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Sample records for membrane-assisted solvent extraction

  1. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules.

  2. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules.

  3. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-02-01

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000μL of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

  4. Experimental designs dedicated to the evaluation of a membrane extraction method: membrane-assisted solvent extraction for compounds having different polarities by means of gas chromatography-mass detection.

    PubMed

    Vincelet, Carole; Roussel, Jean Marc; Benanou, David

    2010-03-01

    Membrane-assisted solvent extraction was applied for the determination of different classes of compounds in water, having K(o/w) (octanol-water partition coefficient) values between 10(1) (aniline) and 10(8) (methyl stearate), by means of experimental designs. Four solvents were investigated--propan-2-ol, ethyl acetate, diisopropyl ether and cyclohexane--as well as extraction time, temperature, salt impact, pH and methanol addition. The best choice was diisopropyl ether, 50 degrees C, 30 min and an addition of 3 g of sodium chloride at pH 2 for polar compounds. The relative standard deviation (n = 3) was found in the range from 5 to 17%. Recoveries ranged between 34 and 100%. Membrane-assisted solvent extraction was successfully applied to a fast screening method dedicated to an unknown wastewater sample. PMID:20127320

  5. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  6. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  7. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-01-19

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  9. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  12. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  15. Non-porous membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction of UV filter compounds from water samples.

    PubMed

    Rodil, Rosario; Schrader, Steffi; Moeder, Monika

    2009-06-12

    A method for the determination of nine UV filter compounds [benzophenone-3 (BP-3), isoamyl methoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octocrylene (OC), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), ethylhexyl salicylate and homosalate] in water samples was developed and evaluated. The procedure includes non-porous membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (MALLE) and LC-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)-MS/MS. Membrane bags made of different polymeric materials were examined to enable a fast and simple extraction of the target analytes. Among the polymeric materials tested, low- and high-density polyethylene membranes proved to be well suited to adsorb the analytes from water samples. Finally, 2 cm length tailor-made membrane bags were prepared from low-density polyethylene in order to accommodate 100 microL of propanol. The fully optimised protocol provides recoveries from 76% to 101% and limits of detection (LOD) between 0.4 ng L(-1) (OD-PABA) and 16 ng L(-1) (EHMC). The interday repeatability of the whole protocol was below 18%. The effective separation of matrix molecules was proved by only marginal matrix influence during the APPI-MS analysis since no ion suppression effects were observed. During the extraction step, the influence of the matrix was only significant when non-treated wastewater was analysed. The analysis of lake water indicated the presence of seven UV filter compounds included in this study at concentrations between 40 ng L(-1) (BP-3) and 4381 ng L(-1) (OC). In non-treated wastewater several UV filters were also detected at concentration levels as high as 5322 ng L(-1) (OC). PMID:19419722

  16. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  17. Separation by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Jr., Charles H.

    1976-04-06

    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  18. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  19. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acidmore » solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.« less

  20. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets. PMID:26107531

  1. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  3. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  4. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.

    PubMed

    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  5. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  6. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  7. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  8. A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  9. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Solvent-Composition Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.

    2002-05-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected caustic-side solvent extraction as the preferred cesium removal technology for the treatment of high-level waste stored at the Savannah River Site. Data for the solubility of the extractant, calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), acquired and reported for the Salt Processing Program down-select decision, showed the original solvent composition to be supersaturated with respect to the extractant. Although solvent samples have been observed for approximately 1 year without any solids formation, work was completed to define a new solvent composition that was thermodynamically stable with respect to solids formation and to expand the operating temperature with respect to third-phase formation. Chemical and physical data as a function of solvent component concentrations were collected. The data included calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6) solubility; cesium distribution ratio under extraction, scrub, and strip conditions; flow sheet robustness; temperature range of third-phase formation; dispersion numbers for the solvent against waste simulant, scrub and strip acids, and sodium hydroxide wash solutions; solvent density; viscosity; and surface and interfacial tension. These data were mapped against a set of predefined performance criteria. The composition of 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine in the diluent Isopar{reg_sign} L provided the best match between the measured properties and the performance criteria. Therefore, it is recommended as the new baseline solvent composition.

  11. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  12. A Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-08-01

    The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  13. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  15. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  16. Copper leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jergensen, G.V. II

    1999-07-01

    This volume recognizes the growing role of solvent extraction and electrowinning technology in the global copper business. This process is an efficient and cost effective way to extract copper. This proceedings documents the present status of the SX-EW business. It represents a substantial body of historical, scientific, engineering, and commercial information regarding the growth and application of the technology. Sections include: the business and technology of SX-EW, theory and practice of copper leaching, theory and practice of tankhouse operations, and theory and practice of solvent extraction.

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  18. Determination of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate using membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    March, J G; Genestar, C; Simonet, B M

    2009-06-01

    A flow-cell for micro-porous membrane liquid-liquid extraction with a sheet membrane was used to extract 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (EDB) from urine of solar-cream users and spiked wine samples. The cell enabled the target analyte to be extracted from 7.9 mL of donor solution into 200 microL of acceptor solution (decane). After extraction, the acceptor solution was transferred to a micro-vial for GC-MS analysis without derivation. In this work, variables affecting the enrichment factor were also studied, such as organic solvent, extraction time, recirculation flow of the donor solution through the donor chamber, presence of potassium chloride and ethanol in the donor solution and pH. The method has been evaluated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, limits of detection and quantification and extraction efficiency. Limits of quantification were 1 and 3 microg L(-1) EDB for urine and wine, respectively. Quantitative analysis has been carried out by applying the method of standard additions. Within- and between-day relative standard deviations were lower than 12% and 20%, respectively. EDB was found in the urine of users of cream containing EDB in the concentration interval 1.2-7.2 microg L(-1). Therefore, this provides evidence of EDB dermal absorption and subsequent excretion through the urinary tract. EDB was not found in the analysed wine samples. PMID:19347661

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  20. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  1. Solvent induced track sensitization. Extraction of oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, P.; Angert, N.; Brüchle, W.; Hermann, H.; Kampschulte, U.; Klein, P.; Kravets, L. I.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Remmert, G.; Spohr, R.; Steckenreiter, T.; Trautmann, C.; Vetter, J.

    1994-04-01

    Oligomer extraction from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) irradiated by xenon ions of 11.4 MeV/u is investigated using UV spectrophotometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The cyclic trimer is identified as the predominant diffusing species removed during extraction by dimethyl formamide (DMF). Extraction dynamics is modeled by a rapid (time constant ≈ 2 min) and a slow (time constant ≈ 100 min) diffusion process attributed to the latent ion tracks and to the virgin material, respectively. Thereby latent tracks act simultaneously as irrigation and drainage pipes for the transfer of the solvent into and the extraction of oligomers from the polymer matrix. Thus tracks help to release osmotic pressure differences and to avoid blistering of the unirradiated polymer during solvent exchange. The total extracted mass per track shows a characteristic decrease with increasing ion fluence interpreted as oxygen effect, due to the decreasing supply of oxygen in the sample during irradiation. The extractable mass corresponds to an equivalent track diameter of initially around 10 nm contracting with increasing ion fluence to an asymptotic value around 3 nm.

  2. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents. PMID:24088789

  3. Statistical mechanical treatment of reactive solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukhezo, M.; Dunne, L. J.; Reuben, B. G.; Verrall, M. S.

    1997-07-01

    A statistical mechanical lattice model of a reactive solvent extraction process involving two phase liquid-liquid ion exchange is presented. It is applied to literature data on the extraction of alipathic carboxylic acids by quaternary ammonium salts. The Helmholtz free energy of the system is constructed and minimised subject to the constraints of mass balance and electroneutrality. The equations defining the equilibrium conditions have been solved numerically for a range of interaction parameters and hence the equilibrium concentrations of the various partitioned species are obtained. These interaction parameters are compared with experiment. The intuitive notion that the extent of partition is dominated by electrostatic solute-extractant interactions is shown to neglect various other interactions that may, in some systems, be important.

  4. PULSED MIXER-SETTLER SOLVENT EXTRACTION CONTACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Figg, W.S.

    1958-08-12

    A mixer-settler extractor is described for contacting immiscible liquids having different specific gravities in order to withdraw one or more components from one liquid with the aid of the other liquid. The extractor consists of a hollow column, a rotary drive shafi extending : through the column with a number of impellers spaced thereon, an equal nunnber of separator plate sets each consisting of one fluorothene and one stainless steel plate with peripheral recesses and flow slots mounted on the column, and a pulse generator. This apparatus is particularly useful in solvent extraction processes for recovering plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of irradiated uranium.

  5. PROCESS OF SEPARATING URANIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1958-08-19

    A process is described for separating uranium values from aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions. The process consists in contacting the uramium bearing solution with an organic solvent, tributyl phosphate, preferably diluted with a less viscous organic liquida whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the organic solvent phase. The uranvl nitrate may be recovered from the solvent phase bv back extracting with an aqueous mediuin.

  6. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered {sup 237}Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO{sub 2} for future production of {sup 238}Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  8. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  9. Proceedings of ISEC 2008, International Solvent Extraction Conference - Solvent Extraction: Fundamentals to Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.

    2008-07-01

    The North American industry has employed major solvent-extraction processes to support a wide range of separations including but not limited to chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and petroleum applications. The knowledge enabling these separations has been obtained through fundamental studies in academe, government and industry. The International Solvent Extraction Conferences have been and continue to be a major gathering of scientists, engineers, operators, and vendors from around the world, who present new findings since the last meeting, exchange ideas, make business contacts, and conduct collegial discussions. The ISEC 2008 program emphasizes fundamentals to industrial applications of solvent extraction, particularly how this broad spectrum of activities is interconnected and has led to the implementation of novel processes. The oral and poster sessions have been organized into seven topics: Fundamentals; Novel Reagents, Materials and Techniques; Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing; Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction; Analytical and Preparative Applications; Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Life-Science Products, and Organic Products; and Process Chemistry and Engineering. Over 350 abstracts were received, resulting in more than 260 manuscripts published in these proceedings. Five outstanding plenary presentations have been identified, with five parallel sessions for oral presentations and posters. In recognition of the major role solvent extraction (SX) plays in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries, these proceedings begin with sections focusing on hydrometallurgy, process chemistry, and engineering. More fundamental topics follow, including sections on novel reagents, materials, and techniques, featuring novel applications in analytical and biotechnology areas. Despite the diversity of topics and ideas represented, however, the primary focus of the ISEC community continues to be metals extraction. Four papers from these

  10. Improved solvent extraction recovery of shale oil. [DOE patent application

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.F.; Chong, S.L.

    1981-07-20

    An improved process for solvent extraction of organic matter from shale by two extraction steps in sequence. The extraction steps are: (1) treating a kerogen-containing shale with a solvent system comprising a combination of water and an alcohol at a temperature of about 375 to 425/sup 0/C; and (2) treating the product of (1) with a solvent system comprising a combination of an alcohol and another organic solvent at an elevated temperature, but not above about 425/sup 0/C. The organic matter is recovered by separating the liquid which results from step (2) from the shale solids.

  11. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Vandergrift, George F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents.

  12. Solvent Extraction External Radiation Stability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2001-01-05

    Personnel irradiated a number of samples of calixarene-based solvent. Analysis of these samples indicated that measurable loss of the calixarene occurred at very high doses (-16 Mrad). No measurable loss of the Cs-7SB modifier occurred at equivalent doses. The primary degradation product, 4-sec-butylphenol, observed during analysis of the samples came from degradation of the modifier. Also, TOA proved more susceptible to damage than the other components of the solvent. The total degradation of the solvent proved relatively minor. The consistent solvent performance, as indicated by the measured D Cs values, after exposure at high total doses serves as evidence of the relatively low degree of degradation of the solvent components. Additional tests employing internal irradiation of solvents with both simulants and SRS tank waste will be completed by the end of March 2001 to provide confirmation of the results presented herein.

  13. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  14. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  15. RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    An organic solvent mixure is described for extracting actinides from aqueous solutions; the solvent mixture consists of from 10 to 25% by volume of tributyl phosphate and the remainder a chlorine-fluorine-substituted saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms in the molecule.

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was demonstrated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of PCE (tetrachloroethylene) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site...

  17. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions for Solvent Extraction Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-06-27

    Personnel will need to routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste for solvent extraction testing. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  18. [Extraction characteristics of sequential accelerated solvent extraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental mediums].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-xuan; Ran, Yong

    2009-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two soils, two sediments and an shale from the Pearl River Delta were extracted by sequential accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. PAHs in the first extract accounts for more than half of their total contents, and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four employed solvents. For a given sample the source diagnostic ratios of PAHs in sequential ASE with each solvent are very similar, suggesting the validity of those ratios in source judgement by different extraction methods. PMID:20187409

  19. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  20. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  1. Antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracted samples from Physalis ixocarpa.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajid; Bakht, Jehan; Shafi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracted samples isolated from different parts of Physalis ixocarpa through disc diffusion assay using three different concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different parts of the plant showed varying degree of inhibition against different bacteria at different concentrations. Different solvent extracted samples from the calyx showed inhibitory activity against most of the bacteria under study. Extracts from leaf and fruit samples showed activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae and extracts from the stem tissues were effective to control the growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Crude methanolic extract from the stem and n-butanol extracted samples from fruit exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae at highest concentrations. Antifungal activity was observed only in crude methanol extract from the leaf against Rhizopus stolinifer, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. PMID:27087074

  2. Recovery of catechin compounds from Korean tea by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Row, Kyung Ho; Jin, Yinzhe

    2006-03-01

    Catechin compounds from Korean green tea as potential sources of anticancer and antioxidant components were target materials in this work. The methodologies of solvent extraction and partition were utilized to recover catechin compounds from green tea. The optimum experimental condition was obtained by optimizing operating factors, such as, the extraction solvent, extraction time and operating temperature. After extracting the green tea with water at 80 degrees C for 40 min, the extract was partitioned with water/chloroform, which was best suited to remove caffeine impurity from the extract. Further, the resulting extract was partitioned water/ethyl acetate to deeply purify the catechin compounds of EGC, EC, EGCG and ECG. The experimental result in this work could be extended to preparative HPLC to obtain EGCG on commercial scale. PMID:15919205

  3. Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Munyungano, Brodrick; Feather, Angus; Virnig, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  4. A new model for solvent extraction in columns

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-12-08

    A new model was developed for analyzing solvent extraction processes carried out in columns. Each column is treated as a series of well-defined equilibrium stages where the backmixing (other-phase carryover) between stages can be large. By including all mass transfer effects in the backmixing value, the same number of stages can be used for all extracted components no matter what their distribution coefficients. This greatly simplifies the calculations required when modeling multicomponent solvent extraction processes. Initial testing shows the new model to be better than either the Height of an Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) or the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) method.

  5. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  6. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  7. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling. PMID:27294566

  8. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  9. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  10. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

  11. Solvent extraction of polychlorinated organic compounds from porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, V.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method of reducing the level of hexachlorinated organic compounds selected from hexachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, or mixtures thereof to a non-hazardous level in a solid, porous DERAKANE vinyl ester resin, which has been previously used as the material of construction of a cell to produce chlorine, which vinyl ester resin was in contact with chlorine during chlorine manufacture is descried which comprises: (a) contacting the hexachlorinated compound-containing porous vinyl ester resin with an extraction solvent wherein the extraction solvent is selected from chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethane, methyl chloroform, tetrachloroethane, perchloroethylene, benzene, toluene, xylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, or mixtures thereof, at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the absorbed hexachlorinated organic compound; and (b) separating the hexachlorianated organic compound-containing extraction solvent and vinyl ester resin.

  12. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Avgerinos, George C.

    1983-01-01

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  14. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  15. SXLSQA. For the Interpretation of Solvent Extraction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. Jr; Moyer, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    SXLSQA models solvent extraction systems involving an acidic and/or a neutral reagent in an organic solvent that can extract from an aqueous solution one or two cations in addition to H plus and one or two anions in addition to OH minus. In modelling data, any number of product species can be assumed to form in either phase. Activity coefficients of species in the aqueous phase can be calculated by the Pitzer treatment and in the organic phase by Hildebrand-Scott treatment.

  16. A Fluorous Biphasic Solvent Extraction System for Lanthanides with a Fluorophilic β-Diketone Type Extractant.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Etsuko; Hiruta, Yuki; Watanabe, Takafumi; Iwasawa, Naoko; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a fluorous solvent extraction system for trivalent lanthanide metal ions are reported. A fluorinated extractant, 4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,9-tridecafluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-nonanedione, and HFE-7200 (C4F9OC2H5) as the extraction solvent were chosen. With this fluorous extractant/solvent combination, higher extraction ratios and separation factors compared to a conventional organic solvent system (thenoyltrifluoroacetone in CHCl3) were achieved for 5 heavy lanthanide ions (Lu, Yb, Tm, Er and Ho). On the other hand, light lanthanide ions (Nd, Pr, Ce and La) are hardly extracted, therefore enabling the mutual separation of light lanthanides from middle or heavy lanthanide ions. PMID:26353959

  17. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  18. CHLORINATED SOLVENT CONTAMINATED SOILS AND GROUNDWATER: FIELD APPLICATION OF THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale demonstration of the Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was conducted at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site restoration, which combines an active in situ...

  19. Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Mason, George W.; Lewey, Sonia

    1977-04-05

    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

  20. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Pressurized solvent extraction of pure food grade starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercial pressurized solvent extractor was used to remove lipid and non-lipid material from cornstarch using n-propanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures. Yields and chemical composition of the extract fractions were determined. Cornstarch samples were characterized using pasting properties and...

  2. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  3. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  4. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation: Demonstration Bulletin: Organic Extraction Utilizing Solvents

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology utilizes liquified gases as the extracting solvent to remove organics, such as hydrocarbons, oil and grease, from wastewater or contaminated sludges and soils. Carbon dioxide is generally used for aqueous solutions, and propane is used for sediment, sludges and ...

  5. Juniperus extraction: a comparison of species and solvents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of the three solvents, hexane, methanol and ethanol were compared for their ability to extract non-polar and polar materials from sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis and J. ashei). These species studied represent the junipers with the grea...

  6. Understanding wash efficiency and chloride transfer in copper solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, D. J.

    2003-07-01

    Carryover of entrained aqueous from primary leaching operations into copper electrowinning electrolytes introduces impurities that can affect cathode quality and cause corrosion. As a result, more operations are introducing wash stages in their solvent extraction circuits in an attempt to dilute these entrainments with high-quality water.

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of solvent from micromachined structures

    SciTech Connect

    Russick, E.M.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Dyck, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    We have demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide extraction can be used for solvent removal to successfully release compliant surface micromachined structures on silicon wafers developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Structures that have been successfully extracted and released include single gear microengines, bridge and cantilever beams, pressure transducers, and experimental comb drive actuators. Since the supercritical fluid has negligible surface tension, it has virtually unabated access to solvent residing in capillary-like spaces as narrow as 1--3 {mu}m under the micromachined features. While conventional drying techniques have been plagued with the collapse and sticking of micromachined structures due to surface tension effects, supercritical carbon dioxide has been shown to reproducibly dry components and test structures, including bridge and cantilever beams approaching 1000 {mu}m in length, without collapsing. The equipment and the extraction process are described, and photographs of supercritically dried test structures and components are presented.

  8. Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B

    2005-05-26

    This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and AlO{sub 2}{sup -}) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable

  9. Microfluidic Extraction of Biomarkers using Water as Solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran

    2009-01-01

    A proposed device, denoted a miniature microfluidic biomarker extractor (mu-EX), would extract trace amounts of chemicals of interest from samples, such as soils and rocks. Traditionally, such extractions are performed on a large scale with hazardous organic solvents; each solvent capable of dissolving only those molecules lying within narrow ranges of specific chemical and physical characteristics that notably include volatility, electric charge, and polarity. In contrast, in the mu-EX, extractions could be performed by use of small amounts (typically between 0.1 and 100 L) of water as a universal solvent. As a rule of thumb, in order to enable solvation and extraction of molecules, it is necessary to use solvents that have polarity sufficiently close to the polarity of the target molecules. The mu-EX would make selection of specific organic solvents unnecessary, because mu-EX would exploit a unique property of liquid water: the possibility of tuning its polarity to match the polarity of organic solvents appropriate for extraction of molecules of interest. The change of the permittivity of water would be achieved by exploiting interactions between the translational states of water molecules and an imposed electromagnetic field in the frequency range of 300 to 600 GHz. On a molecular level, these interactions would result in disruption of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network among liquid-water molecules and subsequent solvation and hydrolysis of target molecules. The mu-EX is expected to be an efficient means of hydrolyzing chemical bonds in complex macromolecules as well and, thus, enabling analysis of the building blocks of these complex chemical systems. The mu-EX device would include a microfluidic channel, part of which would lie within a waveguide coupled to an electronically tuned source of broad-band electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 to 600 GHz (see figure). The part of the microfluidic channel lying in the waveguide would

  10. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF ARSENICALS IN SEAWEED VIA ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND ICP-MS DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. Objective was to investigate effect of experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time and solvent composition) on extr...

  11. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

    2005-04-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p‧-DDT, p, p‧-DDT and p, p‧-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  12. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C.; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G.; Lee, Denise L.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Roach, Benjamin D.; Szczygiel, Patricia L.; Frederick V. Sloop, Jr.; Stoner, Erica L.; Williams, Neil J.

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  13. Simultaneous extraction of flavonoids from Chamaecyparis obtusa using deep eutectic solvents as additives of conventional extractions solvents.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Park, Ha Eun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Three flavones (quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone) were extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as additives to conventional extractions solvents. Sixteen DESs were synthesized from different salts and hydrogen bond donors. In addition, C. obtusa was extracted under optimal conditions of methanol as the solvent in the heating process (60°C) for 120 min at a solid/liquid ratio of 80%. Under these optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was observed at analyte concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 200.0 μg/mL (R(2) > 0.999). The extraction recovery ranged from 96.7 to 103.3% with the inter- and intraday relative standard deviations of <4.97%. Under the optimal conditions, from C. obtusa, the quantities of quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone extracted were 325.90, 8.66 and 50.34 µg/mL, respectively. Overall, DESs are expected to have a wide range of applications. PMID:25228687

  14. Process and apparatus for solvent extraction of oil from oil-containing diatomite ore

    SciTech Connect

    Karnofsky, G. B.

    1980-12-16

    A process for solvent extraction of oil from oil bearing diatomite ore and an apparatus for use therewith, wherein the ore is extracted by countercurrent decantation with a hydrocarbon solvent, solvent is recovered from the extract by multiple effect evaporation followed by stripping, and the spent diatomite is contacted with water to displace a major portion of the solvent therefrom, and solvent is recovered from the aqueous slurry of the spent diatomite by stripping with steam at superatmospheric pressure.

  15. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. PMID:26920267

  16. A solvent extraction route for CaF2 hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuqiang; Zhang, Zhifeng; Li, Hongfei; Meng, Shulan; Li, Deqian

    2010-11-21

    A solvent extraction route is proposed to synthesize CaF(2) hollow spheres, which are formed by reversed micelles in a solvent extraction system templating the self-assembly of CaF(2) nanoparticles. PMID:20877846

  17. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  18. Investigation of HNO2 Production in Solvent Extraction Organic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin

    2014-09-01

    This document is a letter report that was prepared to meet FCR&D level 4 milestone M4FT-14IN0304054, “Investigate HNO2 production in solvent extraction organic phases.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Fundamental Radiation Chemistry FCR&D work package. This document reports on an initial tests performed to follow HNO2 formation in reference flowsheet relevant organic phases.

  19. Copper solvent extraction: The state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordosky, Gary A.

    1992-05-01

    Copper recovery by solvent extraction has progressed from a technology with limited application for copper recovery from dilute sulfuric acid leach solution to a technology with broad application for copper recovery from a variety of leach solutions. Reagent improvements have led the way, but they have been accompanied by innovations in leaching and improvements in electrowinning. Of particular interest is the fact that specialized reagents have been developed to meet the specific needs of certain leaching solutions.

  20. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. PMID:26964955

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy for online monitoring of extraction solvent degradation products

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Robinson, T.; Bryan, S.A.; Levitskaia, T.G.

    2013-07-01

    In our research, we are exploring the potential of online monitoring of the organic solvents for the flowsheets relevant to the used nuclear fuel reprocessing and tributyl phosphate (TBP)- based extraction processes in particular. Utilization of vibrational spectroscopic techniques permits the discrimination of the degradation products from the primary constituents of the loaded extraction solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitates development of the regression models for their quantification in real time and potentially enables online implementation of a monitoring system. Raman and FTIR spectral databases were created and used to develop the regression partial least squares (PLS) chemometric models for the quantitative prediction of HDBP (dibutyl phosphoric acid) degradation product, TBP, and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} extraction organic product phase. It was demonstrated that both these spectroscopic techniques are suitable for the quantification of the Purex solvent components in the presence of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Developed PLS models successfully predicted HDBP and TBP organic concentrations in simulated Purex solutions.

  2. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. PMID:27619094

  3. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  4. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  5. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid...

  6. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  7. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  8. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  9. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The

  10. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for protein partitioning.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-05-21

    Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvent (DES) were synthesized, including choline chloride (ChCl)-urea, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl)-urea, tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPMBr)-urea and ChCl-methylurea. An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based ChCl-urea DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of BSA was influenced by the mass of the DES, concentration of K2HPO4 solution, separation time and extraction temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through an orthogonal experiment with the four factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the average extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.94%, 99.72%, 100.05% and 100.05% (each measured three times). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision, repeatability and stability experiments were 0.5533% (n = 5), 0.8306% (n = 5) and 0.9829% (n = 5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and the DES in the extraction process, and the CD spectra proved that the conformation of BSA did not change after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions and the salting-out effect played important roles in the transfer process, and the aggregation and surrounding phenomenon were the main driving forces for the separation. All of these results proved that ionic liquid (IL)-based ATPSs could potentially be substituted with DES-based ATPSs to offer new possibilities in the extraction of proteins. PMID:24699681

  11. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    PubMed

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid. PMID:19382334

  12. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890

  13. Mechanism of electrodialytic ion transport through solvent extraction membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Moskvin, L.N.; Shmatko, A.G.; Krasnoperov, V.M.

    1987-02-01

    The authors construct a mathematical model for electrodialysis and solvent extraction via an ion-selective ion exchange membrane and accounts for the electrochemical, ion exchange, and diffusional behavior of the processes including their dependence on component concentration and current and voltage. The model is tested against experimental data for the electrodialytic transport of anionic platinum complexes of chlorides from hydrochloric acid solution through tributylphosphate membranes. The platinum concentration in the aqueous solution was determined by gamma spectroscopy obtained via platinum 191 as a radiotracer.

  14. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM AND NIOBIUM BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Voiland, E.E.

    1958-05-01

    A process for separation of the uranium from zirconium and/or niobium values contained in 3 to 7M aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. This is accomplished by adding phosphoric acid anions to the nitric acid solution containing the uranium, zirconium, and/or niobium in an amount sufficient to make the solution 0.05 to 0.2M in phosphate ion and contacting the solution with an organic water-immiscible solvent such as MEK, whereby the uranyl values are taken up by the extract phase while the zirconium and niobium preferentially remain in the aqueous raffinate.

  15. An innovative arrangement for in-vial membrane-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction: application to the determination of esters of phthalic acid in alcoholic beverages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    March, Juan Gabriel; Cerdà, Victor

    2015-05-01

    A new arrangement for membrane-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction is presented. The extracting organic solvent was placed into a chromatographic microvial, compatible with the chromatograph autosampler, whose septum was replaced by a disc of porous hydrophobic membrane. This extraction device was completely immersed into the analytical sample contained in a cylindrical container subjected to rotary and basculant movement. Then, the extraction of analytes took place from the sample to the organic solvent contained in the vial through the membrane. Esters of the phthalic acid have been selected as model analytes to determine the performance characteristics of the extraction system. The limits of detection, limits of quantification and relative standard deviations (%) were in the range 0.1-0.4, 0.3-1 and 4-7, respectively. Esters of phthalic acid have been successfully analysed in alcoholic beverages. The main operational advantages of this arrangement consisted of minimal required handling, minimal risk of cross contamination and its simplicity. PMID:25876533

  16. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for phenolic compounds from model oil.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tongnian; Zhang, Mingliang; Tan, Ting; Chen, Jia; Li, Zhan; Zhang, Qinghua; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2014-10-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a new kind of green solvent were used for the first time to excellently extract phenolic compounds from model oil. It was also proved that DES could be used to extract other polar compounds from non-polar or weakly-polar solvents by liquid-phase microextraction. PMID:25144155

  17. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  18. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  19. Application of deep eutectic solvents in the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Zhang, Heng; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-03-01

    Deep eutectic solvents, as a new type of eco-friendly solvent, have attracted increasing attention in chemistry for the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples. To summarize the application of deep eutectic solvents, this review highlights some of the unique properties of deep eutectic solvents and deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials, as well as their applications in extraction and separation. In this paper, the available data and references in this field are reviewed to summarize the application developments of deep eutectic solvents. Based on the development of deep eutectic solvents, the exploitation of new deep eutectic solvents and deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials are expected to diversify into extraction and separation. PMID:25581398

  20. Optimization of soy isoflavone extraction with different solvents using the simplex-centroid mixture design.

    PubMed

    Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol. PMID:22621769

  1. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rgmore » is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.« less

  2. Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: Supramolecular Aspects of Solvent Exchange Volume 21

    SciTech Connect

    Gloe, Karsten; Tasker, Peter A; Oshima, Tatsuya; Watarai, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Preface The theme of supramolecular chemistry (SC), entailing the organization of multiple species through noncovalent interactions, has permeated virtually all aspects of chemical endeavor over the past several decades. Given that the observed behavior of discrete molecular species depends upon their weak interactions with one another and with matrix components, one would have to conclude that SC must indeed form part of the fabric of chemistry itself. A vast literature now serves to categorize SC phenomena within a body of consistent terminology. The word supramolecular itself appears in the titles of dozens of books, several journals, and a dedicated encyclopedia. Not surprisingly, the theme of SC also permeates the field of solvent extraction (SX), inspiring the framework for this volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction. It is attempted in the six chapters of this volume to identify both how supramolecular behavior occurs and is studied in the context of SX and how SC is influencing the current direction of SX. Researchers and practitioners have long dealt with supramolecular interactions in SX. Indeed, the use of polar extractant molecules in nonpolar media virtually assures that aggregative interactions will dominate the solution behavior of SX. Analytical chemists working in the 1930s to the 1950s with simple mono- and bidentate chelating ligands as extractants noted that extraction of metal ions obeyed complicated mass-action equilibria involving complex stoichiometries. As chemists and engineers developed processes for nuclear and hydrometallurgical applications in the 1950s and 1960s, the preference for aliphatic diluents only enhanced the complexity and supramolecular nature of extraction chemistry. Use of physical techniques such as light scattering and vapor-pressure measurements together with various spectroscopic methods revealed organic-phase aggregates from well-defined dimers to small aggregates containing a few extractant molecules to large

  3. Fuel characteristics and pyrolysis studies of solvent extractables and residues from the evergreen shrub Calotropis procera

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Gregorski, K.S.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent extractables and residues from milkweed were evaluated as sources of liquid and solid fuels. Selected chemical, physical and pyrolytic determinations of the extractables and residues indicated that hexane extract is a potentially valuable, high density fuel resource. Methanol extract was shown to be a lower energy, highly toxic extract. Extracted residues were demonstrated to be valuable as solid fuel energy resources. 31 references.

  4. Choice of solvent in the extraction of Angelica archangelica roots with reference to calcium blocking activity.

    PubMed

    Härmälä, P; Vuorela, H; Törnquist, K; Hiltunen, R

    1992-04-01

    Twenty solvents were tested in the extraction of compounds from the roots of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae), and the calcium-antagonistic activity of the extracts was investigated. Special attention was paid to the physical and chemical properties of the solvents and their extraction abilities. The calcium antagonistic effect of the extracts was investigated by measuring the inhibition of depolarization-induced Ca2+ uptake in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. The criteria used in determining the best solvents for the extraction were the yield and the biological activity of the extract, as well as the amount of nonpolar compounds in the extract. The final criterion used in selecting the solvent was its usability with reference to boiling point, chemical interactions (e.g. methylation), etc. Chloroform was found to be the best solvent for the extraction of nonpolar, biologically active compounds from the roots of A. archangelica. PMID:1529031

  5. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid...

  6. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  7. Coal extraction by aprotic dipolar solvents. Final report. [Tetramethylurea, hexa-methylphosphoramide

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J T

    1985-12-01

    The overall goals of this project were to examine the rate and amount of extraction of coals at low temperature by a class of solvents with a generic structure to include tetramethylurea (TMU) and hexa-methylphosphoramide (HMPA) and to examine the nature of the extracted coal chemicals. The class of solvents with similar action, however, can be classified as aprotic, base solvents or, somewhat more broadly, specific solvents. The action of solvents by this last classification was then examined to postulate a mechanism of attack. Experimental work was conducted to explain the specific solvent attack including (1) pure solvent extraction, (2) extraction in mixtures with otherwise inert solvents and inhibitors, and (3) extraction with simultaneous catalytic enhancement attempts including water-gas shift conversion. Thus nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of extract molecules and extraction with high-pressure CO in TMU (plus 2% H2O) was performed. Effects of solvent additives such as cumene and quinone of large amounts of inert solvents such as tetralin, liminone, or carbon disulfide on extraction were also determined. Results are discussed. 82 refs., 36 figs., 37 tabs.

  8. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by using deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Ćurko, Natka; Tomašević, Marina; Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Conventional extraction techniques for plant phenolics are usually associated with high organic solvent consumption and long extraction times. In order to establish an environmentally friendly extraction method for grape skin phenolics, deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a green alternative to conventional solvents coupled with highly efficient microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (MAE and UAE, respectively) have been considered. Initially, screening of five different DES for proposed extraction was performed and choline chloride-based DES containing oxalic acid as a hydrogen bond donor with 25% of water was selected as the most promising one, resulting in more effective extraction of grape skin phenolic compounds compared to conventional solvents. Additionally, in our study, UAE proved to be the best extraction method with extraction efficiency superior to both MAE and conventional extraction method. The knowledge acquired in this study will contribute to further DES implementation in extraction of biologically active compounds from various plant sources. PMID:26830574

  9. Modeling of fissile material diversion in solvent extraction cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.; Carlson, R.W.

    1980-05-22

    Changes were calculated for measurable parameters of a solvent extraction section of a reprocessing plant resulting from postulated fissile material diversion actions. The computer program SEPHIS was modified to calculate the time-dependent concentrations of uranium and plutonium in each stage of a cascade. The calculation of the inventories of uranium and plutonium in each contactor was also included. The concentration and inventory histories were computed for a group of four sequential columns during start-up and for postulated diversion conditions within this group of columns. Monitoring of column exit streams or of integrated column inventories for fissile materials could provide qualitative indications of attempted diversions. However, the time delays and resulting changes are complex and do not correlate quantitatively with the magnitude of the initiating event.

  10. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, James; Almeida, Valmor de; Jiao, Xiangmin; Sims, Brett; Li, Xaiolin

    2013-01-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  11. Evidence for Complex Molecular Architectures for Solvent-Extracted Lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Rials, Timothy G; Urban, Volker S; Langan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Lignin, an abundant, naturally occurring biopolymer, is often considered 'waste' and used as a simple fuel source in the paper-making process. However, lignin has emerged as a promising renewable resource for engineering materials, such as carbon fibers. Unfortunately, the molecular architecture of lignin (in vivo and extracted) is still elusive, with numerous conflicting reports in the literature, and knowledge of this structure is extremely important, not only for materials technologies, but also for production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol due to biomass recalcitrance. As such, the molecular structures of solvent-extracted (sulfur-free) lignins, which have been modified using various acyl chlorides, have been probed using small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution along with hydrodynamic characterization using dilute solution viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in THF. Mass spectrometry shows an absolute molecular weight {approx}18-30 kDa ({approx}80-140 monomers), while GPC shows a relative molecular weight {approx}3 kDa. A linear styrene oligomer (2.5 kDa) was also analyzed in THF using SANS. Results clearly show that lignin molecular architectures are somewhat rigid and complex, ranging from nanogels to hyperbranched macromolecules, not linear oligomers or physical assemblies of oligomers, which is consistent with previously proposed delignification (extraction) mechanisms. Future characterization using the methods discussed here can be used to guide extraction processes as well as genetic engineering technologies to convert lignin into value added materials with the potential for high positive impact on global sustainability.

  12. MILESTONES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CAESIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable development of solvent-extraction (SX) chemistry for caesium separation over the past half a century as driven by the needs of the nuclear industry now constitutes an instructive case study in exploring the limits of selectivity and cycle efficiency in SX. In this review, key milestones in the pursuit of both fundamentals and applications of caesium extraction will be highlighted along with a look at future prospects. The high-yield fission-product 137Cs constitutes a major fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear wastes, and in view of its heat production, environmental mobility, radiation hazard, and even uses as a radiation source, methods have long been sought for its separation. Toward this end, the evolving science has been challenged by daunting requirements for decontamination in the presence of high concentrations of competing cations, and demands for small footprint, modular design, and high throughput place a premium on selectivity and efficiency. Fortunately, the science has also benefited from the peculiar economics of nuclear separations, which have afforded the development of wonderfully sophisticated reagents. With its location in the lower left side of the periodic table, the Cs+ cation has the distinction of having the lowest charge density of any metal cation except short-lived francium. For practical purposes, Cs+ is thus the least hydrated and, in principle, the most directly extractable metal cation. Technologies employing liquid-liquid cation exchange with very large, durable anions like those from the dicarbollide family have therefore been quite effective based solely on solvation principles. Alternatively, researchers have turned to macrocyclic coordinating extractants, such as calix-crown ethers, following principles of molecular recognition, with dramatic results. Overall, strides continue along these lines, though it is apparent that caesium SX has reached a state of excellent fundamental understanding and technical

  13. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  14. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 1 MOLARAND 3 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-23

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  15. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC LIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 16 MOLAR AND 8 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  16. Solvent Extraction Separation of La3+ and Ba2+ using Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and TODGA Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Solvent extractions of La3+ and Ba2+ by N,N,N ,N -tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide (TODGA) from aqueous solutions in twelve imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide / bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][NTf2]/[BETI], n = 2,3, 4, 6, 8, 10) were investigated. The corresponding extraction efficiencies were found to be dependent on concentration of TODGA used, the acidity of aqueous phase, alkyl chain length on IL cation, and IL anion as well.

  17. Comparison of solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Mahindrakar, A N; Chandra, S; Shinde, L P

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil samples was evaluated using octadecyl (CI8)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these PCBs was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane. Average recoveries exceeding 95% for these PCBs were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100mg of 40 pm CI8-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane exceeded 83%. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the solvent extraction of PCBs were poorer than those for the SPE. PMID:24083901

  18. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    PubMed

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts. PMID:26572431

  19. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration. PMID:27593279

  20. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from soils -- report of an interlaboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Jassie, L.B.; Kierstead, T.; Hays, M.J.; Wise, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Solvent extractions are among the oldest and most widely practiced sample preparation techniques for chemical analysis. Solvents are selected to dissolve target analytes based on the affinity between solvent and solute and range from highly polar molecules like water to lipophilic hydrocarbons, depending on the target analyte. Although traditional liquid/solid extraction methods are labor intensive and often time consuming, newer extraction techniques using microwave heating more efficiently leach additives from plastics, natural products from botanicals, and pesticides and PAHs from sediment. Certain solvent molecules heat well in microwave fields because the electromagnetic radiation couples with the polar species and energy is transferred to the solution through dipole rotation. We`ll show why some solvents are more logical choices for matching microwave heating technology with an extraction application. Results will be presented of a study extracting PAHs from materials of environmental interest along with the results of a round robin we conducted comparing the recovery efficiency of microwave extractions with conventional extractions. We have also been evaluating solvents with good dielectric properties which may lead to more efficient and environmentally friendly extraction systems. Closed vessel microwave extraction dramatically reduces the solvent volumes needed and the length of the extraction step. With automated cleanup, improved sample throughput is possible.

  1. Comparison of Extraction Solvents and Techniques Used for the Assay of Isoflavones from Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of extraction solvents and techniques on the assay of isoflavones from soybean was investigated. This systematic study was undertaken to address substantial variations in the solvents and procedures used for the extraction of isoflavones from soybeans by different research groups as descr...

  2. Radiation chemistry in solvent extraction: FY2010 Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program in the area of radiation chemistry during FY 2010. The tasks assigned during FY 2010 included: • Development of techniques to measure free radical reaction kinetics in the organic phase. • Initiation of an alpha-radiolysis program • Initiation of an effort to understand dose rate effects in radiation chemistry • Continued work to characterize TALSPEAK radiation chemistry Progress made on each of these tasks is reported here. Briefly, a method was developed and used to measure the kinetics of the reactions of the •NO3 radical with solvent extraction ligands in organic solution, and the method to measure •OH radical reactions under the same conditions has been designed. Rate constants for the CMPO and DMDOHEMA reaction with •NO3 radical in organic solution are reported. Alpha-radiolysis was initiated on samples of DMDOHEMA in alkane solution using He ion beam irradiation and 211At isotope irradiation. The samples are currently being analyzed for comparison to DMDOHEMA ?-irradiations using a custom-developed mass spectrometric method. Results are also reported for the radiolytic generation of nitrous acid, in ?-irradiated nitric acid. It is shown that the yield of nitrous acid is unaffected by an order-of-magnitude change in dose rate. Finally, recent results for TALSPEAK radiolysis are reported, summarizing the effects on solvent extraction efficiency due to HDEHP irradiation, and the stable products of lactic acid and DTPA irradiation. In addition, results representing increased scope are presented for the radiation chemistry program. These include an investigation of the effect of metal complexation on radical reaction kinetics using DTPA as an example, and the production of a manuscript reporting the mechanism of Cs-7SB radiolysis. The Cs-7SB work takes advantage of recent results from a current LDRD program to understand the fundamental chemistry

  3. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  4. Comparison of extraction techniques and modeling of accelerated solvent extraction for the authentication of natural vanilla flavors.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Chaintreau, Alain

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of vanilla beans has been optimized using ethanol as a solvent. A theoretical model is proposed to account for this multistep extraction. This allows the determination, for the first time, of the total amount of analytes initially present in the beans and thus the calculation of recoveries using ASE or any other extraction technique. As a result, ASE and Soxhlet extractions have been determined to be efficient methods, whereas recoveries are modest for maceration techniques and depend on the solvent used. Because industrial extracts are obtained by many different procedures, including maceration in various solvents, authenticating vanilla extracts using quantitative ratios between the amounts of vanilla flavor constituents appears to be unreliable. When authentication techniques based on isotopic ratios are used, ASE is a valid sample preparation technique because it does not induce isotopic fractionation. PMID:19425014

  5. Optimal extraction and fingerprinting of carotenoids by accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kundu, Aditi; Sharma, Khushbu; Paul, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-06-15

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is applied for the extraction of carotenoids from orange carrot and the extraction parameters were optimized. Two carotenoids, lutein and β-carotene, are selected as the validation process. Hildebrand solubility parameters and dielectric constant of solvents were taken into consideration in selecting solvent mixture. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as temperature, static time, drying agent etc., on the ASE extraction efficiency are investigated systematically. Interactions among the variables were also studied. Furthermore, two carotenoids were analyzed and characterized by LC-ESI MS. The study concluded that Hildebrand solubility parameter approach may be applicable for less polar bioactive molecules like carotenoids. The properties of solvent and extraction temperature are found to be the most important parameters affecting the ASE extraction efficiency of thermolabile natural compounds. PMID:25660899

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.

    1962-08-14

    A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

  7. Extracting fumonisins from maize: efficiency of different extraction solvents in multi-mycotoxin analytics.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Stefanie; Hepperle, Julia; Lauber, Uwe; Schnaufer, Renate; Maier, Susanne; Kühn, Caren; Schwab-Bohnert, Gabriele

    2013-05-01

    The complete extraction of analytes is of utmost importance when analyzing matrix samples for mycotoxins. Mycotoxins consist of substances with widely different physicochemical properties; therefore, the loss of toxins that occurs in multi-mycotoxin methods due to compromises in the extraction solvent is currently a topic under discussion. With regard to fumonisins, several extractants from recently published multi-mycotoxin methods were investigated when analyzing unprocessed and processed maize matrices. All extractants were tested in a validated on-site method and the extraction yields were compared to those of an HPLC-FLD reference method (EN 14352). Most of the compared multi-mycotoxin methods that have been published were only for analyzing fumonisins in maize or maize-meal; we have applied the extractants of these methods to processed, complex maize matrices for the first time. Our results show that, for extractions with aqueous acetonitrile mixtures with the addition of acid, e.g. MeCN/H2O/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v), higher extraction yields are obtained than with MeCN/H2O (80/20, v/v), in both spiked and naturally contaminated maize matrices. But compared to the results of the reference method EN 14352, the two extractants did not show a similar extraction efficiency. Overall, the extractant MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v) turned out to be the most appropriate extractant applied in all experiments, obtaining the best and most comparable extraction yields and recoveries. Furthermore, our investigations showed that, with some of the tested extraction solvents, e.g. MeCN/H2O (75/25) containing 50 mmol/l formic acid, stark differences occur when analyzing spiked and naturally contaminated matrices. With spiked matrices, recoveries of approximately 80-110% were obtained, but with naturally contaminated matrices no results comparable to the EN method have been achieved. In contrast, a double extraction with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (80/19,9/0,1, v/v/v), followed by a

  8. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.; Sattler, J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies.

  10. Calculating the inventory of solvent extraction columns for material balances without shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.J.; Davenport, L.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1981-07-01

    This study demonstrates a feasible way to determine the nuclear material inventory of solvent extraction columns for calculating material balances without process shutdowns. An existing computer code, SEPHIS, was used to calculate the inventories in the solvent extraction cycles of a uranium recovery process. The applicability of the method was tested using published data on the uranium concentration profiles of solvent extraction pulse columns. The application of this method to the extraction cycles of the uranium recovery process is presented for daily uranium loss monitoring over those process units.

  11. Drop-interface coalescence rate in tertiary amine solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.; McDowell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    An important requirement for economical application of solvent extraction technology is rapid and efficient phase disengagement. However, much progress toward a clear fundamental understanding of the factors that affect phase disengagement rate will be needed before a logical approach to the problem will be possible. In this paper, the conceptual framework for the study of drop-interface coalescence in collapsing liquid/liquid dispersions is developed and the details of the experimental setup employed in the initial work are presented. The method for determining the drop-interface coalescence rate requires measurement of the average volume of drops (v/sub f/) adjacent to the interface, their number (n) per unit area of interface, and dispersed-phase throughput (Q) per unit area. Recording videomicrography for measurement of v/sub f/ and n is employed while Q is found from the changing position of the major interface as the dispersion band collapses (batch mode). Experimental results are presented for the highly purified system 0.1 M trioctylamine in o-xylene vs 0.1 M HCl, 0.9 M LiCl. Successive batch phase-mixing runs (1:1 phase ratio) using this system produced highly reproducible results, attributed to the use of high-purity chemicals and noncontaminating cell construction materials. Wall effects were found to be negligible. The results indicated that the changing throughput observed in batch experiments is brought about not only by drop size growth rates, but also by drop packing behavior and the fact that drop-interface coalescence rate changes with time.

  12. Time Motion Study for Modular Caustic Solvent Extraction Unit

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG, ROBERTC.

    2004-10-30

    The Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is used to process high-level radioactive waste from the Tank Farm into borosilicate glass to reduce the mobility of the radionuclides and has processed and vitrified nuclear wastes into canisters for long-term disposal since FY96. All wastes vitrified to date in DWPF are ''sludge only'' wastes. The old salt waste processing technology, ITP, was suspended in FY98 due to benzene build-up inside the tank. The new selected technologies for treating the salt waste are Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process (CSSX). The Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) is a cesium removal process that will be operated downstream of the ARP. The MCU is a short-term method for cesium removal, which uses the same technology as the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Once the SWPF becomes operational, the MCU will be shut down. The modeling request is from the MCU project to verify the validity of its Concept Design Package. The modeling task is not typical because there are five different facilities/projects/processes involved, i.e., Tank Farm, ARP, MCU, Saltstone, and DWPF. Each facility, project, and process has their own management team and organization, with its own fiscal responsibility and performance accountability. In addition, from a task cost perspective, MCU desires to minimize modeling not directly associated with their facility. The balancing of comprehensive analysis with limited granularity is challenging. The customer expectation is the model should be small and delivered within weeks. Modeling a stand-alone MCU will not yield overall meaningful results because it can be expected that most problems will occur at interfaces with other facilities. This paper discusses how we set out our modeling strategy, overcame obstacles, avoided touchy issues, and delivered the modeling result on time and on budget.

  13. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  14. Guide for conducting treatability studies under CERCLA: Solvent extraction quick reference fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Rawe, J.

    1992-08-01

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. This fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is a highly abridged version of the guide which bears the same title. This fact sheet presents an abbreviated guide for designing and implementing solvent extraction treatability studies. The fact sheet presents a description of and discusses the applicability and limitations of solvent extraction technologies and defines the prescreening and field measurement data needed to determine if treatability testing is required.

  15. Accelerated solvent extraction of alkylresorcinols in food products containing uncooked and cooked wheat.

    PubMed

    Holt, Monte D; Moreau, Robert A; DerMarderosian, Ara; McKeown, Nicola; Jacques, Paul F

    2012-05-16

    This research focuses on the overall extraction process of alkylresorcinols (ARs) from uncooked grains and baked products that have been processed with wheat, corn, rice, and white flour. Previously established extraction methods developed by Ross and colleagues, as well as a semiautomated method involving accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), were applied to extract ARs within freshly ground samples. For extraction of alkylresorcinols, nonpolar solvents such as ethyl acetate have been recommended for the extraction of uncooked foods, and polar solvents such as 1-propanol:water (3:1 v/v) have been recommended for the extraction of baked foods that contain rye, wheat, or other starch-rich grains. A comparison of AR extraction methods has been investigated with the application of gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to quantify the AR content. The goal of this research was to compare the rapid accelerated solvent extraction of the alkylresorcinols (ASE-AR) method to the previous manual AR extraction methods. Results for this study as well as the investigation of the overall efficiency of ASE-AR extraction with the use of a spiking study indicated that it can be comparable to current extraction methods but with less time required. Furthermore, the extraction time for ASE (approximately 40 min) is much more convenient and less tedious and time-consuming than previously established methods, which range from 5 h for processed foods to 24 h for raw grains. PMID:22530555

  16. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  17. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid–liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass–solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed. PMID:25516718

  18. Mixed solvent systems for recovery of ethanol from dilute aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.J.; Arrowsmith, A.; Ashton, N.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution coefficients and selectivities of a number of mixed solvent systems have been determined in order to assess their suitability in preferentially extracting ethanol from aqueous solution. The measured values of distribution coefficients and selectivities differ substantially from the values estimated by interpolating between the pure solvents. (Refs. 10).

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  20. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS USING WATER-ETHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a wood preserving agent that is commonly found in contaminated soils at wood treatment sties. The extraction of PCP from contaminated soils was evaluated using water-ethanol mixtures as solvents. A mixed solvent containing equal proportions of water and...

  1. Solvent effects on focused microwave assisted extraction of polyphenolic acids from Eucommia ulmodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2004-01-01

    An open microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid from Eucommia ulmodies. The effect of extraction variables, especially solvent, on the recoveries of these polyphenolic compounds was investigated using factorial design. As extracting solvent for these compounds, methanol produced a higher recovery than pure water. For straight chain alcohol solvents, the lower the carbon number, the higher the recoveries of the polyphenolic acids. The optimal ratio of methanol:water:glacial acetic acid in the solvent mixture used in microwave-assisted extraction was 2:8:0.3 (v/v) and this solvent could be directly used as the mobile phase in HPLC separation without additional intermittent treatment as reported in literature. The extraction under the condition of 50% microwave power and 30 s irradiation at a solvent:sample ratio of 10 (mL/g) was found to be the most advantageous. The repeatability test of extraction and chromatographic analysis was satisfactory for the analysis of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:15508835

  2. Pilot-scale subcritical solvent extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma long L.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Lim; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-10-15

    Curcuminoids consisted curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were extracted from turmeric using subcritical solvent by varying conditions of temperature (110-150 °C), time (1-10 min), pressure (5-100 atm), solid-to-solvent ratio, and mixing ratio of solvent. Preliminary lab-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum extraction temperature and mixing ratio of water and ethanol for the pilot-scale extraction. The maximum yield of curcuminoids in the pilot-scale system was 13.58% (curcumin 4.94%, demethoxycurcumin 4.73%, and bisdemethoxycurcumin 3.91% in dried extracts) at 135 °C/5 min with water/ethanol mixture (50:50, v/v) as a solvent. On the other hand, the extraction yields of curcuminoids were obtained as 10.49%, 13.71% and 13.96% using the 50%, 95% and 100% ethanol, respectively, at the atmospheric condition (60 °C/120 min). Overall results showed that the subcritical solvent extraction is much faster and efficient extraction method considering extracted curcuminoids contents and has a potential to develop a commercial process for the extraction of curcuminoids. PMID:25952841

  3. PLUTONIUM-238 RECOVERY FROM IRRADIATED NEPTUNIUM TARGETS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Herbst; Terry Todd; Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Steve Frank; John Swanson

    2006-10-01

    process. The primary purpose of the preliminary study discussed here is to develop an alternative process flowsheet using well-known solvent extraction (SX) techniques based on decades of experience with PUREX processing of nuclear materials. Ultimately, this initial study will be used to determine if an SX approach would offer any significant processing advantages relative to the currently proposed anion exchange process.

  4. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2016-02-19

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. PMID:26822320

  5. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: SOLVENT EXTRACTION QUICK REFERENCE FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. his fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is highly abridged version of the guide which bears the...

  6. Natural deep eutectic solvents as a new extraction media for phenolic metabolites in Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2013-07-01

    Developing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is an important issue for the biochemical industry. Synthetic ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have received considerable attention due to their negligible volatility at room temperature, high solubilization ability, and tunable selectivity. However, the potential toxicity of the synthetic ionic liquids and the solid state at room temperature of most deep eutectic solvents hamper their application as extraction solvents. In this study, a wide range of recently discovered natural ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (NADES) composed of natural compounds were investigated for the extraction of phenolic compounds of diverse polarity. Safflower was selected as a case study because its aromatic pigments cover a wide range of polarities. Many advantageous features of NADES (such as their sustainability, biodegradability combined with acceptable pharmaceutical toxicity profiles, and their high solubilization power of both polar and nonpolar compounds) suggest their potential as green solvents for extraction. Experiments with different NADES and multivariate data analysis demonstrated that the extractability of both polar and less polar metabolites was greater with NADES than conventional solvents. The water content in NADES proved to have the biggest effect on the yield of phenolic compounds. Most major phenolic compounds were recovered from NADES with a yield between 75% and 97%. This study reveals the potential of NADES for applications involving the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. PMID:23710664

  7. Semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold with a solvent-level sensor.

    PubMed

    Orlando, R M; Rath, S; Rohwedder, J J R

    2013-11-15

    A semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold for multiple extractions is presented. The manifold utilizes commercial solid-phase syringe cartridges and automatically introduces and elutes all the solvents during the extraction, reducing the typical workload and stress of the analyst. The manifold consists of a peristaltic pump with solenoid valves in a flow circuit that contains transmissive photomicrosensors. The photomicrosensors were used to control the solvent dispenser and the solvent level inside the cartridge. As solvent-level sensors, the photomicrosensors determined the exact time the solvent reached the top frit to avoid sorbent drying and accurately perform the solvent exchange. The repeatability of the manifold to introduce a particular volume of solvent into the cartridges was measured, and the precisions were between 0.05 and 2.89% (RSD). To evaluate the manifold, the amount of two fluoroquinolones in a fortified blank milk sample was determined. The results of the intra- and inter-day precision of multiple extractions from the fortified milk samples resulted in precisions better than 9.0% (RSD) and confirmed that the arrangement of the semiautomated manifold could adequately be used in solid-phase extraction with commercial cartridges. PMID:24148370

  8. Recovery of hafnium values from loaded extraction solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Abodishish, H.A.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for recovering high purity hafnium hydroxide from a methyl isobutyl ketone organic solvent that is substantially free of sulfate ions and contains hafnium thiocyanate and thiocyanic acid. The improvement comprising reacting the organic solvent with ammonia to produce a reaction product in the form of a methyl isobutyl ketone organic solvent that is substantially free of sulfate ions and contains ammonium thiocyanite solution and hafnium hydroxide; separating the constituents of the reaction product in accordance with their respective specific gravities to produce a hafnium hydroxide sludge as one of the separation products; and removing the liquid component of the sludge to yield a high purity hafnium hydroxide ready for calcination to hafnium oxide.

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  10. COORDINATION COMPOUND-SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Reas, W.H.

    1959-03-10

    A method is presented for the separation of uranium from aqueous solutions containing a uranyl salt and thorium. Thc separation is effected by adding to such solutions an organic complexing agent, and then contacting the solution with an organic solvent in which the organic complexing agent is soluble. By use of the proper complexing agent in the proper concentrations uranium will be complexed and subsequently removed in the organic solvent phase, while the thorium remains in the aqueous phase. Mentioned as suitable organic complexing agents are antipyrine, bromoantipyrine, and pyramidon.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  12. Extraction of betulin, trimyristin, eugenol and carnosic acid using water-organic solvent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lugemwa, Fulgentius N

    2012-01-01

    A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano) and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v) was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h. PMID:22864237

  13. Recovery and Extraction of Heavy Metal Ions Using Ionic Liquid as Green Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, Masami; Yabutani, Tomoki; Motonaka, Junko; Mishima, Yuji

    Ionic liquids are expected to replace conventional organic solvents in organic synthesis, solvent extraction and electrochemistry due to their unique characters such as low volatility, high stability and so on. In this work, N,N,-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide was used as an alternative solvent to extract heavy metal ions. As the extracting conditions, the additional effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as metal chelating agent into ionic liquids, shaking time and volume ratio were investigated. As extraction efficiency depended on 8-HQ concentration significantly, in order to extract high concentrated metal ions the solubility of 8-HQ into ionic liquid was tested. N,N,-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide had good solubility of 8-HQ. Consequently, 5 μmol of copper, zinc, cadmium and manganese could be completely recovered with 100 μl of ionic liquid.

  14. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jenothiny, S; Pathmanathan, MK; Jeyadevan, JP

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals. Results Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100 µl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents. PMID:23569850

  16. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  17. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  18. Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride lead chloride solvent

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1988-04-12

    In an extractive distillation method for separating hafniuim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which extractive distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux condenser and through the column to provide a liquid phase, and wherein molten salt solvent containing zirconium tetrachloride is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux condenser and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux condenser, the improvement is described comprising: the molten salt having a composition of at least 30 mole percent zinc chloride and at least 10 mole percent of lead chloride.

  19. Organic-solvent extraction of model biomaterials for use in the in vitro chromosome aberration test.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Atsuko; Haishima, Yuji; Hasegawa, Chie; Matsuda, Yoshie; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2008-07-01

    We prepared polyurethane (PU) containing 0.4% or 4% 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) as model materials to investigate the effectiveness of sample preparation by organic-solvent extraction for the in vitro chromosome aberration (CA) test. MDA itself (0.4 mg/mL) was positive only in the presence of an exogenous metabolizing system (S9 mix). The culture medium extract of PU containing 4% MDA (PU/4% MDA) was negative with and without S9 mix. Methanol and acetone extracts, on the other hand, induced structural CAs without S9 mix, which we did not expect because MDA requires S9 mix for activity. On chemical analysis, however, we found that the ratio of MDA extracted by the organic solvents to that extracted by the culture medium of PU/4% MDA was about 15:1. Interestingly, oligomers consisting of poly(tetramethyleneglycol) derivatives (OTMG) were also extracted by the organic solvents. The data suggest that the induction of structural CAs in the absence of S9 mix may have been partly due to synergism of MDA and OTMG. CA tests of MDA and PTMG-1000 in combination confirmed that to be the case. Thus, organic-solvent extraction may be more effective than medium extraction in evaluating the biological safety of biomaterials. Detailed chemical analysis of extracts was performed. PMID:17941025

  20. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  1. Conventional, ultrasound-assisted, and accelerated-solvent extractions of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhan; Qu, Ziqian; Lan, Yu; Zhao, Shujuan; Ma, Xiaohua; Wan, Qiang; Jing, Pu; Li, Pingfan

    2016-04-15

    Purple sweet potatoes (PSPs) are rich in anthocyanins. In this study, we investigated the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from PSPs using conventional extraction (CE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE). Additionally, the effects of these extraction methods on antioxidant activity and anthocyanin composition of PSP extracts were evaluated. In order of decreasing extraction efficiency, the extraction methods were ASE>UAE>CE for anthocyanins (218-244 mg/100 g DW) and CE>UAE>ASE for total phenolics (631-955 mg/100 g DW) and flavonoids (28-40 mg/100 g DW). Antioxidant activities of PSP extracts were CE≈UAE>ASE for ORAC (766-1091 mg TE/100 g DW) and ASE>CE≈UAE for FRAP (1299-1705 mg TE/100 g DW). Twelve anthocyanins were identified. ASE extracts contained more diacyl anthocyanins and less nonacyl and monoacyl anthocyanins than CE and ASE extracts (P<0.05). PMID:26616949

  2. RESOURCES CONSERVATIONS COMPANY - B.E.S.T. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Resources Conservation Company (RCC) Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.®) solvent extraction technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils, sediments, and sludges contaminated with organics. B...

  3. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  4. Growth and Decay: An Experiment Demonstrating Radioactivity Relationships and Chelate Solvent Extraction Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, D. M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The separation of lead and bismuth by chelate solvent extraction is of interest because of the simplicity which the use of radiotracers allows in its demonstration. Theoretical background information, procedures, materials needed, and typical results are provided for an experiment involving the extraction. (JN)

  5. Microwave-Assisted Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Shikimic Acid from Plant Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple method using microwave-assisted extraction (MWAE) using water as the extraction solvent was developed for the determination of shikimic acid in plant tissue of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, an important Poaceae forage and weed species widely spread in agricultural and non-agricultural areas t...

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, F.R.

    1962-07-24

    A solvent extraction process was developed for separating actinide elements including plutonium and uranium from fission products. By this method the ion content of the acidic aqueous solution is adjusted so that it contains more equivalents of total metal ions than equivalents of nitrate ions. Under these conditions the extractability of fission products is greatly decreased. (AEC)

  7. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  8. Ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures: sustainable solvents for extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures have demonstrated great potential in extraction processes relevant to several scientific and technological activities. This review focuses on the applicability of these sustainable solvents in a variety of extraction techniques, including but not limited to liquid- and solid-phase (micro) extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Selected applications of ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures on analytical method development, removal of environmental pollutants, selective isolation, and recovery of target compounds, purification of fuels, and azeotrope breaking are described and discussed. PMID:24811900

  9. One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

    2007-12-12

    Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

  10. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants. PMID:21736535

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

    2011-11-29

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

  12. Efficient extraction of canthaxanthin from Escherichia coli by a 2-step process with organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark A; Ma, Cynthia A; Armenta, Roberto E

    2012-05-01

    Canthaxanthin has a substantial commercial market in aquaculture, poultry production, and cosmetic and nutraceutical industries. Commercial production is dominated by chemical synthesis; however, changing consumer demands fuel research into the development of biotechnology processes. Highly productive microbial systems to produce carotenoids can be limited by the efficiency of extraction methods. Extraction with hexane, acetone, methanol, 2-propanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, tetrahydrofuran and ethyl acetate was carried out with each solvent separately, and subsequently the most efficient solvents were tested in combination, both as mixtures and sequentially. Sequential application of methanol followed by acetone proved most efficient. Extraction efficiency remained stable over a solvent to biomass range of 100:1 to 55:1, but declined significantly at a ratio of 25:1. Application of this method to a canthaxanthin-producing Escherichia coli production system enabled efficient canthaxanthin extraction of up to 8.5 mg g(-1) dry biomass. PMID:22353211

  13. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production. PMID:26802186

  14. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF THORIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1959-04-21

    The separation of thorium values from rare earth metals contained ln aqueous solutions by means of extraction with a water immiscible alkyl phosphate diluted with a hydrocarbon such as hexane is described. While the extraction according to this invention may be carried out from any aqueous salt solution, it is preferred to use solutions containing free mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid and in particular nitric acid are sultable in a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 7 normal. The higher acid concentration results in higher extraction values.

  16. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  17. Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio

    2016-09-15

    The extracting effectiveness of some solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate), used as pure or in binary and ternary mixtures, was studied for the extraction of seeds from the fermented pomace of Nebbiolo cv. The aqueous mixtures of acetone provided the highest extraction yields in total polyphenols and total flavonoids. Polyphenolic extracts were also obtained with aqueous mixtures of ethanol or acetone at variable concentrations, and the condensed tannins were quantified with the phloroglucinolysis method. The aqueous mixtures of acetone were more effective than the corresponding aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The solvent influenced the extraction yield and the composition of the extracts: with the increase of the yield, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the condensed tannins increased. A significant correlation was noticed between mDP and the molar percentages of (+)-catechin as terminal unit (negative correlation), and of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3O-gallate as extension units (positive correlation). PMID:27080893

  18. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    PubMed

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). Monosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. PMID:26400737

  19. Substitution of carcinogenic solvent dichloromethane for the extraction of volatile compounds in a fat-free model food system.

    PubMed

    Cayot, Nathalie; Lafarge, Céline; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Cayot, Philippe

    2016-07-22

    Dichloromethane is known as a very efficient solvent, but, as other halogenated solvents, is recognized as a hazardous product (CMR substance). The objective of the present work is to propose substitution solvent for the extraction of volatile compounds. The most important physico-chemical parameters in the choice of an appropriate extraction solvent of volatile compounds are reviewed. Various solvents are selected on this basis and on their hazard characteristics. The selected solvents, safer than dichloromethane, are compared using the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from a model food product able to interact with volatile compounds. Volatile compounds with different hydrophobicity are used. High extraction yields were positively correlated with high boiling points and high Log Kow values of volatile compounds. Mixtures of solvents such as azeotrope propan-2-one/cyclopentane, azeotrope ethyl acetate/ethanol, and mixture ethyl acetate/ethanol (3:1, v/v) gave higher extraction yields than those obtained with dichloromethane. PMID:27320380

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  1. STORAGE STABILITY OF PESTICIDES IN EXTRACT SOLVENTS AND SAMPLING MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency. Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate...

  2. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  3. Extraction of ethanol from aqueous solution. 2. A solvent more volatile than ethanol: Dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, F.; Gomis, V.; Botella, R.F.

    1988-04-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water-ethanol-dichloromethane have been determined experimentally at 25/sup 0/C and correlated simultaneously with vapor-liquid equilibrium data by using the UNIQUAC model. A suitable extraction process for separating ethanol and water using dichloromethane as the solvent has been chosen, and the design calculations have been carried out to determine the energetic requirements. The properties that another solvent should offer to decrease these energetic requirements have been studied.

  4. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p < 0.05) on the %yield of SB, with R(2) - 0.8989 which showed good fitness of a second-order model. Based on this model, optima operating variables for the extraction process were established as: sample weight of 30.04 g, solvent volume of 346.04 ml and extraction time of 40 min, which gave 66.90 % yield of SB. Furthermore, the result of the physico-chemical properties obtained for the shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil. PMID:26787993

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction and organic solvent microextraction of chemical agent simulants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ramsey, R.S.; Ho, C.h.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1991-12-31

    Experiments with chemical warfare agent simulants suggest that supercritical fluid extraction can achieve good extraction recoveries of agents in soil and produce less laboratory waste than current organic solvent extraction methods. Two-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil were extracted using 5% methanol in carbon dioxide at 300 atm for 2 min at 60{degrees}C. Recoveries (n=3) were 79{plus_minus}23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93{plus_minus}14% for 2-chlorethylethylsulfide, 92{plus_minus}13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate, and 95{plus_minus}17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. A 5 min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol is more reproducible but less efficient.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction and organic solvent microextraction of chemical agent simulants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ramsey, R.S.; Ho, C.h.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with chemical warfare agent simulants suggest that supercritical fluid extraction can achieve good extraction recoveries of agents in soil and produce less laboratory waste than current organic solvent extraction methods. Two-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil were extracted using 5% methanol in carbon dioxide at 300 atm for 2 min at 60{degrees}C. Recoveries (n=3) were 79{plus minus}23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93{plus minus}14% for 2-chlorethylethylsulfide, 92{plus minus}13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate, and 95{plus minus}17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. A 5 min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol is more reproducible but less efficient.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  8. Solvent Selection for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Polymeric Sorbents Used in Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Primbs, Toby; Genualdi, Susan; Simonich, Staci

    2014-01-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was evaluated as a method for extracting semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from air sampling media; including quartz fiber filter (QFF), polyurethane foam (PUF), and a polystyrene divinyl benzene copolymer (XAD-2). Hansen solubility parameter plots were used to aid in the PLE solvent selection in order to reduce both co-extraction of polyurethane and save time in evaluating solvent compatibility during the initial steps of method development. A PLE solvent composition of 75:25% hexane:acetone was chosen for PUF. The XAD-2 copolymer was not solubilized under the PLE conditions used. The average percent PLE recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) of 63 SOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine, amide, triazine, thiocarbamate, and phosphorothioate pesticides, were 76.7 (6.2), 79.3 (8.1), and 93.4 (2.9) % for the QFF, PUF, and XAD-2, respectively. PMID:18220448

  9. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Eckert, Franck; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF3-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids' ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  10. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi; Eckert, Franck

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF{sub 3}-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF{sub 3} were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  11. CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    2010-01-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) is the first, production-scale Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction process for cesium separation to be constructed. The process utilizes an engineered solvent to remove cesium from waste alkaline salt solution resulting from nuclear processes. While the application of this solvent extraction process is unique, the process uses commercially available centrifugal contactors for the primary unit operation as well as other common methods of physical separation of immiscible liquids. The fission product, cesium-137, is the primary focus of the process due to the hazards associated with its decay. The cesium is extracted from the waste, concentrated, and stripped out of the solvent resulting in a low-level waste salt solution and a concentrated cesium nitrate stream. The concentrated cesium stream can be vitrified into borosilicate glass with almost no increase in glass volume, and the salt solution can be dispositioned as a low-level grout. The unit is deployed as an interim process to disposition waste prior to start-up of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The Salt Waste Processing Facility utilizes the same cesium removal technology, but will treat more contaminated waste. The MCU is not only fulfilling a critical need, it is the first demonstration of the process at production-scale.

  12. Tailoring and recycling of deep eutectic solvents as sustainable and efficient extraction media.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Lee, Min Sang; Nam, Min Woo; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-11

    The present study demonstrates that deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with the highest extractability can be designed by combining effective DES components from screening diverse DESs. The extraction of polar ginseng saponins from white ginseng was used as a way to demonstrate the tuneability as well as recyclability of DESs. A newly designed ternary DES (GPS-5) composed of glycerol, l-proline, and sucrose at 9:4:1 was used as a sustainable and efficient extraction medium. Based on the anti-tumor activity on HCT-116 cancer cells, it was confirmed that GPS-5 was merely an extraction solvent with no influence of the bioactivity of the ginsenosides extracted. Excellent recovery of the extracted saponins was easily achieved through solid-phase extraction (SPE). Recycling of the DES was accomplished by simple freeze-drying of the washed solutions from the SPE. The extraction efficiencies of the DESs recycled once, twice, and thrice were 92%, 85%, and 83% of that of the freshly synthesized solvent. PMID:26585205

  13. Clean recovery of antioxidant flavonoids from onions: optimising solvent free microwave extraction method.

    PubMed

    Zill-E-Huma; Abert Vian, Maryline; Maingonnat, Jean Francois; Chemat, Farid

    2009-11-01

    A solvent free microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity extraction (MHG) of flavonol content from onion (Allium cepa L.) was studied. Effectiveness of this innovative method in extraction of onion total phenolic content, total quercetin (TQ), quercetin aglycon (QA), quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside (QDG), quercetin-4'-monoglucoside (Q4G), quercetin-3-monoglucoside (Q3G), kaempferol (KMF) and myricetin (MRT) have been evaluated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. Microwave extraction offers important advantages like shorter extraction time (23min), cleaner feature (no solvent or water used) and extraction of valuable onion crude juice retaining fresh organoleptic properties with higher phenolic content (58.29mgGAE/gDW) at optimized power (500W). Microwave extraction resulted significant yield (81.5%) with 41.9% of flavonol contents, with better retain of remaining flavonoids (55.9%) in residues of onions. QDG (239.7mg/100gDW) and Q4G (82.55mg/100gDW) have been reported the main flavonol in this study. Minor quantities of QA (traces), Q3G (4.22mg/100gDW) and KMF (3.99mg/100gDW) were also detected in microwave onion extracts. PMID:19800069

  14. FIELD EVALUATION OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and pilot-scale studies have demonstrated that cosolvent-enhanced in situ extraction can remove residual and free-phase nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), but may leave levels of contaminants in the ground water and subsurface formations in excess of the regulatory requir...

  15. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants.

    PubMed

    Doppler, Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Schneider, Christina; Krska, Rudolf; Delcambre, Sylvie; Hiller, Karsten; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone. PMID:27367667

  16. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Doppler, Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Schneider, Christina; Krska, Rudolf; Delcambre, Sylvie; Hiller, Karsten; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone. PMID:27367667

  17. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  18. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography comparison of supercritical-fluid extraction and solvent extraction of microbial fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Cocks, S; Wrigley, S K; Chicarelli-Robinson, M I; Smith, R M

    1995-04-21

    The use of supercritical fluids for the extraction of biologically active compounds from the biomass of microbial fermentations has been compared with extraction using the organic solvents methanol and dichloromethane. Compounds representing a range of structural types were selected for investigation. All the extracts obtained were examined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The extractability of metabolites using unmodified and methanol-modified supercritical-fluid carbon dioxide was examined in particular detail for six microbial metabolites: chaetoglobosin A, mycolutein, luteoreticulin, 7,8-dihydro-7,8-epoxy-1-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-xanthone-8-carboxyl ic acid methyl ester, sydowinin B and elaiophylin. The extraction strength of supercritical-fluid carbon dioxide alone appeared to be lower than that of dichloromethane. All the components of interest that were extractable with dichloromethane and methanol were also extractable with methanol-modified carbon dioxide. PMID:7780576

  20. Cardioprotective potential of Irish macroalgae: generation of glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate containing extracts by accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Juan; Hayes, Maria; McLoughlin, Pádraig; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE®) was used to generate 18 macroalgal extracts from Irish seaweeds. The glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopriopionate content of the generated ASE® extracts were estimated using (1)H-NMR and confirmed for selected extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dimethylsulfoniopriopionate was only identified in the ASE® extract generated from Codium fragile ISCG0029. Glycine betaine was identified in the ASE® extract generated from Ulva intestinalis ISCG0356 using (1)H-NMR. Mass spectrometry analysis found that the seaweed species Cytoseira nodicaulis ISCG0070, Cytoseira tamariscofolia ISCG0283, and Polysiphonia lanosa ISCG0462 also had a glycine betaine content that ranged from 1.39 ng/ml to 105.11 ng/ml. Generated ASE® macroalgal extracts have potential for use as functional food ingredients in food products. PMID:26018918

  1. Studies on tropane alkaloid extraction by volatile organic solvents: dichloromethane vs. chloroform.

    PubMed

    El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Gutierrez-Nicolas, Fátima; Ravelo, Angel G; Zárate, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the production of tropane alkaloids by hairy roots of Atropa baetica, transgenic for the gene h6h encoding the enzyme hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase, solvent extraction with chloroform and with dichloromethane of the metabolites present in the liquid medium and in the root tissue was compared. The extraction of scopolamine from the liquid medium was equally effective with either solvent, giving maximum values of around 850 microg/flask. For the roots, three different extraction methods were employed: A, employing chloroform:methanol: (25%) ammonia (15:5:1) for initial extraction, followed by treatment with sulfuric acid and ammonia, and using chloroform for the final extraction and washes; B, as A but using dichloromethane for extraction and washes; and C, as B but substituting chloroform for dichloromethane in the extraction cocktail. Scopolamine was the most abundant metabolite (present in amounts of 3250-3525 microg/g dry weight) and presented similar extraction efficiencies with all of the extraction methods employed. The highest amounts of hyoscyamine and the intermediate 6beta-hydxoxyhyoscyamine were present on day 31 (800 and 975 microg/g dry weight, respectively) and no statistical differences between the three extraction methods employed were detected. This study confirms that, for the extraction of tropane alkaloids, dichloromethane can replace the commonly employed chloroform, the use of which incurs major health, security and regulation problems. PMID:16634287

  2. Solvent extraction of Pb(II) with AGDOMD

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, O.F.; Neves, E.F.A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of Pb(II) between an aqueous phase and a toluene phase containing dehydrated fatty acids found in distilled castor oil (AGDOMD) has been studied. Using the slope technique the conditional equilibrium constant of extraction was determined (kext = 1.02 x 10/sup -7/) and the main species present in the organic phase was identified as (PbNO/sub 3/R.2HR)/sub (o)/, where HR represents the fatty acid used.

  3. Ion flotation and solvent extraction of ferric thiocyanate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jurkiewicz, K.

    1987-12-01

    The influence of thiocyanate and accompanying mineral acids concentration on the effectiveness of Fe(III) ion flotation, Fe(III) precipitation in cetyltrimethylammonium ferric-thiocyanate form (as sublate), and Fe(III) extraction using ethyl acetate was studied. The effectiveness of these processes improves with the extent of Fe(III) complexation by thiocyanates. In the presence of acids, flotation and precipitation are increased as follows: HClO/sub 4/ < HCl < HNO/sub 3/ < H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The position of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in this series changes with changing thiocyanate concentration. Extraction effectiveness is increased in the series: H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ < H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ < HNO/sub 3/, HClO/sub 4/, HCl. The following points are discussed: (a) the influence of acid anions competing with thiocyanate anions in Fe(III) complexation; (b) the influence of the competition between acid anions and complex ferric-thiocyanate anions in sublate formation; (c) the influence of hydrogen ion concentration increase in thiocyanate medium on the results of Fe(III) flotation, precipitation, and extraction; and (d) the influence of anion affinity for a collector on the solution surface properties and on Fe(III) flotation.

  4. Solvent extraction of metal picrates by phosphoryl-containing podands

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarenko, A.Y. |; Baulin, V.E.; Lamb, J.D.; Volkova, T.A.; Varnek, A.A. |; Wipff, G.

    1999-05-01

    Using UV spectroscopy, the authors have studied the thermodynamics of extraction of metal picrates M{sup +}Pic{sup {minus}} (M{sup +} = Li{sup +}, Na{sup +} K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, Tl{sup +} and Ag{sup +}) and M{sup 2+} (Pic{sup {minus}}){sub 2} (M{sup 2+} = Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) from water to a chloroform or to a dichloromethane solution. The extractant molecules are mono-podands R-O-(CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 2}-){sub n}-O-R containing an ether chain and terminal phosphoryl groups: R = (Ph){sub 2}P(O)-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-; n = 3, 4 (I--II) and R = (Ph){sub 2}P(O)-CH{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-, n = 1, 3, 4 (III--V). The authors found that podand I displays a remarkable Ba{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} extraction selectivity. All podands extract alkali and alkaline earth picrates in dichloromethane (as dissociated ion pairs) better than in chloroform (as non-dissociated ion pairs). Based on Molecular Dynamics simulations of the complexes I{sup {sm_bullet}}M{sup 2+} and I{sup {sm_bullet}}M{sup 2+} (Pic{sup {minus}}){sub 2} in the gas phase and in chloroform the authors suggest that the high selectivity of I for Ba{sup 2+} is due to (1) the formation of the complex with an optimal pseudocavity for Ba{sup 2+}, in which six donor atoms of the ligand and four oxygens of the Pic{sup {minus}} counter-ion coordinate to the cation, and (2) the smaller dehydration energy of Ba{sup 2+} compared to other alkaline earth cations. The relative free energies of extraction obtained from simulations on the I{sup {sm_bullet}} M{sup 2+} (Pic{sup {minus}}){sub 2} complexes are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts frommore » the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. In conclusion, diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.« less

  6. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    PubMed

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

  7. Solvent extraction of lanthanides with N-m-nitrobenzoyl- and N-m-cyanobenzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Sadanobu

    1995-03-01

    The solvent extraction of lanthanides (Ln) with N-m-nitrobenzoyl- and N-m-cyanobenzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine, was investigated. The representative lanthanides (Yb, Ho, Eu, Pr and La) were all found to extract with compounds as self-adducts of the form, LnL{sub 3}(HL){sub 3}, where L and HL denote the ligand anion and neutral ligand, respectively. The extraction constant and separation factor were compared with those of the N-p-octyloxy derivative bof N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine previously reported. The correlation between extractability, mutual separability of lanthanides and acidity of the reagent were discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Dispersion and coalescence of oil droplets by ultrasound and application for solvent extraction of gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Thanh Nguyen, Tam; Okura, Risa; Nakayama, Shingo; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Jin, Jiye

    2015-07-01

    To improve the performance of solvent extraction of rare metals, the effects of ultrasonic and organic solvent conditions on the demulsification of emulsions were examined. Optimized conditions were adopted in the solvent extraction of gallium by ultrasonic irradiation. As organic solvents, chloroform, 1,2-dichloromethane, p-bromotoluene, bromobenzene, and 1,2-dibromoethane were employed. Emulsification was carried out using a horn-type transducer at 20 kHz. Demulsification was performed with plate-type transducers at 1.0-4.8 MHz. The demulsification time decreased with increasing ultrasonic frequency and power because the primary and secondary acoustic forces of droplets become stronger. Inclining the vessel shortened the demulsification time. In the case of chloroform at a low solution pH, the demulsification time was shortest since the zeta potential of droplets was close to zero. The sequential ultrasonic irradiation at 20 kHz and 4.8 MHz greatly shortens the operation time needed for solvent extraction of gallium from an aqueous solution.

  9. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested. PMID:21882663

  10. Accelerated solvent extraction for GC-based tobacco fingerprinting and its comparison with simultaneous distillation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Pang, Tao; Guo, Ziming; Li, Yanli; Wang, Xiaolin; Deng, Jianhua; Zhong, Kejun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2010-04-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure has been developed as a pretreatment method for chemical fingerprinting of volatile and semi-volatile components in cut tobacco. The ASE extraction conditions including temperature, operation pressure and extraction cycles were optimized to maximize extraction yield. The method was validated with repeatability, recovery and linearity. Compared with simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), ASE provides higher extraction yields, less extraction time, lower solvent consumption and less labor time, and is more suitable for tobacco sample preparation. A typical ASE extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 305 components with signal-to-noise ratio higher than 100 were tentatively identified by NIST05 and Wiley database. Finally, 36 cigarette samples from six cigarette brands were analyzed using the developed chemical fingerprinting method. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis shows good discrimination of different cigarette brands. The results indicate that ASE method can serve as high-throughput sample preparation technique for cigarette chemical fingerprint analysis. PMID:20188977

  11. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil.

    PubMed

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Sit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants. PMID:22613128

  12. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  13. Extraction of reference eastern shale with hydrogen donor and nondonor solvents

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.F.; Blanche, M.S.

    1985-09-01

    Oil shale from the New Albany Formation in Bullitt County, Kentucky, was treated with water together with hydrogen-donor and nondonor solvents at 400/sup 0/C and extracted with benzene-methanol. The purpose of the experiments was to measure the amount of liquid organic material recovered with hydrogen-donor and nondonor solvents. Liquid organic material amounting to approximately double that recovered by a Fischer assay experiment was recovered with tetralin, a hydrogen-donor solvent, and with naphthalene, a nondonor solvent. The shale was also treated with tetralin and water for periods of 5 minutes to 60 minutes to measure the effect of time on yield of liquid product. The results showed that yields increased with time and that treatment times of about 30 minutes were required to recover more liquid product than that produced by a Fischer assay experiment. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. SLURRY SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1959-01-20

    A solvent extraction process is described for recovering uranium from low grade uranium bearing minerals such as carnotit or shale. The finely communited ore is made up as an aqueous slurry containing the necessary amount of acid to solubilize the uranium and simultaneously or subsequently contacted with an organic solvent extractant such as the alkyl ortho-, or pyro phosphoric acids, alkyl phosphites or alkyl phosphonates in combination with a diluent such as kerosene or carbon tetrachlorids. The extractant phase is separated from the slurry and treated by any suitable process to recover the uranium therefrom. One method for recovering the uranium comprises treating the extract with aqueous HF containing a reducing agent such as ferrous sulfate, which reduces the uranium and causes it to be precipitated as uranium tetrafluoride.

  15. Metals separation using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Pourfarzaneh, M.

    1997-12-31

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation program was initially funded by DOE EM-50 to develop processes for the efficient separation of radionuclides and other hazardous metals. This process has simulated the partnership between industry and ANL for many applications related to hazardous metal problems in industry. In-tank or near-tank hazardous metals separation using magnetic particles promises simple, compact processing at very low costs and employs mature chemical separations technologies to remove and recover hazardous metals from aqueous solutions. The selective chemical extractants are attached to inexpensive magnetic carrier particles. Surfaces of small particles composed of rare earths or ferromagnetic materials are treated to retain chemical extractants (e.g., TBP, CMPO, quaternary amines, carboxylic acid). After selective partitioning of contaminants to the surface layer, magnets are used to collect the loaded particles from the tank. The particles can be regenerated by stripping the contaminants and the selective metals can be recovered and recycled from the strip solution. This process and its related equipment are simple enough to be used for recovery/recycling and waste minimization activities at many industrial sites. Both the development of the process for hazardous and radioactive waste and the transfer of the technology will be discussed.

  16. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n=3), 1.6057% (n=3) and 1.6132% (n=3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES-protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins. PMID:25732422

  17. Microfluidic approach to the formation of internally porous polymer particles by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takaichi; G Lopez, Carlos; Douglas, Jack F; Ono, Tsutomu; Cabral, João T

    2014-03-11

    We report the controlled formation of internally porous polyelectrolyte particles with diameters ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers through selective solvent extraction using microfluidics. Solvent-resistant microdevices, fabricated by frontal photopolymerization, encapsulate binary polymer (P)/solvent (S1) mixtures by a carrier solvent phase (C) to form plugs with well-defined radii and low polydispersity; the suspension is then brought into contact with a selective extraction solvent (S2) that is miscible with C and S1 but not P, leading to the extraction of S1 from the droplets. The ensuing phase inversion yields polymer capsules with a smooth surface but highly porous internal structure. Depending on the liquid extraction time scale, this stage can be carried out in situ, within the chip, or ex situ, in an external S2 bath. Bimodal polymer plugs are achieved using asymmetrically inverted T junctions. For this demonstration, we form sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (P) particles using water (S1), hexadecane (C), and methyl ethyl ketone (S2). We measure droplet extraction rates as a function of drop size and polymer concentration and propose a simple scaling model to guide particle formation. We find that the extraction time required to form particles from liquid droplets does not depend on the initial polymer concentration but is rather proportional to the initial droplet size. The resulting particle size follows a linear relationship with the initial droplet size for all polymer concentrations, allowing for the precise control of particle size. The internal particle porous structure exhibits a polymer density gradient ranging from a dense surface skin toward an essentially hollow core. Average particle porosities between 10 and 50% are achieved by varying the initial droplet compositions up to 15 wt % polymer. Such particles have potential applications in functional, optical, and coating materials. PMID:24568261

  18. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  19. Remediation case studies: Ex situ soil treatment technologies (bioremediation, solvent extraction, thermal desorption). Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The case studies in this volume describe ten applications of ex situ soil treatment technologies, including three applications of land treatment (bioremediation), one application of solvent extraction, and six applications of thermal desorption. Two of the land treatment applications were full-scale remediations of sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons, and one was a field demonstration at a site contaminated with pesticides. The solvent extraction application was a full-scale application to treat soil contaminated with PCBs. All six thermal desorption applications were full-scale, and involved treatment of soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, and pesticides. All case studies in this volume are for completed applications.

  20. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  1. Neutron-activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction Determination of traces of antimony.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Shabana, R; Sanad, W; Allam, B; Khalifa, K

    1968-02-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction to the determination of traces of antimony in aluminium and rocks is reported. Three simple extraction procedures, using isopropyl ether, hexone, and tributyl phosphate, are described for the selective separation of radioantimony from interfering radionuclides. Antimony concentration is measured by counting the activities of the (122)Sb and (124)Sb photopeaks at 0.564 and 0.603 MeV. PMID:18960289

  2. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microgram quantities of copper in tea after solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Alrahman, A M

    1985-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method is described for determining trace amounts of copper in tea. The method is based on the solvent extraction of the metal as tetraiodocuprate (I), from 2 M HCl solutions of tea samples which contain 12% (w/v) KI, into methylisobutyl ketone. The organic extracts, containing the ion-association complex of copper are atomized into an air-acetylene flame. The limit of detection is 1.14 micrograms g-1 Cu. PMID:4077371

  3. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M.

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

  5. Ultrasound-assisted green solvent extraction of high-added value compounds from microalgae Nannochloropsis spp.

    PubMed

    Parniakov, O; Apicella, E; Koubaa, M; Barba, F J; Grimi, N; Lebovka, N; Pataro, G; Ferrari, G; Vorobiev, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate ultrasound (US)-assisted green solvent extraction of valuable compounds from the microalgae Nannochloropsis spp. Individual green solvents (water, ethanol (EtOH), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) and binary mixture of solvents (water-DMSO and water-EtOH) were used for the extraction procedures. Maximum total phenolic compounds yield (Yp ≈ 0.33) was obtained after US pre-treatment (W=400 W, 15 min), being almost 5-folds higher compared to that found for the untreated samples and aqueous extraction (Yp ≈ 0.06). The highest yield of total chlorophylls (Yc ≈ 0.043) was obtained after US (W=400 W, 7.5 min), being more than 9-folds higher than those obtained for the untreated samples and aqueous extraction (Yc ≈ 0.004). The recovery efficiency decreased as DMSO>EtOH>H2O. The optimal conditions to recover phenolic compounds and chlorophylls from microalgae were obtained after US pre-treatment (400 W, 5 min), binary mixtures of solvents (water-DMSO and water-EtOH) at 25-30%, and microalgae concentration of 10%. PMID:26398670

  6. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  7. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  8. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    PubMed

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time. PMID:25328213

  9. Comparison of different extraction solvent mixtures for characterization of phenolic compounds in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Kajdzanoska, Marina; Petreska, Jasmina; Stefova, Marina

    2011-05-25

    Eight different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with an acid (acetic, formic, hydrochloric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of phenolic compounds from strawberries belonging to five groups of polyphenols: anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and conjugated forms of ellagic acid. Twenty-eight compounds from these five groups have been detected and quantified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). The yield of each phenolic compound and group was evaluated with regard to the extraction solvent composition. Acetone containing extraction mixtures were superior to the ones containing methanol for extraction yield of total phenolic compounds, which was especially pronounced for the groups of flavan-3-ols and conjugated forms of ellagic acid. The mixture acetone/acetic acid (99:1, v/v) gave the best results for the qualitative and quantitative assay of the polyphenols present in strawberries since all 28 compounds were detected only in these extracts in quantities higher or comparable to the other extraction solvents tested. PMID:21495681

  10. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. PMID:27006224

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction of natural antioxidants from rosemary:  comparison with liquid solvent sonication.

    PubMed

    Tena, M T; Valcárcel, M; Hidalgo, P J; Ubera, J L

    1997-02-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and liquid solvent sonication, in combination with two different sample treatments, were compared for the extraction of natural antioxidants from rosemary leaves. Dried, ground, and sieved rosemary leaves (20 mg) were subjected to SFE with CO(2) at 355 bar at 100 °C (CO(2) density 0.72 g/mL) for 20 min at a liquid flow rate of 4 mL/min. The analytes were concentrated on an ODS trap and subsequently eluted with acetone. Antioxidants in the SF and liquid solvent extract were analyzed by HPLC. Compounds of known antioxidant activity such as carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate were identified by mass spectrometry of the HPLC fractions collected. Freezing and grinding the samples in liquid nitrogen resulted in decreased carnosic acid recoveries. Supercritical CO(2) extraction provided the highest recovery of carnosic acid from rosemary leaves (35.7 mg/g), the lowest relative standard deviation (4.4%), and the cleanest extract [Formula: see text] no cleanup prior to HPLC was required. Among the liquid solvents studies, only acetone provided comparable results (73% recovery relative to SC-CO(2) extraction); however, it required decoloration with active carbon prior to HPLC analysis. PMID:21639201

  12. Subcritical co-solvents extraction of lipid from wet microalgae pastes of Nannochloropsis sp

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Liu, Tianzhong; Chen, Xiaolin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Lili; Chen, Yu; Peng, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper subcritical co-solvents extraction (SCE) of algal lipid from wet pastes of Nannochloropsis sp. is examined. The influences of five operating parameters including the ratio between ethanol to hexane, the ratio of mixed solvents to algal biomass (dry weight), extraction temperature, pressure, and time were investigated. The determined optimum extraction conditions were 3:1 (hexane to ethanol ratio), 10:1 ratio (co-solvents to microalgae (dry weight) ratio), 90°C, 1.4 MPa, and 50 min, which could produce 88% recovery rate of the total lipids. In addition, electron micrographs of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to show that the algal cell presented shrunken, collapsed with some wrinkles and microholes after SCE extraction. The main composition of total lipids extracted under the optimum conditions was TAG which represented more than 80%. And the fatty acid profile of triglycerides revealed that C16:0 (35.67 ± 0.2%), C18:1 (26.84 ± 0.044%) and C16:1 (25.96 ± 0.011%) were dominant. Practical applications: The reported method could save energy consumption significantly through avoiding deep dewatering (for example drying). The composition of the extracted lipid is suitable for the production of high quality biodiesel. PMID:22745570

  13. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %). PMID:26289330

  14. Extracting organic matter on Mars: A comparison of methods involving subcritical water, surfactant solutions and organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, Duy; Court, Richard W.; Sims, Mark R.; Cullen, David C.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2014-09-01

    The first step in many life detection protocols on Mars involves attempts to extract or isolate organic matter from its mineral matrix. A number of extraction options are available and include heat and solvent assisted methods. Recent operations on Mars indicate that heating samples can cause the loss or obfuscation of organic signals from target materials, raising the importance of solvent-based systems for future missions. Several solvent types are available (e.g. organic solvents, surfactant based solvents and subcritical water extraction) but a comparison of their efficiencies in Mars relevant materials is missing. We have spiked the well characterised Mars analogue material JSC Mars-1 with a number of representative organic standards. Extraction of the spiked JSC Mars-1 with the three solvent methods provides insights into the relative efficiency of these methods and indicates how they may be used on future Mars missions.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF PYRETHROID RESIDUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD SAMPLES BY ENHANCED SOLVENT EXTRACTION/SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract summarizes pyrethorid methods development research. It provides a summary of sample preparation and analytical techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction, enhance solvent extraction, gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

  16. [Growth inhibition of the four species of red tide microalgae by extracts from Enteromorpha prolifera extracted with the five solvents].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of extracts of Enteromorpha prolifera on the growth of the four species of red tide microalgae (Amphidinium hoefleri, Karenia mikimitoi, Alexandrium tamarense and Skeletonema costatum), the extracts were extracted with five solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether), respectively. Based on the observation of algal morphology and the measurement of algal density, cell size and the contents of physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide), the results showed methanol extracts of E. prolifera had the strongest action. The inhibitory effects of A. hoefleri, K. mikimitoi, A. tamarense and S. costatum by the methanol extracts were 54.0%, 48.1%, 44.0% and 37.5% in day 10, respectively. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate caused cavities, pieces and pigment reduction in cells, and those with chloroform and petroleum ether caused goffers on cells. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with all the five solvents decreased athletic ability of the cells, among which those extracted with ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether decreased cell size of test microalgae. The further investigation found that the methanol extracts significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide in the cells of those microalgae. The inhibitory effect of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide contents of four species of microalgae by the methanol extracts was about 51%. On the basis of the above experiments, dry powder of E. prolifera were extracts with methanol, and extracts were obtained. The methanol extracts were partitioned to petroleum ether phase, ethyl acetate phase, n-butanol phase and distilled water phase by liquid-liquid fractionation, and those with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate significantly inhibited the growth of all test microalgae, and the inhibitory effect of four species of microalgae by those two extracts was above 25% in day

  17. Homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction. [Propylene carbonate-water system

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, C.S.; Williams, E.T.; Finston, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to extend the technique of homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction into propylene carbonate. The mutual solubilities of propylene carbonate in water and vice-versa are shown in the phase diagram. The extraction of a variety of monodentate and bidentate ligand complexes with Fe(III) as a function of ligand concentration and pH were investigated. The monodentate ligands studied include, thiocyanate, chloride, bromide, benzoate, and bathophenanthrolines. The bidentate ligands studied include the various ..beta..-diketones, 8-quinolinol, and also cupferron which was studied under normal conditions, i.e., not under conditions of homogeneous extraction. The homogeneous extraction proved effective for a variety of chelate complexes and ion association complexes of iron giving, in all cases, very rapid extraction as compared with the slow rate of conventional extraction methods.

  18. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  19. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  20. Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1999-06-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

  1. Removal of ionic dyes from water by solvent extraction using reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Pandit, P; Basu, S

    2004-04-15

    Several methods (e.g., UV/H2O2 oxidation, adsorption, flocculation-precipitation) are normally employed to remove dye from water. A new technique based on liquid/liquid extraction using reverse micelles is proposed whereby recovery of solvent and reuse of dye is possible. Experiments were conducted by mixing a known quantity of dye in aqueous phase and solvent-containing surfactants in a simple mixer. The separation of solvent phase, containing encapsulated dye in reverse micelles, from aqueous phase due to gravity results in separation of dye from water. The removal of different ionic dyes (e.g., eosin yellow, methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange, orange G) from aqueous phase in the presence of different cationic and anionic surfactants [e.g., sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and cetyl pyridinium chloride] in different solvents (e.g., amyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, methyl benzoate, and isooctane) were studied by conducting experiments. The percentage removal of dye from aqueous phase increases with the decrease in dye concentration or with the increase in surfactants concentration. Furthermore, the percentage COD removal of dye is increased with the increase in surfactant concentration. The nature of solvent has minimal effect on percentage removal of dye. The ratio of solventto aqueous phase volume required for the removal of dye decreases with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is possible to back-extract dye into aqueous phase and recover solvent by using counterionic surfactants. The separation of aqueous phase from the aqueous-phase solvent dispersion is faster for amyl alcohol as compared to benzyl alcohol and methyl benzoate. A theoretical model based on ion-exchange reaction between surfactants and dye is used to analyze the experimental data. PMID:15116851

  2. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Chemical and Physical Properties Progress in FY 2000 and FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, BA

    2002-04-17

    The purpose of this work was to provide chemical- and physical-property data addressing the technical risks of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process as applied specifically to the removal of cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. As part of the overall Salt Processing Project, this effort supported decision-making in regards to selecting a preferred technology among three alternatives: (1) CSSX, (2) nonelutable ion-exchange with an inorganic silicotitanate material and (3) precipitation with tetraphenylborate. High risks, innate to CSSX, that needed specific attention included: (1) chemical stability of the solvent matrix, (2) radiolytic stability of the solvent matrix, (3) proof-of-concept performance of the proposed process flowsheet with simulated waste, and (4) performance of the CSSX flowsheet with actual SRS high-level waste. This body of work directly addressed the chemical-stability risk and additionally provided supporting information that served to plan, carry out, and evaluate experiments conducted by other CSSX investigators addressing the other high risks. Information on cesium distribution in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping served as input for flowsheet design, provided a baseline for evaluating solvent performance under numerous stresses, and contributed to a broad understanding of the effects of expected process variables. In parallel, other measurements were directed toward learning how other system components distribute in the flowsheet. Such components include the solvent components themselves, constituents of the waste, and solvent-degradation products. Upon understanding which components influence flowsheet performance, it was then possible to address in a rational fashion how to clean up the solvent and maintain its stable function.

  3. Pulsed electric field (PEF) as an intensification pretreatment for greener solvent lipid extraction from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Mauricio D Antezana; Sturm, Belinda S M; Nord, Ryan D; Carey, William J; Moore, David; Shinogle, Heather; Stagg-Williams, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae, with their high lipid content, are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. Traditionally, human and environmentally toxic solvents have been used to extract these lipids, diminishing the sustainability of this process. Herein, pulsed electric field technology was utilized as a process intensification strategy to enhance lipid extraction from Ankistrodesmus falcatus wet biomass using the green solvent, ethyl acetate. The extraction efficiency for ethyl acetate without PEF was lower (83-88%) than chloroform. In addition, the ethyl acetate exhibited a 2-h induction period, while the chloroform showed no time dependence. Utilizing PEF technology resulted in 90% of the cells being lysed and a significant enhancement in the rate of lipid recovery using ethyl acetate. The increase in lipid recovery was due to the presence of the electric field and not due to temperature effects. The PEF technology uses less energy than other PEF systems reported in the literature. PMID:23297018

  4. Ferric ion as a scavenging agent in a solvent extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.; Martin, Earl C.

    1976-01-01

    Ferric ions are added into the aqueous feed of a plutonium scrap recovery process that employs a tributyl phosphate extractant. Radiolytic degradation products of tributyl phosphate such as dibutyl phosphate form a solid precipitate with iron and are removed from the extraction stages via the waste stream. Consequently, the solvent extraction characteristics are improved, particularly in respect to minimizing the formation of nonstrippable plutonium complexes in the stripping stages. The method is expected to be also applicable to the partitioning of plutonium and uranium in a scrap recovery process.

  5. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2008-04-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective. PMID:18404321

  6. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  7. Americium purification by a combined anion exchange and bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.

    1981-04-10

    Americium is separated from mixtures containing plutonium, other actinides, and other non-lanthamide impurities, by a combined process of anion exchange resin sorption to remove plutonium, and a bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction of americium of the anion exchange resin effluent. Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate is a preferred solvent. The initial mixture may be subjected to a cation exchange operation to remove monovalent impurities. The process is especially effective when aluminum, zinc, lead, and copper are present in significant quantities in the original mixture.

  8. Determination of pharmaceuticals in biosolids using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunjie; Zhang, Weihao; Gu, Cheng; Xagoraraki, Irene; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method was developed to quantitatively determine pharmaceuticals in biosolid (treated sewage sludge) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The collected biosolid samples were initially freeze dried, and grounded to obtain relatively homogenized powders. Pharmaceuticals were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) under the optimized conditions. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, pressure, extraction time and cycles, were identified to be acetonitrile/water mixture (v/v 7:3) as extraction solvent with 3 extraction cycles (15 min for each cycle) at 100 °C and 100 bars. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by determination by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. For the 15 target pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment, the overall method recoveries ranged from 49% to 68% for tetracyclines, 64% to 95% for sulfonamides, and 77% to 88% for other pharmaceuticals (i.e. acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, erythromycin, lincomycin and tylosin). The developed method was successfully validated and applied to the biosolid samples collected from WWTPs located in six cities in Michigan. Among the 15 target pharmaceuticals, 14 pharmaceuticals were detected in the collected biosolid samples. The average concentrations ranged from 2.6 μg/kg for lincomycin to 743.6 μg/kg for oxytetracycline. These results indicated that pharmaceuticals could survive wastewater treatment processes, and accumulate in sewage sludge and biosolids. Subsequent land application of the contaminated biosolids could lead to the dissemination of pharmaceuticals in soil and water environment, which poses potential threats to at-risk populations in the receiving ecosystems. PMID:21112593

  9. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein with deep eutectic solvent immobilized magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Ding, Xueqin; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2016-02-01

    As a new type of green solvent, four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized, and then a core-shell structure magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4-NH2@GO) nanoparticles have been prepared and coated with the ChCl-based DESs. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of proteins. The characteristic results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES. The concentrations of proteins in studies were determined by a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The advantages of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES in protein extraction were compared with Fe3O4-NH2@GO and Fe3O4-NH2, and Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. The influence factors of the extraction process such as the pH value, the temperature, the extraction time, the concentration of protein and the amount of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol were evaluated. Desorption experimental result showed 98.73% of BSA could be eluted from the solid extractant with 0.1 mol/L Na2HPO4 solution contained 1 mol/L NaCl. Besides, the conformation of BSA was not changed during the elution by the investigation of circular dichromism (CD) spectra. Furthermore, the analysis of real sample demonstrated that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles did have extraction ability on proteins in bovine whole blood. PMID:26653436

  10. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  11. Phytochemicals characterization of solvent extracts from taro-scented japonica rice bran.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua Han; Chiu, Tsai Hsin

    2011-05-01

    The major phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of taro-scented rice bran (TaiNung 71; TN71) extracts using 3 different solvents are characterized. Some progress is realized in creating an economic value for rice bran that has long been considered an agricultural waste. Various solvent extracts reveal the presence of phenolic compounds, oryzanols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) can extract more oryzanols (1.55 ± 0.20 g/kg rice bran). Meanwhile, the methanol (MeOH) extract possesses a higher yield in total contents (15.42 ± 1.41 g/kg bran), which includes phenolic compounds (2.69 ± 0.29 g gallic acid equivalent/kg bran), tocopherols (251 ± 26 mg/kg bran) and tocotrienols (111 ± 4 mg/kg bran). The MeOH extract exhibits more effective antioxidant activity against various oxidative systems in vitro, including the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (33.89%), scavenging of DPPH radicals (83.88%), and reducing power. It is found that the yield, total content in phenolic compounds and tocols of the extracts increase with increasing Synder's polarity value and viscosity, which can then be used as the indices in isolation of the desired rice bran phytochemicals extracts. PMID:22417350

  12. Solvent extraction separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 in room temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Boll, Rose Ann; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    The solvent extractions of Th-227 and Ac-225 from the aqueous phase into ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated by using N,N,N ,N - tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant. Four ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][BETI]), 1-butyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [BuI5][NTf2], and 1-benzyl pyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PhCH2Py][NTf2]) were used as extraction solvents for separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 in this study. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for Th-227/Ac-225 when HDEHP was used as an extractant in these ionic liquids. The effects of different extractant concentrations in ionic liquids and acidities of the aqueous phase on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of Th-227/Ac-225 are also presented in this article.

  13. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Presley, Derek J.

    2001-01-01

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  14. RESULTS OF ANALYTICAL SAMPLE CROSSCHECKS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT EXTRACTION SAMPLES ISOPAR L CONCENTRATION AND PH

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    As part of the implementation process for the Next Generation Cesium Extraction Solvent (NGCS), SRNL and F/H Lab performed a series of analytical cross-checks to ensure that the components in the NGCS solvent system do not constitute an undue analytical challenge. For measurement of entrained Isopar{reg_sign} L in aqueous solutions, both labs performed similarly with results more reliable at higher concentrations (near 50 mg/L). Low bias occurred in both labs, as seen previously for comparable blind studies for the baseline solvent system. SRNL recommends consideration to use of Teflon{trademark} caps on all sample containers used for this purpose. For pH measurements, the labs showed reasonable agreement but considerable positive bias for dilute boric acid solutions. SRNL recommends consideration of using an alternate analytical method for qualification of boric acid concentrations.

  15. Effect of osmotic pressure in the solvent extraction phase on BSA release profile from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ge; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of osmotic pressure in the organic solvent extraction phase on release profile of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. BSA-loaded PLGA microspheres with a target load of 10% were prepared by a double emulsion phase separation method. All the microsphere batches were fabricated in the same conditions except that in the organic solvent (CH2Cl2) evaporation step. Different concentrations of NaCl (0, 1.8, and 3.6%) or sucrose (20%) were used to generate a range of osmotic pressures in the extraction aqueous phase. These microspheres were characterized for incorporation efficiency, surface and internal morphology, particle size, protein stability, and in vitro release. The microspheres were spherical with particle size ranging from 16.8 to 27.8 microns. Higher osmotic pressure resulted in a denser internal structure although similar nonporous surface morphology was observed with all batches. No significant difference in encapsulation efficiency existed from batch to batch (87-94%). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyamide gel electrophoresis showed that BSA integrity was well retained. The release profile of the batch prepared with only water as the continuous (solvent extraction) phase exhibited a 79% burst release in the first 24 hr followed by a plateau and then a little release after 21 days. In the presence of NaCl or sucrose, the burst effect significantly decreased with increase in osmotic pressure in the extraction aqueous phase, which was then followed by sustained release for 35 days. A mass balance was made when the release terminated. Therefore, in the organic solvent extraction and evaporation step, increasing the osmotic pressure in the aqueous phase both reduced the burst release from the microspheres and improved the subsequent sustained release profile. PMID:12503521

  16. Review Article: The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 3: A Review of Actinide and Lanthanide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2009-12-01

    The partitioning of the long-lived ?-emitters and the high-yield fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel is a key component of processes envisioned for the safe recycling of nuclear fuel and the disposition of high-level waste. These future processes will likely be based on aqueous solvent extraction technologies for light water reactor fuel and consist of four main components for the sequential separation of uranium, fission products, group trivalent actinides and lanthanides, and then trivalent actinides from lanthanides. Since the solvent systems will be in contact with highly radioactive solutions, they must be robust toward radiolytic degradation in an irradiated mixed organic, aqueous acidic environment. Therefore, an understanding of their radiation chemistry is important to the design of a practical system. In the first paper in this series we reviewed the radiation chemistry of irradiated aqueous nitric acid and the tributyl phosphate ligand for uranium extraction in the first step of these extractions. In the second, we reviewed the radiation chemistry of the ligands proposed for use in the extraction of cesium and strontium fission products. Here, we review the radiation chemistry of the ligands that might be used in the third step in the series of separations, for the group extraction of the lanthanides and actinides. This includes traditional organophosphorous reagents such as CMPO and HDEHP, as well as novel reagents such as the amides and diamides currently being investigated.

  17. Solvent-extraction methods of isolating, purifying, and separating the transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.M.; Filimonov, V.T.; Fillippov, E.A.; Laskorin, B.N.; Myasoedev, B.F.; Yakshin, V.V.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of HNO/sub 3/ concentration on the extraction of Am, Cm, and Eu by 0.5 mole/liter solutions in toluene of DTPMDP, HBTA, and TBP for Am, Eu and Cm are shown. The rare-earth concentrations may be 0.1-0.2 mole/liter in many solutions from which TPE must be extracted. A comparison of monofunctional phosphorus-bearing reagents with bifunctional ones containing various substituents shows that phosphine oxides of DOIAPO type are the most suitable for extracting TPE from acid solutions. It is shown that solvent-extraction processes can also be used in the final operations for isolating the TPE. Extracts of TPE in alpha-branched macromolecular carboxylic acids (VIK-1) can be used in the final operations to produce oxide films uniformly and firmly attached to surfaces.

  18. Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Heo, Seong Rok; Han, Se Young; Yoo, Da Eun; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6. PMID:26534763

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Orange Flesh and Peel Extracted with Various Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hee; Lee, Minhee; Park, Eunju

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of orange (Citrus auranthium) flesh (OF) and peel (OP) extracted with acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Antioxidant potential was examined by measuring total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (RSA), total radical-trapping anti-oxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). The comet assay was used to determine the protective effects of OF and OP against H2O2-induced DNA damage. TPC was highest in the acetone extracts of OF and OP. DPPH RSA was also higher in the acetone extracts than in the ethanol extracts. The DPPH RSA was highest in the acetone extracts of OF. The TRAP and ORAC values of the all extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the TRAP assay, the acetone extracts of OF and OP had the lowest IC50 values. In the CAA assay, the methanol and acetone extracts of OP had the lowest IC50 values. All of the samples protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes, as measured by the comet assay, but the acetone extracts of OP had the strongest effect. These results suggest that acetone is the best solvent for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from OF and OP. Furthermore, the high antioxidant activity of OP, which is a by-product of orange processing, suggests that it can be used in nutraceutical and functional foods. PMID:25580393

  20. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    PubMed

    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO. PMID:26616988

  1. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  2. A kinetic study of mercury(II) transport through a membrane assisted by new transport reagent

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A new organodithiophosphorus derivative, namely O-(1,3-Bispiperidino-2-propyl)-4-methoxy phenyldithiophosphonate, was synthesized and then the kinetic behavior of the transport process as a function of concentration, temperature, stirring rate and solvents was investigated. Results The compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopies. The transport of mercury(II) ion by a zwitterionic dithiophosphonate 1 in the liquid membrane was studied and the kinetic behavior of the transport process as a function of concentration, temperature, stirring rate and solvents was investigated. The compound 1 is expected to serve as a model liquid membrane transport with mercury(II) ions. Conclusion A kinetic study of mercury(II) transport through a membrane assisted by O-(1,3-Bispiperidino-2-propyl)-4-methoxy phenyldithiophosphonate was performed. It can be concluded that the compound 1 can be provided a general and straightforward route to remove toxic metals ions such as mercury(II) ion from water or other solution. PMID:21762513

  3. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  4. ICPSEF: a user's manual for the computer mathematical model of the ICPP purex solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, C L

    1982-11-01

    A computer-based mathematical program, ICPSEF, was developed for the first-cycle extraction system at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). At the ICPP, spent nuclear fuels are processed to recover unfissioned uranium. The uranium is recovered from aqueous solutions in a pulse column, solvent extraction system using tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent (purex process). A previously developed SEPHIS-MOD4 computer program was added to and modified to provide a model for the ICPP system. Major modifications included addition of: (1) partial theoretical stages to permit more accurate modeling of ICPP columns, (2) modeling ammonium hydroxide neutralization of nitric acid in a scrubbing column, and (3) equilibrium data for 5 to 10 vol % TBP. The model was verified by comparison with actual operating data. Detailed instructions for using the ICPSEF model and sample results of the model are included.

  5. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Simultaneous determination of 50 residual pesticides in Flos Chrysanthemi using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xinghui; Lu, Xiaotong; Tian, Huaiping; Xu, Ajing; Liu, Yan; Jian, Zhang

    2014-09-15

    A gas chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of 50 organochlorine (OCP) and pyrethroid (PP) pesticides in Flos Chrysanthemi was established. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique was used to extract the target compounds, cleaned with alumina neutral-florisil column, and eluted by mixed solvents of ethyl acetate and hexane (15:85, v/v). Selected pesticides were identified using HP-5 and DB1701 capillary dual column and detected by electron-capture detector. Quantitative analysis was performed using an external standard by HP-5 capillary column. Results showed that recoveries were 73.4-120.1%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.6-12.4%. The limits of detection of the method were 0.0021-0.0069 mg/kg, and the limits of quantity were 0.0064-0.0210 mg/kg. PMID:25062509

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  9. Characterization of molybdenum interfacial crud in a uranium mill that employs tertiary-amine solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.; McDowell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the present work, samples of a molybdenum-caused green gummy interfacial crud from an operating western US uranium mill have been physically and chemically examined. Formaton of cruds of this description has been a long-standing problem in the use of tertiary amine solvent extraction for the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (Amex Process). The crud is essentially an organic-continuous dispersion containing about 10 wt % aqueous droplets and about 37 wt % greenish-yellow crystalline solids suspended in kerosene-amine process solvent. The greenish-yellow crystals were found to be a previously unknown double salt of tertiary amine molybdophosphate with three tertiary amine chlorides having the empirical formula (R/sub 3/NH)/sub 3/(PMo/sub 12/O/sub 40/).3(R/sub 3/NH)Cl. To confirm the identification of the compound, a pure trioctylamine (TOA) analog was synthesized. In laboratory extraction experiments, it was demonstrated that organic-soluble amine molydophosphate forms slowly upon contact of TOA solvent with dilute sulfuric acid solutions containing low concentrations of molybdate and phosphate. If the organic solutions of amine molybdophosphate were then contacted with aqueous NaCl solutions, a greenish-yellow precipitate of (TOAH)/sub 3/(PMo/sub 12/O/sub 40/).3(TOAH)Cl formed at the interface. The proposed mechanism for the formation of the crud under process conditions involves build up of molybdenum in the solvent, followed by reaction with extracted phosphate to give dissolved amine molybdophosphate. The amine molybdophosphate then co-crystallizes with amine chloride, formed during the stripping cycle, to give the insoluble double salt, which precipitates as a layer of small particles at the interface. The proposed solution to the problem is the use of branched-chain, instead of straight-chain, tertiary amine extractants under the expectation that branching would increase the solubility of the double salt. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  11. Elution of Ti during solvent extraction of coal and the transformation of eluted Ti upon combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.A.; Takanohashi, T.; Saito, I.; Wang, Q.Y.; Ninomiya, Y.

    2008-06-15

    Solvent extraction of coal is an effective method for removing coal ash, thereby generating the ultraclean fuel that can be directly combusted in gas turbine. Due to their organic affinity, a few inorganic elements can be extracted as well. Ti in coal extract, its elution from raw coal as well as the transformation of eluted Ti during coal extract combustion, have been investigated. Two coals of the U.S. and their acid-washed samples were extracted under 1 MPa N{sub 2} (cold) at 360{sup o}C. The solvents used include nonpolar 1-methylnaphthalene and its mixtures with polar indole. The results indicate that, Ti in coal extracts is mainly composed of nanoparticles including TiO{sub 2} (anatase) and Ti associated with quartz. These particles are insoluble in any acids, having a fine dispersion into coal matrix. Upon coal fragmentation at 360{sup o}C, they could be liberated, and, hence, traversed the filter for isolating coal extracts. The organo-Ti was preferentially extracted as well, which is most likely in a form of Ti porphyrin or Ti chelated with phenol-oxygen. These findings also have implications for revealing the modes of occurrence of Ti in the raw coals. Combustion of coal extract at 1,000{sup o}C resulted in the formation of nanometric TiO{sub 2} polymorphs and complex compounds like FeZnTiO{sub 4}. The former species could be mainly formed by the phase change of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) at high-temperatures, while formation of the latter one could involve the capture of metallic vapors like Zn on TiO{sub 2} polymorphs.

  12. Solvent systems combining neutral and acidic extractants for separating trivalent lanthanides from the transuranic elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G. J.; Gelis, A. V.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; PNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a review of recent publications that have focused on combined extractant systems for separating trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. These mixed solvent systems combine an acidic extractant with a neutral extractant to achieve the actinide/lanthanide separation. Depending on the neutral extractant used, three categorizations of systems can be considered, including combinations of acidic extractants with 1 diamides, 2 carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, and 3 polydentate nitrogen-donor ligands. This review of relevant publications indicates that, although there is significant potential for practical exploitation of mixed neutral/acidic extractant systems to achieve a single-step separation of trivalent actinides from acidic high-level waste solutions, the fundamental chemistry underlying these combined systems is not yet well understood. For example, although there is strong evidence suggesting that adducts form between the neutral and acidic extractants, the nature of these adducts generally is not known. Likewise, the structures of the mixed complexes formed between the metal ions and the two different extractants are not fully understood. Research into these basic phenomena likely will provide clues about how to design practical mixed-extractant systems that can be used to efficiently separate the transuranic elements from the lanthanides and other components of irradiated fuel.

  13. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  14. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R; Guzman, J; Saucedo, I; Revilla, J; Guibal, E

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation. PMID:16563726

  15. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  16. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, David W.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Gauld, Ian C.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F.

    2009-10-01

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  17. Coupling a Transient Solvent Extraction Module with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; DePaoli, David W; Gauld, Ian C

    2009-10-01

    A past difficulty in safeguards design for reprocessing plants is that no code existed for analysis and evaluation of the design. A number of codes have been developed in the past, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the SSPM Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a much more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and the initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  18. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  19. Extraction efficiencies of heavy metals in hydroethanolic solvent from herbs of commerce.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James; Greenfield, Jackie; Cumberford, Greg; Grant, Jim; Stewart, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of herbal products is a major concern in the herbal and dietary supplement industry. Heavy metal exposure is well-documented to cause a variety of adverse human health effects and to negatively impact our environment. The Final Rule for Dietary Supplements for current good manufacturing practice regulation, 21 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations 111, requires dietary supplement manufacturers to establish herbal purity limits for heavy metal contaminants considered safe for human consumption. Heavy metals may enter into the herbal manufacturing process via bioaccumulation from the harvest site or during postharvest processing phases, such as drying and/or liquid extraction. Traditionally, herbalists have used hydroethanolic solvents to extract herbal biomasses in pure food-grade ethanol-water combinations with solvent polarities capable of removing a wide range of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents. The presented data demonstrate that hydroethanolic solvents are not completely efficient in the extraction of heavy metal accumulations from plant matrixes; and can act as an effective decontamination step in herbal product processing. PMID:20480895

  20. Rapid detection of neurotoxic insecticides in food using disposable acetyicholinesterase-biosensors and simple solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Holger; Schmid, Rolf D; Bachmann, Till T

    2002-01-01

    The extensive use of pesticides to protect agricultural crops necessitates reliable tools for the detection of residues in food and water, thus ensuring environmental protection and consumer safety. Neuroinhibitors such as organophosphates and carbamates in particular, represent a potential hazard to human health. These compounds are frequently found in food, but conventional methods of analysis are limited as they are either time consuming or not sufficiently sensitive. As a result, a rapid and sensitive biosensor test based on AChE-inhibition was developed. The disposable AChE-biosensor was directly applied in solvent extracts of food samples using isooctane as extraction solvent. A complete assay could be performed in less than 2 h. Recovery rates of 84% were obtained in tests with spiked orange juice samples. Tests in food samples with a lower water content resulted in reduced recovery rates (44% for peach pap baby food). Phosphorothionate insecticides in food could be detected after direct oxidation with N-bromosuccinimide and solvent extraction. The assay displayed a detection limit of 2 microg/kg paraoxon, which was sufficient for the monitoring of maximum residue limits in food according to EU regulations. PMID:11936097

  1. Effect of solvent and extraction methods on the bacterial mutagenicity of sidestream cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.S.; Tulis, J.J.; Claxton, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of sidestream cigarette-smoke particles was estimated by testing sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that had been collected under controlled burning conditions in the laboratory. Two different extraction methods (Soxhlet and ultrasonic agitation) and 3 different solvents (dichloromethane, methanol, and acetone) were compared for their efficiencies in the extraction of compounds from sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that are mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of the sidestream smoke particles was estimated to be 15,000-20,000 revertants per cigarette in TA98 with metabolic activation and 12,000-17,000 revertants per cigarette in TA100 without metabolic activation.

  2. Dioxime kinetic enhancer for solvent extraction of gallium from basic aqueous solutions thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Gefvert, D.L.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for recovering gallium values contained in a basic aqueous solution by liquid/liquid extraction thereof comprising contacting the basic aqueous solution with a water-immiscible, organic phase comprising a substituted hydroxy-quinoline dissolved in an organic solvent therefor, whereby gallium is extracted into the organic phase; separating the organic phase from the basic aqueous phase; and recovering gallium from the separated organic phase. The improvement comprises: the organic phase further comprising dissolved therein an organic dioxime compound.

  3. Solvent extraction of lanthanoid picrates with crown ethers: preferential sandwich complexation and unique cation selectivities

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, K.; Okada, S.; Inoue, Y.; Tai, A.; Hakushi, T.

    1988-11-15

    Quantitative solvent extractions of aqueous lanthanoid picrates with 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6 were conducted at low ionic strength in the absence of background salts. An overwhelming preference for the sandwich complexation and unique cation selectivities were observed. The peak extraction constants were found for samarium with 15-crown-5 (1:2 stoichiometry) and for cerium and praseodymium with 18-crown-6 (1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometries, respectively). The facile sandwich complexation and unique cation selectivities are interpreted in terms of the heavy hydration of lanthanoid ions of high charge density.

  4. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  5. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  6. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-01-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability. PMID:24804076

  7. Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica Rutledge; Kristi Christensen; Troy Garn; Jack Law

    2010-12-01

    This testing will support NEAMS SafeSep Modeling efforts related to droplet simulation in liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Physical characteristic determinations will be completed for the fluids being used in the experiment including viscosity, density, surface tension, distribution coefficients, and diffusion coefficients. Then, experiments will be carried out to provide data for comparison to the simulation’s calculation of mass transfer coefficients. Experiments will be conducted with solutions used in the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process extraction section. The TRUEX process was chosen since it is one solvent extraction system currently proposed for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from used nuclear fuel, it is diffusion limited, testing can be performed using non radioactive lanthanides to evaluate mass transfer. The extraction section involves transfer of one or more lanthanide species from an aqueous solution to an organic solvent. Single droplets rising by buoyancy will be studied first. Droplet size and number of species transferred will be varied independently to provide mass transfer coefficients as a function of each variable. An apparatus has been designed specifically for these experiments. In order to get more accurate measurements of droplet size, contact time, time of droplet formation, and possibly droplet breakup and coalescence, a high speed camera will be utilized for these experiments. Other potential experiments include examining the effects of jetted droplets and shear flow on the mass transfer coefficients.

  8. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  9. Use of solvent extraction technique in Brazilian uranium mills - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2008-07-01

    Solvent extraction has been applied to uranium-concentrate production in Brazil. At the first plant, uranium minerals associated with Zr and Mo were acid leached. Extraction was carried out by a mixture of Alamine 336 and Alamine 304, followed by selective Zr, U, and Mo stripping. At the currently operating facilities, a single U mineral is processed by acid heap leaching. Uranium is extracted with Alamine 336 and stripped with NaCl solution. As all water is recycled, chloride contents in the liquor have increased, causing detrimental effects to the extraction process. The current plant operating conditions and the improvements arisen from the research developed to solve these problems are presented. (authors)

  10. Antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracted samples from the flowers of medicinally important Plumeria obstusa.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nasir; Ahmad, Dawood; Bakht, Jehan

    2015-01-01

    The present research work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial (eight bacteria and one fungus) activities of different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and isobutanol) extracted samples from flowers of P. obstusa by disc diffusion method. Analysis of the data revealed that all the five extracts from flowers of P. obstusa showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Petroleum ether fractions showed inhibitory activities against all the nine microbial species except Klebsiella pneumonia. Ethyl acetate and isobutanol fractions showed inhibitory effects against all the tested microbial species except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chloroform and ethanol extracts had varying levels of inhibitions against all of the tested microorganisms. The most susceptible gram positive bacterium was Bacillus subtilis which was inhibited by all the five extracts while the most resistant gram positive bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus. Erwinia carotovora was the most susceptible gram negative bacterium while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant among the gram negative bacteria. PMID:25553696

  11. In vitro antiplasmodial activities and synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the polyherbal product, Nefang.

    PubMed

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Franzoi, Kathrin Diehl; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Vivarelli, Diego; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Liuzzi, Michel; Nolé, Tsabang; Ayong, Lawrence S; Agbor, Gabriel A; Okalebo, Faith A; Guantai, Anastasia N

    2014-01-01

    Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extracts were analyzed on CQ-sensitive (3D7) and multidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2, μ g/mL) are Nefang-96.96/55.08, MiB-65.33/34.58, MiL-82.56/40.04, Pg-47.02/25.79, Cp-1188/317.5, Cc-723.3/141, Cs-184.4/105.1, and Og-778.5/118.9. Synergism was obtained with MiB/Pg (CI = 0.351), MiL/Pg (0.358), MiB/Cs (0.366), MiL/Cs (0.482), Pg/Cs (0.483), and Cs/Og (0.414) when analyzed at equipotency ratios. Cytotoxicity testing of Nefang and the solvent extracts on two human cell lines (Hep G2 and U2OS) revealed no significant toxicity relative to their antiplasmodial activities (SI > 20). Taken together, our data confirm the antimalarial activities of Nefang and its constituent plant extracts and identified extract pairs with promising synergistic interactions for exploitation towards a rational phytotherapeutic and evidence-based antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:24877138

  12. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic Combinations of Differential Solvent Extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang

    PubMed Central

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Franzoi, Kathrin Diehl; Lee, Eunyoung; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Liuzzi, Michel; Nolé, Tsabang; Ayong, Lawrence S.; Agbor, Gabriel A.; Okalebo, Faith A.; Guantai, Anastasia N.

    2014-01-01

    Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extracts were analyzed on CQ-sensitive (3D7) and multidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2, μg/mL) are Nefang-96.96/55.08, MiB-65.33/34.58, MiL-82.56/40.04, Pg-47.02/25.79, Cp-1188/317.5, Cc-723.3/141, Cs-184.4/105.1, and Og-778.5/118.9. Synergism was obtained with MiB/Pg (CI = 0.351), MiL/Pg (0.358), MiB/Cs (0.366), MiL/Cs (0.482), Pg/Cs (0.483), and Cs/Og (0.414) when analyzed at equipotency ratios. Cytotoxicity testing of Nefang and the solvent extracts on two human cell lines (Hep G2 and U2OS) revealed no significant toxicity relative to their antiplasmodial activities (SI > 20). Taken together, our data confirm the antimalarial activities of Nefang and its constituent plant extracts and identified extract pairs with promising synergistic interactions for exploitation towards a rational phytotherapeutic and evidence-based antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:24877138

  13. Removing H/sub 2/S from gas with recycled nmp extraction solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Blume, J.H.; Bushnell, J.D.; Leighton, M.D.

    1980-06-17

    An improved process is claimed for removing H/sub 2/S from a hydrofiner tail gas wherein said tail gas is passed into a scrubbing zone wherein it is contacted with liquid nmp to remove most of the H/sub 2/S from the gas to form an H/sub 2/S-rich nmp solution and the H/sub 2/S-rich nmp solution is heated and passed into a stripping zone to remove most of the H/sub 2/S from the nmp to form an H/sub 2/S-lean nmp solution, extracting a hydrocarbon oil with an nmp solution, recovering hot liquid, nmp from said extracted oil and combining it with said H/sub 2/S-lean nmp solution and wherein said combined solution comprises at least a portion of said nmp solution used to extract said oil, wherein the improvement comprises heating the H/sub 2/S-rich nmp solution to the required stripping temperature by indirectly contacting same, in heat exchange relationship, with at least a portion of said combined nmp solution. This process is especially useful for scrubbing H/sub 2/S from hydrofiner tail gas for use as once-through stripping gas in the solvent recovery section of a lube oil extraction process employing nmp as the extraction solvent, and in a preferred embodiment, the spent stripping gas from the lube oil solvent recovery is used as the stripping gas in the stripping zone of this invention.

  14. Solvent Systems Combining Neutral and Acidic Extractants for Separating Trivalent Lanthanides from the Transuranic Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2010-04-23

    This paper is a review of recent publications that have focused on combined extractant systems for separating trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. These mixed solvent systems combine an acidic extractant with a neutral extractant to achieve the actinide/lanthanide separation. Depending on the neutral extractant used, three categorizations of systems can be considered, including combinations of acidic extractants with 1) diamides, 2) carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, and 3) polydentate nitrogen-donor ligands. This review of relevant publications indicates that, although there is significant potential for practical exploitation of mixed neutral/acidic extractant systems to achieve a single-step separation of trivalent actinides from acidic high-level waste solutions, the fundamental chemistry underlying these combined systems is not yet well understood. For example, although there is strong evidence suggesting that adducts form between the neutral and acidic extractants, the nature of these adducts generally is not known. Likewise, the structures of the mixed complexes formed between the metal ions and the two different extactants are not fully understood. Research into these basic phenomena likely will provide clues about how to design practical mixed-extractant systems that can be used to efficiently separate the transuranic elements from the lanthanides and other components of irradiated fuel.

  15. Complexation thermodynamics of diglycolamide with f-elements: solvent extraction and density functional theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sk M; Pahan, S; Bhattacharyya, A; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-04-14

    Comparative extraction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions (La(3+), Eu(3+), Lu(3+), Am(3+) and Cm(3+)) with tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide (TODGA) was studied and showed the trend: Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > Cm(3+) > Am(3+) > La(3+). The structure, bonding, energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions (La(3+), Eu(3+), Lu(3+), Am(3+) and Cm(3+)) with a tridentate ligand, tetra-methyl diglycolamide (TMDGA), are reported in the gas and solvent phases in order to understand their complexation and extraction behaviour. The calculations were performed using the generalized gradient approximated BP86 density functional and the hybrid B3LYP functional using SVP and TZVPP basis sets. The calculated structure obtained at the BP86/SVP level of optimization was found to be in close agreement with the X-ray data and also with the structure obtained at the B3LYP/TZVP level of theory. The free energy of extraction was found to be exergonic for the explicit monomer water model. From the solvent extraction experiment the order of extraction was observed as Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > Cm(3+) > Am(3+) > La(3+), which was in line with the trends predicted based on the free energy changes in the gas phase calculations (ΔGgp). The Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle and the COSMO (conductor like screening model) solvation model were applied to calculate the free energy of extraction, ΔGext, of lanthanide and actinide ions in the aqueous-dodecane biphasic system and ΔGext, however, predicted different extraction trends. After dispersion correction (B3LYP-D3), the free energy of extraction for the metal ions was found to follow the order: Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > La(3+), which was also observed in the solvent extraction experiments. Both COSMO and DCOSMO-RS models predict the same metal ion selectivity trend. Different bonding analyses indicate the electrostatic and less covalent nature of interactions between the ligands and the metal ions. PMID:27001244

  16. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  17. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  18. AN EVALUATION OF SAMPLE DISPERSION MEDIAS USED WITH ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR THE EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY OF ARSENICALS FROM LFB AND DORM-2

    EPA Science Inventory

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means for extracting arsenicals from quality control (QC) samples and DORM-2 [standard reference material (SRM)]. Unlike conventional extraction procedures, the ASE requires that the sample be dispe...

  19. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  20. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Billa, Nanditha; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Lahren, Tylor; Burkhard, Lawrence P

    2014-02-01

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [2] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo (2006) [1]. With the accelerated solvent extraction method using chloroform:methanol solvent and the colorimetric lipid determination method, 28 of 30 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%, determined using standard additions) and 1 of 30 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%, determined using Youden Blank measurements). With sonic extraction, 0 of 6 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%) and 1 of 6 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%). These demonstrate that the accelerated solvent extraction method with chloroform:methanol solvent system creates an interference with the colorimetric assay method, and without accounting for the bias in the analysis, inaccurate measurements would be obtained. PMID:24401464

  1. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    SciTech Connect

    Samadi, Azadeh

    2013-07-01

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  2. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

  3. Solvent extraction and recovery of the transuranic elements from waste solutions using the TRUEX process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Schulz, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    High-level liquid waste is produced during the processing of irradiated nuclear fuel by the PUREX process. In some cases the treatment of metallurgical scrap to recover the plutonium values also generates a nitric acid waste solution. Both waste solutions contain sufficient concentrations of transuranic elements (mostly /sup 241/Am) to require handling and disposal as a TRU waste. This paper describes a recently developed solvent extraction/recovery process called TRUEX (transuranium extraction) which is designed to reduce the TRU concentration in nitric waste solutions to <100 nCi/g of disposed form (1,2). (In the USA, non-TRU waste is defined as <100 nCi of TRU/g of disposed form.) The process utilizes PUREX process solvent (TBP in a normal paraffinic hydrocarbon or carbon tetrachloride) modified by a small concentration of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (abbrev. CMPO). The presence of CMPO enables the modified PUREX process solvent to extract trivalent actinides as well as tetra- and hexavalent actinides. A major feature of the TRUEX process is that is is applicable to waste solutions containing a wide range of nitric acid, salt, and fission product concentrations and at the same time is very compatible with existing liquid-liquid extraction technology as usually practiced in a fuel reprocessing plant. To date the process has been tested on two different types of synthetic waste solutions. The first solution is a typical high-level nitric acid waste and the second a typical waste solution generated in metallurgical scrap processing. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  5. Calix(6)arene carboxylate derivative for solvent extraction separation of iron(III).

    PubMed

    Khandwe, R M; Khopkar, S M

    1998-08-01

    Hexaacetatocalix(6)arene was used for the solvent extraction of iron(III). About 7.5x10(-2) M extractant was used at pH 7.0 for the quantitative extraction of iron(III). The metal from the organic phase was stripped with 1.0 M hydrochloric acid and determined spectrophotometrically as its thiocyanate complex at 480 nm. Iron(III) was separated from large excesses of alkali and alkaline earths in the ratio 1:20. The transition and main group elements were tolerated in the ratio 1:10. The method was extended for the analysis of iron from its mineral, alloy and pharmaceutical preparation. The method is reproducible with SD+/-1.10%. PMID:18967172

  6. Solvent Extraction: Structure of the Liquid-Liquid Interface Containing a Diamide Ligand.

    PubMed

    Scoppola, Ernesto; Watkins, Erik B; Campbell, Richard A; Konovalov, Oleg; Girard, Luc; Dufrêche, Jean-Francois; Ferru, Geoffroy; Fragneto, Giovanna; Diat, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of the (supra)molecular structure of an interface that contains amphiphilic ligand molecules is necessary for a full understanding of ion transfer during solvent extraction. Even if molecular dynamics already yield some insight in the molecular configurations in solution, hardly any experimental data giving access to distributions of both extractant molecules and ions at the liquid-liquid interface exist. Here, the combined application of X-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements represents a key milestone in the deduction of the interfacial structure and potential with respect to two different lipophilic ligands. Indeed, we show for the first time that hard trivalent cations can be repelled or attracted by the extractant-enriched interface according to the nature of the ligand. PMID:27320727

  7. A solvent extraction study of molybdenum chloride and molybdenum thiocyanate complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.; Lillie, E.G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of reducing agents on molybdenum(VI) solutions in hydrochloric acid was studied by a solvent extraction technique to elucidate the composition of the colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex. Neither copper(I) chloride nor ascorbic acid have any effect on the extraction of MoO2Cl2; it is inferred that tin(II) chloride reduces Mo(VI) stepwise to a polynuclear Mo(V)??Mo(VI) complex and then to Mo(V). The colored thiocyanate complex produced by copper(I) and by ascorbic acid differs only slightly in extraction characteristics from the uncolored Mo(VI) complex. It is suggested that the color may be produced by an isomerization reaction of MoO2(SCN)2, and thus that the colored species may be a hexavalent rather than pentavalent molybdenum complex. ?? 1974.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  9. Extraction and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonols from Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; Plata-Oviedo, Manuel Salvador Vicente; de Mattos, Gisely; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Branco, Ivanise Guilherme

    2014-10-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds of Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents was investigated in this study. The compounds were identified and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD/UV-vis). Absolute methanol was the most effective extraction agent of phenolic acids and flavonols (588.31 mg/Kg) from Eugenia pyriformis, although similar results (p ≤ 0.05) were observed using methanol/water (1:1 ratio). Our results clearly showed that higher contents of phenolic compounds were not obtained either with the most or the least polar solvents used. Several phenolic compounds were identified in the samples whereas gallic acid and quercetin were the major compounds recovered. PMID:25328239

  10. Stable, biocompatible lipid vesicle generation by solvent extraction-based droplet microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Shia-Yen; Khnouf, Ruba; Fan, Hugh; Lee, Abraham P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic platform for the continuous generation of stable, monodisperse lipid vesicles 20–110 μm in diameter. Our approach utilizes a microfluidic flow-focusing droplet generation design to control the vesicle size by altering the system’s fluid flow rates to generate vesicles with narrow size distribution. Double emulsions are first produced in consecutive flow-focusing channel geometries and lipid membranes are then formed through a controlled solvent extraction process. Since no strong solvents are used in the process, our method allows for the safe encapsulation and manipulation of an assortment of biological entities, including cells, proteins, and nucleic acids. The vesicles generated by this method are stable and have a shelf life of at least 3 months. Here, we demonstrate the cell-free in vitro synthesis of proteins within lipid vesicles as an initial step towards the development of an artificial cell. PMID:22685501

  11. Solvent extraction of lanthanides and yttrium from aqueous solution with methylimidazole in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yinglin; Li, Wenkui; Wu, Jianrong; Li, Shun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Wu, Wangsuo

    2014-07-14

    1-Methylimidazole (1-MIM) and 2-methylimidazole (2-MIM) are miscible in water and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs), and can coordinate with soft metal ions. This paper reports a novel solvent extraction process for trivalent lanthanides and yttrium from aqueous solutions into ILs, which was promoted by a hydrophilic 1-MIM or 2-MIM. Slope analysis confirmed that MIM in ILs formed a 1 : 1 complex with La(3+) and Y(3+) and a 1 : 4 complex with Eu(3+) and Lu(3+), depending on the atomic number of the metal and the metal-ligand interactions that have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. The effect of nitrate concentration on the extraction of lanthanides with 1-MIM in ILs was analysed. It indicated that nitrate anions were involved in the extraction process. Under the same conditions, the extraction of lanthanides with MIM into n-pentanol was carried out. The extractability was by far lower than that obtained in ILs. Both cationic exchange and neutral solvation mechanisms occurred in ILs and only the neutral solvation mechanism occurred in n-pentanol, which were demonstrated by the extraction tests and the structure of extracted species determined by ESI-MS. The competitive extraction in ILs showed good selectivity for lanthanides compared to alkali metals and alkaline earth cations. After extraction, lanthanides could be stripped very easily from the ionic liquid phase with dilute nitric acid. From the temperature dependence data, the thermodynamic parameter values (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) were calculated. The results indicated that the extraction reactions were spontaneous and went through an endothermic process. PMID:24854623

  12. Efficiency of solvent extraction methods for the determination of methyl mercury in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Qian, J; Skyllberg, U; Tu, Q; Bleam, W F; Frech, W

    2000-07-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by gas chromatography, microwave induced plasma, atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-AES) using two different methods. One was based on extraction of mercury species into toluene, pre-concentration by evaporation and butylation of methyl mercury with a Grignard reagent followed by determination. With the other, methyl mercury was extracted into dichloromethane and back extracted into water followed by in situ ethylation, collection of ethylated mercury species on Tenax and determination. The accuracy of the entire procedure based on butylation was validated for the individual steps involved in the method. Methyl mercury added to various types of soil samples showed an overall average recovery of 87.5%. Reduced recovery was only caused by losses of methyl mercury during extraction into toluene and during pre-concentration by evaporation. The extraction of methyl mercury added to the soil was therefore quantitative. Since it is not possible to directly determine the extraction efficiency of incipient methyl mercury, the extraction efficiency of total mercury with an acidified solution containing CuSO4 and KBr was compared with high-pressure microwave acid digestion. The solvent extraction efficiency was 93%. For the IAEA 356 sediment certified reference material, mercury was less efficiently extracted and determined methyl mercury concentrations were below the certified value. Incomplete extraction could be explained by the presence of a large part of inorganic sulfides, as determined by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Analyses of sediment reference material CRM 580 gave results in agreement with the certified value. The butylation method gave a detection limit for methyl mercury of 0.1 ng g(-1), calculated as three times the standard deviation for repeated analysis of soil samples. Lower values were obtained with the ethylation method. The precision, expressed as RSD for concentrations 20 times above the

  13. Antioxidant components and properties of dry heat treated clove in different extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Nikousaleh, Azadeh; Prakash, Jamuna

    2016-04-01

    The effects of heat treatment and extraction solvents (pure/aqueous acetone, ethanol, methanol) on antioxidant activity (AA) and components of clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) were studied. Clove was subjected to dry heat treatment (microwave and roasting) and the AA measured by free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), reducing power (RP), and phospho-molybdenum assay (TAA). Unheated samples served as controls. The antioxidant components estimated were total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Using RP and FRSA, highest AA was observed in 80 % acetone extract of all samples (1.778-1448 and 84.5-86.0 %). TAA showed higher value in 80 % methanolic extract for all samples in the range 303.595-307.941 mmol ascorbic acid/g. Heated samples exhibited higher AA in all assays. Highest amount of phenols and flavonoids were extracted in 80 % acetone (4053-4064 mg/100 g) and 80 % methanol (11,271-11,370 mg/100 g) respectively. For tannins, maximum extraction was in 80 % acetone (control, 16441 mg/100 g), 80 % ethanol (microwave, 19,558 mg/100 g), and pure methanol (roasted, 15,823 mg/100 g). Total phenol and flavonoid contents were positively associated with AA determined using RP and FRSA. In conclusion, clove exhibited powerful AA in different extraction solvents which increased on dry heat treatments and correlated positively with antioxidant components. Hence, clove can be used as a natural antioxidant in food systems. PMID:27413226

  14. Synergistic extraction and separation of Co(II)/Ni(II) by solvent extraction technique using TIOA/TOPO as carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okatan, Ahmet; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Kumbasar, Recep Ali; Turgut, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and its compounds have wide range applications in some industrial and technological fields. These metals show excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion under extreme conditions. However, these metals found together within metal ores in nature. This situation makes their separation difficult from each other. They have very similar physical and chemical properties making them very hard to be purified with using traditional separation pathways. Moreover, increasing supply-demand gap between them and decreasing valuable ores because of limited deposit in earth crust have been limited the sources of them. Under the light of this knowledge, one of the practical solutions should be produced to recycle cobalt and nickel from solid and liquid waste containing trace amounts of them. In this study, we investigated the selective and the synergistic cobalt extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction using tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as carriers. The effective parameters on the extraction and the stripping of the cobalt were investigated, and optimum synergistic extraction and stripping conditions were identified. The cobalt extraction from aqueous Co/Ni solutions in various molar concentrations was examined in the optimum conditions to determine the synergism between TIOA and TOPO.

  15. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    PubMed

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. PMID:25053094

  16. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  17. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  18. METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Blaedel, W.J.; Walling, M.T. Jr.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for separating from each other uranium, plutonium, and fission products in an aqueous nitric acid solution by the so-called Redox process. The plutonium is first oxidized to the hexavalent state, e.g., with a water-soluble dichromate or sodium bismuthate, preferably together with a holding oxidant such as potassium bromate. potassium permanganate, or an excess of the oxidizing agent. The solution is then contacted with a water-immiscible organic solvent, preferably hexone. whereby uranium and plutonium are extracted while the fission products remain in the aqueous solution. The separated organic phase is then contacted with an aqueous solution of a reducing agent, with or without a holding reductant (e.g., with a ferrous salt plus hydrazine or with ferrous sulfamate), whereby plutonium is reduced to the trivalent state and back- extracted into the aqueous solution. The uranium may finally be back-extracted from the organic solvent (e.g., with a 0.1 N nitric acid).

  19. Two stage leaching of activated spent HDS catalyst and solvent extraction of aluminium using organo-phosphinic extractant, Cyanex 272.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Ho; Mohapatra, Debasish; Nam, Chul-Woo

    2007-09-01

    Spent catalyst generally contains valuable metals like Mo, Co, Ni on a supporting material, such as gamma-A1(2)O(3). In the present study, a two stage alkali/acid leaching process is proposed to selectively target molybdenum and cobalt/nickel separately to facilitate the downstream processing. Prior to the leaching, the spent catalyst was calcined at 500 degrees C to remove C and S; and to convert metal sulphides to metal oxides. 98% Mo, 93% Co and 90% Ni was effectively recovered by this process. The sulphuric acid leaching of spent catalyst, previously treated by alkali solutions to remove Mo, yielded a solution rich in Ni, Co and Al. In order to recover Co and Ni, the Al impurity must be eliminated. The extraction and stripping of Al has been carried out using the organo-phosphinic extractant, Cyanex 272 diluted in carbon tetrachloride. Quantitative Al extraction efficiency was achieved with 1.0M Cyanex 272 in two stages at an aqueous:organic (A:O) phase ratio of 1:1 and equilibrium pH of 3.2. Complete stripping of Al from the loaded organic was carried out using 2M H(2)SO(4) at an A:O phase ratio of 1:1. The extraction reaction proceeded via the cation exchange mechanism and the extracted species was assumed to be AlA(3).3HA. The extraction of Al was carried out in the presence of various ions to ascertain the tolerance limit of individual ions. The regenerated solvent was successfully used for 8 cycles without any significant loss of extraction efficiency, suggesting that Cyanex 272 is extremely stable under present experimental conditions. PMID:17363155

  20. Radiolytic Treatment of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) Solvent and its Effect on the NGS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Duncan, Nathan C.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Lee, Denise L.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-01

    We show in this work that the solvent used in the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process can withstand a radiation dose well in excess of the dose it would receive in multiple years of treating legacy salt waste at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. The solvent was subjected to a maximum of 50 kGy of gamma radiation while in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS−15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). Bench-top testing of irradiated solvent confirmed that irradiation has inconsequential impact on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping performance of the solvent up to 13 times the estimated 0.73 kGy/y annual absorbed dose. Lastly, stripping performance is the most sensitive step to radiation, deteriorating more due to buildup of p-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and possibly other proton-ionizable products than to degradation of the guanidine suppressor, as shown by chemical analyses.

  1. Radiolytic Treatment of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) Solvent and its Effect on the NGS Process

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Duncan, Nathan C.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Lee, Denise L.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-01

    We show in this work that the solvent used in the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process can withstand a radiation dose well in excess of the dose it would receive in multiple years of treating legacy salt waste at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. The solvent was subjected to a maximum of 50 kGy of gamma radiation while in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS−15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). Bench-top testing ofmore » irradiated solvent confirmed that irradiation has inconsequential impact on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping performance of the solvent up to 13 times the estimated 0.73 kGy/y annual absorbed dose. Lastly, stripping performance is the most sensitive step to radiation, deteriorating more due to buildup of p-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and possibly other proton-ionizable products than to degradation of the guanidine suppressor, as shown by chemical analyses.« less

  2. Measurement of achievable plutonium decontamination from gallium by means of PUREX solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Felker, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the work described herein was to measure, experimentally, the achievable decontamination of plutonium from gallium by means of the PUREX solvent extraction process. Gallium is present in surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) at a concentration of approximately 1 wt%. Plans are to dispose of surplus WG-Pu by converting it to UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. However, the presence of high concentrations of gallium in plutonium is a potential corrosion problem during the process of MOX fuel irradiation. The batch experiments performed in this study were designed to measure the capability of the PUREX solvent extraction process to separate gallium from plutonium under idealized conditions. Radioactive tracing of the gallium with {sup 72}Ga enabled the accurate measurement of low concentrations of extractable gallium. The experiments approximated the proposed flowsheet for WG-Pu purification, except that only one stage was used for each process: extraction, scrubbing, and stripping. With realistic multistage countercurrent systems, much more efficient separations are generally obtained. The gallium decontamination factor (DF) obtained after one extraction stage was about 3 x 10{sup 6}. After one scrub stage, all gallium measurements were less than the detection limit, which corresponded to DFs >5 x 10{sup 6}. All these values exceed a 10{sup 6} DF needed to meet a hypothetical 10-ppb gallium impurity limit in MOX fuel. The results of this study showed no inherent or fundamental problem with regard to removing gallium from plutonium.

  3. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  4. Solvent Extraction of Copper: An Extractive Metallurgy Exercise for Undergraduate Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smellie, Iain A.; Forgan, Ross S.; Brodie, Claire; Gavine, Jack S.; Harris, Leanne; Houston, Daniel; Hoyland, Andrew D.; McCaughan, Rory P.; Miller, Andrew J.; Wilson, Liam; Woodhall, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment for advanced undergraduate students has been developed in the context of extractive metallurgy. The experiment serves as a model of an important modern industrial process that combines aspects of organic/inorganic synthesis and analysis. Students are tasked to prepare a salicylaldoxime ligand and samples of the…

  5. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  6. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  7. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  8. Membrane-assisted growth of DNA origami nanostructure arrays.

    PubMed

    Kocabey, Samet; Kempter, Susanne; List, Jonathan; Xing, Yongzheng; Bae, Wooli; Schiffels, Daniel; Shih, William M; Simmel, Friedrich C; Liedl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes fulfill many important tasks within living organisms. In addition to separating cellular volumes, membranes confine the space available to membrane-associated proteins to two dimensions (2D), which greatly increases their probability to interact with each other and assemble into multiprotein complexes. We here employed two DNA origami structures functionalized with cholesterol moieties as membrane anchors--a three-layered rectangular block and a Y-shaped DNA structure--to mimic membrane-assisted assembly into hierarchical superstructures on supported lipid bilayers and small unilamellar vesicles. As designed, the DNA constructs adhered to the lipid bilayers mediated by the cholesterol anchors and diffused freely in 2D with diffusion coefficients depending on their size and number of cholesterol modifications. Different sets of multimerization oligonucleotides added to bilayer-bound origami block structures induced the growth of either linear polymers or two-dimensional lattices on the membrane. Y-shaped DNA origami structures associated into triskelion homotrimers and further assembled into weakly ordered arrays of hexagons and pentagons, which resembled the geometry of clathrin-coated pits. Our results demonstrate the potential to realize artificial self-assembling systems that mimic the hierarchical formation of polyhedral lattices on cytoplasmic membranes. PMID:25734977

  9. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment. PMID:25464326

  10. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract. PMID:26396295

  11. A solvent extraction technique for the measurement of 222Rn at ambient air concentrations.

    PubMed

    Prichard, H M

    1983-08-01

    The high solubility of radon in cold organic solvents is exploited to extract radon directly from a sample air stream into a hexane-based liquid scintillation solution. Up to 10 l. of air is passed through 20 ml of solvent held at -78 degrees C in a bath of dry ice and acetone. The solvent is then transferred to an ordinary glass liquid scintillation vial that has been preloaded with 2 ml of concentrated fluors. A large number of samples can be prepared in a short time with minimal equipment, making it possible for field workers to conveniently collect numerous samples prior to returning to the laboratory. After allowing an interval of at least 3 hr after processing for radon daughter ingrowth, the vials are counted on an unmodified liquid scintillation system with a narrow window set around the radon and polonium alpha peaks. The large sample volume more than compensates for the relatively high alpha background of liquid scintillators. Relevant theoretical considerations and alternate sampling strategies are discussed. PMID:6885455

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  13. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used.

  14. Metal Recognition Driven by Weak Interactions: A Case Study in Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Poirot, Rémi; Le Goff, Xavier; Diat, Olivier; Bourgeois, Damien; Meyer, Daniel

    2016-07-18

    Tuning the affinity of a medium for a given metallic cation with the sole modification of weak interactions is a challenge for molecular recognition. Solvent extraction is a key technique employed in the recovery and purification of valuable metals, and it is facing an increased complexity of metal fluxes to deal with. The selectivity of such processes generally relies on the use of specific ligands, designed after their coordination chemistry. In the present study, we illustrate the possibility to employ the sole control of weak interactions to achieve the selective extraction of Pd(II) over Nd(III) : the control over selectivity is obtained by tuning the self-assembly of the organic phase. A model is proposed, after detailed experimental analysis of molecular (XRD, NMR) and supra-molecular (SAXS) features of the organic phases. We thus demonstrate that Pd(II) extraction is driven by metal coordination, whereas Nd(III) extraction requires aggregation of the extractant in addition to metal coordination. These results are of general interest for the applications which rely on the stabilization of metals in organic phases. PMID:27062532

  15. A solvent-free approach to extract the lipid fraction from sewer grease for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qingshi; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Mingming; Brougham, Andrew; Lu, Ting

    2016-08-01

    Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are the number one cause of sewer pipe blockage and have been mostly disposed of as a waste until recently. This study investigated a low cost and environmentally friendly approach to extract the lipid fraction (fatty acids and glycerides for biodiesel production) from sewer grease (SG), i.e., FOGs obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The lipid fraction of the sewer grease was primarily in the form of free fatty acid (FFA), at 20.7wt%. An innovative solvent-free extraction approach was developed using waste cooking oil (WCO) to overcome the challenges of emulsion, impurities and high moisture content of the sewer grease. A 95% extraction yield of sewer grease was achieved under the optimum operating condition of 3.2:1 WCO-SG ratio (wt/wt), 70°C and 240min. In addition, the reusability of the WCO was also investigated. WCO can be used two to three times for sewer grease extraction with more than 90% extraction efficiency. PMID:27256783

  16. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to <0.01M and the moisture content of the pulp increased from 93% to 97% (wet basis), showing the removal of caustic salts from the waste. Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts. PMID:27542486

  17. Comparison of extraction techniques, including supercritical fluid, high-pressure solvent, and soxhlet, for organophosphorus hydraulic fluids from soil.

    PubMed

    David, M D; Seiber, J N

    1996-09-01

    The efficiencies of three extraction techniques for removal of nonpesticidal organophosphates from soil were determined. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and a low solvent volume flow through technique referred to here as high-pressure solvent extraction (HPSE). SFE, optimized by varying parameters of temperature, pressure, and methanol polarity modifier, showed at least 90% efficiency in the extraction of OPs from both spiked and native soils. HPSE experiments showed efficient and consistent recoveries over a range of temperatures up to 200 °C and pressures up to 170 atm. Recovery of TCP from spiked soils with HPSE depends on the system variables of temperature and pressure, which dictate density and flow rate. HPSE provided extraction efficiencies comparable to those obtained with Soxhlet extraction and SFE but with substantial savings of time and cost. PMID:21619371

  18. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU

  19. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, C.C.; Liu, G.J.; Kang, Y.; Chou, C.L.; Wang, R.W.

    2008-03-15

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 {mu} g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate-plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matter bound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism.

  20. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  1. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire M; Ellwood, Michael J; Wille, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater. PMID:23601981

  2. Aqueous accelerated solvent extraction of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from carbonaceous river floodplain soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Hofmann, Thilo

    2009-10-01

    In this study, three river floodplain soils with different compositions of carbonaceous materials and a reference coal sample were extracted with water using the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method. The desorption enthalpy values for 2-ring PAHs were highest in the coal sample, with values in the soil samples decreasing with decrease in coal content. The values for the higher condensed PAHs showed that the highest desorption enthalpies were from the samples with the largest amount of coal-derived particles. Elevated desorption enthalpies indicated a strong bonding between PAHs and geosorbents. Moreover, with the application of ASE this study was able to conclude that the PAHs in the samples were preferentially adsorbed to carbonaceous materials with high surface areas. PMID:19524343

  3. Molecular Characteristics of Kraft-AQ Pulping Lignin Fractionated by Sequential Organic Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2010-01-01

    Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter). In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules. PMID:21152286

  4. Influence of extraction solvent on antioxidant capacity value of oleaster measured by ORAC method.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Gorkem; Sogut, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a widely used hydrogen atom transfer-based method which measures the antioxidant capacity of natural products. ORAC values of oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), which was extracted with ethanol/acetone (7:3, v/v), ethanol/water (1:1, v/v) and methanol/water (1:1, v/v) in order to evaluate the effects of solvent type on antioxidant capacity, were examined. In general, results revealed that ethanol/water extracts exhibited better antioxidant capacity values. Furthermore, results obtained by using ORAC-eosin y (ORAC-EY), one of the widely used derivative of fluorescein (FL), as a fluorescent probe were compared with those obtained by using ORAC-FL. According to the results, ORAC-EY values were found to be compatible with ORAC-FL values. PMID:24783990

  5. SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE U.S. FUEL CYCLE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Terry A. Todd

    2011-10-01

    Treatment or processing of used nuclear fuel to recycle uranium and plutonium has historically been accomplished using the well known PUREX process. The PUREX process has been used on an industrial scale for over 60 years in the nuclear industry. Research is underway to develop advanced separation methods for the recovery of other used fuel components, such as the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) for possible transmutation in fast spectrum reactors, or other constituents (e.g. Cs, Sr, transition metals, lanthanides) to help facilitate effective waste management options. This paper will provide an overview of new solvent extraction processes developed for advanced nuclear fuel cycles, and summarize recent experimental results. This will include the utilization of new extractants for selective separation of target metals and new processes developed to selectively recover one or more elements from used fuel.

  6. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  7. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion. PMID:27506350

  8. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  9. Accelerated solvent extraction for gas chromatographic analysis of nicotine and cotinine in meconium samples.

    PubMed

    Sant'anna, Simone Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Diniz, Edna Maria de Albuquerque; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Adverse effects associated with smoking during pregnancy are well documented. Although self-report surveys on drug consumption during pregnancy have been improved with new interviewing techniques, underreporting is still a concern. Therefore, a series of biological markers and specimens to diagnose fetal exposure to tobacco have been studied. In the present study, an analytical method was developed to detect nicotine and cotinine (the main nicotine metabolite) in meconium samples. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) were used as sample preparation techniques. The analytes were detected by gas-chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The limits of detection were 3.0 and 30 ng/g for cotinine and nicotine, respectively. The method showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.98) in the concentration range studied (LOQ-500 ng/g). The intraday precision, given by the RSD of the method, was less than 15% for cotinine and nicotine. The method proved to be fast, practical, and sensitive. Smaller volumes of organic solvents are necessary compared to other chromatographic methods published in the scientific literature. This is the first report in which ASE was used as sample preparation technique in methods to detect xenobiotics in meconium. PMID:22290748

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  11. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    SciTech Connect

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2008-07-01

    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  12. Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: Extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills). PMID:27374504

  13. In Situ Analysis of the Martian Regolith Using Solvent Extraction and Chemical Derivatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Cabane, M.; Szopa, C.; Gonzalez, R. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Mars is presently the most likely planet on which there is a possibility of finding extinct and/or extant life. Future exploratory missions to Mars in search of evidence for life will focus on key organic molecules such as carboxylic and amino acids. The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission will offer an opportunity to carry out in situ measurements for organic compounds on Mars. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is one technique that will be proposed for MSL. We are currently developing an automated extraction process coupled to chemical derivatization in order to target several key organic compounds using GC-MS. This paper presents a solid-liquid extraction method (1) that can be coupled with in situ GC-MS analyses of organic compounds on Mars. Amino acid and carboxylic acid extraction efficiencies from a soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert, Chile (2) using several different organic solvents including (isopropanol and water) have been determined. We found that a 1:1 mixture of isopropanol and water was the best solvent with high extraction yields for both amino and carboxylic acids in less than 30 minutes when the extraction procedure is assisted by ultrasonic treatment. A highly sensititive and quantitative single-step derivatization reaction was carried out using N-methyl, N-tert.-butyl (dimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent prior to GC-MS analysis. The effect of pH and salt concentration on the derivatization reaction was also studied. We have also demonstrated the feasibility of carrying out extraction and derivatization directly on the soil in a one-step procedure The development of a miniaturized reactor, where both the extraction and the derivatization processes could take place is currently under investigation. This method is discussed for an easy automation with coupling to an in situ GC-MS space instrument. (1) A. Buch et al., J.of Chrom. A, 999 (2003) 165-174 (2) R. Navarro-Gonzàlez et al

  14. Assisted solvent extraction and ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in mussels. Comparison with other extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A; Cobas, J; Carro, N

    2008-01-01

    A selective and sensitive analytical method for determination of ten congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 31, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 105, 138, 156, and 180) in mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis) based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) is presented in this work. Extraction conditions were optimised using a Plackett-Burman factorial design. The final extracts were analysed after cleanup on alumina columns. The optimised extraction parameters were solvent percentage, sample amount, extraction temperature, pressure, static extraction time, flush percentage, and purge time. The results suggest that PCBs 118, 105, and 180 extractions appeared affected by only one statistically significant factor, pressure, solvent percentage and static extraction time, respectively. Extraction of PCBs 138 and 156 was affected by amount of sample. PCB 138 extraction was also statistically affected by static extraction time and purge time. Quantitative recoveries (64.8-120.3%) were achieved for all PCBs and method precision (RSD < 19%) was satisfactory. PMID:17965854

  15. Factors influencing phase disengagement rates in solvent extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    A key structural factor affecting organic continuous phase disengagement was found to be the backbone chain length (longest chain in each alkyl group) since the OC phase disengagement measurements could be correlated vs backbone chain length on a single curve regardless of whether the amine was branched or linear. Aqueous continuous (AC) phase disengagement rate was rapid for the acid sulfate solution but decreased greatly with decreasing n when colloidal silica was added or when leach solution was used. With both leach and colloidal silica solutions, AC phase disengagement was correlated with wetting behavior of the amine systems on a glass (silicate) surface. A model based on silica attachment to the liquid/liquid interface was suggested to explain the stabilization of AC dispersions by silica and the related problem of interfacial crud formation. In addition faster AC phase disengagement and less emulsion (crud) stabilization, the larger molecular weight amines (n greater than or equal to 10) were found to have higher uranium extraction coefficients and lower tendencies to form third phases. Presumably, solubility losses to the aqueous phase are also lower. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used. 10 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Subcritical water and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction of fluorescent whitening agents and azo dyes in paper samples.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, Mario; Batlle, Ramón; Salafranca, Jesús; Nerín, Cristina

    2005-02-01

    Two low-volume solvent continuous extraction methods are applied to the extraction of paper matrices. In the methods reported here, a complex mixture of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) and azo dyes (AZOs) used in paper materials intended to come into contact with foodstuffs was extracted by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE). Rationale for the work is based upon migration concerns of these groups of analytes from the packaging to the packaged items, thus compromising their subjective and/or objective quality. In SWE, sample was extracted in 21 min with 0.5 mL of water, whereas the DSASE method required 11 min and used 7 mL of water. DSASE was further developed by incorporating an organic modifier in order to change water polarity, thus improving extraction of moderately polar analytes. This way, modified-DSASE used a total organic volume of 0.9 mL which represents a reduction of 200 times in organic solvent consumption (200 mL versus approximately 1.0 mL) and 11 times in extraction time (2h versus 11 min) compared to the existing methods. SWE was able to extract only 9 out of 12 test analytes with average recoveries between 10 and 25% whereas modified-DSASE succeed in extracting all the target analytes with an average recovery of 89%. Complete discussion and explanation concerning these differences are provided in the text. PMID:15739881

  17. Extraction of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil by a natural deep eutectic solvent: Data on UV absorption of the extracts.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    This data article refers to the paper "Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection" [1]. A deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on lactic acid and glucose was used as green solvent for phenolic compounds. Eight standard phenolic compounds were solubilized in the DES. Then, a set of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples (n=65) were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction by the DES. The standard solutions and the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrophotometry. This article reports the spectral data of both the standard solutions and the 65 extracts, as well as the total phenolic content of the corresponding oils, assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. PMID:27504478

  18. Solvent extraction of holmium and yttrium with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizuka, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Baba, Y.; Inoue, K. ); Nakashio, F. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a kinetic study on the solvent extraction of holmium(III) and yttrium(III) with bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) from nitrate media conducted at 303 K using a hollow fiber membrane extractor. Also studied were the distribution equilibria of these metals and interfacial adsorption equilibria of D2EHPA and its metal complexes between the organic and aqueous phases. It was found that the metals (M{sup 3+}) were extracted with D2EHPA (HR) ad MR{sub 3} {center dot} 3HR into the organic phase, and the extraction equilibrium constants were evaluated. Furthermore, it was established that dimeric D2EHPA can be adsorbed at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases, while the interfacial activities of D2EHPA-metal complexes were negligibly small. The apparent orders 2, 1, and 2 of the permeabilities for the extraction of both metals were found with respect to the pH of the aqueous solution and the concentrations of the metal ion and dimeric D2EHPA, while the orders 1, 1, and {minus}1 of the permeabilities for the stripping of both metals were found with respect to the hydrogen ion activity and the concentrations of the metal complex and dimeric D2EHPA, respectively. The diffusional effects were reasonably explained by the diffusion model accompanied by an interfacial reaction, taking into account the velocity distributions of the aqueous and organic phases through the inner and outer sides of a hollow fiber.

  19. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Burnett, W.C.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  20. Extraction optimization of Loratadine by supramolecular solvent-based microextraction and its determination using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Peyrovi, Moazameh; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammadreza

    2015-02-01

    Optimization of supramolecular solvent-based microextraction (SSME) of Loratadine and its determination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultra violet (UV) detection were investigated. A factorial design (FD) and a central composite face-centered (CCF) were applied to evaluate the SSME procedure. The effect of four parameters on extraction efficiency was investigated. The factors studied were decanoic acid amount, percentage of tetrahydrofuran (THF) (v/v), pH and extraction time. According to half factorial design results, the effective parameters were decanoic acid amount, THF percentage (v/v) and pH. Then, a CCF was applied to obtain optimal condition. The optimized conditions were obtained at 110mg of decanoic acid, 10% of THF and pH=3. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.3-0.4ng/ml. Linearity of the method was determined to be in the range of 1.0-400.0ng/ml for distilled water and 1.3-400.0ng/ml for plasma. The extraction recovery was >92%. RSD for intra and inter day (n=5) of extraction of Loratadine were 3.1% and 6.2%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of Loratadine in distilled water and plasma samples. PMID:25579114

  1. Ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent extraction of iron from sheep, bovine and chicken liver samples.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    A green, novel and effective ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent (DES) extraction (UA-DES-E) procedure was developed for extraction of iron from sheep, bovine and chicken liver samples. The analytical parameters including type and composition DES, volume of DES, ultrasonication time and ratio of sample to DES were optimized by using 50mg of the NIST SRM 1577b bovine liver certified reference material. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found as 0.026µg mL(-1) and 0.085µg mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) as a result of 7 replicates of 50mg of certified reference material was 1.4%. The accuracy of proposed method was checked by the addition/recovery tests to NIST SRM 1577b bovine liver and a sheep liver. The extraction method was applied to extraction of iron from bovine, sheep and chicken liver samples retail from markets at Kayseri, Turkey with satisfactory results (recoveries higher than 95%). PMID:25702999

  2. Analysis of pesticide multi-residues in leafy vegetables by ultrasonic solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian; Xia, Xiao-Xiao; Liang, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) of pesticide multi-residues including monocrotophos, dimethoate, imidacloprid, carbendazim, carbaryl and simazine from leafy vegetables is presented. The extraction procedure was optimized with regard to the solvent type and amount, sonication time and number of extraction steps. The extract did not need clean-up before injected into liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) which was employed together with electron microscope to verify the effect of USE method. The proposed procedure allows the extraction of six pesticide residues in a single step with 40 ml of ethyl acetate for 35 min sonication, providing recovery over 83% and LOQ less than 1.4 microg/kg. The optimized USE method is a simple, low cost and an effective preparation method for determination of pesticide multi-residues at trace levels in leafy vegetables in comparison with homogenized extraction method. PMID:17664080

  3. Modified diglycol-amides for actinide separation: solvent extraction and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy complexation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilden, A.; Modolo, G.; Lange, S.; Sadowski, F.; Bosbach, D.; Beele, B.B.; Panak, P.J.; Skerencak-Frech, A.; Geist, A.; Iqbal, M.; Verboom, W.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the back-bone of the diglycolamide-structure of the TODGA extractant was modified by adding one or two methyl groups to the central methylene carbon-atoms. The influence of these structural modifications on the extraction behavior of trivalent actinides and lanthanides and other fission products was studied in solvent extraction experiments. The addition of methyl groups to the central methylene carbon atoms leads to reduced distribution ratios, also for Sr(II). This reduced extraction efficiency for Sr(II) is beneficial for process applications, as the co-extraction of Sr(II) can be avoided, resulting in an easier process design. The use of these modified diglycol-amides in solvent extraction processes is discussed. Furthermore, the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) to the ligands was studied using Time-Resolved-Laser-Fluorescence-Spectroscopy (TRLFS). The complexes were characterized by slope analysis and conditional stability constants were determined.

  4. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions.

    PubMed

    Damm, Markus; Kappe, C Oliver

    2011-11-30

    A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200°C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141±11 μg caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90±11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90°C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of ~150 μg caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee extracts and the headspace volatiles was performed, placing special emphasis on headspace analysis using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) techniques. The miniaturized parallel extraction technique introduced herein allows solvent extractions to be performed at significantly expanded temperature/pressure limits and shortened extraction times, using standard HPLC autosampler vials as reaction vessels. Remarkable differences regarding peak pattern and main peaks were

  5. MEASUREMENT OF ENTRAINED ORGANIC DROPLET SIZES AND TOTAL CONCENTRATION FOR AQUEOUS STREAMS FROM THE CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C; Samuel Fink, S; Michael Restivo, M; Dan Burns, D; Wallace Smith, W; S Crump, S; Zane Nelson, Z; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Michael Norato, M

    2007-02-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility will remove radioactive cesium from Savannah River Site supernate wastes using an organic solvent system. Both designs include decanters and coalescers to reduce carryover of organic solvent droplets. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel conducted experimental demonstrations using a series of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors. They also examined organic carryover during operation of a CINC (Costner Industries Nevada Corporation) V-5 contactor under prototypical conditions covering the range of expected MCU operation. This report details the findings from those studies and the implications on design for the MCU.

  6. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

    2006-09-20

    Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p < 0.01). Thus, for routine screening of barley varieties with higher antioxidant activity, 80% acetone was recommended to extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity. PMID:16968094

  7. Solvent extraction separation of copper and zinc from MSWI fly ash leachates.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) contains significant amounts of metals, some of which are valuable and some of which are potentially toxic. This type of ash is most often stabilized and landfilled which means that the metals will be difficult to reclaim at a later stage. In recent years efforts have been made to develop feasible methods to recover selected metals, such as Zn, from MSW fly ash. If this would be possible, a significant amount of valuable metals could be re-inserted in the industrial material loops. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a process for recovery of Cu and Zn from MSW combustion fly ash based on hydrochloric acid leaching followed by two solvent extraction processes, one for each metal. The separation of Cu from the acid leachate was done using an aldoxime extractant, LIX860N-I, in kerosene and a mixture of phosphine oxides, Cyanex 923, also in kerosene, was used for extraction of Zn from the Cu-depleted aqueous phase. The extraction of Cu was selective, but a significant amount of other metals, such as Fe and Pb, were co-extracted together with Zn. It was shown that it is possible to decrease the contamination of Fe by using a suitable concentration of nitric acid solution for stripping or by removing the contaminating metals through cementation. The suggested process was tested for two MSW combustion fly ashes in laboratory scale experiments and gave Cu yields of 69-87% and Zn yields of 75-80% based on the contents in the ash. PMID:26227183

  8. A predictive model of reverse micelles solubilizing water for solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Bley, Michael; Siboulet, Bertrand; Karmakar, Anwesa; Zemb, Thomas; Dufrêche, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    Herein, a minimal model for the common case of W/O solubilization of badly soluble compounds present in an excess phase by reverse micellar aggregates in chemical equilibrium with its single compounds is introduced. A simple model of such liquid-liquid extractions is crucial for obtaining predictive parameter for the modelling of nuclear waste management and hydrometallurgic recycling strategies. The standard Gibbs free energy of aggregation and the concentration of the corresponding aggregate is calculated within a multiple-equilibria approach for a set of aggregate compositions of solute and amphiphilic extractant molecules. This minimal model provides potential surfaces estimating the stability of different aggregate compositions with 6.2kJmol(-1) as a generalized bending constant. The complete concentrations of free and aggregated extractant species as well as the favored aggregation numbers, the polydispersity, the activity of the organic solvent, and the critical concentrations are captured by this thermodynamic model. An increase of the apparent critical micelle concentration for an increasing solute content in the aqueous phase is detected by this method. PMID:27376975

  9. Solvent optimization for anthocyanin extraction from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Bratati; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2013-05-01

    Anthocyanins are plant pigments that are potential candidates for use as natural food colourant. In this study, Syzygium cumini fruit skin has been used as anthocyanin source. All the six major types of anthocyanins were identified in the sample by ultra performance liquid chromatography studies, and the antioxidant activity was found to be 4.34 ± 0.26 Fe(2+)g(- 1) in the sample with highest anthocyanin content. Optimization of conditions for extracting high amounts of anthocyanin from the fruit peels was investigated by response surface methodology. The results suggested that highest anthocyanin yield (763.80 mg; 100 ml(- 1)), highest chroma and hue angle in the red colour range could be obtained when 20% ethanol was used in combination with 1% acetic acid. Methanol was replaced with ethanol for the extraction of pigments due to its less toxicity and being safe for human consumption. The optimized solvent can be used to extract anthocyanins from the S. cumini fruits and used as natural colourants in the food industries. PMID:23121325

  10. Assessment of the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasworks soil using different extraction solvents and techniques.

    PubMed

    Bergknut, Magnus; Kitti, Anna; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats; Haglund, Peter

    2004-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present at a gasworks site to different soil remediation techniques. The study examined the effect on PAH availability of using different organic solvents, the degree of pretreatment, and the extraction time. In total, 25 PAHs (with two to six fused rings) and five carbonyl derivatives were measured. The results indicated that the PAHs and their derivatives were bound loosely to the surface of the studied soil and that there were no significant kinetic boundaries associated with the extraction of the PAHs. Furthermore, it was concluded that the studied soil was not suitable for bioremediation, as the concentration of PAHs with low molecular weight were limited. However, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with methanol as the solvent extracted 97% of all PAHs and PAH-derivatives, indicating that extraction may be effective as part of a soil remediation technique for old gasworks soils. PMID:15352473

  11. Accelerated solvent extraction of vitamin K1 in medical foods in conjunction with matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Chase, G W; Thompson, B

    2000-01-01

    An extraction technique is described for vitamin K1 in medical foods, using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in conjunction with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The medical food sample is treated as it would be with MSPD extraction, followed by ASE for a hands-free automated extraction. The vitamin K1 in the ASE extract is then quantitated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The chromatography specifications are identical to those in previous work that used MSPD only, with a limit of detection of 6.6 pg and a limit of quantitation of 22 pg on column. Recoveries, which were determined for an analyte-fortified zero control reference material for medical foods, averaged 97.6% (n = 25) for vitamin K1. The method provides a rapid, automatic, specific, and easily controlled assay for vitamin K1 in fortified medical foods with minimal solvent usage. PMID:10772179

  12. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  13. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts. PMID:25977057

  14. Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen isotopes in solvent-extractable organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Epstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    CCl4 and CH3OH solvent extractions were performed on the Murray, Murchison, Orgueil and Renazzo carbonaceous chondrites. Delta-D values of +300-+500% are found in the case of the CH3OH-soluble organic matter. The combined C, H and N isotope data makes it unlikely that the CH3OH-soluble components are derivable from, or simply related to, the insoluble organic polymer found in the same meteorites. A relation between the event that formed hydrous minerals in CI1 and CM2 meteorites and the introduction of water- and methanol-soluble organic compounds is suggested. Organic matter soluble in CCl4 has no N, and delta-C-13 values are lower than for CH3OH-soluble phases. It is concluded that there either are large isotopic fractionations for carbon and hydrogen between different soluble organic phases, or the less polar components are partially of terrestrial origin.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  16. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    SciTech Connect

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  18. APPLICATIONS OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION IN THE HIGH-YIELD MULTI-PROCESS REDUCTION/SEPARATION OF Eu FROM EXCESS Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sudowe, Ralf; Nitsche, Heino; Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2008-05-15

    A novel multi-process method for separating Eu from neighbouring lanthanides (Ln) has been developed that chemically reduces Eu(III) to Eu(II) prior to solvent extraction of Ln(III) with thenoyltrifluoroacetone in benzene. This method is capable of achieving higher purities (>99%) and separation yields than previously published multi-process methods that stabilize and separate the reduced Eu(II) as a sulphate solid and is ideal for enriching materials of high-value. Results from a variety of combinations of a chemical or electrochemical reduction process preceding a separation process using either ion exchange chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, or solvent extraction are discussed.

  19. TUNGSTEN SHIELDS FOR CS-137 INLINE MONITORS IN THE CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V; Mark Hogue, M; Javier Reyes-Jimenez, J; Paul Filpus-Luyckx, P; Timothy Riley, T; Fred Ogden, F; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-10

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The CSSX process is a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from highly radioactive waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. In-line analyses are performed with gamma-ray monitors to measure the C-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and in the strip effluent (SE). Sodium iodide (NaI) monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration before the DSS Hold Tank, while Geiger-Mueller (GM) monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the SE hold tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to provide the needed reduction of the process background radiation at the detector positions. A one-inch tungsten cylindrical shield reduced the background radiation by a factor of fifty that was adequate for the GM detectors, while a three-and-one-half-inch tungsten cylindrical shield was required for the NaI detectors. Testing of the NaI shield was performed at the SRS Instrument Calibration Facility. Based on this testing, the as-built shield is predicted to be able to detect the MCU DSS stream at concentrations above 0.003 Ci/gal under the ''worst case'' field conditions with a MCU feed solution of 1.1 Ci/gal and all of the process tanks completely full. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, testing and implementation of the tungsten shields in the MCU facility.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of solvent-extracted active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    SUNG, BOKYUNG; CHUNG, HYE SUN; KIM, MINJUNG; KANG, YONG JUNG; KIM, DONG HWAN; HWANG, SEONG YEON; KIM, MIN JO; KIM, CHEOL MIN; CHUNG, HAE YOUNG; KIM, NAM DEUK

    2015-01-01

    Herbal extracts and dietary supplements may be extracted from the medicinal plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, and are used increasingly commonly worldwide for their benefits to health and quality of life. Thus, ensuring that they are safe for human consumption is a critical issue for the preparation of plant extracts as dietary supplements. The present study investigated extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza), traditionally used in Asian countries to treat a variety of conditions, as a dietary supplement or as an ingredient in functional foods. Dried S. miltiorrhiza root was extracted with various solvents and under varying extraction conditions, and the effects of the extracts on the viability of five human cancer cell lines were compared. Extracts obtained using 100% ethanol and 100% acetone as solvents exhibited more potent effects compared with extracts obtained using 70 and 30% aqueous ethanol. Furthermore, the active components of S. miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts, known as tanshinones, were investigated. Dihydrotanshinone I was observed to exhibit a higher cytotoxic potential compared with the other tanshinones in the majority of the examined cell lines. Conversely, cryptotanshinone exhibited weak anti-cancer activity. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that the active components obtained from an ethanol extract of S. miltiorrhiza possess the potential to be used as ingredients in functional and health care foods that may be used to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics in the prevention and/or treatment of cancer. PMID:25780445

  1. Influence of Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction on the Anthocyanin Profile of Different Vaccinium Species in the Context of Statistical Models for Authentication.

    PubMed

    Heffels, Peter; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins are frequently discussed as marker compounds for fruit product authenticity. Proper analysis including sample preparation for the determination of anthocyanin concentrations is crucial for the comparability of authenticity data. The present study determined the influence of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using two different solvent compositions on the anthocyanin profile of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), and American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Besides differences in total anthocyanin concentrations in the extracts, significant deviations (p ≤ 0.05) in the individual anthocyanin concentration were observed, resulting in differing anthocyanin proportions. Linear discriminant analysis comparing the differences caused by the extraction method to the natural differences within a set of 26 bilberry and lowbush blueberry samples of different origins was conducted. It revealed that profile variations induced by the extraction methods are in a similar scale to profile variations as a result of geographic and climatic differences. PMID:26330254

  2. The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(iii) and europium(iii) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining their separation properties.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Christian; Löfström-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Geist, Andreas; Lundberg, Daniel; Denecke, Melissa; Persson, Ingmar

    2015-11-14

    Separation of trivalent actinoid (An(iii)) and lanthanoid (Ln(iii)) ions is extremely challenging due to their similar ionic radii and chemical properties. Poly-aromatic nitrogen compounds acting as tetradentate chelating ligands to the metal ions in the extraction, have the ability to sufficiently separate An(iii) from Ln(iii). One of these compounds, 6,6'-bis(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-benzol[1,2,4]triazin-3-yl)[2,2]bipyridine, CyMe4-BTBP, has proven to be resistant towards acidic environments and strong radiation from radioactive decomposition. EXAFS studies of the dicomplexes of CyMe4-BTBP with americium(iii) and europium(iii) in nitrobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and malonamide (DMDOHEMA) in 1-octanol have been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the parameters responsible for the separation. The predominating complexes independent of solvent used are [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) and [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+), respectively, which are present as outer-sphere ion-pairs with nitrate ions in the studied solvents with low relative permittivity. The presence of a nitrate ion in the first coordination sphere of the americium(iii) complex compensates the charge density of the complex considerably in comparison when only outer-sphere ion-pairs are formed as for the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex. The stability and solubility of a complex in a solvent with low relative permittivity increase with decreasing charge density. The [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) complex will therefore be increasingly soluble and stabilized over the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex in solvents with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent. The separation of americium(iii) from europium(iii) with CyMe4-BTBP as extraction agent will increase with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent, and thereby also with decreasing solubility of CyMe4-BTBP. The choice of solvent is therefore a balance of a high separation factor and sufficient solubility of the CyMe4-BTBP

  3. Screening and evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing properties of the methanolic extract and solvent-solvent partitioning effect of Vitex negundo Bark

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md Shamsuddin Sultan; Syeed, Sharif Hossain; Uddin, Md Hanif; Akter, Lucky; Ullah, Md Asmat; Jahan, Suria; Rashid, Md Harunur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate different biological activities of the methanolic extract and solvent-solvent partitioning of Vitex negundo (V. negundo) bark. Methods In-vitro anti-oxidant study was determined using total phenolic compound analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay. In vitro antimicrobial study was measured by observing zone of inhibition. The cytotoxic activity was studied using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and thrombolytic activity by clot disruption method. Results In the evaluation of anti-oxidant activity, the amount of total phenolic content differed in different extractives as from 12.94 mg of GAE/g of extractives to 54.19 mg of GAE/g of extractives of V. negundo. Among all extractives, the highest phenolic content was found in n-hexane fraction (N-HXN) (54.19 mg of GAE/g of extractives). Significant amount of phenolic compounds were present in methanol extract (ME) (35.19 mg of GAE/g of extractives) and aqueous soluble fraction (AQSF) (12.94 mg of GAE/g of extractives). The free radical scavenging activity of ME and its different partitions were assessed using DPPH free radicals assay. The highest free radical scavenging activity was found in AQSF (IC50=7.78 µg/mL). The antimicrobial screening of the bark of V. negundo exhibited mild to moderate activity in test microorganisms. The chloroform soluble fraction demonstrated the highest inhibition against microbial growth having zone of inhibition as 8-12 mm. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, The LC50 values of n-hexane and chloroform soluble fractions were found 3.713 6 µg/mL, and 0.910 µg/mL respectively while the LC50 values of standard Vincristine sulphate was 0.408 µg/mL. The methanol extract and their different organic soluble of V. negundo bark inhibited hypotonic solution-induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in in-vitro membrane stabilizing activity test. The AQSF and N-HXN showed inhibition of haemolysis as 55.05% and 29.89% that were lower than 71.9% of aspirin (0.10 mg

  4. Determination of fenvalerate in tomato by ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Ahmadi-Jouibari, Toraj; Fattahi, Nazir; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UASE) combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) has been developed for extraction and determination of fenvalerate from tomato samples. Fenvalerate was determined by high-performance liquid-liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector. Effects of parameters such as type and volume of extraction solvent in the UASE stage, sonication time, type and volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent in the DLLME-SFO stage, salt addition and pH effect on extraction were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-500 µg kg(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 µg kg(-1). The relative standard deviation for five replicate measurements of 100 µg kg(-1) of fenvalerate was 6.5%. The relative recovery of fenvalerate in different tomato samples at a spiking level of 10, 20 and 50 µg kg(-1) is in the range of 93.5-108%. The obtained results show that UASE-DLLME-SFO is a sensitive, fast and simple method for the determination of fenvalerate in tomato samples. PMID:24025187

  5. Thermal And Spectroscopic Analyses Of Next Generation Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Contacted With 3, 8, And 16 Molar Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2011-12-07

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. The NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU{sup a} and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. Reaction rates are much faster in 8 M and 16 M nitric acid than in 3 M nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, the nitric acid reacts with the extractant to produce initially organo-nitrate species. The reaction also releases soluble fluorinated alcohols such as tetrafluoropropanol. With longer contact time, the modifier reacts to produce a tarry substance with evolved gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO). Calorimetric analysis of the reaction product mixtures revealed that the organo-nitrates reaction products are not explosive and will not deflagrate.

  6. Improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads in aqueous media via dual-phase solvent system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Liu, Ruijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke

    2009-08-15

    In this study, a novel and simple dual-phase solvent system for the improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads in aqueous sample was proposed. The method integrated MIP extraction and micro-liquid-liquid extraction (micro-LLE) into only one step. A magnetic MIP beads using atrazine as template was synthesized, and was applied to aqueous media by adding micro-volume of n-hexane to form a co-extraction system. The magnetic MIP beads preferred to suspend in the organic phase, which shielded them from the disturbance of water molecule. The target analytes in the water sample was extracted into the organic phase by micro-LLE and then further bound to the solid-phase of magnetic MIP beads. The beads specificity was significantly improved with the imprinting efficiency of template increasing from 0.5 to 4.4, as compared with that in pure aqueous media. The extraction capacity, equilibration process and cross-selectivity of the MIP dual-phase solvent extraction system were investigated. The proposed method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the analysis of atrazine, simazine, propazine, simetryn, prometryne, ametryn and terbutryn in complicated sample such as tomato, strawberry juice and milk. The method is selective, sensitive and low organic solvent-consuming, and has potential to broaden the range of MIP application in biological and environmental sample. PMID:19576415

  7. Fast environment-friendly ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction of natural products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Wang, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yue; Xia, Qian; Bi, Wentao; Yang, Xiaodi; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-04-22

    A fast environment-friendly extraction method, ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction, was used for the extraction of natural products from plants. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the efficiency of the developed extraction method. Under the optimized experimental conditions, cryptotanshinone (0.176 mg/g), tanshinone I (0.181 mg/g), and tanshinone II A (0.421 mg/g) were extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, and the developed method was found to be greener, more efficient, and faster than conventional, environmentally harmful extraction methods such as methanol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction. The analytical performances including recovery, reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation of determination (r(2)), and the limit of detection, with the ranges of 96.1-103.9%, 1.6-1.9%, 0.9973-0.9984, and 5-8 ng/mL, were respectively obtained. Application of ball mill-assisted deep eutectic solvent-based extraction may fundamentally shape the future development of extraction methods. PMID:27033981

  8. Process for extractive-stripping of lean hydrocarbon gas streams at high pressure with a preferential physical solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, T.N.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a process for selectively extracting hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon gas feed stream with a preferential physical solvent which provides selective capability for extremely high recoveries according to any selected degree of a selected hydrocarbon component and heavier hydrocarbons within the group consisting of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane without the need simultaneously to recover hydrocarbons lighter than the selected hydrocarbon component from the hydrocarbon gas feed stream. The recoveries are: (a) ethane in amounts within the range of 2-100%, (b) propane in amounts within the range of 2-100%, (c) butane in amounts within the range of 2-100%, or (d) pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons in amounts ranging up to 100% by the following steps: (a) selectively extracting and stripping the hydrocarbon gas feed stream with the physical solvent to produce a residue hydrocarbon gas stream of pipeline specifications and a rich solvent stream containing ethane and heavier hydrocarbon components, (b) distilling the rich solvent to produce: (1) the selected hydrocarbon component and heavier hydrocarbons as overhead product. The improvement comprises the selective enrichment of the hydrocarbon gas feed stream with recycle of a selected portion of the overhead product to the extracting and stripping step, whereby the extremely high recoveries according to the any selected degree are feasible without the excessive solvent flow rates or the high reboiler temperatures.

  9. A SAXS study of aggregation in the synergistic TBP-HDBP solvent extraction system.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ross J; Anderson, Timothy L; Antonio, Mark R; Braatz, Alex; Nilsson, Mikael

    2013-05-16

    The macroscopic phase behaviors of a solvent system containing two extractants, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) in n-dodecane, were investigated through use of liquid-liquid extraction and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. Five organic solutions, each containing a total extractant concentration (TBP + HDBP) of 1 M in varying molar ratios (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 [TBP]:[TBP + HDBP]), were contacted with 0.2 M HNO3 aqueous solutions without and with dysprosium(III) at a concentration of 10(-4) M. An enhancement of the extraction of Dy(3+)--due to effects of synergism arising from the binary combination of extractants--was observed. SAXS data were collected for all solution compositions from 0 to 1 mol-fraction end ratios of TBP after contact with the acidic aqueous solutions both in the absence and presence of Dy as well as for the organic phases before aqueous contact. In the precontacted solutions, no notable changes in the SAXS data were observed upon combining the extractants so that the scattering intensity (I) measured at zero angle (Q = 0 Å(-1))--parameter I(0)--the experimental radius of gyration (R(g)), and the maximum linear extent (MLE) of the extractant aggregates were arithmetic averages of the two end members, 1 M HDBP, on the one hand, and 1 M TBP, on the other. In contrast, after contact with the aqueous phases with and without Dy(3+), a significant reorganization occurs with larger aggregates apparent in the extractant mixtures and smaller in the two end member solutions. In particular, the maximum values of the metrical parameters (I(0), R(g), and MLE) correlate with the apparent optimal synergistic extraction mole ratio of 0.25. The SAXS data were further analyzed using the recently developed generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method to provide pair-distance distribution functions with real-space information on aggregate morphology. Before aqueous contact, the organic phases show

  10. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2014-05-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications. PMID:24360439

  11. Formation of parallel two-phase flow in nanochannel and application to solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazoe, Yutaka; Ugajin, Takuya; Ohta, Ryoichi; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; The University of Tokyo Team

    2015-11-01

    Micro chemical systems have realized high-throughput analysis in ultra small volumes. Our group has established unit operations such as extraction, separation and reaction, and a concept of integration of chemical processes using parallel multi-phase flows in microchannels. Recently, the research field has been extended to 10-1000 nm space (extended-nanospace). Exploiting extended-nanospace, we developed ultra high performance chemical operations such as aL-chromatography and single molecule immunoassay. However, formation of parallel multi-phase flow in nanochannels has been difficult. The challenge is to control liquid-liquid/gas-liquid interfaces in 100 nm-scale. For this purpose, this study developed a partial surface modification method of nanochannel and verified formation of parallel two-phase flow. We achieved partial hydrophobic modification using focused ion beam (FIB). Using this method, formation of parallel water/dodecane two-phase flow in a nanochannel of 1500 nm width and 890 nm depth was succeeded. Solvent extraction of lipid, which is a basic separation in bioanalysis, was achieved in 25 fL volume much smaller than single cell. This study will greatly contribute to develop novel nanofluidic devices for chemical analysis and chemical synthesis. This work was supported by Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology.

  12. Gold in natural water: A method of determination by solvent extraction and electrothermal atomization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A method has been developed using electrothermal atomization to effectively determine the amount of gold in natural water within the nanogram range. The method has four basic steps: (1) evaporating a 1-L sample; (2) putting it in hydrobromic acid-bromine solution; (3) extracting the sample with methyl-isobutyl-ketone; and (4) determining the amount of gold using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The limit of detection is 0.001 ??g gold per liter. Results from three studies indicate, respectively, that the method is precise, effective, and free of interference. Specifically, a precision study indicates that the method has a relative standard deviation of 16-18%; a recovery study indicates that the method recovers gold at an average of 93%; and an interference study indicates that the interference effects are eliminated with solvent extraction and background correction techniques. Application of the method to water samples collected from 41 sites throughout the Western United States and Alaska shows a gold concentration range of < 0.001 to 0.036 ??g gold per liter, with an average of 0.005 ??g/L. ?? 1984.

  13. [Determination of 90 Sr in milk by solvent extraction of 90Y (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, T; Sakanoue, M

    1977-10-01

    In order to replace the conventional method using violent fuming nitric acid, a new method for the determination of 90 Sr in milk has been developed by using the solvent extraction with bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The daughter nuclide 90Y in a radiochemical equilibrium with its parent 90Sr was extracted with 2:1 HDEHP-toluene from the acid solution (1M HCL) of milk ash sample prepared by dry-ashing. After stripping with 8M HCL, 90Y, together with stable yttrium added as carrier, was precipated as oxalate to prepare beta-counting source. The radiochemical purity was confirmed by decay curve. The decontamination of strontium was checked by applying non-dispersive fluorescence X-ray analysis using 133Ba as irradiating source. Bone samples of cow were also analyzed by the same method and the results were compared with those obtained by other methods. The duplicate crosschecking analyses of finely ground bone samples were carried out to examine the effectiveness of this method. This simple new method was found to be very effective for the routine analysis of 90Sr in these samples. PMID:579456

  14. Challenging conventional f-element separation chemistry--reversing uranyl(VI)/lanthanide(III) solvent extraction selectivity.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C A; Bustillos, C G; Copping, R; Scott, B L; May, I; Nilsson, M

    2014-08-14

    The water soluble tetradentate Schiff base, N,N'-bis(5-sulfonatosalicylidene)-diaminoethane (H2salen-SO3), will readily coordinate to the uranyl(VI) cation, but not to the same extent to trivalent lanthanide cations. This allows for the reversal of conventional solvent extraction properties and opens the possibility for novel separation processes. PMID:24958394

  15. Optimization of in-cell accelerated solvent extraction technique for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with adverse impacts on aquatic biota, wildlife and human health even at low concentrations. However, conventional methods for their determination in river sediments are resource intensive. This paper presents an approach that is rapid and also reliable for the detection of OCPs. Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) with in-cell silica gel clean-up followed by Triple Quadrupole Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GCMS/MS) was used to recover OCPs from sediment samples. Variables such as temperature, solvent ratio, adsorbent mass and extraction cycle were evaluated and optimized for the extraction. With the exception of Aldrin, which was unaffected by any of the variables evaluated, the recovery of OCPs from sediment samples was largely influenced by solvent ratio and adsorbent mass and, to some extent, the number of cycles and temperature. The optimized conditions for OCPs extraction in sediment with good recoveries were determined to be 4 cycles, 4.5 g of silica gel, 105 °C, and 4:3 v/v DCM: hexane mixture. With the exception of two compounds (α-BHC and Aldrin) whose recoveries were low (59.73 and 47.66% respectively), the recovery of the other pesticides were in the range 85.35-117.97% with precision <10% RSD. The method developed significantly reduces sample preparation time, the amount of solvent used, matrix interference, and is highly sensitive and selective. PMID:26838409

  16. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel.

    PubMed

    Breil, Cassandra; Meullemiestre, Alice; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to obtain the distribution of lipids classes and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) to obtain fatty acid profiles. Our aim was to correlate simulation with experimentation for extraction and solvation of lipids with bio-based solvents in order to make a preliminary evaluation for the replacement of hexane to extract lipids from microorganisms. Differences between theory and practice were noted for several solvents, such as CPME, MeTHF and ethyl acetate, which appeared to be good candidates to replace hexane. PMID:26861274

  17. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1999-04-10

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on

  18. Analysis of coenzyme Q10 in bee pollen using online cleanup by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Lanzhen; Zhou, Jinhui; Yue, Bing; Li, Yi; Wu, Liming; Liu, Fengmao

    2012-07-15

    A method for the determination of coenzyme Q10 in bee pollen has been developed applying an online cleanup of accelerated solvent extraction and using environmentally acceptable organic solvents. The extracted samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The optimised method employed 10 mL extraction cells, 1g sample size, absolute ethanol as extraction solvent, 80°C of extraction temperature, one extraction cycle, 5 min of static time, Cleanert Alumina-N as sorbent and 60% flush volume. The method was validated by means of an evaluation of the matrix effects, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), trueness, precision and stability. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.25-200mg/L and the LOD and LOQ were 0.16 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were above 90%. The inter- and intra-day precision was below 6.3%. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of bee pollen samples. For 20 bee pollen products, the coenzyme Q10 content varied from not detectable to 192.8 mg/kg. PMID:25683435

  19. Evaluation of alcohol-based deep eutectic solvent in extraction and determination of flavonoids with response surface methodology optimization.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-04-12

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are emerging rapidly as a new type of green solvent instead of an ionic liquid (IL), and are typically formed by mixing choline chloride with hydrogen bond donors. Few studies have applied DESs to the extraction and determination of bioactive compounds. Therefore, in the present study, DESs were used to extract flavonoids (myricetin and amentoflavone), which are well known and widely used antioxidants, to extend their applications. A range of alcohol-based DESs with different alcohols to choline chloride (ChCl) mixing ratios were used for extraction using several extraction methods. Other factors, such as temperature, time, water addition and solid/liquid ratio, were examined systematically using a response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 0.031 and 0.518 mg g(-1) of myricetin and amentoflavone were extracted under the optimized conditions: 35 vol% of water in ChCl/1,4-butanediol (1/5) at 70.0 °C for 40.0 min and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/1 (g 10 mL(-1)). Good linearity was obtained from 0.1 × 10(-3) to 0.1 mg mL(-1) (r(2)>0.999). The excellent properties of DESs highlight their potential as promising green solvents for the extraction and determination of a range of bioactive compounds or drugs. PMID:23481471

  20. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds) from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC) procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl)–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium). The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50) proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL) > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL) > methanol (0.079mg/mL). The profiles of each extract (fingerprint) were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water) was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint. PMID:23098128

  1. Insights into the coal extractive solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone + carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago Aparicio; Mara J. Davila; Rafael Alcalde

    2009-03-15

    A wide set of experimental and computational tools were used to characterize the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) + carbon disulfide mixed solvent in the full composition range. The interest in this solvent rose from its very efficient use for coal extraction through a mechanism still not fully understood. Thermophysical properties at ambient pressure together with pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior were measured with the objective of providing the required data for the industrial use of the mixed fluid and to get insight into the fluid structure at the molecular level. NMR, FTIR, and solvatochromic studies were performed together with microwave dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, thus providing more information on the fluid's structure and allowing one to relate the molecular level behavior with the measured macroscopic properties. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD) were used to obtain a detailed picture of the intermolecular interactions within the fluid, at short and long ranges, and of other relevant features leading to the structure of the studied system. The whole study leads to a fluid's picture in which carbon disulfide hinders the development of NMP/NMP intermolecular dipolar interactions, thus increasing the monomer population. We should remark that some properties reported in this work are in remarkable disagreement with previously reported studies, the most important one being the positive excess molar volume in the whole pressure-temperature range studied, which contrasts with the negative values reported in the literature. Previously reported properties are hardly justified with a coherent molecular level picture, whereas the whole collection of properties reported in this work leads to a more reasonable fluid's structure. 56 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Arsenic Speciation of Solvent-Extracted Leachate from New and Weathered CCA-Treated Wood

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, BERNINE I.; SOLO - GABRIELE, HELENA M.; DUBEY, BRAJESH K.; TOWNSEND, TIMOTHY G.; CAI, YONG

    2009-01-01

    For the past 60 yr, chromate-copper-arsenate (CCA) has been used to pressure-treat millions of cubic meters of wood in the United States for the construction of many outdoor structures. Leaching of arsenic from these structures is a possible health concern as there exists the potential for soil and groundwater contamination. While previous studies have focused on total arsenic concentrations leaching from CCA-treated wood, information pertaining to the speciation of arsenic leached is limited. Since arsenic toxicity is dependent upon speciation, the objective of this study was to identify and quantify arsenic species leaching from new and weathered CCA-treated wood and CCA-treated wood ash. Solvent-extraction experiments were carried out by subjecting the treated wood and the ash to solvents of varying pH values, solvents defined in the EPA’s Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), rainwater, deionized water, and seawater. The generated leachates were analyzed for inorganic As(III) and As(V) and the organoarsenic species, monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by hydride generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC–HG-AFS). Only the inorganic species were detected in any of the wood leachates; no organoarsenic species were found. Inorganic As(V) was the major detectable species leaching from both new and weathered wood. The weathered wood leached relatively more overall arsenic and was attributed to increased inorganic As(III) leaching. The greater presence of As(III) in the weathered wood samples as compared to the new wood samples may be due to natural chemical and biological transformations during the weathering process. CCA-treated wood ash leached more arsenic than unburned wood using the SPLP and TCLP, and ash samples leached more inorganic As(III) than the unburned counterparts. Increased leaching was due

  3. Extraction of pyridines into fluorous solvents based on hydrogen bond complex formation with carboxylic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Kristi L; Geib, Steven; Weber, Stephen G

    2007-04-15

    A molecular receptor embedded in a 'poor-solvent' receiving phase, such as a fluorous phase, should offer the ideal medium for selective extraction and sensing. The limited solubility of most solutes in fluorous phases enhances selectivity by reducing the extraction of unwanted matrix components. Thus, receptor-doped fluorous phases may be ideal extraction media. Unfortunately, sufficient data do not exist to judge the capability of this approach. The solubilities of very few nonfluorous solutes are known. As far as we are aware, such important quantities as the strength of a hydrogen bond in a fluorous environment are not known. Thus, it is currently impossible to predict whether a particular receptor/solute complex based on a particular set of noncovalent interactions will provide enough thermodynamic stabilization to extract the solute into the fluorous phase. In this work, fluorous carboxylic acids (a carboxylic acid-terminated perfluoropolypropylene oxide called Krytox and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)) were used as receptors and substituted pyridines as solutes to show that the fluorous receptor dramatically enhances the liquid-liquid extraction of the polar substrates from chloroform into perfluorohexanes. The method of continuous variations was used to determine the receptor-pyridine complex stoichiometry of 3:1. The free energies of formation of the 3:1 complexes from one pyridine and 3/2 H-bonded cyclic dimers of the fluorous carboxylic acid are -30.4 (Krytox) and -37.3 kJ mol-1 (PFDA). The free energy required to dissociate the dimer in perfluorohexanes is +16.5 kJ mol-1 (Krytox). The crystal structure of the complex showed a 1:1 stoichiometry with a mixed strong-weak hydrogen-bonded motif. Based on the stoichiometry, crystal structure, and UV and IR spectroscopic shifts, we propose that the 3:1 complex has four hydrogen bonds and the carboxylic acid transfers a proton to pyridine. The resulting pyridinium carboxylate N+H-O- hydrogen bond is accompanied

  4. COMBINED EXTRACTION OF CESIUM, STRONTIUM, AND ACTINIDES FROM ALKALINE MEDIA: AN EXTENSION OF THE CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION (CSSX) PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This fundamental research on combined cesium, strontium, and actinide separation from alkaline media by solvent extraction addresses the EM need for more efficient processes for the combined separation of these elements. The goal of this research is to obtain fundamental informat...

  5. Comparison of the free and bound phenolic profiles and cellular antioxidant activities of litchi pulp extracts from different solvents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruits could be underestimated if the bound phenolic compounds are not considered. In the present study, the extraction efficiencies of various solvents were investigated in terms of the total content of the free and bound phenolic compounds, as well as the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the extracts. Methods Five different solvent mixtures were used to extract the free phenolic compounds from litchi pulp. Alkaline and acidic hydrolysis methods were compared for the hydrolysis of bound phenolic compounds from litchi pulp residue. The phenolic compositions of the free and bound fractions from the litchi pulp were identified using HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activities of the litchi pulp extracts were determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Results Of the solvents tested, aqueous acetone extracted the largest amount of total free phenolic compounds (210.7 mg GAE/100 g FW) from litchi pulp, followed sequentially by aqueous mixtures of methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate, and water itself. The acid hydrolysis method released twice as many bound phenolic compounds as the alkaline hydrolysis method. Nine phenolic compounds were detected in the aqueous acetone extract. In contrast, not all of these compounds were found in the other four extracts. The classification and content of the bound phenolic compounds released by the acid hydrolysis method were higher than those achieved by the alkaline hydrolysis. The aqueous acetone extract showing the highest ORAC value (3406.9 μmol TE/100 g FW) for the free phenolic extracts. For the CAA method, however, the aqueous acetone and methanol extracts (56.7 and 55.1 μmol QE/100 g FW) showed the highest levels of activity of the five extracts tested. The ORAC and CAA values of the bound phenolic compounds obtained by acid hydrolysis were 2.6- and 1.9-fold higher than those obtained using the

  6. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  7. Development of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Huang, Yanhua; Wen, Qian; Ding, Xueqin

    2016-05-15

    Six kinds of new type of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized. Deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase systems (DES-ATPS) were established and successfully applied in the extraction of protein. Betaine-urea (Be-U) was selected as the suitable extractant. Single factor experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions of the extraction process, such as the salt concentration, the mass of DES, the separation time, the amount of protein, the temperature and the pH value. The extraction efficiency could achieve to 99.82% under the optimum conditions. Mixed sample and practical sample analysis were discussed. The back extraction experiment was implemented and the back extraction efficiency could reach to 32.66%. The precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were investigated. UV-vis, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that the conformation of protein was not changed during the process of extraction. The mechanisms of extraction were researched by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the measurement of the conductivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DES-protein aggregates and embraces phenomenon play considerable roles in the separation process. All of these results indicated that betaine-based DES-ATPS may provide a potential substitute new method for the separation of proteins. PMID:26992491

  8. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. PMID:25872435

  9. Solvent-enhanced headspace sorptive extraction in the analysis of the volatile fraction of matrices of vegetable origin.

    PubMed

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Budziak, Dilma; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sandra, Pat; Bicchi, Carlo

    2010-07-01

    The solvent-enhanced headspace sorptive extraction technique aims at modifying PDMS polarity using a solvent to increase its concentration capability. In solvent-enhanced headspace sorptive extraction, a PDMS tubing closed at both ends by small glass stoppers and filled with an organic solvent is suspended in the sample headspace for a fixed time. After sampling, the sampled analytes are recovered from the PDMS tubing by thermal desorption and online transferred to a GC-flame ionization detector or GC-MS system for analysis. Cyclohexane, iso-octane, ethyl acetate, acetone, acetonitrile and methanol were tested as PDMS modifiers to sample the volatile fractions of sage (Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and roasted coffee. Ethyl acetate was found to be the most effective PDMS modifier for all matrices investigated; although to a lesser extent, cyclohexane also increased component recoveries with sage and thyme. Acetone, acetonitrile and methanol did not increase PDMS recovery, while isooctane was excluded because of its interaction with the polymer. The results show that solvent-modified PDMS extends the range of sampled headspace components with different polarities, increases the recovery of many of them, improves sensitivity in trace analysis, speeds up recovery and gives repeatability comparable with that of unmodified PDMS. PMID:20549665

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIFUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Caldwell, T.; Pak, D; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.

    2011-09-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. Conclusions from this work include the following. The CSSX process is capable of reducing {sup 137}Cs in high level radioactive waste by a factor of more than 40,000 using five extraction, two scrub, and five strip stages. Tests demonstrated extraction and strip section stage efficiencies of greater than 93% for the Tank 49H waste test and greater than 88% for the simulant waste test. During a test with HLW, researchers processed 39 liters of Tank 49H solution and the waste raffinate had an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.78E+04, with a maximum of 1.08E+05. A simulant waste solution ({approx}34.5 liters) with an initial Cs concentration of 83.1 mg/L was processed and had an average DF greater than 5.9E+03, with a maximum DF of greater than 6.6E+03. The difference may be attributable to differences in contactor stage efficiencies. Test results showed the solvent can be stripped of cesium and recycled for {approx}25 solvent turnovers without the occurrence of any measurable solvent degradation or negative effects from minor components. Based on the performance of the 12-stage 2-cm apparatus with the Tank 49H HLW, the projected DF for MCU with seven extraction, two scrub, and seven strip stages operating at a nominal efficiency of 90% is {approx}388,000. At 95% stage efficiency, the DF in MCU would be {approx}3.2 million. Carryover of organic solvent in aqueous streams (and aqueous in organic

  11. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF NEXT GENERATION CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 3, 8, AND 16 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-30

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, initially organo-nitrate groups are generated and attach to the modifier and that with time oxidation reactions convert the modifier into a tarry substance with gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO) evolving. Calorimetric analysis of the organonitrate revealed the reaction products are not explosive nor will they deflagrate. NGS exposure to 3 M nitric acid resulted in much slower reaction kinetics and that the generated products were not energetic. We recommended conducting Accelerated Rate calorimetry on the materials generated in the 16 M and 8 M nitric acid test. Also, we recommend continue monitoring of the samples contacting NGS with 3 M nitric acid.

  12. Comparison of two different solvents employed for pressurised fluid extraction of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana: methanol versus water.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Varadová Ostrá, Elena; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal; Benesová, Karolínka; Kotlaríková, Pavla; Cáslavský, Josef

    2007-08-01

    Pressurised fluid extraction using water or methanol was employed for the extraction of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The extraction method was optimised in terms of temperature and duration of the static or the dynamic step. Extracts were analysed by liquid chromatography followed by UV and mass-spectrometric (MS) detections. Thermal degradation of stevioside was the same in both solvents within the range 70-160 degrees C. Methanol showed better extraction ability for isolation of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana leaves than water within the range 110-160 degrees C. However, water represents the green alternative to methanol. The limit of detection of stevioside in the extract analysed was 30 ng for UV detection and 2 ng for MS detection. PMID:17594081

  13. The study on the extraction and recovery of Au from scrap of the used computer using chloride solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Su-ji; Choi, Eunju; Choi, Nagchoul; Park, Cheonyoung

    2013-04-01

    Recently, due to the realization of environmental problems of cyanide, it is a worldwide quest to find viable alternatives. One of the alternatives is a chloride solvent(chlorine-hypochlorite acid) with an appropriate oxidizing agent. The rate of dissolution of Au by chloride solvent is much faster than that by cyanide. Also, due to presence of chloride ions, there is no passivation of gold surfaces during chlorination. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of Au extraction efficiency under various experimental conditions(pulp density, chlorine-hypochlorite ratio and concentration of NaCl) from scrap of the used computer by chloride solvent. In addition, the recovery experiment was conducted to examine of the precipitation efficiency of Au under various metabisulfite concentration from extracted solution. In an EDS analysis, valuable metals such as Cu, Sn, Sb, Al, Ni, Pb and Au were observed in scrap of the used computer. The result of extraction experiment showed that the highest extraction rate was obtained under 1% of pulp density with a chlorine-hypochlorite ratio of 2:1, and a concentration of NaCl at 2M. The highest Au recovery(precipitation) rate was observed the addition of sodium metabisulfite at 2M concentration. Under these conditions, chlorine-hypochlorite could effectively Au extraction from scrap of the used computer sections and the additive reagent using sodium metabisulfite could easily precipitate the Au from the chlorine-hypochlorite solution.

  14. Regeneration strategies of polymers employed in ex-situ remediation of contaminated soil: Bioregeneration versus solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-08-15

    In this study we evaluated the feasibility of two regeneration strategies of contaminated polymers employed for ex-situ soil remediation in a two-step process. Soil decontamination is achieved by sorption of the pollutants on the polymer beads, which are regenerated in a subsequent step. Tested soil was contaminated with a mixture of 4-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, and a commercial polymer, Hytrel, has been employed for extraction. Removal efficiencies of the polymer-soil extraction are in the range of 51-97% for a contact time ≤ 24 h. Two polymer regeneration strategies, solvent extraction and biological regeneration (realized in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor), were tested and compared. Performance was assessed in terms of removal rates and efficiencies and an economic analysis based on the operating costs has been performed. Results demonstrated the feasibility of both regeneration strategies, but the bioregeneration was advantageous in that provided the biodegradation of the contaminants desorbed from the polymer. Practically complete removal for 4-chlorophenol and up to 85% biodegradation efficiency for pentachlorophenol were achieved. Instead, in the solvent extraction, a relevant production (184-831 L kg(pol)(-1)) of a highly polluted stream to be treated or disposed of is observed. The cost analysis of the two strategies showed that the bioregeneration is much more convenient with operating costs of ∼12 €/kg(pol) i.e. more than one order of magnitude lower in comparison to ∼233 €/kg(pol) of the solvent extraction. PMID:26074469

  15. TRU decontamination of high-level Purex waste by solvent extraction using a mixed octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide/TBP/NPH (TRUEX) solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Diamond, H.; Kaplan, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process was tested on a simulated high-level dissolved sludge waste (DSW). A batch counter-current extraction mode was used for seven extraction and three scrub stages. One additional extraction stage and two scrub stages and all strip stages were performed by batch extraction. The TRUEX solvent consisted of 0.20 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide-1.4 M TBP in Conoco (C/sub 12/-C/sub 14/). The feed solution was 1.0 M in HNO/sub 3/, 0.3 M in H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and contained mixed (stable) fission products, U, Np, Pu, and Am, and a number of inert constituents, e.g., Fe and Al. The test showed that the process is capable of reducing the TRU concentration in the DSW by a factor of 4 x 10/sup 4/ (to <100 nCi/g of disposed form) and reducing the quantity of TRU waste by two orders of magnitude.

  16. Continuous flow-extractive desorption electrospray ionization: analysis from "non-electrospray ionization-friendly" solvents and related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yang, Samuel H; Lemr, Karel; Havlicek, Vladimir; Schug, Kevin A

    2013-03-26

    Due to their low polarities and dielectric constants, analytes in solvents such as hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate exhibit poor electrospray ionization (ESI) efficiency. These are deemed to be "non-ESI-friendly" solvents. Continuous flow extractive desorption electrospray ionization (CF-EDESI) is a novel ambient ionization technique that was recently developed in our group to manipulate protein charge distributions. Here we demonstrate its potential for ionizing analytes from non-ESI-friendly solvents. This feature makes CF-EDESI attractive to the general analytical community due to its apparent potential in lipidomics, normal phase separations, and hyphenation of mass spectrometry with HPLC-NMR systems. In this context, interest was subsequently initiated to discern mechanistic aspects of CF-EDESI. To achieve this, mechanistic experiments associated with a seemingly similar ambient ionization technique, extractive electrospray ionization (EESI), were emulated to compare CF-EDESI and EESI. Analysis of a series of fatty acids in multiple solvents in the negative ionization mode revealed differences between the two techniques. Whereas EESI has been previously shown to operate via extraction of analytes into the spray solvent, data presented here for CF-EDESI point toward a liquid-liquid mixing process to facilitate ionization. Further, a partial factorial design experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different experimental variables on signal intensity. Sample flow rate was confirmed to be among the most significant factors to affect sensitivity. As a whole, the work presented provides greater insight into a new ambient ionization process, which exhibits expanded capabilities over conventional ESI; in this case, for direct analysis from non-ESI-friendly solvents. PMID:23498125

  17. Leaching Pretreatments for Improving Biomass Quality: Feedstocks, Solvents, and Extraction Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chao Wei

    In this research, a systematic study was conducted to quantify the inorganic and organic compounds leached from rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, Jose Tall Wheatgrass, Douglas fir, and Miscanthus with water, and to evaluate the feedstock quality and characteristics of leached solids for thermal process applications. Leaching feedstocks with water at ambient temperature with a 20 L/kg (dry matter) ratio for 2 hours greatly increased the ash fusion temperature of rice straw (from 1050°C to above 1550°C) and wheat straw (from 900°C to 1250°C), but the treatment only increased the ash fusion temperature of corn stover from 900°C to 950°C. Miscanthus had relatively good initial feedstock quality and leaching may not prove necessary for this feedstock in thermal systems. Leaching also changed the combustion kinetics of biomass by increasing the initial degradation temperature of most feedstocks from originally between 165°C and 186°C to between 180°C and 250°C depending on feedstock. Moreover, leaching increased the maximum rate of weight loss of feedstock by 11% to 54% and increased the corresponding temperatures for peak loss up to 34°C. Leaching removed a sizeable fraction of organic compounds (between 2% and 12% of dry matter). These organic extracts were identified as mostly sugars and acids which might be valuable co-products. Moisture contents of feedstocks after leaching were typically high, ranging between 68 and 81% wet basis. A dewatering step is generally required prior to using the leached biomass for thermochemical conversion. Solvents with ability to dissolve ion-exchangeable, organically associated, and acid soluble metals can further remove non-water soluble metals from biomass and may also improve feedstock quality. In a solvent evaluation, corn stover and wheat straw were leached with water, 1M ammonium acetate, 1M HCl, 100% methanol, 50% methanol, 100% ethanol, and 50% ethanol, and leached solids and leachate were

  18. Leaching Pretreatments for Improving Biomass Quality: Feedstocks, Solvents, and Extraction Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chao Wei

    In this research, a systematic study was conducted to quantify the inorganic and organic compounds leached from rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover, switchgrass, Jose Tall Wheatgrass, Douglas fir, and Miscanthus with water, and to evaluate the feedstock quality and characteristics of leached solids for thermal process applications. Leaching feedstocks with water at ambient temperature with a 20 L/kg (dry matter) ratio for 2 hours greatly increased the ash fusion temperature of rice straw (from 1050°C to above 1550°C) and wheat straw (from 900°C to 1250°C), but the treatment only increased the ash fusion temperature of corn stover from 900°C to 950°C. Miscanthus had relatively good initial feedstock quality and leaching may not prove necessary for this feedstock in thermal systems. Leaching also changed the combustion kinetics of biomass by increasing the initial degradation temperature of most feedstocks from originally between 165°C and 186°C to between 180°C and 250°C depending on feedstock. Moreover, leaching increased the maximum rate of weight loss of feedstock by 11% to 54% and increased the corresponding temperatures for peak loss up to 34°C. Leaching removed a sizeable fraction of organic compounds (between 2% and 12% of dry matter). These organic extracts were identified as mostly sugars and acids which might be valuable co-products. Moisture contents of feedstocks after leaching were typically high, ranging between 68 and 81% wet basis. A dewatering step is generally required prior to using the leached biomass for thermochemical conversion. Solvents with ability to dissolve ion-exchangeable, organically associated, and acid soluble metals can further remove non-water soluble metals from biomass and may also improve feedstock quality. In a solvent evaluation, corn stover and wheat straw were leached with water, 1M ammonium acetate, 1M HCl, 100% methanol, 50% methanol, 100% ethanol, and 50% ethanol, and leached solids and leachate were

  19. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2009-12-01

    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength. PMID:19882621

  20. Extraction of eight triazine and phenylurea herbicides in yogurt by ionic liquid foaming-based solvent floatation.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Rui; Nian, Li; Ren, Ruibing; Wang, Yeqiang; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2012-01-27

    The ionic liquid foaming-based solvent floatation (ILF-SF) was developed for extracting triazines and phenylureas from yogurt. These analytes were separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Some experimental parameters, such as the pH value of floatation solution, extraction solvent, kind of ionic liquid and floatation time were investigated and optimized. The mixture of n-propyl alcohol and ethyl acetate was used as extraction solvent and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as foaming agent. The precision and recoveries of eight herbicides vary from 0.17 to 6.90% and from 86.5 to 118.7%, respectively. The detection limits for simeton, simazine, chlortoluron, isoproturon, ametryn, propazine, prometryne and prebane are 0.59, 0.44, 0.44, 0.46, 0.32, 1.01, 0.34 and 0.23 μgL(-1), respectively. The enrichment factors for the solvent floatation range from 11.6 to 18.6 for the eight herbicides. PMID:22218326

  1. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  2. Cesium extraction from a novel chemical decontamination process solvent using magnetic microparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M. D.; Nunez, L.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-12-31

    The chemical, 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA), has been the subject of recent publications and patents regarding decontamination and decommissioning applications, and its superiority as a decontamination agent has been highlighted in various field demonstrations. To recycle the aqueous HEDPA solvent and/or facilitate waste formation, it would be advantageous to remove dissolved radionuclides that originated from the contaminated surfaces. Cesium isotopes ({sup 137, 135}Cs) comprise the vast majority of radioactivity found in potential applications at nuclear power facilities. The present study evaluated magnetic microparticles containing embedded silicotitanate powders for uptake of {sup 137}Cs from HEDPA solution. Results indicate that the kinetics are rapid, reaching {approx}95% of equilibrium within 10 min. The distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) was between 3000 and 10,000 mL/g (90-98% {sup 137}Cs removed) depending on particle mass-to-solution volume ratios. The excellent sorption of {sup 137}Cs indicates that particle batches may be reused many times without a reduction in extraction efficiency. However, particle degradation and magnetic susceptibility reduction may be a problem due to the dissolution of the magnetite component by the diphosphonic acid. This may be overcome by substituting the magnetite component with other ferromagnetic materials such as Ni or Co alloys.

  3. Determination of silver speciation in wastewater and receiving waters by competitive ligand equilibration/solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N.W.H.; Kramer, J.R.

    1999-12-01

    A competitive ligand equilibration/solvent extraction (CLE/SE) technique was used to examine silver complexation in the particulate, colloidal, and dissolved states of wastewater effluent and receiving waters. Additions of silver at near ambient levels, followed by CLE/SE, allowed the determination of complexation sites with large stability constants responsible for silver binding. Good agreement between these constants and formation constants of well-characterized silver sulfide complexes suggests that silver in wastewater effluents and receiving waters is likely to be complexed to sulfur(-II). This is supported by previously collected data on silver and sulfide concentrations in these waters, which showed that inorganic sulfide concentrations are 200 to 300 times in excess of silver concentrations. Organic ligands appear to be insignificant in comparison to the contribution of inorganic ligands to silver binding. These inorganic ligands probably consist of metal sulfides, which are stable for hours and days in oxic waters. When complexed to these strong-affinity ligands, silver(I) is protected from photoreduction to zero-valent silver.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  5. Vacuum-powered bubble-assisted solvent extraction followed by macroporous resin enrichment for isolation of podophyllotoxin from Sinopodophyllum emodi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Yang, Lei; Sui, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jie; Li, Li; Fu, Shuang; Li, Wenjing; Liang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    A vacuum-powered bubble-assisted solvent extraction (VBE) technique was used to extract podophyllotoxin from the root of Sinopodophyllum emodi. We optimized the VBE procedure and showed it had the highest efficiency of extraction compared to other conventional extraction techniques. Based upon the results of single-factor experiments, a three-factor, three-level experiment design was developed by application of a Box-Behnken design. The method was validated by stability, repeatability and recovery experiments. The optimal conditions were: solvent, 60% (v/v) ethanol; particle size of the sample, 60-80 mesh; soak time, 2h; liquid/solid ratio, 21L/kg; air flow, 32mL/min; vacuum-powered bubble extraction time, 65min. The VBE method we developed achieved efficient extraction of podophyllotoxin from S. emodi. The podophyllotoxin extracted can be enriched and separated by an HPD300 macroporous resin adsorption and desorption process. The results indicated that VBE is a convenient, rapid and efficient sample preparation technique. PMID:26363371

  6. Influence of different solvents in extraction of phenolic compounds from vegetable residues and their evaluation as natural sources of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur; Bhargav, Vinod Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Dried residues from four different vegetables, viz. pea pod (pp), cauliflower waste (CW), potato peel (PP) and tomato peel (TP) were extracted using four solvents i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Among the four solvents, methanolic extracts showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) for all the four vegetable residues. Methanolic extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activities using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. Tomato peel extract showed highest phenolic content of 21.0 mg GAE/g-dw and 80.8 % DPPH free radical scavenging ability, whereas potato peel extract had a low phenolic content, and it also showed the least antioxidant activity among the residues examined in this study. Total phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity in pea pods and cauliflower waste were 13.6 mg GAE/g-dw and 72 % and 9.2 mg GAE/g-dw and 70.7 %, respectively. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) for correlation between TPC and reducing power, DPPH and TPC, DPPH and reducing power for all extracts was 0.85, 0.91and 0.87, respectively, suggesting an important role of phenolics in imparting antioxidant ability. Extracts from vegetables residues therefore represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants for use as nutraceuticals or biopreservatives. PMID:25328197

  7. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R; Sharma, Ajay K; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm) method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80°C and for piperine at 40°C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest. PMID:24527258

  8. Validation of green-solvent extraction combined with chromatographic chemical fingerprint to evaluate quality of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chin Chye; Tan, Swee Ngin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Hew, Choy Sin; Ong, Eng Shi

    2009-02-01

    An approach that combined green-solvent methods of extraction with chromatographic chemical fingerprint and pattern recognition tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the quality of medicinal plants. Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used and their extraction efficiencies to extract two bioactive compounds, namely stevioside (SV) and rebaudioside A (RA), from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SB) under different cultivation conditions were compared. The proposed methods showed that SV and RA could be extracted from SB using pure water under optimized conditions. The extraction efficiency of the methods was observed to be higher or comparable to heating under reflux with water. The method precision (RSD, n = 6) was found to vary from 1.91 to 2.86% for the two different methods on different days. Compared to PHWE, MAE has higher extraction efficiency with shorter extraction time. MAE was also found to extract more chemical constituents and provide distinctive chemical fingerprints for quality control purposes. Thus, a combination of MAE with chromatographic chemical fingerprints and PCA provided a simple and rapid approach for the comparison and classification of medicinal plants from different growth conditions. Hence, the current work highlighted the importance of extraction method in chemical fingerprinting for the classification of medicinal plants from different cultivation conditions with the aid of pattern recognition tools used. PMID:19160370

  9. Selective solvents extraction in utilization of stored solar energy in cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, G. T.

    1980-07-01

    Work on cellulose utilization which analyzes treatment of lignocellulose materials with various cellulose solvents to enhance the rate and extent of cellulose conversion to glucose is discussed. The mechanism of cellulose solvents in dissolving cellulose the hydrolysis of solvent treated cellulose, aqueous gel permeation chromatography, membrane reactor for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, and the fermentation of corn stover hemicellulose hydrolysis to butanediol and ethanol are included.

  10. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed. PMID:18639982

  11. Solvent selection for cyclohexane-cyclohexene-benzene separation by extractive distillation using non-steady-state gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, A.; Diez, F.; Esteban, R.; Coca, J.

    1997-03-01

    The infinite-dilution activity coefficients of cyclohexane, cyclohexene, and benzene in N,N-dimethylformamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, N,N-dimethylacetamide, phenyl acetate, and dimethyl malonate have been determined at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 C, by non-steady-state gas chromatography. From these data, the limiting selectivity-solvency properties for cyclohexane-benzene, cyclohexene-benzene, and cyclohexane-cyclohexene, in the presence of the aforementioned solvents, are studied, and the solvents tested are considered for the cyclohexane-cyclohexene-benzene separation by extractive distillation. According to the results, N,N-dimethylacetamide seems to be an adequate solvent for the cyclohexane-benzene and cyclohexene-benzene separations. The separation of cyclohexane-cyclohexene is the most difficult, in spite of the difference of boiling points, much higher than for cyclohexane-benzene.

  12. Separation of Ce and La from Synthetic Chloride Leach Solution of Monazite Sand by Precipitation and Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, Raju; Jeon, Ho Seok; Lee, Man Seung

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation and solvent extraction experiments have been performed to recover light rare earths from simulated monazite sand chloride leach solutions. Precipitation conditions were obtained to recover Ce by adding NaClO as an oxidant. Among some cationic extractants (PC 88A, D2EHPA, Cyanex 272, LIX 63), PC 88A showed the best performance to separate La from the resulting chloride solution. Furthermore, the mixture of PC 88A with other solvating (TBP, TOPO) and amine extractants (Alamine 336, Aliquat 336) was tested to increase the separation factor of La from Pr and Nd. The use of mixed extractants greatly enhanced the separation of La from the two other metals. McCabe-Thiele diagrams for the extraction of Pr and Nd with the PC 88A/Alamine 336 mixture were constructed.

  13. Mechanistic Investigation of Solvent Extraction Based on Anion-Functionalized Ionic Liquids for Selective Separation of Rare-Earth Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, solvation has been found to be a dominant mechanism in a comprehensive ionic liquid based extraction system for rare earth elements (REEs). Trioctylmethylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([TOMA][DEHP]), an ionic-liquid extractant, was used in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Cnmim][NTf2], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][BETI], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) for the separation of REEs. Surprisingly, a very similar extraction behavior was observed even as the carbon chain length on the ionic-liquid (IL) cation increased from butyl (C4) to hexyl (C6), to octyl (C8), to decyl (C10). This behavior is in sharp contrast to that exhibited by the conventional neutral extractants, whose extraction efficiencies are strongly dependent on the hydrophobicity of IL cations. Furthermore, the addition of IL cations ([Cnmim]+) or IL anions ([NTf2]- or [BETI]-) to the aqueous phase had little effect on the extraction behavior of the above extraction system, ruling out the strong involvement of the ion-exchange mechanism associated with traditional IL-based extraction systems. Results showed that the extractabilities and selectivities of REEs using [TOMA][DEHP] in [C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI] are several orders of magnitude better than those achieved using conventional organic solvent, diisopropylbenzene (DIPB). This study highlights the potential of developing a comprehensive IL-based extraction strategy for REEs separations.

  14. Influence of extraction solvents on antioxidant activity and the content of bioactive compounds in non-pungent peppers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Haejin; Jayaprakasha, G K; Crosby, Kevin; Jifon, John L; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-06-01

    Bioactive compounds in foods have been shown to maintain human health. However, the relative amounts of bioactive compounds and the variation in the amounts are still poorly understood. In this study, the efficacy of different extraction solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and a methanol:water mixture), as well as the levels of certain bioactive compounds in non-pungent pepper cultivars (TMH, TMJ, PA137, and B58) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant activities were determined using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, and deoxyribose degradation. Hexane extracts had the highest level of carotenoids (47.2-628.8 μg/g), and methanol extracts contained maximum flavonoids (24.9-152.2 μg/g) in four different cultivars. Higher DPPH scavenging activity was found in the hexane extracts from TMH, TMJ, PA137, and B58 (IC₅₀ value: 0.67, 0.74, 0.55, and 0.48 μg/ml, respectively), whereas the reducing power was high in ethyl acetate and acetone extracts. Inhibition of deoxyribose degradation was highest in methanolic extracts from TMH, TMJ, PA137, and B58 (51.2, 49.5, 52.6, and 47.4 %, respectively). These data demonstrate that solvent chemical properties such as polarity can differentially impact the efficiency with which different bioactive compounds are recovered from foods, and this could lead to differences in estimated biological activity such as antioxidant capacity. PMID:22569831

  15. A flowsheet concept for an Am/Ln separation based on Am{sup VI} solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Law, J.D.

    2013-07-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term radiotoxicity of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. However, a separation amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Higher oxidation states of americium have recently been used to demonstrate solvent extraction-based separations using conventional fuel cycle ligands. Here, the successful partitioning of Am{sup VI} from the bulk of lanthanides and curium using diamyl-amyl-phosphonate (DAAP) extraction is reported. Due to the instability of Am{sup VI} in the organic phase it was readily selectively stripped to a new acidic aqueous phase to provide separation from co-extracted Ce{sup IV}. The use of NaBiO{sub 3} as an oxidant to separate Am from the lanthanides and Cm by solvent extraction has been successfully demonstrated on the bench scale. Based on these results, flowsheet concepts can be designed that result in 96 % Am recovery in the presence of a few percent of the remaining Cm and the lanthanides in two extraction contacts. Preliminary results also indicate that the DAAP extractant is robust toward γ- irradiation under realistic conditions of acidity and dissolved oxygen concentration.

  16. Determination of trace amount of cobalt in feed grains and forages by solvent extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Blanchflower, W J; Cannavan, A; Kennedy, D G

    1990-10-01

    A method is described for the determination of trace amounts of cobalt in feed grains and forages with a detection limit of 1 ng g-1. Samples are ashed in a muffle furnace and complexed with 2-nitroso-1-naphthol. Following solvent extraction, cobalt is determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The assay can be carried out in a normal analytical laboratory without the need for special "clean" rooms. Reagents have been selected to keep reagent blank values at low levels, and heptan-2-one is used as extracting solvent to avoid problems with evaporation. The assay has been used for diagnostic purposes and to formulate special low cobalt diets for sheep for experimental purposes. PMID:2270874

  17. Comparison of a liquid solvent extraction technique and supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of alpha- and beta-carotene in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Marsili, R; Callahan, D

    1993-10-01

    An ethanol-pentane solvent extraction procedure and a supercritical CO2 extraction procedure are compared for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of alpha- and beta-carotene in vegetables. The vegetables tested included carrots, collard greens, turnips, turnip greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli florets, zucchini, and squash. Homogenization of the sample prior to liquid or supercritical fluid extraction significantly improved recovery of the carotenoids. A combination of static and dynamic modes of extraction with ethanol modifier at 338 atm and 40 degrees C was necessary in order to achieve optimum recovery with the supercritical fluid procedure. beta-Carotene results with the supercritical CO2 procedure averaged 23% higher than results for the liquid extraction procedure. Only corn and carrots contained detectable levels of alpha-carotene, and, in both cases, liquid extraction yielded slightly higher results. Liquid extractions were performed in approximately 90 min, and supercritical fluid extractions were performed in 30 min; however, the supercritical fluid extractions procedure required less than 10 min of an analyst's time while the liquid extraction procedure was labor intensive. PMID:8245174

  18. The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 4. Separation of the Trivalent Actinides and Considerations for Radiation-Resistant Solvent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2010-07-01

    The separation of the minor actinides from dissolved nuclear fuel is one of the more formidable challenges associated with the design of the advanced fuel cycle. The partitioning of americium and its transmutation in fast reactor fuel would reduce high-level-waste long-term storage requirements by as much as two orders of magnitude. However, the lanthanides have very similar chemistry. They also have large neutron capture cross sections and poor metal alloy properties and thus they can not be incorporated into fast reactor fuel. A separation amenable to currently existing aqueous solvent extraction processes is therefore desired, and research is underway in Europe, Asia and the USA toward this end. Current concepts for this final separation rely on the use of soft-donor nitrogen or sulfur-containing ligands that favor complexation with the 5f orbitals of the actinides. In the USA, the most developed process is the TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) process, based upon the competition between bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in the organic phase and lactate-buffered diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. In Europe and Japan, current investigation is focused on the BTP diamide mixtures or dithiophosphinic acids. Any process eventually adopted must be robust under conditions of high-radiation dose-rates and acid hydrolysis. The effects of irradiation on solvent extraction formulations may result in: 1) decreased ligand concentrations resulting in lower metal distribution ratios, 2) decreased selectivity due to the generation of ligand radiolysis products that are complexing agents, 3) decreased selectivity due to the generation of diluent radiolysis products that are complexing agents, and 4) altered solvent performance due to films, precipitates, and increased viscocity. Many of the ligands associated with minor actinide/lanthanide separations are relatively

  19. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources. PMID:22797225

  20. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  1. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  2. A mechanism for solvent extraction of first row transition metals from chloride media with the ionic liquid tetraoctylammonium oleate.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Dries; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Valia, Yash A; Metz, Sybrand J; Binnemans, Koen; Kroon, Maaike C

    2016-06-21

    Aqueous waste streams of the metallurgical industry often contain considerable concentrations of metal salts. Previous research showed that the metal chloride salts of zinc(ii), manganese(ii) and iron(iii) can be recovered by solvent extraction using a sustainable and renewable fatty acid based ionic liquid as the extractant. In this paper, the extraction mechanism of Zn(ii), Co(ii) and Ni(ii) from chloride media has been studied systematically. The metal extraction performances of the precursors, sodium oleate and tetraoctylammonium chloride, were compared to the extraction performance of the ionic liquid tetraoctylammonium oleate. Slope analysis experiments were performed to determine the number of ionic liquid molecules involved in the extraction. The experimental data showed that Co(ii) and Ni(ii) were extracted in the pH range from 6 to 8 by the formation of negatively charged metal carboxylate complexes with tetraalkylammonium counter ions. In contrast, Zn(ii) gets extracted as a mixed metal chloride carboxylate anionic complex with tetraalkylammonium counter ions. This extraction mechanism was supported by EXAFS measurements. PMID:27220984

  3. Rapid analysis of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated meats, cheese and salmon by direct solvent extraction followed by GPC.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kunihiko; Ishii, Rie; Matsumoto, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are recognized as a marker of irradiation in lipid-containing food products. Here, a rapid method for the analysis of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) in irradiated food products using direct solvent extraction (DSE) was developed, and the extraction efficiency was compared to that of the Soxhlet extraction method (EN 1785), which is the official method for this analysis. Briefly, 2-ACBs were extracted either by using a Soxhlet apparatus or by DSE with n-hexane. The lipid extract was purified by GPC followed by a silica gel cartridge column. Finally, 2-DCB and 2-TCB were measured using GC-MS/MS. The extraction efficiency of 2-ACBs by the DSE method was similar to that of the Soxhlet extraction method. The trueness of 2-DCB and 2-TCB spiked at 50 ng/g in lipid extracts of beef, pork, chicken, cheese and salmon with the proposed method were 76.6% to 91.6% and 81.3% to 109.0%, respectively. The limits of detection for 2-DCB and 2-TCB in lipid extracts were 15 and 20 ng/g, respectively. PMID:23863361

  4. Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Commelina nudiflora L. extracts prepared by different polar solvents

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-01-01

    The study explored on the commonly available weed plant Commelina nudiflora which has potential in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The different polar solvents such as ethanol, chloroform, dichloromethane, hexane and aqueous were used for the soxhlet extraction. The extracts were identified pharmacologically as important bioactive compounds and their potential free radical scavenging activities, and antimicrobial properties were studied. C. nudiflora extracts were monitored on their in-vitro antioxidant ability by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay. Aqueous extract shows significant free radical scavenging activity of 63.4 mg/GAE and 49.10 mg/g in DPPH and ABTS respectively. Furthermore, the aqueous crude extract was used in antibacterial studies, which shows the highest inhibitory activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among all the extracts, aqueous extract of C. nudiflora has significant control over free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of the growth of food pathogenic bacteria. Also, the aqueous extract contains abundance of phenolics and flavonoids higher than other extracts. This study explored weed plant C. nudiflora as a potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial efficacy and identified various therapeutic value bioactive compounds from GC–MS analysis. PMID:25972750

  5. Application of single ion activity coefficients to determine solvent extraction mechanism for components of high level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    The TRUEX solvent extraction process is being developed to remove and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from high-level and TRU radioactive wastes currently stored at US Department of Energy sites. Phosphoric acid is one of the chemical species of concern at the Hanford site where bismuth phosphate was used to recover plutonium. The mechanism of phosphoric acid extraction with TRUEX-NPH solvent at 25{degrees}C was determined by phosphoric acid distribution ratios, which were measured by using phosphoric acid radiotracer and a variety of aqueous phases containing different concentrations of nitric acid and nitrate ions. A model was developed for predicting phosphoric acid distribution ratios as a function of the thermodynamic activities of nitrate ion and hydrogen ion. The Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) was used to calculate these activities based on the Bromley method. The derived model supports CMPO and TBP extraction of a phosphoric acid-nitric acid complex and a CMPO-phosphoric acid complex in TRUEX-NPH solvent.

  6. Feasibility study on chemometric discrimination of roasted Arabica coffees by solvent extraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niya; Fu, Yucheng; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2011-04-13

    In this feasibility study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis were adopted to discriminate coffees from different geographical origins and of different roasting degrees. Roasted coffee grounds were extracted using two methods: (1) solvent alone (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, hexane, acetone, ethanol, or acetic acid) and (2) coextraction using a mixture of equal volume of the solvent and water. Experiment results showed that the coextraction method resulted in cleaner extract and provided a greater amount of spectral information, which was important for sample discrimination. Principal component analysis of infrared spectra of ethyl acetate extracts for dark and medium roast coffees showed separated clusters according to their geographical origins and roast degrees. Classification models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy analysis were used to classify different coffee samples. Coffees from four different countries, which were roasted to dark, were 100% correctly classified when ethyl acetate was used as a solvent. The FTIR-chemometric technique developed here may serve as a rapid tool for discriminating geographical origin of roasted coffees. Future studies involving green coffee beans and the use of larger sample size are needed to further validate the robustness of this technique. PMID:21381653

  7. Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Recovery of Paclitaxel from Plant Cell Culture: Solvent Evaluation and Use of Extractants for Partitioning and Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, Timothy J.; Patil, Rohan A.; Malone, Michael F.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in the production of metabolites by plant cells is the separation and purification of a desired product from a number of impurities. An important application of plant cell culture is the biosynthesis of the anti-cancer agent paclitaxel. Liquid-liquid extraction plays a critical role in the recovery of paclitaxel and other valuable plant-derived products from culture broth. In this study, the extraction of paclitaxel and a major unwanted by-product, cephalomannine, from plant cell culture broth into organic solvents is quantified. Potential solvent mixtures show varying affinity and selectivity for paclitaxel over cephalomannine. The partition coefficient of paclitaxel is highest in ethyl acetate and dichloromethane, with measured values of 28 and 25, respectively; however selectivity coefficients are less than 1 for paclitaxel over cephalomannine for both solvents. Selectivity coefficient increases to 1.7 with extraction in n-hexane but the partition coefficient decreases to 1.9. Altering the pH of the aqueous phase results in an increase in both recovery and selectivity using n-hexane, but does not change the results for other solvents significantly. The addition of extractants trioctyl amine (TOA) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) to n-hexane gives significantly higher partition coefficients for paclitaxel (8.6 and 23.7, respectively), but no selectivity. Interestingly, when 20% hexafluorobenzene (HFB) is added to n-hexane, the partition coefficient remains approximately constant but the selectivity coefficient for paclitaxel over cephalomannine improves to 4.5. This significant increase in selectivity early in the purification process has the potential to simplify downstream processing steps and significantly reduce overall purification costs. PMID:22581674

  8. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines. PMID:25431110

  9. Removing oxygen from a solvent extractant in an uranium recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Fred J.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Posey, Franz A.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  10. A preliminary study of extraction solvents for CW-agents and their decomposition products [3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) vs. methylene chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Ward, R.L.; Hulsey, S.S.; Andresen, B.D.

    1994-09-15

    The major focus of this study was to explore the possibility of using different extraction solvents (or solvent combinations) to isolate CW agents and their degradation products from environmental and industrial samples. The general approach for extracting, e.g. water samples, required the use of a 3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) extraction solvent. Although the 3:1 solvent extraction work-up methods provided excellent results in several Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests, the implementation of these methods for CW on-site analysis exercises was difficult (the methods require cumbersome equipment and are labor intensive). However, due to the time, power, and size restraints set forth by the Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) for a CW on-site inspection, LLNL developed new sample work-up methods. The approach selected by LLNL incorporated solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques. It is evident from this preliminary study that new or previously used extraction solvents should be re-investigated. It was determined that care must be taken in handling the samples prior to NMR measurements. Also, it was determined that the four target compounds used in this study were extracted on average 18% higher with 3:1 (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: IPA) vs. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. However, additional target compounds need to be investigated using this extraction solvent to determine which classes of compounds are better extracted by the use of a 3:1 solvent system. This preliminary study clearly reveals that a mixed solvent system can yield better extraction efficiencies for mixture of compounds in aqueous samples.

  11. Determination of acetanilide herbicides in cereal crops using accelerated solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Jun; Shi, Ronghua; Su, Qingde; Yao, Li; Li, Panpan

    2011-07-01

    A method was developed to determine eight acetanilide herbicides from cereal crops based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) analysis. During the ASE process, the effect of four parameters (temperature, static time, static cycles and solvent) on the extraction efficiency was considered and compared with shake-flask extraction method. After extraction with ASE, four SPE tubes (graphitic carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA), GCB, Florisil and alumina-N) were assayed for comparison to obtain the best clean-up efficiency. The results show that GCB/PSA cartridge gave the best recoveries and cleanest chromatograms. The analytical process was validated by the analysis of spiked blank samples. Performance characteristics such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision and recovery were studied. At 0.05 mg/kg spiked level, recoveries and precision values for rice, wheat and maize were 82.3-115.8 and 1.1-13.6%, respectively. For all the herbicides, LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 μg/kg and from 2.4 to 5.3 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed analytical methodology was applied for the analysis of the targets in samples; only three herbicides, propyzamid, metolachlor and diflufenican, were detected in two samples. PMID:21656677

  12. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  13. Studies on complexation and solvent extraction of lanthanides in the presence of diaza-18-crown-6-di-isopropionic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Lee, C H; Han, S H; Suh, M Y

    1997-12-19

    Stability constants of some lanthanides with K22DAP (diaza-18-crown-6-diisopropionic acid) were determined by potentiometric titration method. The logarithmic values of these constants for La(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Er(III), and Lu(III) are 11.14, 11.43, 11.78, 11.74, 11.95, 12.09, 11.49, and 10.88, respectively. Solvent extraction studies were carried out on the K22DAP complexes of La(III), Nd(III) and Lu(III) using TTA (thenoyltrifluoroacetone) as an extractant in different diluents. It appears that nitrobenzene, a diluent with high dielectric constant, favors the extraction of the complexes. Extraction rates of the K22DAP complexes of lanthanides were investigated at pH 5.5 and 8.0 with TTA in chloroform. The rates of extraction are found to be dependent upon the nature of the extracted species. Competitive extractions were carried out to see if selective extractions could be achieved. PMID:18967024

  14. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  15. Purification of sulphate leach liquor of spent Raneynickel catalyst containing Al and Ni by solvent extraction with organophosphorus-based extractants.

    PubMed

    Rao, Satunuri Venkateswar; Yang, Dong Hyo; Sohn, Jeong Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Solvent extraction (SX) separation of Al from Ni sulphate leach liquor (LL) of spent Raneynickel catalyst containing 0.12 M Al and 1.448 M Ni using organophosphorus extractants has been investigated. Optimization of process conditions includes aqueous pH, extractant concentration, phase ratio, and stripping. Comparison of Al extraction efficiency with 0.45 M extractant concentration for TOPS 99, PC 88 A, and Cyanex 272 at an equilibrium pH of 2.23 was 81.8%, 98.6%, and 75%, respectively. The corresponding coextraction of Ni was 0.65, 0.6, and 0.9. Among the three extractants screened, PC 88A showed better extraction efficiency for Al at lower pH values than the others. Using 0.45 M PC 88 A, extraction isotherm was obtained at an aqueous-to-organic (A : O) phase ratio of 1 : 1-3 and O : A ratio of 1 : 1-5, which predicted possible separation of Al in 2 stages at A/O ratio of 2. Quantitative stripping was achieved by H(2)SO(4). PMID:22505841

  16. Purification of Sulphate Leach Liquor of Spent Raneynickel Catalyst Containing Al and Ni by Solvent Extraction with Organophosphorus-Based Extractants

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Satunuri Venkateswar; Yang, Dong Hyo; Sohn, Jeong Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Solvent extraction (SX) separation of Al from Ni sulphate leach liquor (LL) of spent Raneynickel catalyst containing 0.12 M Al and 1.448 M Ni using organophosphorus extractants has been investigated. Optimization of process conditions includes aqueous pH, extractant concentration, phase ratio, and stripping. Comparison of Al extraction efficiency with 0.45 M extractant concentration for TOPS 99, PC 88 A, and Cyanex 272 at an equilibrium pH of 2.23 was 81.8%, 98.6%, and 75%, respectively. The corresponding coextraction of Ni was 0.65, 0.6, and 0.9. Among the three extractants screened, PC 88A showed better extraction efficiency for Al at lower pH values than the others. Using 0.45 M PC 88 A, extraction isotherm was obtained at an aqueous-to-organic (A : O) phase ratio of 1 : 1–3 and O : A ratio of 1 : 1–5, which predicted possible separation of Al in 2 stages at A/O ratio of 2. Quantitative stripping was achieved by H2SO4. PMID:22505841

  17. Batch-Equilibrium Hot-Cell Tests of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) with SRS Simulant Waste and Internal 137Cs Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.

    2001-09-17

    The solvent was loaded with {sup 137}Cs and subsamples were stored on a shaker table while in contact with the extract, scrub, or strip aqueous phases. Evidence of solvent degradation was evaluated at exposure times of 0, 20, 54, and 83 days. This resulted in estimated solvent doses ranging up to 1.24 Mrad, equivalent to the dose expected to be received during 16.5 years of operation at the plant proposed for the Savannah River Site. The break times and distribution of cesium of the batch samples remained constant within experimental error; in addition, no third-phase formation was observed. The solvent concentrations of calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetra-fluoroproproxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol remained constant within experimental error. Solvent degradation with irradiation was evidenced by a decrease in the trioctylamine (TOA) concentration in the solvent and an increase in the solvent concentration of the degradation product 4-sec-butylphenol. No decline in extraction or scrubbing performance of the irradiated solvents was observed. The stripping performance of the solvent was seriously impaired with irradiation; however, a mild caustic wash and replenishment of the TOA concentration restored the ability to strip the irradiated solvent.

  18. An europium(III) diglycolamide complex: insights into the coordination chemistry of lanthanides in solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Mark R; McAlister, Daniel R; Horwitz, E Philip

    2015-01-14

    The synthesis, stoichiometry, and structural characterization of a homoleptic, cationic europium(III) complex with three neutral tetraalkyldiglycolamide ligands are reported. The tri(bismuth tetrachloride)tris(N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide)Eu salt, [Eu(TODGA)3][(BiCl4)3] obtained from methanol was examined by Eu L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to reveal an inner-sphere coordination of Eu(3+) that arises from 9 O atoms and two next-nearest coordination spheres that arise from 6 carbon atoms each. A structural model is proposed in which each TODGA ligand with its O=Ca-Cb-O-Cb-Ca=O backbone acts as a tridentate O donor, where the two carbonyl O atoms and the one ether O atom bond to Eu(3+). Given the structural rigidity of the tridentate coordination motif in [Eu(TODGA)3](3+) with six 5-membered chelate rings, the six Eu-Ca and six Eu-Cb interactions are readily resolved in the EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) spectrum. The three charge balancing [BiCl4](-) anions are beyond the cationic [Eu(TODGA)3](3+) cluster in an outer sphere environment that is too distant to be detected by XAS. Despite their sizeable length and propensity for entanglement, the four n-octyl groups of each TODGA (for a total of twelve) do not perturb the Eu(3+) coordination environment over that seen from previously reported single-crystal structures of tripositive lanthanide (Ln(3+)) complexes with tetraalkyldiglycolamide ligands (of the same 1:3 metal-to-ligand ratio stoichiometry) but having shorter i-propyl and i-butyl groups. The present results set the foundation for understanding advanced solvent extraction processes for the separation of the minor, tripositive actinides (Am, Cm) from the Ln(3+) ions in terms of the local structure of Eu(3+) in a solid state coordination complex with TODGA. PMID:25310364

  19. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.L.; Pinkerton, A.B.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-02-11

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C{sub 2}R{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 9}){sub 2}{sup {minus}}(CoB{sub 2}R{sub 4}{sup {minus}}; R=CH{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 13}) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10{sup 4}) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described. 6 figs.

  20. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Rebecca L.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C.sub.2 R.sub.2 B.sub.9 H.sub.9).sub.2.sup.- (CoB.sub.2 R.sub.4.sup.- ; R=CH.sub.3 and C.sub.6 H.sub.13) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10.sup.4) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described.

  1. Comparison of rapid solvent extraction systems for the GC–MS/MS characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Mansur, Abdulatif A.; Koshlaf, Eman; Morrison, Paul D.; Osborn, A. Mark; Ball, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of organic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight that originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sixteen PAHs are included in the U.S Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxic and teratogenic properties. In this study, the development and optimization of a simplified and rapid solvent extraction for the characterisation of 16 USEPA priority poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soils was established with subsequent analysis by GC–MS/MS. • Five different extraction solvent systems: dichloromethane: acetone, chloroform: methanol, dichloromethane, acetone: hexane and hexane were assessed in terms of their ability to extract PAHs from aged PAH-contaminated soils. • Highest PAH concentrations were extracted using acetone: hexane and chloroform: methanol. Given the greater toxicity associated with chloroform: methanol, acetone: hexane appears the best choice of solvent extraction system. • This protocol enables efficient extraction of PAHs from aged weathered soils. PMID:27200269

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Tayebi-Meigooni, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol) and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v) ethanol-water) extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the different extraction techniques upon comparison of phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM)), total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM), and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM), and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity). Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health. PMID:26111171

  3. Extraction of S- and N-Compounds from the Mixture of Hydrocarbons by Ionic Liquids as Selective Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Gabrić, Beata; Sander, Aleksandra; Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Macut, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction is an alternative method that can be used for desulfurization and denitrification of gasoline and diesel fuels. Recent approaches employ different ionic liquids as selective solvents, due to their general immiscibility with gasoline and diesel, negligible vapor pressure, and high selectivity to sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. For that reason, five imidazolium-based ionic liquids and one pyridinium-based ionic liquid were selected for extraction of thiophene, dibenzothiophene, and pyridine from two model solutions. The influences of hydrodynamic conditions, mass ratio, and number of stages were investigated. Increasing the mass ratio of ionic liquid/model fuel and multistage extraction promotes the desulfurization and denitrification abilities of the examined ionic liquids. All selected ionic liquids can be reused and regenerated by means of vacuum evaporation. PMID:23843736

  4. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M.

    1998-08-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO{sub 4})) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA){sub 3}TDAHA(A{sup {minus}} = Cl{sup {minus}} or ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}). The values of the equilibrium constant K{sub T,S} have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined.

  5. Extraction of S- and N-compounds from the mixture of hydrocarbons by ionic liquids as selective solvents.

    PubMed

    Gabrić, Beata; Sander, Aleksandra; Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Macut, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction is an alternative method that can be used for desulfurization and denitrification of gasoline and diesel fuels. Recent approaches employ different ionic liquids as selective solvents, due to their general immiscibility with gasoline and diesel, negligible vapor pressure, and high selectivity to sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. For that reason, five imidazolium-based ionic liquids and one pyridinium-based ionic liquid were selected for extraction of thiophene, dibenzothiophene, and pyridine from two model solutions. The influences of hydrodynamic conditions, mass ratio, and number of stages were investigated. Increasing the mass ratio of ionic liquid/model fuel and multistage extraction promotes the desulfurization and denitrification abilities of the examined ionic liquids. All selected ionic liquids can be reused and regenerated by means of vacuum evaporation. PMID:23843736

  6. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF A CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM TO REMOVE CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Earl Brass, E; Stanley Brown, S; Mark Geeting, M; Lcurtis Johnson, L; Charles02 Coleman, C; S Crump, S; Mark Barnes, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-10-15

    Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have completed construction and assembly of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility. Following assembly, they conducted testing to evaluate the ability of the process to remove non-radioactive cesium and to separate the aqueous and organic phases. They conducted tests at salt solution flow rates of 3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 gpm. During testing, the MCU Facility collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar{reg_sign} L, and Modifier [1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol]. SRNL personnel analyzed the aqueous samples for cesium by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the solvent samples for cesium using a Parr Bomb Digestion followed by ICP-MS. They analyzed aqueous samples for Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier by gas chromatography (GC).

  7. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  8. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  9. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  10. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C

    2006-04-21

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of testing

  11. Antinociceptive and acute toxicity evaluation of Vernonia condensata Baker leaves extracted with different solvents and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Risso, Wagner E; Scarminio, Ieda S; Moreira, Estefania G

    2010-08-01

    Extract of Vernonia condensata (Asteraceae = Compositae) leaves has different uses in Brazilian folk medicine, which includes analgesic and antiinflamatory agent. The aim of this study was to apply a modified simplex-centroid mixture design to evaluate the best extractor system for the antinociceptive activity, evaluated by writhing test. Different solvents (acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethyl acetate) as well as their binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures were used. For comparison, aqueous extract was also evaluated. LD50 was estimated and qualitative phytochemical screening, conducted. The extracts with antinociceptive activity were: aqueous, acetone, dicloromethane (DCM), ethanol (ETOH), acetone-DCM, acetone-ETOH, acetone-ethyl acetate, ETOH-ethyl acetate, acetone-DCM-ethyl acetate, acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate and DCM-ETOH-ethyl acetate. The higher margin of safety (LD50/ED50) was for acetone > acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate > aqueous > ETOH = acetone-ETOH > DCM > acetone-ethyl acetate > DCM-ETOH-ethyl acetate > acetone-DCM > acetone-DCM-ethyl acetate. Phytochemical screening showed that all the extracts contained alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. In conclusion, the extractor system influences both the pharmacological activity and acute toxicity of leaves from V. condensata. Acetone and the ternary mixture, acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate extracts showed higher margin of safety than aqueous extract. PMID:21341539

  12. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix. PMID:24442962

  13. Solvent extraction of rare-earth ions based on functionalized ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    We herein report the achievement of enhanced extractabilities and selectivities for separation of rare earth elements based on functionalized ionic liquids. This work highlights the potential of developing a comprehensive ionic liquid-based extraction strategy for rare earth elements using ionic liquids as both extractant and diluent.

  14. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry procedure for the determination of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2006-07-01

    Microwave-assisted solvent extraction of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in marine sediment was developed and optimized by means of two-level factorial designs. Six variables (microwave power, extraction time and temperature, amount of sample, solvent volume, and sample moisture) were considered as factors in the optimization process. The results show that the amount of sample to be extracted and solvent volume are statistically significant for the overall recovery of the studied pesticides, although compromise conditions have to be established with the object of avoiding overpressure in closed vessels. After extraction, a clean up step including the use of a silica cartridge was performed prior to chromatographic determination in order to remove interferences. The optimized procedure was compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction. The MS-MS ion preparation mode was applied to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the chromatographic technique. PMID:16791571

  15. CLEANING UP PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS: COMPARING EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION WITH SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DESORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site that is contaminated with high levels of p,p,-DDT, p,p,-DDD, p,p,-DDE, toxaphene and hexachlorocyclohexane. The effectiveness of supercritical fluid extraction ...

  16. The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

    The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 μg m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 μg m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/

  17. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidative compounds from Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull using various solvents of different physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Mitra; Farhoosh, Reza; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Sharif, Ali; Golmohamadzadeh, Shiva

    2015-04-15

    Extraction yield, phenolics content, and antioxidant activities of the materials extracted conventionally and/or ultrasonically from Bene hull by a number of aqueous and organic solvents were investigated. Higher extraction yields in general were obtained by the less polar solvents (12.1-47.5%). Polar protic solvents exhibited the highest content of total phenolics extracted (110-150 mg/g), followed by polar aprotic (30.0-43.5 mg/g) and non-polar solvents (3.3-5.2 mg/g). Good correlation (R(2)=0.9721) was obtained between the DPPH radical-scavenging activities and total phenolics contents. Many similarities were observed between the results of the DPPH (EC50=0.6-1105.3 μg/ml) and FRAP (0.1-8.5 mmol/g) assays. The highest oxidative stability index (OSI) value belonged to the methanol and water extracts, respectively. All the extraction factors significantly improved by 30 min sonication, especially in polar protic solvents. A 10-min sonication in water extraction could provide the same achievements as those of the 24-h conventional method. PMID:25466062

  18. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    DOEpatents

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  19. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y.; Ott, D.G.

    1980-11-25

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high molecular weight, water-insoluble amines followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4triazole, is quite suitable--and indeed is preferred--for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  20. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.; Ott, D.G.

    1979-11-07

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines, followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable - and indeed is preferred - for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.