Deployment and Intialization Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badesha, Surjit S.; Heyler, Gene A.; Sharer, Peter J.; Strikwerda, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Cross-Cutting Technology Development Program identified formation flying as a key enabler for the next generation Earth and Sciences campaign. It is hoped that this technology will allow a distributed network of autonomous satellites to act collaboratively as a single collective unit paving the way for extensive co-observing campaigns, coordinated multi-point observing programs, improved space-based interferometry, and entirely new approaches to conducting science. APL as a team member with GSFC, funded by the Earth Sciences and Technology Organization (ESTO), investigated formation deployment and initialization concepts which is central to the formation flying concept. This paper presents the analytical approach and preliminary results of the study. The study investigated a simple mission involving the deployment of six micro-satellites, one at a time, from a bus. At the initialization state, the satellites fly in an along-track trajectory separated by nominal spacing. The study entailed the development of a two-body (bus and satellite) relative motion propagator based on Clohessy-Wiltshire (C-W) equations with drag from which the relative motion of the micro-satellites is deduced. This code was used to investigate cluster development characteristics subject to "tip-off' (ejection) conditions. Results indicate that cluster development is very sensitive to the ballistic coefficients of the bus and satellites, and to relative ejection velocity. This information can be used to identify optimum deployment parameters, along with accuracy bounds for a particular mission, and to develop a cluster control strategy minimizing global fuel and cost. A suitable control strategy concept has been identified, however, it needs to be developed further.

  14. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  15. Sensor deployment mechanism for Surfer satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Robert; Flom, James; Gibbons, Donald

    1988-01-01

    A design is presented for a sensor-deployment mechanism to be used aboard the Surfer satellite, from which scientific instruments will be extended to study the earth ionosphere during the Space Shuttle Tether Experiment. The design discussed uses four folding arms to extend the radial sensors, as well as two storable tubular extendible members or spirally wound self-extending tube booms to project the axial sensors outward. The design solution chosen, a folding arm, is discussed in detail with attention to mechanical operation and component functions. Test program results are presented.

  16. Deployable antenna kinematics using tensegrity structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Byron Franklin

    With vast changes in spacecraft development over the last decade, a new, cheaper approach was needed for deployable kinematic systems such as parabolic antenna reflectors. Historically, these mesh-surface reflectors have resembled folded umbrellas, with incremental redesigns utilized to save packaging size. These systems are typically over-constrained designs, the assumption being that high reliability necessary for space operations requires this level of conservatism. But with the rapid commercialization of space, smaller launch platforms and satellite buses have demanded much higher efficiency from all space equipment than can be achieved through this incremental approach. This work applies an approach called tensegrity to deployable antenna development. Kenneth Snelson, a student of R. Buckminster Fuller, invented Tensegrity structures in 1948. Such structures use a minimum number of compression members (struts); stability is maintain using tension members (ties). The novelty introduced in this work is that the ties are elastic, allowing the struts to extend or contract, and in this way changing the surface of the antenna. Previously, the University of Florida developed an approach to quantify the stability and motion of parallel manipulators. This approach was applied to deployable, tensegrity, antenna structures. Based on the kinematic analyses for the 3-3 (octahedron) and 4-4 (square anti-prism) structures, the 6-6 (hexagonal anti-prism) analysis was completed which establishes usable structural parameters. The primary objective for this work was to prove the stability of this class of deployable structures, and their potential application to space structures. The secondary objective is to define special motions for tensegrity antennas, to meet the subsystem design requirements, such as addressing multiple antenna-feed locations. This work combines the historical experiences of the artist (Snelson), the mathematician (Ball), and the space systems engineer

  17. Sepsis management in the deployed field hospital.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Andrew McD; Easby, D; Ewington, I

    2013-09-01

    Sepsis, a syndrome caused by severe infection, affects a small proportion of military casualties but has a significant effect in increasing morbidity and mortality, including causing some preventable deaths. Casualties with abdominal trauma and those with significant tissue loss appear to be at a greater risk of sepsis. In this article, the diagnosis and management of sepsis in military casualties with reference to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines are examined. We discuss the management considerations specific to military casualties in the deployed setting and also discuss factors affecting evacuation by the UK Royal Air Force Critical Care Air Support Team. PMID:24109139

  18. Modal identification of a deployable space truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Axel; Pappa, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    Work performed under a collaborative research effort between NASA and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) is summarized. The objective is to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for system identification of future large space structures. Recent experiences using the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) for modal identification of Mini-Mast are reported. Mini-Mast is a 20-meter-long deployable space truss used for structural dynamics and active-vibration control research at the NASA Langley Research Center. Due to nonlinearities and numerous local modes, modal identification of Mini-Mast proved to be surprisingly difficult. Methods available with ERA for obtaining detailed, high-confidence results are illustrated.

  19. Is Intelligent Speed Adaptation ready for deployment?

    PubMed

    Carsten, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    There have been 30 years of research on Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA), the in-vehicle system that is designed to promote compliance with speed limits. Extensive trials of ISA in real-world driving have shown that ISA can significantly reduce speeding, users have been found to have generally positive attitudes and at least some sections of the public have been shown to be willing to purchase ISA systems. Yet large-scale deployment of a system that could deliver huge accident reductions is still by no means guaranteed. PMID:22664661

  20. Ku band deployed assembly and gimbal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deal, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for shuttle orbiter missions to locate satellites for servicing and to communicate when out of touch with a direct ground link were established. A Ku Band deployed antenna system providing an integrated radar and communications function was designed to meet these requirements. The unique features of the gimbal assembly are described with emphasis on the following: edge mounted antenna to minimize stowage volume in shuttle and maximize gain; unique two axis housing and shaft arrangement to accommodate two runs of waveguide and 55 electrical conductors without requiring slip rings; maximum use of aluminum in gimbal structure to reduce costs; and lubricant chosen to survive Earth and space environments.

  1. Alignment and phasing of deployable telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, N. J.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences in coaligning and phasing the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT), together with studies in setting up radio telescopes, are presented. These experiences are discussed, and on the basis they furnish, schemes are suggested for coaligning and phasing four large future telescopes with complex primary mirror systems. These telescopes are MT2, a 15-m-equivalent MMT, the University of California Ten Meter Telescope, the 10 m sub-mm wave telescope of the University of Arizona and the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, and the Large Deployable Reflector, a future space telescope for far-IR and sub-mm waves.

  2. Quality function deployment: application to rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Einspruch, E M; Omachonu, V K; Einspruch, N G

    1996-01-01

    Describes how the challenge of providing rehabilitative services at reasonable costs is beginning to mount. The management of quality in rehabilitative services is therefore gaining increasing attention in the health care arena. States that if a link is implied between the above stated goal and customer satisfaction, it is imperative to evaluate quality or customer satisfaction in the context of the patient's experience. Describes the quality function deployment (QFD) system and how it leads to a better understanding of the customer's needs and wants. Explores the process of applying the concept of QFD to physical therapy. PMID:10158426

  3. Drop deployment system for crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A crystal growth apparatus is presented. It utilizes a vapor diffusion method for growing protein crystals, and particularly such an apparatus wherein a ball mixer is used to mix the fluids that form a drop within which crystals are grown. Particular novelty of this invention lies in utilizing a ball mixer to completely mix the precipitate and protein solutions prior to forming the drop. Additional novelty lies in details of construction of the vials, the fluid deployment system, and the fluid storage system of the preferred embodiment.

  4. Computational modeling of Endovascular Chemofiltration device for removing toxins from blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayz, Vitaliy; Tompkins, Ben; Chin, Albert; Patel, Anand; Hetts, Steven; University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Team; University of California San Francisco Team; Penumbra, Inc Team

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: Chemotherapy drugs injected intra-arterially in order to destroy tumor cells can cause systemic toxic effects. A catheter-based filtering device temporarily inserted into the veins downstream of the tumor can remove chemotherapy drugs out of the blood stream right after these drugs have had their effect on the tumor. CFD modeling can help optimize hemodynamic performance of the chemofilter membrane, which chemically binds the toxins. Methods: Two alternative designs of the chemofilter were evaluated in order to increase the contact area of the membrane, while minimizing its obstruction to the flow. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved with a finite-volume solver Fluent. Virtual contrast injections were computed by solving the advection-diffusion equation in order to determine the effect of the chemofilter configuration on the flow residence time. Results: The results demonstrated that one of the chemofilter configurations, while having a 10-fold larger contact area, is substantially less obstructive to the flow. Additional considerations, such as feasibility of deployment and re-sheathing of the device, will affect its final design. The optimization of the chemofilter hemodynamic performance will help minimize drug toxicity, thus allowing to use high-dose therapy

  5. Detection of Molecular Charges at Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Toshiya; Miyahara, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Molecular charges at the cell membrane have been successfully detected using cell-based field-effect devices. Mouse fibroblast cells were adhered to the Si3N4 gate surface of the field-effect devices. The negative charges of sialic acid at the surface of the cell membrane could be detected as a shift of the flatband voltage of the field-effect devices. Quantitative analysis of molecular charges at the cell membrane could be demonstrated in relation to the number of adhered cells on the Si3N4 gate surface. The platform based on the field-effect devices is suitable for a simple, accurate and non-invasive system for cell functional analysis.

  6. Electrochromic devices

    DOEpatents

    Allemand, Pierre M.; Grimes, Randall F.; Ingle, Andrew R.; Cronin, John P.; Kennedy, Steve R.; Agrawal, Anoop; Boulton, Jonathan M.

    2001-01-01

    An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

  7. BRAKE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  8. Catalytic Membrane Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Brinker, C.J.; Gardner, T.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Sault, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    The proposed "catalytic membrane sensor" (CMS) was developed to generate a device which would selectively identify a specific reagent in a complex mixture of gases. This was to be accomplished by modifying an existing Hz sensor with a series of thin films. Through selectively sieving the desired component from a complex mixture and identifying it by decomposing it into Hz (and other by-products), a Hz sensor could then be used to detect the presence of the select component. The proposed "sandwich-type" modifications involved the deposition of a catalyst layered between two size selective sol-gel layers on a Pd/Ni resistive Hz sensor. The role of the catalyst was to convert organic materials to Hz and organic by-products. The role of the membraneo was to impart both chemical specificity by molecukir sieving of the analyte and converted product streams, as well as controlling access to the underlying Pd/Ni sensor. Ultimately, an array of these CMS elements encompassing different catalysts and membranes were to be developed which would enable improved selectivity and specificity from a compiex mixture of organic gases via pattern recognition methodologies. We have successfully generated a CMS device by a series of spin-coat deposited methods; however, it was determined that the high temperature required to activate the catalyst, destroys the sensor.

  9. Field-deployed underwater mass spectrometers for investigations of transient chemical systems.

    PubMed

    Kibelka, Gottfried P G; Timothy Short, R; Toler, Strawn K; Edkins, John E; Byrne, Robert H

    2004-11-15

    The mass spectrometer developments and underwater deployments described in this work are directed toward observations of important reactive and influential inorganic and organic chemicals. Mass spectrometer systems for measurement of dissolved gases and volatile hydrocarbons were created by coupling a membrane analyte-introduction system with linear quadrupole and ion trap mass analyzers. For molecular masses up to 100amu, the in situ quadrupole system has detection limits on the order of 1-5ppb. For masses up to approximately 300amu, the underwater ion trap system detects many volatile hydrocarbons at concentrations below 1ppb. Both instruments can function autonomously or via interactive communications from a remote control site. Continuous operations can be sustained for up to approximately 12 days. Deployments have initially involved shallow water proof-of-concept operations at depths less than 30m. Future modifications are planned that will allow operational depths to 200m. PMID:18969697

  10. Deployment dynamics of a simplified spinning IKAROS solar sail via absolute coordinate based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiang; Tian, Qiang; Hu, Hai-Yan

    2013-02-01

    The spinning solar sail of large scale has been well developed in recent years. Such a solar sail can be considered as a rigid-flexible multibody system mainly composed of a spinning central rigid hub, a number of flexible thin tethers, sail membranes, and tip masses. A simplified interplanetary kite-craft accelerated by radiation of the Sun (IKAROS) model is established in this study by using the absolute-coordinate-based (ACB) method that combines the natural coordinate formulation (NCF) describing the central rigid hub and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) describing flexible parts. The initial configuration of the system in the second-stage deployment is determined through both dynamic and static analyses. The huge set of stiff equations of system dynamics is solved by using the generalized-alpha method, and thus the deployment dynamics of the system can be well understood.

  11. A Novel Use of the AMPLATZER Vascular Plug: Preventing Bile Leak Following Inadvertent Subcapsular Deployment of a Biliary Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Dionello, Roberta; Warakaulle, Dinuke; Liong, Wei-Chuen

    2010-02-15

    The AMPLATZER Vascular Plug (AVP; AGA Medical, USA) is designed to provide optimal embolization of peripheral veins and arteries through single-device occlusion. There are no reported cases of the AVP's being used to prevent bile leak. We report the successful use of the AVP within the liver to prevent intraperitoneal bile leak following inadvertent subcapsular stent deployment.

  12. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  13. A membrane stirrer for product recovery and substrate feeding.

    PubMed

    Femmer, T; Carstensen, F; Wessling, M

    2015-02-01

    During fermentation processes, in situ product recovery (ISPR) using submerged membranes allows a continuous operation mode with effective product removal. Continuous recovery reduces product inhibition and organisms in the reactor are not exposed to changing reaction conditions. For an effective in situ product removal, submerged membrane systems should have a sufficient large membrane area and an anti-fouling concept integrated in a compact device for the limited space in a lab-scale bioreactor. We present a new membrane stirrer with integrated filtration membranes on the impeller blades as well as an integrated gassing concept in an all-in-one device. The stirrer is fabricated by rapid prototyping and is equipped with a commercial micromesh membrane. Filtration performance is tested using a yeast cell suspension with different stirring speeds and aeration fluxes. We reduce membrane fouling by backflushing through the membrane with the product stream. PMID:25212847

  14. Reservists in a postconflict zone: deployment stressors and the deployment experience.

    PubMed

    Orme, Geoffrey J; Kehoe, E James

    2014-02-01

    In postconflict zones, both aid and military personnel face chronic stress, including boredom, isolation, family separation, and difficult living conditions, plus the intra-organizational and interpersonal frictions found in all work settings. Australian Army reservists (N = 350) were surveyed during and after peacekeeping in the Solomon Islands. Most respondents reported having a positive experience (66%) and fewer reported their experience was neutral (16%) or negative (17%). The stressors reported by reservists predominately emanated from work-related sources rather than from separation or the operational environment. The discussion considers leadership factors, especially the role of organizational justice in deployed organizations, that may influence the deployment experience. PMID:24491608

  15. Open architecture for rapid deployment of capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Modern warfare has drastically changed from conventional to non-conventional and from fixed threats to dynamic ones over the past several decades. This unprecedented fundamental shift has now made our adversaries and their weapons more nebulous and ever changing. Our current acquisition system however is not suited to develop, test and deploy essential capability to counter these dynamic threats in time to combat them. This environment requires a new infrastructure in our system design to rapidly adopt capabilities that we do not currently plan for or even know about. The key to enabling this rapid implementation is Open Architecture in acquisition. The DoD has shown it can rapidly prototype capabilities such as unmanned vehicles but has severely struggled in moving from the prototyping to deployment. A major driver of this disconnect is the lack of established infrastructure to employ said capability such as launch and recovery systems and command and control. If we are to be successful in transitioning our rapid capability to the warfighter we must implement established well defined interfaces and enabling technologies to facilitate the rapid adoption of capability so the warfighter has the tools to effectively counter the threat.

  16. Probabilistic deployment for multiple sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ming; Ferrari, Silvia

    2005-05-01

    The performance of many multi-sensor systems can be significantly improved by using a priori environmental information and sensor data to plan the movements of sensor platforms that are later deployed with the purpose of improving the quality of the final detection and classification results. However, existing path planning algorithms and ad-hoc data processing (e.g., fusion) techniques do not allow for the systematic treatment of multiple and heterogeneous sensors and their platforms. This paper presents a method that combines Bayesian network inference with probabilistic roadmap (PRM) planners to utilize the information obtained by different sensors and their level of uncertainty. The uncertainty of prior sensed information is represented by entropy values obtained from the Bayesian network (BN) models of the respective sensor measurement processes. The PRM algorithm is modified to utilize the entropy distribution in optimizing the path of posterior sensor platforms that have the following objectives: (1) improve the quality of the sensed information, i.e., through fusion, (2) minimize the distance traveled by the platforms, and (3) avoid obstacles. This so-called Probabilistic Deployment (PD) method is applied to a demining system comprised of ground-penetrating radars (GPR), electromagnetic (EMI), and infrared sensors (IR) installed on ground platforms, to detect and classify buried mines. Numerical simulations show that PD is more efficient than path planning techniques that do not utilize a priori information, such as complete coverage, random coverage method, or PRM methods that do not utilize Bayesian inference.

  17. 100G Deployment@(DE-KIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, Bruno; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been involved fairly early in 100GE network technology. Initiated by DFN1 (the German NREN), a first 100GE wide area network testbed over a distance of approx. 450 km was deployed between the national research organizations KIT and FZ-Jülich in 2010. Three years later in 2013. KIT joined the Caltech SuperComputing 2013 (SC132) 100GE "show floor" initiative using the transatlantic ANA-100GE link to transfer LHC data from a storage at DE-KIT (GridKa) in Europe to hard disks at the show floor of SC13 in Denver (USA). The network infrastructure of KIT as well as of the German Tier-1 installation DE-KIT (GridKa). however. is still based on 10Gbps. As highlighted in the contribution "Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities" to CHEP 2012. proactive investment is required at the Tier-1 sites. Bandwidth requirements will grow beyond current capacity and the required upgrades are expected in 2015. In close cooperation with DFN. KIT drives the upgrade from 10GE to 100GE. The process is divided into several phases. due to upgrade costs and differing requirements in different parts of the network infrastructure. The requirements of the different phases as well as the planned topology will be described. Some of the obstacles we discovered during the deployment will be discussed and solutions or workarounds presented.

  18. Infrastructure for deployment of power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary effort in characterizing the types of stationary lunar power systems which may be considered for emplacement on the lunar surface from the proposed initial 100-kW unit in 2003 to later units ranging in power from 25 to 825 kW is presented. Associated with these power systems are their related infrastructure hardware including: (1) electrical cable, wiring, switchgear, and converters; (2) deployable radiator panels; (3) deployable photovoltaic (PV) panels; (4) heat transfer fluid piping and connection joints; (5) power system instrumentation and control equipment; and (6) interface hardware between lunar surface construction/maintenance equipment and power system. This report: (1) presents estimates of the mass and volumes associated with these power systems and their related infrastructure hardware; (2) provides task breakdown description for emplacing this equipment; (3) gives estimated heat, forces, torques, and alignment tolerances for equipment assembly; and (4) provides other important equipment/machinery requirements where applicable. Packaging options for this equipment will be discussed along with necessary site preparation requirements. Design and analysis issues associated with the final emplacement of this power system hardware are also described.

  19. Infection Prevention in the Deployed Environment.

    PubMed

    Yun, Heather C; Murray, Clinton K

    2016-01-01

    Up to 50% of combat injured patients from recent conflicts have suffered infectious complications, predominantly with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria acquired nosocomially in the chain of tactical combat casualty care. These bacteria have ranged from MDR Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus associated with Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), to extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from operations in Afghanistan. Experience from interventions at Level III facilities demonstrate that basic infection control (IC) procedures, such as improvements in hand hygiene, use of ventilator associated pneumonia bundles, and antimicrobial stewardship, can improve outcomes even in austere environments. While some systematic interventions have been implemented to mitigate this risk, including development of the Deployed Infection Control Course, the Multidrug-Resistance Surveillance Network, and the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study, ongoing vulnerabilities remain. Deployed microbiology capabilities should be strengthened, theater-level IC standard operating procedures should be implemented, and a joint, theater-level expert IC consultant should be appointed to be responsible for directing IC activities from Levels I to IV. PMID:27215877

  20. New OBS network deployment offshore Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pape, Florian; Bean, Chris; Craig, David; Jousset, Philippe; Horan, Clare; Hogg, Colin; Donne, Sarah; McCann, Hannah; Möllhoff, Martin; Kirk, Henning; Ploetz, Aline

    2016-04-01

    With the presence of the stormy NE Atlantic, Ireland is ideally located to investigate further our understanding of ocean generated microseisms and use noise correlation methods to develop seismic imaging in marine environments as well as time-lapse monitoring. In order to study the microseismic activity offshore Ireland, 10 Broad Band Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) units including hydrophones have been deployed in January 2016 across the shelf offshore Donegal and out into the Rockall Trough. This survey represents the first Broadband passive study in this part of the NE Atlantic. The instruments will be recovered in August 2016 providing 8 months worth of data to study microseisms but also the offshore seismic activity in the area. One of the main goal of the survey is to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of dominant microseism source regions, close to the microseism sources. Additionally we will study the coupling of seismic and acoustic signals at the sea bed and its evolution in both the deep water and continental shelf areas. Furthermore, the survey also aims to investigate further the relationship between sea state conditions (e.g. wave height, period), seafloor pressure variations and seismic data recorded on both land and seafloor. Finally, the deployed OBS network is also the first ever attempt to closely monitor local offshore earthquakes in Ireland. Ireland seismicity although relatively low can reduce slope stability and poses the possibility of triggering large offshore landslides and local tsunamis.