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Sample records for membrane-bound nac transcription

  1. Membrane-bound NAC transcription factors in maize and their contribution to the oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexin; Yu, Yanchong; Liu, Zhenhua; Li, Shuo; Wang, Zeli; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-09-01

    NAC membrane-bound transcription factors (NTM1-like, NTL proteins) participate in the regulation of plant development and the abiotic stress response. While their function has been thoroughly explored in Arabidopsis thaliana, this is not the case in maize. Seven ZmNTL genes were identified by an in silico scan of relevant genome sequence. All seven included a NAC domain at their N terminus, and an α-helical membrane-bound structure domain in their C terminal region. Based on their gene structure and content of conserved motifs, the seven sequences were distributed into four clades. Six of the seven ZmNTLs were associated with the plasma membrane, and the remaining one with the endoplasmic reticulum. ZmNTL2-7 were more strongly transcribed in the stem than in either the leaf or root, while ZmNTL1 transcript abundance was highest in the leaf. When the plants were exposed to either abscisic acid or hydrogen peroxide treatment, all seven genes were up-regulated in the root and stem and down-regulated in the leaf. The heterologous expression of ZmNTL1-ΔTM, 2-ΔTM and 5-ΔTM in A. thaliana reduced the level of sensitivity of the plant to hydrogen peroxide. PMID:27457981

  2. The Membrane-Bound NAC Transcription Factor ANAC013 Functions in Mitochondrial Retrograde Regulation of the Oxidative Stress Response in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, Inge; Vermeirssen, Vanessa; Van Aken, Olivier; Vandepoele, Klaas; Murcha, Monika W.; Law, Simon R.; Inzé, Annelies; Ng, Sophia; Ivanova, Aneta; Rombaut, Debbie; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Jaspers, Pinja; Van de Peer, Yves; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Whelan, James; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Upon disturbance of their function by stress, mitochondria can signal to the nucleus to steer the expression of responsive genes. This mitochondria-to-nucleus communication is often referred to as mitochondrial retrograde regulation (MRR). Although reactive oxygen species and calcium are likely candidate signaling molecules for MRR, the protein signaling components in plants remain largely unknown. Through meta-analysis of transcriptome data, we detected a set of genes that are common and robust targets of MRR and used them as a bait to identify its transcriptional regulators. In the upstream regions of these mitochondrial dysfunction stimulon (MDS) genes, we found a cis-regulatory element, the mitochondrial dysfunction motif (MDM), which is necessary and sufficient for gene expression under various mitochondrial perturbation conditions. Yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the transmembrane domain–containing NO APICAL MERISTEM/ARABIDOPSIS TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATION FACTOR/CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON transcription factors (ANAC013, ANAC016, ANAC017, ANAC053, and ANAC078) bound to the MDM cis-regulatory element. We demonstrate that ANAC013 mediates MRR-induced expression of the MDS genes by direct interaction with the MDM cis-regulatory element and triggers increased oxidative stress tolerance. In conclusion, we characterized ANAC013 as a regulator of MRR upon stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24045019

  3. Arabidopsis Type II Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase PI4Kγ5 Regulates Auxin Biosynthesis and Leaf Margin Development through Interacting with Membrane-Bound Transcription Factor ANAC078.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Zhao, Chun-Yan; Tan, Shu-Tang; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Normal leaf margin development is important for leaf morphogenesis and contributes to diverse leaf shapes in higher plants. We here show the crucial roles of an atypical type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, PI4Kγ5, in Arabidopsis leaf margin development. PI4Kγ5 presents a dynamics expression pattern along with leaf development and a T-DNA mutant lacking PI4Kγ5, pi4kγ5-1, presents serrated leaves, which is resulted from the accelerated cell division and increased auxin concentration at serration tips. Studies revealed that PI4Kγ5 interacts with and phosphorylates a membrane-bound NAC transcription factor, ANAC078. Previous studies demonstrated that membrane-bound transcription factors regulate gene transcription by undergoing proteolytic process to translocate into nucleus, and ANAC078 undergoes proteolysis by cleaving off the transmembrane region and carboxyl terminal. Western blot analysis indeed showed that ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal is significantly reduced in pi4kγ5-1, indicating that PI4Kγ5 is important for the cleavage of ANAC078. This is consistent with the subcellular localization observation showing that fluorescence by GFP-ANAC078 is detected at plasma membrane but not nucleus in pi4kγ5-1 mutant and that expression of ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal, driven by PI4Kγ5 promoter, could rescue the leaf serration defects of pi4kγ5-1. Further analysis showed that ANAC078 suppresses the auxin synthesis by directly binding and regulating the expression of auxin synthesis-related genes. These results indicate that PI4Kγ5 interacts with ANAC078 to negatively regulate auxin synthesis and hence influences cell proliferation and leaf development, providing informative clues for the regulation of in situ auxin synthesis and cell division, as well as the cleavage and functional mechanism of membrane-bound transcription factors. PMID:27529511

  4. Arabidopsis Type II Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase PI4Kγ5 Regulates Auxin Biosynthesis and Leaf Margin Development through Interacting with Membrane-Bound Transcription Factor ANAC078

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shu-Tang; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Normal leaf margin development is important for leaf morphogenesis and contributes to diverse leaf shapes in higher plants. We here show the crucial roles of an atypical type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, PI4Kγ5, in Arabidopsis leaf margin development. PI4Kγ5 presents a dynamics expression pattern along with leaf development and a T-DNA mutant lacking PI4Kγ5, pi4kγ5–1, presents serrated leaves, which is resulted from the accelerated cell division and increased auxin concentration at serration tips. Studies revealed that PI4Kγ5 interacts with and phosphorylates a membrane-bound NAC transcription factor, ANAC078. Previous studies demonstrated that membrane-bound transcription factors regulate gene transcription by undergoing proteolytic process to translocate into nucleus, and ANAC078 undergoes proteolysis by cleaving off the transmembrane region and carboxyl terminal. Western blot analysis indeed showed that ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal is significantly reduced in pi4kγ5–1, indicating that PI4Kγ5 is important for the cleavage of ANAC078. This is consistent with the subcellular localization observation showing that fluorescence by GFP-ANAC078 is detected at plasma membrane but not nucleus in pi4kγ5–1 mutant and that expression of ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal, driven by PI4Kγ5 promoter, could rescue the leaf serration defects of pi4kγ5–1. Further analysis showed that ANAC078 suppresses the auxin synthesis by directly binding and regulating the expression of auxin synthesis-related genes. These results indicate that PI4Kγ5 interacts with ANAC078 to negatively regulate auxin synthesis and hence influences cell proliferation and leaf development, providing informative clues for the regulation of in situ auxin synthesis and cell division, as well as the cleavage and functional mechanism of membrane-bound transcription factors. PMID:27529511

  5. Identification of 7 stress-related NAC transcription factor members in maize (Zea mays L.) and characterization of the expression pattern of these genes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Sun, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Wang, Tian-Yu; Pan, Jin-Bao

    2015-06-26

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in plant development and various abiotic stress responses. A comprehensive analysis of maize NAC genes was performed in this study. A total of 157 non-redundant maize NAC genes including seven membrane-bound members were identified and found to be unevenly distributed on 10 maize chromosomes. Motif composition analysis indicated that the maize NAC proteins share three relatively conserved motifs in the NAC domain within the N-terminal region. Phylogenetic analysis of 157 maize NAC proteins accompanied by 117 NAC proteins from Arabidopsis and 151 from rice were presented. The NAC proteins evaluated were divided into two large groups including 18 subgroups. Gene duplication analysis indicated that gene loss occurred during maize evolution. Seven NAC members that belong to the same clade of maize NAC domain genes were isolated, and overlapping expression patterns were observed under various abiotic stresses, including low temperature, high salinity and dehydration, and phytohormone abscisic acid treatments. This suggested that NAC members function as stress-responsive transcription factors in ABA-dependent signaling pathways. Relatively higher expression levels of these selected maize NAC genes were detected in roots. The stress responsive NAC genes may have applications in molecular breeding to improve crop stress tolerance. PMID:25937463

  6. Identification of a membrane-bound transcriptional regulator that links chitin and natural competence in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Dalia, Ankur B; Lazinski, David W; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is naturally competent when grown on chitin. It is known that expression of the major regulator of competence, TfoX, is controlled by chitin; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this requirement for chitin have remained unclear. In the present study, we identify and characterize a membrane-bound transcriptional regulator that positively regulates the small RNA (sRNA) TfoR, which posttranscriptionally enhances tfoX translation. We show that this regulation of the tfoR promoter is direct by performing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by heterologous expression of this system in Escherichia coli. This transcriptional regulator was recently identified independently and was named "TfoS" (S. Yamamoto et al., Mol. Microbiol., in press, doi:10.1111/mmi.12462). Using a constitutively active form of TfoS, we demonstrate that the activity of this regulator is sufficient to promote competence in V. cholerae in the absence of chitin. Also, TfoS contains a large periplasmic domain, which we hypothesized interacts with chitin to regulate TfoS activity. In the heterologous host E. coli, we demonstrate that chitin oligosaccharides are sufficient to activate TfoS activity at the tfoR promoter. Collectively, these data characterize TfoS as a novel chitin-sensing transcriptional regulator that represents the direct link between chitin and natural competence in V. cholerae. IMPORTANCE Naturally competent bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from the environment and integrate it into their genome by homologous recombination. This ability to take up exogenous DNA is shared by diverse bacterial species and serves as a mechanism to acquire new genes to enhance the fitness of the organism. Several members of the family Vibrionaceae become naturally competent when grown on chitin; however, a molecular understanding of how chitin activates competence is lacking. Here, we identify a novel membrane-bound transcriptional regulator that is required for natural

  7. Identification of a Membrane-Bound Transcriptional Regulator That Links Chitin and Natural Competence in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Dalia, Ankur B.; Lazinski, David W.; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae is naturally competent when grown on chitin. It is known that expression of the major regulator of competence, TfoX, is controlled by chitin; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this requirement for chitin have remained unclear. In the present study, we identify and characterize a membrane-bound transcriptional regulator that positively regulates the small RNA (sRNA) TfoR, which posttranscriptionally enhances tfoX translation. We show that this regulation of the tfoR promoter is direct by performing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by heterologous expression of this system in Escherichia coli. This transcriptional regulator was recently identified independently and was named “TfoS” (S. Yamamoto et al., Mol. Microbiol., in press, doi:10.1111/mmi.12462). Using a constitutively active form of TfoS, we demonstrate that the activity of this regulator is sufficient to promote competence in V. cholerae in the absence of chitin. Also, TfoS contains a large periplasmic domain, which we hypothesized interacts with chitin to regulate TfoS activity. In the heterologous host E. coli, we demonstrate that chitin oligosaccharides are sufficient to activate TfoS activity at the tfoR promoter. Collectively, these data characterize TfoS as a novel chitin-sensing transcriptional regulator that represents the direct link between chitin and natural competence in V. cholerae. PMID:24473132

  8. The Miscanthus NAC transcription factor MlNAC9 enhances abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Pei, Shengqiang; He, Guo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Qi; Jia, Chunlin; Lu, Ying; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors are known to play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses in plants. Currently, little information regarding the functional roles of NAC genes in stress tolerance is available in Miscanthus lutarioriparius, a promising bioenergy plant for cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we carried out the functional characterization of MlNAC9 in abiotic stresses. MlNAC9 was shown to act as a nuclear localized transcription activator with the activation domain in its C-terminus. The overexpression of MlNAC9 in Arabidopsis conferred hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) at seed germination and root elongation stages. In addition, the overexpression of MlNAC9 led to increased seed germination rate and root growth under salt (NaCl) treatment. Meanwhile, the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing MlNAC9 showed enhanced tolerance to drought and cold stresses. The expression of stress-responsive marker genes was significantly increased in MlNAC9 overexpression lines compared to that of WT under ABA, drought, salt, and cold stresses. Correspondingly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower accumulated in MlNAC9 overexpression lines under drought and salt treatments. These results indicated that the overexpression of MlNAC9 improved the tolerance to abiotic stresses via an ABA-dependent pathway, and the enhanced tolerance of transgenic plants was mainly attributed to the increased expression of stress-responsive genes and the enhanced scavenging capability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:27085481

  9. ZmNAC55, a maize stress-responsive NAC transcription factor, confers drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hude; Yu, Lijuan; Han, Ran; Li, Zhanjie; Liu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Abiotic stress has been shown to significantly limit the growth and productivity of crops. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in maize. Here, we cloned a maize NAC transcription factor ZmNAC55 and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression and transactivation assay demonstrated that ZmNAC55 was localized in the nucleus and had transactivation activity. Expression analysis of ZmNAC55 in maize showed that this gene was induced by drought, high salinity and cold stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of ZmNAC55. Overexpression of ZmNAC55 in Arabidopsis led to hypersensitivity to ABA at the germination stage, but enhanced drought resistence compared to wild-type seedlings. Transcriptome analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes between 35S::ZmNAC55 transgenic and wild-type plants, and many of which are involved in stress response, including twelve qRT-PCR confirmed well-known drought-responsive genes. These results highlight the important role of ZmNAC55 in positive regulates of drought resistence, and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding of drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27085597

  10. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Analysis of the Plant-Specific NAC Transcription Factor Family in Soybean During Development and Dehydration Stress

    PubMed Central

    Le, Dung Tien; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Mochida, Keiichi; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2011-01-01

    Plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes, including development, senescence, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stress stimuli. Within the soybean genome, we identified 152 full-length GmNAC TFs, including 11 membrane-bound members. In silico analysis of the GmNACs, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, revealed similar NAC architecture. Next, we explored the soybean Affymetrix array and Illumina transcriptome sequence data to analyse tissue-specific expression profiles of GmNAC genes. Phylogenetic analysis using stress-related NAC TFs from Arabidopsis and rice as seeding sequences identified 58 of the 152 GmNACs as putative stress-responsive genes, including eight previously reported dehydration-responsive GmNACs. We could design gene-specific primers for quantitative real-time PCR verification of 38 out of 50 newly predicted stress-related genes. Twenty-five and six GmNACs were found to be induced and repressed 2-fold or more, respectively, in soybean roots and/or shoots in response to dehydration. GmNAC085, whose amino acid sequence was 39%; identical to that of well-known SNAC1/ONAC2, was the most induced gene upon dehydration, showing 390-fold and 20-fold induction in shoots and roots, respectively. Our systematic analysis has identified excellent tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive candidate GmNAC genes for in-depth characterization and future development of improved drought-tolerant transgenic soybeans. PMID:21685489

  11. O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kihong; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2009-03-13

    The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.

  12. Novel NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC67 Confers Enhanced Multi-Abiotic Stress Tolerances in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinguo; Chen, Shuangshuang; Li, Ang; Zhai, Chaochao; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na+ efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24427285

  13. [Identification and analysis of the NAC transcription factor family in Triticum urartu].

    PubMed

    Jianhui, Ma; Doudou, Tong; Wenli, Zhang; Daijing, Zhang; Yun, Shao; Yun, Yang; Lina, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    NAC transcription factors are one of plant-specific gene families with diverse functions, and they regulate plant development, organ formation and stress responses. Currently, the researches about NAC transcription factors mainly focus on model plants, Arabidopsis and rice, whereas such studies are hardly reported in wheat and other plants. In this study, the full-length coding sequences (CDS) of NAC transcription factors from Triticum urartu (TuNAC) were identified through bioinformatic analysis. Their biological function, evolutionary relationship, gene duplication and chromosomal locations were further predicted and analyzed. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to verify the expression pattern of abiotic-related TuNAC transcription factors. A total of 87 TuNAC transcription factors with full-length CDS were identified, which were divided into seven subgroups through phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-nine TuNAC transcription factors were located on seven chromosomes, and five pairs of TuNAC transcription factors were duplicated. The expression of four TuNAC transcription factors was consistently increased under diverse abiotic stress by qRT-PCR assay. Our study thus provides basis for further functional investigations of TuNAC transcription factors. PMID:27001478

  14. TaNAC2, a NAC-type wheat transcription factor conferring enhanced multiple abiotic stress tolerances in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinguo; Zhang, Hongying; Qian, Xueya; Li, Ang; Zhao, Guangyao; Jing, Ruilian

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major factors that significantly limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, the paucity of wheat NAC members functionally characterized to date does not match the importance of this plant as a world staple crop. Here, the function of TaNAC2 was characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. A fragment of TaNAC2 was obtained from suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of wheat treated with polyethylene glycol, and its full-length cDNA was obtained by searching a full-length wheat cDNA library. Gene expression profiles indicated that TaNAC2 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold, and abscisic acid treatment. To test its function, transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing TaNAC2–GFP controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. Overexpression of TaNAC2 resulted in enhanced tolerances to drought, salt, and freezing stresses in Arabidopsis, which were simultaneously demonstrated by enhanced expression of abiotic stress-response genes and several physiological indices. Therefore, TaNAC2 has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crops. PMID:22330896

  15. Escherichia coli FtsH is a membrane-bound, ATP-dependent protease which degrades the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32.

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyasu, T; Gamer, J; Bukau, B; Kanemori, M; Mori, H; Rutman, A J; Oppenheim, A B; Yura, T; Yamanaka, K; Niki, H

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsH is an essential integral membrane protein that has an AAA-type ATPase domain at its C-terminal cytoplasmic part, which is homologous to at least three ATPase subunits of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome. We report here that FtsH is involved in degradation of the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32, a key element in the regulation of the E. coli heat-shock response. In the temperature-sensitive ftsH1 mutant, the amount of sigma 32 at a non-permissive temperature was higher than in the wild-type under certain conditions due to a reduced rate of degradation. In an in vitro system with purified components, FtsH catalyzed ATP-dependent degradation of biologically active histidine-tagged sigma 32. FtsH has a zinc-binding motif similar to the active site of zinc-metalloproteases. Protease activity of FtsH for histidine-tagged sigma 32 was stimulated by Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by the heavy metal chelating agent o-phenanthroline. We conclude that FtsH is a novel membrane-bound, ATP-dependent metalloprotease with activity for sigma 32. These findings indicate a new mechanism of gene regulation in E. coli. Images PMID:7781608

  16. O-GlcNAc modification of Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors negatively regulates their transcriptional activities.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changhoon; Lim, Kihong

    2015-11-13

    The addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine or threonine modifies a myriad of proteins and regulates their function, stability and localization. O-GlcNAc modification is common among chromosome-associated proteins, such as transcription factors, suggesting its extensive involvement in gene expression regulation. In this study, we demonstrate the O-GlcNAc status of the Sp family members of transcription factors and the functional impact on their transcriptional activities. We highlight the presence of O-GlcNAc residues in Sp3 and Sp4, but not Sp2, as demonstrated by their enrichment in GlcNAc positive protein fractions and by detection of O-GlcNAc residues on Sp3 and Sp4 co-expressed in Escherichia coli together with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) using an O-GlcNAc-specific antibody. Deletion mutants of Sp3 and Sp4 indicate that the majority of O-GlcNAc sites reside in their N-terminal transactivation domain. Overall, using reporter gene assays and co-immunoprecipitations, we demonstrate a functional inhibitory role of O-GlcNAc modifications in Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors. Thereby, our study strengthens the current notion that O-GlcNAc modification is an important regulator of protein interactome. PMID:26431879

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the NAC Transcription Factor Family in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Hou, Xiaowan; Zou, Meiling; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins is one of the largest groups of plant specific transcription factors and plays a crucial role in plant growth, development, and adaption to the environment. Currently, no information is known about the NAC family in cassava. In this study, 96 NAC genes (MeNACs) were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the NACs from cassava and Arabidopsis showed that MeNAC proteins can be clustered into 16 subgroups. Gene structure analysis found that the number of introns of MeNAC genes varied from 0 to 5, with the majority of MeNAC genes containing two introns, indicating a small gene structure diversity of cassava NAC genes. Conserved motif analysis revealed that all of the identified MeNACs had the conserved NAC domain and/or NAM domain. Global expression analysis suggested that MeNAC genes exhibited different expression profiles in different tissues between wild subspecies and cultivated varieties, indicating their involvement in the functional diversity of different accessions. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that MeNACs had a widely transcriptional response to drought stress and that they had differential expression profiles in different accessions, implying their contribution to drought stress resistance in cassava. Finally, the expression of twelve MeNAC genes was analyzed under osmotic, salt, cold, ABA, and H2O2 treatments, indicating that cassava NACs may represent convergence points of different signaling pathways. Taken together, this work found some excellent tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MeNAC genes, which would provide a solid foundation for functional investigation of the NAC family, crop improvement and improved understanding of signal transduction in plants. These data bring new insight on the complexity of the transcriptional control of MeNAC genes and support the hypothesis that

  18. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia; Tang, Shouwei; Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I-V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  19. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I–V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  20. Overexpression of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena) NAC Family Transcription Factor SmNAC Suppresses Resistance to Bacterial Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Na, Chen; Shuanghua, Wu; Jinglong, Fu; Bihao, Cao; Jianjun, Lei; Changming, Chen; Jin, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) is a serious disease that affects eggplant (Solanum melongena) production. Although resistance to this disease has been reported, the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we identified a NAC family transcription factor (SmNAC) from eggplant and characterized its expression, its localization at the tissue and subcellular levels, and its role in BW resistance. To this end, transgenic eggplant lines were generated in which the expression of SmNAC was constitutively up regulated or suppressed using RNAi. The results indicated that overexpression of SmNAC decreases resistance to BW. Moreover, SmNAC overexpression resulted in the reduced accumulation of the plant immune signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and reduced expression of ICS1 (a gene that encode isochorismate synthase 1, which is involved in SA biosynthesis). We propose that reduced SA content results in increased bacterial wilt susceptibility in the transgenic lines. Our results provide important new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of bacterial wilt resistance in eggplant. PMID:27528282

  1. Overexpression of the Eggplant (Solanum melongena) NAC Family Transcription Factor SmNAC Suppresses Resistance to Bacterial Wilt.

    PubMed

    Na, Chen; Shuanghua, Wu; Jinglong, Fu; Bihao, Cao; Jianjun, Lei; Changming, Chen; Jin, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) is a serious disease that affects eggplant (Solanum melongena) production. Although resistance to this disease has been reported, the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we identified a NAC family transcription factor (SmNAC) from eggplant and characterized its expression, its localization at the tissue and subcellular levels, and its role in BW resistance. To this end, transgenic eggplant lines were generated in which the expression of SmNAC was constitutively up regulated or suppressed using RNAi. The results indicated that overexpression of SmNAC decreases resistance to BW. Moreover, SmNAC overexpression resulted in the reduced accumulation of the plant immune signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and reduced expression of ICS1 (a gene that encode isochorismate synthase 1, which is involved in SA biosynthesis). We propose that reduced SA content results in increased bacterial wilt susceptibility in the transgenic lines. Our results provide important new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of bacterial wilt resistance in eggplant. PMID:27528282

  2. Wood reinforcement of poplar by rice NAC transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Takata, Naoki; Oshima, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Kouki; Taniguchi, Toru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, in the secondary cell wall constitutes wood and is the most abundant form of biomass on Earth. Enhancement of wood accumulation may be an effective strategy to increase biomass as well as wood strength, but currently only limited research has been undertaken. Here, we demonstrated that OsSWN1, the orthologue of the rice NAC Secondary-wall Thickening factor (NST) transcription factor, effectively enhanced secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and poplar (Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides) stem when expressed by the Arabidopsis NST3 promoter. Interestingly, in transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar, ectopic secondary cell wall deposition in the pith area was observed in addition to densification of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells. The cell wall content or density of the stem increased on average by up to 38% and 39% in Arabidopsis and poplar, respectively, without causing growth inhibition. As a result, physical strength of the stem increased by up to 57% in poplar. Collectively, these data suggest that the reinforcement of wood by NST3pro:OsSWN1 is a promising strategy to enhance wood-biomass production in dicotyledonous plant species. PMID:26812961

  3. Wood reinforcement of poplar by rice NAC transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Takata, Naoki; Oshima, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Kouki; Taniguchi, Toru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, in the secondary cell wall constitutes wood and is the most abundant form of biomass on Earth. Enhancement of wood accumulation may be an effective strategy to increase biomass as well as wood strength, but currently only limited research has been undertaken. Here, we demonstrated that OsSWN1, the orthologue of the rice NAC Secondary-wall Thickening factor (NST) transcription factor, effectively enhanced secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and poplar (Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides) stem when expressed by the Arabidopsis NST3 promoter. Interestingly, in transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar, ectopic secondary cell wall deposition in the pith area was observed in addition to densification of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells. The cell wall content or density of the stem increased on average by up to 38% and 39% in Arabidopsis and poplar, respectively, without causing growth inhibition. As a result, physical strength of the stem increased by up to 57% in poplar. Collectively, these data suggest that the reinforcement of wood by NST3pro:OsSWN1 is a promising strategy to enhance wood-biomass production in dicotyledonous plant species. PMID:26812961

  4. NAC Transcription Factors in Senescence: From Molecular Structure to Function in Crops

    PubMed Central

    Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara; O’Shea, Charlotte; Gregersen, Per L.; Skriver, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade, NAC transcription factors have been shown to play essential roles in senescence, which is the focus of this review. Transcriptome analyses associate approximately one third of Arabidopsis NAC genes and many crop NAC genes with senescence, thereby implicating NAC genes as important regulators of the senescence process. The consensus DNA binding site of the NAC domain is used to predict NAC target genes, and protein interaction sites can be predicted for the intrinsically disordered transcription regulatory domains of NAC proteins. The molecular characteristics of these domains determine the interactions in gene regulatory networks. Emerging local NAC-centered gene regulatory networks reveal complex molecular mechanisms of stress- and hormone-regulated senescence and basic physiological steps of the senescence process. For example, through molecular interactions involving the hormone abscisic acid, ArabidopsisNAP promotes chlorophyll degradation, a hallmark of senescence. Furthermore, studies of the functional rice ortholog, OsNAP, suggest that NAC genes can be targeted to obtain specific changes in lifespan control and nutrient remobilization in crop plants. This is also exemplified by the wheat NAM1 genes which promote senescence and increase grain zinc, iron, and protein content. Thus, NAC genes are promising targets for fine-tuning senescence for increased yield and quality. PMID:27135336

  5. An NAC transcription factor controls ethylene-regulated cell expansion in flower petals.

    PubMed

    Pei, Haixia; Ma, Nan; Tian, Ji; Luo, Jing; Chen, Jiwei; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Chen, Xiang; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping

    2013-10-01

    Cell expansion is crucial for plant growth. It is well known that the phytohormone ethylene functions in plant development as a key modulator of cell expansion. However, the role of ethylene in the regulation of this process remains unclear. In this study, 2,189 ethylene-responsive transcripts were identified in rose (Rosa hybrida) petals using transcriptome sequencing and microarray analysis. Among these transcripts, an NAC (for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF], and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC])-domain transcription factor gene, RhNAC100, was rapidly and dramatically induced by ethylene in the petals. Interestingly, accumulation of the RhNAC100 transcript was modulated by ethylene via microRNA164-dependent posttranscriptional regulation. Overexpression of RhNAC100 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) substantially reduced the petal size by repressing petal cell expansion. By contrast, silencing of RhNAC100 in rose petals using virus-induced gene silencing significantly increased petal size and promoted cell expansion in the petal abaxial subepidermis (P < 0.05). Expression analysis showed that 22 out of the 29 cell expansion-related genes tested exhibited changes in expression in RhNAC100-silenced rose petals. Moreover, of those genes, one cellulose synthase and two aquaporin genes (Rosa hybrida Cellulose Synthase2 and R. hybrida Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein1;1/2;1) were identified as targets of RhNAC100. Our results suggest that ethylene regulates cell expansion by fine-tuning the microRNA164/RhNAC100 module and also provide new insights into the function of NAC transcription factors. PMID:23933991

  6. The Stress-Induced Soybean NAC Transcription Factor GmNAC81 Plays a Positive Role in Developmentally Programmed Leaf Senescence.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Maiana Reis; Silva, Priscila Alves; Mendes, Giselle Camargo; Alves, Janaína Roberta; Caetano, Hanna Durso Neves; Machado, Joao Paulo Batista; Brustolini, Otavio José Bernardes; Carpinetti, Paola Avelar; Melo, Bruno Paes; Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira; Rosado, Gustavo Leão; Ferreira, Márcia Flores Silva; Dal-Bianco, Maximillir; Picoli, Edgard Augusto de Toledo; Aragao, Francisco José Lima; Ramos, Humberto Josué Oliveira; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista

    2016-05-01

    The onset of leaf senescence is a highly regulated developmental change that is controlled by both genetics and the environment. Senescence is triggered by massive transcriptional reprogramming, but functional information about its underlying regulatory mechanisms is limited. In the current investigation, we performed a functional analysis of the soybean (Glycine max) osmotic stress- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced NAC transcription factor GmNAC81 during natural leaf senescence using overexpression studies and reverse genetics. GmNAC81-overexpressing lines displayed accelerated flowering and leaf senescence but otherwise developed normally. The precocious leaf senescence of GmNAC81-overexpressing lines was associated with greater Chl loss, faster photosynthetic decay and higher expression of hydrolytic enzyme-encoding GmNAC81 target genes, including the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE), an executioner of vacuole-triggered programmed cell death (PCD). Conversely, virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of GmNAC81 delayed leaf senescence and was associated with reductions in Chl loss, lipid peroxidation and the expression of GmNAC81 direct targets. Promoter-reporter studies revealed that the expression pattern of GmNAC81 was associated with senescence in soybean leaves. Our data indicate that GmNAC81 is a positive regulator of age-dependent senescence and may integrate osmotic stress- and ER stress-induced PCD responses with natural leaf senescence through the GmNAC81/VPE regulatory circuit. PMID:27016095

  7. Global O-GlcNAc Levels Modulate Transcription of the Adipocyte Secretome during Chronic Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wollaston-Hayden, Edith E.; Harris, Ruth B. S.; Liu, Bingqiang; Bridger, Robert; Xu, Ying; Wells, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and the corresponding increase in intracellular glycosylation of proteins via O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is sufficient to induce insulin resistance (IR) in multiple systems. Previously, our group used shotgun proteomics to identify multiple rodent adipocytokines and secreted proteins whose levels are modulated upon the induction of IR by indirectly and directly modulating O-GlcNAc levels. We have validated the relative levels of several of these factors using immunoblotting. Since adipocytokines levels are regulated primarily at the level of transcription and O-GlcNAc alters the function of many transcription factors, we hypothesized that elevated O-GlcNAc levels on key transcription factors are modulating secreted protein expression. Here, we show that upon the elevation of O-GlcNAc levels and the induction of IR in mature 3T3-F442a adipocytes, the transcript levels of multiple secreted proteins reflect the modulation observed at the protein level. We validate the transcript levels in male mouse models of diabetes. Using inguinal fat pads from the severely IR db/db mouse model and the mildly IR diet-induced mouse model, we have confirmed that the secreted proteins regulated by O-GlcNAc modulation in cell culture are likewise modulated in the whole animal upon a shift to IR. By comparing the promoters of similarly regulated genes, we determine that Sp1 is a common cis-acting element. Furthermore, we show that the LPL and SPARC promoters are enriched for Sp1 and O-GlcNAc modified proteins during insulin resistance in adipocytes. Thus, the O-GlcNAc modification of proteins bound to promoters, including Sp1, is linked to adipocytokine transcription during insulin resistance. PMID:25657638

  8. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor NAC016 Promotes Drought Stress Responses by Repressing AREB1 Transcription through a Trifurcate Feed-Forward Regulatory Loop Involving NAP[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Kim, Ye-Sol; Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Byoung-Doo; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2015-01-01

    Drought and other abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth and development and thus reduce productivity. The plant-specific NAM/ATAF1/2/CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors have important roles in abiotic stress-responsive signaling. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana NAC016 is involved in drought stress responses; nac016 mutants have high drought tolerance, and NAC016-overexpressing (NAC016-OX) plants have low drought tolerance. Using genome-wide gene expression microarray analysis and MEME motif searches, we identified the NAC016-specific binding motif (NAC16BM), GATTGGAT[AT]CA, in the promoters of genes downregulated in nac016-1 mutants. The NAC16BM sequence does not contain the core NAC binding motif CACG (or its reverse complement CGTG). NAC016 directly binds to the NAC16BM in the promoter of ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN1 (AREB1), which encodes a central transcription factor in the stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling pathway and represses AREB1 transcription. We found that knockout mutants of the NAC016 target gene NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI (NAP) also exhibited strong drought tolerance; moreover, NAP binds to the AREB1 promoter and suppresses AREB1 transcription. Taking these results together, we propose that a trifurcate feed-forward pathway involving NAC016, NAP, and AREB1 functions in the drought stress response, in addition to affecting leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. PMID:26059204

  9. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Michael W.; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara; O’Shea, Charlotte; Lindemose, Søren; Møllegaard, Niels Erik; Holme, Inger B.; Hebelstrup, Kim; Skriver, Karen; Gregersen, Per L.

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005 is associated with developmental senescence. It was significantly up-regulated following ABA treatment, supported by ABA-responsive elements in its promoter, but it was not up-regulated during dark-induced senescence. The C-termini of proteins closely related to HvNAC005 showed overall high divergence but also contained conserved short motifs. A serine- and leucine-containing central motif was essential for transcriptional activity of the HvNAC005 C-terminus in yeast. Over-expression of HvNAC005 in barley resulted in a strong phenotype with delayed development combined with precocious senescence. The over-expressing plants showed up-regulation of genes involved with secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, stress, signalling, development, and transport. Up-regulation of senescence markers and hormone metabolism and signalling genes supports a role of HvNAC005 in the cross field of different hormone and signalling pathways. Binding of HvNAC005 to promoter sequences of putative target genes containing the T[G/A]CGT core motif was shown by direct protein–DNA interactions of HvNAC005 with promoters for two of the up-regulated genes. In conclusion, HvNAC005 was shown to be a strong positive regulator of senescence and so is an obvious target for the fine-tuning of gene expression in future attempts to improve nutrient remobilization related to the senescence process in barley. PMID:27436280

  10. Characterization of a novel Medicago sativa NAC transcription factor gene involved in response to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Xin

    2013-11-01

    Relying on the regulation of transcription factors, plants resist to various abiotic and biotic stresses. NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) are one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors and known to play important roles in plant development and response to environmental stresses. A new NAC gene was cloned on the basis of 503 bp EST fragment from the SSH cDNA library of Medicago sativa. It was 1,115 bp including an 816 bp ORF and encodes 271 amino acids. A highly conserved region is located from the 7th amino acid to the 315th amino acid in its N-terminal domain. The NAC protein is subcellularly localized in the nucleus of onion epidemical cells and possible functions as a transcription factor. The relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed at different stress time. The results revealed that the transcription expression of NAC gene could be induced by drought, high salinity and ABA. The transgenic Arabidopsis with NAC gene has the drought tolerance better than the wild-type. PMID:24057250

  11. Two Brassica napus genes encoding NAC transcription factors are involved in response to high-salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hui; Guo, Qian-Qian; Chen, Liang; Ren, Feng; Wang, Qing-Qing; Zheng, Yong; Li, Xue-Bao

    2012-11-01

    The NAC protein family is one of the novel classes of plant-specific transcription factors. In this study, two genes (BnNAC2 and BnNAC5) encoding the putative NAC transcription factors were identified in Brassica napus. Sequence analysis revealed that the deduced BnNAC proteins contain conserved N-terminal region (NAC domain) and highly divergent C-terminal domain. Yeast transactivation analysis showed that BnNAC2 could activate reporter gene expression, suggesting that BnNAC2 functions as a transcriptional activator. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that BnNAC2 was preferentially expressed in flowers, whereas BnNAC5 mRNAs accumulated at the highest level in stems. Further experimental results indicated that the two genes are high-salinity-, drought- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced. Overexpression of BnNAC2 and BnNAC5 genes in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) remarkably inhibited the growth rate of the host cells, and enhanced the cells sensitive to high-salinity and osmotic stresses. Complementation test indicated that BnNAC5 could recover the defects such as salt-hypersensitivity and accelerated-leaf senescence of vni2 T-DNA insertion mutant. Several stress-responsive genes including COR15A and RD29A were enhanced in the complemented plants. These results suggest that BnNAC5 may perform the similar function of VNI2 in response to high-salinity stress and regulation of leaf aging. Key message BnNAC2 and BnNAC5 are salt-, drought- and ABA-induced genes. Overexpression of BnNAC5 in Arabidopsis vni2 mutant recovered the mutant defects (salt-hypersensitivity and accelerated-leaf senescence) to the phenotype of wild type. PMID:22801866

  12. NAC transcription factors in plant multiple abiotic stress responses: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and agricultural productivity. According to the current climate prediction models, crop plants will face a greater number of environmental stresses, which are likely to occur simultaneously in the future. So it is very urgent to breed broad-spectrum tolerant crops in order to meet an increasing demand for food productivity due to global population increase. As one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants, NAC TFs play vital roles in regulating plant growth and development processes including abiotic stress responses. Lots of studies indicated that many stress-responsive NAC TFs had been used to improve stress tolerance in crop plants by genetic engineering. In this review, the recent progress in NAC TFs was summarized, and the potential utilization of NAC TFs in breeding abiotic stress tolerant transgenic crops was also be discussed. In view of the complexity of field conditions and the specificity in multiple stress responses, we suggest that the NAC TFs commonly induced by multiple stresses should be promising candidates to produce plants with enhanced multiple stress tolerance. Furthermore, the field evaluation of transgenic crops harboring NAC genes, as well as the suitable promoters for minimizing the negative effects caused by over-expressing some NAC genes, should be considered. PMID:26579152

  13. O-GlcNAc modification of PPAR{gamma} reduces its transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Suena; Park, Sang Yoon; Roth, Juergen; Kim, Hoe Suk; Cho, Jin Won

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that PPAR{gamma} is modified by O-GlcNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Thr54 of PPAR{gamma}1 is the major O-GlcNAc site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transcriptional activity of PPAR{gamma}1 was decreased on treatment with the OGA inhibitor. -- Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a key regulator of adipogenesis and is important for the homeostasis of the adipose tissue. The {beta}-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, a posttranslational modification on various nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, is involved in the regulation of protein function. Here, we report that PPAR{gamma} is modified by O-GlcNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mass spectrometric analysis and mutant studies revealed that the threonine 54 of the N-terminal AF-1 domain of PPAR{gamma} is the major O-GlcNAc site. Transcriptional activity of wild type PPAR{gamma} was decreased 30% by treatment with the specific O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor, but the T54A mutant of PPAR{gamma} did not respond to inhibitor treatment. In 3T3-L1 cells, an increase in O-GlcNAc modification by OGA inhibitor reduced PPAR{gamma} transcriptional activity and terminal adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that the O-GlcNAc state of PPAR{gamma} influences its transcriptional activity and is involved in adipocyte differentiation.

  14. Molecular genetics of blood-fleshed peach reveals activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by NAC transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Wang, Huiliang; Gu, Chao; Dare, Andrew P; Espley, Richard V; He, Huaping; Allan, Andrew C; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin pigmentation is an important consumer trait in peach (Prunus persica). In this study, the genetic basis of the blood-flesh trait was investigated using the cultivar Dahongpao, which shows high levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside in the mesocarp. Elevation of anthocyanin levels in the flesh was correlated with the expression of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, PpMYB10.1. However, PpMYB10.1 did not co-segregate with the blood-flesh trait. The blood-flesh trait was mapped to a 200-kb interval on peach linkage group (LG) 5. Within this interval, a gene encoding a NAC domain transcription factor (TF) was found to be highly up-regulated in blood-fleshed peaches when compared with non-red-fleshed peaches. This NAC TF, designated blood (BL), acts as a heterodimer with PpNAC1 which shows high levels of expression in fruit at late developmental stages. We show that the heterodimer of BL and PpNAC1 can activate the transcription of PpMYB10.1, resulting in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco. Furthermore, silencing the BL gene reduces anthocyanin pigmentation in blood-fleshed peaches. The transactivation activity of the BL-PpNAC1 heterodimer is repressed by a SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like TF, PpSPL1. Low levels of PpMYB10.1 expression in fruit at early developmental stages is probably attributable to lower levels of expression of PpNAC1 plus the presence of high levels of repressors such as PpSPL1. We present a mechanism whereby BL is the key gene for the blood-flesh trait in peach via its activation of PpMYB10.1 in maturing fruit. Partner TFs such as basic helix-loop-helix proteins and NAC1 are required, as is the removal of transcriptional repressors. PMID:25688923

  15. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129

  16. The Rose (Rosa hybrida) NAC Transcription Factor 3 Gene, RhNAC3, Involved in ABA Signaling Pathway Both in Rose and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Peitao; Liu, Jitao; Gao, Junping; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Plant transcription factors involved in stress responses are generally classified by their involvement in either the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent or the ABA-independent regulatory pathways. A stress-associated NAC gene from rose (Rosa hybrida), RhNAC3, was previously found to increase dehydration tolerance in both rose and Arabidopsis. However, the regulatory mechanism involved in RhNAC3 action is still not fully understood. In this study, we isolated and analyzed the upstream regulatory sequence of RhNAC3 and found many stress-related cis-elements to be present in the promoter, with five ABA-responsive element (ABRE) motifs being of particular interest. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the putative RhNAC3 promoter sequence fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene revealed that RhNAC3 is expressed at high basal levels in leaf guard cells and in vascular tissues. Moreover, the ABRE motifs in the RhNAC3 promoter were observed to have a cumulative effect on the transcriptional activity of this gene both in the presence and absence of exogenous ABA. Overexpression of RhNAC3 in A. thaliana resulted in ABA hypersensitivity during seed germination and promoted leaf closure after ABA or drought treatments. Additionally, the expression of 11 ABA-responsive genes was induced to a greater degree by dehydration in the transgenic plants overexpressing RhNAC3 than control lines transformed with the vector alone. Further analysis revealed that all these genes contain NAC binding cis-elements in their promoter regions, and RhNAC3 was found to partially bind to these putative NAC recognition sites. We further found that of 219 A. thaliana genes previously shown by microarray analysis to be regulated by heterologous overexpression RhNAC3, 85 are responsive to ABA. In rose, the expression of genes downstream of the ABA-signaling pathways was also repressed in RhNAC3-silenced petals. Taken together, we propose that the rose RhNAC3 protein

  17. A stress-associated NAC transcription factor (SlNAC35) from tomato plays a positive role in biotic and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Song; Ma, Xiaocui; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fanying; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-09-01

    The NAC transcription factor family participates in responses to various kinds of environmental stimuli in plants. Responses of NAC genes to abiotic stresses have been widely studied, but their functions in response to biotic stress are little reported in plants, especially in crops. In the present study, we examined the functions of a novel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NAC protein (SlNAC35) in abiotic and biotic stress resistance by using transgenic tobacco. Expression analysis found that SlNAC35 expression was induced by drought stress, salt stress, bacterial pathogen, and signaling molecules, suggesting its involvement in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. Moreover, transgenic lines exhibited a greater number of lateral roots and longer root length compared with Vec lines (empty vector lines) after drought and salt treatment. These results indicate that overexpression of SlNAC35 promoted root growth and development under drought and salt stresses. Higher expressions of NtARF1, NtARF2 and NtARF8 were observed under drought and salt stresses in transgenic lines, suggesting that overexpression of SlNAC35 promoted growth and development of roots in transgenic lines possibly by involving auxin signaling and by regulating NtARF expression. In addition, SlNAC35 overexpression improved resistance to bacterial pathogen in transgenic tobacco, and reactive oxygen species may be in the upstream of salicylic acid (SA) signaling in transgenic tobacco during defense response. PMID:26991441

  18. Banana fruit NAC transcription factor MaNAC5 cooperates with MaWRKYs to enhance the expression of pathogenesis-related genes against Colletotrichum musae.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Plants respond to pathogen attack by the modulation of a large set of genes, which are regulated by different types of transcription factor (TF). NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) and WRKY are plant-specific families of TFs, and have received much attention as transcriptional regulators in plant pathogen defence. However, the cooperation between NAC and WRKY TFs in the disease response remains largely unknown. Our previous study has revealed that two banana fruit WRKY TFs, MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2, are involved in salicylic acid (SA)- and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced resistance against Colletotrichum musae via binding to promoters of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Here, we found that MaNAC1, MaNAC2 and MaNAC5 were up-regulated after C. musae infection, and were also significantly enhanced by SA and MeJA treatment. Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that MaNAC5 physically interacted with MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2. More importantly, dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay revealed that MaNAC5, MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2 were transcriptional activators, and individually or cooperatively activated the transcriptional activities of MaPR1-1, MaPR2, MaPR10c and MaCHIL1 genes. Collectively, our results indicate that MaNAC5 cooperates with MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2 to regulate the expression of a specific set of PR genes in the disease response, and to contribute at least partially to SA- and MeJA-induced pathogen resistance. PMID:26033522

  19. Sweet potato NAC transcription factor, IbNAC1, upregulates sporamin gene expression by binding the SWRE motif against mechanical wounding and herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Peng; Lin, I Winnie; Chen, Xuanyang; Huang, Yin-Hao; Chang, Shiao-Chi; Lo, Hui-Shan; Lu, Hseuh-Han; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-05-01

    Sporamin is a tuberous storage protein with trypsin inhibitory activity in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.), which accounts for 85% of the soluble protein in tubers. It is constitutively expressed in tuberous roots but is expressed in leaves only after wounding. Thus far, its wound-inducible signal transduction mechanisms remain unclear. In the present work, a 53-bp DNA region, sporamin wound-response cis-element (SWRE), was identified in the sporamin promoter and was determined to be responsible for the wounding response. Using yeast one-hybrid screening, a NAC domain protein, IbNAC1, that specifically bound to the 5'-TACAATATC-3' sequence in SWRE was isolated from a cDNA library from wounded leaves. IbNAC1 was constitutively expressed in root tissues and was induced earlier than sporamin following the wounding of leaves. Transgenic sweet potato plants overexpressing IbNAC1 had greatly increased sporamin expression, increased trypsin inhibitory activity, and elevated resistance against Spodoptera litura. We further demonstrated that IbNAC1 has multiple biological functions in the jasmonic acid (JA) response, including the inhibition of root formation, accumulation of anthocyanin, regulation of aging processes, reduction of abiotic tolerance, and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, IbNAC1 is a core transcription factor that reprograms the transcriptional response to wounding via the JA-mediated pathway in sweet potato. PMID:26996980

  20. Potential utilization of NAC transcription factors to enhance abiotic stress tolerance in plants by biotechnological approach.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Nishiyama, Rie; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature, drought, high salinity, cold and waterlogging often result in significant losses to the yields of economically important crops. Plants constantly exposed to capricious conditions have adapted at the molecular, cellular, physiological and biochemical level, enabling them to survive and cope with adverse environmental stresses. NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) transcription factors (TFs), which constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific TFs, have been reported to enhance tolerance against various stresses, such as drought, high salinity and cold, in a number of plants. In this review the NAC TF family will be described and the potential use of NAC TFs in development of improved stress tolerant transgenic crops will be discussed. PMID:21912210

  1. The Nitrate-Inducible NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC2-5A Controls Nitrate Response and Increases Wheat Yield1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    He, Xue; Qu, Baoyuan; Li, Wenjing; Zhao, Xueqiang; Teng, Wan; Ma, Wenying; Ren, Yongzhe; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a major nitrogen resource for cereal crops; thus, understanding nitrate signaling in cereal crops is valuable for engineering crops with improved nitrogen use efficiency. Although several regulators have been identified in nitrate sensing and signaling in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the equivalent information in cereals is missing. Here, we isolated a nitrate-inducible and cereal-specific NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factor, TaNAC2-5A, from wheat (Triticum aestivum). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that TaNAC2-5A could directly bind to the promoter regions of the genes encoding nitrate transporter and glutamine synthetase. Overexpression of TaNAC2-5A in wheat enhanced root growth and nitrate influx rate and, hence, increased the root’s ability to acquire nitrogen. Furthermore, we found that TaNAC2-5A-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines had higher grain yield and higher nitrogen accumulation in aerial parts and allocated more nitrogen in grains in a field experiment. These results suggest that TaNAC2-5A is involved in nitrate signaling and show that it is an exciting gene resource for breeding crops with more efficient use of fertilizer. PMID:26371233

  2. Functional characterization of NAC55 transcription factor from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) as a novel transcriptional activator modulating reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Niu, Fangfang; Wang, Chen; Yan, Jingli; Guo, Xiaohua; Wu, Feifei; Yang, Bo; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2016-09-01

    NAC transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific and play important roles in development, responses to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. So far, only a few NAC genes have been reported to regulate cell death. In this study, we identified and characterized a NAC55 gene isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). BnaNAC55 responds to multiple stresses, including cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. BnaNAC55 has transactivation activity and is located in the nucleus. BnaNAC55 is able to form homodimers in planta. Unlike ANAC055, full-length BnaNAC55, but not either the N-terminal NAC domain or C-terminal regulatory domain, induces ROS accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when expressed both in oilseed rape protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, BnaNAC55 expression causes obvious nuclear DNA fragmentation. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating ROS production and scavenging, defense response as well as senescence are significantly induced. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we further confirm that BnaNAC55 could activate the expression of a few ROS and defense-related gene expression. Taken together, our work has identified a novel NAC TF from oilseed rape that modulates ROS accumulation and cell death. PMID:27312204

  3. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of NAC Transcription Factors in Brachypodium distachyon L.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gengrui; Chen, Guanxing; Zhu, Jiantang; Zhu, Yan; Lu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) transcription factors are involved in regulating plant developmental processes and response to environmental stresses. Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging model system for cereals, temperate grasses and biofuel crops. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the molecular characterizations, phylogenetics and expression profiles under various abiotic stresses of the NAC gene family in Brachypodium distachyon was performed. In total, 118 BNAC genes in B. distachyon were identified, of which 22 (18.64%) were tandemly duplicated and segmentally duplicated, respectively. The Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms showed that they were divided into two clades and fourteen subfamilies, supported by similar motif compositions within one subfamily. Some critical amino acids detected using DIVERGE v3.0 might contribute to functional divergence among subfamilies. The different exon-intron organizations among subfamilies revealed structural differentiation. Promoter sequence predictions showed that the BNAC genes were involved in various developmental processes and diverse stress responses. Three NAC domain-encoding genes (BNAC012, BNAC078 and BNAC108), orthologous of NAC1, were targeted by five miRNA164 (Bdi-miR164a-c, e, f), suggesting that they might function in lateral organ enlargement, floral development and the responses to abiotic stress. Eleven (~9.32%) BNAC proteins containing α-helical transmembrane motifs were identified. 23 representative BNAC genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, showing different expression patterns under various abiotic stresses, of which 18, 17 and 11 genes were up-regulated significantly under drought, H2O2 and salt stresses, respectively. Only four and two genes were up-regulated under cold and cadmium stresses, respectively. Dynamic transcriptional expression analysis revealed that six genes showed constitutive expression and period

  4. Localization of O-GlcNAc modification on the serum response transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Reason, A J; Morris, H R; Panico, M; Marais, R; Treisman, R H; Haltiwanger, R S; Hart, G W; Kelly, W G; Dell, A

    1992-08-25

    A unique form of nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic protein glycosylation, O-linked GlcNAc, has previously been detected, using Gal transferase labeling techniques, on a myriad of proteins (for review see Hart, G. W., Haltiwanger, R. S., Holt, G. D., and Kelly, W. G. (1989a) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58, 841-874), including many RNA polymerase II transcription factors (Jackson, S. P., and Tjian, R. (1988) Cell 55, 125-133). However, virtually nothing is known about the degree of glycosylation at individual sites, or, indeed, the actual sites of attachment of O-GlcNAc on transcription factors. In this paper we provide rigorous evidence for the occurrence and locations of O-GlcNAc on the c-fos transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF), expressed in an insect cell line. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) of proteolytic digests of SRF provides evidence for the presence of a single substoichiometric O-GlcNAc residue on each of four peptides isolated after sequential cyanogen bromide, tryptic, and proline specific enzyme digestion: these peptides are 306VSASVSP312, 274GTTSTIQTAP283, 313SAVSSADGTVLK324, and 374DSSTDLTQTSSSGTVTLP391. Using an array of techniques, including manual Edman degradation, aminopeptidase, and elastase digestion, together with FAB-MS, the major sites of O-GlcNAc attachment were shown to be serine residues within short tandem repeat regions. The highest level of glycosylation was found on the SSS tandem repeat of peptide (374-391) which is situated within the transcriptional activation domain of SRF. The other glycosylation sites observed in SRF are located in the region of the protein between the DNA binding domain and the transcriptional activation domain. Glycosylation of peptides (274-283) and (313-324) was found to occur on the serine in the TTST tandem repeat and on serine 316 in the SS repeat, respectively. The lowest level of glycosylation was recovered in peptide (306-312) which lacks tandem repeats. All the glycosylation sites

  5. The Novel Wheat Transcription Factor TaNAC47 Enhances Multiple Abiotic Stress Tolerances in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Lichao; Xia, Chuan; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in plant development and responses to abiotic stresses. However, the biological roles of NAC family members in wheat are not well understood. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of a novel wheat TaNAC47 gene. TaNAC47 encoded protein, localizing in the nucleus, is able to bind to the ABRE cis-element and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional activator. We also showed that TaNAC47 is differentially expressed in different tissues, and its expression was induced by the stress treatments of salt, cold, polyethylene glycol and exogenous abscisic acid. Furthermore, overexpression of TaNAC47 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity and enhancing tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, salt, and freezing stresses. Strikingly, overexpression of TaNAC47 was found to activate the expression of downstream genes and change several physiological indices that may enable transgenic plants to overcome unfavorable environments. Taken together, these results uncovered an important role of wheat TaNAC47 gene in response to ABA and abiotic stresses. PMID:26834757

  6. NAC-MYB-based transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in land plants

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yoshimi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Endo, Hitoshi; Rejab, Nur Ardiyana; Ohtani, Misato

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells biosynthesize primary cell walls (PCW) in all cells and produce secondary cell walls (SCWs) in specific cell types that conduct water and/or provide mechanical support, such as xylem vessels and fibers. The characteristic mechanical stiffness, chemical recalcitrance, and hydrophobic nature of SCWs result from the organization of SCW-specific biopolymers, i.e., highly ordered cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Synthesis of these SCW-specific biopolymers requires SCW-specific enzymes that are regulated by SCW-specific transcription factors. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the transcriptional regulation of SCW formation in plant cells. Advances in research on SCW biosynthesis during the past decade have expanded our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of SCW formation, particularly the functions of the NAC and MYB transcription factors. Focusing on the NAC-MYB-based transcriptional network, we discuss the regulatory systems that evolved in land plants to modify the cell wall to serve as a key component of structures that conduct water and provide mechanical support. PMID:25999964

  7. An NAC Transcription Factor Controls Ethylene-Regulated Cell Expansion in Flower Petals1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Haixia; Ma, Nan; Tian, Ji; Luo, Jing; Chen, Jiwei; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Chen, Xiang; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping

    2013-01-01

    Cell expansion is crucial for plant growth. It is well known that the phytohormone ethylene functions in plant development as a key modulator of cell expansion. However, the role of ethylene in the regulation of this process remains unclear. In this study, 2,189 ethylene-responsive transcripts were identified in rose (Rosa hybrida) petals using transcriptome sequencing and microarray analysis. Among these transcripts, an NAC (for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF], and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC])-domain transcription factor gene, RhNAC100, was rapidly and dramatically induced by ethylene in the petals. Interestingly, accumulation of the RhNAC100 transcript was modulated by ethylene via microRNA164-dependent posttranscriptional regulation. Overexpression of RhNAC100 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) substantially reduced the petal size by repressing petal cell expansion. By contrast, silencing of RhNAC100 in rose petals using virus-induced gene silencing significantly increased petal size and promoted cell expansion in the petal abaxial subepidermis (P < 0.05). Expression analysis showed that 22 out of the 29 cell expansion-related genes tested exhibited changes in expression in RhNAC100-silenced rose petals. Moreover, of those genes, one cellulose synthase and two aquaporin genes (Rosa hybrida Cellulose Synthase2 and R. hybrida Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein1;1/2;1) were identified as targets of RhNAC100. Our results suggest that ethylene regulates cell expansion by fine-tuning the microRNA164/RhNAC100 module and also provide new insights into the function of NAC transcription factors. PMID:23933991

  8. [Construction of RNAi vectors for SmNAC1 transcription factors of Salvia miltiorrhiza using Gateway cloning technology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong; Rong, Qi-Xian; Liu, Yu-Zhong; Shen, Ye; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-05-01

    NAC transcription factors involved in plant growth and development, as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stress. RNAi Vectors for SmNAC transcription factors of Salvia miltiorrhiza was constructed by using Gateway cloning technology, in order to further study the function of SmNAC1 transcription factor. According to Gateway cloning technology, the specific fragments of SmNAC1 containing attB adapter was amplified by PCR using ultra-fideling phusion polymerase of NEB. By the BP recombination reaction, the PCR product containing attB was transferred to an donor vector (pENTR/SD/D-TOPO). Finally, SmNACi specific gene was cloned into pK7GWIWG2D plant expression vectors by LR recombination reaction. Experimental results showed that Gateway cloning technology provide a rapid and highly efficient way to clone the interested gene. PMID:25095362

  9. Dual involvement of a Medicago truncatula NAC transcription factor in root abiotic stress response and symbiotic nodule senescence.

    PubMed

    de Zélicourt, Axel; Diet, Anouck; Marion, Jessica; Laffont, Carole; Ariel, Federico; Moison, Michaël; Zahaf, Ons; Crespi, Martin; Gruber, Véronique; Frugier, Florian

    2012-04-01

    Legume crops related to the model plant Medicago truncatula can adapt their root architecture to environmental conditions, both by branching and by establishing a symbiosis with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules. Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress affecting plant yield and root growth. Previous transcriptomic analyses identified several transcription factors linked to the M. truncatula response to salt stress in roots, including NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC)-encoding genes. Over-expression of one of these transcription factors, MtNAC969, induced formation of a shorter and less-branched root system, whereas RNAi-mediated MtNAC969 inactivation promoted lateral root formation. The altered root system of over-expressing plants was able to maintain its growth under high salinity, and roots in which MtNAC969 was down-regulated showed improved growth under salt stress. Accordingly, expression of salt stress markers was decreased or induced in MtNAC969 over-expressing or RNAi roots, respectively, suggesting a repressive function for this transcription factor in the salt-stress response. Expression of MtNAC969 in central symbiotic nodule tissues was induced by nitrate treatment, and antagonistically affected by salt in roots and nodules, similarly to senescence markers. MtNAC969 RNAi nodules accumulated amyloplasts in the nitrogen-fixing zone, and were prematurely senescent. Therefore, the MtNAC969 transcription factor, which is differentially affected by environmental cues in root and nodules, participates in several pathways controlling adaptation of the M. truncatula root system to the environment. PMID:22098255

  10. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops. PMID:27491393

  11. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops. PMID:27491393

  12. Comparative Genomics of NAC Transcriptional Factors in Angiosperms: Implications for the Adaptation and Diversification of Flowering Plants.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Castaño, Enrique; Sanchez-Calderon, Lenin; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis

    2015-01-01

    NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plant species containing the NAC family origin and evolution to shed new light on the evolutionary history of this family in angiosperms. A comparative genome analysis was performed on 24 land plant species, and NAC ortholog groups were identified by means of bidirectional BLAST hits. Large NAC gene families are found in those species that have experienced more whole-genome duplication events, pointing to an expansion of the NAC family with divergent functions in flowering plants. A total of 3,187 NAC transcription factors that clustered into six major groups were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Many orthologous groups were found in the monocot and eudicot lineages, but only five orthologous groups were found between P. patens and each representative taxa of flowering plants. These groups were called basal orthologous groups and likely expanded into more recent taxa to cope with their environmental needs. This analysis on the angiosperm NAC family represents an effort to grasp the evolutionary and functional diversity within this gene family while providing a basis for further functional research on vascular plant gene families. PMID:26569117

  13. Comparative Genomics of NAC Transcriptional Factors in Angiosperms: Implications for the Adaptation and Diversification of Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Castaño, Enrique; Sanchez-Calderon, Lenin; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis

    2015-01-01

    NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plant species containing the NAC family origin and evolution to shed new light on the evolutionary history of this family in angiosperms. A comparative genome analysis was performed on 24 land plant species, and NAC ortholog groups were identified by means of bidirectional BLAST hits. Large NAC gene families are found in those species that have experienced more whole-genome duplication events, pointing to an expansion of the NAC family with divergent functions in flowering plants. A total of 3,187 NAC transcription factors that clustered into six major groups were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Many orthologous groups were found in the monocot and eudicot lineages, but only five orthologous groups were found between P. patens and each representative taxa of flowering plants. These groups were called basal orthologous groups and likely expanded into more recent taxa to cope with their environmental needs. This analysis on the angiosperm NAC family represents an effort to grasp the evolutionary and functional diversity within this gene family while providing a basis for further functional research on vascular plant gene families. PMID:26569117

  14. NAC Transcription Factor SPEEDY HYPONASTIC GROWTH Regulates Flooding-Induced Leaf Movement in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Rauf, Mamoona; Arif, Muhammad; Fisahn, Joachim; Xue, Gang-Ping; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In rosette plants, root flooding (waterlogging) triggers rapid upward (hyponastic) leaf movement representing an important architectural stress response that critically determines plant performance in natural habitats. The directional growth is based on localized longitudinal cell expansion at the lower (abaxial) side of the leaf petiole and involves the volatile phytohormone ethylene (ET). We report the existence of a transcriptional core unit underlying directional petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, governed by the NAC transcription factor SPEEDY HYPONASTIC GROWTH (SHYG). Overexpression of SHYG in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances waterlogging-triggered hyponastic leaf movement and cell expansion in abaxial cells of the basal petiole region, while both responses are largely diminished in shyg knockout mutants. Expression of several EXPANSIN and XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLYCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE genes encoding cell wall–loosening proteins was enhanced in SHYG overexpressors but lowered in shyg. We identified ACC OXIDASE5 (ACO5), encoding a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis, as a direct transcriptional output gene of SHYG and found a significantly reduced leaf movement in response to root flooding in aco5 T-DNA insertion mutants. Expression of SHYG in shoot tissue is triggered by root flooding and treatment with ET, constituting an intrinsic ET-SHYG-ACO5 activator loop for rapid petiole cell expansion upon waterlogging. PMID:24363315

  15. A NAC transcription factor and SNI1 cooperatively suppress basal pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Soo; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Kyung Eun; Jung, Mi Soon; Han, Hay Ju; Kim, Sun Ho; Kwon, Young Sang; Bahk, Sunghwa; An, Jonguk; Bae, Dong Won; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Chung, Woo Sik

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional repression of pathogen defense-related genes is essential for plant growth and development. Several proteins are known to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of plant defense responses. However, mechanisms by which expression of defense-related genes are regulated by repressor proteins are poorly characterized. Here, we describe the in planta function of CBNAC, a calmodulin-regulated NAC transcriptional repressor in Arabidopsis. A T-DNA insertional mutant (cbnac1) displayed enhanced resistance to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 (PstDC3000), whereas resistance was reduced in transgenic CBNAC overexpression lines. The observed changes in disease resistance were correlated with alterations in pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) gene expression. CBNAC bound directly to the PR1 promoter. SNI1 (suppressor of nonexpressor of PR genes1, inducible 1) was identified as a CBNAC-binding protein. Basal resistance to PstDC3000 and derepression of PR1 expression was greater in the cbnac1 sni1 double mutant than in either cbnac1 or sni1 mutants. SNI1 enhanced binding of CBNAC to its cognate PR1 promoter element. CBNAC and SNI1 are hypothesized to work as repressor proteins in the cooperative suppression of plant basal defense. PMID:22826500

  16. Overexpression of a Novel NAC Domain-Containing Transcription Factor Gene (AaNAC1) Enhances the Content of Artemisinin and Increases Tolerance to Drought and Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zongyou; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Chen, Lingxian; Hao, Xiaolong; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Li, Ling; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-09-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) superfamily is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor families. NAC transcription factors always play important roles in response to various abiotic stresses. A NAC transcription factor gene AaNAC1 containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp was cloned from Artemisia annua. The expression of AaNAC1 could be induced by dehydration, cold, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), suggesting that it might be a key regulator of stress signaling pathways in A. annua. AaNAC1 was shown to be localized to the nuclei by transforming tobacco leaf epidermal cells. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in A. annua, the content of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid was increased by 79% and 150%, respectively. The expression levels of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes, i.e. amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), were increased. Dual luciferase (dual-LUC) assays showed that AaNAC1 could activate the transcription of ADS in vivo. The transgenic A. annua exhibited increased tolerance to drought and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis were markedly more tolerant to drought. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed increased resistance to B. cinerea. These results indicate that AaNAC1 can potentially be used in transgenic breeding for improving the content of artemisinin and drought tolerance in A. annua. PMID:27388340

  17. Characterization of a novel wheat NAC transcription factor gene involved in defense response against stripe rust pathogen infection and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Liu, Xin-Ying; Deng, Lin; Cai, Gao-Lei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Jie; Huang, Li-Li; Kang, Zhen-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    Proteins encoded by the NAC gene family constitute one of the largest plant-specific transcription factors, which have been identified to play many important roles in both abiotic and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in plant development regulation. In the current paper, a full-length cDNA sequence of a novel wheat NAC gene, designated as TaNAC4, was isolated using in silico cloning and the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods. TaNAC4 sharing high homology with rice OsNAC4 gene was predicted to encode a protein of 308 amino acid residues, which contained a plant-specific NAC domain in the N-terminus. Transient expression analysis indicated that the deduced TaNAC4 protein was localized in the nucleus of onion epidemical cells. Yeast one-hybrid assay revealed that the C-terminal region of the TaNAC4 protein had transcriptional activity. The expression of TaNAC4 was largely higher in the wheat seedling roots, than that in leaves and stems. TaNAC4 transcript in wheat leaves was induced by the infection of strip rust pathogen, and also by exogenous applied methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ABA and ethylene. However, salicylic acid (SA) had no obvious effect on TaNAC4 expression. Environmental stimuli, including high salinity, wounding, and low-temperature also induced TaNAC4 expression. These results indicate that this novel TaNAC4 gene functions as a transcriptional activator involved in wheat response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:20213512

  18. Natural variation in monoterpene synthesis in kiwifruit: transcriptional regulation of terpene synthases by NAC and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Chen, Xiuyin; Wang, Mindy Y; Matich, Adam J; Perez, Ramon Lopez; Allan, Andrew C; Green, Sol A; Atkinson, Ross G

    2015-04-01

    Two kiwifruit (Actinidia) species with contrasting terpene profiles were compared to understand the regulation of fruit monoterpene production. High rates of terpinolene production in ripe Actinidia arguta fruit were correlated with increasing gene and protein expression of A. arguta terpene synthase1 (AaTPS1) and correlated with an increase in transcript levels of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS). Actinidia chinensis terpene synthase1 (AcTPS1) was identified as part of an array of eight tandemly duplicated genes, and AcTPS1 expression and terpene production were observed only at low levels in developing fruit. Transient overexpression of DXS in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves elevated monoterpene synthesis by AaTPS1 more than 100-fold, indicating that DXS is likely to be the key step in regulating 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate substrate flux in kiwifruit. Comparative promoter analysis identified potential NAC (for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF], and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC])-domain transcription factor) and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like transcription factor (TF) binding sites in the AaTPS1 promoter, and cloned members of both TF classes were able to activate the AaTPS1 promoter in transient assays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AaNAC2, AaNAC3, and AaNAC4 bind a 28-bp fragment of the proximal NAC binding site in the AaTPS1 promoter but not the A. chinensis AcTPS1 promoter, where the NAC binding site was mutated. Activation could be restored by reintroducing multiple repeats of the 12-bp NAC core-binding motif. The absence of NAC transcriptional activation in ripe A. chinensis fruit can account for the low accumulation of AcTPS1 transcript, protein, and monoterpene volatiles in this species. These results indicate the importance of NAC TFs in controlling monoterpene production and other traits in ripening fruits. PMID:25649633

  19. Natural Variation in Monoterpene Synthesis in Kiwifruit: Transcriptional Regulation of Terpene Synthases by NAC and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-Like Transcription Factors1

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Chen, Xiuyin; Wang, Mindy Y.; Matich, Adam J.; Perez, Ramon Lopez; Allan, Andrew C.; Green, Sol A.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2015-01-01

    Two kiwifruit (Actinidia) species with contrasting terpene profiles were compared to understand the regulation of fruit monoterpene production. High rates of terpinolene production in ripe Actinidia arguta fruit were correlated with increasing gene and protein expression of A. arguta terpene synthase1 (AaTPS1) and correlated with an increase in transcript levels of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS). Actinidia chinensis terpene synthase1 (AcTPS1) was identified as part of an array of eight tandemly duplicated genes, and AcTPS1 expression and terpene production were observed only at low levels in developing fruit. Transient overexpression of DXS in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves elevated monoterpene synthesis by AaTPS1 more than 100-fold, indicating that DXS is likely to be the key step in regulating 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate substrate flux in kiwifruit. Comparative promoter analysis identified potential NAC (for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF], and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC])-domain transcription factor) and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like transcription factor (TF) binding sites in the AaTPS1 promoter, and cloned members of both TF classes were able to activate the AaTPS1 promoter in transient assays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AaNAC2, AaNAC3, and AaNAC4 bind a 28-bp fragment of the proximal NAC binding site in the AaTPS1 promoter but not the A. chinensis AcTPS1 promoter, where the NAC binding site was mutated. Activation could be restored by reintroducing multiple repeats of the 12-bp NAC core-binding motif. The absence of NAC transcriptional activation in ripe A. chinensis fruit can account for the low accumulation of AcTPS1 transcript, protein, and monoterpene volatiles in this species. These results indicate the importance of NAC TFs in controlling monoterpene production and other traits in ripening fruits. PMID:25649633

  20. O-GlcNAc-glycosylation of {beta}-catenin regulates its nuclear localization and transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sayat, Ria; Leber, Brian; Grubac, Vanja; Wiltshire, Lesley; Persad, Sujata

    2008-09-10

    {beta}-catenin plays a role in intracellular adhesion and regulating gene expression. The latter role is associated with its oncogenic properties. Phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin controls its intracellular expression but mechanism/s that regulates the nuclear localization of {beta}-catenin is unknown. We demonstrate that O-GlcNAc glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) of {beta}-catenin negatively regulates its levels in the nucleus. We show that normal prostate cells (PNT1A) have significantly higher amounts of O-GlcNAcylated {beta}-catenin compared to prostate cancer (CaP) cells. The total nuclear levels of {beta}-catenin are higher in the CaP cells than PNT1A but only a minimal fraction of the nuclear {beta}-catenin in the CaP cells are O-GlcNAcylated. Increasing the levels of O-GlcNAcylated {beta}-catenin in the CaP cells with PUGNAc (O- (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-gluco-pyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate) treatment is associated with a progressive decrease in the levels of {beta}-catenin in the nucleus. TOPFlash reporter assay and mRNA expressions of {beta}-catenin's target genes indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of {beta}-catenin results in a decrease in its transcriptional activity. We define a novel modification of {beta}-catenin that regulates its nuclear localization and transcriptional function.

  1. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications. PMID:24098302

  2. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications. PMID:24098302

  3. Banana fruit NAC transcription factor MaNAC1 is a direct target of MaICE1 and involved in cold stress through interacting with MaCBF1.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that the banana ripening-induced MaNAC1, a NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) transcription factor (TF) gene, is regulated by ethylene during fruit ripening, and propylene, a functional ethylene analogue, induces cold tolerance of banana fruits. However, the involvement of MaNAC1 in propylene-induced cold tolerance of banana fruits is not understood. In the present work, the possible involvement of MaNAC1 in cold tolerance of banana fruits was investigated. MaNAC1 was noticeably induced by cold stress or following propylene treatment during cold storage. Transient protoplast assays showed that MaNAC1 promoter was activated by cold stress and ethylene treatment. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and transient expression assays demonstrated MaNAC1 as a novel direct target of MaICE1, and that the ability of MaICE1 binding to MaNAC1 promoter might be enhanced by MaICE1 phosphorylation and cold stress. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses revealed physical interaction between MaNAC1 and MaCBF1, a downstream component of inducer of C-repeat binding factor (CBF) expression 1 (ICE1) in cold signalling. Taken together, these results suggest that the cold-responsive MaNAC1 may be involved in cold tolerance of banana fruits through its interaction with ICE1-CBF cold signalling pathway, providing new insights into the regulatory activity of NAC TF. PMID:24548087

  4. The ubiquitin ligase SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) ubiquitinates a defense-related NAC transcription factor and is involved in defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Miao, Min; Niu, Xiangli; Kud, Joanna; Du, Xinran; Avila, Julian; Devarenne, Timothy P; Kuhl, Joseph C; Liu, Yongsheng; Xiao, Fangming

    2016-07-01

    We recently identified a defense-related tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC2) transcription factor, NAC1, that is subjected to ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent degradation in plant cells. In this study, we identified a tomato ubiquitin ligase (termed SEVEN IN ABSENTIA3; SINA3) that ubiquitinates NAC1, promoting its degradation. We conducted coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation to determine that SINA3 specifically interacts with the NAC1 transcription factor in the nucleus. Moreover, we found that SINA3 ubiquitinates NAC1 in vitro and promotes NAC1 degradation via polyubiquitination in vivo, indicating that SINA3 is a ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates NAC1, promoting its degradation. Our real-time PCR analysis indicated that, in contrast to our previous finding that NAC1 mRNA abundance increases upon Pseudomonas infection, the SINA3 mRNA abundance decreases in response to Pseudomonas infection. Moreover, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, we found that overexpression of SINA3 interferes with the hypersensitive response cell death triggered by multiple plant resistance proteins. These results suggest that SINA3 ubiquitinates a defense-related NAC transcription factor for degradation and plays a negative role in defense signaling. PMID:26879496

  5. The Papaya Transcription Factor CpNAC1 Modulates Carotenoid Biosynthesis through Activating Phytoene Desaturase Genes CpPDS2/4 during Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chang-Chun; Han, Yan-Chao; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Chen, Jian-Ye; Chen, Wei-Xin; Lu, Wang-Jin; Kuang, Jian-Fei

    2016-07-13

    Papaya fruits accumulate carotenoids during fruit ripening. Although many papaya carotenoid biosynthesis pathway genes have been identified, the transcriptional regulators of these genes have not been characterized. In this study, a NAC transcription factor, designated as CpNAC1, was characterized from papaya fruit. CpNAC1 was localized exclusively in nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. Expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes phytoene desaturases (CpPDSs) and CpNAC1 was increased during fruit ripening and by propylene treatment, which correlates well with the elevated carotenoid content in papaya. The gel mobility shift assays and transient expression analyses demonstrated that CpNAC1 directly binds to the NAC binding site (NACBS) motifs in CpPDS2/4 promoters and activates them. Collectively, these data suggest that CpNAC1 may act as a positive regulator of carotenoid biosynthesis during papaya fruit ripening possibly via transcriptional activation of CpPDSs such as CpPDS2/4. PMID:27327494

  6. NAC transcription factors play an important role in ethylene biosynthesis, reception and signaling of tomato fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xiaohong; Liu, Chen; Han, Lihua; Wang, Shuang; Xue, Zhaohui

    2016-06-01

    NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in diverse physiological processes during development. To explore the role of NAC transcription factors in the ripening of fruits, we predicted the secondary and tertiary structure as well as regulative function of the SNAC4 (SlNAC48, Accession number: NM 001279348.2) and SNAC9 (SlNAC19, Accession number: XM 004236996.2) transcription factors in tomato. We found that the tertiary structure of SNAC9 was similar to that of ATNAP, which played an important role in the fruit senescence and was required for ethylene stimulation. Likewise, the bio-function prediction results indicated that SNAC4 and SNAC9 participated in various plant hormone signaling and senescence processes. More information about SNACs was obtained by the application of VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing). The silencing of SNAC4 and SNAC9 dramatically repressed the LeACS2, LeACS4 and LeACO1 expression, which consequently led to the inhibition of the ripening process. The silencing of SNACs down-regulated the mRNA levels of the ethylene perception genes and, at the same time, suppressed the expression of ethylene signaling-related genes except for LeERF2 which was induced by the silencing of SNAC4. The expressions of LeRIN were different in two silenced fruits. In addition, the silencing of SNAC4 reduced its mRNA level, while the silencing of SNAC9 induced its expression. Furthermore, the silencing of LeACS4, LeACO1 and LeERF2 reduced the expression of SNAC4 and SNAC9, while the silencing of NR induced the expression of all of them. In particular, these results indicate that SNAC transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ethylene synthesis genes in vitro. This experimental evidence demonstrates that SNAC4 and SNAC9 could positively regulate the tomato fruit ripening process by functioning upstream of ethylene synthesis genes. These outcomes will be helpful to provide a theoretical foundation for further

  7. Overexpression of a Stress-Responsive NAC Transcription Factor Gene ONAC022 Improves Drought and Salt Tolerance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Huang, Lei; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    The NAC transcription factors play critical roles in regulating stress responses in plants. However, the functions for many of the NAC family members in rice are yet to be identified. In the present study, a novel stress-responsive rice NAC gene, ONAC022, was identified. Expression of ONAC022 was induced by drought, high salinity, and abscisic acid (ABA). The ONAC022 protein was found to bind specifically to a canonical NAC recognition cis-element sequence and showed transactivation activity at its C-terminus in yeast. The ONAC022 protein was localized to nucleus when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Three independent transgenic rice lines with overexpression of ONAC022 were generated and used to explore the function of ONAC022 in drought and salt stress tolerance. Under drought stress condition in greenhouse, soil-grown ONAC022-overexpressing (N22oe) transgenic rice plants showed an increased drought tolerance, leading to higher survival ratios and better growth than wild-type (WT) plants. When grown hydroponically in Hogland solution supplemented with 150 mM NaCl, the N22oe plants displayed an enhanced salt tolerance and accumulated less Na(+) in roots and shoots as compared to WT plants. Under drought stress condition, the N22oe plants exhibited decreased rates of water loss and transpiration, reduced percentage of open stomata and increased contents of proline and soluble sugars. However, the N22oe lines showed increased sensitivity to exogenous ABA at seed germination and seedling growth stages but contained higher level of endogenous ABA. Expression of some ABA biosynthetic genes (OsNCEDs and OsPSY), signaling and regulatory genes (OsPP2C02, OsPP2C49, OsPP2C68, OsbZIP23, OsAP37, OsDREB2a, and OsMYB2), and late stress-responsive genes (OsRAB21, OsLEA3, and OsP5CS1) was upregulated in N22oe plants. Our data demonstrate that ONAC022 functions as a stress-responsive NAC with transcriptional activator activity and plays a positive role in drought

  8. Suppression of tomato SlNAC1 transcription factor delays fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Yang, Dongyue; Ma, Xiaocui; Zhao, Weiyang; Liang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Nana; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process involving many physiological and biochemical changes, including those for ethylene, carotenoid, and cell wall metabolism. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development and ripening because it possesses numerous favorable genetic features. In this study, SlNAC1 was cloned. An antisense (AS) vector was constructed and transferred to tomato to further explore the function of SlNAC1. The results showed that AS fruits exhibited delayed ripening and a deeper red appearance when these fruits were fully ripened. Fully ripened AS fruits also produced higher total carotenoid and lycopene contents than those of the wild-type (WT) line. Ethylene production of AS fruits was delayed but occurred to a higher extent than that of WT fruits. The softening of AS fruits was slower than that of WT fruits. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level in AS-4 fruits was lower than that in WT fruits. Exogenous ABA accelerated the softening of AS fruits. Furthermore, AS fruits demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes related to lycopene and ethylene biosynthesis but down-regulated expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism and ABA synthesis. Therefore, SlNAC1 is likely implicated in fruit ripening. PMID:26962710

  9. Conformational phases of membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, David A.; Grason, Gregory; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    Membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments found in living cells are employed to carry out many types of activities including cellular division, rigidity and transport. When these biopolymers are bound to a membrane surface they may take on highly non-trivial conformations as compared to when they are not bound. This leads to the natural question; What are the important interactions which drive these polymers to particular conformations when they are bound to a surface? Assuming that there are binding domains along the polymer which follow a periodic helical structure set by the natural monomeric handedness, these bound conformations must arise from the interplay of the intrinsic monomeric helicity and membrane binding. To probe this question, we study a continuous model of an elastic filament with intrinsic helicity and map out the conformational phases of this filament for various mechanical and structural parameters in our model, such as elastic stiffness and intrinsic twist of the filament. Our model allows us to gain insight into the possible mechanisms which drive real biopolymers such as actin and tubulin in eukaryotes and their prokaryotic cousins MreB and FtsZ to take on their functional conformations within living cells.

  10. Closely Related NAC Transcription Factors of Tomato Differentially Regulate Stomatal Closure and Reopening during Pathogen Attack[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Du, Minmin; Zhai, Qingzhe; Deng, Lei; Li, Shuyu; Li, Hongshuang; Yan, Liuhua; Huang, Zhuo; Wang, Bao; Jiang, Hongling; Huang, Tingting; Li, Chang-Bao; Wei, Jianing; Kang, Le; Li, Jingfu; Li, Chuanyou

    2014-01-01

    To restrict pathogen entry, plants close stomata as an integral part of innate immunity. To counteract this defense, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato produces coronatine (COR), which mimics jasmonic acid (JA), to reopen stomata for bacterial entry. It is believed that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in regulating bacteria-triggered stomatal closure and that stomatal reopening requires the JA/COR pathway, but the downstream signaling events remain unclear. We studied the stomatal immunity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and report here the distinct roles of two homologous NAC (for NAM, ATAF1,2, and CUC2) transcription factors, JA2 (for jasmonic acid2) and JA2L (for JA2-like), in regulating pathogen-triggered stomatal movement. ABA activates JA2 expression, and genetic manipulation of JA2 revealed its positive role in ABA-mediated stomatal closure. We show that JA2 exerts this effect by regulating the expression of an ABA biosynthetic gene. By contrast, JA and COR activate JA2L expression, and genetic manipulation of JA2L revealed its positive role in JA/COR-mediated stomatal reopening. We show that JA2L executes this effect by regulating the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of salicylic acid. Thus, these closely related NAC proteins differentially regulate pathogen-induced stomatal closure and reopening through distinct mechanisms. PMID:25005917

  11. Phosphorylation of a NAC Transcription Factor by a Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulates Abscisic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Yan, Jingwei; Liu, Weijuan; Liu, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Sun, Yue; Li, Yanyun; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Jiang, Mingyi; Hou, Xilin; Ni, Lan; Zhang, Aying

    2016-07-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) has been shown to play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense and enhance the tolerance of plants to drought stress. However, its downstream molecular events are poorly understood. Here, we identify a NAC transcription factor, ZmNAC84, in maize (Zea mays), which physically interacts with ZmCCaMK in vitro and in vivo. ZmNAC84 displays a partially overlapping expression pattern with ZmCCaMK after ABA treatment, and H2O2 is required for ABA-induced ZmNAC84 expression. Functional analysis reveals that ZmNAC84 is essential for ABA-induced antioxidant defense in a ZmCCaMK-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmCCaMK directly phosphorylates Ser-113 of ZmNAC84 in vitro, and Ser-113 is essential for the ABA-induced stimulation of antioxidant defense by ZmCCaMK. Moreover, overexpression of ZmNAC84 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) can improve drought tolerance and alleviate drought-induced oxidative damage of transgenic plants. These results define a mechanism for ZmCCaMK function in ABA-induced antioxidant defense, where ABA-produced H2O2 first induces expression of ZmCCaMK and ZmNAC84 and activates ZmCCaMK. Subsequently, the activated ZmCCaMK phosphorylates ZmNAC84 at Ser-113, thereby inducing antioxidant defense by activating downstream genes. PMID:27208250

  12. Phosphorylation of a NAC Transcription Factor by a Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulates Abscisic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan; Yan, Jingwei; Liu, Weijuan; Liu, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Sun, Yue; Li, Yanyun; Hou, Xilin; Ni, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) has been shown to play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense and enhance the tolerance of plants to drought stress. However, its downstream molecular events are poorly understood. Here, we identify a NAC transcription factor, ZmNAC84, in maize (Zea mays), which physically interacts with ZmCCaMK in vitro and in vivo. ZmNAC84 displays a partially overlapping expression pattern with ZmCCaMK after ABA treatment, and H2O2 is required for ABA-induced ZmNAC84 expression. Functional analysis reveals that ZmNAC84 is essential for ABA-induced antioxidant defense in a ZmCCaMK-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmCCaMK directly phosphorylates Ser-113 of ZmNAC84 in vitro, and Ser-113 is essential for the ABA-induced stimulation of antioxidant defense by ZmCCaMK. Moreover, overexpression of ZmNAC84 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) can improve drought tolerance and alleviate drought-induced oxidative damage of transgenic plants. These results define a mechanism for ZmCCaMK function in ABA-induced antioxidant defense, where ABA-produced H2O2 first induces expression of ZmCCaMK and ZmNAC84 and activates ZmCCaMK. Subsequently, the activated ZmCCaMK phosphorylates ZmNAC84 at Ser-113, thereby inducing antioxidant defense by activating downstream genes. PMID:27208250

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the CaNAC family members in chickpea during development, dehydration and ABA treatments.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chien Van; Esfahani, Maryam Nasr; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Sulieman, Saad; Mochida, Keiichi; Nguyen, Dong Van; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified the members of the NAC TF family of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and assess their expression profiles during plant development and under dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in a systematic manner. Seventy-one CaNAC genes were detected from the chickpea genome, including 8 membrane-bound members of which many might be involved in dehydration responses as judged from published literature. Phylogenetic analysis of the chickpea and well-known stress-related Arabidopsis and rice NACs enabled us to predict several putative stress-related CaNACs. By exploring available transcriptome data, we provided a comprehensive expression atlas of CaNACs in various tissues at different developmental stages. With the highest interest in dehydration responses, we examined the expression of the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound CaNACs in roots and leaves of chickpea seedlings, subjected to well-watered (control), dehydration and ABA treatments, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Nine-teen of the 23 CaNACs examined were found to be dehydration-responsive in chickpea roots and/or leaves in either ABA-dependent or -independent pathway. Our results have provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under drought. PMID:25479253

  14. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the CaNAC Family Members in Chickpea during Development, Dehydration and ABA Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Chien Van; Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Sulieman, Saad; Mochida, Keiichi; Van Nguyen, Dong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified the members of the NAC TF family of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and assess their expression profiles during plant development and under dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in a systematic manner. Seventy-one CaNAC genes were detected from the chickpea genome, including 8 membrane-bound members of which many might be involved in dehydration responses as judged from published literature. Phylogenetic analysis of the chickpea and well-known stress-related Arabidopsis and rice NACs enabled us to predict several putative stress-related CaNACs. By exploring available transcriptome data, we provided a comprehensive expression atlas of CaNACs in various tissues at different developmental stages. With the highest interest in dehydration responses, we examined the expression of the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound CaNACs in roots and leaves of chickpea seedlings, subjected to well-watered (control), dehydration and ABA treatments, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Nine-teen of the 23 CaNACs examined were found to be dehydration-responsive in chickpea roots and/or leaves in either ABA-dependent or -independent pathway. Our results have provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under drought. PMID:25479253

  15. Protein intrinsic disorder in Arabidopsis NAC transcription factors: transcriptional activation by ANAC013 and ANAC046 and their interactions with RCD1.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Charlotte; Kryger, Mikael; Stender, Emil G P; Kragelund, Birthe B; Willemoës, Martin; Skriver, Karen

    2015-01-15

    Protein ID (intrinsic disorder) plays a significant, yet relatively unexplored role in transcription factors (TFs). In the present paper, analysis of the transcription regulatory domains (TRDs) of six phylogenetically representative, plant-specific NAC [no apical meristem, ATAF (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor), cup-shaped cotyledon] TFs shows that the domains are present in similar average pre-molten or molten globule-like states, but have different patterns of order/disorder and MoRFs (molecular recognition features). ANAC046 (Arabidopsis NAC 046) was selected for further studies because of its simple MoRF pattern and its ability to interact with RCD1 (radical-induced cell death 1). Experiments in yeast and thermodynamic characterization suggest that its single MoRF region is sufficient for both transcriptional activation and interaction with RCD1. The remainder of the large regulatory domain is unlikely to contribute to the interaction, since the domain and truncations thereof have similar affinities for RCD1, which are also similar for ANAC013-RCD1 interactions. However, different enthalpic and entropic contributions to binding were revealed for ANAC046 and ANAC013, suggestive of differences in binding mechanisms. Although substitution of both hydrophobic and acidic residues of the ANAC046 MoRF region abolished binding, substitution of other residues, even with α-helix-breaking proline, was less disruptive. Together, the biophysical analyses suggest that RCD1-ANAC046 complex formation does not involve folding-upon-binding, but rather fuzziness or an unknown structure in ANAC046. We suggest that the ANAC046 regulatory domain functions as an entropic chain with a terminal hot spot interacting with RCD1. RCD1, a cellular hub, may be able to interact with many different TFs by exploiting their ID-based flexibility, as demonstrated for its interactions with ANAC046 and ANAC013. PMID:25348421

  16. O-GlcNAc Modification of Transcription Factor Sp1 Mediates Hyperglycemia-Induced VEGF-A Upregulation in Retinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kelly; Alekseev, Oleg; Qi, Xin; Cho, William; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Proangiogenic protein VEGF-A contributes significantly to retinal lesions and neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy (DR). In preclinical DR, hyperglycemia can upregulate VEGF-A in retinal cells. The VEGF-A promoter is responsive to the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1). The O-GlcNAc modification is driven by glucose concentration and has a profound effect on Sp1 activity. This study investigated the effects of hyperglycemia on Sp1-mediated expression of VEGF-A in the retinal endothelium and pigment epithelium. Methods. Hyperglycemia-exposed ARPE-19 (human retinal pigment epithelial cells) and TR-iBRB (rat retinal microendothelial cells) were assayed for levels of VEGF-A by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. Small molecule inhibitors of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) or O-GlcNAcase (OGA) were used to manipulate O-GlcNAc levels. Vascular endothelial growth factor–A protein and transcript were measured in cells depleted of OGT or Sp1 by shRNA. The proximal VEGF-A promoter was analyzed for glucose sensitivity by luciferase assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to assess Sp1 occupancy on the VEGF-A promoter. Results. Hyperglycemia increased VEGF-A promoter activity and upregulated VEGF-A transcript and protein. Elevation of O-GlcNAc by OGA inhibitors was sufficient to increase VEGF-A. O-GlcNAc transferase inhibition abrogated glucose-driven VEGF-A. Cellular depletion of OGT or Sp1 by shRNA significantly abrogated glucose-induced changes in VEGF-A. ChIP analysis showed that hyperglycemia significantly increased binding of Sp1 to the VEGF-A promoter. Conclusions. Hyperglycemia-driven VEGF-A production is mediated by elevated O-GlcNAc modification of the Sp1 transcription factor. This mechanism may be significant in the pathogenesis of preclinical DR through VEGF-A upregulation. PMID:25352121

  17. Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor JUB1 regulates GA/BR metabolism and signalling.

    PubMed

    Shahnejat-Bushehri, Sara; Tarkowska, Danuse; Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs) are important phytohormones that control plant development and responses to environmental cues by involving DELLA proteins and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1) respectively as key transcription factors. Here, we reveal a new role for JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1) as a transcriptional regulator of GA/BR signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. JUB1 directly represses the hormone biosynthesis genes GA3ox1 and DWARF4 (DWF4), leading to reduced levels of GAs and BRs and typical GA/BR deficiency phenotypes exhibiting short hypocotyls, dwarfism, late flowering and male sterility. JUB1 also directly represses PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4), a transcription factor connecting hormonal and environmental stimuli. On the other hand, JUB1 activates the DELLA genes GA INSENSITIVE (GAI) and RGA-LIKE 1 (RGL1). In addition, BZR1 and PIF4 act as direct transcriptional repressors upstream of JUB1, establishing a negative feedback loop. Thus, JUB1 forms the core of a robust regulatory module that triggers DELLA accumulation, thereby restricting cell elongation while concomitantly enhancing stress tolerance. PMID:27249348

  18. Domain Organization of Membrane-Bound Factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Lynch, Gillian C.; Ludtke, Steven; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2014-01-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) is the blood coagulation protein which when defective or deficient causes for hemophilia A, a severe hereditary bleeding disorder. Activated FVIII (FVIIIa) is the cofactor to the serine protease factor IXa (FIXa) within the membrane-bound Tenase complex, responsible for amplifying its proteolytic activity more than 100,000 times, necessary for normal clot formation. FVIII is composed of two noncovalently linked peptide chains: a light chain (LC) holding the membrane interaction sites and a heavy chain (HC) holding the main FIXa interaction sites. The interplay between the light and heavy chains (HCs) in the membrane-bound state is critical for the biological efficiency of FVIII. Here, we present our cryo-electron microscopy (EM) and structure analysis studies of human FVIII-LC, when helically assembled onto negatively charged single lipid bilayer nanotubes. The resolved FVIII-LC membrane-bound structure supports aspects of our previously proposed FVIII structure from membrane-bound two-dimensional (2D) crystals, such as only the C2 domain interacts directly with the membrane. The LC is oriented differently in the FVIII membrane-bound helical and 2D crystal structures based on EM data, and the existing X-ray structures. This flexibility of the FVIII-LC domain organization in different states is discussed in the light of the FVIIIa-FIXa complex assembly and function. PMID:23616213

  19. Comprehensive Genome-Wide Survey, Genomic Constitution and Expression Profiling of the NAC Transcription Factor Family in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Swati; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Mandal, Sambhu Nath; B., Venkata Suresh; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The NAC proteins represent a major plant-specific transcription factor family that has established enormously diverse roles in various plant processes. Aided by the availability of complete genomes, several members of this family have been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and poplar. However, no comprehensive investigation has been presented for the recently sequenced, naturally stress tolerant crop, Setaria italica (foxtail millet) that is famed as a model crop for bioenergy research. In this study, we identified 147 putative NAC domain-encoding genes from foxtail millet by systematic sequence analysis and physically mapped them onto nine chromosomes. Genomic organization suggested that inter-chromosomal duplications may have been responsible for expansion of this gene family in foxtail millet. Phylogenetically, they were arranged into 11 distinct sub-families (I-XI), with duplicated genes fitting into one cluster and possessing conserved motif compositions. Comparative mapping with other grass species revealed some orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of genes. The evolutionary significance as duplication and divergence of NAC genes based on their amino acid substitution rates was understood. Expression profiling against various stresses and phytohormones provides novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiNAC genes, which may be responsible for functional divergence among individual members in this crop. Further, we performed structure modeling and molecular simulation of a stress-responsive protein, SiNAC128, proffering an initial framework for understanding its molecular function. Taken together, this genome-wide identification and expression profiling unlocks new avenues for systematic functional analysis of novel NAC gene family candidates which may be applied for improvising stress adaption in plants. PMID:23691254

  20. Genome-wide identification of binding sites for NAC and YABBY transcription factors and co-regulated genes during soybean seedling development by ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two plant-specific transcription factors, NAC and YABBY, are involved in important plant developmental processes. However their molecular mechanisms, especially DNA binding sites and co-regulated genes, are largely unknown during soybean seedling development. Results In order to identify genome-wide binding sites of specific members of the NAC and YABBY transcription factors and co-regulated genes, we performed Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) using cotyledons from soybean seedling developmental stages. Our RNA-Seq data revealed that these particular NAC and YABBY transcription factors showed a clear pattern in their expression during soybean seedling development. The highest level of their expression was found in seedling developmental stage 4 when cotyledons undergo a physiological transition from non-photosynthetic storage tissue to a metabolically active photosynthetic tissue. Our ChIP-Seq data identified 72 genes potentially regulated by the NAC and 96 genes by the YABBY transcription factors examined. Our RNA-Seq data revealed highly differentially expressed candidate genes regulated by the NAC transcription factor include lipoxygense, pectin methyl esterase inhibitor, DEAD/DEAH box helicase and homeobox associated proteins. YABBY-regulated genes include AP2 transcription factor, fatty acid desaturase and WRKY transcription factor. Additionally, we have identified DNA binding motifs for the NAC and YABBY transcription factors. Conclusions Genome-wide determination of binding sites for NAC and YABBY transcription factors and identification of candidate genes regulated by these transcription factors will advance the understanding of complex gene regulatory networks during soybean seedling development. Our data imply that there is transcriptional reprogramming during the functional transition of cotyledons from non-photosynthetic storage tissue to metabolically active photosynthetic tissue. PMID:23865409

  1. Myosin motors fragment and compact membrane-bound actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Sven K; Petrasek, Zdenek; Heinemann, Fabian; Schwille, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Cell cortex remodeling during cell division is a result of myofilament-driven contractility of the cortical membrane-bound actin meshwork. Little is known about the interaction between individual myofilaments and membrane-bound actin filaments. Here we reconstituted a minimal actin cortex to directly visualize the action of individual myofilaments on membrane-bound actin filaments using TIRF microscopy. We show that synthetic myofilaments fragment and compact membrane-bound actin while processively moving along actin filaments. We propose a mechanism by which tension builds up between the ends of myofilaments, resulting in compressive stress exerted to single actin filaments, causing their buckling and breakage. Modeling of this mechanism revealed that sufficient force (∼20 pN) can be generated by single myofilaments to buckle and break actin filaments. This mechanism of filament fragmentation and compaction may contribute to actin turnover and cortex reorganization during cytokinesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00116.001 PMID:23326639

  2. O-GlcNAc Modification of the runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2) Links Osteogenesis and Nutrient Metabolism in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Alexis K.; Ball, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    Runx2 is the master switch controlling osteoblast differentiation and formation of the mineralized skeleton. The post-translational modification of Runx2 by phosphorylation, ubiquitinylation, and acetylation modulates its activity, stability, and interactions with transcriptional co-regulators and chromatin remodeling proteins downstream of osteogenic signals. Characterization of Runx2 by electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry revealed sites of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, a nutrient-responsive post-translational modification that modulates the action of numerous transcriptional effectors. O-GlcNAc modification occurs in close proximity to phosphorylated residues and novel sites of arginine methylation within regions known to regulate Runx2 transactivation. An interaction between Runx2 and the O-GlcNAcylated, O-GlcNAc transferase enzyme was also detected. Pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase (OGA), the enzyme responsible for the removal of O-GlcNAc from Ser/Thr residues, enhanced basal (39.9%) and BMP2/7-induced (43.3%) Runx2 transcriptional activity in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. In bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiated for 6 days in osteogenic media, inhibition of OGA resulted in elevated expression (24.3%) and activity (65.8%) of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) an early marker of bone formation and a transcriptional target of Runx2. Osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of BMP2/7 for 8 days culminated in decreased OGA activity (39.0%) and an increase in the abundance of O-GlcNAcylated Runx2, as compared with unstimulated cells. Furthermore, BMP2/7-induced ALP activity was enhanced by 35.6% in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiated in the presence of the OGA inhibitor, demonstrating that direct or BMP2/7-induced inhibition of OGA is associated with increased ALP activity. Altogether, these findings link O-GlcNAc cycling to the Runx2

  3. Membrane bound O-acyltransferases and their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Naoko; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Rodgers, Ursula R; Konitsiotis, Antonios D; Magee, Anthony I; Tate, Edward W

    2015-04-01

    Since the identification of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOATs) protein family in the early 2000s, three distinct members [porcupine (PORCN), hedgehog (Hh) acyltransferase (HHAT) and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)] have been shown to acylate specific proteins or peptides. In this review, topology determination, development of assays to measure enzymatic activities and discovery of small molecule inhibitors are compared and discussed for each of these enzymes. PMID:25849925

  4. Gene regulatory cascade of senescence-associated NAC transcription factors activated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2-mediated leaf senescence signalling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Hong, Sung Hyun; Kim, You Wang; Lee, Il Hwan; Jun, Ji Hyung; Phee, Bong-Kwan; Rupak, Timilsina; Jeong, Hana; Lee, Yeonmi; Hong, Byoung Seok; Nam, Hong Gil; Woo, Hye Ryun; Lim, Pyung Ok

    2014-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a finely tuned and genetically programmed degeneration process, which is critical to maximize plant fitness by remobilizing nutrients from senescing leaves to newly developing organs. Leaf senescence is a complex process that is driven by extensive reprogramming of global gene expression in a highly coordinated manner. Understanding how gene regulatory networks involved in controlling leaf senescence are organized and operated is essential to decipher the mechanisms of leaf senescence. It was previously reported that the trifurcate feed-forward pathway involving EIN2, ORE1, and miR164 in Arabidopsis regulates age-dependent leaf senescence and cell death. Here, new components of this pathway have been identified, which enhances knowledge of the gene regulatory networks governing leaf senescence. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed six senescence-associated NAC transcription factors (TFs) (ANAC019, AtNAP, ANAC047, ANAC055, ORS1, and ORE1) as candidate downstream components of ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2). EIN3, a downstream signalling molecule of EIN2, directly bound the ORE1 and AtNAP promoters and induced their transcription. This suggests that EIN3 positively regulates leaf senescence by activating ORE1 and AtNAP, previously reported as key regulators of leaf senescence. Genetic and gene expression analyses in the ore1 atnap double mutant revealed that ORE1 and AtNAP act in distinct and overlapping signalling pathways. Transient transactivation assays further demonstrated that ORE1 and AtNAP could activate common as well as differential NAC TF targets. Collectively, the data provide insight into an EIN2-mediated senescence signalling pathway that coordinates global gene expression during leaf senescence via a gene regulatory network involving EIN3 and senescence-associated NAC TFs. PMID:24659488

  5. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot.

    PubMed

    McGrann, Graham R D; Steed, Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Goddard, Rachel; Lachaux, Clea; Bansal, Anuradha; Corbitt, Margaret; Gorniak, Kalina; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K M

    2015-02-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but had no effect on disease symptoms caused by Fusarium culmorum, Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot), Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (powdery mildew) or Magnaporthe oryzae (blast). The HvSNAC1 transcript was weakly induced in the RLS-susceptible cv. Golden Promise during the latter stages of R. collo-cygni symptom development when infected leaves were senescing. Potential mechanisms controlling HvSNAC1-mediated resistance to RLS were investigated. Gene expression analysis revealed no difference in the constitutive levels of antioxidant transcripts in either of the over-expression lines compared with cv. Golden Promise, nor was any difference in stomatal conductance or sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death observed. Over-expression of HvSNAC1 delayed dark-induced leaf senescence. It is proposed that mechanisms controlled by HvSNAC1 that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stress and that inhibit senescence also confer resistance to R. collo-cygni and suppress RLS symptoms. This provides further evidence for an association between abiotic stress and senescence in barley and the development of RLS. PMID:25040333

  6. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related Stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot

    PubMed Central

    MCGRANN, GRAHAM R D; STEED, ANDREW; BURT, CHRISTOPHER; GODDARD, RACHEL; LACHAUX, CLEA; BANSAL, ANURADHA; CORBITT, MARGARET; GORNIAK, KALINA; NICHOLSON, PAUL; BROWN, JAMES K M

    2015-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but had no effect on disease symptoms caused by Fusarium culmorum, Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot), Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (powdery mildew) or Magnaporthe oryzae (blast). The HvSNAC1 transcript was weakly induced in the RLS-susceptible cv. Golden Promise during the latter stages of R. collo-cygni symptom development when infected leaves were senescing. Potential mechanisms controlling HvSNAC1-mediated resistance to RLS were investigated. Gene expression analysis revealed no difference in the constitutive levels of antioxidant transcripts in either of the over-expression lines compared with cv. Golden Promise, nor was any difference in stomatal conductance or sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death observed. Over-expression of HvSNAC1 delayed dark-induced leaf senescence. It is proposed that mechanisms controlled by HvSNAC1 that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stress and that inhibit senescence also confer resistance to R. collo-cygni and suppress RLS symptoms. This provides further evidence for an association between abiotic stress and senescence in barley and the development of RLS. PMID:25040333

  7. Regulatory effects of polyamines on membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Kossorotow, A.; Wolf, H. U.; Seiler, N.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of putrescene, spermidine and spermine on membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocyte `ghosts' and the solubilized enzyme of the electric organ of the electric eel were studied by kinetic methods. Measurements were made by using a photometric method which made it possible to record the enzyme reaction in the steady-state phase. Substrate-concentration-dependent activation and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by polyamines is similar to that by Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and certain quaternary and bisquaternary amines. The kinetics suggest an allosteric reaction mechanism. On the basis of the kinetic results a role for the polyamines as modulators of synaptic acetylcholinesterase is proposed. PMID:4462573

  8. Triptolide-induced Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Is Mediated by O-GlcNAc Modification of Transcription Factor Sp1*

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sulagna; Sangwan, Veena; McGinn, Olivia; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Vickers, Selwyn M.; Saluja, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth most prevalent cancer-related cause of death in the United States, is a disease with a dismal survival rate of 5% 5 years after diagnosis. One of the survival proteins responsible for its extraordinary ability to evade cell death is HSP70. A naturally derived compound, triptolide, and its water-soluble prodrug, Minnelide, down-regulate the expression of this protein in pancreatic cancer cells, thereby causing cell death. However, the mechanism of action of triptolide has not been elucidated. Our study shows that triptolide-induced down-regulation of HSP70 expression is associated with a decrease in glycosylation of the transcription factor Sp1. We further show that triptolide inhibits glycosylation of Sp1, inhibiting the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, particularly the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase. Inhibition of O-GlcNAc transferase prevents nuclear localization of Sp1 and affects its DNA binding activity. This in turn down-regulates prosurvival pathways like NF-κB, leading to inhibition of HSF1 and HSP70 and eventually to cell death. In this study, we evaluated the mechanism by which triptolide affects glycosylation of Sp1, which in turn affects downstream pathways controlling survival of pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24129563

  9. Triptolide-induced cell death in pancreatic cancer is mediated by O-GlcNAc modification of transcription factor Sp1.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sulagna; Sangwan, Veena; McGinn, Olivia; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Vickers, Selwyn M; Saluja, Ashok K

    2013-11-22

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth most prevalent cancer-related cause of death in the United States, is a disease with a dismal survival rate of 5% 5 years after diagnosis. One of the survival proteins responsible for its extraordinary ability to evade cell death is HSP70. A naturally derived compound, triptolide, and its water-soluble prodrug, Minnelide, down-regulate the expression of this protein in pancreatic cancer cells, thereby causing cell death. However, the mechanism of action of triptolide has not been elucidated. Our study shows that triptolide-induced down-regulation of HSP70 expression is associated with a decrease in glycosylation of the transcription factor Sp1. We further show that triptolide inhibits glycosylation of Sp1, inhibiting the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, particularly the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase. Inhibition of O-GlcNAc transferase prevents nuclear localization of Sp1 and affects its DNA binding activity. This in turn down-regulates prosurvival pathways like NF-κB, leading to inhibition of HSF1 and HSP70 and eventually to cell death. In this study, we evaluated the mechanism by which triptolide affects glycosylation of Sp1, which in turn affects downstream pathways controlling survival of pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24129563

  10. Tunable Tensor Voting Improves Grouping of Membrane-Bound Macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, Leandro A.; Bebis, George; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-04-15

    Membrane-bound macromolecules are responsible for structural support and mediation of cell-cell adhesion in tissues. Quantitative analysis of these macromolecules provides morphological indices for damage or loss of tissue, for example as a result of exogenous stimuli. From an optical point of view, a membrane signal may have nonuniform intensity around the cell boundary, be punctate or diffused, and may even be perceptual at certain locations along the boundary. In this paper, a method for the detection and grouping of punctate, diffuse curvilinear signals is proposed. Our work builds upon the tensor voting and the iterative voting frameworks to propose an efficient method to detect and refine perceptually interesting curvilinear structures in images. The novelty of our method lies on the idea of iteratively tuning the tensor voting fields, which allows the concentration of the votes only over areas of interest. We validate the utility of our system with synthetic and annotated real data. The effectiveness of the tunable tensor voting is demonstrated on complex phenotypic signals that are representative of membrane-bound macromolecular structures.

  11. Viewing Membrane-Bound Molecular Umbrellas By Parallax Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Masaharu; Mehiri, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence quenching measurements have been made for a series of di-walled and tetra-walled molecular umbrellas having moderate (i.e., hydroxyl-) and strong (i.e., sulfate-) facial hydrophilicity, using Cascade Blue as the fluorophore. Through the use of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphotempocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-(5-DOXYL)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-(12-DOXYL)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as fluorescence quenchers, evidence has been obtained for a membrane-bound state in which the umbrella molecules lie on the surface of the lipid bilayer. In the case of the sulfated molecular umbrellas, evidence has also been obtained for a subpopulation in which the fluorophore lies deeper within the membrane. Probable structures for the shallow-lying and deep-lying molecular umbrellas are discussed. PMID:18783220

  12. A novel membrane-bound glucosyltransferase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J L; Miller, K J

    1991-01-01

    Bacteria within the family Rhizobiaceae are distinguished by their ability to infect higher plants. The cell envelope carbohydrates of these bacteria are believed to be involved in the plant infection process. One class of cell envelope carbohydrate, the cyclic beta-1,2-glucans, is synthesized by species within two genera of this family, Agrobacterium and Rhizobium. In contrast, species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, a third genus within this family, appear to lack the capacity for cyclic beta-1,2-glucan biosynthesis. Instead, these bacteria synthesize cyclic glucans containing beta-1,6 and beta-1,3 glycosidic linkages (K.J. Miller, R.S. Gore, R. Johnson, A.J. Benesi, and V.N. Reinhold, J. Bacteriol. 172:136-142, 1990). We now report the initial characterization of a novel membrane-bound glucosyltransferase activity from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110. Analysis of the product of this glucosyltransferase activity revealed the following: the presence of beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 glycosidic linkages, an average molecular weight of 2,100, and no detectable reducing terminal residues. The glucosyltransferase activity was found to have an apparent Km of 50 microM for for UDP-glucose, and activity was stimulated optimally by Mn2+ ions. On the basis of the structural properties of the in vitro glucan product, it is possible that this membrane-bound glucosyltransferase activity may be responsible for the biosynthesis of cyclic beta-1,6-beta-1,3-glucans by this organism. PMID:1829727

  13. A stress-responsive NAC transcription factor SNAC3 confers heat and drought tolerance through modulation of reactive oxygen species in rice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yujie; Liao, Kaifeng; Du, Hao; Xu, Yan; Song, Huazhi; Li, Xianghua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2015-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions such as high temperature and drought stress greatly limit the growth and production of crops worldwide. Several NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) proteins have been documented as important regulators in stress responses, but the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, a stress-responsive NAC gene, SNAC3 (ONAC003, LOC_Os01g09550), conferring drought and heat tolerance in rice is reported. SNAC3 was ubiquitously expressed and its transcript level was induced by drought, high temperature, salinity stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Overexpression (OE) of SNAC3 in rice resulted in enhanced tolerance to high temperature, drought, and oxidative stress caused by methyl viologen (MV), whereas suppression of SNAC3 by RNAi resulted in increased sensitivity to these stresses. The SNAC3-OE transgenic plants exhibited significantly lower levels of H2O2, malondiadehyde (MDA), and relative electrolyte leakage than the wild-type control under heat stress conditions, implying that SNAC3 may confer stress tolerance by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Quantitative PCR experiments showed that the expression of a large number of ROS-scavenging genes was dramatically increased in the SNAC3-OE plants, but significantly decreased in the SNAC3-RNAi transgenic plants. Five ROS-associated genes which were up-regulated in SNAC3-OE plants showed co-expression patterns with SNAC3, and three of the co-expressed ROS-associated enzyme genes were verified to be direct target genes of SNAC3. These results suggest that SNAC3 plays important roles in stress responses, and it is likely to be useful for engineering crops with improved tolerance to heat and drought stress. PMID:26261267

  14. Platelets induce apoptosis via membrane-bound FasL

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Rebecca I.; Reichenbach, Frank; Kraft, Peter; Kumar, Anil; Lescan, Mario; Todt, Franziska; Göbel, Kerstin; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Geisler, Tobias; Bauer, Axel; Olbrich, Marcus; Schaller, Martin; Wesselborg, Sebastian; O’Reilly, Lorraine; Meuth, Sven G.; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Gawaz, Meinrad; Li, Xuri; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Edlich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    After tissue injury, both wound sealing and apoptosis contribute to restoration of tissue integrity and functionality. Although the role of platelets (PLTs) for wound closure and induction of regenerative processes is well established, the knowledge about their contribution to apoptosis is incomplete. Here, we show that PLTs present the death receptor Fas ligand (FasL) on their surface after activation. Activated PLTs as well as the isolated membrane fraction of activated PLTs but not of resting PLTs induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in primary murine neuronal cells, human neuroblastoma cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Membrane protein from PLTs lacking membrane-bound FasL (FasL△m/△m) failed to induce apoptosis. Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis signaling in target cells was not required for PLT-induced cell death, but increased the apoptotic response to PLT-induced Fas signaling. In vivo, PLT depletion significantly reduced apoptosis in a stroke model and an inflammation-independent model of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced retinal apoptosis. Furthermore, experiments using PLT-specific PF4Cre+ FasLfl/fl mice demonstrated a role of PLT-derived FasL for tissue apoptosis. Because apoptosis secondary to injury prevents inflammation, our findings describe a novel mechanism on how PLTs contribute to tissue homeostasis. PMID:26232171

  15. Co-Immunoprecipitation of Membrane-Bound Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Julian R.; Lee, Jin Suk; Torii, Keiko U.

    2015-01-01

    The study of cell-surface receptor dynamics is critical for understanding how cells sense and respond to changing environments. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms by which signals are perceived and communicated into the cell is necessary to understand immunity, development, and stress. Challenges in testing interactions of membrane-bound proteins include their dynamic nature, their abundance, and the complex dual environment (lipid/soluble) in which they reside. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) of tagged membrane proteins is a widely used approach to test protein-protein interaction in vivo. In this protocol we present a method to perform Co-IP using enriched membrane proteins in isolated microsomal fractions. The different variations of this protocol are highlighted, including recommendations and troubleshooting guides in order to optimize its application. This Co-IP protocol has been developed to test the interaction of receptor-like kinases, their interacting partners, and peptide ligands in stable Arabidopsis thaliana lines, but can be modified to test interactions in transiently expressed proteins in tobacco, and potentially in other plant models, or scaled for large-scale protein-protein interactions at the membrane. PMID:26097438

  16. Determining the Orientation and Localization of Membrane-Bound Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Hohlweg, Walter; Kosol, Simone; Zangger, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Many naturally occurring bioactive peptides bind to biological membranes. Studying and elucidating the mode of interaction is often an essential step to understand their molecular and biological functions. To obtain the complete orientation and immersion depth of such compounds in the membrane or a membrane-mimetic system, a number of methods are available, which are separated in this review into four main classes: solution NMR, solid-state NMR, EPR and other methods. Solution NMR methods include the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) between peptide and membrane signals, residual dipolar couplings and the use of paramagnetic probes, either within the membrane-mimetic or in the solvent. The vast array of solid state NMR methods to study membrane-bound peptide orientation and localization includes the anisotropic chemical shift, PISA wheels, dipolar waves, the GALA, MAOS and REDOR methods and again the use of paramagnetic additives on relaxation rates. Paramagnetic additives, with their effect on spectral linewidths, have also been used in EPR spectroscopy. Additionally, the orientation of a peptide within a membrane can be obtained by the anisotropic hyperfine tensor of a rigidly attached nitroxide label. Besides these magnetic resonance techniques a series of other methods to probe the orientation of peptides in membranes has been developed, consisting of fluorescence-, infrared- and oriented circular dichroism spectroscopy, colorimetry, interface-sensitive X-ray and neutron scattering and Quartz crystal microbalance. PMID:22044140

  17. The NAC transcription factor ANAC046 is a positive regulator of chlorophyll degradation and senescence in Arabidopsis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Oda-Yamamizo, Chihiro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ogawa, Daisuke; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation occurs during leaf senescence, embryo degreening, bud breaking, and fruit ripening. The Chl catabolic pathway has been intensively studied and nearly all the enzymes involved are identified and characterized; however, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of this pathway are largely unknown. In this study, we performed yeast one-hybrid screening using a transcription factor cDNA library to search for factors controlling the expression of Chl catabolic genes. We identified ANAC046 as a common regulator that directly binds to the promoter regions of NON-YELLOW COLORING1, STAY-GREEN1 (SGR1), SGR2, and PHEOPHORBIDE a OXYGENASE. Transgenic plants overexpressing ANAC046 exhibited an early-senescence phenotype and a lower Chl content in comparison with the wild-type plants, whereas loss-of-function mutants exhibited a delayed-senescence phenotype and a higher Chl content. Microarray analysis of ANAC046 transgenic plants showed that not only Chl catabolic genes but also senescence-associated genes were positively regulated by ANAC046. We conclude that ANAC046 is a positive regulator of Arabidopsis leaf senescence and exerts its effect by controlling the expression of Chl catabolic genes and senescence-associated genes. PMID:27021284

  18. Cloning and characterization of a novel NAC family gene CarNAC1 from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Yu, Xingwang; Cheng, Huiying; Shi, Qinghua; Zhang, Hua; Li, Jiangui; Ma, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC (for NAM, ATAF1,2 and CUC2) proteins have been found to play important roles in plant development and stress responses. In this study, a NAC gene CarNAC1 (for Cicer arietinum L. NAC gene 1) was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with chickpea seedling leaves treated by polyethylene glycol. CarNAC1 encoded a putative protein with 239 amino acids and contained 3 exons and 2 introns within genomic DNA sequence. CarNAC1 had a conserved NAC domain in the N-terminus and the CarNAC1:GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein was localized in the nucleus of onion epidermal cells. Additionally, CarNAC1 exhibited the trans-activation activity which was mapped to the C-terminus. The CarNAC1 transcript was detected in many chickpea organs including seedling leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and young pods, but less accumulated in young seeds. CarNAC1 was induced by leaf age and showed changes in expression during seed development and germination. Furthermore, the expression of CarNAC1 was strongly induced by drought, salt, cold, wounding, H(2)O(2), ethephon, salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and gibberellin. Our results suggest that CarNAC1 encodes a novel NAC-domain protein and may be a transcriptional activator involved in plant development and various stress responses. PMID:19669952

  19. E2F1 Transcription Factor Regulates O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Transferase and O-GlcNAcase Expression.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Senthilkumar; Hong, Kyung U; Dassanayaka, Sujith; Hamid, Tariq; Jones, Steven P

    2015-12-25

    Protein O-GlcNAcylation, which is controlled by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), has emerged as an important posttranslational modification that may factor in multiple diseases. Until recently, it was assumed that OGT/OGA protein expression was relatively constant. Several groups, including ours, have shown that OGT and/or OGA expression changes in several pathologic contexts, yet the cis and trans elements that regulate the expression of these enzymes remain essentially unexplored. Here, we used a reporter-based assay to analyze minimal promoters and leveraged in silico modeling to nominate several candidate transcription factor binding sites in both Ogt (i.e. the gene for OGT protein) and Mgea5 (i.e. the gene for OGA protein). We noted multiple E2F binding site consensus sequences in both promoters. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation in both human and mouse cells and found that E2F1 bound to candidate E2F binding sites in both promoters. In HEK293 cells, we overexpressed E2F1, which significantly reduced OGT and MGEA5 expression. Conversely, E2F1-deficient mouse fibroblasts had increased Ogt and Mgea5 expression. Of the known binding partners for E2F1, we queried whether retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) might be involved. Rb1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed increased levels of Ogt and Mgea5 expression, yet overexpression of E2F1 in the Rb1-deficient cells did not alter Ogt and Mgea5 expression, suggesting that Rb1 is required for E2F1-mediated suppression. In conclusion, this work identifies and validates some of the promoter elements for mouse Ogt and Mgea5 genes. Specifically, E2F1 negatively regulates both Ogt and Mgea5 expression in an Rb1 protein-dependent manner. PMID:26527687

  20. Developmental changes in the composition of polyadenylated RNA isolated from free and membrane-bound polyribosomes of the rat forebrain, analysed by translation in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, C; Lim, L

    1981-01-01

    Free and membrane-bound polyribosomes were isolated from the rat forebrain during its development. Polyadenylated RNA [poly(A)+ RNA] was isolated from both fractions, by using oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography, and its composition studied by translating the poly(A)+ RNA in vitro in reticulocyte lysates. Electrophoretic analysis of the translation products showed that both free and membrane-bound polyribosomal poly(A)+ RNA gave many common components, but that there were also distinct differences in the protein composition of the products of the two fractions. Several proteins, of mol.wts. 39 000, 37 000, 31 000, 27 000 and 17 000, appeared to be products predominantly of free polyribosomal poly(A)+ RNA, whereas others, of mol.wt. 47 000, 33 000, 24 000 and 21 000 were specific to the membrane-bound polyribosomal poly(A)+ RNA fraction. More developmental changes were observed in the translational products of the membrane-bound poly(A)+ RNA fraction. Proteins of mol.wts. 33 000 and 21 000, which were predominant components of the translational products of this fraction when isolated from 10-day and older rats, were not present in translational products derived from preparations isolated from 3-day-old rats. The developmental appearance of these proteins as translational products of the membrane-bound poly(A)+ RNA suggests the appearance of new mRNA species. These transcriptional changes are discussed in relation to processes involved in brain differentiation, including myelination. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6171267

  1. Antigenic determinants of the membrane-bound hydrogenase in Alcaligenes eutrophus are exposed toward the periplasm.

    PubMed Central

    Eismann, K; Mlejnek, K; Zipprich, D; Hoppert, M; Gerberding, H; Mayer, F

    1995-01-01

    Electron microscopic immunogold labeling experiments were performed with ultrathin sections of plasmolyzed cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus and "whole-mount" samples of spheroplasts and protoplasts. They demonstrated that antigenic determinants of the membrane-bound hydrogenase are exposed, at the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane, to the periplasm. PMID:7592402

  2. AAA proteases in mitochondria: diverse functions of membrane-bound proteolytic machines.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    FtsH/AAA proteases comprise a distinct family of membrane-bound, ATP-dependent proteases present in eubacteria and eukaryotic cells, where they are confined to mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here, we will summarize versatile functions of AAA proteases within mitochondria, which ensure mitochondrial integrity and cell survival, acting both as quality control and processing enzymes. PMID:19781639

  3. On the chimerical nature of the membrane-bound ATPase from halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments are described that were carried out with the goal of determining how the membrane-bound ATPase from H. saccharovorum is related to V- and F-type ATPases. They reflect three approaches: the use of inhibitors; structural studies; and immunological relatedness.

  4. Membrane-Bound TRAIL Supplements Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Against Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheard, Michael A.; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Liu, Yin; Lin, Tsen-Yin; Wu, Hong-Wei; Ji, Lingyun; Groshen, Susan; Lee, Dean A.; Seeger, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to death induced by soluble, recombinant forms of TRAIL (CD253/TNFSF10) due to low or absent expression of caspase-8 and/or TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2/DR5/CD262/TNFRSF10b). However, their sensitivity to membrane-bound TRAIL on natural killer (NK) cells is not known. Comparing microarray gene expression and response to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we observed a correlation between TRAIL-R2 expression and the sensitivity of fourteen neuroblastoma cell lines to the cytotoxicity of NK cells activated with IL-2 plus IL-15. Even though most NK cytotoxicity was dependent upon perforin, the cytotoxicity was supplemented by TRAIL in fourteen of seventeen (82%) neuroblastoma cell lines as demonstrated using an anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody. Similarly, a recently developed NK cell expansion system employing IL-2 plus lethally irradiated K562 feeder cells constitutively expressing membrane-bound IL-21 (K562 clone 9.mbIL21) resulted in activated NK cells derived from normal healthy donors and neuroblastoma patients that also utilized TRAIL to supplement cytotoxicity. Exogenous IFNγ up-regulated expression of caspase-8 in three of four neuroblastoma cell lines and increased the contribution of TRAIL to NK cytotoxicity against two of the three lines; however, relatively little inhibition of cytotoxicity was observed when activated NK cells were treated with an anti-IFNγ neutralizing antibody. Constraining the binding of anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody to membrane-bound TRAIL but not soluble TRAIL indicated that membrane-bound TRAIL alone was responsible for essentially all of the supplemental cytotoxicity. Together, these findings support a role for membrane-bound TRAIL in the cytotoxicity of NK cells against neuroblastoma cells. PMID:23719242

  5. Identification and expression pattern of one stress-responsive NAC gene from Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Han, Qinqin; Zhang, Junhong; Li, Hanxia; Luo, Zhidan; Ziaf, Khurram; Ouyang, Bo; Wang, Taotao; Ye, Zhibiao

    2012-02-01

    NAC (for NAM, ATAF1, 2, and CUC2) family genes have been found to play an important role in diversified developmental processes and environmental responses. A new NAC-type transcription factor SlNAC3 was primarily identified and isolated from the cDNA libraries of tomato cultivar Ailsa Craig. It contains three exons and two introns within genomic DNA sequence and encodes a polypeptide of 329 amino acids. A plant-specific and conserved NAC domain is located in the N-terminus of SlNAC3. The protein SlNAC3 is subcellularly localized in the nucleus of onion epidemical cells and it has a transcriptional activation domain in the C-terminal region which shows extremely divergent among NACs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SlNAC3 belonged to the OsNAC3 subgroup of the NAC protein family. Tissue expression profile analysis revealed that SlNAC3 was expressed mainly in flower, fruit and root. The transcription expression of SlNAC3 was inhibited by salt, drought stress and ABA treatment. These data demonstrate that SlNAC3 might interact with environmental and endogenous stimuli and probably function when plants response to salt and drought stresses through ABA signaling pathways as a transcriptional activator. PMID:21637957

  6. Reduced Levels of Membrane-Bound Alkaline Phosphatase Are Common to Lepidopteran Strains Resistant to Cry Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Jakka, Siva Rama Krishna; Ning, Changming; Liu, Chenxi; Wu, Kongming; Jackson, Jerreme; Gould, Fred; Blanco, Carlos; Portilla, Maribel; Perera, Omaththage; Adang, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Development of insect resistance is one of the main concerns with the use of transgenic crops expressing Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Identification of biomarkers would assist in the development of sensitive DNA-based methods to monitor evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in natural populations. We report on the proteomic and genomic detection of reduced levels of midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (mALP) as a common feature in strains of Cry-resistant Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera frugiperda when compared to susceptible larvae. Reduced levels of H. virescens mALP protein (HvmALP) were detected by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis in Cry-resistant compared to susceptible larvae, further supported by alkaline phosphatase activity assays and Western blotting. Through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) we demonstrate that the reduction in HvmALP protein levels in resistant larvae are the result of reduced transcript amounts. Similar reductions in ALP activity and mALP transcript levels were also detected for a Cry1Ac-resistant strain of H. armigera and field-derived strains of S. frugiperda resistant to Cry1Fa. Considering the unique resistance and cross-resistance phenotypes of the insect strains used in this work, our data suggest that reduced mALP expression should be targeted for development of effective biomarkers for resistance to Cry toxins in lepidopteran pests. PMID:21390253

  7. Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Cubic Phases as Versatile Host Matrices for Membrane-Bound Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Vallooran, Jijo J; Fong, Wye-Khay; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-04-21

    Lyotropic liquid crystalline cubic mesophases can function as host matrices for enzymes because of their biomimetic structural characteristics, optical transparency, and capability to coexist with water. This study demonstrates that the in meso immobilized membrane-bound enzyme d-fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) preserves its full activity, follows ideal Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and shows improved stability compared to its behavior in solution. Even after 5 days, the immobilized FDH retained its full activity in meso, whereas a model hydrophilic enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, maintained only 21% of its original activity. We reason that the lipidic bilayers in the three-dimensional structures of cubic mesophases provide an ideal environment for the reconstitution of a membrane-bound enzyme. The preserved activity, long-term stability, and reusability demonstrate that these hybrid nanomaterials are ideal matrices for biosensing and biocatalytic fuel cell applications. PMID:27050734

  8. Interfacial enzyme kinetics of a membrane bound kinase analyzed by real-time MAS-NMR.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sandra J; Hellmich, Ute A; Ullrich, Stefan; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2011-05-01

    The simultaneous observation of interdependent reactions within different phases as catalyzed by membrane-bound enzymes is still a challenging task. One such enzyme, the Escherichia coli integral membrane protein diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), is a key player in lipid regulation. It catalyzes the generation of phosphatidic acid within the membrane through the transfer of the γ-phosphate from soluble MgATP to membrane-bound diacylglycerol. We demonstrate that time-resolved (31)P magic angle spinning NMR offers a unique opportunity to simultaneously and directly detect both ATP hydrolysis and diacylglycerol phosphorylation. This experiment demonstrates that solid-state NMR provides a general approach for the kinetic analysis of coupled reactions at the membrane interface regardless of their compartmentalization. The enzymatic activity of DGK was probed with different lipid substrates as well as ATP analogs. Our data yield conclusions about intersubunit cooperativity, reaction stoichiometries and phosphoryl transfer mechanism and are discussed in the context of known structural data. PMID:21423170

  9. Using supported bilayers to study the spatiotemporal organization of membrane bound proteins

    PubMed Central

    Field, Christine M.; Groen, Aaron C.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is commonly initiated by the well-controlled binding of proteins to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. However, a precise characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of membrane-bound proteins is often difficult to achieve in vivo. Here, we present protocols for the use of supported lipid bilayers to rebuild the cytokinetic machineries of cells with greatly different dimensions: the bacterium Escherichia coli and eggs of the vertebrate Xenopus laevis. Combined with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, these experimental setups allow for precise quantitative analyses of membrane-bound proteins. The protocols described to obtain glass-supported membranes from bacterial and vertebrate lipids can be used as starting points for other reconstitution experiments. We believe that similar biochemical assays will be instrumental to study the biochemistry and biophysics underlying a variety of complex cellular tasks, such as signaling, vesicle trafficking and cell motility. PMID:25997350

  10. Non-denaturing gel electrophoresis system for the purification of membrane bound proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cavinato, A.G.; Macleod, R.M.; Ahmed, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    A new method is described for the purification of a membrane bound glycoprotein, the kappa opioid receptor from human placental tissue. The method uses preparative slab-gel electrophoresis in the presence of the non-denaturing detergent CHAPS. A linear relationship between log molecular weight and SDS PAGE electrophoretic mobility of known molecular weight markers, in the presence of CHAPS, is observed. Using this method, we were able partially to purify an /sup 3/H-etorphine binding glycoprotein, from placental villus tissue, with an apparent molecular weight range of 60-70,000. The iodinated glycoprotein migrates in SDS PAGE with an apparent molecular weight of 63,000. This method may be useful for the isolation of membrane bound proteins, especially when an affinity ligand is not available.

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase in Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suman; Mishra, Rajnikant

    2016-05-01

    The two predominant forms of arginase, cytosolic Arginase-I and mitochondrial Arginase-II, catalyze hydrolysis of arginine into ornithine and urea. Based on presence of arginase activity in extracts using potassium chloride (KCl), mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been suggested. However, the activity of arginase in fractions obtained after KCl-treatment may be either due to leakage of mitochondrial arginase or release of adhered cytosolic arginase to cell organelles having altered net charge. Therefore, it has been intended to analyse impact of KCl on ultra-structural properties of mitochondria, and biochemical analysis of mitochondrial membrane-bound proteins and arginase of Heteropneustes fossilis. Liver of H. fossilis was used for isolating mitochondria for analysis of ultrastructural properties, preparing cytosolic, mitochondrial, and mitochondrial-membrane bound extracts after treatment of KCl. Extracts were analysed for arginase activity assay, protein profiling through SDS-PAGE and MALDI MS/MS. The KCl-mediated modulation in polypeptides and arginase were also evaluated by PANTHER, MitoProt and IPSORT servers. The effects of KCl on ultra-structural integrity of mitochondria, activity of arginase, modulation on mitochondrial proteins and enzymes including arginase were observed. The 48 kDa polypeptide of mitochondrial fraction, that showed KCl-dependent alteration matched with Myb binding protein and 30 kDa bands resembles to arginase after MALDI MS/MS analysis. Results indicate KCl-dependent ultrastructural changes in mitochondria and release of mitochondrial arginase. The proposed membrane bound mitochondrial arginase could be mitochondrial arginase-II or altered form of cytosolic arginase-I contributing to KCl-induced arginase activity in H. fossilis. PMID:26922180

  12. Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 2C9

    SciTech Connect

    Cojocaru, Vlad; Balali-Mood, Kia; Sansom, Mark S.; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2011-08-11

    The microsomal, membrane-bound, human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 is a liver-specific monooxygenase essential for drug metabolism. CYPs require electron transfer from the membrane-bound CYP reductase (CPR) for catalysis. The structural details and functional relevance of the CYP-membrane interaction are not understood. From multiple coarse grained molecular simulations started with arbitrary configurations of protein-membrane complexes, we found two predominant orientations of CYP2C9 in the membrane, both consistent with experiments and conserved in atomic-resolution simulations. The dynamics of membrane-bound and soluble CYP2C9 revealed correlations between opening and closing of different tunnels from the enzyme’s buried active site. The membrane facilitated the opening of a tunnel leading into it by stabilizing the open state of an internal aromatic gate. Other tunnels opened selectively in the simulations of product-bound CYP2C9. We propose that the membrane promotes binding of liposoluble substrates by stabilizing protein conformations with an open access tunnel and provide evidence for selective substrate access and product release routes in mammalian CYPs. The models derived here are suitable for extension to incorporate other CYPs for oligomerization studies or the CYP reductase for studies of the electron transfer mechanism, whereas the modeling procedure is generally applicable to study proteins anchored in the bilayer by a single transmembrane helix.

  13. Characterization and expression profile of CaNAC2 pepper gene

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei-Li; Wang, Shu-Bin; Chen, Ru-Gang; Chen, Bi-Hua; Du, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Yan-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors have diverse role in development and stress regulation. A new transcript encoding NAC protein, homologous to nam-like protein 4 from Petunia was identified from an ABA-regulated subtractive cDNA library of Capsicum annuum seedling. Here, this homolog (named CaNAC2) from C. annuum was characterized and investigated its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results indicated that a plant-specific and conserved NAC domain was located in the N-terminus domain of CaNAC2 which was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 410 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaNAC2 belonged to the NAC2 subgroup of the orthologous group 4d. The protein CaNAC2 was subcellularly localized in the nucleus and it had transcriptional activity in yeast cell. CaNAC2 was expressed mainly in seed and root. The transcription expression of CaNAC2 was strongly induced by cold, salt and ABA treatment and inhibited by osmotic stress and SA treatment. Silence of CaNAC2 in virus-induced gene silenced pepper seedlings resulted in the increased susceptibility to cold stress and delayed the salt-induced leaf chlorophyll degradation. These results indicated that this novel CaNAC2 gene might be involved in pepper response to abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26442068

  14. Characterization and expression profile of CaNAC2 pepper gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-Li; Wang, Shu-Bin; Chen, Ru-Gang; Chen, Bi-Hua; Du, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Yan-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors have diverse role in development and stress regulation. A new transcript encoding NAC protein, homologous to nam-like protein 4 from Petunia was identified from an ABA-regulated subtractive cDNA library of Capsicum annuum seedling. Here, this homolog (named CaNAC2) from C. annuum was characterized and investigated its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results indicated that a plant-specific and conserved NAC domain was located in the N-terminus domain of CaNAC2 which was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 410 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaNAC2 belonged to the NAC2 subgroup of the orthologous group 4d. The protein CaNAC2 was subcellularly localized in the nucleus and it had transcriptional activity in yeast cell. CaNAC2 was expressed mainly in seed and root. The transcription expression of CaNAC2 was strongly induced by cold, salt and ABA treatment and inhibited by osmotic stress and SA treatment. Silence of CaNAC2 in virus-induced gene silenced pepper seedlings resulted in the increased susceptibility to cold stress and delayed the salt-induced leaf chlorophyll degradation. These results indicated that this novel CaNAC2 gene might be involved in pepper response to abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26442068

  15. The Membrane-Bound Form of IL-17A Promotes the Growth and Tumorigenicity of Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Van Anh, Do Thi; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Hayyoung; Kim, Young Sang

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-17A is a member of the IL-17 family, and is known as CTLA8 in the mouse. It is produced by T lymphocytes and NK cells and has proinflammatory roles, inducing cytokine and chemokine production. However, its role in tumor biology remains controversial. We investigated the effects of locally produced IL-17A by transferring the gene encoding it into CT26 colon cancer cells, either in a secretory or a membrane-bound form. Expression of the membrane-bound form on CT26 cells dramatically enhanced their proliferation in vitro. The enhanced growth was shown to be due to an increased rate of cell cycle progression: after synchronizing cells by adding and withdrawing colcemid, the rate of cell cycle progression in the cells expressing the membrane-bound form of IL-17A was much faster than that of the control cells. Both secretory and membrane-bound IL-17A induced the expression of Sca-1 in the cancer cells. When tumor clones were grafted into syngeneic BALB/c mice, the tumor clones expressing the membrane-bound form IL-17A grew rapidly; those expressing the secretory form also grew faster than the wild type CT26 cells, but slower than the clones expressing the membrane-bound form. These results indicate that IL-17A promotes tumorigenicity by enhancing cell cycle progression. This finding should be considered in treating tumors and immune-related diseases. PMID:27378226

  16. Coordination of Copper to the Membrane-Bound Form of α-Synuclein

    SciTech Connect

    Dudzik, Christopher G.; Walter, Eric D.; Abrams, Benjamin S.; Jurica, Melissa S.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation of the 140 amino acid protein α-synuclein (α-syn) is linked to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Syn is a copper binding protein with potential function as a regulator of metal dependent redox activity. Epidemiological studies suggest that human exposure to excess copper increases the incidence of PD. α-Syn exists in both solution and membrane bound forms. Previous work evaluated the Cu2+ uptake for α-syn in solution and identified Met1-Asp2 and His50 as primary contributors to the coordination shell, with a dissociation constant of approximately 0.1 nM. When bound to the membrane bilayer, α-syn takes on a predominantly helical conformation, which spatially separates His50 from the protein N-terminus and is therefore incompatible with the copper coordination geometry of the solution state. Here we use circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance (continuous wave and pulsed) to evaluate copper coordination to the membrane bound form of α-syn. In this molecular environment, Cu2+ binds exclusively to the protein N-terminus (Met1-Asp2) with no participation from His50. Copper does not alter the membrane bound α-syn conformation, or enhance the protein's release from the bilayer. The Cu2+ affinity is similar to that identified for solution α-syn suggesting that copper coordination is retained in the membrane. Consideration of these results suggests that copper exerts its greatest conformational affect on the solution form of α-syn and this species may therefore be precursor to PD arising from environmental copper exposure.

  17. A multiscale approach to modelling drug metabolism by membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Richard; Rouse, Sarah L; Sansom, Mark S P; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2014-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  18. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  19. Hydrogen Production by a Hyperthermophilic Membrane-Bound Hydrogenase in Soluble Nanolipoprotein Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S E; Hopkins, R C; Blanchette, C; Walsworth, V; Sumbad, R; Fischer, N; Kuhn, E; Coleman, M; Chromy, B; Letant, S; Hoeprich, P; Adams, M W; Henderson, P T

    2008-10-22

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs), formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids, offer a novel means to incorporate MBH into in a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen production devices.

  20. Molecular characterization of structural genes coding for a membrane bound hydrogenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Csáki, R; Hanczár, T; Bodrossy, L; Murrell, J C; Kovács, K L

    2001-12-18

    The first gene cluster encoding for a membrane bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from a methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), was cloned and sequenced. The cluster consisted of the structural genes hupS and hupL and accessory genes hupE, hupC and hupD. A DeltahupSL deletion mutant of Mc. capsulatus was constructed by marker exchange mutagenesis. Membrane associated hydrogenase activity disappeared. The membrane associated hydrogenase appeared to have a hydrogen uptake function in vivo. PMID:11750803

  1. Bacillus anthracis pXO1 plasmid encodes a putative membrane-bound bacteriocin

    PubMed Central

    Perlińska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary advantages over cousin cells in bacterial pathogens may decide about the success of a specific cell in its environment. Bacteria use a plethora of methods to defend against other cells and many devices to attack their opponents when competing for resources. Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins that are used to eliminate competition. We report the discovery of a putative membrane-bound bacteriocin encoded by the Bacillus anthracis pathogenic pXO1 plasmid. We analyze the genomic structure of the bacteriocin operon. The proposed mechanisms of action predestine this operon as a potent competitive advantage over cohabitants of the same niche. PMID:25426338

  2. Expression of a Grapevine NAC Transcription Factor Gene Is Induced in Response to Powdery Mildew Colonization in Salicylic Acid-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Zsofia; Winterhagen, Patrick; Kalapos, Balazs; Su, Yingcai; Kovacs, Laszlo; Kiss, Erzsebet

    2016-01-01

    Tissue colonization by grape powdery mildew (PM) pathogen Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr triggers a major remodeling of the transcriptome in the susceptible grapevine Vitis vinifera L. While changes in the expression of many genes bear the signature of salicylic acid (SA) mediated regulation, the breadth of PM-induced changes suggests the involvement of additional regulatory networks. To explore PM-associated gene regulation mediated by other SA-independent systems, we designed a microarray experiment to distinguish between transcriptome changes induced by E. necator colonization and those triggered by elevated SA levels. We found that the majority of genes responded to both SA and PM, but certain genes were responsive to PM infection alone. Among them, we identified genes of stilbene synthases, PR-10 proteins, and several transcription factors. The microarray results demonstrated that the regulation of these genes is either independent of SA, or dependent, but SA alone is insufficient to bring about their regulation. We inserted the promoter-reporter fusion of a PM-responsive transcription factor gene into a wild-type and two SA-signaling deficient Arabidopsis lines and challenged the resulting transgenic plants with an Arabidopsis-adapted PM pathogen. Our results provide experimental evidence that this grape gene promoter is activated by the pathogen in a SA-independent manner. PMID:27488171

  3. Expression of a Grapevine NAC Transcription Factor Gene Is Induced in Response to Powdery Mildew Colonization in Salicylic Acid-Independent Manner.

    PubMed

    Toth, Zsofia; Winterhagen, Patrick; Kalapos, Balazs; Su, Yingcai; Kovacs, Laszlo; Kiss, Erzsebet

    2016-01-01

    Tissue colonization by grape powdery mildew (PM) pathogen Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr triggers a major remodeling of the transcriptome in the susceptible grapevine Vitis vinifera L. While changes in the expression of many genes bear the signature of salicylic acid (SA) mediated regulation, the breadth of PM-induced changes suggests the involvement of additional regulatory networks. To explore PM-associated gene regulation mediated by other SA-independent systems, we designed a microarray experiment to distinguish between transcriptome changes induced by E. necator colonization and those triggered by elevated SA levels. We found that the majority of genes responded to both SA and PM, but certain genes were responsive to PM infection alone. Among them, we identified genes of stilbene synthases, PR-10 proteins, and several transcription factors. The microarray results demonstrated that the regulation of these genes is either independent of SA, or dependent, but SA alone is insufficient to bring about their regulation. We inserted the promoter-reporter fusion of a PM-responsive transcription factor gene into a wild-type and two SA-signaling deficient Arabidopsis lines and challenged the resulting transgenic plants with an Arabidopsis-adapted PM pathogen. Our results provide experimental evidence that this grape gene promoter is activated by the pathogen in a SA-independent manner. PMID:27488171

  4. Membrane-bound human SCF/KL promotes in vivo human hematopoietic engraftment and myeloid differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Shinsuke; Saito, Yoriko; Hijikata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Hasegawa, Takanori; Mochizuki, Shinobu; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Ohara, Osamu; Saito, Takashi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, advances in the humanized mouse system have led to significantly increased levels of human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment. The remaining limitations in human HSC engraftment and function include lymphoid-skewed differentiation and inefficient myeloid development in the recipients. Limited human HSC function may partially be attributed to the inability of the host mouse microenvironment to provide sufficient support to human hematopoiesis. To address this problem, we created membrane-bound human stem cell factor (SCF)/KIT ligand (KL)–expressing NOD/SCID/IL2rgKO (hSCF Tg NSG) mice. hSCF Tg NSG recipients of human HSCs showed higher levels of both human CD45+ cell engraftment and human CD45+CD33+ myeloid development compared with NSG recipients. Expression of hSCF/hKL accelerated the differentiation of the human granulocyte lineage cells in the recipient bone marrow. Human mast cells were identified in bone marrow, spleen, and gastrointestinal tissues of the hSCF Tg NSG recipients. This novel in vivo humanized mouse model demonstrates the essential role of membrane-bound hSCF in human myeloid development. Moreover, the hSCF Tg NSG humanized recipients may facilitate investigation of in vivo differentiation, migration, function, and pathology of human mast cells. PMID:22279057

  5. Next generation SPR technology of membrane-bound proteins for ligand screening and biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Jennifer A.; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Sutherland, Jamie N.; Lesuffleur, Antoine; Warrington, Arthur E.; Rodriguez, Moses; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Technology based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has allowed rapid, label-free characterization of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions, from quantitative measurements of binding kinetics and thermodynamics and concentrations in complex samples to epitope analysis. SPR has become the gold standard in industrial and academic settings, in which typically the interaction between a pair of soluble binding partners is characterized in detail or a library of molecules is screened for binding against a single soluble protein. In spite of these successes, the technology is only beginning to be adapted to the needs of membrane-bound proteins. Including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), ion channels and other growth, immune and cellular receptors, these proteins are difficult to study in situ but represent promising targets for drug and biomarker development. Existing technologies, such as BIAcore™, have been adapted for membrane protein analysis by building supported lipid layers or vesicle capture on existing chips. Newer technologies, still in development, will allow membrane proteins to be presented in native or near-native formats. These include SPR nanopore arrays, in which lipid bilayers containing membrane proteins stably span small pores that are addressable from both sides of the bilayer. Here, we discuss successes with current SPR instrumentation and the potential for SPR nanopore arrays to enable quantitative, high-throughput screening of GPCR ligands, biomarker discovery involving membrane bound proteins and basic cellular biology. PMID:19918786

  6. Membrane-bound globin X protects the cell from reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jonas; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Globin X (GbX) is a member of the globin family that emerged early in the evolution of Metazoa. In vertebrates, GbX is restricted to lampreys, fish, amphibians and some reptiles, and is expressed in neurons. Unlike any other metazoan globin, GbX is N-terminally acylated and anchored in the cell membrane via myristoyl and palmitoyl groups, suggesting a unique function. Here, we compared the capacity of GbX to protect a mouse neuronal cell line from hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with that of myoglobin. To evaluate the contribution of membrane-binding, we generated a mutated version of GbX without acyl groups. All three globins enhanced cell viability under hypoxia, with myoglobin having the most pronounced effect. GbX but not myoglobin protected the cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced stress. Membrane-bound GbX was significantly more efficient than its mutated, soluble form. Furthermore, myoglobin and mutated GbX increased production of ROS upon H2O2-treatment, while membrane-bound GbX did not. The results indicate that myoglobin enhances O2 supply while GbX protects the cell membrane from ROS-stress. The ancient origin of GbX suggests that ROS-protection reflects the function of the early globins before they acquired a respiratory role. PMID:26631962

  7. Coupled Segmentation of Nuclear and Membrane-bound Macromolecules through Voting and Multiphase Level Set

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-bound macromolecules play an important role in tissue architecture and cell-cell communication, and is regulated by almost one-third of the genome. At the optical scale, one group of membrane proteins expresses themselves as linear structures along the cell surface boundaries, while others are sequestered; and this paper targets the former group. Segmentation of these membrane proteins on a cell-by-cell basis enables the quantitative assessment of localization for comparative analysis. However, such membrane proteins typically lack continuity, and their intensity distributions are often very heterogeneous; moreover, nuclei can form large clump, which further impedes the quantification of membrane signals on a cell-by-cell basis. To tackle these problems, we introduce a three-step process to (i) regularize the membrane signal through iterative tangential voting, (ii) constrain the location of surface proteins by nuclear features, where clumps of nuclei are segmented through a delaunay triangulation approach, and (iii) assign membrane-bound macromolecules to individual cells through an application of multi-phase geodesic level-set. We have validated our method using both synthetic data and a dataset of 200 images, and are able to demonstrate the efficacy of our approach with superior performance. PMID:25530633

  8. Arrhenius plot behavior of a. gamma. -radiation-releasable, membrane-bound exonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1981-11-01

    The activation energy of a membrane-bound exonuclease in Micrococcus radiodurans has been measured and the effect of ionizing radiation damage in this sytem explore. The Arrhenius plot for the native bound enzyme was found to be biphasic and the calculated activation energies and transition temperature for the enzymatic reaction were not changed when the enzyme was: (1) solubilized from the membrane with its covalently bound lipid anchor attached, (2) released from the membrane by ionizing radiation, which cleaves off the covalently attached lipid and converts the enzyme from a dimer to a monomer, (3) attached to the membrane after exposure to ionizing radiation under oxic or anoxic conditions, and (4) attached to the membrane in the presence of 10 mM CHCl/sub 3/. Since other membrane-bound enzymes have been shown to be sensitive to membrane perturbations while this one was not, the results suggest that various perturbants, including ionizing radiation, may have differential effects on such enzymes.

  9. The Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Stalk Regions Define Responsiveness to Soluble versus Membrane-Bound Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Christine; Messerschmidt, Sylvia; Holeiter, Gerlinde; Tepperink, Jessica; Osswald, Sylvia; Zappe, Andrea; Branschädel, Marcus; Boschert, Verena; Mann, Derek A.; Scheurich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The family of tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) and their ligands form a regulatory signaling network that controls immune responses. Various members of this receptor family respond differently to the soluble and membrane-bound forms of their respective ligands. However, the determining factors and underlying molecular mechanisms of this diversity are not yet understood. Using an established system of chimeric TNFRs and novel ligand variants mimicking the bioactivity of membrane-bound TNF (mTNF), we demonstrate that the membrane-proximal extracellular stalk regions of TNFR1 and TNFR2 are crucial in controlling responsiveness to soluble TNF (sTNF). We show that the stalk region of TNFR2, in contrast to the corresponding part of TNFR1, efficiently inhibits both the receptor's enrichment/clustering in particular cell membrane regions and ligand-independent homotypic receptor preassembly, thereby preventing sTNF-induced, but not mTNF-induced, signaling. Thus, the stalk regions of the two TNFRs not only have implications for additional TNFR family members, but also provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22547679

  10. Membrane-bound α-synuclein interacts with glucocerebrosidase and inhibits enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Thai Leong; Velayati, Arash; Sidransky, Ellen; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in GBA, the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase, the lysosomal enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease increase the risk for developing Parkinson disease. Recent research suggests a relationship between glucocerebrosidase and the Parkinson disease-related amyloid-forming protein, α-synuclein; however, the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for association remain elusive. Previously, we showed that α-synuclein and glucocerebrosidase interact selectively under lysosomal conditions, and proposed that this newly identified interaction might influence cellular levels of α-synuclein by either promoting protein degradation and/or preventing aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-bound α-synuclein interacts with glucocerebrosidase, and that this complex formation inhibits enzyme function. Using site-specific fluorescence and Förster energy transfer probes, we mapped the protein-enzyme interacting regions on unilamellar vesicles. Our data suggest that on the membrane surface, the glucocerebrosidase-α-synuclein interaction involves a larger α-synuclein region compared to that found in solution. In addition, α-synuclein acts as a mixed inhibitor with an apparent IC50 in the submicromolar range. Importantly, the membrane-bound, α-helical form of α-synuclein is necessary for inhibition. This glucocerebrosidase interaction and inhibition likely contribute to the mechanism underlying GBA-associated parkinsonism. PMID:23266198

  11. Biochemical similarities between soluble and membrane-bound calcium-dependent protein kinases of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, L.J.; Hind, G. )

    1990-04-01

    The soluble and membrane-bound forms of the calcium-dependent protein kinase from barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Borsoy) have been partially purified and compared. Both forms showed an active polypeptide of 37 kilodaltons on activity gels with incorporated histone as substrate. They eluted from chromatofocusing columns at an identical isoelectric point of pH 4.25 {plus minus} 0.2, and also comigrated on several other chromatographic affinity media including Matrex Gel Blue A, histone-agarose, phenyl-Sepharose, and heparin-agarose. Both activities comigrated with chicken ovalbumin during gel filtration through Sephacryl S-200, indicating a native molecular mass of 45 kilodaltons. The activities share a number of enzymatic properties including salt and pH dependence, free calcium stimulation profile, substrate specificity, and Km values. The soluble activity was shown to bind to artificial lipid vesicles. These data suggest strongly that the soluble and membrane-bound calcium-dependent protein kinases from barley are very closely related or even identical.

  12. Purification and characterization of the membrane-bound quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL 5.

    PubMed

    Sará-Páez, Martin; Contreras-Zentella, Martha; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; González-Valdez, Alejandra Abigail; Gasca-Licea, Rolando; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Escamilla, José Edgardo; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria oxidize a great number of substrates, such as alcohols and sugars, using different enzymes that are anchored to the membrane. In particular, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is distinguished for its N2-fixing activity under high-aeration conditions. Ga. diazotrophicus is a true endophyte that also has membrane-bound enzymes to oxidize sugars and alcohols. Here we reported the purification and characterization of the membrane-bound glucose dehydrogenase (GDHm), an oxidoreductase of Ga. diazotrophicus. GDHm was solubilized and purified by chromatographic methods. Purified GDHm was monomeric, with a molecular mass of 86 kDa. We identified the prosthetic group as pyrroloquinoline quinone, whose redox state was reduced. GDHm showed an optimum pH of 7.2, and its isoelectric point was 6.0. This enzyme preferentially oxidized D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose; its affinity towards glucose was ten times greater than that of E. coli GDHm. Finally, Ga. diazotrophicus GDHm was capable of reducing quinones such as Q 1, Q 2, and decylubiquinone; this activity was entirely abolished in the presence of micromolar concentrations of the inhibitor, myxothiazol. Hence, our purification method yielded a highly purified GDHm whose molecular and kinetic parameters were determined. The possible implications of GDHm activity in the mechanism for reducing competitor microorganisms, as well as its participation in the respiratory system of Ga. diazotrophicus, are discussed. PMID:25576305

  13. Membrane-bound amylopullulanase is essential for starch metabolism of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Cha, Jaeho

    2015-09-01

    Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 produced an acid-resistant membrane-bound amylopullulanase (Apu) during growth on starch as a sole carbon and energy source. The physiological role of Apu in starch metabolism was investigated by the growth and starch degradation pattern of apu disruption mutant as well as biochemical properties of recombinant Apu. The Δapu mutant lost the ability to grow in minimal medium in the presence of starch, and the amylolytic activity observed in the membrane fraction of the wild-type strain was not detected in the Δapu mutant when the cells were grown in YT medium. The purified membrane-bound Apu initially hydrolyzed starch, amylopectin, and pullulan into various sizes of maltooligosaccharides, and then produced glucose, maltose, and maltotriose in the end, indicating Apu is a typical endo-acting glycoside hydrolase family 57 (GH57) amylopullulanase. The maltose and maltotriose observed in the culture medium during the exponential and stationary phase growth indicates that Apu is the essential enzyme to initially hydrolyze the starch into small maltooligosaccharides to be transported into the cell. PMID:26104674

  14. Characterization of a chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) NAC family gene, CarNAC5, which is both developmentally- and stress-regulated.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Cheng, Hui-Ying; Yu, Xin-Wang; Shi, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hua; Li, Jian-Gui; Ma, Hao

    2009-01-01

    It has been documented that the plant-specific NAC (for NAM, ATAF1,2 and CUC2) transcription factors play an important role in plant development and stress responses. In this study, a chickpea NAC gene CarNAC5 (for Cicer arietinum L. NAC gene 5) was isolated from a cDNA library from chickpea leaves treated by polyethylene glycol (PEG). CarNAC5, as a single/low copy gene, contained three exons and two introns within genomic DNA sequence and encoded a polypeptide with 291 amino acids. CarNAC5 protein had a conserved NAC domain in the N-terminus and showed high similarity to other NACs, especially ATAF subgroup members. The CarNAC5:GFP fusion protein was localized in the nucleus of onion epidermal cells. Furthermore, CarNAC5 protein activated the reporter genes LacZ and HIS3 in yeast. The transactivation activity was mapped to the C-terminal region. The transcripts of CarNAC5 appeared in many chickpea tissues including seedling leaves, stems, roots, flowers, seeds and pods, but mostly accumulated in flowers. Meanwhile, CarNAC5 was strongly expressed during seed maturation and in embryos of the early germinating seeds. It was also significantly induced by drought, heat, wounding, salicylic acid (SA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatments. Our results suggest that CarNAC5 encodes a novel NAC-domain protein and acts as a transcriptional activator involved in plant developmental regulation and various stress responses. PMID:19800808

  15. Isolation and Expression of NAC Genes during Persimmon Fruit Postharvest Astringency Removal

    PubMed Central

    Min, Ting; Wang, Miao-Miao; Wang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiaofen; Fang, Fang; Grierson, Donald; Yin, Xue-Ren; Chen, Kun-Song

    2015-01-01

    NAC genes have been characterized in numerous plants, where they are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress, including low oxygen stress. High concentration of CO2 is one of the most effective treatments to remove astringency of persimmon fruit owing to the action of the accumulated anoxia metabolite acetaldehyde. In model plants, NAC genes have been identified as being responsive to low oxygen. However, the possible relationship between NAC transcription factors and persimmon astringency removal remains unexplored. In the present research, treatment with a high concentration of CO2 (95%) effectively removed astringency of “Mopan” persimmon fruit by causing decreases in soluble tannin. Acetaldehyde content increased in response to CO2 treatment concomitantly with astringency removal. Using RNA-seq and Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), six DkNAC genes were isolated and studied. Transcriptional analysis indicated DkNAC genes responded differentially to CO2 treatment; DkNAC1, DkNAC3, DkNAC5 and DkNAC6 were transiently up-regulated, DkNAC2 was abundantly expressed 3 days after treatment, while the DkNAC4 was suppressed during astringency removal. It is proposed that DkNAC1/3/5/6 could be important candidates as regulators of persimmon astringency removal and the roles of other member are also discussed. PMID:25599529

  16. Isolation and expression of NAC genes during persimmon fruit postharvest astringency removal.

    PubMed

    Min, Ting; Wang, Miao-Miao; Wang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiaofen; Fang, Fang; Grierson, Donald; Yin, Xue-Ren; Chen, Kun-Song

    2015-01-01

    NAC genes have been characterized in numerous plants, where they are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress, including low oxygen stress. High concentration of CO2 is one of the most effective treatments to remove astringency of persimmon fruit owing to the action of the accumulated anoxia metabolite acetaldehyde. In model plants, NAC genes have been identified as being responsive to low oxygen. However, the possible relationship between NAC transcription factors and persimmon astringency removal remains unexplored. In the present research, treatment with a high concentration of CO2 (95%) effectively removed astringency of "Mopan" persimmon fruit by causing decreases in soluble tannin. Acetaldehyde content increased in response to CO2 treatment concomitantly with astringency removal. Using RNA-seq and Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), six DkNAC genes were isolated and studied. Transcriptional analysis indicated DkNAC genes responded differentially to CO2 treatment; DkNAC1, DkNAC3, DkNAC5 and DkNAC6 were transiently up-regulated, DkNAC2 was abundantly expressed 3 days after treatment, while the DkNAC4 was suppressed during astringency removal. It is proposed that DkNAC1/3/5/6 could be important candidates as regulators of persimmon astringency removal and the roles of other member are also discussed. PMID:25599529

  17. Dual Function of NAC072 in ABF3-Mediated ABA-Responsive Gene Regulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyun; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Meijuan; Yan, Youcheng; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) domain proteins play various roles in plant growth and stress responses. Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor NAC072 has been reported as a transcriptional activator in Abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive gene expression. However, the exact function of NAC072 in ABA signaling is still elusive. In this study, we present evidence for the interrelation between NAC072 and ABA-responsive element binding factor 3 (ABF3) that act as a positive regulator of ABA-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis. The transcript of NAC072 is up-regulated by ABF3 in ABA response, and NAC072 protein interacts with ABF3. Enhanced ABA sensitivity occurs in nac072 mutant plants that overexpressed ABF3. However, overexpression of NAC072 weakened the ABA sensitivity in the abf3 mutant plants, but instead of recovering the ABA sensitivity of abf3. NAC072 and ABF3 cooperate to regulate RD29A expression, but are antagonistic when regulating RD29B expression. Therefore, NAC072 displays a dual function in ABF3-mediated ABA-responsive gene regulation. PMID:27486475

  18. Cellular chaperones and folding enzymes are vital contributors to membrane bound replication and movement complexes during plant RNA virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2012-01-01

    Cellular chaperones and folding enzymes play central roles in the formation of positive-strand and negative-strand RNA virus infection. This article examines the key cellular chaperones and discusses evidence that these factors are diverted from their cellular functions to play alternative roles in virus infection. For most chaperones discussed, their primary role in the cell is to ensure protein quality control. They are system components that drive substrate protein folding, complex assembly or disaggregation. Their activities often depend upon co-chaperones and ATP hydrolysis. During plant virus infection, Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins play central roles in the formation of membrane-bound replication complexes for certain members of the tombusvirus, tobamovirus, potyvirus, dianthovirus, potexvirus, and carmovirus genus. There are several co-chaperones, including Yjd1, RME-8, and Hsp40 that associate with the bromovirus replication complex, pomovirus TGB2, and tospovirus Nsm movement proteins. There are also examples of plant viruses that rely on chaperone systems in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to support cell-to-cell movement. TMV relies on calreticulin to promote virus intercellular transport. Calreticulin also resides in the plasmodesmata and plays a role in calcium sequestration as well as glycoprotein folding. The pomovirus TGB2 interacts with RME-8 in the endosome. The potexvirus TGB3 protein stimulates expression of ER resident chaperones via the bZIP60 transcription factor. Up-regulating factors involved in protein folding may be essential to handling the load of viral proteins translated along the ER. In addition, TGB3 stimulates SKP1 which is a co-factor in proteasomal degradation of cellular proteins. Such chaperones and co-factors are potential targets for antiviral defense. PMID:23230447

  19. KCl-Dependent Release of Mitochondrial Membrane-Bound Arginase Appears to Be a Novel Variant of Arginase-II.

    PubMed

    Suman, Mishra; Rajnikant, Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Arginase regulates arginine metabolism, ornithine-urea cycle, and immunological surveillance. Arginase-I is predominant in cytosol, and arginase-II is localised in the mitochondria. A mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been proposed to be adsorbed with outer membrane of mitochondria which gets released by 150 mM potassium chloride (KCl). It is presumed that inclusion of 150 mM KCl in the homogenization medium would not only facilitate release of arginase bound with outer membrane of mitochondria but also affect functional anatomy of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzymes, and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to characterize KCl-dependent release of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase from liver of mice. Results provide advancement in the area of arginase biology and suggest that fraction of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase contains mitochondrial arginase-II and a variant of arginase-II. PMID:27293971

  20. KCl-Dependent Release of Mitochondrial Membrane-Bound Arginase Appears to Be a Novel Variant of Arginase-II

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Mishra; Rajnikant, Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Arginase regulates arginine metabolism, ornithine-urea cycle, and immunological surveillance. Arginase-I is predominant in cytosol, and arginase-II is localised in the mitochondria. A mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been proposed to be adsorbed with outer membrane of mitochondria which gets released by 150 mM potassium chloride (KCl). It is presumed that inclusion of 150 mM KCl in the homogenization medium would not only facilitate release of arginase bound with outer membrane of mitochondria but also affect functional anatomy of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzymes, and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to characterize KCl-dependent release of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase from liver of mice. Results provide advancement in the area of arginase biology and suggest that fraction of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase contains mitochondrial arginase-II and a variant of arginase-II. PMID:27293971

  1. Genome-Based Discovery of a Novel Membrane-Bound 1,6-Dihydroxyphenazine Prenyltransferase from a Marine Actinomycete

    PubMed Central

    Zeyhle, Philipp; Bauer, Judith S.; Kalinowski, Jörn; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Gross, Harald; Heide, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Recently, novel prenylated derivatives of 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine have been isolated from the marine sponge-associated Streptomyces sp. SpC080624SC-11. Genome sequencing of this strain now revealed a gene cluster containing all genes necessary for the synthesis of the phenazine and the isoprenoid moieties. Unexpectedly, however, the cluster did not contain a gene with similarity to previously investigated phenazine prenyltransferases, but instead a gene with modest similarity to the membrane-bound prenyltransferases of ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis. Expression of this gene in E. coli and isolation of the membrane fraction proved that the encoded enzyme, Mpz10, catalyzes two successive prenylations of 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine. Mpz10 is the first example of a membrane-bound enzyme catalyzing the prenylation of a phenazine substrate, and one of few examples of membrane-bound enzymes involved in the prenylation of aromatic secondary metabolites in microorganisms. PMID:24892559

  2. The reaction pathway of membrane-bound rat liver mitochondrial monoamine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Houslay, Miles D.; Tipton, Keith F.

    1973-01-01

    1. A preparation of a partly purified mitochondrial outer-membrane fraction suitable for kinetic investigations of monoamine oxidase is described. 2. An apparatus suitable for varying the O2 concentration in a spectrophotometer cuvette is described. 3. The reaction catalysed by the membrane-bound enzyme is shown to proceed by a double-displacement (Ping Pong) mechanism, and a formal mechanism is proposed. 4. KCN, NaN3, benzyl cyanide and 4-cyanophenol are shown to be reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. 5. The non-linear reciprocal plot obtained with impure preparations of benzylamine, which is typical of high substrate inhibition, is shown to be due to aldehyde contamination of the substrate. PMID:4778271

  3. Sex steroids regulate skin pigmentation through nonclassical membrane-bound receptors.

    PubMed

    Natale, Christopher A; Duperret, Elizabeth K; Zhang, Junqian; Sadeghi, Rochelle; Dahal, Ankit; O'Brien, Kevin Tyler; Cookson, Rosa; Winkler, Jeffrey D; Ridky, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    The association between pregnancy and altered cutaneous pigmentation has been documented for over two millennia, suggesting that sex hormones play a role in regulating epidermal melanocyte (MC) homeostasis. Here we show that physiologic estrogen (17β-estradiol) and progesterone reciprocally regulate melanin synthesis. This is intriguing given that we also show that normal primary human MCs lack classical estrogen or progesterone receptors (ER or PR). Utilizing both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we establish that sex steroid effects on human pigment synthesis are mediated by the membrane-bound, steroid hormone receptors G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7). Activity of these receptors was activated or inhibited by synthetic estrogen or progesterone analogs that do not bind to ER or PR. As safe and effective treatment options for skin pigmentation disorders are limited, these specific GPER and PAQR7 ligands may represent a novel class of therapeutics. PMID:27115344

  4. Electrochemical insights into the mechanism of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Lindsey A; Parkin, Alison

    2016-02-15

    Hydrogenases are enzymes of great biotechnological relevance because they catalyse the interconversion of H2, water (protons) and electricity using non-precious metal catalytic active sites. Electrochemical studies into the reactivity of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH) have provided a particularly detailed insight into the reactivity and mechanism of this group of enzymes. Significantly, the control centre for enabling O2 tolerance has been revealed as the electron-transfer relay of FeS clusters, rather than the NiFe bimetallic active site. The present review paper will discuss how electrochemistry results have complemented those obtained from structural and spectroscopic studies, to present a complete picture of our current understanding of NiFe MBH. PMID:26862221

  5. The purification and subunit structure of a membrane-bound ATPase from the Archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Kristjansson, Hordur; Altekar, Wijaya

    1987-01-01

    The procedure for the isolation and 70-fold purification of membrane-bound cold-sensitive ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum is described. Upon exposure to cold, the enzyme dissociates into two major subunits, I (87 kDa) and II (60 kDa), and two minor subunits, III (29 kDa) and IV (20 kDa). The stoichiometry of the enzyme is proposed to be I2.II2.III.IV; the molecular mass of such a complex would be 343 kDa, which is in good agreement with the value of 350 kDa obtained by gel filtration. The structure of the ATPase from H. saccharovorum makes it unlike any previously described ATPase.

  6. Electrochemical insights into the mechanism of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Lindsey A.; Parkin, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenases are enzymes of great biotechnological relevance because they catalyse the interconversion of H2, water (protons) and electricity using non-precious metal catalytic active sites. Electrochemical studies into the reactivity of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH) have provided a particularly detailed insight into the reactivity and mechanism of this group of enzymes. Significantly, the control centre for enabling O2 tolerance has been revealed as the electron-transfer relay of FeS clusters, rather than the NiFe bimetallic active site. The present review paper will discuss how electrochemistry results have complemented those obtained from structural and spectroscopic studies, to present a complete picture of our current understanding of NiFe MBH. PMID:26862221

  7. Dynamics of a membrane-bound tryptophan analog in environments of varying hydration: a fluorescence approach.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Arora, Ajuna; Kelkar, Devaki A

    2005-12-01

    Tryptophan octyl ester (TOE) represents an important model for membrane-bound tryptophan residues. In this article, we have employed a combination of wavelength-selective fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies to monitor the effect of varying degrees of hydration on the dynamics of TOE in reverse micellar environments formed by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane. Our results show that TOE exhibits red edge excitation shift (REES) and other wavelength-selective fluorescence effects when bound to reverse micelles of AOT. Fluorescence parameters such as intensity, emission maximum, anisotropy, and lifetime of TOE in reverse micelles of AOT depend on [water]/[surfactant] molar ratio (w (o)). These results are relevant and potentially useful for analyzing dynamics of proteins or peptides bound to membranes or membrane-mimetic media under conditions of changing hydration. PMID:16184387

  8. Methods for measuring Class I membrane-bound hyaluronan synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Paul H; Padgett-McCue, Amy J; Baggenstoss, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying hyaluronan (HA) made by Class I HA synthase (HAS) and determining the level of activity of these membrane-bound enzymes is critical in studies to understand the normal biology of HA and how changes in HAS activity and HA levels or size are important in inflammatory and other diseases, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Unlike the products made by the vast majority of glycosyltransferases, HA products are more complicated since they are made as a heterogeneous population of sizes spanning a broad mass range. Three radioactive and nonradioactive assay methods are described that can give the amount of HA made with or without information about the distribution of product sizes. PMID:23765666

  9. Proinflammatory cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors are altered in the lymphocytes of schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N.; Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors have been reported in the plasma/serum of schizophrenia (SZ) patients. To examine if SZ is also associated with the abnormal gene expression of cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors, we studied mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in lymphocytes of SZ patients and normal control (NC) subjects. We determined the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and mRNA expression of their receptors in lymphocytes from 30 SZ patients and 30 drug-free NC subjects. The subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Protein levels of cytokines were determined by ELISA, and mRNA levels in lymphocytes were determined by the qPCR method. We found that the mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1R1, TNFR1, and TNFR2, but not IL-1β, IL-1R2, IL-1RA, IL-6R, or GP130 were significantly increased in lymphocytes of SZ patients compared with NC subjects. We also found that the protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α, but not IL-1β, was also significantly increased in SZ patients compared with NC subjects. These studies suggest that in addition to the reported abnormalities of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors in the plasma of SZ patients, an abnormal gene expression of these cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors may be involved in the pathogenesis of SZ. PMID:25749018

  10. Crystal structure of a membrane-bound l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yingchen; Tong, Shuilong; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Qi; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Zhou, Huihao

    2016-09-01

    l-amino acid oxidases/deaminases (LAAOs/LAADs) are a class of oxidoreductases catalyzing the oxidative deamination of l-amino acids to α-keto acids. They are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and exhibit diverse substrate specificity, post-translational modifications and cellular localization. While LAAOs isolated from snake venom have been extensively characterized, the structures and functions of LAAOs from other species are largely unknown. Here, we reported crystal structure of a bacterial membrane-bound LAAD from Proteus vulgaris (pvLAAD) in complex with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). We found that the overall fold of pvLAAD does not resemble typical LAAOs. Instead it, is similar to d-amino acid oxidases (DAAOs) with an additional hydrophobic insertion module on protein surface. Structural analysis and liposome-binding assays suggested that the hydrophobic module serves as an extra membrane-binding site for LAADs. Bacteria from genera Proteus and Providencia were found to encode two classes of membrane-bound LAADs. Based on our structure, the key roles of residues Q278 and L317 in substrate selectivity were proposed and biochemically analyzed. While LAADs on the membrane were proposed to transfer electrons to respiratory chain for FAD re-oxidization, we observed that the purified pvLAAD could generate a significant amount of hydrogen peroxide in vitro, suggesting it could use dioxygen to directly re-oxidize FADH2 as what typical LAAOs usually do. These findings provide a novel insights for a better understanding this class of enzymes and will help developing biocatalysts for industrial applications. PMID:27422658

  11. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Functional Membrane-bound Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Seena S.; Eyles, Stephen J.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane signaling mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis receptors is thought to involve changes in receptor conformation and dynamics. The receptors function in ternary complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW, that form extended membrane-bound arrays. Previous studies have shown that attractant binding induces a small (~2 Å) piston displacement of one helix of the periplasmic and transmembrane domains towards the cytoplasm, but it is not clear how this signal propagates through the cytoplasmic domain to control the kinase activity of the CheA bound at the membrane-distal tip, nearly 200 Å away. The cytoplasmic domain has been shown to be highly dynamic, which raises the question of how a small piston motion could propagate through a dynamic domain to control CheA kinase activity. To address this, we have developed a method for measuring dynamics of the receptor cytoplasmic fragment (CF) in functional complexes with CheA and CheW. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) measurements of global exchange of CF demonstrate that CF exhibits significantly slower exchange in functional complexes than in solution. Since the exchange rates in functional complexes are comparable to that of other proteins of similar structure, the CF appears to be a well-structured protein within these complexes, which is compatible with its role in propagating a signal that appears to be a tiny conformational change in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains of the receptor. We also demonstrate the feasibility of this protocol for local exchange measurements, by incorporating a pepsin digest step to produce peptides with 87% sequence coverage and only 20% back exchange. This method extends HDX-MS to membrane-bound functional complexes without detergents that may perturb the stability or structure of the system. PMID:24274333

  12. Sialic Acid Is Required for Neuronal Inhibition by Soluble MAG but not for Membrane Bound MAG.

    PubMed

    Al-Bashir, Najat; Mellado, Wilfredo; Filbin, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG), a major inhibitor of axonal growth, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) super-family. Importantly, MAG (also known as Siglec-4) is a member of the Siglec family of proteins (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins), MAG binds to complex gangliosides, specifically GD1a and/or GT1b. Therefore, it has been proposed as neuronal receptors for MAG inhibitory effect of axonal growth. Previously, we showed that MAG binds sialic acid through domain 1 at Arg118 and is able to inhibit axonal growth through domain 5. We developed a neurite outgrowth (NOG) assay, in which both wild type MAG and mutated MAG (MAG Arg118) are expressed on cells. In addition we also developed a soluble form NOG in which we utilized soluble MAG-Fc and mutated MAG (Arg118-Fc). Only MAG-Fc is able to inhibit NOG, but not mutated MAG (Arg118)-Fc that has been mutated at its sialic acid binding site. However, both forms of membrane bound MAG- and MAG (Arg118)- expressing cells still inhibit NOG. Here, we review various results from different groups regarding MAG's inhibition of axonal growth. Also, we propose a model in which the sialic acid binding is not necessary for the inhibition induced by the membrane form of MAG, but it is necessary for the soluble form of MAG. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the different mechanisms by which MAG inhibits NOG in both the soluble fragmented form and the membrane-bound form in myelin debris following CNS damage. PMID:27065798

  13. Sialic Acid Is Required for Neuronal Inhibition by Soluble MAG but not for Membrane Bound MAG

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bashir, Najat; Mellado, Wilfredo; Filbin, Marie T.

    2016-01-01

    Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG), a major inhibitor of axonal growth, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) super-family. Importantly, MAG (also known as Siglec-4) is a member of the Siglec family of proteins (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins), MAG binds to complex gangliosides, specifically GD1a and/or GT1b. Therefore, it has been proposed as neuronal receptors for MAG inhibitory effect of axonal growth. Previously, we showed that MAG binds sialic acid through domain 1 at Arg118 and is able to inhibit axonal growth through domain 5. We developed a neurite outgrowth (NOG) assay, in which both wild type MAG and mutated MAG (MAG Arg118) are expressed on cells. In addition we also developed a soluble form NOG in which we utilized soluble MAG-Fc and mutated MAG (Arg118-Fc). Only MAG-Fc is able to inhibit NOG, but not mutated MAG (Arg118)-Fc that has been mutated at its sialic acid binding site. However, both forms of membrane bound MAG- and MAG (Arg118)- expressing cells still inhibit NOG. Here, we review various results from different groups regarding MAG’s inhibition of axonal growth. Also, we propose a model in which the sialic acid binding is not necessary for the inhibition induced by the membrane form of MAG, but it is necessary for the soluble form of MAG. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the different mechanisms by which MAG inhibits NOG in both the soluble fragmented form and the membrane-bound form in myelin debris following CNS damage. PMID:27065798

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a membrane associated NAC family gene, SiNAC from foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    PubMed

    Puranik, Swati; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad; Srivastava, Prem S; Prasad, Manoj

    2011-10-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors have diverse role in development and stress regulation. A transcript encoding NAC protein, termed SiNAC was identified from a salt stress subtractive cDNA library of S. italica seedling (Puranik et al., J Plant Physiol 168:280-287, 2011). This single/low copy gene containing four exons and four introns within the genomic-sequence encoded a protein of 462 amino acids. Structural analysis revealed that highly divergent C terminus contains a transmembrane domain. The NAC domain consisted of a twisted antiparallel beta-sheet packing against N terminal alpha helix on one side and a shorter helix on the other side. The domain was predicted to homodimerize and control DNA-binding specificity. The physicochemical features of the SiNAC homodimer interface justified the dimeric form of the predicted model. A 1539 bp fragment upstream to the start codon of SiNAC gene was cloned and in silico analysis revealed several putative cis-acting regulatory elements within the promoter sequence. Transactivation analysis indicated that SiNAC activated expression of reporter gene and the activation domain lied at the C terminal. The SiNAC:GFP was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm while SiNAC ΔC(1-158):GFP was nuclear localized in onion epidermal cells. SiNAC transcripts mostly accumulated in young spikes and were strongly induced by dehydration, salinity, ethephon, and methyl jasmonate. These results suggest that SiNAC encodes a membrane associated NAC-domain protein that may function as a transcriptional activator in response to stress and developmental regulation in plants. PMID:21312005

  15. A membrane-bound synthetic receptor that promotes growth of a polymeric coating at the bilayer-water interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Young, Michael C; Moshe, Orly; Cheng, Quan; Hooley, Richard J

    2012-07-27

    Primed for action: Atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) can be promoted at a bilayer-water interface by anchoring initiator molecules (see scheme; red) in a membrane-bound synthetic receptor (yellow). The bilayer is formed on a calcinated nanofilm (gray) on a gold surface. PMID:22730162

  16. High-Yield Expression of a Catalytically Active Membrane-Bound Protein: Human P450 Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Sandee, Duanpen

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17α-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 μm, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 μm and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

  17. In Vitro Synthesis of Proteins by Membrane-Bound Polyribosomes from Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Infected HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie; Summers, Donald F.

    1974-01-01

    Membrane-bound polysomes from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected HeLa cells synthesize predominantly three proteins in an in vitro protein synthesizing system. These three proteins have different molecular weights than the viral structural proteins, i.e., 115,000, 88,000, and 72,000. Addition of preincubated L or HeLa cell S10 or HeLa cell crude initiation factors stimulates amino acid incorporation and, furthermore, alters the pattern of proteins synthesized. Stimulated membrane-bound polysomes synthesize predominantly viral protein G and lesser amounts of N, NS, and M. In vitro synthesized proteins G and N are very similar to virion proteins G and N based on analysis of tryptic methionine-labeled peptides. Most methionine-labeled tryptic peptides of virion G protein contain no carbohydrate moieties, since about 90% of sugar-labeled peptides co-chromatograph with only about 10% of methionine-labeled peptides. Sucrose gradient analysis of the labeled RNA present in VSV-infected membrane-bound polysomes reveals a relative enrichment in a class of viral RNA sedimenting slightly faster than the total population of the 13 to 15S mRNA, as compared to a VSV-infected crude cytoplasmic extract. A number of proteins, other than the viral structural proteins, are synthesized in the cytoplasm of five lines of VSV-infected cells. One of these proteins has the same molecular weight as the major in vitro synthesized protein, P88. In vitro synthesized protein P88 does not appear to be a precursor of viral structural proteins G, N, or M based on pulse-chase experiments and tryptic peptide mapping. Nonstimulated membrane-bound polysomes from uninfected HeLa cells synthesize the same size distribution of proteins as nonstimulated VSV-infected membrane-bound polysomes. Images PMID:4368799

  18. Efficient photoinduced orthogonal energy and electron transfer reactions via phospholipid membrane-bound donors and acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, P.J.; Armitage, B.; Roosa, P.; O'Brien, D.F. )

    1994-10-05

    A three component, liposome-bound photochemical molecular device (PMD) consisting of energy and electron transfer reactions is described. Bilayer membrane surface-associated dyes, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)-phenyl]-21H,2 3H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate salt and N,N[prime]-bis[(3-trimethylammonio)propyl]thiadicarbocya nine tribromide, are the energy donor and acceptor, respectively, in a blue light stimulated energy transfer reaction along the vesicle surface. The electronically excited cyanine is quenched by electron transfer from the phospholipid membrane bound triphenylbenzyl borate anion, which is located in the lipid bilayer interior. The PMD exhibits sequential reactions following electronic excitation with the novel feature that the steps proceed with orthogonal orientation: energy transfer occurs parallel to the membrane surface, and electron transfer occurs perpendicular to the surface. Photobleaching and fluorescence quenching experiments verify the transfer reactions, and Stern-Volmer analysis was used to estimate the reaction rate constants. At the highest concentrations examined of energy and electron acceptor ca. 60% of the photoexcited porphyrins were quenched by energy transfer to the cyanine. 56 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Role of nickel in membrane-bound hydrogenase and nickel metabolism in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane-bound hydrogenase of Rhizobium japonicum requires nickel for activity. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni co-migrates with hydrogenase activity in native gel systems and co-elutes with purified hydrogenase form an affinity matrix column. A simplified scheme for the purification of hydrogenase has been developed and constitutes the first report of the aerobic purification of this enzyme from R. japonicum. The aerobic purification utilizes the general affinity matrix. Reactive Red 120-agarose and results in higher specific activity and yield of enzyme than previously reported. The stability of aerobically purified hydrogenase to oxygen is substantially greater than that reported for anaerobically isolated enzyme. Reduction of the aerobically purified enzyme in the presence of oxygen, however, results in the rapid loss of activity. R. japonicum cells accumulate nickel during heterotrophic growth and as non-growing cells. The hydrogenase constitutive mutant SR470 accumulates substantially greater amounts of nickel under both conditions. Kinetic studies indicate that the nickel uptake system in the hydrogenase constitutive mutant SR470 is upregulated relative to SRwt cells. The uptake system is specific for nickel, although a 10-fold excess (relative to nickel) of copper or zinc inhibits nickel uptake. The nickel uptake system appears to require energy. Under nickel-free conditions hydrogenase protein is not synthesized as determined by cross-reactivity with antibodies directed against hydrogenase, indicating that nickel regulates the formation of the enzyme as well as being a constituent of the active protein.

  20. Purification and structural analysis of membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase from Fuji apple.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jin-Hong; Wen, Xin; Ni, Yuan-Ying

    2015-09-15

    Membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase (mPPO) in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji) was purified and analyzed with a nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The three-dimensional model and binding site of mPPO to 4-methyl catechol were also studied using molecular docking. mPPO was purified 54.41-fold using temperature-induced phase partitioning technique and ion exchange chromatography. mPPO had a molecular weight of 67.3kDa. Even though a significant level of homology was observed between mPPO and the soluble polyphenol oxidase in the copper binding sequence, there was another region, rich in histidine residues, which differed in 13 amino acids. The three-dimensional structure of mPPO consisted of six α-helices, two short β-strands, and ten random coils. The putative substrate-binding pocket contained six polar or charged amino acids, His191, His221, Trp224, Trp228, Phe227, and Val190. Trp224 and Trp228 formed hydrogen bonds with 4-methyl-catechol. PMID:25863612

  1. Development of a Membrane-Bound Random DNA Sequence Combinatorial Array Recognition Surface (CARS)

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A partially overlapping population of random sequence 60mer DNA molecules consisting of many concatamers of varied lengths was spatially separated in one and two dimensions by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. The spatially separated library serves as a potential sensor interface on which many different molecular recognition events or target analyte-binding patterns may emerge, thereby theoretically representing a “universal sensor” surface. The separated DNA library has been referred to as a DNA combinatorial array recognition surface or “CARS.” After UV baking and various fluorescence staining or fluorescent probe interactions, the one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D membrane-bound CARS were digitally photographed and subjected to image analysis with National Institutes of Health Image-Java software. Image analysis demonstrated relatively consistent and more similar spatial fluorescence patterns within CARS analyte treatment groups but noteworthy pattern differences before and after analyte addition and between different analyte treatments. Taken together, these data suggest a potential role for CARS as a novel, inexpensive, self-assembling universal molecular recognition surface that could be coupled to sophisticated Bayesian or other pattern recognition algorithms to classify analytes or make specific identifications, much like the senses of smell or taste. PMID:20357981

  2. C. elegans uses Liquid-Liquid Demixing for the Assembly of Non-Membrane-Bound Compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christoph A.; Juelicher, Frank; Diaz Delgadillo, Andres Felipe; Jawerth, Louise; Hyman, Anthony A.; Department Biological Physics Team; Hyman Lab Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    P granules are liquid cytoplasmic RNA/Protein condensates known to determine the germ lineage in Caenorhabditis elegans. They resemble striking similarities with liquid droplets, such as dripping, shearing and wetting. Assuming that P granules are liquid-like we consider how they form in the crowded cytoplasm. Using confocal and light-sheet microscopy, P granule formation in-vivo and in-vitro is shown to share all hallmarks with a liquid-liquid phase-separation. Specifically, demixing is determined by temperature and concentration, the droplet formation is reversible with respect to temperature quenches and there is evidence for droplet growth due to coalescence and Ostwald-ripening. Liquid-liquid demixing in-vivo breaks the paradigmatic view that a molecular machinery is necessary to build up organelles through complex biological pathways. Instead we propose that P granules form following a Flory-Huggins model. Liquid-liquid demixing could also serve as a mechanism for the assembly of non-membrane-bound compartments in other living organisms.

  3. Sex steroids regulate skin pigmentation through nonclassical membrane-bound receptors

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Christopher A; Duperret, Elizabeth K; Zhang, Junqian; Sadeghi, Rochelle; Dahal, Ankit; O'Brien, Kevin Tyler; Cookson, Rosa; Winkler, Jeffrey D; Ridky, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    The association between pregnancy and altered cutaneous pigmentation has been documented for over two millennia, suggesting that sex hormones play a role in regulating epidermal melanocyte (MC) homeostasis. Here we show that physiologic estrogen (17β-estradiol) and progesterone reciprocally regulate melanin synthesis. This is intriguing given that we also show that normal primary human MCs lack classical estrogen or progesterone receptors (ER or PR). Utilizing both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we establish that sex steroid effects on human pigment synthesis are mediated by the membrane-bound, steroid hormone receptors G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7). Activity of these receptors was activated or inhibited by synthetic estrogen or progesterone analogs that do not bind to ER or PR. As safe and effective treatment options for skin pigmentation disorders are limited, these specific GPER and PAQR7 ligands may represent a novel class of therapeutics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15104.001 PMID:27115344

  4. Identification of a Membrane-bound Prepore Species Clarifies the Lytic Mechanism of Actinoporins.

    PubMed

    Morante, Koldo; Bellomio, Augusto; Gil-Cartón, David; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Sot, Jesús; Scheuring, Simon; Valle, Mikel; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Caaveiro, Jose M M

    2016-09-01

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are cytolytic proteins belonging to the molecular warfare apparatus of living organisms. The assembly of the functional transmembrane pore requires several intermediate steps ranging from a water-soluble monomeric species to the multimeric ensemble inserted in the cell membrane. The non-lytic oligomeric intermediate known as prepore plays an essential role in the mechanism of insertion of the class of β-PFTs. However, in the class of α-PFTs, like the actinoporins produced by sea anemones, evidence of membrane-bound prepores is still lacking. We have employed single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and atomic force microscopy to identify, for the first time, a prepore species of the actinoporin fragaceatoxin C bound to lipid vesicles. The size of the prepore coincides with that of the functional pore, except for the transmembrane region, which is absent in the prepore. Biochemical assays indicated that, in the prepore species, the N terminus is not inserted in the bilayer but is exposed to the aqueous solution. Our study reveals the structure of the prepore in actinoporins and highlights the role of structural intermediates for the formation of cytolytic pores by an α-PFT. PMID:27445331

  5. Evolutionarily divergent, Na+-regulated H+-transporting membrane-bound pyrophosphatases.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Heidi H; Nordbo, Erika; Malinen, Anssi M; Baykov, Alexander A; Lahti, Reijo

    2015-04-15

    Membrane-bound pyrophosphatase (mPPases) of various types consume pyrophosphate (PPi) to drive active H+ or Na+ transport across membranes. H+-transporting PPases are divided into phylogenetically distinct K+-independent and K+-dependent subfamilies. In the present study, we describe a group of 46 bacterial proteins and one archaeal protein that are only distantly related to known mPPases (23%-34% sequence identity). Despite this evolutionary divergence, these proteins contain the full set of 12 polar residues that interact with PPi, the nucleophilic water and five cofactor Mg2+ ions found in 'canonical' mPPases. They also contain a specific lysine residue that confers K+ independence on canonical mPPases. Two of the proteins (from Chlorobium limicola and Cellulomonas fimi) were expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to catalyse Mg2+-dependent PPi hydrolysis coupled with electrogenic H+, but not Na+ transport, in inverted membrane vesicles. Unique features of the new H+-PPases include their inhibition by Na+ and inhibition or activation, depending on PPi concentration, by K+ ions. Kinetic analyses of PPi hydrolysis over wide ranges of cofactor (Mg2+) and substrate (Mg2-PPi) concentrations indicated that the alkali cations displace Mg2+ from the enzyme, thereby arresting substrate conversion. These data define the new proteins as a novel subfamily of H+-transporting mPPases that partly retained the Na+ and K+ regulation patterns of their precursor Na+-transporting mPPases. PMID:25662511

  6. Purification, characterization, and crystallization of membrane bound Escherichia coli tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Chesterman, Chelsy; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-09-01

    Escherichia coli tyrosine kinase (Etk) is a membrane bound kinase in gram-negative bacteria that regulates the export of capsular polysaccharides (CPS). The molecular mechanism behind CPS regulation remains unclear, despite access to a crystal structure of the cytoplasmic kinase domain of Etk. In this study, an efficient protocol to produce full length Etk solubilized in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside has been established with high yield. We have determined that detergent solubilized Etk retains kinase activity, but the protein is prone to aggregation, degradation, and has been unsuccessful in protein crystallization trials. In response, we designed and characterized truncations of Etk that do not aggregate and have led to successful crystallization experiments. In this article, we discuss our optimized expression and purification protocol for Etk, the design of Etk protein truncations, and the behavior of Etk during purification in a range of stabilizing detergents. These efforts have successfully produced protein suitable for crystallization. Our results will be a useful guide for future structural and functional studies of the bacterial tyrosine kinase family. PMID:26363120

  7. [Purification and properties of membrane-bound methane hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M)].

    PubMed

    Gvozdev, R I; Tukhvatullin, I A; Tumanova, L V

    2008-01-01

    Membrane fraction of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) were treated with [14C]acetylene, an affinity label binding to the active center of membrane-bound methane monooxygenase (MMO). High-purity particulate form of methane hydroxylase (pMH) was obtained by ion exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. According to SDS-PAGE data, the enzyme contained three polypeptides with molecular weights of 47 (alpha), 27 (beta), and 25 (gamma) kDa in the ratio 1:1:1. The radiolabel was contained in the beta-subunit of pMH. The protein contained 1 or 2 atoms of nonheme iron and 2-4 atoms of copper per a minimum molecular weight of 99 kDa. This protein did not oxidize methane or propylene in the presence of NADH but was able to oxidize low quantities of methane in the presence of duroquinol. It was established that methanol dehydrogenase (MD) and NADH oxidoreductase (NADH-OR) are peripheral membrane proteins. Possible causes of low activity of high-purity methane hydroxylase are discussed. PMID:18946992

  8. Diversity of Membrane-Bound Nitrate Reductase Genes in Geothermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poret-Peterson, A. T.; Schwegel, R.; Elser, J. J.; Shock, E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) harbors an array of hot springs with diverse geochemical properties encompassing gradients of pH (<1 to >9), temperature (ambient to boiling), oxygen levels, metal and nutrient concentrations. Such geothermal features provide ideal settings to study nitrogen (N) cycling in high temperature aquatic environments. Our current understanding of N cycle dynamics in hydrothermal systems comes mainly from the study of nitrogen fixation and nitrification. Indeed, research in these areas has extended the upper temperature limits for both processes to above 80°C and stimulated new thoughts on these processes at the cellular and organismal levels. Denitrification at elevated temperatures, on the other hand, has received com-paratively little attention. Here, we use functional gene markers to explore denitrification in YNP hydrothermal springs. During two consecutive summers, we collected sediment and microbial mat samples from various geothermal features for analysis of genes for denitrification and characterization of geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, relative abundance of trace metals, etc.). Genes encoding putative membrane-bound nitrate reductase (narG)were amplified from sediments and microbial mats of hot springs ranging in temperature from 50°C up to 92°C. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes show that they are most closely related to narG sequences from hyperthermophilic archaea.

  9. Endocytic Trafficking of Membrane-Bound Cargo: A Flotillin Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Melanie; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous and highly conserved flotillin proteins, flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, have been shown to be involved in various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, signal transduction through receptor tyrosine kinases as well as in cellular trafficking pathways. Due to the fact that flotillins are acylated and form hetero-oligomers, they constitutively associate with cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains. In recent years, such microdomains have been appreciated as platforms that participate in endocytosis and other cellular trafficking steps. This review summarizes the current findings on the role of flotillins in membrane-bound cargo endocytosis and endosomal trafficking events. We will discuss the proposed function of flotillins in endocytosis in the light of recent findings that point towards a role for flotillins in a step that precedes the actual endocytic uptake of cargo molecules. Recent findings have also revealed that flotillins may be important for endosomal sorting and recycling of specific cargo molecules. In addition to these aspects, the cellular trafficking pathway of flotillins themselves as potential cargo in the context of growth factor signaling will be discussed. PMID:25019426

  10. Purification and characterization of the membrane-bound ferrochelatase from Spirillum itersonii.

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, H A

    1977-01-01

    The membrane-bound enzyme ferrochelatase (protoheme ferro-lyase, EC 4.99.1.1) was purified from isolated membrane fragments of Spirillum itersonii approximately 490-fold. Purification was achieved by solubilization with chaotropic salts followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme has an apparent minimum molecular weight of approximately 50,000, as determined by gel filtration in the presence of 0.1% Brij 35 and 1 mM dithiothreitol but forms high-molecular-weight aggregates in the absence of detergent. Purified ferrochelatase is strongly stimulated in the presence of copper. The apparent Km for Fe2+ is 20 micrometer in the absence of copper and 9.5 micrometer in the presence of 20 micrometer CuCl2. The apparent Km for protoporphyrin is 50 micrometer, and it is unaltered by copper. Ferrochelatase has a single pH optimum of 7.50, and it is inhibited 50% by 20 micrometer heme. Certain divalent cations and sulfhydryl reagents also inhibit the enzyme. Images PMID:21163

  11. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 − were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27162276

  12. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-04-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 (-) were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27162276

  13. NAC transcription factor family genes are differentially expressed in rice during infections with Rice dwarf virus, Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, Rice grassy stunt virus, Rice ragged stunt virus, and Rice transitory yellowing virus

    PubMed Central

    Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Sharoni, Akhter M.; Satoh, Kouji; Karim, Mohammad Rezaul; Harikrishna, Jennifer A.; Shimizu, Takumi; Sasaya, Takahide; Omura, Toshihiro; Haque, Mohammad A.; Hasan, Sayed M. Z.; Ahmad, Aziz; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2015-01-01

    Expression levels of the NAC gene family were studied in rice infected with Rice dwarf virus (RDV), Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), and Rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV). Microarray analysis showed that 75 (68%) OsNAC genes were differentially regulated during infection with RDV, RBSDV, RGSV, and RRSV compared with the control. The number of OsNAC genes up-regulated was highest during RGSV infection, while the lowest number was found during RTYV infection. These phenomena correlate with the severity of the syndromes induced by the virus infections. Most of the genes in the NAC subgroups NAC22, SND, ONAC2, ANAC34, and ONAC3 were down-regulated for all virus infections. These OsNAC genes might be related to the health stage maintenance of the host plants. Interestingly, most of the genes in the subgroups TIP and SNAC were more highly expressed during RBSDV and RGSV infections. These results suggested that OsNAC genes might be related to the responses induced by the virus infection. All of the genes assigned to the TIP subgroups were highly expressed during RGSV infection when compared with the control. For RDV infection, the number of activated genes was greatest during infection with the S-strain, followed by the D84-strain and the O-strain, with seven OsNAC genes up-regulated during infection by all three strains. The Os12g03050 and Os11g05614 genes showed higher expression during infection with four of the five viruses, and Os11g03310, Os11g03370, and Os07g37920 genes showed high expression during at least three viral infections. We identified some duplicate genes that are classified as neofunctional and subfunctional according to their expression levels in different viral infections. A number of putative cis-elements were identified, which may help to clarify the function of these key genes in network pathways. PMID:26442000

  14. Maximal Expression of Membrane-Bound Nitrate Reductase in Paracoccus Is Induced by Nitrate via a Third FNR-Like Regulator Named NarR

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nicholas J.; Alizadeh, Tooba; Bennett, Scott; Pearce, Joanne; Ferguson, Stuart J.; Richardson, David J.; Moir, James W. B.

    2001-01-01

    Respiratory reduction of nitrate to nitrite is the first key step in the denitrification process that leads to nitrate loss from soils. In Paracoccus pantotrophus, the enzyme system that catalyzes this reaction is encoded by the narKGHJI gene cluster. Expression of this cluster is maximal under anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Upstream from narK is narR, a gene encoding a member of the FNR family of transcriptional activators. narR is transcribed divergently from the other nar genes. Mutational analysis reveals that NarR is required for maximal expression of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase genes and narK but has no other regulatory function related to denitrification. NarR is shown to require nitrate and/or nitrite is order to activate gene expression. The N-terminal region of the protein lacks the cysteine residues that are required for formation of an oxygen-sensitive iron-sulfur cluster in some other members of the FNR family. Also, NarR lacks a crucial residue involved in interactions of this family of regulators with the ς70 subunit of RNA polymerase, indicating that a different mechanism is used to promote transcription. narR is also found in Paracoccus denitrificans, indicating that this species contains at least three FNR homologues. PMID:11371524

  15. Multiple sources of carbonic anhydrase activity in pea thylakoids: soluble and membrane-bound forms.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Natalia N; Ignatova, Lyudmila K; Ivanov, Boris N

    2007-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of pea thylakoids, thylakoid membranes enriched with photosystem I (PSI-membranes), or photosystem II (PSII-membranes) as well as both supernatant and pellet after precipitation of thylakoids treated with detergent Triton X-100 were studied. CA activity of thylakoids in the presence of varying concentrations of Triton X-100 had two maxima, at Triton/chlorophyll (triton/Chl) ratios of 0.3 and 1.0. CA activities of PSI-membranes and PSII-membranes had only one maximum each, at Triton/Chl ratio 0.3 or 1.0, respectively. Two CAs with characteristics of the membrane-bound proteins and one CA with characteristics of the soluble proteins were found in the medium after thylakoids were incubated with Triton. One of the first two CAs had mobility in PAAG after native electrophoresis the same as that of CA residing in PSI-membranes, and the other CA had mobility the same as the mobility of CA residing in PSII-membranes, but the latter was different from CA situated in PSII core-complex (Ignatova et al. 2006 Biochemistry (Moscow) 71:525-532). The properties of the "soluble" CA removed from thylakoids were different from the properties of the known soluble CAs of plant cell: apparent molecular mass was about 262 kD and it was three orders more sensitive to the specific CA inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, than soluble stromal CA. The data are discussed as indicating the presence of, at least, four CAs in pea thylakoids. PMID:17347907

  16. Detection of oocyte perivitelline membrane-bound sperm: a tool for avian collection management

    PubMed Central

    Croyle, Kaitlin E.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Jensen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The success and sustainability of an avian breeding programme depend on managing productive and unproductive pairs. Given that each breeding season can be of immeasurable importance, it is critical to resolve pair fertility issues quickly. Such problems are traditionally diagnosed through behavioural observations, egg lay history and hatch rates, with a decision to re-pair generally taking one or more breeding seasons. In pairs producing incubated eggs that show little or no signs of embryonic development, determining fertility is difficult. Incorporating a technique to assess sperm presence on the oocyte could, in conjunction with behaviour and other data, facilitate a more timely re-pair decision. Detection of perivitelline membrane-bound (PVM-bound) sperm verifies successful copulation, sperm production and sperm functionality. Alternatively, a lack of detectable sperm, at least in freshly laid eggs, suggests no mating, lack of sperm production/function or sperm–oviduct incompatibility. This study demonstrated PVM-bound sperm detection by Hoechst staining in fresh to 24-day-incubated exotic eggs from 39 species representing 13 orders. However, a rapid and significant time-dependent loss of detectable PVM-bound sperm was observed following incubation of chicken eggs. The PCR detection of sperm in seven species, including two bacterially infected eggs, demonstrated that this method was not as reliable as visual detection using Hoechst staining. The absence of amplicons in visually positive PVMs was presumably due to large PVM size and low sperm count, resulting in DNA concentrations too low for standard PCR detection. In summary, this study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of using PVM-bound sperm detection as a management tool for exotic avian species. We verified that sperm presence or absence on fluorescence microscopy can aid in the differentiation of fertile from infertile eggs to assist breeding managers in making prompt decisions for pair

  17. Purification and properties of the membrane-bound by hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans.

    PubMed

    Lalla-Maharajh, W V; Hall, D O; Cammack, R; Rao, K K; Le Gall, J

    1983-02-01

    The membrane-bound hydrogenase from the anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (Norway strain) has been purified to homogeneity, with an overall 80-fold purification and a specific activity of 70 mumol of H2 evolved/min per mg of protein. The hydrogenase had a relative molecular mass of 58 000 as determined by gel filtration and was estimated to contain six iron atoms and six acid-labile sulphur groups per molecule. The absorption spectrum of the enzyme was characteristic of an iron-sulphur protein. The E400 and E280 were 28 500 and 109 000 M-1.cm-1 respectively. The e.s.r. of the oxidized protein indicated the presence of [4Fe-4S]3+ or [3Fe-3S]3+, and another paramagnetic centre, probably Ni(III). The hydrogenase was inhibited by heavy-metal salts, carbon monoxide and high ionic strength. However, it was resistant to inhibition by thiol-blocking and metal-complexing reagents. N-Bromosuccinimide totally inhibited the enzyme activity at low concentrations. The enzyme was stable to O2 over long periods and to high temperatures. It catalyses both H2-evolution and H2-uptake with a variety of artificial electron carriers. D. desulfuricans cytochrome C3, its natural electron carrier, had a high affinity for the enzyme (Km = 2 microns). Rate enhancement was observed when cytochrome C3 was added to Methyl Viologen in the H2-evolution assay. The pH optimum for H2-evolution was 6.5. PMID:6303306

  18. Membrane-Bound PenA β-Lactamase of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Randall, Linnell B; Dobos, Karen; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Bonomo, Robert A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiologic agent of melioidosis, a difficult-to-treat disease with diverse clinical manifestations. β-Lactam antibiotics such as ceftazidime are crucial to the success of melioidosis therapy. Ceftazidime-resistant clinical isolates have been described, and the most common mechanism is point mutations affecting expression or critical amino acid residues of the chromosomally encoded class A PenA β-lactamase. We previously showed that PenA was exported via the twin arginine translocase system and associated with the spheroplast fraction. We now show that PenA is a membrane-bound lipoprotein. The protein and accompanying β-lactamase activity are found in the membrane fraction and can be extracted with Triton X-114. Treatment with globomycin of B. pseudomallei cells expressing PenA results in accumulation of the prolipoprotein. Mass spectrometric analysis of extracted membrane proteins reveals a protein peak whose mass is consistent with a triacylated PenA protein. Mutation of a crucial lipobox cysteine at position 23 to a serine residue results in loss of β-lactamase activity and absence of detectable PenAC23S protein. A concomitant isoleucine-to-alanine change at position 20 in the signal peptide processing site in the PenAC23S mutant results in a nonlipidated protein (PenAI20A C23S) that is processed by signal peptidase I and exhibits β-lactamase activity. The resistance profile of a B. pseudomallei strain expressing this protein is indistinguishable from the profile of the isogenic strain expressing wild-type PenA. The data show that PenA membrane association is not required for resistance and must serve another purpose. PMID:26711764

  19. [The binuclear iron site of the membrane-bound methane hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M)].

    PubMed

    Tumanova, L V; Tukhvatullin, I A; Burbaev, T Sh; Gvozdev, R I; Andersson, K K

    2008-01-01

    The particulate membrane-bound methane hydroxylase (pMMOH) was isolated from methane-oxidizing cells of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M). At SDS PAGE, pMMOH displays three bands: 47 (alpha), 27 (beta), and 25 kDa (gamma). The ESR spectrum of pMMOH incubated with hydrogen peroxide (final concentration 20 mM) at 4 degrees C exhibited, along with the copper signal of type I with g = 2.05, signals of cytochrome with g = 3.0 and of high-spin ferriheme with g = 6.00. After incubation at -30 degrees C, additional signals with g 8.5 and 13.5 were observed. These signals, which have not been recorded previously in pMMOH preparations, are due to an intermediate of the pMMOH active site, which arises in the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with pMMOH at -30 degrees C. It was established that this intermediate is a high-spin dimer [Fe(IlI)-Fe(IV)] with S = 9/2 and different degree of rhombic distortion of structure (it is responsible for both signals). Presumably, the signal with g = 8.5 also arises from the same dimer [Fe(III)-Fe(IV)], but with S = 7/2. The presence of the intermediate [Fe(lII)-Fe(IV)] in pMMOH preparations suggests that the original state of the pMMOH active site is the dimer [Fe(III)-Fe(III)] which is located in the beta-subunit and cannot be detected by ESR. The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2008, vol. 34, no. 2; see also http:// www.maik.ru. PMID:18522275

  20. Purification and characterization of membrane-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) from bovine lung.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, J M; Tipton, K F; Unzeta, M

    1998-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) has been purified from bovine lung microsomes in a form which is catalytically active and stable to storage. The enzyme, an integral membrane protein, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and purification was achieved, in the presence of detergent, by chromatography with Cibacron Blue 3GA-agarose, hydroxylapatite, Lens culinaris-agarose, Resource Q-FPLC and gel filtration on Superdex 200 HR-FPLC. This is the first reported procedure for the extensive purification of a membrane-bound SSAO. The purified enzyme had an apparent Mr of 400000 but exhibited microheterogeneity with SDS/PAGE and isoelectric focusing, probably as a result of its glycoprotein nature. It behaved as a tetramer with subunits with apparent Mr values of 100. Antibodies raised towards the purified enzyme cross-reacted with the enzymes from human lung and bovine plasma. Redox-cycling staining and reaction with carbonyl reagents were consistent with the presence of a quinone cofactor, possibly topa quinone. The enzyme was also shown to contain two mol of Cu/mol of enzyme and removal of half of this bound copper resulted essentially in complete inhibition of enzyme activity. In contrast to the reported behaviour of the SSAO enzymes from plasma, the bovine lung enzyme was relatively insensitive to inhibition by cyanide, copper-chelating agents and amiloride. The specificity of the bovine lung enzyme was also narrower than reported for soluble SSAO. It catalysed the oxidative deamination of benzylamine, methylamine, 2-phenylethylamine and histamine but had no significant activity towards dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, tryptamine or tyramine. PMID:9512463

  1. Chelonian perivitelline membrane-bound sperm detection: A new breeding management tool.

    PubMed

    Croyle, Kaitlin; Gibbons, Paul; Light, Christine; Goode, Eric; Durrant, Barbara; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Perivitelline membrane (PVM)-bound sperm detection has recently been incorporated into avian breeding programs to assess egg fertility, confirm successful copulation, and to evaluate male reproductive status and pair compatibility. Due to the similarities between avian and chelonian egg structure and development, and because fertility determination in chelonian eggs lacking embryonic growth is equally challenging, PVM-bound sperm detection may also be a promising tool for the reproductive management of turtles and tortoises. This study is the first to successfully demonstrate the use of PVM-bound sperm detection in chelonian eggs. Recovered membranes were stained with Hoechst 33342 and examined for sperm presence using fluorescence microscopy. Sperm were positively identified for up to 206 days post-oviposition, following storage, diapause, and/or incubation, in 52 opportunistically collected eggs representing 12 species. However, advanced microbial infection frequently hindered the ability to detect membrane-bound sperm. Fertile Centrochelys sulcata, Manouria emys, and Stigmochelys pardalis eggs were used to evaluate the impact of incubation and storage on the ability to detect sperm. Storage at -20°C or in formalin were found to be the best methods for egg preservation prior to sperm detection. Additionally, sperm-derived mtDNA was isolated and PCR amplified from Astrochelys radiata, C. sulcata, and S. pardalis eggs. PVM-bound sperm detection has the potential to substantially improve studies of artificial incubation and sperm storage, and could be used to evaluate the success of artificial insemination in chelonian species. Mitochondrial DNA from PVM-bound sperm has applications for parentage analysis, the study of sperm competition, and potentially species identification. Zoo Biol. 35:95-103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890048

  2. Exploring homo-FRET to quantify the oligomer stoichiometry of membrane-bound proteins involved in a cooperative partition equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana M; Fedorov, Aleksander; Prieto, Manuel; Coutinho, Ana

    2014-09-14

    The establishment of protein-protein interactions between membrane-bound proteins is associated with several biological functions and dysfunctions. Here, an analytical framework that uses energy homo transfer to directly probe quantitatively the oligomerization state of membrane-bound proteins engaged in a three-state cooperative partition is presented. Briefly, this model assumes that monomeric protein molecules partition into the bilayer surface and reversibly assemble into oligomers with k subunits. A general equation relating the overall steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of the sample to its fractional labeling was derived by considering explicitly that the anisotropy of mixed oligomers containing i-labeled monomers is inversely proportional to the number of labeled subunits per oligomer (Runnels and Scarlata limit). This method was very robust in describing the electrostatic interaction of Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescently labeled lysozyme (Lz-A488) with phosphatidylserine-containing membranes. The pronounced decrease detected in the fluorescence anisotropy of Lz-A488 always correlated with the system reaching a high membrane surface density of the protein (at a low lipid-to-protein (L/P) molar ratio). The occurrence of energy homo transfer-induced fluorescence depolarization was further confirmed by measuring the anisotropy decays of Lz-A488 under these conditions. A global analysis of the steady-state anisotropy data obtained under a wide range of experimental conditions (variable anionic lipid content of the liposomes, L/P molar ratios and protein fractional labeling) confirmed that membrane-bound Lz-A488 assembled into oligomeric complexes, possibly with a stoichiometry of k = 6 ± 1. This study illustrates that even in the presence of a coupled partition-oligomerization equilibrium, steady-state anisotropy measurements provide a simple and reliable tool to monitor the self-assembly of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:24722583

  3. Characterizing the Membrane-Bound State of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Structure, Depth of Insertion, and Orientation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant membrane-associated isoform of the P450 family in humans and is responsible for biotransformation of more than 50% of drugs metabolized in the body. Despite the large number of crystallographic structures available for CYP3A4, no structural information for its membrane-bound state at an atomic level is available. In order to characterize binding, depth of insertion, membrane orientation, and lipid interactions of CYP3A4, we have employed a combined experimental and simulation approach in this study. Taking advantage of a novel membrane representation, highly mobile membrane mimetic (HMMM), with enhanced lipid mobility and dynamics, we have been able to capture spontaneous binding and insertion of the globular domain of the enzyme into the membrane in multiple independent, unbiased simulations. Despite different initial orientations and positions of the protein in solution, all the simulations converged into the same membrane-bound configuration with regard to both the depth of membrane insertion and the orientation of the enzyme on the surface of the membrane. In tandem, linear dichroism measurements performed on CYP3A4 bound to Nanodisc membranes were used to characterize the orientation of the enzyme in its membrane-bound form experimentally. The heme tilt angles measured experimentally are in close agreement with those calculated for the membrane-bound structures resulted from the simulations, thereby verifying the validity of the developed model. Membrane binding of the globular domain in CYP3A4, which appears to be independent of the presence of the transmembrane helix of the full-length enzyme, significantly reshapes the protein at the membrane interface, causing conformational changes relevant to access tunnels leading to the active site of the enzyme. PMID:23697766

  4. Membrane-bound tomato mosaic virus replication proteins participate in RNA synthesis and are associated with host proteins in a pattern distinct from those that are not membrane bound.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Dohi, Koji; Mori, Masashi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of vacuole-depleted, tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-infected plant protoplasts contained an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that utilized an endogenous template to synthesize ToMV-related positive-strand RNAs in a pattern similar to that observed in vivo. Despite the fact that only minor fractions of the ToMV 130- and 180-kDa replication proteins were associated with membranes, the RdRp activity was exclusively associated with membranes. A genome-sized, negative-strand RNA template was associated with membranes and was resistant to micrococcal nuclease unless treated with detergents. Non-membrane-bound replication proteins did not exhibit RdRp activity, even in the presence of ToMV RNA. While the non-membrane-bound replication proteins remained soluble after treatment with Triton X-100, the same treatment made the membrane-bound replication proteins in a form that precipitated upon low-speed centrifugation. On the other hand, the detergent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) efficiently solubilized the membrane-bound replication proteins. Upon LPC treatment, the endogenous template-dependent RdRp activity was reduced and exogenous ToMV RNA template-dependent RdRp activity appeared instead. This activity, as well as the viral 130-kDa protein and the host proteins Hsp70, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), TOM1, and TOM2A copurified with FLAG-tagged viral 180-kDa protein from LPC-solubilized membranes. In contrast, Hsp70 and only small amounts of the 130-kDa protein and eEF1A copurified with FLAG-tagged non-membrane-bound 180-kDa protein. These results suggest that the viral replication proteins are associated with the intracellular membranes harboring TOM1 and TOM2A and that this association is important for RdRp activity. Self-association of the viral replication proteins and their association with other host proteins may also be important for RdRp activity. PMID:16912296

  5. Membrane-bound heat shock proteins facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyan; Fang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Weicheng; Shao, Miaomiao; Wang, Lan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were originally identified as stress-responsive proteins and serve as molecular chaperones in different intracellular compartments. Translocation of HSPs to the cell surface and release of HSPs into the extracellular space have been observed during the apoptotic process and in response to a variety of cellular stress. Here, we report that UV irradiation and cisplatin treatment rapidly induce the expression of membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 upstream the phosphatidylserine exposure. Membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the release of IL-6 and IL-1β as well as DC maturation by the evaluation of CD80 and CD86 expression. On the other hand, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 on cells could facilitate the uptake of dying cells by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), as a common receptor for Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90, is response for their recognition and mediates the uptake of dying cells. Furthermore, membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the cross-presentation of OVA antigen from E.G7 cells and inhibition of the uptake of dying cells by LOX-1 decreases the cross-presentation of cellular antigen. Therefore, the rapid exposure of HSPs on dying cells at the early stage allows for the recognition by and confers an activation signal to the immune system. PMID:26481477

  6. Mechanism of biological denitrification inhibition: procyanidins induce an allosteric transition of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase through membrane alteration.

    PubMed

    Bardon, Clément; Poly, Franck; Piola, Florence; Pancton, Muriel; Comte, Gilles; Meiffren, Guillaume; Haichar, Feth el Zahar

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it has been shown that procyanidins from Fallopia spp. inhibit bacterial denitrification, a phenomenon called biological denitrification inhibition (BDI). However, the mechanisms involved in such a process remain unknown. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of BDI involving procyanidins, using the model strain Pseudomonas brassicacearum NFM 421. The aerobic and anaerobic (denitrification) respiration, cell permeability and cell viability of P. brassicacearum were determined as a function of procyanidin concentration. The effect of procyanidins on the bacterial membrane was observed using transmission electronic microscopy. Bacterial growth, denitrification, NO3- and NO2-reductase activity, and the expression of subunits of NO3- (encoded by the gene narG) and NO2-reductase (encoded by the gene nirS) under NO3 or NO2 were measured with and without procyanidins. Procyanidins inhibited the denitrification process without affecting aerobic respiration at low concentrations. Procyanidins also disturbed cell membranes without affecting cell viability. They specifically inhibited NO3- but not NO2-reductase.Pseudomonas brassicacearum responded to procyanidins by over-expression of the membrane-bound NO3-reductase subunit (encoded by the gene narG). Our results suggest that procyanidins can specifically inhibit membrane-bound NO3-reductase inducing enzymatic conformational changes through membrane disturbance and that P. brassicacearum responds by over-expressing membrane-bound NO3-reductase. Our results lead the way to a better understanding of BDI. PMID:26906096

  7. ESTRADIOL-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF OBJECT MEMORY CONSOLIDATION INVOLVES HIPPOCAMPAL ERK ACTIVATION AND MEMBRANE-BOUND ESTROGEN RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stephanie M.; Lewis, Michael C.; Pechenino, Angela S.; Harburger, Lauren L.; Orr, Patrick T.; Gresack, Jodi E.; Schafe, Glenn E.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical for various forms of learning and memory, and is activated by the potent estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2). Here, we asked whether E2 modulates memory via ERK activation and putative membrane-bound estrogen receptors (ERs). Using ovariectomized mice, we first demonstrate that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0.2 mg/kg E2 significantly increases dorsal hippocampal levels of phosphorylated ERK protein 1 hour after injection. Second, we show that E2 administered i.p. (0.2 mg/kg) or via intrahippocampal infusion (5.0 μg/side) immediately after training in an object recognition task significantly enhances memory retention, and that the beneficial effect of i.p. E2 is blocked by dorsal hippocampal inhibition of ERK activation. Third, using bovine serum albumin-conjugated 17β-estradiol (BSA-E2), we demonstrate that E2 binding at membrane-bound ERs can increase dorsal hippocampal ERK activation and enhance object memory consolidation in an ERK-dependent manner. Fourth, we show that this effect is independent of nuclear ERs, but is dependent on the dorsal hippocampus. By demonstrating that E2 enhances memory consolidation via dorsal hippocampal ERK activation, this study is the first to identify a specific molecular pathway by which E2 modulates memory and to demonstrate a novel role for membrane-bound ERs in mediating E2-induced improvements in hippocampal memory consolidation. PMID:18753366

  8. Abnormal gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes of depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Ren, Xinguo; Zhang, Hui; Bhaumik, Runa; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2016-06-30

    Abnormalities of protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors have been reported in plasma of depressed patients. In this study, we examined the role of cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in major depressive disorder (MDD). We determined the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and mRNA expression of their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes from 31 hospitalized MDD patients and 30 non-hospitalized normal control (NC) subjects. The subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Protein levels of cytokines were determined by ELISA, and mRNA levels in lymphocytes were determined by the qPCR method. We found that the mean mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, their receptors, TNFR1, TNFR2, IL-1R1 and the antagonist IL-1RA were significantly increased in the lymphocytes of MDD patients compared with NC. No significant differences in the lymphocyte mRNA levels of IL-1R2, IL-6R, and Gp130 were observed between MDD patients and NC. These studies suggest abnormal gene expression of these cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes of MDD patients, and that their mRNA expression levels in the lymphocytes could be a useful biomarker for depression. PMID:27138824

  9. Protein complex formation and intranuclear dynamics of NAC1 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Naomi; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakashita, Gyosuke; Nariai, Yuko; Nakayama, Kentaro; Kyo, Satoru; Urano, Takeshi

    2016-09-15

    Nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NAC1) is a cancer-related transcription regulator protein that is also involved in the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. NAC1 is overexpressed in various carcinomas including ovarian, cervical, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas. NAC1 knock-down was previously shown to result in the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell lines and to rescue their sensitivity to chemotherapy, suggesting that NAC1 may be a potential therapeutic target, but protein complex formation and the dynamics of intranuclear NAC1 in cancer cells remain poorly understood. In this study, analysis of HeLa cell lysates by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a sizing column showed that the NAC1 peak corresponded to an apparent molecular mass of 300-500 kDa, which is larger than the estimated molecular mass (58 kDa) of the protein. Furthermore, live cell photobleaching analyses with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused NAC1 proteins revealed the intranuclear dynamics of NAC1. Collectively our results demonstrate that NAC1 forms a protein complex to function as a transcriptional regulator in cancer cells. PMID:27424155

  10. Activities and expression pattern of the carbohydrate sulfotransferase GlcNAc6ST-3 (I-GlcNAc6ST): functional implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Kyu; Bistrup, Annette; van Zante, Annemieke; Rosen, Steven D

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, a family of five GlcNAc-6-O-sulfotransferases, called the GlcNAc6STs, has been molecularly cloned. One of these, GlcNAc6ST-2 (originally named HEC-GlcNAc6ST or LSST), shows a very restricted expression at the mRNA level in high endothelial cells (HECs) of lymph nodes high endothelial venules (HEVs). This enzyme has been shown to be involved in elaborating the 6-sulfo sLex structure on a set of mucin-like acceptors within HECs, thus providing a critical recognition determinant for L-selectin during the process of lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes. Limited information has been available about the closely related sulfotransferase known as GlcNAc6ST-3 (I-GlcNAc6ST). Here, employing transfection experiments with a series of glycoprotein acceptors, we report that this sulfotransferase has a marked preference for sulfating O-linked sugars of mucin-type acceptors, whereas other sulfotransferases in the family (GlcNAc6ST-1, GlcNAc6ST-2) and a Gal-6-O-sulfotransferase exhibit strong activity on both mucin-type acceptors and glycoproteins with predominantly N-linked chains. PCR analysis of cDNAs derived from a panel of tissues and purified cell populations confirms the strong expression of GlcNAc6ST-3 in gut-associated tissues and extends the expression to include lymphocytes. In contrast to GlcNAc6ST-2, GlcNAc6ST-3 transcripts are present minimally, if at all, in HECs; moreover, this enzyme is not able to generate the 6-sulfo sLex epitope in transfected cells. These latter findings argue that GlcNAc6ST-3 is not involved in generating HEV-expressed ligands for L-selectin. PMID:12626414

  11. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1,200 C to 1,400 C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  12. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  13. Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of the NAC domain protein family in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Steven G; Saïdi, Mohammed N; Hefer, Charles A; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    NAC domain transcription factors regulate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants and vary widely in number and family structure. We analysed the characteristics and evolution of the NAC gene family of Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing forest tree in the rosid order Myrtales. NAC domain genes identified in the E. grandis genome were subjected to amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and motif analyses. Transcript abundance in developing tissues and abiotic stress conditions in E. grandis and E. globulus was quantified using RNA-seq and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). One hundred and eighty-nine E. grandis NAC (EgrNAC) proteins, arranged into 22 subfamilies, are extensively duplicated in subfamilies associated with stress response. Most EgrNAC genes form tandem duplicate arrays that frequently carry signatures of purifying selection. Sixteen amino acid motifs were identified in EgrNAC proteins, eight of which are enriched in, or unique to, Eucalyptus. New candidates for the regulation of normal and tension wood development and cold responses were identified. This first description of a Myrtales NAC domain family reveals an unique history of tandem duplication in stress-related subfamilies that has likely contributed to the adaptation of eucalypts to the challenging Australian environment. Several new candidates for the regulation of stress, wood formation and tree-specific development are reported. PMID:25385212

  14. Two unrelated putative membrane-bound progestin receptors, progesterone membrane receptor component 1 (PGMRC1) and membrane progestin receptor (mPR) beta, are expressed in the rainbow trout oocyte and exhibit similar ovarian expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mourot, Brigitte; Nguyen, Thaovi; Fostier, Alexis; Bobe, Julien

    2006-01-01

    Background In lower vertebrates, steroid-induced oocyte maturation is considered to involve membrane-bound progestin receptors. Two totally distinct classes of putative membrane-bound progestin receptors have been reported in vertebrates. A first class of receptors, now termed progesterone membrane receptor component (PGMRC; subtypes 1 and 2) has been studied since 1996 but never studied in a fish species nor in the oocyte of any animal species. A second class of receptors, termed membrane progestin receptors (mPR; subtypes alpha, beta and gamma), was recently described in vertebrates and implicated in the progestin-initiated induction of oocyte maturation in fish. Methods In the present study, we report the characterization of the full coding sequence of rainbow trout PGMRC1 and mPR beta cDNAs, their tissue distribution, their ovarian expression profiles during oogenesis, their hormonal regulation in the full grown ovary and the in situ localization of PGMRC1 mRNA in the ovary. Results Our results clearly show, for the first time in any animal species, that rainbow trout PGMRC1 mRNA is present in the oocyte and has a strong expression in ovarian tissue. In addition, we show that both mPR beta and PGMRC1, two members of distinct membrane-bound progestin receptor classes, exhibit highly similar ovarian expression profiles during the reproductive cycle with maximum levels during vitellogenesis and a down-expression during late vitellogenesis. In addition, the mRNA abundance of both genes is not increased after in vitro hormonal stimulation of full grown follicles by maturation inducing hormones. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that PGMRC1 is a new possible participant in the progestin-induced oocyte maturation in fish. However, its participation in the process of oocyte maturation, which remains to be confirmed, would occur at post-transcriptional levels. PMID:16457725

  15. Ectopic expression of a GlcNAc 6-O-sulfotransferase, GlcNAc6ST-2, in colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Seko, Akira; Nagata, Koji; Yonezawa, Suguru; Yamashita, Katsuko

    2002-06-01

    The content of sulfated glycans having 6-O-sulfated GlcNAc residues alters in the course of colonic carcinogenesis. We previously characterized two GlcNAc 6-O-sulfotransferases (SulTs), SulT-a and -b, expressed in colonic normal tissues and adenocarcinomas [Seko et al. (2000) Glycobiology, 10, 919-929]. Levels of the enzymatic activities of SulT-a in normal colonic mucosa are higher than those in colonic adenocarcinomas, and the enzymatic activities of SulT-b are detected only in mucinous adenocarcinomas. To determine which GlcNAc 6-O-SulTs cloned so far correspond to SulT-a and -b, we expressed seven enzymes of a Gal/GalNAc/GlcNAc 6-O-SulT family in COS-7 cells and examined their substrate specificities in comparison with those of SulT-a and -b. GlcNAc6ST-2 (HEC-GlcNAc6ST, LSST, or GST-3) can recognize GlcNAcbeta1-->3GalNAcalpha1-O-pNP as a good acceptor as well as other O-linked- and N-linked-type oligosaccharides, and its substrate specificity was similar to that of SulT-b. GlcNAc6ST-3(I-GlcNAc6ST or GST-4alpha) preferred Galbeta1-->3(GlcNAcbeta1-->6)GalNAcalpha1-O-pNP as an acceptor to the other oligosaccharides examined, and its specificity was similar to that of SulT-a. To confirm these correspondences, we further performed quantitative analyses of transcripts for GlcNAc6ST-2 and -3 genes by competitive RT-PCR. As a result, GlcNAc6ST-2 gene was expressed in almost all the mucinous adenocarcinomas examined and hardly expressed in normal colonic mucosa and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma. Expression levels of transcript for GlcNAc6ST-3 in normal mucosa were significantly higher than those in adenocarcinomas. From these results, it was indicated that GlcNAc6ST-2 corresponds to mucinous adenocarcinoma-specific SulT-b and that expression of GlcNAc6ST-3 is down-regulated in colonic adenocarcinomas. PMID:12107080

  16. Mass Spectrometric Detection and Characterization of Atypical Membrane-Bound Zinc-Sensitive Phosphatases Modulating GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    SidAhmed-Mezi, Mounia; Kurcewicz, Irène; Rose, Christiane; Louvel, Jacques; Sokoloff, Pierre; Pumain, René; Laschet, Jacques J.

    2014-01-01

    Background GABAA receptor (GABAAR) function is maintained by an endogenous phosphorylation mechanism for which the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is the kinase. This phosphorylation is specific to the long intracellular loop I2 of the α1 subunit at two identified serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylation state is opposed by an unknown membrane-bound phosphatase, which inhibition favors the phosphorylated state of the receptor and contributes to the maintenance of its function. In cortical nervous tissue from epileptogenic areas in patients with drug-resistant epilepsies, both the endogenous phosphorylation and the functional state of the GABAAR are deficient. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of this study is to characterize the membrane-bound phosphatases counteracting the endogenous phosphorylation of GABAAR. We have developed a new analytical tool for in vitro detection of the phosphatase activities in cortical washed membranes by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The substrates are two synthetic phosphopeptides, each including one of the identified endogenous phosphorylation sites of the I2 loop of GABAAR α1 subunit. We have shown the presence of multiple and atypical phosphatases sensitive to zinc ions. Patch-clamp studies of the rundown of the GABAAR currents on acutely isolated rat pyramidal cells using the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid revealed a clear heterogeneity of the phosphatases counteracting the function of the GABAAR. Conclusion/Significance Our results provide new insights on the regulation of GABAAR endogenous phosphorylation and function by several and atypical membrane-bound phosphatases specific to the α1 subunit of the receptor. By identifying specific inhibitors of these enzymes, novel development of antiepileptic drugs in patients with drug-resistant epilepsies may be proposed. PMID:24967814

  17. Structural Features of Membrane-bound Glucocerebrosidase and α-Synuclein Probed by Neutron Reflectometry and Fluorescence Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Thai Leong; Jiang, Zhiping; Heinrich, Frank; Gruschus, James M.; Pfefferkorn, Candace M.; Barros, Marilia; Curtis, Joseph E.; Sidransky, Ellen; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GCase), the enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease, are a common genetic risk factor for the development of Parkinson disease and related disorders, implicating the role of this lysosomal hydrolase in the disease etiology. A specific physical interaction exists between the Parkinson disease-related protein α-synuclein (α-syn) and GCase both in solution and on the lipid membrane, resulting in efficient enzyme inhibition. Here, neutron reflectometry was employed as a first direct structural characterization of GCase and α-syn·GCase complex on a sparsely-tethered lipid bilayer, revealing the orientation of the membrane-bound GCase. GCase binds to and partially inserts into the bilayer with its active site most likely lying just above the membrane-water interface. The interaction was further characterized by intrinsic Trp fluorescence, circular dichroism, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Both Trp fluorescence and neutron reflectometry results suggest a rearrangement of loops surrounding the catalytic site, where they extend into the hydrocarbon chain region of the outer leaflet. Taking advantage of contrasting neutron scattering length densities, the use of deuterated α-syn versus protiated GCase showed a large change in the membrane-bound structure of α-syn in the complex. We propose a model of α-syn·GCase on the membrane, providing structural insights into inhibition of GCase by α-syn. The interaction displaces GCase away from the membrane, possibly impeding substrate access and perturbing the active site. GCase greatly alters membrane-bound α-syn, moving helical residues away from the bilayer, which could impact the degradation of α-syn in the lysosome where these two proteins interact. PMID:25429104

  18. Membrane-Bound Structure and Topology of a Human Alpha Defensin Indicates A Dimer Pore Mechanism for Membrane Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Wuyuan; Hong, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Defensins are cationic and disulfide-bonded host defense proteins of many animals that target microbial cell membranes. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure, dynamics and topology of these proteins in phospholipid bilayers is important for understanding their mechanisms of action. Using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we have now determined the conformation, dynamics, oligomeric state and topology of a human α-defensin, HNP-1, in DMPC/DMPG bilayers. 2D correlation spectra show that membrane-bound HNP-1 exhibits a similar conformation to the water-soluble state, except for the turn connecting the β2 and β3 strands, whose sidechains exhibit immobilization and conformational perturbation upon membrane binding. At high protein/lipid ratios, rapid 1H spin diffusion from the lipid chains to the protein was observed, indicating that HNP-1 was well inserted into the hydrocarbon core of the bilayer. Arg Cζ-lipid 31P distances indicate that only one of the four Arg residues forms tight hydrogen-bonded guanidinium-phosphate complexes. The protein is predominantly dimerized at high protein/lipid molar ratios, as shown by 19F spin diffusion experiments. The presence of a small fraction of monomers and the shallower insertion at lower protein concentrations suggest that HNP-1 adopts concentration-dependent oligomerization and membrane-bound structure. These data strongly support a “dimer pore” topology of HNP-1 in which the polar top of the dimer lines an aqueous pore while the hydrophobic bottom faces the lipid chains. In this structure R25 lies closest to the membrane surface among the four Arg residues. The pore does not have large lipid disorder, in contrast to the toroidal pores formed by protegrin-1, a two-stranded β-hairpin antimicrobial peptide. These results provide the first glimpse into the membrane-bound structure and mechanism of action of human α-defensins. PMID:20961099

  19. In vitro assays of three carotenogenic membrane-bound enzymes from Escherichia coli transformed with different crt genes.

    PubMed

    Fraser, P D; Sandmann, G

    1992-05-29

    In vitro assays have been developed for three membrane-bound carotenogenic enzymes, phytoene desaturase, lycopene cyclase and beta-carotene hydroxylase, expressed in Escherichia coli. Transformants of E. coli containing different deletion constructs of the Erwinia herbicola carotenogenic gene cluster were employed, allowing the estimation of enzyme activities without interference from subsequent reactions. New HPLC systems were developed to separate substrates and reaction products enabling the determination of radioactivity on-line. The newly developed assays facilitate the purification of these enzymes which have never been isolated before. PMID:1599492

  20. pH-induced conformational changes of membrane-bound influenza hemagglutinin and its effect on target lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C.; Tamm, L. K.

    1998-01-01

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) has served as a paradigm for both pH-dependent and -independent viral membrane fusion. Although large conformational changes were observed by X-ray crystallography when soluble fragments of HA were subjected to fusion-pH conditions, it is not clear whether the same changes occur in membrane-bound HA, what the spatial relationship is between the conformationally changed HA and the target and viral membranes, and in what way HA perturbs the target membrane at low pH. We have taken a spectroscopic approach using an array of recently developed FTIR techniques to address these questions. Difference attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy was employed to reveal reversible and irreversible components of the pH-induced conformational change of the membrane-bound bromelain fragment of HA, BHA. Additional proteolytic fragments of BHA were produced which permitted a tentative assignment of the observed changes to the HA1 and HA2 subunits, respectively. The membrane-bound HA1 subunit undergoes a reversible conformational change, which most likely involves the loss of a small proportion of beta-sheet at low pH. BHA was found to undergo a partially reversible tilting motion relative to the target membrane upon exposure to pH 5, indicating a previously undescribed hinge near the anchoring point to the target membrane. Time-resolved amide H/D exchange experiments revealed a more dynamic (tertiary) structure of membrane-bound BHA and its HA2, but not its HA1, subunit. Finally BHA and, to a lesser degree, HA1 perturbed the lipid bilayer of the target membrane at the interface, as assessed by spectral changes of the lipid ester carbonyl groups. These results are discussed in the context of a complementary study of HA that was bound to viral membranes through its transmembrane peptide (Gray C, Tamm LK, 1997, Protein Sci 6:1993-2006). A distinctive role for the HA1 subunit in the conformational change of HA becomes apparent from these combined

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of the NAC Gene Family in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenying; Xu, Xueqin; Xiong, Wangdan; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu

    2015-01-01

    The NAC proteins (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) are plant-specific transcriptional regulators that have a conserved NAM domain in the N-terminus. They are involved in various biological processes, including both biotic and abiotic stress responses. In the present study, a total of 100 NAC genes (JcNAC) were identified in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structures, 83 JcNAC genes were classified as members of, or proposed to be diverged from, 39 previously predicted orthologous groups (OGs) of NAC sequences. Physic nut has a single intron-containing NAC gene subfamily that has been lost in many plants. The JcNAC genes are non-randomly distributed across the 11 linkage groups of the physic nut genome, and appear to be preferentially retained duplicates that arose from both ancient and recent duplication events. Digital gene expression analysis indicates that some of the JcNAC genes have tissue-specific expression profiles (e.g. in leaves, roots, stem cortex or seeds), and 29 genes differentially respond to abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, phosphorus deficiency and nitrogen deficiency). Our results will be helpful for further functional analysis of the NAC genes in physic nut. PMID:26125188

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of the NAC Gene Family in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenying; Xu, Xueqin; Xiong, Wangdan; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu

    2015-01-01

    The NAC proteins (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) are plant-specific transcriptional regulators that have a conserved NAM domain in the N-terminus. They are involved in various biological processes, including both biotic and abiotic stress responses. In the present study, a total of 100 NAC genes (JcNAC) were identified in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structures, 83 JcNAC genes were classified as members of, or proposed to be diverged from, 39 previously predicted orthologous groups (OGs) of NAC sequences. Physic nut has a single intron-containing NAC gene subfamily that has been lost in many plants. The JcNAC genes are non-randomly distributed across the 11 linkage groups of the physic nut genome, and appear to be preferentially retained duplicates that arose from both ancient and recent duplication events. Digital gene expression analysis indicates that some of the JcNAC genes have tissue-specific expression profiles (e.g. in leaves, roots, stem cortex or seeds), and 29 genes differentially respond to abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, phosphorus deficiency and nitrogen deficiency). Our results will be helpful for further functional analysis of the NAC genes in physic nut. PMID:26125188

  3. Discovery of O-GlcNAc-modified Proteins in Published Large-scale Proteome Data*

    PubMed Central

    Hahne, Hannes; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Kuster, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The attachment of N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins with emerging roles in numerous cellular processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, and translation. It is further presumed that O-GlcNAc can exhibit a site-specific, dynamic and possibly functional interplay with phosphorylation. O-GlcNAc proteins are commonly identified by tandem mass spectrometry following some form of biochemical enrichment. In the present study, we assessed if, and to which extent, O-GlcNAc-modified proteins can be discovered from existing large-scale proteome data sets. To this end, we conceived a straightforward O-GlcNAc identification strategy based on our recently developed Oscore software that automatically analyzes tandem mass spectra for the presence and intensity of O-GlcNAc diagnostic fragment ions. Using the Oscore, we discovered hundreds of O-GlcNAc peptides not initially identified in these studies, and most of which have not been described before. Merely re-searching this data extended the number of known O-GlcNAc proteins by almost 100 suggesting that this modification exists even more widely than previously anticipated and the modification is often sufficiently abundant to be detected without enrichment. However, a comparison of O-GlcNAc and phospho-identifications from the very same data indicates that the O-GlcNAc modification is considerably less abundant than phosphorylation. The discovery of numerous doubly modified peptides (i.e. peptides with one or multiple O-GlcNAc or phosphate moieties), suggests that O-GlcNAc and phosphorylation are not necessarily mutually exclusive, but can occur simultaneously at adjacent sites. PMID:22661428

  4. Structural Ensembles of Membrane-bound α-Synuclein Reveal the Molecular Determinants of Synaptic Vesicle Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giuliana; De Simone, Alfonso; Arosio, Paolo; Vendruscolo, Michele; Veglia, Gianluigi; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed characterisation of the molecular determinants of membrane binding by α-synuclein (αS), a 140-residue protein whose aggregation is associated with Parkinson’s disease, is of fundamental significance to clarify the manner in which the balance between functional and dysfunctional processes are regulated for this protein. Despite its biological relevance, the structural nature of the membrane-bound state αS remains elusive, in part because of the intrinsically dynamic nature of the protein and also because of the difficulties in studying this state in a physiologically relevant environment. In the present study we have used solid-state NMR and restrained MD simulations to refine structure and topology of the N-terminal region of αS bound to the surface of synaptic-like membranes. This region has fundamental importance in the binding mechanism of αS as it acts as to anchor the protein to lipid bilayers. The results enabled the identification of the key elements for the biological properties of αS in its membrane-bound state. PMID:27273030

  5. Mg2+ is an essential activator of hydrolytic activity of membrane-bound pyrophosphatase of Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, A; Ordaz, H; Romero, I; Celis, H

    1992-01-01

    The substrate for the hydrolytic activity of membrane-bound pyrophosphatase is the PP(i)-Mg2+ complex. The enzyme has no activity when the free Mg2+ concentration is lower than 10 microM (at 0.5 mM-PP(i)-Mg2+), and therefore free Mg2+ is an essential activator of the hydrolytic activity. The Km for the substrate changes in response to variation in free Mg2+ concentration, from 10.25 to 0.6 mM when free Mg2+ is increased from 0.03 to 1.0 mM respectively. The Km for Mg2+ depends on the substrate concentration: the Km decreases from 0.52 to 0.14 mM from 0.25 to 0.75 mM-PP(i)-Mg2+ respectively. The extrapolated Km for Mg2+ in the absence of the substrate is 0.73 mM. Imidodiphosphate-Mg2+ and free Ca2+ were used as competitive inhibitors of substrate and activator respectively. The equilibrium binding kinetics suggest an ordered mechanism for the activator and the substrate: Mg2+ ions bind the enzyme before PP(i)-Mg2+ in the formation of the catalytic complex, membrane-bound pyrophosphatase-(Mg2+)-(PP(i)-Mg2+). PMID:1315519

  6. Structural Ensembles of Membrane-bound α-Synuclein Reveal the Molecular Determinants of Synaptic Vesicle Affinity.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giuliana; De Simone, Alfonso; Arosio, Paolo; Vendruscolo, Michele; Veglia, Gianluigi; Dobson, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    A detailed characterisation of the molecular determinants of membrane binding by α-synuclein (αS), a 140-residue protein whose aggregation is associated with Parkinson's disease, is of fundamental significance to clarify the manner in which the balance between functional and dysfunctional processes are regulated for this protein. Despite its biological relevance, the structural nature of the membrane-bound state αS remains elusive, in part because of the intrinsically dynamic nature of the protein and also because of the difficulties in studying this state in a physiologically relevant environment. In the present study we have used solid-state NMR and restrained MD simulations to refine structure and topology of the N-terminal region of αS bound to the surface of synaptic-like membranes. This region has fundamental importance in the binding mechanism of αS as it acts as to anchor the protein to lipid bilayers. The results enabled the identification of the key elements for the biological properties of αS in its membrane-bound state. PMID:27273030

  7. Identification and characterization of novel membrane-bound PRL protein tyrosine phosphatases from Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetu; Yadav, Smita; Rathaur, Sushma

    2015-11-01

    A significant amount of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity was detected in the detergent-soluble membrane-bound fraction of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite. The membrane-bound PTP activity was significantly inhibited when the adult parasites were exposed to compounds having antifilarial activity like aspirin and SK7 as well as phenylarsine oxide, a specific PTP inhibitor suggesting that this activity is stress regulated. Further, this enzyme was purified as a single protein of apparently 21 kDa using two different chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-MS/MS analysis of its peptides showed closest match with protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (Aedes aegypti). This purified enzyme (named as PRL) showed maximum activity at pH 5.5/37 °C and hydrolysed para nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP) at the highest rate followed by O-P-L-tyrosine and O-P-L-threonine. It showed significant inhibition by specific inhibitors of PTP such as sodium orthovanadate, phenylarsine oxide and ammonium molybdate and was activated by dithiothreitol (DTT). The active site modification studies suggested involvement of cysteine, arginine, histidine and aspartic acid in the catalytic activity of PRL. The activity of S. cervi PRL was also found to be resistant towards the external oxidative stress. Thus, S. cervi PRL could be taken as a potential target for the management of human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26341797

  8. Oligomerization of Membrane-Bound Diphtheria Toxin (CRM197) Facilitates a Transition to the Open Form and Deep Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Kent, M. S.; Yim, H.; Murton, J. K.; Satija, S.; Majewski, J.; Kuzmenko, I.

    2008-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin (DT) contains separate domains for receptor-specific binding, translocation, and enzymatic activity. After binding to cells, DT is taken up into endosome-like acidic compartments where the translocation domain inserts into the endosomal membrane and releases the catalytic domain into the cytosol. The process by which the catalytic domain is translocated across the endosomal membrane is known to involve pH-induced conformational changes; however, the molecular mechanisms are not yet understood, in large part due to the challenge of probing the conformation of the membrane-bound protein. In this work neutron reflection provided detailed conformational information for membrane-bound DT (CRM197) in situ. The data revealed that the bound toxin oligomerizes with increasing DT concentration and that the oligomeric form (and only the oligomeric form) undergoes a large extension into solution with decreasing pH that coincides with deep insertion of residues into the membrane. We interpret the large extension as a transition to the open form. These results thus indicate that as a function of bulk DT concentration, adsorbed DT passes from an inactive state with a monomeric dimension normal to the plane of the membrane to an active state with a dimeric dimension normal to the plane of the membrane. PMID:18055530

  9. Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Raja, S M; Rawat, S S; Chattopadhyay, A; Lala, A K

    1999-01-01

    The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin. PMID:10049328

  10. O-GlcNAc regulates NEDD4-1 stability via caspase-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kuan; Bai, Bingyang; Ta, Yajie; Zhang, Tingling; Xiao, Zikang; Wang, Peng George; Zhang, Lianwen

    2016-03-18

    O-GlcNAc modification of cytosolic and nuclear proteins regulates essential cellular processes such as stress responses, transcription, translation, and protein degradation. Emerging evidence indicates O-GlcNAcylation has a dynamic interplay with ubiquitination in cellular regulation. Here, we report that O-GlcNAc indirectly targets a vital E3 ubiquitin ligase enzyme of NEDD4-1. The protein level of NEDD4-1 is accordingly decreased following an increase of overall O-GlcNAc level upon PUGNAc or glucosamine stimulation. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) knockdown, overexpression and mutation results confirm that the stability of NEDD4-1 is negatively regulated by cellular O-GlcNAc. Moreover, the NEDD4-1 degradation induced by PUGNAc or GlcN is significantly inhibited by the caspase inhibitor. Our study reveals a regulation mechanism of NEDD4-1 stability by O-GlcNAcylation. PMID:26876577

  11. CDX2 homeoprotein is involved in the regulation of ST6GalNAc-I gene in intestinal metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rita; Barros, Rita; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Mesquita, Patricia; da Costa, Luis T; Bennett, Eric P; Almeida, Raquel; David, Leonor

    2015-07-01

    De novo expression of Sialyl-Tn (STn) antigen is one of the most common features of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric carcinomas, and its biosynthesis has been mostly attributed to ST6GalNAc-I activity. However, the regulation of this glycosyltransferase expression is not elucidated. In IM lesions and in the intestine, CDX2 homeobox transcription factor is co-expressed with STn and ST6GalNAc-I. We therefore hypothesized that CDX2 might induce STn expression by positive regulation of ST6GalNAc-I. We showed that ST6GalNAc-I transcript levels and CDX2 have a coordinated expression upon Caco-2 in vitro differentiation, and overexpression of CDX2 in MKN45 gastric cells increases ST6GalNAc-I transcript levels. Nine putative CDX-binding sites in the ST6GalNAc-I-regulatory sequence were identified and analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation in Caco-2 cells and in IM. The results showed that CDX2 protein is recruited to all regions, being the most proximal sites preferentially occupied in vivo. Luciferase assays demonstrated that CDX2 is able to transactivate ST6GalNac-I-regulatory region. The induction was stronger for the regions mapped in the neighbourhood of ATG start codon and site-directed mutagenesis of these sites confirmed their importance. In conclusion, we show that CDX2 transcriptionally regulates ST6GalNAc-I gene expression, specifically in the preneoplastic IM lesion. PMID:25867765

  12. Identification and characterization of plant-specific NAC gene family in canola (Brassica napus L.) reveal novel members involved in cell death.

    PubMed

    Wang, Boya; Guo, Xiaohua; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jieyu; Niu, Fangfang; Zhang, Hanfeng; Yang, Bo; Liang, Wanwan; Han, Feng; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2015-03-01

    NAC transcription factors are plant-specific and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. However, to date, little is known about the NAC genes in canola (or oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.). In this study, a total of 60 NAC genes were identified from canola through a systematical analysis and mining of expressed sequence tags. Among these, the cDNA sequences of 41 NAC genes were successfully cloned. The translated protein sequences of canola NAC genes with the NAC genes from representative species were phylogenetically clustered into three major groups and multiple subgroups. The transcriptional activities of these BnaNAC proteins were assayed in yeast. In addition, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we further observed that some of these BnaNACs were regulated by different hormone stimuli or abiotic stresses. Interestingly, we successfully identified two novel BnaNACs, BnaNAC19 and BnaNAC82, which could elicit hypersensitive response-like cell death when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was mediated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, our work has laid a solid foundation for further characterization of this important NAC gene family in canola. PMID:25616736

  13. Reversible dissociation of flavin mononucleotide from the mammalian membrane-bound NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I)

    PubMed Central

    Gostimskaya, Irina S.; Grivennikova, Vera G.; Cecchini, Gary; Vinogradov, Andrei D.

    2008-01-01

    Conditions for the reversible dissociation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) from the membrane-bound mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) are described. The catalytic activities of the enzyme, i.e. rotenone-insensitive NADH:hexaammineruthenium III reductase and rotenone-sensitive NADH:quinone reductase decline when bovine heart submitochondrial particles are incubated with NADH in the presence of rotenone or cyanide at alkaline pH. FMN protects and fully restores the NADH-induced inactivation whereas riboflavin and flavin adenine dinucleotide do not. The data show that the reduction of complex I significantly weakens the binding of FMN to protein thus resulting in its dissociation when the concentration of holoenzyme is comparable with Kd (~10−8 M at pH 10.0). PMID:18037377

  14. A Model of the Membrane-bound Cytochrome b5-Cytochrome P450 Complex from NMR and Mutagenesis Data*

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Shivani; Jahr, Nicole; Im, Sang-Choul; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Popovych, Nataliya; Le Clair, Stéphanie V.; Huang, Rui; Soong, Ronald; Xu, Jiadi; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Nanga, Ravi P.; Bridges, Angela; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    Microsomal cytochrome b5 (cytb5) is a membrane-bound protein that modulates the catalytic activity of its redox partner, cytochrome P4502B4 (cytP450). Here, we report the first structure of full-length rabbit ferric microsomal cytb5 (16 kDa), incorporated in two different membrane mimetics (detergent micelles and lipid bicelles). Differential line broadening of the cytb5 NMR resonances and site-directed mutagenesis data were used to characterize the cytb5 interaction epitope recognized by ferric microsomal cytP450 (56 kDa). Subsequently, a data-driven docking algorithm, HADDOCK (high ambiguity driven biomolecular docking), was used to generate the structure of the complex between cytP4502B4 and cytb5 using experimentally derived restraints from NMR, mutagenesis, and the double mutant cycle data obtained on the full-length proteins. Our docking and experimental results point to the formation of a dynamic electron transfer complex between the acidic convex surface of cytb5 and the concave basic proximal surface of cytP4502B4. The majority of the binding energy for the complex is provided by interactions between residues on the C-helix and β-bulge of cytP450 and residues at the end of helix α4 of cytb5. The structure of the complex allows us to propose an interprotein electron transfer pathway involving the highly conserved Arg-125 on cytP450 serving as a salt bridge between the heme propionates of cytP450 and cytb5. We have also shown that the addition of a substrate to cytP450 likely strengthens the cytb5-cytP450 interaction. This study paves the way to obtaining valuable structural, functional, and dynamic information on membrane-bound complexes. PMID:23709268

  15. Human Renal Normal, Tumoral, and Cancer Stem Cells Express Membrane-Bound Interleukin-15 Isoforms Displaying Different Functions.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Sandy; Gallerne, Cindy; Romei, Cristina; Le Coz, Vincent; Gangemi, Rosaria; Khawam, Krystel; Devocelle, Aurore; Gu, Yanhong; Bruno, Stefania; Ferrini, Silvano; Chouaib, Salem; Eid, Pierre; Azzarone, Bruno; Giron-Michel, Julien

    2015-06-01

    Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15) participates to renal pathophysiology, but the role of its different membrane-bound isoforms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we reassess the biology of membrane-bound IL-15 (mb-IL-15) isoforms by comparing primary cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) to peritumoral (ptumTEC), tumoral (RCC), and cancer stem cells (CSC/CD105(+)). RPTEC express a 14 to 16 kDa mb-IL-15, whose existence has been assumed but never formally demonstrated and likely represents the isoform anchored at the cell membrane through the IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα) chain, because it is sensitive to acidic treatment and is not competent to deliver a reverse signal. By contrast, ptumTEC, RCC, and CSC express a novel N-hyperglycosylated, short-lived transmembrane mb-IL-15 (tmb-IL-15) isoform around 27 kDa, resistant to acidic shock, delivering a reverse signal in response to its soluble receptor (sIL-15Rα). This reverse signal triggers the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin in ptumTEC and RCC but not in CSC/CD105(+), where it promotes survival. Indeed, through the AKT pathway, tmb-IL-15 protects CSC/CD105(+) from non-programmed cell death induced by serum starvation. Finally, both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 are sensitive to metalloproteases, and the cleaved tmb-IL-15 (25 kDa) displays a powerful anti-apoptotic effect on human hematopoietic cells. Overall, our data indicate that both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 isoforms play a complex role in renal pathophysiology downregulating E-cadherin and favoring cell survival. Moreover, "apparently normal" ptumTEC cells, sharing different properties with RCC, could contribute to organize an enlarged peritumoral "preneoplastic" environment committed to favor tumor progression. PMID:26152359

  16. Quantum Chemical Calculations of Amide-15N Chemical Shift Anisotropy Tensors for a Membrane-Bound Cytochrome b5

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining amide-15N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors from biomolecules and understanding their variation for structural and dynamics studies using solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and also by quantum chemical calculations. Due to the difficulties associated with the measurement of CSA tensors from membrane proteins, NMR-based structural studies heavily relied on the CSA tensors determined from model systems, typically single crystals of model peptides. In the present study, the principal components of backbone amide-15N CSA tensor have been determined using density functional theory for a 16.7-kDa membrane-bound paramagnetic heme containing protein, cytochrome b5 (cytb5). All the calculations were performed by taking residues within 5Å distance from the backbone amide-15N nucleus of interest. The calculated amide-15N CSA spans agree less well with our solution NMR data determined for an effective internuclear distance rN-H = 1.023 Å and a constant angle β = 18° that the least shielded component (δ11) makes with the N-H bond. The variation of amide-15N CSA span obtained using quantum chemical calculations is found to be smaller than that obtained from solution NMR measurements, whereas the trends of the variations are found to be in close agreement. We believe that the results reported in this study will be useful in studying the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins and heme-containing proteins, and also membrane-bound protein-protein complexes such as cytochromes-b5-P450. PMID:23268659

  17. Intact functional fourteen-subunit respiratory membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase complex of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    McTernan, Patrick M; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K; Wu, Chang-Hao; Vaccaro, Brian J; Lancaster, W Andrew; Yang, Qingyuan; Fu, Dax; Hura, Greg L; Tainer, John A; Adams, Michael W W

    2014-07-11

    The archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally at 100 °C by converting carbohydrates to acetate, CO2, and H2, obtaining energy from a respiratory membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH). This conserves energy by coupling H2 production to oxidation of reduced ferredoxin with generation of a sodium ion gradient. MBH is encoded by a 14-gene operon with both hydrogenase and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter modules. Herein a His-tagged MBH was expressed in P. furiosus and the detergent-solubilized complex purified under anaerobic conditions by affinity chromatography. Purified MBH contains all 14 subunits by electrophoretic analysis (13 subunits were also identified by mass spectrometry) and had a measured iron:nickel ratio of 15:1, resembling the predicted value of 13:1. The as-purified enzyme exhibited a rhombic EPR signal characteristic of the ready nickel-boron state. The purified and membrane-bound forms of MBH both preferentially evolved H2 with the physiological donor (reduced ferredoxin) as well as with standard dyes. The O2 sensitivities of the two forms were similar (half-lives of ∼ 15 h in air), but the purified enzyme was more thermolabile (half-lives at 90 °C of 1 and 25 h, respectively). Structural analysis of purified MBH by small angle x-ray scattering indicated a Z-shaped structure with a mass of 310 kDa, resembling the predicted value (298 kDa). The angle x-ray scattering analyses reinforce and extend the conserved sequence relationships of group 4 enzymes and complex I (NADH quinone oxidoreductase). This is the first report on the properties of a solubilized form of an intact respiratory MBH complex that is proposed to evolve H2 and pump Na(+) ions. PMID:24860091

  18. Visualization of O-GlcNAc Glycosylation Stoichiometry and Dynamics using Resolvable Poly(ethylene glycol) Mass Tags

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter M.; Rexach, Jessica E.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    O -GlcNAc glycosylation is a dynamic protein posttranslational modification with roles in processes such as transcription, cell cycle regulation, and metabolism. Detailed mechanistic studies of O-GlcNAc have been hindered by a lack of methods for measuring O-GlcNAc stoichiometries and the interplay of glycosylation with other posttranslational modifications. We recently developed a method for labeling O-GlcNAc-modified proteins with resolvable poly(ethylene glycol) mass tags. This mass tagging approach enables the direct measurement of glycosylation stoichiometries and the visualization of distinct O-GlcNAc-modified subpopulations. Here, we describe protocols for labeling O-GlcNAc glycoproteins in cell lysates with mass tags. PMID:24391098

  19. Characterization of 19 Genes Encoding Membrane-Bound Fatty Acid Desaturases and their Expression Profiles in Gossypium raimondii Under Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Wei; He, Qiuling; Daud, Muhammad Khan; Chen, Jinhong; Zhu, Shuijin

    2015-01-01

    To produce unsaturated fatty acids, membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases (FADs) can be exploited to introduce double bonds into the acyl chains of fatty acids. In this study, 19 membrane-bound FAD genes were identified in Gossypium raimondii through database searches and were classified into four different subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. All 19 membrane-bound FAD proteins shared three highly conserved histidine boxes, except for GrFAD2.1, which lost the third histidine box in the C-terminal region. In the G. raimondii genome, tandem duplication might have led to the increasing size of the FAD2 cluster in the Omega Desaturase subfamily, whereas segmental duplication appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the expansion of the Sphingolipid and Front-end Desaturase subfamilies. Gene expression analysis showed that seven membrane-bound FAD genes were significantly up-regulated and that five genes were greatly suppressed in G. raimondii leaves exposed to low temperature conditions. PMID:25894196

  20. Characterization of 19 Genes Encoding Membrane-Bound Fatty Acid Desaturases and their Expression Profiles in Gossypium raimondii Under Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiuling; Daud, Muhammad Khan; Chen, Jinhong; Zhu, Shuijin

    2015-01-01

    To produce unsaturated fatty acids, membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases (FADs) can be exploited to introduce double bonds into the acyl chains of fatty acids. In this study, 19 membrane-bound FAD genes were identified in Gossypium raimondii through database searches and were classified into four different subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. All 19 membrane-bound FAD proteins shared three highly conserved histidine boxes, except for GrFAD2.1, which lost the third histidine box in the C-terminal region. In the G. raimondii genome, tandem duplication might have led to the increasing size of the FAD2 cluster in the Omega Desaturase subfamily, whereas segmental duplication appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the expansion of the Sphingolipid and Front-end Desaturase subfamilies. Gene expression analysis showed that seven membrane-bound FAD genes were significantly up-regulated and that five genes were greatly suppressed in G. raimondii leaves exposed to low temperature conditions. PMID:25894196

  1. Structure Analysis and Conformational Transitions of the Cell Penetrating Peptide Transportan 10 in the Membrane-Bound State

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Erik; Verdurmen, Wouter P. R.; Bürck, Jochen; Ehni, Sebastian; Mykhailiuk, Pavel K.; Afonin, Sergii; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Komarov, Igor V.; Brock, Roland; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure analysis of the cell-penetrating peptide transportan 10 (TP10) revealed an exemplary range of different conformations in the membrane-bound state. The bipartite peptide (derived N-terminally from galanin and C-terminally from mastoparan) was found to exhibit prominent characteristics of (i) amphiphilic α-helices, (ii) intrinsically disordered peptides, as well as (iii) β-pleated amyloid fibrils, and these conformational states become interconverted as a function of concentration. We used a complementary approach of solid-state 19F-NMR and circular dichroism in oriented membrane samples to characterize the structural and dynamical behaviour of TP10 in its monomeric and aggregated forms. Nine different positions in the peptide were selectively substituted with either the L- or D-enantiomer of 3-(trifluoromethyl)-bicyclopent-[1.1.1]-1-ylglycine (CF3-Bpg) as a reporter group for 19F-NMR. Using the L-epimeric analogs, a comprehensive three-dimensional structure analysis was carried out in lipid bilayers at low peptide concentration, where TP10 is monomeric. While the N-terminal region is flexible and intrinsically unstructured within the plane of the lipid bilayer, the C-terminal α-helix is embedded in the membrane with an oblique tilt angle of ∼55° and in accordance with its amphiphilic profile. Incorporation of the sterically obstructive D-CF3-Bpg reporter group into the helical region leads to a local unfolding of the membrane-bound peptide. At high concentration, these helix-destabilizing C-terminal substitutions promote aggregation into immobile β-sheets, which resemble amyloid fibrils. On the other hand, the obstructive D-CF3-Bpg substitutions can be accommodated in the flexible N-terminus of TP10 where they do not promote aggregation at high concentration. The cross-talk between the two regions of TP10 thus exerts a delicate balance on its conformational switch, as the presence of the α-helix counteracts the tendency of the unfolded N

  2. Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the membrane-bound complex cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. L.; Oliveira, T.; Matias, P. M.; Martins, I. C.; Valente, F. M. A.; Pereira, I. A. C.; Archer, M.

    2006-06-01

    The cytochrome c nitrite reductase complex from D. vulgaris Hildenborough has been crystallized. The preliminary crystallographic structure reveals a 2:1 NrfA:NrfH complex stoichiometry. The cytochrome c nitrite reductase (cNiR) isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a membrane-bound complex formed of NrfA and NrfH subunits. The catalytic subunit NrfA is a soluble pentahaem cytochrome c that forms a physiological dimer of about 120 kDa. The electron-donor subunit NrfH is a membrane-anchored tetrahaem cytochrome c of about 18 kDa molecular weight and belongs to the NapC/NirT family of quinol dehydrogenases, for which no structures are known. Crystals of the native cNiR membrane complex, solubilized with dodecylmaltoside detergent (DDM), were obtained using PEG 4K as precipitant. Anomalous diffraction data were measured at the Swiss Light Source to 2.3 Å resolution. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.5, b = 256.7, c = 578.2 Å. Molecular-replacement and MAD methods were combined to solve the structure. The data presented reveal that D. vulgaris cNiR contains one NrfH subunit per NrfA dimer.

  3. Sensing Size through Clustering in Non-Equilibrium Membranes and the Control of Membrane-Bound Enzymatic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Vagne, Quentin; Turner, Matthew S; Sens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The formation of dynamical clusters of proteins is ubiquitous in cellular membranes and is in part regulated by the recycling of membrane components. We show, using stochastic simulations and analytic modeling, that the out-of-equilibrium cluster size distribution of membrane components undergoing continuous recycling is strongly influenced by lateral confinement. This result has significant implications for the clustering of plasma membrane proteins whose mobility is hindered by cytoskeletal "corrals" and for protein clustering in cellular organelles of limited size that generically support material fluxes. We show how the confinement size can be sensed through its effect on the size distribution of clusters of membrane heterogeneities and propose that this could be regulated to control the efficiency of membrane-bound reactions. To illustrate this, we study a chain of enzymatic reactions sensitive to membrane protein clustering. The reaction efficiency is found to be a non-monotonic function of the system size, and can be optimal for sizes comparable to those of cellular organelles. PMID:26656912

  4. A Novel Murine Anti-Lactoferrin Monoclonal Antibody Activates Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes through Membrane-Bound Lactoferrin and TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Xu, Yan-Rui; Yan, Ru; Sun, Shu-Liang; Dong, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jun; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soluble lactoferrin (LTF) is a versatile molecule that not only regulates the iron homeostasis, but also harbors direct microbicidal and immunomodulating abilities in mammalian body fluids. In contrast, little is known about the function of membrane-bound LTF (mbLTF), although its expression on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (huPMNs) has been reported for decades. Given that LTF/anti-LTF antibodies represent a potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with immune disorders, we wished, in the present study, to generate a novel human LTF- (huLTF-) specific mAb suitable for detailed analyses on the expression and function of mbLTF as well as for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. By using the traditional hybridoma cell fusion technology, we obtained a murine IgG1 (kappa) mAb, M-860, against huLTF. M-860 recognizes a conformational epitope of huLTF as it binds to natural, but not denatured, huLTF in ELISA. Moreover, M-860 detects mbLTF by FACS and captures endogenous huLTF in total cell lysates of huPMNs. Functionally, M-860 induces the activation of huPMNs partially through TLR4 but independently of phagocytosis. M-860 is thus a powerful tool to analyze the expression and function of human mbLTF, which will further our understanding of the roles of LTF in health and disease. PMID:26649297

  5. The effect of progesterone and 17-β estradiol on membrane-bound HLA-G in adipose derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Akram; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Moslehi, Azam; Akbari, Maryam Ali; Adib, Minoo

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-bound HLA-G (mHLA-G) discovery on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) as a tolerogenic and immunosuppressive molecule was very important. Many documents have shown that HLA-G expression can be controlled via some hormones such as progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2). Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate progesterone and estradiol effects on mHLA-G in ADSCs at restricted and combination concentrations. Three independent cell lines were cultured in complete free phenol red DMEM and subcultured to achieve suffi cient cells. These cells were treated with P4, E2 and P4 plus E2 at physiologic and pregnancy concentrations for 3 days in cell culture conditions. The HLA-G positive ADSCs was measured via monoclonal anti HLA-G-FITC/MEMG-09 by means of flow cytometry in nine groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. There were no signifi cant values of the mean percentage of HLA-G positive cells in E2-treated and the combination of P4 plus E2-treated ADSCs compared to control cells (p value>0.05) but P4 had a signifi cant increase on mHLA-G in ADSCs (p value<0.05). High P4 concentration increased mHLA-G but E2 and the combination of P4 plus E2 could not change mHLA-G on ADSCs. PMID:27382350

  6. Nanoscale patterning of membrane-bound proteins formed through curvature-induced partitioning of phase-specific receptor lipids.

    PubMed

    Ogunyankin, Maria O; Huber, Dale L; Sasaki, Darryl Y; Longo, Marjorie L

    2013-05-21

    This work describes a technique for forming high-density arrays and patterns of membrane-bound proteins through binding to a curvature-organized compositional pattern of metal-chelating lipids (Cu(2+)-DOIDA or Cu(2+)-DSIDA). In this bottom-up approach, the underlying support is an e-beam formed, square lattice pattern of hemispheres. This curvature pattern sorts Cu(2+)-DOIDA to the 200 nm hemispherical lattice sites of a 600 nm × 600 nm unit cell in Ld - Lo phase separated lipid multibilayers. Binding of histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (His-GFP) creates a high density array of His-GFP-bound pixels localized to the square lattice sites. In comparison, the negative pixel pattern is created by sorting Cu(2+)-DSIDA in Ld - Lβ' phase separated lipid multibilayers to the flat grid between the lattice sites followed by binding to His-GFP. Lattice defects in the His-GFP pattern lead to interesting features such as pattern circularity. We also observe defect-free arrays of His-GFP that demonstrate perfect arrays can be formed by this method suggesting the possibility of using this approach for the localization of various active molecules to form protein, DNA, or optically active molecular arrays. PMID:23642033

  7. Fatty acyl donor selectivity in membrane bound O-acyltransferases and communal cell fate decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, Rubina; Lum, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins with lipid moieties confers spatial and temporal control of protein function by restricting their subcellular distribution or movement in the extracellular milieu. Yet, little is known about the significance of lipid selectivity to the activity of proteins targeted for such modifications. Membrane bound O-acyl transferases (MBOATs) are a superfamily of multipass enzymes that transfer fatty acids on to lipid or protein substrates. Three MBOATs constitute a subfamily with secreted signalling molecules for substrates, the Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh) and Ghrelin proteins. Given their important roles in adult tissue homoeostasis, all three molecules and their respective associated acyltransferases provide a framework for interrogating the role of extracellular acylation events in cell-to-cell communication. Here, we discuss how the preference for a fatty acyl donor in the Wnt acyltransferase porcupine (Porcn) and possibly in other protein lipidation enzymes may provide a means for coupling metabolic health at the single cell level to communal cell fate decision-making in complex multicellular organisms. PMID:25849923

  8. Fatty acyl donor selectivity in membrane bound O-acyltransferases and communal cell fate decision-making.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, Rubina; Lum, Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins with lipid moieties confers spatial and temporal control of protein function by restricting their subcellular distribution or movement in the extracellular milieu. Yet, little is known about the significance of lipid selectivity to the activity of proteins targeted for such modifications. Membrane bound O-acyl transferases (MBOATs) are a superfamily of multipass enzymes that transfer fatty acids on to lipid or protein substrates. Three MBOATs constitute a subfamily with secreted signalling molecules for substrates, the Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh) and Ghrelin proteins. Given their important roles in adult tissue homoeostasis, all three molecules and their respective associated acyltransferases provide a framework for interrogating the role of extracellular acylation events in cell-to-cell communication. Here, we discuss how the preference for a fatty acyl donor in the Wnt acyltransferase porcupine (Porcn) and possibly in other protein lipidation enzymes may provide a means for coupling metabolic health at the single cell level to communal cell fate decision-making in complex multicellular organisms. PMID:25849923

  9. Engineering Hydrogen Gas Production from Formate in a Hyperthermophile by Heterologous Production of an 18-Subunit Membrane-bound Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Gina L.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Nixon, William J.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Biohydrogen gas has enormous potential as a source of reductant for the microbial production of biofuels, but its low solubility and poor gas mass transfer rates are limiting factors. These limitations could be circumvented by engineering biofuel production in microorganisms that are also capable of generating H2 from highly soluble chemicals such as formate, which can function as an electron donor. Herein, the model hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally near 100 °C by fermenting sugars to produce H2, has been engineered to also efficiently convert formate to H2. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome vector, the 16.9-kb 18-gene cluster encoding the membrane-bound, respiratory formate hydrogen lyase complex of Thermococcus onnurineus was inserted into the P. furiosus chromosome and expressed as a functional unit. This enabled P. furiosus to utilize formate as well as sugars as an H2 source and to do so at both 80° and 95 °C, near the optimum growth temperature of the donor (T. onnurineus) and engineered host (P. furiosus), respectively. This accomplishment also demonstrates the versatility of P. furiosus for metabolic engineering applications. PMID:24318960

  10. Chelation of Membrane-Bound Cations by Extracellular DNA Activates the Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J Q; Tang, Le; Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Parkins, Michael D; Lewenza, Shawn; Dong, Tao G

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs its type VI secretion system (T6SS) as a highly effective and tightly regulated weapon to deliver toxic molecules to target cells. T6SS-secreted proteins of P. aeruginosa can be detected in the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, who typically present a chronic and polymicrobial lung infection. However, the mechanism of T6SS activation in the CF lung is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that extracellular DNA (eDNA), abundant within the CF airways, stimulates the dynamics of the H1-T6SS cluster apparatus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Addition of Mg(2+) or DNase with eDNA abolished such activation, while treatment with EDTA mimicked the eDNA effect, suggesting that the eDNA-mediated effect is due to chelation of outer membrane-bound cations. DNA-activated H1-T6SS enables P. aeruginosa to nonselectively attack neighboring species regardless of whether or not it was provoked. Because of the importance of the T6SS in interspecies interactions and the prevalence of eDNA in the environments that P. aeruginosa inhabits, our report reveals an important adaptation strategy that likely contributes to the competitive fitness of P. aeruginosa in polymicrobial communities. PMID:27271742

  11. Sensing Size through Clustering in Non-Equilibrium Membranes and the Control of Membrane-Bound Enzymatic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Vagne, Quentin; Turner, Matthew S.; Sens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The formation of dynamical clusters of proteins is ubiquitous in cellular membranes and is in part regulated by the recycling of membrane components. We show, using stochastic simulations and analytic modeling, that the out-of-equilibrium cluster size distribution of membrane components undergoing continuous recycling is strongly influenced by lateral confinement. This result has significant implications for the clustering of plasma membrane proteins whose mobility is hindered by cytoskeletal “corrals” and for protein clustering in cellular organelles of limited size that generically support material fluxes. We show how the confinement size can be sensed through its effect on the size distribution of clusters of membrane heterogeneities and propose that this could be regulated to control the efficiency of membrane-bound reactions. To illustrate this, we study a chain of enzymatic reactions sensitive to membrane protein clustering. The reaction efficiency is found to be a non-monotonic function of the system size, and can be optimal for sizes comparable to those of cellular organelles. PMID:26656912

  12. The rice thylakoid membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase OsAPX8 functions in tolerance to bacterial blight

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guanghuai; Yin, Dedong; Zhao, Jiying; Chen, Honglin; Guo, Lequn; Zhu, Lihuang; Zhai, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Thylakoid membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX) is a major H2O2-scavenging enzyme. To clarify its functions in tolerance to rice bacterial blight, we produced rice lines overexpressing and suppressing tAPX (OsAPX8). The overexpressing lines exhibited increased tolerance to bacterial pathogen. The RNA interference (RNAi) lines were considerably more sensitive than the control plant. Further analysis of the H2O2 content in these transgenic plants indicated that the H2O2 accumulation of OsAPX8-overexpressing plants was considerably less than that of wild-type and RNAi plants upon challenge with bacterial pathogen. Interestingly, H2O2 was the most important factor for the serious leaf dehydration and withering of rice without major resistance genes and was not the cause of hypersensitivity. It addition, wall tightening or loosening can occur according to the level of H2O2. In addition, OsAPX8 interacted with the susceptibility protein Os8N3/Xa13, and their binding repressed the reaction of OsAPX8 in tolerance to bacterial blight. PMID:27185545

  13. The effect of progesterone and 17-β estradiol on membrane-bound HLA-G in adipose derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Akram; Hashemi-beni, Batool; Moslehi, Azam; Akbari, Maryam Ali

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-bound HLA-G (mHLA-G) discovery on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) as a tolerogenic and immunosuppressive molecule was very important. Many documents have shown that HLA-G expression can be controlled via some hormones such as progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2). Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate progesterone and estradiol effects on mHLA-G in ADSCs at restricted and combination concentrations. Three independent cell lines were cultured in complete free phenol red DMEM and subcultured to achieve suffi cient cells. These cells were treated with P4, E2 and P4 plus E2 at physiologic and pregnancy concentrations for 3 days in cell culture conditions. The HLA-G positive ADSCs was measured via monoclonal anti HLA-G-FITC/MEMG-09 by means of flow cytometry in nine groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. There were no signifi cant values of the mean percentage of HLA-G positive cells in E2-treated and the combination of P4 plus E2-treated ADSCs compared to control cells (p value>0.05) but P4 had a signifi cant increase on mHLA-G in ADSCs (p value<0.05). High P4 concentration increased mHLA-G but E2 and the combination of P4 plus E2 could not change mHLA-G on ADSCs. PMID:27382350

  14. An investigation into membrane bound redox carriers involved in energy transduction mechanism in Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158 with unsequenced genome.

    PubMed

    Shabbiri, Khadija; Botting, Catherine H; Adnan, Ahmad; Fuszard, Matthew; Naseem, Shahid; Ahmed, Safeer; Shujaat, Shahida; Syed, Quratulain; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-04-01

    Brevibacterium linens (B. linens) DSM 20158 with an unsequenced genome can be used as a non-pathogenic model to study features it has in common with other unsequenced pathogens of the same genus on the basis of comparative proteome analysis. The most efficient way to kill a pathogen is to target its energy transduction mechanism. In the present study, we have identified the redox protein complexes involved in the electron transport chain of B. linens DSM 20158 from their clear homology with the shot-gun genome sequenced strain BL2 of B. linens by using the SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with nano LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. B. linens is found to have a branched electron transport chain (Respiratory chain), in which electrons can enter the respiratory chain either at NADH (Complex I) or at Complex II level or at the cytochrome level. Moreover, we are able to isolate, purify, and characterize the membrane bound Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase), Complex III (menaquinone cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c subunit, Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), and Complex V (ATP synthase) of B. linens strain DSM 20158. PMID:24573306

  15. Neonatal transfer of membrane-bound stem cell factor improves survival and heart function in aged mice after myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuo; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Mejia-Guerrero, Salvador; Zhang, Yuemei; Higuchi, Koji; Li, Ren-Ke; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2012-12-01

    Stem cell mobilization to injured tissue contributes to neovascularization, resulting in regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI). We previously showed that direct cardiac injection of a recombinant lentivirus (LV) that engineers expression of membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) improves outcomes immediately after MI. In this study, we evaluated the effect of neonatal LV/mSCF transduction on MI outcomes in aged mice. We constructed a recombinant LV harboring an α-myosin heavy chain promoter that drives mSCF expression and injected it into the temporal vein of neonatal mice. One year later, sustained expression of mSCF in the adult mouse hearts was detected by genomic and quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. To evaluate the contribution of neonatal LV/mSCF delivery to recovery from MI, we induced an MI in adult LV/mSCF-transduced, LV only-transduced, and nontransduced control mice. Strikingly, LV/mSCF transduction reduced infarct scar size, enhanced angiogenesis, improved ventricular function, and significantly increased survival of the mice. Regional overexpression of CD11b, a marker of monocytes and proangiogenic cells, was observed on monocytes isolated from the infarcted hearts of LV/mSCF-transduced mice. Our data suggest a model of neonatal gene delivery that leads to sustained mSCF expression during adulthood to aid recovery from MI and prevent heart failure. PMID:22998370

  16. Membrane-Bound CYB5R3 Is a Common Effector of Nutritional and Oxidative Stress Response Through FOXO3a and Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Siendones, Emilio; SantaCruz-Calvo, Sara; Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro; Cascajo, María V.; Ariza, Julia; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Villalba, José M.; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Membrane-bound CYB5R3 deficiency in humans causes recessive hereditary methaemoglobinaemia (RHM), an incurable disease that is characterized by severe neurological disorders. CYB5R3 encodes for NADH-dependent redox enzyme that contributes to metabolic homeostasis and stress protection; however, how it is involved in the neurological pathology of RHM remains unknown. Here, the role and transcriptional regulation of CYB5R3 was studied under nutritional and oxidative stress. Results: CYB5R3-deficient cells exhibited a decrease of the NAD+/NADH ratio, mitochondrial respiration rate, ATP production, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activities, which were associated with higher sensitivity to oxidative stress, and an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Overexpression of either forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a) or nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like2 (Nrf2) was associated with increased CYB5R3 levels, and genetic ablation of Nrf2 resulted in lower CYB5R3 expression. The presence of two antioxidant response element sequences in the CYB5R3 promoter led to chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, which showed that cellular stressors enhanced the binding of Nrf2 and FOXO3a to the CYB5R3 promoter. Innovation: Our findings demonstrate that CYB5R3 contributes to regulate redox homeostasis, aerobic metabolism, and cellular senescence, suggesting that CYB5R3 might be a key effector of oxidative and nutritional stress pathways. The expression of CYB5R3 is regulated by the cooperation of Nrf2 and FOXO3a. Conclusion: CYB5R3 is an essential gene that appears as a final effector for both nutritional and oxidative stress responses through FOXO3a and Nrf2, respectively, and their interaction promotes CYB5R3 expression. These results unveil a potential mechanism of action by which CYB5R3 deficiency contributes to the pathophysiological underpinnings of neurological disorders in RHM patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1708–1725. PMID

  17. O-GlcNAc profiling: from proteins to proteomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (O-GlcNAcylation) onto serine and threonine residues of proteins is an important post-translational modification (PTM), which is involved in many crucial biological processes including transcription, translation, proteasomal degradation, and signal transduction. Aberrant protein O-GlcNAcylation is directly linked to the pathological progression of chronic diseases including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identification, site mapping, and quantification of O-GlcNAc proteins are a prerequisite to decipher their functions. In this review, we mainly focus on technological developments regarding O-GlcNAc protein profiling. Specifically, on one hand, we show how these techniques are being used for the comprehensive characterization of certain targeted proteins in which biologists are most interested. On the other hand, we present several newly developed approaches for O-GlcNAcomic profiling as well as how they provide us with a systems perspective to crosstalk amongst different PTMs and complicated biological events. Promising technical trends are also highlighted to evoke more efforts by diverse laboratories, which would further expand our understanding of the physiological and pathological roles of protein O-GlcNAcylation in chronic diseases. PMID:24593906

  18. Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Membrane-Bound Light-Harvesting Complex 2 from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Cui, Weidong; Saer, Rafael; Liu, Haijun; Gross, Michael L; Blankenship, Robert E

    2015-12-15

    We report a top-down proteomic analysis of the membrane-bound peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 isolated from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The LH2 complex is coded for by the puc operon. The Rb. sphaeroides genome contains two puc operons, designated puc1BAC and puc2BA. Although previous work has shown consistently that the LH2 β polypeptide coded by the puc2B gene was assembled into LH2 complexes, there are contradictory reports as to whether the Puc2A polypeptides are incorporated into LH2 complexes. Furthermore, post-translational modifications of this protein offer the prospect that it could coordinate bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) by a modified N-terminal residue. Here, we describe the components of the LH2 complex on the basis of electron-capture dissociation fragmentation to confirm the identity and sequence of the protein's subunits. We found that both gene products of the β polypeptides are expressed and assembled in the mature LH2 complex, but only the Puc1A-encoded polypeptide α is observed here. The methionine of the Puc2B-encoded polypeptide is missing, and a carboxyl group is attached to the threonine at the N-terminus. Surprisingly, one amino acid encoded as an isoleucine in both the puc2B gene and the mRNA is found as valine in the mature LH2 complex, suggesting an unexpected and unusual post-translational modification or a specific tRNA recoding of this one amino acid. PMID:26574182

  19. Rapid effects of aldosterone in primary cultures of cardiomyocytes - do they suggest the existence of a membrane-bound receptor?

    PubMed

    Araujo, Carolina Morais; Hermidorff, Milla Marques; Amancio, Gabriela de Cassia Sousa; Lemos, Denise da Silveira; Silva, Marcelo Estáquio; de Assis, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro; Isoldi, Mauro César

    2016-10-01

    Aldosterone acts on its target tissue through a classical mechanism or through the rapid pathway through a putative membrane-bound receptor. Our goal here was to better understand the molecular and biochemical rapid mechanisms responsible for aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We have evaluated the hypertrophic process through the levels of ANP, which was confirmed by the analysis of the superficial area of cardiomyocytes. Aldosterone increased the levels of ANP and the cellular area of the cardiomyocytes; spironolactone reduced the aldosterone-increased ANP level and cellular area of cardiomyocytes. Aldosterone or spironolactone alone did not increase the level of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), but aldosterone plus spironolactone led to increased cAMP level; the treatment with aldosterone + spironolactone + BAPTA-AM reduced the levels of cAMP. These data suggest that aldosterone-induced cAMP increase is independent of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and dependent on Ca(2+). Next, we have evaluated the role of A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAP) in the aldosterone-induced hypertrophic response. We have found that St-Ht31 (AKAP inhibitor) reduced the increased level of ANP which was induced by aldosterone; in addition, we have found an increase on protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) activity when cells were treated with aldosterone alone, spironolactone alone and with a combination of both. Our data suggest that PKC could be responsible for ERK5 aldosterone-induced phosphorylation. Our study suggests that the aldosterone through its rapid effects promotes a hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes that is controlled by an AKAP, being dependent on ERK5 and PKC, but not on cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathways. Lastly, we provide evidence that the targeting of AKAPs could be relevant in patients with aldosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:27305962

  20. Rubredoxin-related Maturation Factor Guarantees Metal Cofactor Integrity during Aerobic Biosynthesis of Membrane-bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Johannes; Siebert, Elisabeth; Priebe, Jacqueline; Zebger, Ingo; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Teutloff, Christian; Friedrich, Bärbel; Lenz, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase (MBH) supports growth of Ralstonia eutropha H16 with H2 as the sole energy source. The enzyme undergoes a complex biosynthesis process that proceeds during cell growth even at ambient O2 levels and involves 14 specific maturation proteins. One of these is a rubredoxin-like protein, which is essential for biosynthesis of active MBH at high oxygen concentrations but dispensable under microaerobic growth conditions. To obtain insights into the function of HoxR, we investigated the MBH protein purified from the cytoplasmic membrane of hoxR mutant cells. Compared with wild-type MBH, the mutant enzyme displayed severely decreased hydrogenase activity. Electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopic analyses revealed features resembling those of O2-sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases and/or oxidatively damaged protein. The catalytic center resided partially in an inactive Niu-A-like state, and the electron transfer chain consisting of three different Fe-S clusters showed marked alterations compared with wild-type enzyme. Purification of HoxR protein from its original host, R. eutropha, revealed only low protein amounts. Therefore, recombinant HoxR protein was isolated from Escherichia coli. Unlike common rubredoxins, the HoxR protein was colorless, rather unstable, and essentially metal-free. Conversion of the atypical iron-binding motif into a canonical one through genetic engineering led to a stable reddish rubredoxin. Remarkably, the modified HoxR protein did not support MBH-dependent growth at high O2. Analysis of MBH-associated protein complexes points toward a specific interaction of HoxR with the Fe-S cluster-bearing small subunit. This supports the previously made notion that HoxR avoids oxidative damage of the metal centers of the MBH, in particular the unprecedented Cys6[4Fe-3S] cluster. PMID:24448806

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cyt1Aa synergizes Cry11Aa toxin by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudia; Fernandez, Luisa E; Sun, Jianguang; Folch, Jorge Luis; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2005-12-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces crystal proteins, Cry (4Aa, 4Ba, 10Aa, and 11Aa) and Cyt (1Aa and 2Ba) proteins, toxic to mosquito vectors of human diseases. Cyt1Aa overcomes insect resistance to Cry11Aa and Cry4 toxins and synergizes the toxicity of these toxins. However, the molecular mechanism of synergism remains unsolved. Here, we provide evidence that Cyt1Aa functions as a receptor of Cry11Aa. Sequential-binding analysis of Cyt1Aa and Cry11Aa revealed that Cyt1Aa binding to Aedes aegypti brush border membrane vesicles enhanced the binding of biotinylated-Cry11Aa. The Cyt1Aa- and Cry11Aa-binding epitopes were mapped by means of the yeast two-hybrid system, peptide arrays, and heterologous competition assays with synthetic peptides. Two exposed regions in Cyt1Aa, loop beta6-alphaE and part of beta7, bind Cry11Aa. On the other side, Cry11Aa binds Cyt1Aa proteins by means of domain II-loop alpha8 and beta-4, which are also involved in midgut receptor interaction. Characterization of single-point mutations in Cry11Aa and Cyt1Aa revealed key Cry11Aa (S259 and E266) and Cyt1Aa (K198, E204 and K225) residues involved in the interaction of both proteins and in synergism. Additionally, a Cyt1Aa loop beta6-alphaE mutant (K198A) with enhanced synergism to Cry11Aa was isolated. Data provided here strongly indicates that Cyt1Aa synergizes or suppresses resistance to Cry11Aa toxin by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a highly effective pathogenic bacterium because it produces a toxin and also its functional receptor, promoting toxin binding to the target membrane and causing toxicity. PMID:16339907

  2. Overproduction of the membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase in Thermococcus kodakarensis and its effect on hydrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Tamotsu; Simons, Jan-Robert; Tsukamoto, Ryohei; Nakajima, Akihito; Omori, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Ryoji; Beppu, Haruki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2015-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis can utilize sugars or pyruvate for growth. In the absence of elemental sulfur, the electrons via oxidation of these substrates are accepted by protons, generating molecular hydrogen (H2). The hydrogenase responsible for this reaction is a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Mbh). In this study, we have examined several possibilities to increase the protein levels of Mbh in T. kodakarensis by genetic engineering. Highest levels of intracellular Mbh levels were achieved when the promoter of the entire mbh operon (TK2080-TK2093) was exchanged to a strong constitutive promoter from the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (TK1431) (strain MHG1). When MHG1 was cultivated under continuous culture conditions using pyruvate-based medium, a nearly 25% higher specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR) of 35.3 mmol H2 g-dcw−1 h−1 was observed at a dilution rate of 0.31 h−1. We also combined mbh overexpression using an even stronger constitutive promoter from the cell surface glycoprotein gene (TK0895) with disruption of the genes encoding the cytosolic hydrogenase (Hyh) and an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), both of which are involved in hydrogen consumption (strain MAH1). At a dilution rate of 0.30 h−1, the SHPR was 36.2 mmol H2 g-dcw−1 h−1, corresponding to a 28% increase compared to that of the host T. kodakarensis strain. Increasing the dilution rate to 0.83 h−1 or 1.07 h−1 resulted in a SHPR of 120 mmol H2 g-dcw−1 h−1, which is one of the highest production rates observed in microbial fermentation. PMID:26379632

  3. A heteromeric membrane-bound prenyltransferase complex from hop catalyzes three sequential aromatic prenylations in the bitter acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxun; Ban, Zhaonan; Qin, Hao; Ma, Liya; King, Andrew J; Wang, Guodong

    2015-03-01

    Bitter acids (α and β types) account for more than 30% of the fresh weight of hop (Humulus lupulus) glandular trichomes and are well known for their contribution to the bitter taste of beer. These multiprenylated chemicals also show diverse biological activities, some of which have potential benefits to human health. The bitter acid biosynthetic pathway has been investigated extensively, and the genes for the early steps of bitter acid synthesis have been cloned and functionally characterized. However, little is known about the enzyme(s) that catalyze three sequential prenylation steps in the β-bitter acid pathway. Here, we employed a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) system for the functional identification of aromatic prenyltransferase (PT) genes. Two PT genes (HlPT1L and HlPT2) obtained from a hop trichome-specific complementary DNA library were functionally characterized using this yeast system. Coexpression of codon-optimized PT1L and PT2 in yeast, together with upstream genes, led to the production of bitter acids, but no bitter acids were detected when either of the PT genes was expressed by itself. Stepwise mutation of the aspartate-rich motifs in PT1L and PT2 further revealed the prenylation sequence of these two enzymes in β-bitter acid biosynthesis: PT1L catalyzed only the first prenylation step, and PT2 catalyzed the two subsequent prenylation steps. A metabolon formed through interactions between PT1L and PT2 was demonstrated using a yeast two-hybrid system, reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation, and in vitro biochemical assays. These results provide direct evidence of the involvement of a functional metabolon of membrane-bound prenyltransferases in bitter acid biosynthesis in hop. PMID:25564559

  4. Survival, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities of freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, exposed to synthetic and natural surfactants.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are a major class of emerging pollutants widely used in large quantities in everyday life and commonly found in surface waters worldwide. Freshwater planarian was selected to examine the effects of different surfactants by measuring mortality, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities. Among the 10 surfactants tested, the acute toxicities of betaine and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) to planarians were relatively low, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) greater than 10,000 mg/L. The toxicity to planarians of the other eight surfactants based on 48-h LC50 could be arranged in the descending order of cetylpyridinum chloride (CPC) > 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) > ammonium lauryl sulfate > benzalkonium chloride > saponin > sodium lauroylsarcosinate > dioctyl sulfosuccinate > dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Both CPC and 4-tert-OP were very toxic to planarians, with 48-h LC50 values <1 mg/L. The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of planarian mobility were in the 0.1 to 50 mg/L range and were in the same range as the 24-h LC50 of planarians exposed to different surfactants, except for DTAB. In addition, significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity activities was found in planarians exposed to 4-tert-OP at 2.5 and 5 mg/L and to saponin at 10 mg/L after 2-h treatments. This result suggests that planarian mobility responses can be used as an alternative indicator for acute toxicity of surfactants after a very short exposure period. PMID:22278771

  5. Nitrate reduction associated with respiration in Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 is performed by a membrane-bound molybdoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Felix M; Rivas, María G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Lucca, María E; Perotti, Nora I; Brondino, Carlos D

    2011-10-01

    The purification and biochemical characterization of the respiratory membrane-bound nitrate reductase from Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 (Sm NR) is reported together with the optimal conditions for cell growth and enzyme production. The best biomass yield was obtained under aerobic conditions in a fed-batch system using Luria-Bertani medium with glucose as carbon source. The highest level of Sm NR production was achieved using microaerobic conditions with the medium supplemented with both nitrate and nitrite. Sm NR is a mononuclear Mo-protein belonging to the DMSO reductase family isolated as a heterodimeric enzyme containing two subunits of 118 and 45 kDa. Protein characterization by mass spectrometry showed homology with respiratory nitrate reductases. UV-Vis spectra of as-isolated and dithionite reduced Sm NR showed characteristic absorption bands of iron-sulfur and heme centers. Kinetic studies indicate that Sm NR follows a Michaelis-Menten mechanism (K (m) = 97 ± 11 μM, V = 9.4 ± 0.5 μM min(-1), and k (cat) = 12.1 ± 0.6 s(-1)) and is inhibited by azide, chlorate, and cyanide with mixed inhibition patterns. Physiological and kinetic studies indicate that molybdenum is essential for NR activity and that replacement of this metal for tungsten inhibits the enzyme. Although no narGHI gene cluster has been annotated in the genome of rhizobia, the biochemical characterization indicates that Sm NR is a Mo-containing NR enzyme with molecular organization similar to NarGHI. PMID:21432624

  6. Differential Expression Analysis of a Subset of Drought-Responsive GmNAC Genes in Two Soybean Cultivars Differing in Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Thu, Nguyen Binh Anh; Hoang, Xuan Lan Thi; Van Ha, Chien; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2013-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors play important roles in plant response to drought stress. Here, we have compared the expression levels of a subset of GmNAC genes in drought-tolerant DT51 and drought-sensitive MTD720 under both normal and drought stress conditions aimed at identifying correlation between GmNAC expression levels and drought tolerance degree, as well as potential GmNAC candidates for genetic engineering. The expression of 23 selected dehydration-responsive GmNACs was assessed in both stressed and unstressed root tissues of DT51 and MTD720 using real-time quantitative PCR. The results indicated that expression of GmNACs was genotype-dependent. Seven and 13 of 23 tested GmNACs showed higher expression levels in roots of DT51 in comparison with MTD720 under normal and drought stress conditions, respectively, whereas none of them displayed lower transcript levels under any conditions. This finding suggests that the higher drought tolerance of DT51 might be positively correlated with the higher induction of the GmNAC genes during water deficit. The drought-inducible GmNAC011 needs to be mentioned as its transcript accumulation was more than 76-fold higher in drought-stressed DT51 roots relative to MTD720 roots. Additionally, among the GmNAC genes examined, GmNAC085, 092, 095, 101 and 109 were not only drought-inducible but also more highly up-regulated in DT51 roots than in that of MTD720 under both treatment conditions. These data together suggest that GmNAC011, 085, 092, 095, 101 and 109 might be promising candidates for improvement of drought tolerance in soybean by biotechnological approaches. PMID:24322442

  7. Differential expression analysis of a subset of drought-responsive GmNAC genes in two soybean cultivars differing in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Thu, Nguyen Binh Anh; Hoang, Xuan Lan Thi; Van Ha, Chien; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2013-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors play important roles in plant response to drought stress. Here, we have compared the expression levels of a subset of GmNAC genes in drought-tolerant DT51 and drought-sensitive MTD720 under both normal and drought stress conditions aimed at identifying correlation between GmNAC expression levels and drought tolerance degree, as well as potential GmNAC candidates for genetic engineering. The expression of 23 selected dehydration-responsive GmNACs was assessed in both stressed and unstressed root tissues of DT51 and MTD720 using real-time quantitative PCR. The results indicated that expression of GmNACs was genotype-dependent. Seven and 13 of 23 tested GmNACs showed higher expression levels in roots of DT51 in comparison with MTD720 under normal and drought stress conditions, respectively, whereas none of them displayed lower transcript levels under any conditions. This finding suggests that the higher drought tolerance of DT51 might be positively correlated with the higher induction of the GmNAC genes during water deficit. The drought-inducible GmNAC011 needs to be mentioned as its transcript accumulation was more than 76-fold higher in drought-stressed DT51 roots relative to MTD720 roots. Additionally, among the GmNAC genes examined, GmNAC085, 092, 095, 101 and 109 were not only drought-inducible but also more highly up-regulated in DT51 roots than in that of MTD720 under both treatment conditions. These data together suggest that GmNAC011, 085, 092, 095, 101 and 109 might be promising candidates for improvement of drought tolerance in soybean by biotechnological approaches. PMID:24322442

  8. Light-induced reactivation of O2-tolerant membrane-bound [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus under turnover conditions.

    PubMed

    Ciaccafava, Alexandre; Hamon, Cyrille; Infossi, Pascale; Marchi, Valérie; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Lojou, Elisabeth

    2013-10-21

    We report the effect of UV-Vis light on the membrane-bound [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus under turnover conditions. Using electrochemistry, we show a potential dependent light sensitivity and propose that a light-induced structural change of the [Ni-Fe] active site is related to an enhanced reactivation of the hydrogenase under illumination at high potentials. PMID:23999766

  9. Formation of 4-keto-D-aldopentoses and 4-pentulosonates (4-keto-D-pentonates) with unidentified membrane-bound enzymes from acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Osao; Hours, Roque A; Shinagawa, Emiko; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a new microbial reaction yielding 4-keto-D-arabonate from 2,5-diketo-D-gluconate was identified with Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens RCTMR 10. It appeared that decarboxylation and dehydrogenation took place together in the reaction. To analyze the nature of the reaction, investigations were done with the membrane fraction of the organism, and 4-keto-D-arabinose was confirmed as the direct precursor of 4-keto-D-arabonate. Two novel membrane-bound enzymes, 2,5-diketo-D-gluconate decarboxylase and 4-keto-D-aldopentose 1-dehydrogenase, were involved in the reaction. Alternatively, D-arabonate was oxidized to 4-keto-D-arabonate by another membrane-bound enzyme, D-arabonate 4-dehydrogenase. More directly, D-arabinose oxidation was examined with growing cells and with the membrane fraction of G. suboxydans IFO 12528. 4-Keto-D-arabinose, the same intermediate as that from 2,5-diketo-D-gluconate, was detected, and it was oxidized to 4-keto-D-arabonate. Likewise, D-ribose was oxidized to 4-keto-D-ribose and then it was oxidized to 4-keto-D-ribonate. In addition to 4-keto-D-aldopentose 1-dehydrogenase, the presence of a novel membrane-bound enzyme, D-aldopentose 4-dehydrogenase, was confirmed in the membrane fraction. The formation of 4-keto-D-aldopentoses and 4-keto-D-pentonates (4-pentulosonates) was finally confirmed as reaction products of four different novel membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:21897028

  10. Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Genes Affect the Expression Levels of Membrane-Bound Type I and Type II Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Sergey V.; Vasilyev, Filipp F.; Lopatnikova, Julia A.; Shkaruba, Nadezhda S.; Silkov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    The level of TNF receptors on various cells of immune system and its association with the gene polymorphism were investigated. Determining the levels of membrane-bound TNFα receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed by flow cytometry using BD QuantiBRITE calibration particles. Soluble TNFα receptor (sTNFRs) levels were determined by ELISA and genotyping was determined by PCR-RFLP. Homozygous TT individuals at SNP −609G/T TNFRI (rs4149570) showed lower levels of sTNFRI compared to GG genotype carriers. Homozygous carriers of CC genotype at SNP −1207G/C TNFRI (rs4149569) had lower expression densities of membrane-bound TNFRI on intact CD14+ monocytes compared to individuals with the GC genotype. The frequency differences in the CD3+ and CD19+ cells expressing TNFRII in relation to SNP −1709A/T TNFRII (rs652625) in healthy individuals were also determined. The genotype CC in SNP −3609C/T TNFRII (rs590368) was associated with a lower percentage of CD14+ cells expressing TNFRII compared to individuals with the CT genotype. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had no significant changes in the frequencies of genotypes. Reduced frequency was identified for the combination TNFRI −609GT + TNFRII −3609CC only. The polymorphisms in genes represent one of cell type-specific mechanisms affecting the expression levels of membrane-bound TNFα receptors and TNFα-mediated signaling. PMID:24782596

  11. Partial proteolysis as a probe of the conformation of the gamma subunit in activated soluble and membrane-bound chloroplast coupling factor 1.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Richter, M L; McCarty, R E

    1985-09-25

    Treatments that enhance the latent ATPase activity of the chloroplast coupling factor (CF1) also induce hypersensitivity of the gamma subunit toward trypsin. A number of different gamma subunit cleavage products are formed (Moroney, J. V., and McCarty, R. E. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5910-5914). We have compared the gamma cleavage products of membrane-bound and isolated CF1, activated either by reduction of the gamma disulfide bond or by removal of the epsilon subunit. The gamma subunit of isolated CF1 lacking the epsilon subunit was cleaved to a 27,000-Da species. The same cleavage site became exposed following energy-dependent conformational changes in the membrane-bound enzyme. Activation by reduction of the gamma disulfide bond also exposed this site. However, the gamma subunit of reduced CF1 was cleaved rapidly at an additional site and trypsin treatment gave rise to a 25,000-Da gamma species. The small peptide generated by the second cleavage contains one of the cysteinyl residues of the reduced disulfide bridge of gamma. This peptide dissociates from the enzyme and can be isolated by gel filtration. The close proximity of the trypsin cleavage sites to the disulfide bond of gamma is discussed with respect to the effects of tryptic cleavage on the ATPase activity of CF1. The data indicate that structural changes in a limited region of the gamma subunit strongly influence the catalytic properties of both soluble and membrane-bound CF1. PMID:2864336

  12. A NAC Gene Regulating Senescence Improves Grain Protein, Zinc, and Iron Content in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing the nutritional value of food crops is a sensible strategy for improving human nutrition and health. We report here the positional cloning of Gpc-B1, a wheat QTL associated with increased grain protein, Zn and Fe contents. The ancestral wild wheat allele encodes a NAC transcription factor ...

  13. OGA inhibition by GlcNAc-selenazoline

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ju; Love, Dona C.; Darout, Etzer; Abdo, Mohannad; Rempel, Brian; Withers, Stephen G.; Rablen, Paul R.; Hanover, John A.; Knapp, Spencer

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, which differs from the powerful O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor GlcNAc-thiazoline only at the chalcogen atom (Se for S), is a much weaker inhibitor in a direct OGA assay. In human cells, however, the selenazoline shows comparable ability to induce hyper-O-GlcNAc-ylation, and the two show similar reduction of insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes. PMID:20822912

  14. A membrane-bound form of glutamate dehydrogenase possesses an ATP-dependent high-affinity microtubule-binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rajas, F; Rousset, B

    1993-01-01

    We previously identified a 50 kDa membrane protein which bound to in vitro assembled microtubules [Mithieux and Rousset (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4664-4668]. This protein exhibited the expected properties for mediating the ATP-dependent association of vesicles with microtubules [Mithieux, Audebet and Rousset (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 969, 121-130]. The 50 kDa membrane protein (MP50), initially extracted in very low amount from isolated pig thyroid lysosomes/endosomes, has now been purified from membrane preparations of crude vesicle fractions from pig liver and brain. MP50 was isolated from detergent-solubilized membrane protein by affinity chromatography on immobilized ATP; 3-5 mg of MP50 was obtained from 100 g of liver tissue. Phase partitioning in Triton X-114 indicated that MP50 is a peripheral membrane protein. Radioiodinated liver MP50 bound to microtubules assembled in vitro. The binding was inhibited by ATP (Ki = 0.76 mM) and displaced by unlabelled liver or brain MP50. Equilibrium binding studies yielded KD values of 1.8 x 10(-7) M. By N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, MP50 was identified as glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), by comparison of V8 protease peptide maps of MP50 with purified liver GDH. Liver MP50 exhibited a low GDH activity; 4-5 units/mg compared with 18 and 34 units/mg for purified bovine and rat liver GDH respectively. Bovine and rat liver GDH yielded six spots from pI 5.7 to 7.2 when analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis; in contrast, MP50 gave one main spot (corresponding to spot 2 of liver GDH) with a pI of approx. 6.5. Soluble liver GDH from commercial sources exhibited a very low or no microtubule-binding activity. In conclusion, we have found a membrane-bound form of GDH capable of specific and nucleotide-sensitive interaction with microtubules. Our data suggest that GDH isoproteins, the number of which has been undervalued up to now, could have cellular functions other than that of an enzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 3

  15. Differential roles of two N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases, CSGalNAcT-1, and a novel enzyme, CSGalNAcT-2. Initiation and elongation in synthesis of chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Gotoh, Masanori; Kiyohara, Katsue; Akashima, Tomohiro; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Kameyama, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Hideo; Yada, Toshikazu; Inaba, Niro; Togayachi, Akira; Kudo, Takashi; Asada, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hideto; Imamura, Toru; Kimata, Koji; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2003-01-31

    By a tblastn search with beta 1,4-galactosyltransferases as query sequences, we found an expressed sequence tag that showed similarity in beta 1,4-glycosyltransferase motifs. The full-length complementary DNA was obtained by a method of 5'-rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends. The predicted open reading frame encodes a typical type II membrane protein comprising 543 amino acids, the sequence of which was highly homologous to chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (CSGalNAcT-1), and we designated this novel enzyme CSGalNAcT-2. CSGalNAcT-2 showed much stronger N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity toward glucuronic acid of chondroitin poly- and oligosaccharides, and chondroitin sulfate poly- and oligosaccharides with a beta 1-4 linkage, i.e. elongation activity for chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate, but showed much weaker activity toward a tetrasaccharide of the glycosaminoglycan linkage structure (GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-O-methoxyphenyl), i.e. initiation activity, than CSGalNAcT-1. Transfection of the CSGalNAcT-1 gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells yielded a change of glycosaminoglycan composition, i.e. the replacement of heparan sulfate on a syndecan-4/fibroblast growth factor-1 chimera protein by chondroitin sulfate, however, transfection of the CSGalNAcT-2 gene did not. The above results indicated that CSGalNAcT-1 is involved in the initiation of chondroitin sulfate synthesis, whereas CSGalNAcT-2 participates mainly in the elongation, not initiation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CSGalNAcT-2 transcripts were highly expressed in the small intestine, leukocytes, and spleen, however, both CSGalNAcTs were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. PMID:12446672

  16. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. PMID:26002868

  17. Magnetic resonance and kinetic studies of the mechanism of membrane-bound sodium and potassium ion- activated adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Grisham, C M; Mildvan, A S

    1975-01-01

    EPR and water proton relaxation rate (1/T1) studies of partially (40%) and "fully" (90%) purified preparations of membrane-bound (Na+ + K+) activated ATPase from sheep kidney indicate one tight binding site for Mn2+ per enzyme dimer, with a dissociation constant (KD = 0.88 muM) in agreement with the kinetically determined activator constant, identifying this Mn2+-binding site as the active site of the ATPase. Competition studies indicate that Mg2+ binds at this site with a dissociation constant of 1 mM in agreement with its activator constant. Inorganic phosphate and methylphosphonate bind to the enzyme-Mn2+ complex with similar high affinities and decrease 1/T1 of water protons due to a decrease from four to three in the number of rapidly exchanging water protons in the coordination sphere of enzyme-bound Mn2+. The relative effectiveness of Na+ and K+ in facilitating ternary complex formation with HPO2-4 and CH3PO2-3 as a function of pH indicates that Na+ induces the phosphate monoanion to interact with enzyme-bound Mn2+. Thus protonation of an enzyme-bound phosphoryl group would convert a K+-binding site to a Na+-binding site. Dissociation constants for K+ and Na+, estimated from NMR titrations, agreed with kinetically determined activator constants of these ions consistent with binding to the active site. Parallel 32Pi-binding studies show negligible formation (less than 7%) of a covalent E-P complex under these conditions, indicating that the NMR method has detected an additional noncovalent intermediate in ion transport. Ouabain, which increases the extent of phosphorylation of the enzyme to 24% at pH 7.8 and to 106% at pH 6.1, produced further decreases in 1/T1 of water protons. Preliminary 31P- relaxation studies of CH3PO2-3 in the presence of ATPase and Mn2+ yield an Mn to P distance (6.9 +/- 0.5 A) suggesting a second sphere enzyme-Mn-ligand-CH3PO2-3 complex. Previous kinetic studies have shown that T1+ substitutes for K+ in the activation of the enzyme

  18. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Hooper, Eric; National Astronomy Consortium

    2015-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC; see https://sites.google.com/site/nraonac/) is a growing national partnership between majority and minority universities and institutions with the goal of increasing the numbers of under-represented minorities and students who might otherwise be overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM, or related, careers. The NAC model is based on the successful 'Posse Foundation' model for undergraduate success and incorporates all its major components: pre-training of cohorts to prepare them for the research experience, joint weekly cohort activities throughout the research summer, peer- and multiple mentoring, weekly discussion of various aspects of professional and career development, continued engagement of students in science after return to home institution and lifelong mentoring. The mentors also form a cohort, exchanging information and learning from each other. With its partner institutions, the NAC aims to build a complete pipeline from undergraduate through career for the next generation of scientists and engineers. Our annual goal is to create two to three cohorts of four to five students at each site (currently NRAO-Charlottesville, NRAO-Socorro and U. Wisconsin - Madison). Recruitment occurs in the fall semester with seminars and colloquia in partnership with faculty at the minority serving institutions and the GRAD-MAP program at the University of Maryland. In this talk we describe in detail all the components of the NAC and report on our progress. We are keen to interact and partner with new universities and institutions and encourage them to contact the NAC at nac4stem@googlegroups.com.

  19. O-GlcNAc modifications regulate cell survival and epiboly during zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Danielle M; Teo, Chin Fen; Sun, Yuhua; Wloga, Dorota; Gay, Steven; Klonowski, Kimberly D; Wells, Lance; Dougan, Scott T

    2009-01-01

    Background The post-translational addition of the monosaccharide O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) regulates the activity of a wide variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. The enzymes O-GlcNAc Transferase (Ogt) and O-GlcNAcase (Oga) catalyze, respectively, the attachment and removal of O-GlcNAc to target proteins. In adult mice, Ogt and Oga attenuate the response to insulin by modifying several components of the signal transduction pathway. Complete loss of ogt function, however, is lethal to mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that the enzyme has additional, unstudied roles in development. We have utilized zebrafish as a model to determine role of O-GlcNAc modifications in development. Zebrafish has two ogt genes, encoding six different enzymatic isoforms that are expressed maternally and zygotically. Results We manipulated O-GlcNAc levels in zebrafish embryos by overexpressing zebrafish ogt, human oga or by injecting morpholinos against ogt transcripts. Each of these treatments results in embryos with shortened body axes and reduced brains at 24 hpf. The embryos had 23% fewer cells than controls, and displayed increased rates of cell death as early as the mid-gastrula stages. An extensive marker analysis indicates that derivatives of three germ layers are reduced to variable extents, and the embryos are severely disorganized after gastrulation. Overexpression of Ogt and Oga delayed epiboly and caused a severe disorganization of the microtubule and actin based cytoskeleton in the extra-embryonic yolk syncytial layer (YSL). The cytoskeletal defects resemble those previously reported for embryos lacking function of the Pou5f1/Oct4 transcription factor spiel ohne grenzen. Consistent with this, Pou5f1/Oct4 is modified by O-GlcNAc in human embryonic stem cells. Conclusion We conclude that O-GlcNAc modifications control the activity of proteins that regulate apoptosis and epiboly movements, but do not seem to regulate germ layer specification. O-GlcNAc

  20. Optimization of solubilization and purification procedures for the hydroxylase component of membrane-bound methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain M.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, V I; Tikhonova, T V; Gvozdev, R I; Tukhvatullin, I A; Popov, V O

    2006-12-01

    The hydroxylase component of membrane-bound (particulate) methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus strain M was isolated and purified to homogeneity. The pMMO molecule comprises three subunits of molecular masses 47, 26, and 23 kD and contains three copper atoms and one iron atom. In solution the protein exists as a stable oligomer of 660 kD with possible subunit composition (alpha beta gamma)6. Mass spectroscopy shows high homology of the purified protein with methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath. Pilot screening of crystallization conditions has been carried out. PMID:17223785

  1. New GlcNAc/GalNAc-specific lectin from the ascidian Didemnum ternatanum.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, Valentina; Chikalovets, Irina; Li, Wei; Kobelev, Stanislav; Kozyrevskaya, Svetlana; Bogdanovich, Raisa; Howard, Eric; Belogortseva, Natalia

    2005-05-25

    Previously we isolated GlcNAc-specific lectin (DTL) from the ascidian Didemnum ternatanum by affinity chromatography on cross-linked ovalbumin. Here we report the purification and characterization of new D-GlcNAc/D-GalNAc-specific lectin DTL-A from the same ascidian. This lectin was isolated from non-bound cross-linked ovalbumin fraction and further was purified by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-4B, affinity chromatography on GlcNAc-agarose and gel filtration on Superdex 200. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of purified lectin on Sepharose CL-4B indicates that it exists as large aggregates in the native state. Investigations of the carbohydrate specificity of DTL-A by enzyme-linked lectin assay suggest the multi-specificity of this lectin. DTL-A binds BSM, asialo-BSM as well as heparin and dextran sulfate. The binding of DTL-A to BSM was inhibited by monosaccharides D-GlcNAc and D-GalNAc, their alpha- but not beta-anomers. Among polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, DTL-A binding to BSM was effectively inhibited by BSM, asialo-BSM, pronase-treated BSM and synthetic alpha-D-GalNAc-PAA. Fetuin and asialofetuin showed a much lower inhibitory potency, heparin and dextran sulfate were noninhibitory. On the other hand, DTL-A binding to heparin was effectively inhibited by dextran sulfate, fucoidan, whereas BSM showed insignificantly inhibitory effect. DTL-A binding to heparin was not inhibited by D-GlcNAc and D-GalNAc. PMID:15784180

  2. O-Linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Acts as a Glucose Sensor to Epigenetically Regulate the Insulin Gene in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Durning, Sean P; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Prasad, Nripesh; Wells, Lance

    2016-01-29

    The post-translational protein modification O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a proposed nutrient sensor that has been shown to regulate multiple biological pathways. This dynamic and inducible enzymatic modification to intracellular proteins utilizes the end product of the nutrient sensing hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, UDP-GlcNAc, as its substrate donor. Type II diabetic patients have elevated O-GlcNAc-modified proteins within pancreatic beta cells due to chronic hyperglycemia-induced glucose overload, but a molecular role for O-GlcNAc within beta cells remains unclear. Using directed pharmacological approaches in the mouse insulinoma-6 (Min6) cell line, we demonstrate that elevating nuclear O-GlcNAc increases intracellular insulin levels and preserves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during chronic hyperglycemia. The molecular mechanism for these observed changes appears to be, at least in part, due to elevated O-GlcNAc-dependent increases in Ins1 and Ins2 mRNA levels via elevations in histone H3 transcriptional activation marks. Furthermore, RNA deep sequencing reveals that this mechanism of altered gene transcription is restricted and that the majority of genes regulated by elevated O-GlcNAc levels are similarly regulated by a shift from euglycemic to hyperglycemic conditions. These findings implicate the O-GlcNAc modification as a potential mechanism for hyperglycemic-regulated gene expression in the beta cell. PMID:26598517

  3. RhNAC2 and RhEXPA4 are involved in the regulation of dehydration tolerance during the expansion of rose petals.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fanwei; Zhang, Changqing; Jiang, Xinqiang; Kang, Mei; Yin, Xia; Lü, Peitao; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Junping

    2012-12-01

    Dehydration inhibits petal expansion resulting in abnormal flower opening and results in quality loss during the marketing of cut flowers. We constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library from rose (Rosa hybrida) flowers containing 3,513 unique expressed sequence tags and analyzed their expression profiles during cycles of dehydration. We found that 54 genes were up-regulated by the first dehydration, restored or even down-regulated by rehydration, and once again up-regulated by the second dehydration. Among them, we identified a putative NAC family transcription factor (RhNAC2). With transactivation activity of its carboxyl-terminal domain in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplast, RhNAC2 belongs to the NAC transcription factor clade related to plant development in Arabidopsis. A putative expansin gene named RhEXPA4 was also dramatically up-regulated by dehydration. Silencing RhNAC2 or RhEXPA4 in rose petals by virus-induced gene silencing significantly decreased the recovery of intact petals and petal discs during rehydration. Overexpression of RhNAC2 or RhEXPA4 in Arabidopsis conferred strong drought tolerance in the transgenic plants. RhEXPA4 expression was repressed in RhNAC2-silenced rose petals, and the amino-terminal binding domain of RhNAC2 bound to the RhEXPA4 promoter. Twenty cell wall-related genes, including seven expansin family members, were up-regulated in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing RhNAC2. These data indicate that RhNAC2 and RhEXPA4 are involved in the regulation of dehydration tolerance during the expansion of rose petals and that RhEXPA4 expression may be regulated by RhNAC2. PMID:23093360

  4. RhNAC2 and RhEXPA4 Are Involved in the Regulation of Dehydration Tolerance during the Expansion of Rose Petals1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fanwei; Zhang, Changqing; Jiang, Xinqiang; Kang, Mei; Yin, Xia; Lü, Peitao; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Junping

    2012-01-01

    Dehydration inhibits petal expansion resulting in abnormal flower opening and results in quality loss during the marketing of cut flowers. We constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library from rose (Rosa hybrida) flowers containing 3,513 unique expressed sequence tags and analyzed their expression profiles during cycles of dehydration. We found that 54 genes were up-regulated by the first dehydration, restored or even down-regulated by rehydration, and once again up-regulated by the second dehydration. Among them, we identified a putative NAC family transcription factor (RhNAC2). With transactivation activity of its carboxyl-terminal domain in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplast, RhNAC2 belongs to the NAC transcription factor clade related to plant development in Arabidopsis. A putative expansin gene named RhEXPA4 was also dramatically up-regulated by dehydration. Silencing RhNAC2 or RhEXPA4 in rose petals by virus-induced gene silencing significantly decreased the recovery of intact petals and petal discs during rehydration. Overexpression of RhNAC2 or RhEXPA4 in Arabidopsis conferred strong drought tolerance in the transgenic plants. RhEXPA4 expression was repressed in RhNAC2-silenced rose petals, and the amino-terminal binding domain of RhNAC2 bound to the RhEXPA4 promoter. Twenty cell wall-related genes, including seven expansin family members, were up-regulated in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing RhNAC2. These data indicate that RhNAC2 and RhEXPA4 are involved in the regulation of dehydration tolerance during the expansion of rose petals and that RhEXPA4 expression may be regulated by RhNAC2. PMID:23093360

  5. Proteolysis of HCF-1 by Ser/Thr glycosylation-incompetent O-GlcNAc transferase:UDP-GlcNAc complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kapuria, Vaibhav; Röhrig, Ute F.; Bhuiyan, Tanja; Borodkin, Vladimir S.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Zoete, Vincent; Herr, Winship

    2016-01-01

    In complex with the cosubstrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), O-linked-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes Ser/Thr O-GlcNAcylation of many cellular proteins and proteolysis of the transcriptional coregulator HCF-1. Such a dual glycosyltransferase–protease activity, which occurs in the same active site, is unprecedented and integrates both reversible and irreversible forms of protein post-translational modification within one enzyme. Although occurring within the same active site, we show here that glycosylation and proteolysis occur through separable mechanisms. OGT consists of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) and catalytic domains, which, together with UDP-GlcNAc, are required for both glycosylation and proteolysis. Nevertheless, a specific TPR domain contact with the HCF-1 substrate is critical for proteolysis but not Ser/Thr glycosylation. In contrast, key catalytic domain residues and even a UDP-GlcNAc oxygen important for Ser/Thr glycosylation are irrelevant for proteolysis. Thus, from a dual glycosyltransferase–protease, essentially single-activity enzymes can be engineered both in vitro and in vivo. Curiously, whereas OGT-mediated HCF-1 proteolysis is limited to vertebrate species, invertebrate OGTs can cleave human HCF-1. We present a model for the evolution of HCF-1 proteolysis by OGT. PMID:27056667

  6. Proteolysis of HCF-1 by Ser/Thr glycosylation-incompetent O-GlcNAc transferase:UDP-GlcNAc complexes.

    PubMed

    Kapuria, Vaibhav; Röhrig, Ute F; Bhuiyan, Tanja; Borodkin, Vladimir S; van Aalten, Daan M F; Zoete, Vincent; Herr, Winship

    2016-04-15

    In complex with the cosubstrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc),O-linked-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes Ser/ThrO-GlcNAcylation of many cellular proteins and proteolysis of the transcriptional coregulator HCF-1. Such a dual glycosyltransferase-protease activity, which occurs in the same active site, is unprecedented and integrates both reversible and irreversible forms of protein post-translational modification within one enzyme. Although occurring within the same active site, we show here that glycosylation and proteolysis occur through separable mechanisms. OGT consists of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) and catalytic domains, which, together with UDP-GlcNAc, are required for both glycosylation and proteolysis. Nevertheless, a specific TPR domain contact with the HCF-1 substrate is critical for proteolysis but not Ser/Thr glycosylation. In contrast, key catalytic domain residues and even a UDP-GlcNAc oxygen important for Ser/Thr glycosylation are irrelevant for proteolysis. Thus, from a dual glycosyltransferase-protease, essentially single-activity enzymes can be engineered both in vitro and in vivo. Curiously, whereas OGT-mediated HCF-1 proteolysis is limited to vertebrate species, invertebrate OGTs can cleave human HCF-1. We present a model for the evolution of HCF-1 proteolysis by OGT. PMID:27056667

  7. Altered gene dosage confirms the genetic interaction between FIAT and αNAC.

    PubMed

    Hekmatnejad, Bahareh; Mandic, Vice; Yu, Vionnie W C; Akhouayri, Omar; Arabian, Alice; St-Arnaud, René

    2014-04-01

    Factor inhibiting ATF4-mediated transcription (FIAT) interacts with Nascent polypeptide associated complex and coregulator alpha (αNAC). In cultured osteoblastic cells, this interaction contributes to maximal FIAT-mediated inhibition of Osteocalcin (Ocn) gene transcription. We set out to demonstrate the physiological relevance of this interaction by altering gene dosage in compound Fiat and Naca (encoding αNAC) heterozygous mice. Compound Naca(+/-); Fiat(+/-) heterozygous animals were viable, developed normally, and exhibited no significant difference in body weight compared with control littermate genotypes. Animals with a single Fiat allele had reduced Fiat mRNA expression without changes in the expression of related family members. Expression of the osteocyte differentiation marker Dmp1 was elevated in compound heterozygotes. Static histomorphometry parameters were assessed at 8weeks of age using microcomputed tomography (μCT). Trabecular measurements were not different between genotypes. Cortical thickness and area were not affected by gene dosage, but we measured a significant increase in cortical porosity in compound heterozygous mice, without changes in biomechanical parameters. The bone phenotype of compound Naca(+/-); Fiat(+/-) heterozygotes confirms that FIAT and αNAC are part of a common genetic pathway and support a role for the FIAT/αNAC interaction in normal bone physiology. PMID:24440290

  8. Altered gene dosage confirms the genetic interaction between FIAT and αNAC

    PubMed Central

    Hekmatnejad, Bahareh; Mandic, Vice; Yu, Vionnie W.C.; Akhouayri, Omar; Arabian, Alice; St-Arnaud, René

    2014-01-01

    Factor inhibiting ATF4-mediated transcription (FIAT) interacts with Nascent polypeptide associated complex And coregulator alpha (αNAC). In cultured osteoblastic cells, this interaction contributes to maximal FIAT-mediated inhibition of Osteocalcin (Ocn) gene transcription. We set out to demonstrate the physiological relevance of this interaction by altering gene dosage in compound Fiat and Naca (encoding αNAC) heterozygous mice. Compound Naca+/−; Fiat+/− heterozygous animals were viable, developed normally, and exhibited no significant difference in body weight compared with control littermate genotypes. Animals with a single Fiat allele had reduced Fiat mRNA expression without changes in the expression of related family members. Expression of the osteocyte differentiation marker Dmp1 was elevated in compound heterozygotes. Static histomorphometry parameters were assessed at 8 weeks of age using microcomputed tomography (μCT). Trabecular measurements were not different between genotypes. Cortical thickness and area were not affected by gene dosage, but we measured a significant increase in cortical porosity in compound heterozygous mice, without changes in biomechanical parameters. The bone phenotype of compound Naca+/−; Fiat+/− heterozygotes confirms that FIAT and αNAC are part of a common genetic pathway and support a role for the FIAT/αNAC interaction in normal bone physiology. PMID:24440290

  9. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 1 regulates morphology and function of P19C6 cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Shirou; Hikiji, Hisako; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Shindou, Hideo; Okinaga, Toshinori; Shimizu, Takao; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2016-07-01

    Glycerophospholipids, which are components of biomembranes, are formed de novo by the Kennedy pathway and subsequently mature through the Lands cycle. Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) are key enzymes in both pathways and influence the fatty acid composition of biomembranes. Neuronal differentiation is characterized by neurite outgrowth, which requires biomembrane biosynthesis. However, the role of LPLATs in neuronal differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether LPLATs are involved in neuronal differentiation using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated P19C6 cells. In these cells, mRNA levels of lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT)-1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT)-1 were higher than those in undifferentiated cells. LPEAT enzymatic activity increased with 16:0- and 18:1-CoA as acyl donors. When LPEAT1/MBOAT1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA (siRNA), outgrowth of neurites and expression of neuronal markers decreased in ATRA-treated P19C6 cells. Voltage-dependent calcium channel activity was also suppressed in these cells transfected with LPEAT1/MBOAT1 siRNA. These results suggest that LPEAT1/MBOAT1 plays an important role in neurite outgrowth and function.-Tabe, S., Hikiji, H., Ariyoshi, W., Hashidate-Yoshida, T., Shindou, H., Okinaga, T., Shimizu, T., Tominaga, K., Nishihara, T. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 1 regulates morphology and function of P19C6 cell-derived neurons. PMID:27048541

  10. An organelle-free assay for pea chloroplast Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Mg-chelatase, which catalyzes the insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin, lies at the branchpoint of heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis in chloroplasts. Since magnesium chelation is the first step unique to chlorophyll synthesis, one would expect this step to be highly regulated. However, to date little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase due mostly to an inability to assay it's activity outside of the intact plastid. Here the authors report the first truly in vitro i.e. organelle-free, assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts which is 3 to 4 fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts, survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated, by centrifugation, into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity and both were inactivated by boiling; indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane bound protein(s). The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol Mg-Deuteroporphyrin/h/mg protein and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity. The soluble component could be fractionated with ammonium sulfate. The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. Crude separation of chloroplast membranes into thylakoids and envelopes, suggested that the membrane-bound component of Mg-chelatase is probably located in the envelope.

  11. 75 FR 54221 - RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES:...

  12. Conserved miR164-targeted NAC genes negatively regulate drought resistance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kabin; Xiong, Lizhong

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs constitute a large group of endogenous small RNAs of ~22 nt that emerge as vital regulators, mainly by targeting mRNAs for post-transcriptional repression. Previous studies have revealed that the miR164 family in Arabidopsis is comprised of three members which guide the cleavage of the mRNAs of five NAC genes to modulate developmental processes. However, the functions of the miR164-targeted NAC genes in crops are poorly deciphered. In this study, the conserved features of six miR164-targeted NAC genes (OMTN1–OMTN6) in rice are described, and evidence is provided that four of them confer a negative regulatory role in drought resistance. OMTN proteins have the characteristics of typical NAC transcriptional factors. The miR164 recognition sites of the OMTN genes are highly conserved in rice germplasms. Deletion of the recognition sites impaired the transactivation activity, indicating that the conserved recognition sites play a crucial role in maintaining the function of the OMTN proteins. The OMTN genes were responsive to abiotic stresses, and showed diverse spatio-temporal expression patterns in rice. Overexpression of OMTN2, OMTN3, OMTN4, and OMTN6 in rice led to negative effects on drought resistance at the reproductive stage. The expression of numerous genes related to stress response, development, and metabolism was altered in OMTN2-, OMTN3-, OMTN4-, and OMTN6-overexpressing plants. Most of the up-regulated genes in the OMTN-overexpressing plants were down-regulated by drought stress. The results suggest that the conserved miR164-targeted NAC genes may be negative regulators of drought tolerance in rice, in addition to their reported roles in development. PMID:24604734

  13. Loss of covalently linked lipid as the mechanism for radiation-induced release of membrane-bound polysaccharide and exonuclease from Micrococcus radiodurans. [/sup 60/CO

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1981-08-01

    The mechanism of ..gamma..-radiation-induced release of polysaccharide and exonuclease from the midwall membrane of Micrococcus radiodurans has been examined. These two components appear to be released independently, but by very similar processes. Direct analysis of radiation-released polysaccharide indicated the absence of an alkali-labile neutral lipid normally present in the native material. Radiation-induced release therefore probably results from the radiolytic cleavage of a covalently linked lipid which normally serves to anchor these substances to the membrane. The absence of a natural membrane-bound carotenoid had no effect on the rate of release of these components. Likewise, the absence of exonuclease in an exonuclease minus mutant did not influence the release of polysaccharide. It is suggested that the major pathway of radical transfer from the initiating .OH and culminating in the cleavage of the neutral lipid anchor may not be via the membrane.

  14. Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-Bound Form of Pf1 Coat Protein: Implications of Structural Rearrangement for Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Ho; Marassi, Francesca M.; Black, David; Opella, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the membrane-bound form of the major coat protein of Pf1 bacteriophage was determined in phospholipid bilayers using orientation restraints derived from both solid-state and solution NMR experiments. In contrast to previous structures determined solely in detergent micelles, the structure in bilayers contains information about the spatial arrangement of the protein within the membrane, and thus provides insights to the bacteriophage assembly process from membrane-inserted to bacteriophage-associated protein. Comparisons between the membrane-bound form of the coat protein and the previously determined structural form found in filamentous bacteriophage particles demonstrate that it undergoes a significant structural rearrangement during the membrane-mediated virus assembly process. The rotation of the transmembrane helix (Q16–A46) around its long axis changes dramatically (by 160°) to obtain the proper alignment for packing in the virus particles. Furthermore, the N-terminal amphipathic helix (V2–G17) tilts away from the membrane surface and becomes parallel with the transmembrane helix to form one nearly continuous long helix. The spectra obtained in glass-aligned planar lipid bilayers, magnetically aligned lipid bilayers (bicelles), and isotropic lipid bicelles reflect the effects of backbone motions and enable the backbone dynamics of the N-terminal helix to be characterized. Only resonances from the mobile N-terminal helix and the C-terminus (A46) are observed in the solution NMR spectra of the protein in isotropic q > 1 bicelles, whereas only resonances from the immobile transmembrane helix are observed in the solid-state 1H/15N-separated local field spectra in magnetically aligned bicelles. The N-terminal helix and the hinge that connects it to the transmembrane helix are significantly more dynamic than the rest of the protein, thus facilitating structural rearrangement during bacteriophage assembly. PMID:20816058

  15. Resolution of Distinct Membrane-Bound Enzymes from Enterobacter cloacae SLD1a-1 That Are Responsible for Selective Reduction of Nitrate and Selenate Oxyanions

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Helen; Watts, Carys A.; Richardson, David J.; Butler, Clive S.

    2006-01-01

    Enterobacter cloacae SLD1a-1 is capable of reductive detoxification of selenate to elemental selenium under aerobic growth conditions. The initial reductive step is the two-electron reduction of selenate to selenite and is catalyzed by a molybdenum-dependent enzyme demonstrated previously to be located in the cytoplasmic membrane, with its active site facing the periplasmic compartment (C. A. Watts, H. Ridley, K. L. Condie, J. T. Leaver, D. J. Richardson, and C. S. Butler, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 228:273-279, 2003). This study describes the purification of two distinct membrane-bound enzymes that reduce either nitrate or selenate oxyanions. The nitrate reductase is typical of the NAR-type family, with α and β subunits of 140 kDa and 58 kDa, respectively. It is expressed predominantly under anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate, and while it readily reduces chlorate, it displays no selenate reductase activity in vitro. The selenate reductase is expressed under aerobic conditions and expressed poorly during anaerobic growth on nitrate. The enzyme is a heterotrimeric (αβγ) complex with an apparent molecular mass of ∼600 kDa. The individual subunit sizes are ∼100 kDa (α), ∼55 kDa (β), and ∼36 kDa (γ), with a predicted overall subunit composition of α3β3γ3. The selenate reductase contains molybdenum, heme, and nonheme iron as prosthetic constituents. Electronic absorption spectroscopy reveals the presence of a b-type cytochrome in the active complex. The apparent Km for selenate was determined to be ∼2 mM, with an observed Vmax of 500 nmol SeO42− min−1 mg−1 (kcat, ∼5.0 s−1). The enzyme also displays activity towards chlorate and bromate but has no nitrate reductase activity. These studies report the first purification and characterization of a membrane-bound selenate reductase. PMID:16885262

  16. Incorporation of membrane-bound, mammalian-derived immunomodulatory proteins into influenza whole virus vaccines boosts immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Andrew S; Heffron, Lynn; Sundick, Roy; Roberts, Paul C

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza epidemics continue to cause morbidity and mortality within the human population despite widespread vaccination efforts. This, along with the ominous threat of an avian influenza pandemic (H5N1), demonstrates the need for a much improved, more sophisticated influenza vaccine. We have developed an in vitro model system for producing a membrane-bound Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccine (CYT-IVAC). Numerous cytokines are involved in directing both innate and adaptive immunity and it is our goal to utilize the properties of individual cytokines and other immunomodulatory proteins to create a more immunogenic vaccine. Results We have evaluated the immunogenicity of inactivated cytokine-bearing influenza vaccines using a mouse model of lethal influenza virus challenge. CYT-IVACs were produced by stably transfecting MDCK cell lines with mouse-derived cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2 and IL-4) fused to the membrane-anchoring domain of the viral hemagglutinin. Influenza virus replication in these cell lines resulted in the uptake of the bioactive membrane-bound cytokines during virus budding and release. In vivo efficacy studies revealed that a single low dose of IL-2 or IL-4-bearing CYT-IVAC is superior at providing protection against lethal influenza challenge in a mouse model and provides a more balanced Th1/Th2 humoral immune response, similar to live virus infections. Conclusion We have validated the protective efficacy of CYT-IVACs in a mammalian model of influenza virus infection. This technology has broad applications in current influenza virus vaccine development and may prove particularly useful in boosting immune responses in the elderly, where current vaccines are minimally effective. PMID:19393093

  17. Overexpression of membrane-bound fas ligand (CD95L) exacerbates autoimmune disease and renal pathology in pristane-induced lupus.

    PubMed

    Bossaller, Lukas; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Bonegio, Ramon; Chiang, Ping-I; Busto, Patricia; Wespiser, Adam R; Caffrey, Daniel R; Li, Quan-Zhen; Mohan, Chandra; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Latz, Eicke; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann

    2013-09-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Fas death receptor or its ligand result in a lymphoproliferative syndrome and exacerbate clinical disease in most lupus-prone strains of mice. One exception is mice injected with 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD), a hydrocarbon oil commonly known as pristane, which induces systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease. Although Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) interactions have been strongly implicated in the activation-induced cell death of both lymphocytes and other APCs, FasL can also trigger the production of proinflammatory cytokines. FasL is a transmembrane protein with a matrix metalloproteinase cleavage site in the ectodomain. Matrix metalloproteinase cleavage inactivates membrane-bound FasL and releases a soluble form reported to have both antagonist and agonist activity. To better understand the impact of FasL cleavage on both the proapoptotic and proinflammatory activity of FasL, its cleavage site was deleted through targeted mutation to produce the deleted cleavage site (ΔCS) mouse line. ΔCS mice express higher levels of membrane-bound FasL than do wild-type mice and fail to release soluble FasL. To determine to what extent FasL promotes inflammation in lupus mice, TMPD-injected FasL-deficient and ΔCS BALB/c mice were compared with control TMPD-injected BALB/c mice. We found that FasL deficiency significantly reduced the early inflammatory exudate induced by TMPD injection. In contrast, ΔCS mice developed a markedly exacerbated disease profile associated with a higher frequency of splenic neutrophils and macrophages, a profound change in anti-nuclear Ab specificity, and markedly increased proteinuria and kidney pathology compared with controls. These results demonstrate that FasL promotes inflammation in TMPD-induced autoimmunity, and its cleavage limits FasL proinflammatory activity. PMID:23918976

  18. Conversion of membrane-bound Fas(CD95) ligand to its soluble form is associated with downregulation of its proapoptotic activity and loss of liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P; Holler, N; Bodmer, J L; Hahne, M; Frei, K; Fontana, A; Tschopp, J

    1998-04-20

    Human Fas ligand (L) (CD95L) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha undergo metalloproteinase-mediated proteolytic processing in their extracellular domains resulting in the release of soluble trimeric ligands (soluble [s]FasL, sTNF-alpha) which, in the case of sFasL, is thought to be implicated in diseases such as hepatitis and AIDS. Here we show that the processing of sFasL occurs between Ser126 and Leu127. The apoptotic-inducing capacity of naturally processed sFasL was reduced by >1,000-fold compared with membrane-bound FasL, and injection of high doses of recombinant sFasL in mice did not induce liver failure. However, soluble FasL retained its capacity to interact with Fas, and restoration of its cytotoxic activity was achieved both in vitro and in vivo with the addition of cross-linking antibodies. Similarly, the marginal apoptotic activity of recombinant soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL), another member of the TNF ligand family, was greatly increased upon cross-linking. These results indicate that the mere trimerization of the Fas and TRAIL receptors may not be sufficient to trigger death signals. Thus, the observation that sFasL is less cytotoxic than membrane-bound FasL may explain why in certain types of cancer, systemic tissue damage is not detected, even though the levels of circulating sFasL are high. PMID:9547332

  19. Effect of feeding lipids recovered from fish processing waste by lactic acid fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis on antioxidant and membrane bound enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Bhaskar, N; Baskaran, V

    2015-06-01

    Fish oil recovered from fresh water fish visceral waste (FVW-FO) through lactic acid fermentation (FO-LAF) and enzymatic hydrolysis (FO-EH) were fed to rats to study their influence on lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant and membrane bound enzyme in liver, heart and brain. Feeding of FO-LAF and FO-EH resulted in increase (P < 0.05) in lipid peroxides level in serum, liver, brain and heart tissues compared to ground nut oil (control). Activity of catalase (40-235 %) and superoxide dismutase (17-143 %) also increased (P < 0.05) with incremental level of EPA + DHA in diet. The increase was similar to cod liver oil fed rats at same concentration of EPA + DHA. FO-LAF and FO-EH increased (P < 0.05) the Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity in liver and brain microsomes, Ca(+)Mg(+) ATPase in heart microsome and acetylcholine esterase in brain microsomes when fed with 5 % EPA + DHA. There was also significant change in fatty acid composition and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in microsomes of rat fed with FVW-FO. Feeding FVW-FO recovered by biotechnological approaches enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tissues, modulates the activities of membrane bound enzymes and improved the fatty acid composition in microsomes of tissues similar to CLO. Utilization of these processing wastes for the production of valuable biofunctional products can reduce the mounting economic values of fish oil and minimize the environmental pollution problems. PMID:26028754

  20. ATPaseTb2, a Unique Membrane-bound FoF1-ATPase Component, Is Essential in Bloodstream and Dyskinetoplastic Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Zíková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    In the infectious stage of Trypanosoma brucei, an important parasite of humans and livestock, the mitochondrial (mt) membrane potential (Δψm) is uniquely maintained by the ATP hydrolytic activity and subsequent proton pumping of the essential FoF1-ATPase. Intriguingly, this multiprotein complex contains several trypanosome-specific subunits of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that one of the largest novel subunits, ATPaseTb2, is membrane-bound and localizes with monomeric and multimeric assemblies of the FoF1-ATPase. Moreover, RNAi silencing of ATPaseTb2 quickly leads to a significant decrease of the Δψm that manifests as a decreased growth phenotype, indicating that the FoF1-ATPase is impaired. To further explore the function of this protein, we employed a trypanosoma strain that lacks mtDNA (dyskinetoplastic, Dk) and thus subunit a, an essential component of the proton pore in the membrane Fo-moiety. These Dk cells generate the Δψm by combining the hydrolytic activity of the matrix-facing F1-ATPase and the electrogenic exchange of ATP4- for ADP3- by the ATP/ADP carrier (AAC). Surprisingly, in addition to the expected presence of F1-ATPase, the monomeric and multimeric FoF1-ATPase complexes were identified. In fact, the immunoprecipitation of a F1-ATPase subunit demonstrated that ATPaseTb2 was a component of these complexes. Furthermore, RNAi studies established that the membrane-bound ATPaseTb2 subunit is essential for maintaining normal growth and the Δψm of Dk cells. Thus, even in the absence of subunit a, a portion of the FoF1-ATPase is assembled in Dk cells. PMID:25714685

  1. Novel role of ZmaNAC36 in co-expression of starch synthetic genes in maize endosperm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Chen, Jiang; Yi, Qiang; Hu, Yufeng; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Huang, Yubi

    2014-02-01

    Starch is an essential commodity that is widely used as food, feed, fuel and in industry. However, its mechanism of synthesis is not fully understood, especially in terms of the expression and regulation of the starch synthetic genes. It was reported that the starch synthetic genes were co-expressed during maize endosperm development; however, the mechanism of the co-expression was not reported. In this paper, the ZmaNAC36 gene was amplified by homology-based cloning, and its expression vector was constructed for transient expression. The nuclear localization, transcriptional activation and target sites of the ZmaNAC36 protein were identified. The expression profile of ZmaNAC36 showed that it was strongly expressed in the maize endosperm and was co-expressed with most of the starch synthetic genes. Moreover, the expressions of many starch synthesis genes in the endosperm were upregulated when ZmaNAC36 was transiently overexpressed. All our results indicated that NAC36 might be a transcription factor and play a potential role in the co-expression of starch synthetic genes in the maize endosperm. PMID:24235061

  2. GalNAc-T4 putatively modulates the estrogen regulatory network through FOXA1 glycosylation in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Niang, Bachir; Jin, Liyuan; Chen, Xixi; Guo, Xiaohan; Zhang, Hongshuo; Wu, Qiong; Padhiar, Arshad Ahmed; Xiao, Min; Fang, Deyu; Zhang, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    GALNT4 belongs to a family of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases, which catalyze the transfer of GalNAc to Serine or Threonine residues in the initial step of mucin-type O-linked protein glycosylation. This glycosylation type is the most complex post-translational modification of proteins, playing important roles during cellular differentiation and in pathological disorders. Most of the breast cancer subtypes are estrogen receptor positive, and hence, the estrogen pathway represents a key regulatory network. We investigated the expression of GalNAc-T4 in a panel of mammary epithelial cell lines and found its expression is associated with the estrogen status of the cells. FOXA1, a key transcription factor, functions to promote estrogen responsive gene expression by acting as a cofactor to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but all the aspects of this regulatory mechanism are not fully explored. This study found that knockdown of GALNT4 expression in human breast cancer cells attenuated the protein expression of ERα, FOXA1, and Cyclin D1. Further, our immunoprecipitation assays depicted the possibility of FOXA1 to undergo O-GalNAc modifications with a decrease of GalNAc residues in the GALNT4 knockdown cells and also impairment in the FOXA1-ERα association. Rescuing GALNT4 expression could restore the interaction as well as the glycosylation of FOXA1. Together, these findings suggest a key role for GalNAc-T4 in the estrogen pathway through FOXA1 glycosylation. PMID:26541755

  3. A critical perspective of the diverse roles of O-GlcNAc transferase in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Gambetta, Maria Cristina; Müller, Jürg

    2015-12-01

    O-linked β-N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a posttranslational modification that is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt) and found on a plethora of nuclear and cytosolic proteins in animals and plants. Studies in different model organisms revealed that while O-GlcNAc is required for selected processes in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, it has evolved to become required for cell viability in mice, and this has challenged investigations to identify cellular functions that critically require this modification in mammals. Nevertheless, a principal cellular process that engages O-GlcNAcylation in all of these species is the regulation of gene transcription. Here, we revisit several of the primary experimental observations that led to current models of how O-GlcNAcylation affects gene expression. In particular, we discuss the role of the stable association of Ogt with the transcription factors Hcf1 and Tet, the two main Ogt-interacting proteins in nuclei of mammalian cells. We also critically evaluate the evidence that specific residues on core histones, including serine 112 of histone 2B (H2B-S112), are O-GlcNAcylated in vivo and discuss possible physiological effects of these modifications. Finally, we review our understanding of the role of O-GlcNAcylation in Drosophila, where recent studies suggest that the developmental defects in Ogt mutants are all caused by lack of O-GlcNAcylation of a single transcriptional regulator, the Polycomb repressor protein Polyhomeotic (Ph). Collectively, this reexamination of the experimental evidence suggests that a number of recently propagated models about the role of O-GlcNAcylation in transcriptional control should be treated cautiously. PMID:25894967

  4. Electroosmotic perfusion of tissue: sampling the extracellular space and quantitative assessment of membrane-bound enzyme activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yangguang; Wu, Juanfang; Sandberg, Mats

    2014-01-01

    This review covers recent advances in sampling fluid from the extracellular space of brain tissue by electroosmosis (EO). Two techniques, EO sampling with a single fused-silica capillary and EO push–pull perfusion, have been developed. These tools were used to investigate the function of membrane-bound enzymes with outward-facing active sites, or ectoenzymes, in modulating the activity of the neuropeptides leu-enkephalin and galanin in organotypic-hippocampal-slice cultures (OHSCs). In addition, the approach was used to determine the endogenous concentration of a thiol, cysteamine, in OHSCs. We have also investigated the degradation of coenzyme A in the extracellular space. The approach provides information on ectoenzyme activity, including Michaelis constants, in tissue, which, as far as we are aware, has not been done before. On the basis of computational evidence, EO push–pull perfusion can distinguish ectoenzyme activity with a ~100 µm spatial resolution, which is important for studies of enzyme kinetics in adjacent regions of the rat hippocampus. PMID:25168111

  5. In Situ Proteolysis for Crystallization of Membrane Bound Cytochrome P450 17A1 and 17A2 Proteins from Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lei, Li; Egli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 catalyze both steroid 17α-hydroxylation and 17α,20-lyase reactions. Fish P450 17A2 catalyzes only 17α-hydroxylation. Both enzymes are microsomal-type P450s, integral membrane proteins that bind to the membrane through their N-terminal hydrophobic segment, the signal anchor sequence. The presence of this N-terminal region renders expression of full-length proteins challenging or impossible. For some proteins, variable truncation of the signal anchor sequence precludes expression or results in poor expression levels. To crystallize P450 17A1 and 17A2 in order to gain insight into their different activities, we used an alternative N-terminal sequence to boost expression together with in situ proteolysis. Key features of our approach to identify crystallizable P450 fragments were the use of an N-terminal leader sequence, a screen composed of 12 proteases to establish optimal cleavage, variations of protease concentration in combination with an SDS-PAGE assay, and analysis of the resulting fragments using Edman sequencing. Described in this unit are protocols for vector preparation, expression, purification, and in situ proteolytic crystallization of two membrane-bound P450 proteins. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27038268

  6. Acute mechanical sensitization of peripheral nociceptors by aldosterone through non-genomic activation of membrane bound mineralocorticoid receptors in naive rats.

    PubMed

    Shaqura, Mohammed; Li, Xiongjuan; Al-Madol, Mohammed A; Tafelski, Sascha; Beyer-Koczorek, Antje; Mousa, Shaaban A; Schäfer, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Recently, there is increasing interest in the role of peripheral mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) to modulate pain, but their localization in neurons and glia of the periphery and their distinct involvement in pain control remains elusive. In naive Wistar rats our double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, sciatic nerve and innervated skin revealed that MR predominantly colocalized with calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP)- and trkA-immunoreactive (IR) nociceptive neurons and only marginally with myelinated trkB-IR mechanoreceptive and trkC-IR proprioreceptive neurons underscoring a pivotal role for MR in the modulation of pain. MR could not be detected in Schwann cells, satellite cells, and astrocytes and only scarcely in spinal microglia cells excluding a relevant functional role of glia-derived MR at least in naïve rats. Intrathecal (i.t.) and intraplantar (i.pl.) application of increasing doses of the MR selective agonist aldosterone acutely increased nociceptive behavior which was reversible by a MR selective antagonist and most likely due to non-genomic effects. This was further substantiated by the first identification of membrane bound MR specific binding sites in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. Therefore, a crucial role of MR on nociceptive neurons but not on glia cells and their impact on nociceptive behavior most likely due to immediate non-genomic effects has to be considered under normal but more so under pathological conditions in future studies. PMID:27016023

  7. Localization and Function of the Membrane-bound Riboflavin in the Na+-translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Marco S.; Huber, Tamara; Brunisholz, René; Tao, Minli; Fritz, Günter; Steuber, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The sodium ion-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is a respiratory membrane protein complex that couples the oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na+ across the bacterial membrane. The Na+-NQR comprises the six subunits NqrABCDEF, but the stoichiometry and arrangement of these subunits are unknown. Redox-active cofactors are FAD and a 2Fe-2S cluster on NqrF, covalently attached FMNs on NqrB and NqrC, and riboflavin and ubiquinone-8 with unknown localization in the complex. By analyzing the cofactor content and NADH oxidation activity of subcomplexes of the Na+-NQR lacking individual subunits, the riboflavin cofactor was unequivocally assigned to the membrane-bound NqrB subunit. Quantitative analysis of the N-terminal amino acids of the holo-complex revealed that NqrB is present in a single copy in the holo-complex. It is concluded that the hydrophobic NqrB harbors one riboflavin in addition to its covalently attached FMN. The catalytic role of two flavins in subunit NqrB during the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol by the Na+-NQR is discussed. PMID:20558724

  8. Krypton Derivatization of an O2 -Tolerant Membrane-Bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reveals a Hydrophobic Tunnel Network for Gas Transport.

    PubMed

    Kalms, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Andrea; Frielingsdorf, Stefan; van der Linden, Peter; von Stetten, David; Lenz, Oliver; Carpentier, Philippe; Scheerer, Patrick

    2016-04-25

    [NiFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible heterolytic cleavage of hydrogen into protons and electrons. Gas tunnels make the deeply buried active site accessible to substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the architecture and function of the tunnels is pivotal to modulating the feature of O2 tolerance in a subgroup of these [NiFe] hydrogenases, as they are interesting for developments in renewable energy technologies. Here we describe the crystal structure of the O2 -tolerant membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha (ReMBH), using krypton-pressurized crystals. The positions of the krypton atoms allow a comprehensive description of the tunnel network within the enzyme. A detailed overview of tunnel sizes, lengths, and routes is presented from tunnel calculations. A comparison of the ReMBH tunnel characteristics with crystal structures of other O2 -tolerant and O2 -sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases revealed considerable differences in tunnel size and quantity between the two groups, which might be related to the striking feature of O2 tolerance. PMID:26913499

  9. Chronic dietary exposure to chlorpyrifos causes behavioral impairments, low activity of brain membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase, and increased brain acetylcholinesterase-R mRNA.

    PubMed

    López-Granero, Caridad; Cardona, Diana; Giménez, Estela; Lozano, Rafael; Barril, José; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando; Cañadas, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate (OP) insecticide that is metabolically activated to the highly toxic chlorpyrifos oxon. Dietary exposure is the main route of intoxication for non-occupational exposures. However, only limited behavioral effects of chronic dietary exposure have been investigated. Therefore, male Wistar rats were fed a dose of 5mg/kg/day of CPF for thirty-one weeks. Animals were evaluated in spatial learning and impulsivity tasks after 21 weeks of CPF dietary exposure and one week after exposure ended, respectively. In addition, the degree of inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was evaluated for both the soluble and particulate forms of the enzyme, as well as AChE gene expression. Also, brain acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) was investigated as an alternative target for OP-mediated effects. All variables were evaluated at various time points in response to CPF diet and after exposure ended. Results from behavioral procedures suggest cognitive and emotional disorders. Moreover, low levels of activity representing membrane-bound oligomeric forms (tetramers) were also observed. In addition, increased brain AChE-R mRNA levels were detected after four weeks of CPF dietary exposure. However, no changes in levels of brain APH were observed among groups. In conclusion, our data point to a relationship between cognitive impairments and changes in AChE forms, specifically to a high inhibition of the particulate form and a modification of alternative splicing of mRNA during CPF dietary exposure. PMID:23545134

  10. Evaluation of Mut(S) and Mut⁺ Pichia pastoris strains for membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pedro, A Q; Oppolzer, D; Bonifácio, M J; Maia, C J; Queiroz, J A; Passarinha, L A

    2015-04-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of catechol substrates, and while structural and functional studies of its membrane-bound isoform (MBCOMT) are still hampered by low recombinant production, Pichia pastoris has been described as an attractive host for the production of correctly folded and inserted membrane proteins. Hence, in this work, MBCOMT biosynthesis was developed using P. pastoris X33 and KM71H cells in shake flasks containing a semidefined medium with different methanol concentrations. Moreover, after P. pastoris glass beads lysis, biologically and immunologically active hMBCOMT was found mainly in the solubilized membrane fraction whose kinetic parameters were identical to its correspondent native enzyme. In addition, mixed feeds of methanol and glycerol or sorbitol were also employed, and its levels quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to refractive index detection. Overall, for the first time, two P. pastoris strains with opposite phenotypes were applied for MBCOMT biosynthesis under the control of the strongly methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX) promoter. Moreover, this eukaryotic system seems to be a promising approach to deliver MBCOMT in high quantities from fermentor cultures with a lower cost-benefit due to the cheaper cultivation media coupled with the higher titers tipically achieved in biorreactors, when compared with previously reported mammallian cell cultures. PMID:25712908

  11. Diverse in vivo effects of soluble and membrane-bound M-CSF on tumor-associated macrophages in lymphoma xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jinfeng; Feng, Wenli; Wang, Rong; Ma, Shihui; Wang, Lina; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Feifei; Lin, Yongmin; Ren, Qian; Zheng, Guoguang

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is an important cytokine for monocyte/macrophage lineage. Secretory M-CSF (sM-CSF) and membrane-bound M-CSF (mM-CSF) are two major alternative splicing isoforms. The functional diversity of these isoforms in the activation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), especially in lymphoma microenvironment, has not been documented. Here, we studied the effects of M-CSF isoforms on TAMs in xenograft mouse model. More infiltrating TAMs were detected in microenvironment with mM-CSF and sM-CSF. TAMs could be divided into three subpopulations based on their expression of CD206 and Ly6C. While sM-CSF had greater potential to recruit and induce differentiation of TAMs and TAM subpopulations, mM-CSF had greater potential to induce proliferation of TAMs and TAM subpopulations. Though both isoforms educated TAMs and TAM subpopulations to M2-like macrophages, mM-CSF and sM-CSF induced different spectrums of phenotype-associated genes in TAMs and TAM subpopulations. These results suggested the diverse effects of M-CSF isoforms on the activation of TAMs and TAM subpopulations in lymphoma microenvironments. PMID:26595525

  12. YND1, a homologue of GDA1, encodes membrane-bound apyrase required for Golgi N- and O-glycosylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gao, X D; Kaigorodov, V; Jigami, Y

    1999-07-23

    The gene for the open reading frame YER005w that is homologous to yeast Golgi GDPase encoded by the GDA1 gene was cloned and named YND1. It encodes a 630-amino acid protein that contains a single transmembrane region near the carboxyl terminus. The overexpression of the YND1 gene in the gda1 null mutant caused a significant increase in microsomal membrane-bound nucleoside phosphatase activity with a luminal orientation. The activity was equally high toward ADP/ATP, GDP/GTP, and UDP/UTP and approximately 50% less toward CDP/CTP and thiamine pyrophosphate, but there was no activity toward GMP, indicating that the Ynd1 protein belongs to the apyrase family. This substrate specificity is different from that of yeast GDPase, but similar to that of human Golgi UDPase. The Deltaynd1 mutant cells were defective in O- and N-linked glycosylation in the Golgi compartments. The overexpression of the YND1 gene complemented some glycosylation defects in Deltagda1 disruptants, suggesting a partially redundant function of yeast apyrase and GDPase. From these results and the phenotype of the Deltaynd1Deltagda1 double deletion showing a synthetic effect, we conclude that yeast apyrase is required for Golgi glycosylation and cell wall integrity, providing the first direct evidence for the in vivo function of intracellular apyrase in eukaryotic cells. PMID:10409709

  13. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase 1 activity and blocking the binding of cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins by honokiol inhibit migratory potential of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ram; Kappes, John C; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2016-02-16

    Overexpression of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) in melanoma cells is often associated with increased migration/metastasis rate. To develop effective treatment options, we have examined the effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia plant, on the migratory potential of human melanoma cell lines (A375, Hs294t, SK-Mel119 and SK-Mel28) and assessed whether Nox1 is the target. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we observed that treatment of different melanoma cell lines with honokiol for 24 h resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell migration that was associated with reduction in Nox1 expression and reduced levels of oxidative stress. Treatment of cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an anti-oxidant, also inhibited the migration of melanoma cells. Treatment of cells with diphenyleneiodonium chloride, an inhibitor of Nox1, significantly decreased the migration ability of Hs294t and SK-Mel28 cells. Further, we examined the effect of honokiol on the levels of core proteins (p22phox and p47phox) of the NADPH oxidase complex. Treatment of Hs294t and SK-Mel28 cells with honokiol resulted in accumulation of the cytosolic p47phox protein and decreased levels of the membrane-bound p22phox protein, thus blocking their interaction and inhibiting Nox1 activation. Our in vivo bioluminescence imaging data indicate that oral administration of honokiol inhibited the migration/extravasation and growth of intravenously injected melanoma cells in internal body organs, such as liver, lung and kidney in nude mice, and that this was associated with an inhibitory effect on Nox1 activity in these internal organs/tissues. PMID:26760964

  14. Membrane-bound and soluble Fas ligands have opposite functions in photoreceptor cell death following separation from the retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, H; Murakami, Y; Kataoka, K; Notomi, S; Mantopoulos, D; Trichonas, G; Miller, J W; Gregory, M S; Ksander, B R; Marshak-Rothstein, A; Vavvas, D G

    2015-01-01

    Fas ligand (FasL) triggers apoptosis of Fas-positive cells, and previous reports described FasL-induced cell death of Fas-positive photoreceptors following a retinal detachment. However, as FasL exists in membrane-bound (mFasL) and soluble (sFasL) forms, and is expressed on resident microglia and infiltrating monocyte/macrophages, the current study examined the relative contribution of mFasL and sFasL to photoreceptor cell death after induction of experimental retinal detachment in wild-type, knockout (FasL−/−), and mFasL-only knock-in (ΔCS) mice. Retinal detachment in FasL−/− mice resulted in a significant reduction of photoreceptor cell death. In contrast, ΔCS mice displayed significantly more apoptotic photoreceptor cell death. Photoreceptor loss in ΔCS mice was inhibited by a subretinal injection of recombinant sFasL. Thus, Fas/FasL-triggered cell death accounts for a significant amount of photoreceptor cell loss following the retinal detachment. The function of FasL was dependent upon the form of FasL expressed: mFasL triggered photoreceptor cell death, whereas sFasL protected the retina, indicating that enzyme-mediated cleavage of FasL determines, in part, the extent of vision loss following the retinal detachment. Moreover, it also indicates that treatment with sFasL could significantly reduce photoreceptor cell loss in patients with retinal detachment. PMID:26583327

  15. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase 1 activity and blocking the binding of cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins by honokiol inhibit migratory potential of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ram; Kappes, John C.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) in melanoma cells is often associated with increased migration/metastasis rate. To develop effective treatment options, we have examined the effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia plant, on the migratory potential of human melanoma cell lines (A375, Hs294t, SK-Mel119 and SK-Mel28) and assessed whether Nox1 is the target. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we observed that treatment of different melanoma cell lines with honokiol for 24 h resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell migration that was associated with reduction in Nox1 expression and reduced levels of oxidative stress. Treatment of cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an anti-oxidant, also inhibited the migration of melanoma cells. Treatment of cells with diphenyleneiodonium chloride, an inhibitor of Nox1, significantly decreased the migration ability of Hs294t and SK-Mel28 cells. Further, we examined the effect of honokiol on the levels of core proteins (p22phox and p47phox) of the NADPH oxidase complex. Treatment of Hs294t and SK-Mel28 cells with honokiol resulted in accumulation of the cytosolic p47phox protein and decreased levels of the membrane-bound p22phox protein, thus blocking their interaction and inhibiting Nox1 activation. Our in vivo bioluminescence imaging data indicate that oral administration of honokiol inhibited the migration/extravasation and growth of intravenously injected melanoma cells in internal body organs, such as liver, lung and kidney in nude mice, and that this was associated with an inhibitory effect on Nox1 activity in these internal organs/tissues. PMID:26760964

  16. Widespread occurrence of N-terminal acylation in animal globins and possible origin of respiratory globins from a membrane-bound ancestor.

    PubMed

    Blank, Miriam; Burmester, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    Proteins of the (hemo-)globin superfamily have been identified in many different animals but also occur in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Globins are renowned for their ability to store and to transport oxygen, but additional globin functions such as sensing, signaling, and detoxification have been proposed. Recently, we found that the zebrafish globin X protein is myristoylated and palmitoylated at its N-terminus. The addition of fatty acids results in an association with the cellular membranes, suggesting a previously unrecognized globin function. In this study, we show that N-terminal acylation likely occurs in globin proteins from a broad range of phyla. An N-terminal myristoylation site was identified in 90 nonredundant globins from Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata (including Cephalochordata), of which 66 proteins carry an additional palmitoylation site. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified five major globin families, which may mirror the ancient globin diversity of the Metazoa. Globin X-like proteins form two related clades, which diverged before the radiation of the Eumetazoa. Vertebrate hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin, cytoglobin, globin E, and globin Y form a strongly supported common clade, which is the sister group of a clade consisting of invertebrate Hbs and relatives. The N-terminally acylated globins do not form a single monophyletic group but are distributed to four distinct clades. This pattern may be either explained by multiple introduction of an N-terminal acylation site into distinct globin lineages or by the origin of animal respiratory globins from a membrane-bound ancestor. Similarly, respiratory globins were not monophyletic. This suggests that respiratory globins might have emerged independently several times and that the early metazoan globins might have been associated with a membrane and carried out a function that was related to lipid protection or

  17. Integrated light-scattering spectroscopy, a sensitive probe for peptide-vesicle binding: application to the membrane-bound colicin E1 channel peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, K. B.; Palmer, L. R.; Merrill, A. R.; Hallett, F. R.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated light-scattering (ILS) spectroscopy was used to monitor the binding of the colicin E1 channel peptide to POPC:POPG large unilamellar vesicles (LUV; 60:40, mol:mol) at acidic pH (3.5). Binding conditions were chosen such that nearly all of the channel peptide was bound to the vesicles with little free peptide remaining in solution. The increase in vesicle size upon the insertion of the channel peptide was measured by performing a discrete inversion technique on data obtained from an ILS spectrometer. Vesicle size number distributions were determined for five different systems having peptide/vesicle ratios of approximately 0, 77, 154, 206, and 257. The experiment was repeated four times (twice at two different vesicle concentrations) to determine reproducibility. The relative changes in vesicle radius upon peptide binding to the membrane vesicles was remarkably reproducible even though these changes represented only a few nanometers. A comparison of vesicle size number distributions in the absence of bound peptide was made between ILS and dynamic light scattering (DLS) data and showed similar results. However, DLS was incapable of detecting the small changes due to peptide-induced vesicle swelling. The membrane-bound volume of the colicin E1 channel peptide was approximately 177 +/- 22 nm3. These data indicate that in the absence of a membrane potential (closed channel state) the colicin E1 channel peptide inserts into the membrane resulting in a significant displacement of the lipid bilayer as evidenced from the dose-dependent increase in the vesicle radius. These results indicate that ILS spectroscopy is a sensitive sizing technique that is capable of detecting relatively small changes in membrane vesicles and may have a wide application in the determination of peptide binding to membrane vesicles. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:7711234

  18. In vitro assay of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane-bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    The first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis is the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX. Since iron insertion into protoporphyrin leads to heme formation, Mg-chelatase lies at the branch point of heme and chlorophyll synthesis in chloroplasts. Little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase, as it has been assayed only in intact cucumber chloroplasts. In this report we describe an in vitro assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts was 3- to 4-fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts. This activity survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated by centrifugation into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity, and both were inactivated by boiling indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane-bound protein(s). The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol of Mg-deuteroporphyrin per h per mg of protein, and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity and the enzymen was sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (I{sub 50}, 20 {mu}M). Broken and reconstituted cucumber chloroplasts were unable to maintain Mg-chelatase activity. However, the cucumber supernatant fraction was active when combined with the pellet fraction of peas; the converse was not true, which suggested that the cucumber pellet was the component that lost activity during lysis.

  19. Importance of membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase in L-DOPA metabolism: a pharmacokinetic study in two types of Comt gene modified mice

    PubMed Central

    Käenmäki, M; Tammimäki, A; Garcia-Horsman, JA; Myöhänen, T; Schendzielorz, N; Karayiorgou, M; Gogos, JA; Männistö, PT

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes compounds containing catechol structures and has two forms: soluble (S-COMT) and membrane-bound (MB-COMT). Here we report the generation of a mouse line that expresses MB-COMT but not S-COMT. We compared the effects of deleting S-COMT only or both COMT forms on the pharmacokinetics of oral L-DOPA. Experimental approach: L-DOPA (10 mg·kg−1) and carbidopa (30 mg·kg−1) were given to mice by gastric tube, and samples were taken at various times. HPLC was used to measure L-DOPA in plasma and tissue samples, and dopamine and its metabolites in brain. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to characterize the distribution of COMT protein isoforms. Key results: Lack of S-COMT did not affect the levels of L-DOPA in plasma or peripheral tissues, whereas in the full COMT-knock-out mice, these levels were increased. The levels of 3-O-methyldopa were significantly decreased in the S-COMT-deficient mice. In the brain, L-DOPA levels were not significantly increased, and dopamine was increased only in females. The total COMT activity in the S-COMT-deficient mice was 22–47% of that in the wild-type mice. In peripheral tissues, female mice had lower COMT activity than the males. Conclusions and implications: In S-COMT-deficient mice, MB-COMT in the liver and the duodenum is able to O-methylate about one-half of exogenous L-DOPA. Sexual dimorphism and activity of the two COMT isoforms seems to be tissue specific and more prominent in peripheral tissues than in the brain. PMID:19930170

  20. Identification of amino acid residues that determine the substrate specificity of mammalian membrane-bound front-end fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenshi; Ohno, Makoto; Taguchi, Masahiro; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Aki, Tsunehiro

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-bound desaturases are physiologically and industrially important enzymes that are involved in the production of diverse fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives. Here, we identified amino acid residues that determine the substrate specificity of rat Δ6 desaturase (D6d) acting on linoleoyl-CoA by comparing its amino acid sequence with that of Δ5 desaturase (D5d), which converts dihomo-γ-linolenoyl-CoA. The N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain was excluded as a determinant by domain swapping analysis. Substitution of eight amino acid residues (Ser209, Asn211, Arg216, Ser235, Leu236, Trp244, Gln245, and Val344) of D6d with the corresponding residues of D5d by site-directed mutagenesis switched the substrate specificity from linoleoyl-CoA to dihomo-γ-linolenoyl-CoA. In addition, replacement of Leu323 of D6d with Phe323 on the basis of the amino acid sequence of zebra fish Δ5/6 bifunctional desaturase was found to render D6d bifunctional. Homology modeling of D6d using recent crystal structure data of human stearoyl-CoA (Δ9) desaturase revealed that Arg216, Trp244, Gln245, and Leu323 are located near the substrate-binding pocket. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the structural basis of the substrate specificity of a mammalian front-end fatty acid desaturase, which will aid in efficient production of value-added fatty acids. PMID:26590171

  1. The MUC4 membrane-bound mucin regulates esophageal cancer cell proliferation and migration properties: Implication for S100A4 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bruyere, Emilie; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Frenois, Frederic; Mariette, Christophe; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Loss of MUC4 reduces proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. {yields} MUC4 inhibition impairs migration of esophageal cancer cells but not their invasion. {yields} Loss of MUC4 significantly reduces in vivo tumor growth. {yields} Decrease of S100A4 induced by MUC4 inhibition impairs proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor progression. It has been shown that MUC4 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplastic lesions to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux, and MUC4 was previously shown to be upregulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC4 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that stable MUC4-deficient cancer cell lines (shMUC4 cells) were established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of shMUC4 cells were analyzed. Our results show that shMUC4 cells were less proliferative, had decreased migration properties and did not express S100A4 protein when compared with MUC4 expressing cells. Absence of MUC4 did not impair shMUC4 invasiveness. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC4. Altogether, these data indicate that MUC4 plays a key role in proliferative and migrating properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as is a tumor growth promoter. MUC4 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow-down esophageal tumor progression.

  2. A functionally critical single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase found in ethanol oxidation-deficient Gluconobacter thailandicus.

    PubMed

    Charoenyingcharoen, Piyanat; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Theeragool, Gunjana; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2015-08-10

    The Gluconobacter thailandicus strains NBRC3254, NBRC3255, NBRC3256, NBRC3257, and NBRC3258 are naturally deficient in the ethanol-oxidizing respiratory chain because they do not produce the cytochrome subunit of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Draft genomes of G. thailandicus strains NBRC3255 and NBRC3257 indicated that the adhB gene encoding the cytochrome subunit contains four base differences when compared to a closely related gene in the public database One of the nucleotide differences results in an Opal codon at the -19th tryptophan (Trp) in the signal sequence for translocation to the periplasmic space (here, the position of +1st residue is assigned to the N-terminal amino acid residue after signal peptide cleavage), while the other differences result in one missense and two silent amino acid alterations. All five of the G. thailandicus strains were shown to have the Trp(-19)Opal alteration. Ethanol oxidation and ADH activities in NBRC3255 were restored by transformation with a derivative of the endogenous adhB gene, of which the -19th Opal codon was altered to encode Trp. These results indicate that this sequence is a functionally critical single nucleotide polymorphism in the cytochrome subunit. Comparative genomic analyses between the draft genomes of NBRC3255 and NBRC3257 revealed that although the two genomes are closely related, they both have a significant number of unique open reading frames. We suggest that the closely related NBRC3255 and NBRC3257 diverged from a common ancestor having the mutation in the adhB gene, whereas no additional functionally critical mutation occurred in the adhB pseudogene over the course of evolution. PMID:25943635

  3. Topology of 1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferases SLC1 and ALE1 and Related Membrane-bound O-Acyltransferases (MBOATs) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Pagac, Martin; de la Mora, Hector Vazquez; Duperrex, Cécile; Roubaty, Carole; Vionnet, Christine; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In yeast, phosphatidic acid, the biosynthetic precursor for all glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols, is made de novo by the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases Ale1p and Slc1p. Ale1p belongs to the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, which contains many enzymes acylating lipids but also others that acylate secretory proteins residing in the lumen of the ER. A histidine present in a very short loop between two predicted transmembrane domains is the only residue that is conserved throughout the MBOAT gene family. The yeast MBOAT proteins of known function comprise Ale1p, the ergosterol acyltransferases Are1p and Are2p, and Gup1p, the last of which acylates lysophosphatidylinositol moieties of GPI anchors on ER lumenal GPI proteins. C-terminal topology reporters added to truncated versions of Gup1p yield a topology predicting a lumenal location of its uniquely conserved histidine 447 residue. The same approach shows that Ale1p and Are2p also have the uniquely conserved histidine residing in the ER lumen. Because these data raised the possibility that phosphatidic acid could be made in the lumen of the ER, we further investigated the topology of the second yeast 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, Slc1p. The location of C-terminal topology reporters, microsomal assays probing the protease sensitivity of inserted tags, and the accessibility of natural or artificially inserted cysteines to membrane-impermeant alkylating agents all indicate that the most conserved motif containing the presumed active site histidine of Slc1p is oriented toward the ER lumen, whereas other conserved motifs are cytosolic. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21849510

  4. A Heteromeric Membrane-Bound Prenyltransferase Complex from Hop Catalyzes Three Sequential Aromatic Prenylations in the Bitter Acid Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoxun; Ban, Zhaonan; Qin, Hao; Ma, Liya; King, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Bitter acids (α and β types) account for more than 30% of the fresh weight of hop (Humulus lupulus) glandular trichomes and are well known for their contribution to the bitter taste of beer. These multiprenylated chemicals also show diverse biological activities, some of which have potential benefits to human health. The bitter acid biosynthetic pathway has been investigated extensively, and the genes for the early steps of bitter acid synthesis have been cloned and functionally characterized. However, little is known about the enzyme(s) that catalyze three sequential prenylation steps in the β-bitter acid pathway. Here, we employed a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) system for the functional identification of aromatic prenyltransferase (PT) genes. Two PT genes (HlPT1L and HlPT2) obtained from a hop trichome-specific complementary DNA library were functionally characterized using this yeast system. Coexpression of codon-optimized PT1L and PT2 in yeast, together with upstream genes, led to the production of bitter acids, but no bitter acids were detected when either of the PT genes was expressed by itself. Stepwise mutation of the aspartate-rich motifs in PT1L and PT2 further revealed the prenylation sequence of these two enzymes in β-bitter acid biosynthesis: PT1L catalyzed only the first prenylation step, and PT2 catalyzed the two subsequent prenylation steps. A metabolon formed through interactions between PT1L and PT2 was demonstrated using a yeast two-hybrid system, reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation, and in vitro biochemical assays. These results provide direct evidence of the involvement of a functional metabolon of membrane-bound prenyltransferases in bitter acid biosynthesis in hop. PMID:25564559

  5. A Diverse Range of Bacterial and Eukaryotic Chitinases Hydrolyzes the LacNAc (Galβ1–4GlcNAc) and LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc) Motifs Found on Vertebrate and Insect Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Rikki F.; Yoshimura, Yayoi; Storgaard, Birgit G.; Paspaliari, Dafni K.; Petersen, Bent O.; Chen, Kowa; Larsen, Tanja; Duus, Jens Ø.; Ingmer, Hanne; Bovin, Nicolai V.; Westerlind, Ulrika; Blixt, Ola; Palcic, Monica M.; Leisner, Jørgen J.

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that chitinases have additional functions beyond degrading environmental chitin, such as involvement in innate and acquired immune responses, tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and serving as virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. We have recently shown that both the human chitotriosidase and a chitinase from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium hydrolyze LacNAc from Galβ1–4GlcNAcβ-tetramethylrhodamine (LacNAc-TMR (Galβ1–4GlcNAcβ(CH2)8CONH(CH2)2NHCO-TMR)), a fluorescently labeled model substrate for glycans found in mammals. In this study we have examined the binding affinities of the Salmonella chitinase by carbohydrate microarray screening and found that it binds to a range of compounds, including five that contain LacNAc structures. We have further examined the hydrolytic specificity of this enzyme and chitinases from Sodalis glossinidius and Polysphondylium pallidum, which are phylogenetically related to the Salmonella chitinase, as well as unrelated chitinases from Listeria monocytogenes using the fluorescently labeled substrate analogs LacdiNAc-TMR (GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAcβ-TMR), LacNAc-TMR, and LacNAcβ1–6LacNAcβ-TMR. We found that all chitinases examined hydrolyzed LacdiNAc from the TMR aglycone to various degrees, whereas they were less active toward LacNAc-TMR conjugates. LacdiNAc is found in the mammalian glycome and is a common motif in invertebrate glycans. This substrate specificity was evident for chitinases of different phylogenetic origins. Three of the chitinases also hydrolyzed the β1–6 bond in LacNAcβ1–6LacNAcβ-TMR, an activity that is of potential importance in relation to mammalian glycans. The enzymatic affinities for these mammalian-like structures suggest additional functional roles of chitinases beyond chitin hydrolysis. PMID:25561735

  6. A diverse range of bacterial and eukaryotic chitinases hydrolyzes the LacNAc (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) and LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc) motifs found on vertebrate and insect cells.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Rikki F; Yoshimura, Yayoi; Storgaard, Birgit G; Paspaliari, Dafni K; Petersen, Bent O; Chen, Kowa; Larsen, Tanja; Duus, Jens Ø; Ingmer, Hanne; Bovin, Nicolai V; Westerlind, Ulrika; Blixt, Ola; Palcic, Monica M; Leisner, Jørgen J

    2015-02-27

    There is emerging evidence that chitinases have additional functions beyond degrading environmental chitin, such as involvement in innate and acquired immune responses, tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and serving as virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. We have recently shown that both the human chitotriosidase and a chitinase from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium hydrolyze LacNAc from Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ-tetramethylrhodamine (LacNAc-TMR (Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ(CH2)8CONH(CH2)2NHCO-TMR)), a fluorescently labeled model substrate for glycans found in mammals. In this study we have examined the binding affinities of the Salmonella chitinase by carbohydrate microarray screening and found that it binds to a range of compounds, including five that contain LacNAc structures. We have further examined the hydrolytic specificity of this enzyme and chitinases from Sodalis glossinidius and Polysphondylium pallidum, which are phylogenetically related to the Salmonella chitinase, as well as unrelated chitinases from Listeria monocytogenes using the fluorescently labeled substrate analogs LacdiNAc-TMR (GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ-TMR), LacNAc-TMR, and LacNAcβ1-6LacNAcβ-TMR. We found that all chitinases examined hydrolyzed LacdiNAc from the TMR aglycone to various degrees, whereas they were less active toward LacNAc-TMR conjugates. LacdiNAc is found in the mammalian glycome and is a common motif in invertebrate glycans. This substrate specificity was evident for chitinases of different phylogenetic origins. Three of the chitinases also hydrolyzed the β1-6 bond in LacNAcβ1-6LacNAcβ-TMR, an activity that is of potential importance in relation to mammalian glycans. The enzymatic affinities for these mammalian-like structures suggest additional functional roles of chitinases beyond chitin hydrolysis. PMID:25561735

  7. New priorities and developments at NAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, J. L.; Botha, A. H.; Celliers, P. J.; Cronje, P. M.; Delsink, J. L. G.; de Villiers, J. G.; du Plessis, H.; du Toit, J. S.; Fourie, D. T.; Hogan, M. E.; Jungwirth, H. N.; Kohler, I. H.; Müller, A.; Rohwer, P. F.; Smit, H. A.; Theron, P. J.; van Niekerk, M. J.

    2001-12-01

    The facilities at the National Accelerator Center (NAC) are utilized for proton and neutron therapy, the production of radioisotopes and for nuclear physics experiments. This implies an operating schedule with nine energy changes per week. Mainly due to this the reliability of beam delivery deteriorated to such an extent that we recently had to revert to a beam schedule with only four energy changes per week. This necessitated redefinition of the priorities for our proton therapy program. The request for higher proton beam currents at 66 MeV, for radioisotope production, stimulated the design of dedicated flat-top systems for both the light-ion injector cyclotron (SPC1) and the separated-sector cyclotron (SSC). We also investigated the feasibility of accelerating high-intensity proton beams (500 μA) in the SSC by using the high-intensity space-charge mode developed at PSI. The design of a vertical beamline and modifications to the existing beam transport system for the new high-intensity target station are in progress. Further developments include an additional septum magnet for the SSC extraction system and a new Local Area Network computer-control system for the RF systems. The progress with these projects will be presented and the status of the facilities discussed.

  8. The E3 SUMO ligase Nse2 regulates sumoylation and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of skNAC-Smyd1 in myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berkholz, Janine; Michalick, Laura; Munz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal and heart muscle-specific variant of the α subunit of nascent polypeptide associated complex (skNAC; encoded by NACA) is exclusively found in striated muscle cells. Its function, however, is largely unknown. Previous reports have demonstrated that skNAC binds to m-Bop/Smyd1, a multi-functional protein that regulates myogenesis both through the control of transcription and the modulation of sarcomerogenesis, and that both proteins undergo nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation at the later stages of myogenic differentiation. Here, we show that skNAC binds to the E3 SUMO ligase mammalian Mms21/Nse2 and that knockdown of Nse2 expression inhibits specific aspects of myogenic differentiation, accompanied by a partial blockade of the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of the skNAC-Smyd1 complex, retention of the complex in promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-like nuclear bodies and disturbed sarcomerogenesis. In addition, we show that the skNAC interaction partner Smyd1 contains a putative sumoylation motif and is sumoylated in muscle cells, with depletion of Mms21/Nse2 leading to reduced concentrations of sumoylated Smyd1. Taken together, our data suggest that the function, specifically the balance between the nuclear and cytosolic roles, of the skNAC-Smyd1 complex might be regulated by sumoylation. PMID:25002400

  9. Growth of the Obligate Anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough under Continuous Low Oxygen Concentration Sparging: Impact of the Membrane-Bound Oxygen Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Ramel, Fanny; Brasseur, Gael; Pieulle, Laetitia; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Fardeau, Marie Laure; Dolla, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/o)o3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox) and double deletion (Δcoxbd) mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97%) but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining reducing conditions

  10. Stimulation of phospholipase D in rabbit platelet membranes by nucleoside triphosphates and by phosphocreatine: roles of membrane-bound GDP, nucleoside diphosphate kinase and creatine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, X T; Sherwood, J L; Haslam, R J

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and GTP stimulate phospholipase D (PLD) in rabbit platelet membranes and that these effects are greatly enhanced by pretreatment of platelets with phorbol esters that activate protein kinase C [Van der Meulen and Haslam (1990), Biochem. J. 271, 693-700]. In the present study, the effects of Mg2+, various nucleoside triphosphates and phosphocreatine (PCr) were investigated. Platelet membranes containing phospholipids labelled with [3H]glycerol were assayed for PLD in the presence of an optimal Mg2+ concentration (10 mM) by measuring [3H]phosphatidylethanol formation in incubations that included 300 mM ethanol. In membranes from phorbolester-treated platelets, the same maximal increases in PLD activity (5-fold) were seen with 1 microM GTP[S]), and 100 microM GTP. Addition of adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (ATP[S]), ITP, XTP, UTP and CTP had similar stimulatory effects, but only at > or = 1 mM. In contrast, ATP had a biphasic action, causing a maximal (2-fold) stimulation at 10 microM and smaller effects at higher concentrations; the inhibitory component of the action of ATP was blocked by 2 microM staurosporine. Guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate decreased the stimulatory effects of ATP and ATP[S]. UDP, which can inhibit nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), decreased the activation of PLD by ATP[S], ATP, XTP, CTP and to a lesser extent ITP, but had no effect on the actions of GTP[S] and GTP. Rabbit platelet membranes contained NDPK and addition of [gamma-32P]ATP led to the formation of [32P]GTP in amounts sufficient to explain most or all of the activation of PLD; UDP prevented GTP formation. PCr (0.04-1 mM) also stimulated membrane PLD activity, an effect that was dependent on endogenous membrane-bound creatine kinase (CK). UDP and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate each inhibited this effect of PCr. The results show that in rabbit platelet membranes, CK, NDPK and the GTP

  11. Genome-wide analysis, expression dynamics and varietal comparison of NAC gene family at various developmental stages in Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-06-01

    NAC genes are important transcription factors and forms a large family in plants. They have shown to play an important role in growth and development and have also been shown to involve in regulation of stress-responsive genes. In the present study, a repertoire of NAC genes in recently published mulberry genome has been identified which consists of a total of 79 members. Structural analysis revealed that most of the NAC genes in mulberry contain two introns. The proteins encoded by them show a wide range of isoelectric points suggestive of their varied roles in varying microcellular environment. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analysis elucidate the presence of 15 sub-groups of these genes along with two novel sub-groups having distinct conserved motifs which are not present in Arabidopsis. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis and cis-element identification from their putative 1 K upstream regulatory region indicates their possible role in important biological processes like organ formation, meristem establishment, senescence, and various biotic and abiotic stresses. Expression analysis across various developmental stages led to identification of their preferential expression in diverse tissues. Taken together, this work provides a solid background information related to structure, function, expression and evolution of NAC gene family in mulberry. PMID:26942603

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic human O-GlcNAc transferase is sufficient for O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins

    PubMed Central

    Trapannone, Riccardo; Mariappa, Daniel; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; vanAalten, Daan M.F.

    2016-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is a nutrient-dependent protein post-translational modification (PTM), dynamically and reversibly driven by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyse the addition and the removal of the O-GlcNAc moieties to/from serine and threonine residues of target proteins respectively. Increasing evidence suggests involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in many biological processes, including transcription, signalling, neuronal development and mitochondrial function. The presence of a mitochondrial O-GlcNAc proteome and a mitochondrial OGT (mOGT) isoform has been reported. We explored the presence of mOGT in human cell lines and mouse tissues. Surprisingly, analysis of genomic sequences indicates that this isoform cannot be expressed in most of the species analysed, except some primates. In addition, we were not able to detect endogenous mOGT in a range of human cell lines. Knockdown experiments and Western blot analysis of all the predicted OGT isoforms suggested the expression of only a single OGT isoform. In agreement with this, we demonstrate that overexpression of the nucleocytoplasmic OGT (ncOGT) isoform leads to increased O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins, suggesting that ncOGT is necessary and sufficient for the generation of the O-GlcNAc mitochondrial proteome. PMID:27048592

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic human O-GlcNAc transferase is sufficient for O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins.

    PubMed

    Trapannone, Riccardo; Mariappa, Daniel; Ferenbach, Andrew T; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2016-06-15

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is a nutrient-dependent protein post-translational modification (PTM), dynamically and reversibly driven by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyse the addition and the removal of the O-GlcNAc moieties to/from serine and threonine residues of target proteins respectively. Increasing evidence suggests involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in many biological processes, including transcription, signalling, neuronal development and mitochondrial function. The presence of a mitochondrial O-GlcNAc proteome and a mitochondrial OGT (mOGT) isoform has been reported. We explored the presence of mOGT in human cell lines and mouse tissues. Surprisingly, analysis of genomic sequences indicates that this isoform cannot be expressed in most of the species analysed, except some primates. In addition, we were not able to detect endogenous mOGT in a range of human cell lines. Knockdown experiments and Western blot analysis of all the predicted OGT isoforms suggested the expression of only a single OGT isoform. In agreement with this, we demonstrate that overexpression of the nucleocytoplasmic OGT (ncOGT) isoform leads to increased O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins, suggesting that ncOGT is necessary and sufficient for the generation of the O-GlcNAc mitochondrial proteome. PMID:27048592

  14. Expression of alpha-GalNAc glycoproteins by breast cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, S. A.; Leathem, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The expression of complex carbohydrates recognised by Helix pomatia lectin (HPA, nominal monosaccharide binding specificity alpha-GalNAc) has been shown to predict unfavourable prognosis in breast and other cancers. It has been suggested that the prognostic significance of HPA binding may be through recognition of either Tn epitope (alpha-GalNAc-O-serine/threonine) or blood group A antigen (terminal alpha-1-->3GalNAc attached to the basic H-antigen, Fuc-alpha-1-->2-Gal-beta-1-->4(or 3) GlcNAc-->R). In this study, the expression of glycoproteins terminating in alpha-GalNAc residues was investigated immunohistochemically using HPA and two monoclonal antibodies--BRIC 66 (anti-alpha-GalNAc) and BRIC 111 (anti-Tn). In paraffin sections, 74/87 (85%) of breast cancers expressed HPA-binding ligands, while 28/87 (32%) were positive for BRIC 66 binding and 25/87 (29%) expressed Tn. Distribution of staining patterns were distinctive and different with the three markers. BRIC 66, BRIC 111 and HPA binding to glycoproteins derived from breast cancer homogenates and to blood group A and Tn positive glycoproteins in Western blots confirmed the immunohistochemistry data. The results suggest that the prognostic significance of HPA binding in breast cancer is unlikely to be simply through recognition of blood group A antigen or Tn epitope on cancer cells. Breast cancers may express a complex profile of related but distinct glycans sharing similar terminal immunodominant sugar GalNAc, which may be implicated in aggressive biological behaviour. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7537516

  15. TaNAC1 acts as a negative regulator of stripe rust resistance in wheat, enhances susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae, and promotes lateral root development in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengtao; Lin, Ruiming; Feng, Jing; Chen, Wanquan; Qiu, Dewen; Xu, Shichang

    2015-01-01

    Plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) constitute a large family and play important roles in regulating plant developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses, but only some of them have been investigated for effects on disease reaction in cereal crops. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective strategy for rapid functional analysis of genes in plant tissues. In this study, TaNAC1, encoding a new member of the NAC1 subgroup, was cloned from bread wheat and characterized. It is a TF localized in the cell nucleus, and contains an activation domain in its C-terminal. TaNAC1 was strongly expressed in wheat roots and was involved in responses to infection by the obligate pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and defense-related hormone treatments such as salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate, and ethylene. Knockdown of TaNAC1 with barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) enhanced stripe rust resistance. TaNAC1-overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants gave enhanced susceptibility, attenuated systemic-acquired resistance to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, and promoted lateral root development. Jasmonic acid-signaling pathway genes PDF1.2 and ORA59 were constitutively expressed in transgenic plants. TaNAC1 overexpression suppressed the expression levels of resistance-related genes PR1 and PR2 involved in SA signaling and AtWRKY70, which functions as a connection node between the JA- and SA-signaling pathways. Collectively, TaNAC1 is a novel NAC member of the NAC1 subgroup, negatively regulates plant disease resistance, and may modulate plant JA- and SA-signaling defense cascades. PMID:25774162

  16. Biofuel Potential of Plants Transformed Genetically with NAC Family Genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Grover, Atul; Nasim, M

    2016-01-01

    NAC genes contribute to enhance survivability of plants under conditions of environmental stress and in secondary growth of the plants, thereby building biomass. Thus, genetic transformation of plants using NAC genes provides a possibility to tailor biofuel plants. Over-expression studies have indicated that NAC family genes can provide tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, either by physiological or biochemical changes at the cellular level, or by affecting visible morphological and anatomical changes, for example, by development of lateral roots in a number of plants. Over-expression of these genes also work as triggers for development of secondary cell walls. In our laboratory, we have observed a NAC gene from Lepidium latifolium contributing to both enhanced biomass as well as cold stress tolerance of model plants tobacco. Thus, we have reviewed all the developments of genetic engineering using NAC genes which could enhance the traits required for biofuel plants, either by enhancing the stress tolerance or by enhancing the biomass of the plants. PMID:26858739

  17. Biofuel Potential of Plants Transformed Genetically with NAC Family Genes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sadhana; Grover, Atul; Nasim, M.

    2016-01-01

    NAC genes contribute to enhance survivability of plants under conditions of environmental stress and in secondary growth of the plants, thereby building biomass. Thus, genetic transformation of plants using NAC genes provides a possibility to tailor biofuel plants. Over-expression studies have indicated that NAC family genes can provide tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, either by physiological or biochemical changes at the cellular level, or by affecting visible morphological and anatomical changes, for example, by development of lateral roots in a number of plants. Over-expression of these genes also work as triggers for development of secondary cell walls. In our laboratory, we have observed a NAC gene from Lepidium latifolium contributing to both enhanced biomass as well as cold stress tolerance of model plants tobacco. Thus, we have reviewed all the developments of genetic engineering using NAC genes which could enhance the traits required for biofuel plants, either by enhancing the stress tolerance or by enhancing the biomass of the plants. PMID:26858739

  18. Shielding analysis of the NAC-MPC storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, D.G.; Romano, N.J.; Hertel, N.E.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents the shielding analyses of the NAC-MPC dry cask storage system. The NAC-MPC dry cask storage system consists of a transportable storage canister, a transfer cask, and a vertical concrete storage cask. The NAC-MPC is designed to accommodate 36 {open_quotes}Yankee Class{close_quotes} fuel assemblies with a maximum burnup of 36,000 MWd/tonne U burnup and 8 yr cooling time. The shielding analysis is performed with the SCALE 4.3 code package which includes SAS2H for source term generation and SAS4A, a modification of SAS4, for shielding evaluations. SAS4 utilizes a one-dimensional XSDRNPM adjoint calculation of the cask to generate biasing parameters for a three-dimensional MORSE-SGC Monte Carlo model of the cask geometry.

  19. Uncertainty Analysis of LROC NAC Derived Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K.; Yates, D. G.; Speyerer, E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    One of the primary objectives of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) [1] is to gather stereo observations with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) to generate digital elevation models (DEMs). From an altitude of 50 km, the NAC acquires images with a pixel scale of 0.5 meters, and a dual NAC observation covers approximately 5 km cross-track by 25 km down-track. This low altitude was common from September 2009 to December 2011. Images acquired during the commissioning phase and those acquired from the fixed orbit (after 11 December 2011) have pixel scales that range from 0.35 meters at the south pole to 2 meters at the north pole. Alimetric observations obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) provide measurements of ±0.1 m between the spacecraft and the surface [2]. However, uncertainties in the spacecraft positioning can result in offsets (±20m) between altimeter tracks over many orbits. The LROC team is currently developing a tool to automatically register alimetric observations to NAC DEMs [3]. Using a generalized pattern search (GPS) algorithm, the new automatic registration adjusts the spacecraft position and pointing information during times when NAC images, as well as LOLA measurements, of the same region are acquired to provide an absolute reference frame for the DEM. This information is then imported into SOCET SET to aide in creating controlled NAC DEMs. For every DEM, a figure of merit (FOM) map is generated using SOCET SET software. This is a valuable tool for determining the relative accuracy of a specific pixel in a DEM. Each pixel in a FOM map is given a value to determine its "quality" by determining if the specific pixel was shadowed, saturated, suspicious, interpolated/extrapolated, or successfully correlated. The overall quality of a NAC DEM is a function of both the absolute and relative accuracies. LOLA altimetry provides the most accurate absolute geodetic reference frame with which the NAC DEMs can be compared. Offsets

  20. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization. PMID:26507581

  1. Auxin-Independent NAC Pathway Acts in Response to Explant-Specific Wounding and Promotes Root Tip Emergence during de Novo Root Organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Cheng, Jingfei; Chen, Lyuqin; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Yijing; Xu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Plants have powerful regenerative abilities that allow them to recover from damage and survive in nature. De novo organogenesis is one type of plant regeneration in which adventitious roots and shoots are produced from wounded and detached organs. By studying de novo root organogenesis using leaf explants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we previously suggested that wounding is the first event that provides signals to trigger the whole regenerative process. However, our knowledge of the role of wounding in regeneration remains limited. In this study, we show that wounding not only triggers the auxin-mediated fate transition of regeneration-competent cells, but also induces the NAC pathway for root tip emergence. The NAC1 transcription factor gene was specifically expressed in response to wounding in the leaf explant, but not in the wounded leaf residue of the source plant. Inhibition of the NAC1 pathway severely affected the emergence of adventitious root tips. However, the NAC1 pathway functioned independently of auxin-mediated cell fate transition and regulates expression of CEP genes, which encode proteins that might have a role in degradation of extensin proteins in the cell wall. Overall, our results suggest that wounding has multiple roles in de novo root organogenesis and that NAC1 acts as one downstream branch in regulating the cellular environment for organ emergence. PMID:26850273

  2. Structure of Human O-GlcNAc Transferase and its Complex with a Peptide Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    M Lazarus; Y Nam; J Jiang; P Sliz; S Walker

    2011-12-31

    The essential mammalian enzyme O-linked {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (O-GlcNAc transferase, here OGT) couples metabolic status to the regulation of a wide variety of cellular signalling pathways by acting as a nutrient sensor. OGT catalyses the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to serines and threonines of cytoplasmic, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins, including numerous transcription factors, tumour suppressors, kinases, phosphatases and histone-modifying proteins. Aberrant glycosylation by OGT has been linked to insulin resistance, diabetic complications, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Despite the importance of OGT, the details of how it recognizes and glycosylates its protein substrates are largely unknown. We report here two crystal structures of human OGT, as a binary complex with UDP (2.8 {angstrom} resolution) and as a ternary complex with UDP and a peptide substrate (1.95 {angstrom}). The structures provide clues to the enzyme mechanism, show how OGT recognizes target peptide sequences, and reveal the fold of the unique domain between the two halves of the catalytic region. This information will accelerate the rational design of biological experiments to investigate OGT's functions; it will also help the design of inhibitors for use as cellular probes and help to assess its potential as a therapeutic target.

  3. Modulatory Effect of Taurine on 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Alterations in Detoxification Enzyme System, Membrane Bound Enzymes, Glycoprotein Profile and Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen in Rat Breast Tissue.

    PubMed

    Vanitha, Manickam Kalappan; Baskaran, Kuppusamy; Periyasamy, Kuppusamy; Selvaraj, Sundaramoorthy; Ilakkia, Aruldoss; Saravanan, Dhiravidamani; Venkateswari, Ramachandran; Revathi Mani, Balasundaram; Anandakumar, Pandi; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2016-08-01

    The modulatory effect of taurine on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats was studied. DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered to induce breast cancer in rats. Protein carbonyl levels, activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase), phase I drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH cytochrome c reductase), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase), glycoprotein levels, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied. DMBA-induced breast tumor bearing rats showed abnormal alterations in the levels of protein carbonyls, activities of membrane bound enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, glycoprotein levels, and PCNA protein expression levels. Taurine treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) appreciably counteracted all the above changes induced by DMBA. Histological examination of breast tissue further supported our biochemical findings. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the chemotherapeutic effect of taurine in DMBA-induced breast cancer. PMID:27091720

  4. Linking Smads and transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Inman, Gareth J

    2005-02-15

    TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1) is the prototypical member of a large family of pleiotropic cytokines that regulate diverse biological processes during development and adult tissue homoeostasis. TGF-beta signals via membrane bound serine/threonine kinase receptors which transmit their signals via the intracellular signalling molecules Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4. These Smads contain conserved MH1 and MH2 domains separated by a flexible linker domain. Smad2 and Smad3 act as kinase substrates for the receptors, and, following phosphorylation, they form complexes with Smad4 and translocate to the nucleus. These Smad complexes regulate gene expression and ultimately determine the biological response to TGF-beta. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Wang et al. have shown that, like Smad4, the linker domain of Smad3 contains a Smad transcriptional activation domain. This is capable of recruiting the p300 transcriptional co-activator and is required for Smad3-dependent transcriptional activation. This study raises interesting questions about the nature and regulation of Smad-regulated gene activation and elevates the status of the linker domain to rival that of the much-lauded MH1 and MH2 domains. PMID:15702493

  5. The β-Lactamase Gene Regulator AmpR Is a Tetramer That Recognizes and Binds the d-Ala-d-Ala Motif of Its Repressor UDP-N-acetylmuramic Acid (MurNAc)-pentapeptide*

    PubMed Central

    Vadlamani, Grishma; Thomas, Misty D.; Patel, Trushar R.; Donald, Lynda J.; Reeve, Thomas M.; Stetefeld, Jörg; Standing, Kenneth G.; Vocadlo, David J.; Mark, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Inducible expression of chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase is a major cause of β-lactam antibiotic resistance in the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. AmpC expression is induced by the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AmpR, which activates ampC expression in response to changes in peptidoglycan (PG) metabolite levels that occur during exposure to β-lactams. Under normal conditions, AmpR represses ampC transcription by binding the PG precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)-pentapeptide. When exposed to β-lactams, however, PG catabolites (1,6-anhydroMurNAc-peptides) accumulate in the cytosol, which have been proposed to competitively displace UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide from AmpR and convert it into an activator of ampC transcription. Here we describe the molecular interactions between AmpR (from Citrobacter freundii), its DNA operator, and repressor UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. Non-denaturing mass spectrometry revealed AmpR to be a homotetramer that is stabilized by DNA containing the T-N11-A LTTR binding motif and revealed that it can bind four repressor molecules in an apparently stepwise manner. A crystal structure of the AmpR effector-binding domain bound to UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide revealed that the terminal d-Ala-d-Ala motif of the repressor forms the primary contacts with the protein. This observation suggests that 1,6-anhydroMurNAc-pentapeptide may convert AmpR into an activator of ampC transcription more effectively than 1,6-anhydroMurNAc-tripeptide (which lacks the d-Ala-d-Ala motif). Finally, small angle x-ray scattering demonstrates that the AmpR·DNA complex adopts a flat conformation similar to the LTTR protein AphB and undergoes only a slight conformational change when binding UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. Modeling the AmpR·DNA tetramer bound to UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide predicts that the UDP-MurNAc moiety of the repressor participates in modulating AmpR function. PMID:25480792

  6. The β-lactamase gene regulator AmpR is a tetramer that recognizes and binds the D-Ala-D-Ala motif of its repressor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)-pentapeptide.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, Grishma; Thomas, Misty D; Patel, Trushar R; Donald, Lynda J; Reeve, Thomas M; Stetefeld, Jörg; Standing, Kenneth G; Vocadlo, David J; Mark, Brian L

    2015-01-30

    Inducible expression of chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase is a major cause of β-lactam antibiotic resistance in the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. AmpC expression is induced by the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AmpR, which activates ampC expression in response to changes in peptidoglycan (PG) metabolite levels that occur during exposure to β-lactams. Under normal conditions, AmpR represses ampC transcription by binding the PG precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)-pentapeptide. When exposed to β-lactams, however, PG catabolites (1,6-anhydroMurNAc-peptides) accumulate in the cytosol, which have been proposed to competitively displace UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide from AmpR and convert it into an activator of ampC transcription. Here we describe the molecular interactions between AmpR (from Citrobacter freundii), its DNA operator, and repressor UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. Non-denaturing mass spectrometry revealed AmpR to be a homotetramer that is stabilized by DNA containing the T-N11-A LTTR binding motif and revealed that it can bind four repressor molecules in an apparently stepwise manner. A crystal structure of the AmpR effector-binding domain bound to UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide revealed that the terminal D-Ala-D-Ala motif of the repressor forms the primary contacts with the protein. This observation suggests that 1,6-anhydroMurNAc-pentapeptide may convert AmpR into an activator of ampC transcription more effectively than 1,6-anhydroMurNAc-tripeptide (which lacks the D-Ala-D-Ala motif). Finally, small angle x-ray scattering demonstrates that the AmpR·DNA complex adopts a flat conformation similar to the LTTR protein AphB and undergoes only a slight conformational change when binding UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. Modeling the AmpR·DNA tetramer bound to UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide predicts that the UDP-MurNAc moiety of the repressor participates in modulating AmpR function. PMID:25480792

  7. Cell cycle-dependent alteration in NAC1 nuclear body dynamics and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Hung, Shen-Hsiu; Ren, Tina; Shih, Ie-Ming; Tseng, Yiider

    2011-02-01

    NAC1, a BTB/POZ family member, has been suggested to participate in maintaining the stemness of embryonic stem cells and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancer. In ovarian cancer, NAC1 upregulation is associated with disease aggressiveness and with the development of chemoresistance. Like other BTB/POZ proteins, NAC1 forms discrete nuclear bodies in non-dividing cells. To investigate the biological role of NAC1 nuclear bodies, we characterized the expression dynamics of NAC1 nuclear bodies during different phases of the cell cycle. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays revealed that NAC1 was rapidly exchanged between the nucleoplasm and NAC1 nuclear bodies in interphase cells. The number of NAC1 bodies significantly increased and their size decreased in the S phase as compared to the G0/G1 and G2 phases. NAC1 nuclear bodies disappeared and NAC1 became diffuse during mitosis. NAC1 nuclear bodies reappeared immediately after completion of mitosis. These results indicate that a cell cycle-dependent regulatory mechanism controls NAC1 body formation in the nucleus and suggest that NAC1 body dynamics are associated with mitosis or cytokinesis.

  8. 75 FR 56654 - RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Notice in the Federal Register on September 3, 2010 (75-FR-54221), concerning a Notice to advise the... the Federal Register Notice on September 3, 2010, (75-FR-54221) is revised to read as follows: Opening... Federal Aviation Administration RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal...

  9. Oxidation pathway and exacerbations in COPD: the role of NAC.

    PubMed

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Calzetta, Luigino; Cazzola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important trait in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Consequently, targeting oxidative stress is likely to be beneficial as a treatment in COPD. Glutathione (GSH) is an intracellular antioxidant that protects against a variety of different antioxidant species. The increase of lung GSH in COPD is an attempt to counter excess oxidant production but it is inadequate during exacerbations due to the excessive production of ROS. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) acts as a precursor for the substrate cysteine in synthesis of GSH and also as a mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agent. NAC prevents COPD exacerbations at high dosage (≥1200 mg daily), while a regular treatment with 600 mg daily is enough in chronic bronchitis. Nonetheless, we must still establish whether the level of bronchial obstruction may influence its effects, the effect of high-dose NAC in Caucasian patients with COPD, and the role of NAC in the escalation and de-escalation of therapy in COPD. PMID:26567752

  10. The role of O-linked GlcNAc modification on the glucose response of ChREBP

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Noriko; Noguchi, Takahiro; Eguchi, Hironobu; Yoshihara, Daisaku; Uyeda, Kosaku; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} The O-linked GlcNAc modification is crucial for the glucose response. {yields} Mlx is required for nuclear localization and transcription activity of ChREBP. {yields} The presence of Mlx stabilizes ChREBP protein. -- Abstract: The carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) functions as a transcription factor in mediating the glucose-activated gene expression of multiple liver enzymes, which are responsible for converting excess carbohydrate to storage fat. ChREBP is translocated into the nucleus in response to high glucose levels, and then up-regulates transcriptional activity. Although this glucose activation of ChREBP is generally observed only in liver cells, overexpression of wild type max-like protein X (Mlx), but not an inactive mutant Mlx, resulted in the exhibition of the ChREBP functions also in a human kidney cell line. Because high glucose conditions induce the glycosylation of cellular proteins, the effect of O-linked GlcNAc modification on ChREBP functions was examined. Treatment with an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor (PUGNAc), which increases the O-linked GlcNAc modification of cellular proteins, caused an increase in the glucose response of ChREBP. In contrast, treatment with a glutamine fructose amidotransferase inhibitor (DON), which decreases O-GlcNAcylation by inhibiting the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, completely blocked the glucose response of ChREBP. These results suggest that the O-linked glycosylation of ChREBP itself or other proteins that regulate ChREBP is essential for the production of functional ChREBP.

  11. Activity Based High-Throughput Screening for Novel O-GlcNAc Transferase Substrates Using a Dynamic Peptide Microarray.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Sharif, Suhela; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Pieters, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible and dynamic protein post-translational modification in mammalian cells. The O-GlcNAc cycle is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). O-GlcNAcylation plays important role in many vital cellular events including transcription, cell cycle regulation, stress response and protein degradation, and altered O-GlcNAcylation has long been implicated in cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, numerous approaches have been developed to identify OGT substrates and study their function, but there is still a strong demand for highly efficient techniques. Here we demonstrated the utility of the peptide microarray approach to discover novel OGT substrates and study its specificity. Interestingly, the protein RBL-2, which is a key regulator of entry into cell division and may function as a tumor suppressor, was identified as a substrate for three isoforms of OGT. Using peptide Ala scanning, we found Ser 420 is one possible O-GlcNAc site in RBL-2. Moreover, substitution of Ser 420, on its own, inhibited OGT activity, raising the possibility of mechanism-based development for selective OGT inhibitors. This approach will prove useful for both discovery of novel OGT substrates and studying OGT specificity. PMID:26960196

  12. Activity Based High-Throughput Screening for Novel O-GlcNAc Transferase Substrates Using a Dynamic Peptide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jie; Sharif, Suhela; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Pieters, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible and dynamic protein post-translational modification in mammalian cells. The O-GlcNAc cycle is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). O-GlcNAcylation plays important role in many vital cellular events including transcription, cell cycle regulation, stress response and protein degradation, and altered O-GlcNAcylation has long been implicated in cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, numerous approaches have been developed to identify OGT substrates and study their function, but there is still a strong demand for highly efficient techniques. Here we demonstrated the utility of the peptide microarray approach to discover novel OGT substrates and study its specificity. Interestingly, the protein RBL-2, which is a key regulator of entry into cell division and may function as a tumor suppressor, was identified as a substrate for three isoforms of OGT. Using peptide Ala scanning, we found Ser 420 is one possible O-GlcNAc site in RBL-2. Moreover, substitution of Ser 420, on its own, inhibited OGT activity, raising the possibility of mechanism-based development for selective OGT inhibitors. This approach will prove useful for both discovery of novel OGT substrates and studying OGT specificity. PMID:26960196

  13. Conserved Nutrient Sensor O-GlcNAc Transferase Is Integral to C. elegans Pathogen-Specific Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Michelle R.; Ghosh, Salil K.; Wang, Peng; Hanover, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating pathogenic bacteria from bacteria used as a food source is key to Caenorhabidits elegans immunity. Using mutants defective in the enzymes of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) cycling, we examined the role of this nutrient-sensing pathway in the C. elegans innate immune response. Genetic analysis showed that deletion of O-GlcNAc transferase (ogt-1) yielded animals hypersensitive to the human pathogen S. aureus but not to P. aeruginosa. Genetic interaction studies revealed that nutrient-responsive OGT-1 acts through the conserved β-catenin (BAR-1) pathway and in concert with p38 MAPK (PMK-1) to modulate the immune response to S. aureus. Moreover, whole genome transcriptional profiling revealed that O-GlcNAc cycling mutants exhibited deregulation of unique stress- and immune-responsive genes. The participation of nutrient sensor OGT-1 in an immunity module evolutionarily conserved from C. elegans to humans reveals an unexplored nexus between nutrient availability and a pathogen-specific immune response. PMID:25474640

  14. UDP-GlcNAc transport across the golgi membrane: Electroneutral exchange for dianionic UMP

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, B.C.; Rudnick, G. )

    1990-01-09

    The authors have examined the coupling and charge stoichiometry for UDP-GlcNAc transport into Golgi-enriched vesicles from rat liver. In the absence of added energy sources, these Golgi vesicles concentrate UDP-GlcNAc at least 20-fold, presumably by exchange with endogenous nucleotides. Under the conditions used, extravesicular degradation of UDP-GlcNAc has been eliminated, and less than 15% of the internalized radioactivity becomes associated with endogenous macromolecules. Of the remaining intravesicular label, 85% remains unmetabolized UDP-({sup 3}H)GlcNAc, and approximately 15% is hydrolyzed to ({sup 3}H)GlcNAc-1-phosphate. Efflux of accumulated UDP-({sup 3}H)GlcNAc is induced by addition of nonradioactive UDP-GlcNAc, UMP, UDP, or UDP-galactose to the external medium. Permeabilization of Golgi vesicles causes a rapid and nearly complete loss of internal UDP-({sup 3}H)GlcNAc, indicating that the results reflect transport and binding. Moreover, transport of UDP-({sup 3}H)GlcNAc into these Golgi vesicles was stimulated up to 5-fold by mechanically preloading vesicles with either UDP-GlcNAc or UMP. The response of UMP/UMP exchange and UMP/UDP-GlcNAc exchange to alterations in intravesicular and extravesicular pH suggests that UDP-GlcNAc enters the Golgi apparatus in electroneutral exchange with the dianionic form of UMP.

  15. 77 FR 54648 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal...Gen Advisory Committee (NAC). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of the RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES: The meeting will be held October...

  16. 76 FR 3931 - Second Meeting RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES:...

  17. 76 FR 22162 - Third Meeting RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES:...

  18. 76 FR 54526 - Fourth Meeting RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES:...

  19. The Nutrient-Dependent O-GlcNAc Modification Controls the Expression of Liver Fatty Acid Synthase.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Steffi F; Wavelet, Cindy; Hainault, Isabelle; Guinez, Céline; Lefebvre, Tony

    2016-08-14

    Liver Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) is pivotal for de novo lipogenesis. Loss of control of this metabolic pathway contributes to the development of liver pathologies ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which can lead to cirrhosis and, less frequently, to hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, deciphering the molecular mechanisms governing the expression and function of key enzymes such as FAS is crucial. Herein, we link the availability of this lipogenic enzyme to the nutrient-dependent post-translational modification O-GlcNAc that is thought to be deregulated in metabolic diseases (diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome). We demonstrate that expression and activity of liver FAS correlate with O-GlcNAcylation contents in ob/ob mice and in mice fed with a high-carbohydrate diet both in a transcription-dependent and -independent manner. More importantly, inhibiting the removal of O-GlcNAc residues in mice intraperitoneally injected with the selective and potent O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor Thiamet-G increases FAS expression. FAS and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) physically interact, and FAS is O-GlcNAc modified. Treatment of a liver cell line with drugs or nutrients that elevate the O-GlcNAcylation interferes with FAS expression. Inhibition of OGA increases the interaction between FAS and the deubiquitinase Ubiquitin-specific protease-2a (USP2A) in vivo and ex vivo, providing mechanistic insights into the control of FAS expression through O-GlcNAcylation. Together, these results reveal a new type of regulation of FAS, linked to O-GlcNAcylation status, and advance our knowledge on deregulation of lipogenesis in diverse forms of liver diseases. PMID:27185461

  20. Synthesis of 1,2-cis-homoiminosugars derived from GlcNAc and GalNAc exploiting a β-amino alcohol skeletal rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Blériot, Yves; Auberger, Nicolas; Jagadeesh, Yerri; Gauthier, Charles; Prencipe, Giuseppe; Tran, Anh Tuan; Marrot, Jérôme; Désiré, Jérôme; Yamamoto, Arisa; Kato, Atsushi; Sollogoub, Matthieu

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of 1,2-cis-homoiminosugars bearing an NHAc group at the C-2 position is described. The key step to prepare these α-D-GlcNAc and α-D-GalNAc mimics utilizes a β-amino alcohol skeletal rearrangement applied to an azepane precursor. This strategy also allows access to naturally occurring α-HGJ and α-HNJ. The α-D-GlcNAc-configured iminosugar was coupled to a glucoside acceptor to yield a novel pseudodisaccharide. Preliminary glycosidase inhibition evaluation indicates that the α-D-GalNAc-configured homoiminosugar is a potent and selective α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase inhibitor. PMID:25330411

  1. Transcriptional cross talk between orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ and transmembrane transcription factor ATF6α coordinates endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Misra, Jagannath; Kim, Don-Kyu; Choi, Woogyun; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Lee, Chul-Ho; Back, Sung-Hoon; Kaufman, Randal J; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-08-01

    Orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates several important cellular processes including hepatic glucose and alcohol metabolism. However, mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation of the ERRγ gene remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane-bound basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor, directly regulates ERRγ gene expression in response to ER stress. ATF6α binds to ATF6α responsive element in the ERRγ promoter. The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) is required for this transactivation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed the binding of both ATF6α and PGC1α on the ERRγ promoter. ChIP assay demonstrated histone H3 and H4 acetylation occurs at the ATF6α and PGC1α binding site. Of interest, ERRγ along with PGC1α induce ATF6α gene transcription upon ER stress. ERRγ binds to an ERRγ responsive element in the ATF6α promoter. ChIP assay confirmed that both ERRγ and PGC1α bind to a site in the ATF6α promoter that exhibits histone H3 and H4 acetylation. Overall, for the first time our data show a novel pathway of cross talk between nuclear receptors and ER-membrane-bound transcription factors and suggest a positive feed-forward loop regulates ERRγ and ATF6α gene transcription. PMID:23716639

  2. NAC-1 cask dose rate calculations for LWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-02-24

    A Nuclear Assurance Corporation nuclear fuel transport cask, NAC-1, is being considered as a transport and storage option for spent nuclear fuel located in the B-Cell of the 324 Building. The loaded casks will be shipped to the 200 East Area Interim Storage Area for dry interim storage. Several calculations were performed to assess the photon and neutron dose rates. This report describes the analytical methods, models, and results of this investigation.

  3. Aqueous Fraction of Beta vulgaris Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice due to Enhanced Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion, Mediated by Acetylcholine and GLP-1, and Elevated Glucose Uptake via Increased Membrane Bound GLUT4 Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Samad, Mehdi Bin; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Akhter, Farjana; Tasnim, Jinat; Hasan, S. M. Nageeb; Sayfe, Sania Sarker; Hannan, J. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was designed to investigate the probable mechanisms of anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Aqueous fraction of B. Vulgaris extract was the only active fraction (50mg/kg). Plasma insulin level was found to be the highest at 30 mins after B. Vulgaris administration at a dose of 200mg/kg. B. Vulgaris treated mice were also assayed for plasma Acetylcholine, Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP), Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Pancreatic Polypeptides (PP), and Somatostatin, along with the corresponding insulin levels. Plasma Acetylcholine and GLP-1 significantly increased in B. Vulgaris treated animals and were further studied. Pharmacological enhancers, inhibitors, and antagonists of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 were also administered to the test animals, and corresponding insulin levels were measured. These studies confirmed the role of acetylcholine and GLP-1 in enhanced insulin secretion (p<0.05). Principal signaling molecules were quantified in isolated mice islets for the respective pathways to elucidate their activities. Elevated concentrations of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 in B. Vulgaris treated mice were found to be sufficient to activate the respective pathways for insulin secretion (p<0.05). The amount of membrane bound GLUT1 and GLUT4 transporters were quantified and the subsequent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were assayed. We showed that levels of membrane bound GLUT4 transporters, glucose-6-phosphate in skeletal myocytes, activity of glycogen synthase, and level of glycogen deposited in the skeletal muscles all increased (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings of the present study clearly prove the role of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 in the Insulin secreting activity of B. Vulgaris. Increased glucose uptake in the skeletal muscles and subsequent glycogen synthesis may also play a part in

  4. Identification of membrane-bound variant of metalloendopeptidase neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16) as the non-angiotensin type 1 (non-AT1), non-AT2 angiotensin binding site.

    PubMed

    Wangler, Naomi J; Santos, Kira L; Schadock, Ines; Hagen, Fred K; Escher, Emanuel; Bader, Michael; Speth, Robert C; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we discovered a novel non-angiotensin type 1 (non-AT1), non-AT2 angiotensin binding site in rodent and human brain membranes, which is distinctly different from angiotensin receptors and key proteases processing angiotensins. It is hypothesized to be a new member of the renin-angiotensin system. This study was designed to isolate and identify this novel angiotensin binding site. An angiotensin analog, photoaffinity probe 125I-SBpa-Ang II, was used to specifically label the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site in mouse forebrain membranes, followed by a two-step purification procedure based on the molecular size and isoelectric point of the photoradiolabeled binding protein. Purified samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry identification of proteins in the two-dimensional gel sections containing radioactivity. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed eight protein candidates, of which the four most abundant were immunoprecipitated after photoradiolabeling. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that the angiotensin binding site might be the membrane-bound variant of metalloendopeptidase neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16). To verify these observations, radioligand binding and photoradiolabeling experiments were conducted in membrane preparations of HEK293 cells overexpressing mouse neurolysin or thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15), a closely related metalloendopeptidase of the same family. These experiments also identified neurolysin as the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site. Finally, brain membranes of mice lacking neurolysin were nearly devoid of the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site, further establishing membrane-bound neurolysin as the binding site. Future studies will focus on the functional significance of this highly specific, high affinity interaction between neurolysin and angiotensins. PMID:22039052

  5. Identification of Membrane-bound Variant of Metalloendopeptidase Neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16) as the Non-angiotensin Type 1 (Non-AT1), Non-AT2 Angiotensin Binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Wangler, Naomi J.; Santos, Kira L.; Schadock, Ines; Hagen, Fred K.; Escher, Emanuel; Bader, Michael; Speth, Robert C.; Karamyan, Vardan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we discovered a novel non-angiotensin type 1 (non-AT1), non-AT2 angiotensin binding site in rodent and human brain membranes, which is distinctly different from angiotensin receptors and key proteases processing angiotensins. It is hypothesized to be a new member of the renin-angiotensin system. This study was designed to isolate and identify this novel angiotensin binding site. An angiotensin analog, photoaffinity probe 125I-SBpa-Ang II, was used to specifically label the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site in mouse forebrain membranes, followed by a two-step purification procedure based on the molecular size and isoelectric point of the photoradiolabeled binding protein. Purified samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry identification of proteins in the two-dimensional gel sections containing radioactivity. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed eight protein candidates, of which the four most abundant were immunoprecipitated after photoradiolabeling. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that the angiotensin binding site might be the membrane-bound variant of metalloendopeptidase neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16). To verify these observations, radioligand binding and photoradiolabeling experiments were conducted in membrane preparations of HEK293 cells overexpressing mouse neurolysin or thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15), a closely related metalloendopeptidase of the same family. These experiments also identified neurolysin as the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site. Finally, brain membranes of mice lacking neurolysin were nearly devoid of the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site, further establishing membrane-bound neurolysin as the binding site. Future studies will focus on the functional significance of this highly specific, high affinity interaction between neurolysin and angiotensins. PMID:22039052

  6. NAC gets OK for waste canister, looks for buyers

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.

    1994-10-13

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has given design approval to the first dual-purpose waste cansiter suitable for storing and transporting irradiated nuclear fuel. The cask could be commercially available by January 1995. NRC issued a transportation certificate for the canister, which was developed by Atlanta-based NAC Services Inc., a subsidiary of NAC Holding Inc. That certificate, which says the cask is a suitable vessel for transporting radioactive wastes by rail and truck, is the first credential of a two-part licensing process the design must acquire. Testing of the cask has been extensive, including drop tests and pin-puncture tests. Roughly 19 feet long and eight feet in diameter, the cask is designed to hold 26 pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies. NAC officials say the cask design will soon be adapted to accomodate larger boiling water reactor fuel assemblies. Utilities will need some convincing that the dual-purpose $1.5 million cask is worth the money, particularly since companies currently have no use for the cask`s transportation capabilities.

  7. The N‐acetylglucosamine catabolic gene cluster in Trichoderma reesei is controlled by the Ndt80‐like transcription factor RON1

    PubMed Central

    Kappel, Lisa; Gaderer, Romana; Flipphi, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chitin is an important structural constituent of fungal cell walls composed of N‐acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) monosaccharides, but catabolism of GlcNAc has not been studied in filamentous fungi so far. In the yeast C andida albicans, the genes encoding the three enzymes responsible for stepwise conversion of GlcNAc to fructose‐6‐phosphate are clustered. In this work, we analysed GlcNAc catabolism in ascomycete filamentous fungi and found that the respective genes are also clustered in these fungi. In contrast to C . albicans, the cluster often contains a gene for an Ndt80‐like transcription factor, which we named RON1 (regulator of N‐acetylglucosamine catabolism 1). Further, a gene for a glycoside hydrolase 3 protein related to bacterial N‐acetylglucosaminidases can be found in the GlcNAc gene cluster in filamentous fungi. Functional analysis in T richoderma reesei showed that the transcription factor RON1 is a key activator of the GlcNAc gene cluster and essential for GlcNAc catabolism. Furthermore, we present an evolutionary analysis of Ndt80‐like proteins in Ascomycota. All GlcNAc cluster genes, as well as the GlcNAc transporter gene ngt1, and an additional transcriptional regulator gene, csp2, encoding the homolog of N eurospora crassa  CSP2/GRHL, were functionally characterised by gene expression analysis and phenotypic characterisation of knockout strains in T . reesei. PMID:26481444

  8. The N-acetylglucosamine catabolic gene cluster in Trichoderma reesei is controlled by the Ndt80-like transcription factor RON1.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Lisa; Gaderer, Romana; Flipphi, Michel; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena

    2016-02-01

    Chitin is an important structural constituent of fungal cell walls composed of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) monosaccharides, but catabolism of GlcNAc has not been studied in filamentous fungi so far. In the yeast Candida albicans, the genes encoding the three enzymes responsible for stepwise conversion of GlcNAc to fructose-6-phosphate are clustered. In this work, we analysed GlcNAc catabolism in ascomycete filamentous fungi and found that the respective genes are also clustered in these fungi. In contrast to C. albicans, the cluster often contains a gene for an Ndt80-like transcription factor, which we named RON1 (regulator of N-acetylglucosamine catabolism 1). Further, a gene for a glycoside hydrolase 3 protein related to bacterial N-acetylglucosaminidases can be found in the GlcNAc gene cluster in filamentous fungi. Functional analysis in Trichoderma reesei showed that the transcription factor RON1 is a key activator of the GlcNAc gene cluster and essential for GlcNAc catabolism. Furthermore, we present an evolutionary analysis of Ndt80-like proteins in Ascomycota. All GlcNAc cluster genes, as well as the GlcNAc transporter gene ngt1, and an additional transcriptional regulator gene, csp2, encoding the homolog of Neurospora crassa CSP2/GRHL, were functionally characterised by gene expression analysis and phenotypic characterisation of knockout strains in T. reesei. PMID:26481444

  9. Expression of GhNAC2 from G. herbaceum, improves root growth and imparts tolerance to drought in transgenic cotton and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gunapati, Samatha; Naresh, Ram; Ranjan, Sanjay; Nigam, Deepti; Hans, Aradhana; Verma, Praveen C.; Gadre, Rekha; Pathre, Uday V.; Sane, Aniruddha P.; Sane, Vidhu A.

    2016-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in regulating development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. We show that over-expression of the cotton GhNAC2 under the CaMV35S promoter increases root growth in both Arabidopsis and cotton under unstressed conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also show improved root growth in presence of mannitol and NaCl while transgenic cotton expressing GhNAC2 show reduced leaf abscission and wilting upon water stress compared to control plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also have larger leaves, higher seed number and size under well watered conditions, reduced transpiration and higher relative leaf water content. Micro-array analysis of transgenic plants over-expressing GhNAC2 reveals activation of the ABA/JA pathways and a suppression of the ethylene pathway at several levels to reduce expression of ERF6/ERF1/WRKY33/ MPK3/MKK9/ACS6 and their targets. This probably suppresses the ethylene-mediated inhibition of organ expansion, leading to larger leaves, better root growth and higher yields under unstressed conditions. Suppression of the ethylene pathway and activation of the ABA/JA pathways also primes the plant for improved stress tolerance by reduction in transpiration, greater stomatal control and suppression of growth retarding factors. PMID:27113714

  10. Expression of GhNAC2 from G. herbaceum, improves root growth and imparts tolerance to drought in transgenic cotton and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gunapati, Samatha; Naresh, Ram; Ranjan, Sanjay; Nigam, Deepti; Hans, Aradhana; Verma, Praveen C; Gadre, Rekha; Pathre, Uday V; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Vidhu A

    2016-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in regulating development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. We show that over-expression of the cotton GhNAC2 under the CaMV35S promoter increases root growth in both Arabidopsis and cotton under unstressed conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also show improved root growth in presence of mannitol and NaCl while transgenic cotton expressing GhNAC2 show reduced leaf abscission and wilting upon water stress compared to control plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also have larger leaves, higher seed number and size under well watered conditions, reduced transpiration and higher relative leaf water content. Micro-array analysis of transgenic plants over-expressing GhNAC2 reveals activation of the ABA/JA pathways and a suppression of the ethylene pathway at several levels to reduce expression of ERF6/ERF1/WRKY33/ MPK3/MKK9/ACS6 and their targets. This probably suppresses the ethylene-mediated inhibition of organ expansion, leading to larger leaves, better root growth and higher yields under unstressed conditions. Suppression of the ethylene pathway and activation of the ABA/JA pathways also primes the plant for improved stress tolerance by reduction in transpiration, greater stomatal control and suppression of growth retarding factors. PMID:27113714

  11. Microbial oxidative sulfur metabolism: biochemical evidence of the membrane-bound heterodisulfide reductase-like complex of the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus.

    PubMed

    Boughanemi, Souhela; Lyonnet, Jordan; Infossi, Pascale; Bauzan, Marielle; Kosta, Artémis; Lignon, Sabrina; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Guiral, Marianne

    2016-08-01

    The Hdr (heterodisulfide reductase)-like enzyme is predicted, from gene transcript profiling experiments previously published, to be essential in oxidative sulfur metabolism in a number of bacteria and archaea. Nevertheless, no biochemical and physicochemical data are available so far about this enzyme. Genes coding for it were identified in Aquifex aeolicus, a Gram-negative, hyperthermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic and microaerophilic bacterium that uses inorganic sulfur compounds as electron donor to grow. We provide biochemical evidence that this Hdr-like enzyme is present in this sulfur-oxidizing prokaryote (cultivated with thiosulfate or elemental sulfur). We demonstrate, by immunolocalization and cell fractionation, that Hdr-like enzyme is associated, presumably monotopically, with the membrane fraction. We show by co-immunoprecipitation assay or partial purification, that the Hdr proteins form a stable complex composed of at least five subunits, HdrA, HdrB1, HdrB2, HdrC1 and HdrC2, present in two forms of high molecular mass on native gel (∼240 and 450 kDa). These studies allow us to propose a revised model for dissimilatory sulfur oxidation pathways in A. aeolicus, with Hdr predicted to generate sulfite. PMID:27284018

  12. Defining a Key Receptor-CheA Kinase Contact and Elucidating Its Function in the Membrane-Bound Bacterial Chemosensory Array: A Disulfide Mapping and TAM-IDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Kene N.; Ulliman, Caleb J.; Slivka, Peter F.; Crane, Brian R.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    The three core components of the ubiquitous bacterial chemosensory array – the transmembrane chemoreceptor, the histidine kinase CheA and the adaptor protein CheW – assemble to form a membrane-bound, hexagonal lattice in which receptor transmembrane signals regulate kinase activity. Both the regulatory domain of the kinase and the adaptor protein bind to overlapping sites on the cytoplasmic tip of the receptor (termed the protein interaction region). Notably, the kinase regulatory domain (P5) and the adaptor protein share the same fold constructed of two SH3-like domains. The present study focuses on the structural interface between the receptor and the kinase regulatory domain. Two models have been proposed for this interface: Model 1 is based on the crystal structure of a homologous Thermotoga complex between a receptor fragment and the CheW adaptor protein. This model has been used in current models of chemosensory array architecture to build the receptor-CheA kinase interface. Model 2 is based on a newly determined crystal structure of a homologous Thermotoga complex between a receptor fragment and the CheA kinase regulatory domain. Both models present unique strengths and weaknesses, and current evidence is unable to resolve which model best describes contacts in the native chemosensory arrays of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria. Here we employ disulfide mapping and TAM-IDS (Tryptophan and Alanine Mutation to Identify Docking Sites) to test Models 1 and 2 in well-characterized membrane-bound arrays formed from E. coli and S. typhimurium components. The results reveal that the native array interface between the receptor protein interaction region and the kinase regulatory domain is accurately described by Model 2, but not by Model 1. In addition, the results show that the interface possesses both a structural function that contributes to stable CheA kinase binding in the array, and a regulatory function central to transmission of

  13. Arabidopsis ROCK1 transports UDP-GlcNAc/UDP-GalNAc and regulates ER protein quality control and cytokinin activity

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Michael C. E.; Bartrina, Isabel; Ashikov, Angel; Weber, Henriette; Spíchal, Lukáš; Strnad, Miroslav; Strasser, Richard; Bakker, Hans; Schmülling, Thomas; Werner, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The formation of glycoconjugates depends on nucleotide sugars, which serve as donor substrates for glycosyltransferases in the lumen of Golgi vesicles and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Import of nucleotide sugars from the cytosol is an important prerequisite for these reactions and is mediated by nucleotide sugar transporters. Here, we report the identification of REPRESSOR OF CYTOKININ DEFICIENCY 1 (ROCK1, At5g65000) as an ER-localized facilitator of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) transport in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutant alleles of ROCK1 suppress phenotypes inferred by a reduced concentration of the plant hormone cytokinin. This suppression is caused by the loss of activity of cytokinin-degrading enzymes, cytokinin oxidases/dehydrogenases (CKXs). Cytokinin plays an essential role in regulating shoot apical meristem (SAM) activity and shoot architecture. We show that rock1 enhances SAM activity and organ formation rate, demonstrating an important role of ROCK1 in regulating the cytokinin signal in the meristematic cells through modulating activity of CKX proteins. Intriguingly, genetic and molecular analysis indicated that N-glycosylation of CKX1 was not affected by the lack of ROCK1-mediated supply of UDP-GlcNAc. In contrast, we show that CKX1 stability is regulated in a proteasome-dependent manner and that ROCK1 regulates the CKX1 level. The increased unfolded protein response in rock1 plants and suppression of phenotypes caused by the defective brassinosteroid receptor bri1-9 strongly suggest that the ROCK1 activity is an important part of the ER quality control system, which determines the fate of aberrant proteins in the secretory pathway. PMID:25535363

  14. Discovery of O-GlcNAc-6-phosphate Modified Proteins in Large-scale Phosphoproteomics Data*

    PubMed Central

    Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylated O-GlcNAc is a novel post-translational modification that has so far only been found on the neuronal protein AP180 from the rat (Graham et al., J. Proteome Res. 2011, 10, 2725–2733). Upon collision induced dissociation, the modification generates a highly mass deficient fragment ion (m/z 284.0530) that can be used as a reporter for the identification of phosphorylated O-GlcNAc. Using a publically available mouse brain phosphoproteome data set, we employed our recently developed Oscore software to re-evaluate high resolution/high accuracy tandem mass spectra and discovered the modification on 23 peptides corresponding to 11 mouse proteins. The systematic analysis of 220 candidate phosphoGlcNAc tandem mass spectra as well as a synthetic standard enabled the dissection of the major phosphoGlcNAc fragmentation pathways, suggesting that the modification is O-GlcNAc-6-phosphate. We find that the classical O-GlcNAc modification often exists on the same peptides indicating that O-GlcNAc-6-phosphate may biosynthetically arise in two steps involving the O-GlcNAc transferase and a currently unknown kinase. Many of the identified proteins are involved in synaptic transmission and for Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV, the O-GlcNAc-6-phosphate modification was found in the vicinity of two autophosphorylation sites required for full activation of the kinase suggesting a potential regulatory role for O-GlcNAc-6-phosphate. By re-analyzing mass spectrometric data from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, our study also identified Zinc finger protein 462 (ZNF462) as the first human O-GlcNAc-6-phosphate modified protein. Collectively, the data suggests that O-GlcNAc-6-phosphate is a general post-translation modification of mammalian proteins with a variety of possible cellular functions. PMID:22826440

  15. Hsp70-GlcNAc-binding activity is released by stress, proteasome inhibition, and protein misfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Guinez, Celine; Mir, Anne-Marie; Leroy, Yves; Cacan, Rene; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Lefebvre, Tony . E-mail: tony.lefebvre@univ-lille1.fr

    2007-09-21

    Numerous recent works strengthen the idea that the nuclear and cytosolic-specific O-GlcNAc glycosylation protects cells against injuries. We have first investigated O-GlcNAc level and Hsp70-GlcNAc-binding activity (HGBA) behaviour after exposure of HeLa and HepG{sub 2} cells to a wide variety of stresses. O-GlcNAc and HGBA responses were different according to the stress and according to the cell. HGBA was released for almost all stresses, while O-GlcNAc level was modified either upwards or downwards, depending to the stress. Against all expectations, we demonstrated that energy charge did not significantly vary with stress whereas UDP-GlcNAc pools were more dramatically affected even if differences in UDP-GlcNAc contents were not correlated with O-GlcNAc variations suggesting that O-GlcNAc transferase is itself finely regulated during cell injury. Finally, HGBA could be triggered by proteasome inhibition and by L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (a proline analogue) incorporation demonstrating that protein misfolding is one of the key-activator of this Hsp70 property.

  16. Identification of CBF14 and NAC2 Genes in Aegilops tauschii Associated with Resistance to Freezing Stress.

    PubMed

    Masoomi-Aladizgeh, Farhad; Aalami, Ali; Esfahani, Masoud; Aghaei, Mohamad Jaafar; Mozaffari, Khadijeh

    2015-06-01

    Low temperature as one of the most important environmental factors limits the productivity of plants across the world. Aegilops, as a wild species of Poaceae, contains low temperature-responsive genes. In this study, we analyzed morphological (wilting, chlorosis, and recovery) and physiological (ion leakage) characteristics to identification of a cold-tolerant genotype. In this experiment, we introduced two transcription factors (TFs) in Aegilops species for the first time. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that our nucleotide sequences have high similarity with CBF14 (C-repeat-binding factor) and NAC2 (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) in Triticum aestivum. Based on the physiological and morphological data, one genotype (Aladizgeh) was identified as the most resistant genotype which was selected for further gene expression analysis. The real-time PCR results indicated that the CBF14 gene was not expressed 3 h following cold treatment, but the highest expression was observed after 6, 12, and 24 h of cold treatment; however, a sudden decrease was observed in its expression after 30 h. The NAC2 gene also was not expressed 3 h after cold stress, but the highest expression was at 24 h and similar to the CBF14 gene; its expression suddenly decreased after 30 h. Our results indicated that this genotype can tolerate -4 °C for 3 h, but the CBF14 and NAC2 genes were activated when treated for longer durations. Expression of TFs studied in this experiment had decreased after 30 h, in which cell death seems to be the important reason. PMID:25900437

  17. The proteasome stress regulon is controlled by a pair of NAC transcription factors in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteotoxic stress is mitigated by a variety of mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response and coordinated increases in protein chaperones and activities that direct proteolysis such as the 26S proteasome. Using RNA-seq analyses combined with either chemical inhibitors or mut...

  18. NORE1A induction by membrane-bound CD40L (mCD40L) contributes to CD40L-induced cell death and G1 growth arrest in p21-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Elmetwali, T; Salman, A; Palmer, D H

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-bound CD40L (mCD40L) but not soluble CD40L (sCD40L) has been implicated in direct cell death induction and apoptosis in CD40-expressing carcinomas. In this study, we show that mCD40L but not sCD40L induces NORE1A/Rassf5 expression in an NFκB-dependant mechanism. NORE1A expression appeared to contribute to mCD40L-induced cell death and enhance cell transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle in a p21-dependent mechanism. The upregulation of p21 protein was attributed to NORE1A expression, since NORE1A inhibition resulted in p21 downregulation. p21 upregulation was concomitant with lower p53 expression in the cytoplasmic fraction with no detectable increase at the nuclear p53 level. Moreover, mCD40L-induced cell death mediated by NORE1A expression appeared to be independent of mCD40L-induced cell death mediated by sustained JNK activation since NORE1A inhibition did not affect JNK phosphorylation and vice versa. The presented data allow better understanding of the mechanism by which mCD40L induces cell death which could be exploited in the clinical development of CD40-targeted anti-cancer therapies. PMID:26986513

  19. Synthesis of membrane-bound colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and downmodulation of CSF-1 receptors in NIH 3T3 cells transformed by cotransfection of the human CSF-1 and c-fms (CSF-1 receptor) genes.

    PubMed Central

    Rettenmier, C W; Roussel, M F; Ashmun, R A; Ralph, P; Price, K; Sherr, C J

    1987-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells cotransfected with the human c-fms proto-oncogene together with a 1.6-kilobase cDNA clone encoding a 256-amino-acid precursor of the human mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor CSF-1 (M-CSF) undergo transformation by an autocrine mechanism. The number of CSF-1 receptors on the surface of transformed cells was regulated by ligand-induced receptor degradation and was inversely proportional to the quantity of CSF-1 produced. A tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation at position 969 near the receptor carboxyl terminus potentiated its transforming efficiency in cells cotransfected by the CSF-1 gene but did not affect receptor downmodulation. CSF-1 was synthesized as an integral transmembrane glycoprotein that was rapidly dimerized through disulfide bonds. The homodimer was externalized at the cell surface, where it underwent proteolysis to yield the soluble growth factor. Trypsin treatment of viable cells cleaved the plasma membrane form of CSF-1 to molecules of a size indistinguishable from that of the extracellular growth factor, suggesting that trypsinlike proteases regulate the rate of CSF-1 release from transformed cells. The data raise the possibility that this form of membrane-bound CSF-1 might stimulate receptors on adjacent cells through direct cell-cell interactions. Images PMID:3039346

  20. NORE1A induction by membrane-bound CD40L (mCD40L) contributes to CD40L-induced cell death and G1 growth arrest in p21-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Elmetwali, T; Salman, A; Palmer, D H

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-bound CD40L (mCD40L) but not soluble CD40L (sCD40L) has been implicated in direct cell death induction and apoptosis in CD40-expressing carcinomas. In this study, we show that mCD40L but not sCD40L induces NORE1A/Rassf5 expression in an NFκB-dependant mechanism. NORE1A expression appeared to contribute to mCD40L-induced cell death and enhance cell transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle in a p21-dependent mechanism. The upregulation of p21 protein was attributed to NORE1A expression, since NORE1A inhibition resulted in p21 downregulation. p21 upregulation was concomitant with lower p53 expression in the cytoplasmic fraction with no detectable increase at the nuclear p53 level. Moreover, mCD40L-induced cell death mediated by NORE1A expression appeared to be independent of mCD40L-induced cell death mediated by sustained JNK activation since NORE1A inhibition did not affect JNK phosphorylation and vice versa. The presented data allow better understanding of the mechanism by which mCD40L induces cell death which could be exploited in the clinical development of CD40-targeted anti-cancer therapies. PMID:26986513

  1. Comparison of the oxime-induced reactivation of rhesus monkey, swine and guinea pig erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase following inhibition by sarin or paraoxon, using a perfusion model for the real-time determination of membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Nadja M; Lallement, Guy; Clarençon, Didier; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2009-04-28

    Recently, a dynamically working in vitro model with real-time determination of membrane-bound human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was shown to be a versatile model to investigate oxime-induced reactivation kinetics of organophosphate- (OP) inhibited enzyme. In this assay, AChE was immobilized on particle filters which were perfused with acetylthiocholine, Ellman's reagent and phosphate buffer. Subsequently, AChE activity was continuously analyzed in a flow-through detector. Now, it was an intriguing question whether this model could be used with erythrocyte AChE from other species in order to investigate kinetic interactions in the absence of annoying side reactions. Rhesus monkey, swine and guinea pig erythrocytes were a stable and highly reproducible enzyme source. Then, the model was applied to the reactivation of sarin- and paraoxon-inhibited AChE by obidoxime or HI 6 and it could be shown that the derived reactivation rate constants were in good agreement to previous results obtained from experiments with a static model. Hence, this dynamic model offers the possibility to investigate highly reproducible interactions between AChE, OP and oximes with human and animal AChE. PMID:19428926

  2. A single membrane-bound enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate to 4-keto-d-arabonate in d-glucose oxidative fermentation by Gluconobacter oxydans NBRC 3292.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Masaaki; Oishi, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Setsuko; Hoshino, Tatsuo

    2016-08-01

    4-Keto-d-arabonate synthase (4KAS), which converts 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate (DKGA) to 4-keto-d-arabonate (4KA) in d-glucose oxidative fermentation by some acetic acid bacteria, was solubilized from the Gluconobacter oxydans NBRC 3292 cytoplasmic membrane, and purified in an electrophoretically homogenous state. A single membrane-bound enzyme was found to catalyze the conversion from DKGA to 4KA. The 92-kDa 4KAS was a homodimeric protein not requiring O2 or a cofactor for the conversion, but was stimulated by Mn(2+). N-terminal amino acid sequencing of 4KAS, followed by gene homology search indicated a 1,197-bp open reading frame (ORF), corresponding to the GLS_c04240 locus, GenBank accession No. CP004373, encoding a 398-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 42,818 Da. An Escherichia coli transformant with the 4kas plasmid exhibited 4KAS activity. Furthermore, overexpressed recombinant 4KAS was purified in an electrophoretically homogenous state and had the same molecular size as the natural enzyme. PMID:27010909

  3. Experimental Studies of Interacting Electronic States in NaCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Carl E.

    This dissertation describes methods and results of spectroscopic studies of the NaCs molecule. NaCs is of particular interest in many labs where experimental studies of ultra-cold molecules are being conducted. Data obtained in the present work will also be useful as benchmarks for various theoretical calculations. Our goals in studying this molecule were to map out high lying electronic states and to understand how these states interact with one another. Sodium and cesium metal were heated in a heat-pipe oven to form a vapor of NaCs molecules. These molecules were excited using narrow band, continuous wave (cw), tunable lasers. We employed the optical-optical double resonance (OODR) technique to obtain Doppler-free spectra of transitions to rotational and vibrational levels of high lying electronic states. One state of particular interest was the 12(0+) electronic state. Rovibrational level energies corresponding to this state were measured and used to generate a potential energy curve using computer programs to implement both the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) method and the inverted perturbation approach (IPA). By observing fluorescence from the 12(0+) state resolved as a function of wavelength, we determined that this state interacts with the nearby 11(0+) electronic state, which was previously mapped out by Ashman et al. A two-stage coupling model was devised to describe the resolved fluorescence originating from these two interacting states. The electronic states interact via spin-orbit coupling, while the individual rovibrational levels interact via a second mechanism, likely nonadiabatic coupling. This two-stage coupling between the levels of these states causes quantum interference between fluorescence pathways associated with different components of the wavefunctions describing these levels. This interference results in more complicated resolved fluorescence spectra. The model was used to fit parameters describing these interactions so that the resolved

  4. O-GlcNAc modification is essential for the regulation of autophagy in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Park, Sujin; Lee, Yangsin; Pak, Jin Won; Kim, Hanbyeol; Choi, Hyeonjin; Kim, Jae-woo; Roth, Jürgen; Cho, Jin Won

    2015-08-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that takes place on ser/thr residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAcylation regulates almost all cellular events as a nutrient sensor, a transcriptional and translational regulator, and a disease-related factor. Although the role of O-GlcNAcylation in insulin signaling and metabolism are well established, the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and autophagy is largely unknown. Here, we manipulated O-GlcNAcylation in Drosophila and found that it regulates autophagy through Akt/dFOXO signaling. We demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation and the levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) are increased during starvation. Furthermore, Atg proteins and autolysosomes are increased in OGT-reduced flies without fasting. Atg proteins and autophagosomes are reduced in OGT-overexpressing flies. Our results suggest that not only autophagy gene expression but also autophagic structures are regulated by OGT through Akt and dFOXO. These data imply that O-GlcNAcylation is important in modulating autophagy as well as insulin signaling in Drosophila. PMID:25840568

  5. Natural Antisense Transcript for Hyaluronan Synthase 2 (HAS2-AS1) Induces Transcription of HAS2 via Protein O-GlcNAcylation*

    PubMed Central

    Vigetti, Davide; Deleonibus, Sara; Moretto, Paola; Bowen, Timothy; Fischer, Jens W.; Grandoch, Maria; Oberhuber, Alexander; Love, Dona C.; Hanover, John A.; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Karousou, Eugenia; Viola, Manuela; D'Angelo, Maria Luisa; Hascall, Vincent C.; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the microenvironment organization within vascular walls are critical events in the pathogenesis of vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and restenosis. Hyaluronan (HA) accumulation into artery walls supports vessel thickening and is involved in many cardiocirculatory diseases. Excessive cytosolic glucose can enter the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, increase UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) availability, and lead to modification of cytosolic proteins via O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide β-N-GlcNAc (O-GlcNAcylation) from UDP-GlcNAc by the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase. As many cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins can be glycosylated by O-GlcNAc, we studied whether the expression of the HA synthases that synthesize HA could be controlled by O-GlcNAcylation in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Among the three HAS isoenzymes, only HAS2 mRNA increased after O-GlcNAcylation induced by glucosamine treatments or by inhibiting O-GlcNAc transferase with PUGNAC (O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate). We found that the natural antisense transcript of HAS2 (HAS2-AS1) was absolutely necessary to induce the transcription of the HAS2 gene. Moreover, we found that O-GlcNAcylation modulated HAS2-AS1 promoter activation by recruiting the NF-κB subunit p65, but not the HAS2 promoter, whereas HAS2-AS1 natural antisense transcript, working in cis, regulated HAS2 transcription by altering the chromatin structure around the HAS2 proximal promoter via O-GlcNAcylation and acetylation. These results indicate that HAS2 transcription can be finely regulated not only by recruiting transcription factors to the promoter as previously described but also by modulating chromatin accessibility by epigenetic modifications. PMID:25183006

  6. NOS1AP O-GlcNAc Modification Involved in Neuron Apoptosis Induced by Excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ke, Kaifu; Shen, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine, or O-GlcNAc, is a dynamic post-translational modification that cycles on and off serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins. In addition to cancer and inflammation diseases, O-GlcNAc modification appears to play a critical role during cell apoptosis and stress response, although the precise mechanisms are still not very clear. Here we found that nitric oxide synthase adaptor (NOS1AP), which plays an important part in glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis, carries the modification of O-GlcNAc. Mass spectrometry analysis identified Ser47, Ser183, Ser204, Ser269, Ser271 as O-GlcNAc sites. Higher O-GlcNAc of NOS1AP was detected during glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, with O-GlcNAc sites of NOS1AP mutated, the interaction of NOS1AP and neuronal nitric oxide syntheses (nNOS) decreases. Finally, during glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis, decreasing the O-GlcNAc modification of NOS1AP results in more severe neuronal apoptosis. All these results suggest that O-GlcNAc modification of NOS1AP exerts protective effects during glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26197318

  7. 78 FR 5860 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA NextGen... meeting of the RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES: The meeting will be held February 7,...

  8. 78 FR 54509 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA NextGen... of the RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES: The meeting will be held September 19, 2013...

  9. 78 FR 28940 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA NextGen... of the RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES: The meeting will be held June 4, 2013 from...

  10. Probing polypeptide GalNAc-transferase isoform substrate specificities by in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yun; Joshi, Hiren J; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Madsen, Thomas Daugbjerg; Gerken, Thomas A; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Wandall, Hans H; Bennett, Eric Paul; Levery, Steven B; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Clausen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc)-type (mucin-type) O-glycosylation is an abundant and highly diverse modification of proteins. This type of O-glycosylation is initiated in the Golgi by a large family of up to 20 homologous polypeptide GalNAc-T isoenzymes that transfer GalNAc to Ser, Thr and possibly Tyr residues. These GalNAc residues are then further elongated by a large set of glycosyltransferases to build a variety of complex O-glycan structures. What determines O-glycan site occupancy is still poorly understood, although it is clear that the substrate specificities of individual isoenzymes and the repertoire of GalNAc-Ts in cells are key parameters. The GalNAc-T isoenzymes are differentially expressed in cells and tissues in principle allowing cells to produce unique O-glycoproteomes dependent on the specific subset of isoforms present. In vitro analysis of acceptor peptide substrate specificities using recombinant expressed GalNAc-Ts has been the method of choice for probing activities of individual isoforms, but these studies have been hampered by biological validation of actual O-glycosylation sites in proteins and number of substrate testable. Here, we present a systematic analysis of the activity of 10 human GalNAc-T isoenzymes with 195 peptide substrates covering known O-glycosylation sites and provide a comprehensive dataset for evaluating isoform-specific contributions to the O-glycoproteome. PMID:25155433

  11. Gene and protein expression of O-GlcNAc-cycling enzymes in human laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Starska, Katarzyna; Forma, Ewa; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; Bryś, Magdalena; Jóźwiak, Paweł; Krześlak, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Aberrant protein O-GlcNAcylation may contribute to the development and malignant behavior of many cancers. This modification is controlled by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). The aim of this study was to determine the expression of O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes mRNA/protein and to investigate their relationship with clinicopathological parameters in laryngeal cancer. The mRNA levels of OGT and MGEA5 genes were determined in 106 squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCLC) cases and 73 non-cancerous adjacent laryngeal mucosa (NCLM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The level of OGT and OGA proteins was analyzed by Western blot. A positive expression of OGT and MGEA5 transcripts and OGT and OGA proteins was confirmed in 75.5 and 68.9 % and in 43.7 and 59.4 % samples of SCLC, respectively. Higher levels of mRNA/protein for both OGT and OGA as well as significant increases of 60 % in total protein O-GlcNAcylation levels were noted in SCLC compared with NCLM (p < 0.05). As a result, an increased level of OGT and MGEA5 mRNA was related to larger tumor size, nodal metastases, higher grade and tumor behavior according to TFG scale, as well as incidence of disease recurrence (p < 0.05). An inverse association between OGT and MGEA5 transcripts was determined with regard to prognosis (p < 0.05). In addition, the highest OGT and OGA protein levels were observed in poorly differentiated tumors (p < 0.05). No correlations with other parameters were noted, but the results showed a trend of more advanced tumors to be more frequently OGT and OGA positive. The results suggest that increased O-GlcNAcylation may have an effect on tumor aggressiveness and prognosis in laryngeal cancer. PMID:25315705

  12. Shielding analysis of the NAC-LWT cask with MTR fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    NAC International has used the SCALE Code Package extensively for transport and storage cask design. This includes the design of the NAC-STC dual purpose cask, the ENSA-DPT dual purpose cask as well as design modifications to the NAC-LWT cask. The NAC-LWT is a legal weight truck cask that was originally designed to transport one pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly or two boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies. Recently, this cask has been modified to transport up to 42 materials test reactor (MTR) fuel elements. This paper discusses the use of the SCALE package in performing a source term analysis of MTR fuel and shielding analysis of the NAC-LWT cask in support of a 10 CFR Part 71 license amendment for MTR fuel contents.

  13. The Utilities of Chemical Reactions and Molecular Tools for O-GlcNAc Proteomic Studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ju

    2015-07-01

    The post-translational modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes and is associated with the pathological progression of chronic diseases. Considering its emerging biological significance, systematic identification, site mapping, and quantification of O-GlcNAc proteins are essential and have led to the development of several approaches for O-GlcNAc protein profiling. This minireview mainly focuses on the various useful chemical reactions and molecular tools with detailed reaction mechanisms widely adopted for O-GlcNAc protein/peptide enrichment and its quantification for comprehensive O-GlcNAc protein profiling. PMID:26096757

  14. Chemical tools to explore nutrient-driven O-GlcNAc cycling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun J; Bond, Michelle R; Love, Dona C; Hanover, John A

    2014-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTM) including glycosylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and ubiquitination dynamically alter the proteome. The evolutionarily conserved enzymes O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase are responsible for the addition and removal, respectively, of the nutrient-sensitive PTM of protein serine and threonine residues with O-GlcNAc. Indeed, the O-GlcNAc modification acts at every step in the "central dogma" of molecular biology and alters signaling pathways leading to amplified or blunted biological responses. The cellular roles of OGT and the dynamic PTM O-GlcNAc have been clarified with recently developed chemical tools including high-throughput assays, structural and mechanistic studies and potent enzyme inhibitors. These evolving chemical tools complement genetic and biochemical approaches for exposing the underlying biological information conferred by O-GlcNAc cycling. PMID:25039763

  15. Comparison of the oxime-induced reactivation of erythrocyte and muscle acetylcholinesterase following inhibition by sarin or paraoxon, using a perfusion model for the real-time determination of membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Saskia; Eyer, Peter; Herkert, Nadja; Bumm, Rudolf; Weber, Georg; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to compare oxime-induced reactivation rate constants of acetylcholinesterase from different human tissue sources inhibited by organophosphorus compounds. To this end, preliminary testing was necessary to generate a stable system both for working with erythrocytes and musculature. We established a dynamically working in vitro model with a fixed enzyme source in a bioreactor that was perfused with acetylthiocholine, Ellman's reagent and any agent of interest (e.g. nerve agents, oximes) and analyzed in a common HPLC flow-through detector. The enzyme reactor was composed of a particle filter (Millex-GS, 0.22 microm) containing a thin layer of membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase and was kept at constant temperature in a water bath. At constant flow the height of absorbance was directly proportional to the enzyme activity. To start with, we applied this system to human red cell membranes and then adapted the system to acetylcholinesterase of muscle tissue. Homogenate (Ultra-Turrax and Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer) of human muscle tissue (intercostal musculature) was applied to the same particle filter and perfused in a slightly modified way, as done with human red cell membranes. We detected no decrease of acetylcholinesterase activity within 2.5h and we reproducibly determined reactivation rate constants for reactivation with obidoxime (10 microM) or HI 6 (30 microM) of sarin-inhibited human muscle acetylcholinesterase (0.142+/-0.004 min(-1) and 0.166+/-0.008 min(-1), respectively). The reactivation rate constants of erythrocyte and muscular acetylcholinesterase differed only slightly, highlighting erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase as a proper surrogate marker. PMID:17977518

  16. Expression and prognostic value of GalNAc-T3 in patients with completely resected small (≤2 cm) peripheral lung adenocarcinoma after IASLC/ATS/ERS classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shilei; Guo, Tao; Li, Jinxiu; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Guan, Hongwei; Deng, Wuguo; Gu, Chundong

    2015-01-01

    Background GalNAc-T3 catalyzes initial glycosylation of mucin-type O-linked protein involved in proliferation, adhesion, and migration of tumor cells. This study was performed to explore the relationships of the expression of GalNAc-T3 in small peripheral lung adenocarcinoma, especially as an indicator of prognosis. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis of the patients with small peripheral lung lesions, including 106 adenocarcinoma and two precancerous lesions (atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in situ) after complete surgical resection, was launched. Expression of GalNAc-T3 was examined using immunohistochemistry staining on primary tumor specimens, and the tumors were reclassified in light of the IASLC/ATS/ERS (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society) adenocarcinoma classifications followed by grading and scoring. Moreover, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to study the expression of GalNAc-T3 in vivo. Results The low expression of GalNAc-T3 was found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 56 of 108 patients (51.9%) and was associated with IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of high risk groups (P=0.007), high Sica score (P=0.036), poorly differentiated tumor (P=0.023), poor tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P=0.007), pleural invasion (P=0.007), and vascular invasion (P<0.001) by Pearson’s chi-squared test, but not with sex, age, smoking status, concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen, and lymph node metastasis. In logistic regression analysis, low GalNAc-T3 expression was only correlated with high-ranking TNM stage (odds ratio [OR] =8.975, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.797–44.661), vascular invasion (OR =5.668, 95% CI: 1.827–17.578), and the higher risk grade (low risk grade: OR =0.141, 95% CI: 0.027–0.719; moderate risk grade: OR =0.122, 95% CI: 0.017–40.871). The low expression of the GalNAc-T3 usually in adenocarcinoma

  17. Glutathione depletion and acute exercise increase O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Peternelj, Tina Tinkara; Marsh, Susan A; Strobel, Natalie A; Matsumoto, Aya; Briskey, David; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) profoundly affects protein structure, function, and metabolism. Although many skeletal muscle proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, the modification has not been extensively studied in this tissue, especially in the context of exercise. This study investigated the effects of glutathione depletion and acute exercise on O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle. Diethyl maleate (DEM) was used to deplete intracellular glutathione and rats were subjected to a treadmill run. White gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed for glutathione status, O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) protein levels, and mRNA expression of OGT, O-GlcNAcase and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase. DEM and exercise both reduced intracellular glutathione and increased O-GlcNAc. DEM upregulated OGT protein expression. The effects of the interventions were significant 4 h after exercise (P < 0.05). The changes in the mRNA levels of O-GlcNAc enzymes were different in the two muscles, potentially resulting from different rates of oxidative stress and metabolic demands between the muscle types. These findings indicate that oxidative environment promotes O-GlcNAcylation in skeletal muscle and suggest an interrelationship between cellular redox state and O-GlcNAc protein modification. This could represent one mechanism underlying cellular adaptation to oxidative stress and health benefits of exercise. PMID:25416863

  18. Localization of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seika; Nakano, Satoshi; Nishii, Makoto; Kaneko, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2012-06-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a ubiquitous post-translational modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins that induces the attachment of N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues of a protein. In contrast to other protein glycosylations, this modification is highly reversible and, similar to phosphorylation, it plays important roles in various cell signals. Here, we immunolocalized O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in muscle biopsy specimens from 40 patients with neuromuscular diseases and controls. In normal muscle fibers, O-GlcNAc was found along plasma membranes and in nuclei. Diffuse and increased cytoplasmic staining of O-GlcNAc was detected in (1) regenerating muscle fibers in muscular dystrophy, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis; (2) a proportion of atrophic fibers in myositis, such as those found in perifascicular regions in dermatomyositis; and (3) vacuolated fibers in sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV). Target formations in neurogenic muscular atrophy were O-GlcNAc positive. Increase of O-GlcNAc glycosylation could be associated with the stress response, as these lesions have been shown to be positive for several stress markers. Vacuolar rims in s-IBM and DMRV were sometimes sharply lined by O-GlcNAc-positive deposits, which reflects myonuclear breakdown occurring from the disease. PMID:22718293

  19. Functional O-GlcNAc modifications: Implications in molecular regulation and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Lance

    2016-01-01

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a regulatory post-translational modification of intracellular proteins. The dynamic and inducible cycling of the modification is governed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) in response to UDP-GlcNAc levels in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). Due to its reliance on glucose flux and substrate availability, a major focus in the field has been on how O-GlcNAc contributes to metabolic disease. For years this post-translational modification has been known to modify thousands of proteins implicated in various disorders, but direct functional connections have until recently remained elusive. New research is beginning to reveal the specific mechanisms through which O-GlcNAc influences cell dynamics and disease pathology including clear examples of O-GlcNAc modification at a specific site on a given protein altering its biological functions. The following review intends to focus primarily on studies in the last half decade linking O-GlcNAc modification of proteins with chromatin-directed gene regulation, developmental processes, and several metabolically related disorders including Alzheimer’s, heart disease and cancer. These studies illustrate the emerging importance of this post-translational modification in biological processes and multiple pathophysiologies. PMID:24524620

  20. GalNAc-T14 promotes metastasis through Wnt dependent HOXB9 expression in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ok-Seon; Oh, Ensel; Park, Jeong-Rak; Lee, Ji-Seon; Bae, Gab-Yong; Koo, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Hyongbum; Choi, Yoon L; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Jhingook; Cha, Hyuk-Jin

    2015-12-01

    While metastasis, the main cause of lung cancer-related death, has been extensively studied, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. A previous clinicogenomic study revealed that expression of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T14), is highly inversely correlated with recurrence-free survival in those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) has not been determined. Here, we showed that GalNAc-T14 expression was positively associated with the invasive phenotype. Microarray and biochemical analyses revealed that HOXB9, the expression of which was increased in a GalNAc-T14-dependent manner, played an important role in metastasis. GalNAc-T14 increased the sensitivity of the WNT response and increased the stability of the β-catenin protein, leading to induced expression of HOXB9 and acquisition of an invasive phenotype. Pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin in GalNAc-T14-expressing cancer cells suppressed HOXB9 expression and invasion. A meta-analysis of clinical genomics data revealed that expression of GalNAc-T14 or HOXB9 was strongly correlated with reduced recurrence-free survival and increased hazard risk, suggesting that targeting β-catenin within the GalNAc-T14/WNT/HOXB9 axis may be a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:26544896

  1. O-GlcNAc signaling attenuates ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte death.

    PubMed

    Ngoh, Gladys A; Hamid, Tariq; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Jones, Steven P

    2009-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that the O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) posttranslational modification confers cardioprotection at least partially through mitochondrial-dependent mechanisms, but it remained unclear if O-GlcNAc signaling interfered with other mechanisms of cell death. Because ischemia/hypoxia causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we ascertained whether O-GlcNAc signaling could attenuate ER stress-induced cell death per se. Before induction of ER stress (with tunicamycin or brefeldin A), we adenovirally overexpressed O-GlcNAc transferase (AdOGT) or pharmacologically inhibited O-GlcNAcase [via O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate] to augment O-GlcNAc levels or adenovirally overexpressed O-GlcNAcase to reduce O-GlcNAc levels. AdOGT significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the activation of the maladaptive arm of the unfolded protein response [according to C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) activation] and cardiomyocyte death (reflected by percent propidium iodide positivity). Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase significantly (P < 0.05) mitigated ER stress-induced CHOP activation and cardiac myocyte death. Interestingly, overexpression of GCA did not alter ER stress markers but exacerbated brefeldin A-induced cardiomyocyte death. We conclude that enhanced O-GlcNAc signaling represents a partially proadaptive response to reduce ER stress-induced cell death. These results provide new insights into a possible interaction between O-GlcNAc signaling and ER stress and may partially explain a mechanism of O-GlcNAc-mediated cardioprotection. PMID:19734355

  2. Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

  3. Dual function of membrane-bound heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), Bag-4, and Hsp40: protection against radiation-induced effects and target structure for natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Gehrmann, M; Marienhagen, J; Eichholtz-Wirth, H; Fritz, E; Ellwart, J; Jäättelä, M; Zilch, T; Multhoff, G

    2005-01-01

    CX+/CX- and Colo+/Colo- tumor sublines with stable heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) high and low membrane expression were generated by fluorescence activated cell sorting of the parental human colon (CX2) and pancreas (Colo357) carcinoma cell lines, using an Hsp70-specific antibody. Two-parameter flow cytometry revealed that Hsp70 colocalizes with Bag-4, also termed silencer of death domain, not only in the cytosol but also on the plasma membrane. After nonlethal gamma-irradiation, the percentage of membrane-positive cells and the protein density of Hsp70 and Bag-4 were found to be strongly upregulated in carcinoma sublines with initially low expression levels (CX-, Colo-). Membrane expression of Hsp70 was also elevated in Bag-4 overexpressing HeLa cervix carcinoma cells when compared to neo-transfected cells. In response to gamma-irradiation, neo-transfected HeLa cells behaved like Hsp70/Bag-4 low-expressing CX- and Colo-, and Bag-4-transfected HeLa cells like Hsp70/Bag-4 high-expressing carcinoma sublines CX+ and Colo+. Immunoprecipitation studies further confirmed colocalization of Hsp70 and Bag-4 but also point to an association of Hsp70 and Hsp40 on the plasma membrane of CX+ and Colo+ cells; on CX- and Colo- tumor sublines, Hsp40 was detectable in the absence of Hsp70 and Bag-4. Other co-chaperones including Hsp60 and Hsp90 were neither found on the cell surface of CX+/CX-, Colo+/Colo- nor on HeLa neo-/HeLa Bag-4-transfected tumor cells. Functionally, Hsp70/Bag-4 and Hsp70/Hsp40 membrane-positive tumor cells appeared to be better protected against radiation-induced effects, including G2/M arrest and growth inhibition, on the one hand. On the other hand, membrane-bound Hsp70, but neither Bag-4 nor Hsp40, served as a recognition site for the cytolytic attack mediated by natural killer cells. PMID:15592361

  4. NAC functions as a modulator of SRP during the early steps of protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Berndt, Uta; Gölz, Hanna; Tais, Arlette; Oellerer, Stefan; Wölfle, Tina; Fitzke, Edith; Rospert, Sabine

    2012-08-01

    Nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) was initially found to bind to any segment of the nascent chain except signal sequences. In this way, NAC is believed to prevent mistargeting due to binding of signal recognition particle (SRP) to signalless ribosome nascent chain complexes (RNCs). Here we revisit the interplay between NAC and SRP. NAC does not affect SRP function with respect to signalless RNCs; however, NAC does affect SRP function with respect to RNCs targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). First, early recruitment of SRP to RNCs containing a signal sequence within the ribosomal tunnel is NAC dependent. Second, NAC is able to directly and tightly bind to nascent signal sequences. Third, SRP initially displaces NAC from RNCs; however, when the signal sequence emerges further, trimeric NAC·RNC·SRP complexes form. Fourth, upon docking to the ER membrane NAC remains bound to RNCs, allowing NAC to shield cytosolically exposed nascent chain domains not only before but also during cotranslational translocation. The combined data indicate a functional interplay between NAC and SRP on ER-targeted RNCs, which is based on the ability of the two complexes to bind simultaneously to distinct segments of a single nascent chain. PMID:22740632

  5. Shielding and Containment Evaluations of the NAC-LWT Cask with Tritium Burnable Poison Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Holger Pfeifer; Norman Meinert

    2000-06-04

    In 1989, the NAC legal weight truck cask (NAC-LWT) was approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to transport either one pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly or two boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies. Since that time, license amendments have allowed the shipment of high-burnup PWR and BWR fuel rods, MTR-type research reactor fuel elements, and TRIGA-type fuel elements. In 1999, DOE approved an NAC-LWT submittal for a shipment of lead test assemblies (LTAs) containing tritium-producing burnable poison rods (TPBARs). This paper presents the 10 CFR Part 71 shielding and containment evaluations of the NAC-LWT with the LTA payload.

  6. CSER 01-011 Criticality Safety Evaluation for Light Water Reactor Fuel in NAC-1 Casks

    SciTech Connect

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    2002-06-26

    Document presents analysis performed to demonstrate criticality safety of packaging spent PWR fuel assemblies currently located at the 324 Building into a NAC-1 cask. Interim storage of the cask is also documented.

  7. Shielding and containment evaluations of the NAC-LWT cask with tritium burnable poison rods

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, H.; Meinert, N.

    2000-07-01

    In 1989, the NAC legal weight truck cask (NAC-LWT) was approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to transport either one pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly or two boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies. Since that time, license amendments have allowed the shipment of high-burnup PWR and BWR fuel rods, MTR-type research reactor fuel elements, and TRIGA-type fuel elements. In 1999, DOE approved an NAC-LWT submittal for the shipment of lead test assemblies (LTAs) containing tritium-producing burnable poison rods (TPBARs). This paper presents the 10 CFR Part 71 shielding and containment evaluations of the NAC-LWT with the LTA payload.

  8. Monitoring Protein O-GlcNAc Status via Metabolic Labeling and Copper-free Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Chin Fen; Wells, Lance

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAc modification found on the serine and threonine residues of intracellular proteins is an inducible post-translational modification that regulates numerous biological processes. In combination with other cell biological and biochemical approaches, a robust and streamlined strategy for detecting the number and stoichiometry of O-GlcNAc modification can provide valuable insights for decoding the functions of O-GlcNAc at the molecular level. Herein, we report an optimized workflow for evaluating the O-GlcNAc status of proteins using a combination of metabolic labeling and click chemistry based mass tagging. This method is strategically complementary to the chemoenzymatic-based mass-tagging method. PMID:24995865

  9. LROC NAC Photometry as a Tool for Studying Physical and Compositional Properties of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Boyd, A. K.; Stopar, J. D.; Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.

    2014-10-01

    LROC NAC photometry has been used to study the effects of rocket exhaust on lunar soil properties, and here we apply the same photometric methods to place compositional constraints on regions of silicic volcanism and pure anorthosite on the Moon.

  10. Synthetic Receptors for the High-Affinity Recognition of O-GlcNAc Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rios, Pablo; Carter, Tom S; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Crump, Matthew P; Lisbjerg, Micke; Pittelkow, Michael; Supekar, Nitin T; Boons, Geert-Jan; Davis, Anthony P

    2016-03-01

    The combination of a pyrenyl tetraamine with an isophthaloyl spacer has led to two new water-soluble carbohydrate receptors ("synthetic lectins"). Both systems show outstanding affinities for derivatives of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in aqueous solution. One receptor binds the methyl glycoside GlcNAc-β-OMe with Ka ≈20,000 m(-1), whereas the other one binds an O-GlcNAcylated peptide with Ka ≈70,000 m(-1). These values substantially exceed those usually measured for GlcNAc-binding lectins. Slow exchange on the NMR timescale enabled structural determinations for several complexes. As expected, the carbohydrate units are sandwiched between the pyrenes, with the alkoxy and NHAc groups emerging at the sides. The high affinity of the GlcNAcyl-peptide complex can be explained by extra-cavity interactions, raising the possibility of a family of complementary receptors for O-GlcNAc in different contexts. PMID:26822115

  11. New Insights on Lunar Surface Properties from the Perspective of LRO NAC Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2016-05-01

    The use of NAC photometry has allowed us to gain new insights into physical changes of regolith at spacecraft landing sites, and to determine correlations between composition and reflectance that can be applied to areas of unusual composition.

  12. Vimentin and desmin possess GlcNAc-binding lectin-like properties on cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ise, Hirohiko; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Goto, Mitsuaki; Sato, Takao; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ikeda, Uichi; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2010-07-01

    Vimentin and desmin are intermediate filament proteins found in various mesenchymal and skeletal muscle cells, respectively. These proteins play an important role in the stabilization of the cytoplasmic architecture. Here, we found, using artificial biomimicking glycopolymers, that vimentin and desmin possess N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding lectin-like properties on the cell surfaces of various vimentin- and desmin-expressing cells such as cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The rod II domain of these proteins was demonstrated to be localized to the cell surface and to directly bind to the artificial biomimicking GlcNAc-bearing polymer, by confocal laser microscopy and surface plasmon resonance analysis. These glycopolymers strongly interact with lectins and are useful tools for the analysis of lectin-carbohydrate interactions, since glycopolymers binding to lectins can induce the clustering of lectins due to multivalent glycoside ligand binding. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and pull-down assay with His-tagged vimentin-rod II domain protein showed that the vimentin-rod II domain interacts with O-GlcNAc proteins. These results suggest that O-GlcNAc proteins might be one candidate for physiological GlcNAc-bearing ligands with which vimentin and desmin interact. These findings demonstrate a novel function of vimentin and desmin that does not involve stabilization of the cytoplasmic architecture by which these proteins interact with physiological GlcNAc-bearing ligands such as O-GlcNAc proteins on the cell surface through their GlcNAc-binding lectin-like properties. PMID:20332081

  13. Nutrient-driven O-GlcNAc cycling - think globally but act locally.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Katryn R; Hanover, John A

    2014-05-01

    Proper cellular functioning requires that cellular machinery behave in a spatiotemporally regulated manner in response to global changes in nutrient availability. Mounting evidence suggests that one way this is achieved is through the establishment of physically defined gradients of O-GlcNAcylation (O-linked addition of N-acetylglucosamine to serine and threonine residues) and O-GlcNAc turnover. Because O-GlcNAcylation levels are dependent on the nutrient-responsive hexosamine signaling pathway, this modification is uniquely poised to inform upon the nutritive state of an organism. The enzymes responsible for O-GlcNAc addition and removal are encoded by a single pair of genes: both the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and the O-GlcNAcase (OGA, also known as MGEA5) genes are alternatively spliced, producing protein variants that are targeted to discrete cellular locations where they must selectively recognize hundreds of protein substrates. Recent reports suggest that in addition to their catalytic functions, OGT and OGA use their multifunctional domains to anchor O-GlcNAc cycling to discrete intracellular sites, thus allowing them to establish gradients of deacetylase, kinase and phosphatase signaling activities. The localized signaling gradients established by targeted O-GlcNAc cycling influence many important cellular processes, including lipid droplet remodeling, mitochondrial functioning, epigenetic control of gene expression and proteostasis. As such, the tethering of the enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling appears to play a role in ensuring proper spatiotemporal responses to global alterations in nutrient supply. PMID:24762810

  14. The active site of O-GlcNAc transferase imposes constraints on substrate sequence

    PubMed Central

    Rafie, Karim; Blair, David E.; Borodkin, Vladimir S.; Albarbarawi, Osama; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2016-01-01

    O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) glycosylates a diverse range of intracellular proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), an essential and dynamic post-translational modification in metazoa. Although this enzyme modifies hundreds of proteins with O-GlcNAc, it is not understood how OGT achieves substrate specificity. In this study, we describe the application of a high-throughput OGT assay on a library of peptides. The sites of O-GlcNAc modification were mapped by ETD-mass spectrometry, and found to correlate with previously detected O-GlcNAc sites. Crystal structures of four acceptor peptides in complex with human OGT suggest that a combination of size and conformational restriction defines sequence specificity in the −3 to +2 subsites. This work reveals that while the N-terminal TPR repeats of hOGT may play a role in substrate recognition, the sequence restriction imposed by the peptide-binding site makes a significant contribution to O-GlcNAc site specificity. PMID:26237509

  15. The Hexosamine Signaling Pathway: O-GlcNAc cycling in feast or famine

    PubMed Central

    Hanover, John A.; Krause, Michael W.; Love, Dona C.

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling couple the nutrient-dependent synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc to O-GlcNAc modification of Ser/Thr residues of key nuclear and cytoplasmic targets. This series of reactions culminating in O-GlcNAcylation of targets has been termed the Hexosamine Signaling Pathway (HSP). The evolutionarily ancient enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling have co-evolved with other signaling effecter molecules; they are recruited to their targets by many of the same mechanisms used to organize canonic kinase-dependent signaling pathways. This co-recruitment of the enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling drives a binary switch impacting pathways of anabolism and growth (nutrient uptake) and catabolic pathways (nutrient sparing and salvage). The Hexosamine Signaling Pathway (HSP) has thus emerged as a versatile cellular regulator modulating numerous cellular signaling cascades influencing growth, metabolism, cellular stress, circadian rhythm, and host-pathogen interactions. In mammals, the nutrient-sensing HSP has been harnessed to regulate such cell-specific functions as neutrophil migration, and activation of B-cells and T-cells. This review summarizes the diverse approaches being used to examine O-GlcNAc cycling. It will emphasize the impact O-GlcNAcylation has upon signaling pathways that may be become deregulated in diseases of the immune system, diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19647043

  16. O-GlcNAc-mediated interaction between VER2 and TaGRP2 elicits TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation during vernalization in winter wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Xu, Shujuan; Li, Chunhua; Xu, Yunyuan; Xing, Lijing; Niu, Yuda; Huan, Qing; Tang, Yimiao; Zhao, Changping; Wagner, Doris; Gao, Caixia; Chong, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Vernalization, sensing of prolonged cold, is important for seasonal flowering in eudicots and monocots. While vernalization silences a repressor (FLC, MADS-box transcription factor) in eudicots, it induces an activator (TaVRN1, an AP1 clade MADS-box transcription factor) in monocots. The mechanism for TaVRN1 induction during vernalization is not well understood. Here we reveal a novel mechanism for controlling TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation in response to prolonged cold sensing in wheat. The carbohydrate-binding protein VER2, a jacalin lectin, promotes TaVRN1 upregulation by physically interacting with the RNA-binding protein TaGRP2. TaGRP2 binds to TaVRN1 pre-mRNA and inhibits TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation. The physical interaction between VER2 and TaGRP2 is controlled by TaGRP2 O-GlcNAc modification, which gradually increases during vernalization. The interaction between VER2 and O-GlcNAc-TaGRP2 reduces TaGRP2 protein accumulation in the nucleus and/or promotes TaGRP2 dissociation from TaVRN1, leading to TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation. Our data reveal a new mechanism for sensing prolonged cold in temperate cereals. PMID:25091017

  17. Drosophila O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is encoded by the Polycomb group (PcG) gene, super sex combs (sxc)

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Donald A. R.; Syrzycka, Monika; Macauley, Matthew S.; Rastgardani, Tara; Komljenovic, Ivana; Vocadlo, David J.; Brock, Hugh W.; Honda, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) reversibly modifies serine and threonine residues of many intracellular proteins with a single β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residue (O-GlcNAc), and has been implicated in insulin signaling, neurodegenerative disease, cellular stress response, and other important processes in mammals. OGT also glycosylates RNA polymerase II and various transcription factors, which suggests that it might be directly involved in transcriptional regulation. We report here that the Drosophila OGT is encoded by the Polycomb group (PcG) gene, super sex combs (sxc). Furthermore, major sites of O-GlcNAc modification on polytene chromosomes correspond to PcG protein binding sites. Our results thus suggest a direct role for O-linked glycosylation by OGT in PcG-mediated epigenetic gene silencing, which is important in developmental regulation, stem cell maintenance, genomic imprinting, and cancer. In addition, we observe rescue of sxc lethality by a human Ogt cDNA transgene; thus Drosophila may provide an ideal model to study important functional roles of OGT in mammals. PMID:19666537

  18. Drosophila O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is encoded by the Polycomb group (PcG) gene, super sex combs (sxc).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Donald A R; Syrzycka, Monika; Macauley, Matthew S; Rastgardani, Tara; Komljenovic, Ivana; Vocadlo, David J; Brock, Hugh W; Honda, Barry M

    2009-08-11

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) reversibly modifies serine and threonine residues of many intracellular proteins with a single beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residue (O-GlcNAc), and has been implicated in insulin signaling, neurodegenerative disease, cellular stress response, and other important processes in mammals. OGT also glycosylates RNA polymerase II and various transcription factors, which suggests that it might be directly involved in transcriptional regulation. We report here that the Drosophila OGT is encoded by the Polycomb group (PcG) gene, super sex combs (sxc). Furthermore, major sites of O-GlcNAc modification on polytene chromosomes correspond to PcG protein binding sites. Our results thus suggest a direct role for O-linked glycosylation by OGT in PcG-mediated epigenetic gene silencing, which is important in developmental regulation, stem cell maintenance, genomic imprinting, and cancer. In addition, we observe rescue of sxc lethality by a human Ogt cDNA transgene; thus Drosophila may provide an ideal model to study important functional roles of OGT in mammals. PMID:19666537

  19. mTOR/MYC Axis Regulates O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT) Expression and O-GlcNAcylation in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sodi, Valerie L.; Khaku, Sakina; Krutilina, Raisa; Schwab, Luciana P.; Vocadlo, David J.; Seagroves, Tiffany N.; Reginato, Mauricio J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit altered metabolism characterized by increased glucose and glutamine uptake. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) utilizes glucose and glutamine, and directly contributes to O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modifications on intracellular proteins. Multiple tumor types contain elevated total O-GlcNAcylation, in part, by increasing O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) levels, the enzyme that catalyzes this modification. Although cancer cells require OGT for oncogenesis, it is not clear how tumor cells regulate OGT expression and O-GlcNAcylation. Here, it is shown that the PI3K/mTOR/MYC signaling pathway is required for elevation of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation in breast cancer cells. Treatment with PI3K and mTOR inhibitors reduced OGT protein expression and decreased levels of overall O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, both AKT and mTOR activation is sufficient to elevate OGT/O-GlcNAcylation. Downstream of mTOR, the oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC is required and sufficient for increased OGT protein expression in an RNA-independent manner and c-MYC regulation of OGT mechanistically requires the expression of c-MYC transcriptional target HSP90A. Lastly, mammary tumor epithelial cells derived from MMTV-c-myc transgenic mice contain elevated OGT and O-GlcNAcylation and OGT inhibition in this model induces apoptosis. Thus, OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are elevated via activation of an mTOR/MYC cascade. PMID:25636967

  20. Tissue and Serum miRNA Profile in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer (LABC) in Response to Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khanbashi, Manal; Caramuta, Stefano; Alajmi, Adil M.; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Al-Riyami, Marwa; Lui, Weng-Onn; Al-Moundhri, Mansour S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA that plays a vital role in cancer progression. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has become the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate miRNA alterations during NAC using multiple samples of tissue and serum to correlate miRNA expression with clinico-pathological features and patient outcomes. Methods Tissue and serum samples were collected from patients with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing NAC at four time points: time of diagnosis, after the first and fourth cycle of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide treatment, and after the fourth cycle of docetaxel administration. First, we evaluated the miRNA expression profiles in tissue and correlated expression with clinico-pathological features. Then, a panel of four miRNAs (miR-451, miR-3200, miR-21, and miR-205) in serum samples was further validated using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The alterations in serum levels of miRNA, associations with clinical and pathological responses, correlation with clinico-pathological features, and survival outcomes were studied using Friedman, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman, Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We analyzed 72 tissue samples and 108 serum samples from 9 patients and 27 patients, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiling of tumor versus normal tissue revealed more than 100 differentially expressed miRNAs. Serum miR-451 levels were significantly decreased during treatment, and higher serum levels were associated with improved clinical and pathological responses and disease-free survival. This is one of the early reports on miR-3200 in response to treatment in breast cancer, as serum levels of miR-3200 found to decline during NAC, and higher serum levels were associated with lower residual breast cancer burden and relapse rates at time of diagnosis. Conclusion Variations in

  1. Bi- to tetravalent glycoclusters presenting GlcNAc/GalNAc as inhibitors: from plant agglutinins to human macrophage galactose-type lectin (CD301) and galectins.

    PubMed

    André, Sabine; O'Sullivan, Shane; Koller, Christiane; Murphy, Paul V; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-14

    Emerging insights into the functional spectrum of tissue lectins leads to identification of new targets for the custom-made design of potent inhibitors, providing a challenge for synthetic chemistry. The affinity and selectivity of a carbohydrate ligand for a lectin may immensely be increased by a number of approaches, which includes varying geometrical or topological features. This perspective leads to the design and synthesis of glycoclusters and their testing using assays of physiological relevance. Herein, hydroquinone, resorcinol, benzene-1,3,5-triol and tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethene have been employed as scaffolds and propargyl derivatives obtained. The triazole-containing linker to the α/β-O/S-glycosides of GlcNAc/GalNAc presented on these scaffolds was generated by copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This strategy was used to give a panel of nine glycoclusters with bi-, tri- and tetravalency. Maintained activity for lectin binding after conjugation was ascertained for both sugars in solid-phase assays with the plant agglutinins WGA (GlcNAc) and DBA (GalNAc). Absence of cross-reactivity excluded any carbohydrate-independent reactivity of the bivalent compounds, allowing us to proceed to further testing with a biomedically relevant lectin specific for GalNAc. Macrophage galactose(-binding C)-type lectin, involved in immune defence by dendritic cells and in virus uptake, was produced as a soluble protein without/with its α-helical coiled-coil stalk region. Binding to ligands presented on a matrix and on cell surfaces was highly susceptible to the presence of the tetravalent inhibitor derived from the tetraphenylethene-containing scaffold, and presentation of GalNAc with an α-thioglycosidic linkage proved favorable. Cross-reactivity of this glycocluster to human galectins-3 and -4, which interact with Tn-antigen-presenting mucins, was rather small. Evidently, the valency and spatial display of α-GalNAc residues is a key factor to design potent and

  2. C-terminal domains of a histone demethylase interact with a pair of transcription factors and mediate specific chromatin association

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuaibin; Zhou, Bing; Kang, Yanyuan; Cui, Xia; Liu, Ao; Deleris, Angelique; Greenberg, Maxim V. C.; Cui, Xiekui; Qiu, Qi; Lu, Falong; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    JmjC domain containing protein 14 (JMJ14) is an H3K4-specific histone demethylase that plays important roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing and flowering time regulation in Arabidopsis. However, how JMJ14 is recruited to its target genes remains unclear. Here, we show that the C-terminal FYRN and FYRC domains of JMJ14 are required for RNA silencing and flowering time regulation. Chromatin binding of JMJ14 is lost upon deletion of its FYRN and FYRC domains, and H3K4me3 is increased. FYRN and FYRC domains interact with a pair of NAC domain containing transcription factors, NAC050 and NAC052. Genome-wide ChIP analysis revealed that JMJ14 and NAC050/052 share a set of common target genes with CTTGNNNNNCAAG consensus sequences. Mutations in either NAC052 or NAC050 impair RNA-mediated gene silencing. Together, our findings demonstrate an important role of FYRN and FYRC domains in targeting JMJ14 through direct interaction with NAC050/052 proteins, which reveals a novel mechanism of histone demethylase recruitment. PMID:26617990

  3. Bisecting GlcNAc modification stabilizes BACE1 protein under oxidative stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Nakano, Miyako; Kitazume, Shinobu; Saito, Takashi; Saido, Takaomi C; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) is a protease essential for amyloid-β (Aβ) production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 protein is known to be up-regulated by oxidative stress-inducing stimuli but the mechanism for this up-regulation still needs to be clarified. We have recently found that BACE1 is modified with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-III (GnT-III, encoded by the Mgat3 gene) and that GnT-III deficiency reduces Aβ-plaque formation in the brain by accelerating lysosomal degradation of BACE1. Therefore, we hypothesized that bisecting GlcNAc would stabilize BACE1 protein on oxidative stress. In the present study, we first show that Aβ deposition in the mouse brain induces oxidative stress, together with an increase in levels of BACE1 and bisecting GlcNAc. Furthermore, prooxidant treatment induces expression of BACE1 protein in wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), whereas it reduces BACE1 protein in GnT-III (Mgat3) knock-out MEFs by accelerating lysosomal degradation of BACE1. We purified BACE1 from Neuro2A cells and performed LC/ESI/MS analysis for BACE1-derived glycopeptides and mapped bisecting GlcNAc-modified sites on BACE1. Point mutations at two N-glycosylation sites (Asn(153) and Asn(223)) abolish the bisecting GlcNAc modification on BACE1. These mutations almost cancelled the enhanced BACE1 degradation seen in Mgat3(-/-) MEFs, indicating that bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1 indeed regulates its degradation. Finally, we show that traumatic brain injury-induced BACE1 up-regulation is significantly suppressed in the Mgat3(-/-) brain. These results highlight the role of bisecting GlcNAc in oxidative stress-induced BACE1 expression and offer a novel glycan-targeted strategy for suppressing Aβ generation. PMID:26467158

  4. Divergent and convergent synthesis of GalNAc-conjugated dendrimers using dual orthogonal ligations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Baptiste; Pifferi, Carlo; Daskhan, Gour Chand; Fiore, Michele; Berthet, Nathalie; Renaudet, Olivier

    2015-12-21

    The synthesis of glycodendrimers remains a challenging task. In this paper we propose a protocol based on both oxime ligation (OL) to combine cyclopeptide repeating units as the dendritic core and the copper(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) to conjugate peripheral α and β propargylated GalNAc. By contrast with the oxime-based iterative protocol reported in our group, our current strategy can be used in both divergent and convergent routes with similar efficiency and the resulting hexadecavalent glycodendrimers can be easily characterized compared to oxime-linked analogues. A series of glycoconjugates displaying four or sixteen copies of both α and β GalNAc have been prepared and their ability to inhibit the adhesion of the soybean agglutinin (SBA) lectin to polymeric-GalNAc immobilized on microtiter plates has been evaluated. As was anticipated, the higher inhibitory effect (IC50 = 0.46 μM) was measured with the structure displaying αGalNAc with the higher valency (compound 13), which demonstrates that the binding properties of these glycoconjugates are strongly dependent on the orientation and distribution of the GalNAc units. PMID:26464062

  5. A transposable element in a NAC gene is associated with drought tolerance in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hude; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Shengxue; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaohong; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Qin, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Drought represents a major constraint on maize production worldwide. Understanding the genetic basis for natural variation in drought tolerance of maize may facilitate efforts to improve this trait in cultivated germplasm. Here, using a genome-wide association study, we show that a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) inserted in the promoter of a NAC gene (ZmNAC111) is significantly associated with natural variation in maize drought tolerance. The 82-bp MITE represses ZmNAC111 expression via RNA-directed DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation when heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis. Increasing ZmNAC111 expression in transgenic maize enhances drought tolerance at the seedling stage, improves water-use efficiency and induces upregulation of drought-responsive genes under water stress. The MITE insertion in the ZmNAC111 promoter appears to have occurred after maize domestication and spread among temperate germplasm. The identification of this MITE insertion provides insight into the genetic basis for natural variation in maize drought tolerance. PMID:26387805

  6. Evaluation of in vitro storage characteristics of cold stored platelet concentrates with N acetylcysteine (NAC).

    PubMed

    Handigund, Mallikarjun; Bae, Tae Won; Lee, Jaehyeon; Cho, Yong Gon

    2016-02-01

    Platelets play a vital role in hemostasis and thrombosis, and their demand and usage has multiplied many folds over the years. However, due to the short life span and storage constraints on platelets, it is allowed to store them for up to 7 days at room temperature (RT); thus, there is a need for an alternative storage strategy for extension of shelf life. Current investigation involves the addition of 50 mM N acetylcysteine (NAC) in refrigerated concentrates. Investigation results revealed that addition of NAC to refrigerated concentrates prevented platelet activation and reduced the sialidase activity upon rewarming as well as on prolonged storage. Refrigerated concentrates with 50 mM NAC expressed a 23.91 ± 6.23% of CD62P (P-Selectin) and 22.33 ± 3.42% of phosphotidylserine (PS), whereas RT-stored platelets showed a 46.87 ± 5.23% of CD62P and 25.9 ± 6.48% of phosphotidylserine (PS) after 5 days of storage. Further, key metabolic parameters such as glucose and lactate accumulation indicated reduced metabolic activity. Taken together, investigation and observations indicate that addition of NAC potentially protects refrigerated concentrates by preventing platelet activation, stabilizing sialidase activity, and further reducing the metabolic activity. Hence, we believe that NAC can be a good candidate for an additive solution to retain platelet characteristics during cold storage and may pave the way for extension of storage shelf life. PMID:26847865

  7. A transposable element in a NAC gene is associated with drought tolerance in maize seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Hude; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Shengxue; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaohong; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Qin, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Drought represents a major constraint on maize production worldwide. Understanding the genetic basis for natural variation in drought tolerance of maize may facilitate efforts to improve this trait in cultivated germplasm. Here, using a genome-wide association study, we show that a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) inserted in the promoter of a NAC gene (ZmNAC111) is significantly associated with natural variation in maize drought tolerance. The 82-bp MITE represses ZmNAC111 expression via RNA-directed DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation when heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis. Increasing ZmNAC111 expression in transgenic maize enhances drought tolerance at the seedling stage, improves water-use efficiency and induces upregulation of drought-responsive genes under water stress. The MITE insertion in the ZmNAC111 promoter appears to have occurred after maize domestication and spread among temperate germplasm. The identification of this MITE insertion provides insight into the genetic basis for natural variation in maize drought tolerance. PMID:26387805

  8. Engineering the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for the production of therapeutic proteins homogeneously glycosylated with Man8GlcNAc2 and Man5GlcNAc2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-based therapeutics represent the fastest growing class of compounds in the pharmaceutical industry. This has created an increasing demand for powerful expression systems. Yeast systems are widely used, convenient and cost-effective. Yarrowia lipolytica is a suitable host that is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Yeasts, however, modify their glycoproteins with heterogeneous glycans containing mainly mannoses, which complicates downstream processing and often interferes with protein function in man. Our aim was to glyco-engineer Y. lipolytica to abolish the heterogeneous, yeast-specific glycosylation and to obtain homogeneous human high-mannose type glycosylation. Results We engineered Y. lipolytica to produce homogeneous human-type terminal-mannose glycosylated proteins, i.e. glycosylated with Man8GlcNAc2 or Man5GlcNAc2. First, we inactivated the yeast-specific Golgi α-1,6-mannosyltransferases YlOch1p and YlMnn9p; the former inactivation yielded a strain producing homogeneous Man8GlcNAc2 glycoproteins. We tested this strain by expressing glucocerebrosidase and found that the hypermannosylation-related heterogeneity was eliminated. Furthermore, detailed analysis of N-glycans showed that YlOch1p and YlMnn9p, despite some initial uncertainty about their function, are most likely the α-1,6-mannosyltransferases responsible for the addition of the first and second mannose residue, respectively, to the glycan backbone. Second, introduction of an ER-retained α-1,2-mannosidase yielded a strain producing proteins homogeneously glycosylated with Man5GlcNAc2. The use of the endogenous LIP2pre signal sequence and codon optimization greatly improved the efficiency of this enzyme. Conclusions We generated a Y. lipolytica expression platform for the production of heterologous glycoproteins that are homogenously glycosylated with either Man8GlcNAc2 or Man5GlcNAc2 N-glycans. This platform expands the utility of Y. lipolytica as a heterologous expression host

  9. Certification of the NAC-LWT cask for shipment of sodium debris bed experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Shah, V.; Fabian, R.; Shuler, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy Headquarters Certifying Official has issued a Certificate of Compliance for the shipment of sodium debris bed experiments (DBE) in the NAC International's Legal Weight Truck (NAC-LWT) casks. The shipment is part of a major de-inventory project at Sandia National Laboratories. The sodium debris bed experiments consist of crucibles containing UO{sub 2} immersed in sodium. The uranium is 93% enriched U{sup 235}. Potential sodium-water reaction and criticality safety under hypothetical accident conditions of transport are the two major technical issues for the design and certification of the NAC-LWT casks for the DBE shipment. The certification review took {approx} 13 months, including one round of questions and responses and source-verification QA audits of the fabrication and welding of the DBE transport canisters at two locations.

  10. O-GlcNAc transferase invokes nucleotide sugar pyrophosphate participation in catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Schimpl, Marianne; Zheng, Xiaowei; Borodkin, Vladimir S.; Blair, David E.; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Schüttelkopf, Alexander W.; Navratilova, Iva; Aristotelous, Tonia; Albarbarawi, Osama; Robinson, David A.; Macnaughtan, Megan A.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Protein O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification on hundreds of intracellular proteins in metazoa, catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase using unknown mechanisms of transfer and substrate recognition. Through crystallographic snapshots and mechanism-inspired chemical probes, we define how human O-GlcNAc transferase recognizes the sugar donor and acceptor peptide and employs a novel catalytic mechanism of glycosyl transfer, involving the sugar donor α-phosphate as the catalytic base, as well as an essential lysine. This mechanism appears to be a unique evolutionary solution to the spatial constraints imposed by a bulky protein acceptor substrate, and explains the unexpected specificity of a recently reported metabolic O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitor. PMID:23103942

  11. O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitors: current tools and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Trapannone, Riccardo; Rafie, Karim; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2016-02-01

    The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) post-translational modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is the dynamic and reversible attachment of N-acetylglucosamine to serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic target proteins. It is abundant in metazoa, involving hundreds of proteins linked to a plethora of biological functions with implications in human diseases. The process is catalysed by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that add and remove sugar moieties respectively. OGT knockout is embryonic lethal in a range of animal models, hampering the study of the biological role of O-GlcNAc and the dissection of catalytic compared with non-catalytic roles of OGT. Therefore, selective and potent chemical tools are necessary to inhibit OGT activity in the context of biological systems. The present review focuses on the available OGT inhibitors and summarizes advantages, limitations and future challenges. PMID:26862193

  12. Residual mucin and response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jove, Maria; Verghese, Eldo; Sharma, Nisha; Lane, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard of care for patients with breast cancer with inoperable disease or smaller tumours who might benefit from a conservative surgery after downstaging of their disease. Nevertheless, evidence shows that preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy are equivalent in terms of long-term survival. Response and histological changes after NAC have been widely studied in invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified, but there is a paucity of characterisation of patterns of response to chemotherapy in less frequent histological types. We report extensive residual mucin deposits after chemotherapy in a woman with locally advanced breast cancer and a prominent mucinous component at diagnosis. Interestingly, residual mucin was co-located with the initial tumour, in the breast as well as in the axillary lymph nodes. The distribution of mucin may be a valuable marker of the extent of mucinous carcinomas prior to NAC. PMID:27154986

  13. The Early Metazoan Trichoplax adhaerens Possesses a Functional O-GlcNAc System*

    PubMed Central

    Selvan, Nithya; Mariappa, Daniel; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational signaling modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins that is essential for embryonic development in bilateria. In a search for a reductionist model to study O-GlcNAc signaling, we discovered the presence of functional O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), O-GlcNAcase (OGA), and nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation in the most basal extant animal, the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. We show via enzymatic characterization of Trichoplax OGT/OGA and genetic rescue experiments in Drosophila melanogaster that these proteins possess activities/functions similar to their bilaterian counterparts. The acquisition of O-GlcNAc signaling by metazoa may have facilitated the rapid and complex signaling mechanisms required for the evolution of multicellular organisms. PMID:25778404

  14. Regulation of amino acid transport in Escherichia coli by transcription termination factor rho.

    PubMed Central

    Quay, S C; Oxender, D L

    1977-01-01

    Amino acid transport rates and amino acid binding proteins were examined in a strain containing the rho-120 mutation (formerly SuA), which has been shown to lower the rho-dependent, ribonucleic acid-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity to 9% of the rho activity in the isogenic wild-type strain. Tryptophan and proline transport, which occur by membrane-bound systems, were not altered. On the other hand, arginine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine transport were variably increased by a factor of 1.4 to 5.0. Kinetics of leucine transport showed that the LIV (leucine, isoleucine, and valine)-I (binding protein-associated) transport system is increased 8.5-fold, whereas the LIV-II (membrane-bound) system is increased 1.5-fold in the rho mutant under leucine-limited growth conditions. The leucine binding protein is increased fourfold under the same growth conditions. The difference in leucine transport in these strains was greatest during leucine-limited growth; growth on complex media repressed both strains to the same transport activity. We propose that rho-dependent transcriptional termination is important for leucine-specific repression of branched-chain amino acid transport, although rho-independent regulation, presumably by a corepressor-aporepressor-type mechanism, must also occur. PMID:324970

  15. Changes in Metabolic Chemical Reporter Structure Yield a Selective Probe of O-GlcNAc Modification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation are analogues of monosaccharides that contain bioorthogonal functionalities and enable the direct visualization and identification of glycoproteins from living cells. Each MCR was initially thought to report on specific types of glycosylation. We and others have demonstrated that several MCRs are metabolically transformed and enter multiple glycosylation pathways. Therefore, the development of selective MCRs remains a key unmet goal. We demonstrate here that 6-azido-6-deoxy-N-acetyl-glucosamine (6AzGlcNAc) is a specific MCR for O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Biochemical analysis and comparative proteomics with 6AzGlcNAc, N-azidoacetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAz), and N-azidoacetyl-galactosamine (GalNAz) revealed that 6AzGlcNAc exclusively labels intracellular proteins, while GlcNAz and GalNAz are incorporated into a combination of intracellular and extracellular/lumenal glycoproteins. Notably, 6AzGlcNAc cannot be biosynthetically transformed into the corresponding UDP sugar-donor by the canonical salvage-pathway that requires phosphorylation at the 6-hydroxyl. In vitro experiments showed that 6AzGlcNAc can bypass this roadblock through direct phosphorylation of its 1-hydroxyl by the enzyme phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase (AGM1). Taken together, 6AzGlcNAc enables the specific analysis of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, and these results suggest that specific MCRs for other types of glycosylation can be developed. Additionally, our data demonstrate that cells are equipped with a somewhat unappreciated metabolic flexibility with important implications for the biosynthesis of natural and unnatural carbohydrates. PMID:25153642

  16. Use of a mutant OGA for detecting O-GlcNAc modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    In the previous issue of Biochemical Journal Mariappa et al. [(2015) Biochem J. 470,: 255-262] demonstrate a new method for visualizing O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modified proteins by making use of a catalytically dead version of the enzyme that normally removes this modification. They show their approach has broader specificity than current antibody-based techniques and higher specificity than lectin and chemical biology-based labelling approaches. This commentary discusses methods for O-GlcNAc detection and the significance of this work for characterizing this common, but currently poorly understood regulatory modification. PMID:26567273

  17. Synthesis of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 capsular polysaccharide repeating unit using novel L-FucNAc and D-FucNAc synthons and immunochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Elisa; Proietti, Daniela; Brogioni, Giulia; Romano, Maria R; Cappelletti, Emilia; Tontini, Marta; Berti, Francesco; Lay, Luigi; Costantino, Paolo; Adamo, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial infections. Glycoconjugates of type 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides have been investigated for vaccine application. The proposed structure of type 5 polysaccharide is: →4-β-D-ManNAcA-(1→4)-α-L-FucNAc(3OAc)-(1→3)-β-D-FucNAc-(1→. The stereocontrolled insertion of these three glycosydic bonds is a real synthetic challenge. In the present paper we report the preparation of two novel versatile L- and D-fucosamine synthons from commercially available starting materials. In addition we applied the two building blocks to the synthesis of type 5 trisaccharide repeating unit. The immunochemical properties of the synthesized trisaccharide were assessed by competitive ELISA and by immunodot blot analysis using sera of mice immunized with type 5 polysaccharide conjugated to CRM(197). The results suggest that although the type 5 S. aureus trisaccharide is recognized by specific anti polysaccharide antibodies in dot blot, structures longer than the trisaccharide may be needed in order to significantly compete with the native type 5 polymer in the binding with sera from mice immunized with S. aureus type 5 polysaccharide-CRM(197) conjugate. PMID:23000295

  18. Protective effects of the thiol compounds GSH and NAC against sulfur mustard toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Balszuweit, Frank; Menacher, Georg; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Popp, Tanja; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent causing blistering, inflammation and ulceration of the skin. Thiol compounds such as glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been suggested as potential antidotes. We investigated SM toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and used GSH and NAC to counteract its cytotoxic effects. Cells were treated with 1, 5 or 10mM GSH or NAC and exposed to 30, 100 or 300μM SM. Different treatment regimens were applied to model extra- and intra-cellular GSH/NAC effects on SM toxicity. Necrosis, apoptosis and interleukin-6 and -8 levels were determined 24h post-exposure. Necrosis and apoptosis increased with SM dose. Interleukin-6 and -8 production peaked at 100μM and decreased at 300μM probably due to reduced ability for interleukin biosynthesis. Intracellular GSH/NAC diminished necrosis induced by 100μM SM. Extracellular GSH/NAC protected against necrosis and apoptosis induced by 100 and 300μM SM. Interleukin-6 and -8 production, induced by 100μM SM was reduced by GSH/NAC. However, low-dose GSH/NAC treatment of cells exposed to 300μM SM led to increased interleukin production. Thus, moderately poisoned cells are mostly responsible for SM-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. GSH and NAC treatment can reduce SM-induced toxic effects. Protective effects were more pronounced by extracellular GSH or NAC administration. Rescue of severely poisoned cells may result in a strong secretion of pro- inflammatory cytokines. In summary, thiol compounds such as GSH or NAC constitute a promising approach to improve the therapy for SM injury. Additional intervention to prevent adverse effects of interleukin production might be beneficial. PMID:26361990

  19. XND1, a member of the NAC domain family in Arabidopsis thaliana, negatively regulates lignocellulose synthesis and programmed cell death in xylem

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; U. Avci; E. Grant; C.H. Haigler; E.P. Beers

    2007-10-23

    Members of the large Arabidopsis NAC domain transcription factor family are regulators of meristem development, organ elongation and separation, and deposition of patterned secondary cell walls. XYLEM NAC DOMAIN 1 (XND1) is highly expressed in xylem. Changes observed for XND1 knockout plants compared with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana included a reduction in both plant height and tracheary element length and an increase in metaxylem relative to protoxylem in roots of plants treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Overexpression of XND1 resulted in extreme dwarfism associated with the absence of xylem vessels and little or no expression of tracheary element marker genes. In contrast, phloem marker-gene expression was not altered and phloem-type cells still formed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that parenchyma-like cells in the incipient xylem zone in hypocotyls of XND1 overexpressors lacked secondary wall thickenings and retained their cytoplasmic content. Considered together, these findings suggest that XND1 affects tracheary element growth through regulation of secondary wall synthesis and programmed cell death.

  20. A rice stress-responsive NAC gene enhances tolerance of transgenic wheat to drought and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    Saad, Abu Sefyan I; Li, Xu; Li, He-Ping; Huang, Tao; Gao, Chun-Sheng; Guo, Mao-Wei; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2013-04-01

    Drought and salinity are the primary factors limiting wheat production worldwide. It has been shown that a rice stress-responsive transcription factor encoded by the rice NAC1 gene (SNAC1) plays an important role in drought stress tolerance. Therefore, we introduced the SNAC1 gene under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter into an elite Chinese wheat variety Yangmai12. Plants expressing SNAC1 displayed significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salinity in multiple generations, and contained higher levels of water and chlorophyll in their leaves, as compared to wild type. In addition, the fresh and dry weights of the roots of these plants were also increased, and the plants had increased sensitivities to abscisic acid (ABA), which inhibited root and shoot growth. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions revealed that the expressions of genes involved in abiotic stress/ABA signaling, such as wheat 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase, sucrose phosphate synthase, type 2C protein phosphatases and regulatory components of ABA receptor, were effectively regulated by the alien SNAC1 gene. These results indicated high and functional expression of the rice SNAC1 gene in wheat. And our study provided a promising approach to improve the tolerances of wheat cultivars to drought and salinity through genetic engineering. PMID:23415326

  1. Verticillium infection triggers VASCULAR-RELATED NAC DOMAIN7-dependent de novo xylem formation and enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Reusche, Michael; Thole, Karin; Janz, Dennis; Truskina, Jekaterina; Rindfleisch, Sören; Drübert, Christine; Polle, Andrea; Lipka, Volker; Teichmann, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    The soilborne fungal plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum invades the roots of its Brassicaceae hosts and proliferates in the plant vascular system. Typical aboveground symptoms of Verticillium infection on Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana are stunted growth, vein clearing, and leaf chloroses. Here, we provide evidence that vein clearing is caused by pathogen-induced transdifferentiation of chloroplast-containing bundle sheath cells to functional xylem elements. In addition, our findings suggest that reinitiation of cambial activity and transdifferentiation of xylem parenchyma cells results in xylem hyperplasia within the vasculature of Arabidopsis leaves, hypocotyls, and roots. The observed de novo xylem formation correlates with Verticillium-induced expression of the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC DOMAIN (VND) transcription factor gene VND7. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the chimeric repressor VND7-SRDX under control of a Verticillium infection-responsive promoter exhibit reduced de novo xylem formation. Interestingly, infected Arabidopsis wild-type plants show higher drought stress tolerance compared with noninfected plants, whereas this effect is attenuated by suppression of VND7 activity. Together, our results suggest that V. longisporum triggers a tissue-specific developmental plant program that compensates for compromised water transport and enhances the water storage capacity of infected Brassicaceae host plants. In conclusion, we provide evidence that this natural plant-fungus pathosystem has conditionally mutualistic features. PMID:23023171

  2. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Crosstalk Between Phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc in the DNA Damage Response Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jun; Martinez, Marissa; Sengupta, Srona; Lee, Albert; Wu, Xinyan; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chatterjee, Aditi; O’Meally, Robert N.; Cole, Robert N.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Zachara, Natasha E.

    2015-01-01

    The modification of intracellular proteins by monosaccharides of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an essential and dynamic post-translational modification of metazoans. The addition and removal of O-GlcNAc is catalyzed by the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase, respectively. One mechanism by which O-GlcNAc is thought to mediate proteins is by regulating phosphorylation. To provide insight into the pathways regulated by O-GlcNAc, we have utilized stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics to carry out comparisons of site-specific phosphorylation in OGT wild-type (WT) and Null cells. Quantitation of the phosphoproteome demonstrated that out of 5,529 phosphoserine, phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine sites, 232 phosphosites were upregulated and 133 downregulated in the absence of O-GlcNAc. Collectively, these data suggest that deletion of OGT has a profound effect on the phosphorylation of cell cycle and DNA damage response proteins. Key events were confirmed by biochemical analyses and demonstrate a increase in the activating autophosphorylation event on ATM (Ser1987) and on ATM’s downstream targets p53, H2AX and Chk2. Together, these data support widespread changes in the phosphoproteome upon removal of O-GlcNAc, suggesting that O-GlcNAc regulates processes such as the cell cycle, genomic stability, and lysosomal biogenesis. PMID:25263469

  3. Role of the nac gene product in the nitrogen regulation of some NTR-regulated operons of Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, A; Best, E A; Bender, R A

    1990-12-01

    A positive, genetic selection against the activity of the nitrogen regulatory (NTR) system was used to isolate insertion mutations affecting nitrogen regulation in Klebsiella aerogenes. Two classes of mutation were obtained: those affecting the NTR system itself and leading to the loss of almost all nitrogen regulation, and those affecting the nac locus and leading to a loss of nitrogen regulation of a family of nitrogen-regulated enzymes. The set of these nac-dependent enzymes included histidase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, proline oxidase, and urease. The enzymes shown to be nac independent included glutamine synthetase, asparaginase, tryptophan permease, nitrate reductase, the product of the nifLA operon, and perhaps nitrite reductase. The expression of the nac gene was itself highly nitrogen regulated, and this regulation was mediated by the NTR system. The loss of nitrogen regulation was found in each of the four insertion mutants studied, showing that loss of nitrogen regulation resulted from the absence of nac function rather than from an altered form of the nac gene product. Thus we propose two classes of nitrogen-regulated operons: in class I, the NTR system directly activates expression of the operon; in class II, the NTR system activates nac expression and the product(s) of the nac locus activates expression of the operon. PMID:1979323

  4. Synthesis of tetravalent LacNAc-glycoclusters as high-affinity cross-linker against Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Makoto; Chuma, Yasushi; Yasumoto, Yoshinori; Onoda, Takashi; Umemura, Myco; Usui, Taichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-01-01

    Four kinds of tetravalent double-headed glycoclusters [(LacNAc)4-DHGs] were designed with linkers of varying lengths consisting of alkanedioic carboxyamido groups (C6, C12, C18 and C24) between two bi-antennary LacNAc-glycosides. These glycoclusters served as high-affinity cross-linking ligands for the LacNAc-binding lectin Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA). The binding activity and cross-linking between each ligand and ECA were characterized by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a quantitative precipitation assay and dynamic light scattering (DLS). For the precipitation assay and DLS measurement, the synthesized (LacNAc)4-DHGs were found to be capable of binding and precipitating the ECA as multivalent ligands. ITC analysis indicated the binding of (LacNAc)4-DHGs was driven by a favorable enthalpy change. Furthermore, the entropy penalty from binding (LacNAc)4-DHGs clearly decreased in a spacer length-dependent manner. The binding affinities of flexible (LacNAc)4-DHGs (C18 and C24) with long spacers were found to be more favorable than those of the clusters having short spacers (C6 and C12). These results were supported by molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water molecules for the tetravalent glycoclusters with ECA. We concluded that the subtle modification in the epitope-presenting scaffolds exerts the significant effect in the recognition efficiency involved in the LacNAc moieties by ECA. PMID:26672510

  5. Biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc(3NAc)A by WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD: Enzymes in the Wbp Pathway Responsible for O-antigen Assembly in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1†

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Angelyn; Imperiali, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The B-band O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide found in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (serotype O5) comprises a repeating trisaccharide unit that is critical for virulence and protection from host defense systems. One of the carbohydrates in this repeating unit, the rare diacetylated aminuronic acid derivative 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-β-d-mannuronic acid (ManNAc(3NAc)A), is thought to be produced by five enzymes (WbpA, WbpB, WbpE, WbpD and WbpI) in a stepwise manner starting from UDP-GlcNAc. Although the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of this sugar are known, only two of the five encoded proteins (WbpA and WbpI) have been thoroughly investigated. In this report, we describe the cloning, overexpression, purification and biochemical characterization of the three central enzymes in this pathway, WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD. Using a combination of capillary electrophoresis, RP-HPLC and NMR spectroscopy, we show that WbpB and WbpE are a dehydrogenase/aminotransferase pair that converts UDP-GlcNAcA to UDP-GlcNAc(3NH2)A in a coupled reaction via a unique NAD+ recycling pathway. In addition, we confirm that WbpD catalyzes the acetylation of UDP-GlcNAc(3NH2)A to give UDP-GlcNAc(3NAc)A. Notably, WbpA, WbpB, WbpE, WbpD and WbpI can be combined in vitro to generate UDP-ManNAc(3NAc)A in a single reaction vessel, thereby providing supplies of this complex glycosyl donor for future studies of LPS assembly. This work completes the biochemical characterization of the enzymes in this pathway and provides novel targets for potential therapeutics to combat infections with drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains. PMID:19348502

  6. O-GlcNAc reports ambient temperature and confers heat resistance on ectotherm development

    PubMed Central

    Radermacher, Pablo T.; Myachina, Faina; Bosshardt, Fritz; Pandey, Rahul; Mariappa, Daniel; Müller, H.-Arno J.; Lehner, Christian F.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of temperature on biological processes are complex. Diffusion is less affected than the diverse enzymatic reactions that have distinct individual temperature profiles. Hence thermal fluctuations pose a formidable challenge to ectothermic organisms in which body temperature is largely dictated by the ambient temperature. How cells in ectotherms cope with the myriad disruptive effects of temperature variation is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we show that nucleocytoplasmic posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) is closely correlated with ambient temperature during development of distantly related ectotherms ranging from the insect Drosophila melanogaster to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to the fish Danio rerio. Regulation seems to occur at the level of activity of the only two enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase, that add and remove, respectively, this posttranslational modification in nucleus and cytoplasm. With genetic approaches in D. melanogaster and C. elegans, we demonstrate the importance of high levels of this posttranslational modification for successful development at elevated temperatures. Because many cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins in diverse pathways are O-GlcNAc targets, temperature-dependent regulation of this modification might contribute to an efficient coordinate adjustment of cellular processes in response to thermal change. PMID:24706800

  7. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) - the University of Wisconsin-Madison Cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Eric; Sheth, Kartik; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; National Astronomy Consortium

    2015-01-01

    The UW-Madison Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in astrophysics (http://www.astro.wisc.edu/undergrads/uw-madison-reu-program/) is partnering with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the National Society of Black Physicists, and other universities in an entity called the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC; see https://sites.google.com/site/nraonac/). The mission of the NAC is to increase the numbers of students who might otherwise be overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM, or related, careers. This begins with a cohort of students who are part of the regular REU program. In addition to working on original research projects under the mentorship of university astronomers and astrophysics, the cohort students participate in professional development seminars and join other NAC cohort sites in a diversity speaker series. The mentor-student and student-student connections continue beyond the summer, including a fall meeting of the national NAC cohorts. The UW-Madison REU program is supported by the National Science Foundation through Award AST-1004881.

  8. Ataxin-10 interacts with O-GlcNAc transferase OGT in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Andrali, Sreenath S.; Maerz, Pia; Oezcan, Sabire . E-mail: sozcan@uky.edu

    2005-11-11

    Several nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in metazoans are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This modification is dynamic and reversible similar to phosphorylation and is catalyzed by the O-linked GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Hyperglycemia has been shown to increase O-GlcNAc levels in pancreatic {beta} cells, which appears to interfere with {beta}-cell function. To obtain a better understanding of the role of O-linked GlcNAc modification in {beta} cells, we have isolated OGT interacting proteins from a cDNA library made from the mouse insulinoma MIN6 cell line. We describe here the identification of Ataxin-10, encoded by the SCA10 (spinocerebellar ataxia type 10) gene as an OGT interacting protein. Mutations in the SCA10 gene cause progressive cerebellar ataxias and seizures. We demonstrate that SCA10 interacts with OGT in vivo and is modified by O-linked glycosylation in MIN6 cells, suggesting a novel role for the Ataxin-10 protein in pancreatic {beta} cells.

  9. Nac1 Coordinates a Sub-network of Pluripotency Factors to Regulate Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Malleshaiah, Mohan; Padi, Megha; Rué, Pau; Quackenbush, John; Martinez-Arias, Alfonso; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent cells give rise to distinct cell types during development and are regulated by often self-reinforcing molecular networks. How such networks allow cells to differentiate is less well understood. Here, we use integrative methods to show that external signals induce reorganization of the mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency network and that a sub-network of four factors - Nac1, Oct4, Tcf3 and Sox2 – regulates their differentiation into the alternative mesendodermal and neuroectodermal fates. In the mesendodermal fate, Nac1 and Oct4 were constrained within quantitative windows, while Sox2 and Tcf3 were repressed. In contrast, in the neuroectodermal fate, Sox2 and Tcf3 were constrained while Nac1 and Oct4 were repressed. In addition, we show that Nac1 coordinates differentiation by activating Oct4 and inhibiting both Sox2 and Tcf3. Reorganization of progenitor cell networks around shared factors might be a common differentiation strategy and our integrative approach provides a general methodology for delineating such networks. PMID:26832399

  10. ERK8 is a negative regulator of O-GalNAc glycosylation and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Joanne; Tham, Keit Min; Gill, David James; Bard-Chapeau, Emilie Anne; Bard, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    ER O-glycosylation can be induced through relocalisation GalNAc-Transferases from the Golgi. This process markedly stimulates cell migration and is constitutively activated in more than 60% of breast carcinomas. How this activation is achieved remains unclear. Here, we screened 948 signalling genes using RNAi and imaging. We identified 12 negative regulators of O-glycosylation that all control GalNAc-T sub-cellular localisation. ERK8, an atypical MAPK with high basal kinase activity, is a strong hit and is partially localised at the Golgi. Its inhibition induces the relocation of GalNAc-Ts, but not of KDEL receptors, revealing the existence of two separate COPI-dependent pathways. ERK8 down-regulation, in turn, activates cell motility. In human breast and lung carcinomas, ERK8 expression is reduced while ER O-glycosylation initiation is hyperactivated. In sum, ERK8 appears as a constitutive brake on GalNAc-T relocalisation, and the loss of its expression could drive cancer aggressivity through increased cell motility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01828.001 PMID:24618899

  11. Multiple Domains of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase Mediate Recognition of Lysosomal Enzymes.

    PubMed

    van Meel, Eline; Lee, Wang-Sik; Liu, Lin; Qian, Yi; Doray, Balraj; Kornfeld, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    The Golgi enzyme UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzymeN-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase), an α2β2γ2hexamer, mediates the initial step in the addition of the mannose 6-phosphate targeting signal on newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes. This tag serves to direct the lysosomal enzymes to lysosomes. A key property of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase is its unique ability to distinguish the 60 or so lysosomal enzymes from the numerous non-lysosomal glycoproteins with identical Asn-linked glycans. In this study, we demonstrate that the two Notch repeat modules and the DNA methyltransferase-associated protein interaction domain of the α subunit are key components of this recognition process. Importantly, different combinations of these domains are involved in binding to individual lysosomal enzymes. This study also identifies the γ-binding site on the α subunit and demonstrates that in the majority of instances the mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology domain of the γ subunit is required for optimal phosphorylation. These findings serve to explain how GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase recognizes a large number of proteins that lack a common structural motif. PMID:26833567

  12. O-GlcNAc reports ambient temperature and confers heat resistance on ectotherm development.

    PubMed

    Radermacher, Pablo T; Myachina, Faina; Bosshardt, Fritz; Pandey, Rahul; Mariappa, Daniel; Müller, H-Arno J; Lehner, Christian F

    2014-04-15

    Effects of temperature on biological processes are complex. Diffusion is less affected than the diverse enzymatic reactions that have distinct individual temperature profiles. Hence thermal fluctuations pose a formidable challenge to ectothermic organisms in which body temperature is largely dictated by the ambient temperature. How cells in ectotherms cope with the myriad disruptive effects of temperature variation is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we show that nucleocytoplasmic posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) is closely correlated with ambient temperature during development of distantly related ectotherms ranging from the insect Drosophila melanogaster to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to the fish Danio rerio. Regulation seems to occur at the level of activity of the only two enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase, that add and remove, respectively, this posttranslational modification in nucleus and cytoplasm. With genetic approaches in D. melanogaster and C. elegans, we demonstrate the importance of high levels of this posttranslational modification for successful development at elevated temperatures. Because many cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins in diverse pathways are O-GlcNAc targets, temperature-dependent regulation of this modification might contribute to an efficient coordinate adjustment of cellular processes in response to thermal change. PMID:24706800

  13. 75 FR 42292 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NAC-MPC System, Revision 6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... on the State. Plain Language The Presidential Memorandum, ``Plain Language in Government Writing... for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181; July 18, 1990). This rule also... subsequently issued a final rule on March 9, 2000 (65 FR 12444), that approved the NAC-MPC cask design...

  14. Digital Elevation Models and Derived Products from Lroc Nac Stereo Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K. N.; Speyerer, E. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Tran, T.; Rosiek, M. R.; Archinal, B. A.; Howington-Kraus, E.; the LROC Science Team

    2012-08-01

    One of the primary objectives of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is to acquire stereo observations with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) to enable production of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). This work describes the processes and techniques used in reducing the NAC stereo observations to DEMs through a combination of USGS integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) and SOCET SET® from BAE Systems by a team at Arizona State University (ASU). LROC Science Operations Center personnel have thus far reduced 130 stereo observations to DEMs of more than 130 stereo pairs for 11 Constellation Program (CxP) sites and 53 other regions of scientific interest. The NAC DEM spatial sampling is typically 2 meters, and the vertical precision is 1-2 meters. Such high resolution provides the three-dimensional view of the lunar surface required for site selection, hazard avoidance and planning traverses that minimize resource consumption. In addition to exploration analysis, geologists can measure parameters such as elevation, slope, and volume to place constraints on composition and geologic history. The NAC DEMs are released and archived through NASA's Planetary Data System.

  15. O-GlcNAc protein modification in plants: Evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Neil E; West, Christopher M; Sassi, Slim O; Hartweck, Lynn M

    2010-02-01

    The role in plants of posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and the evolution and function of O-GlcNAc transferases responsible for this modification are reviewed. Phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic O-GlcNAc transferases (OGTs) leads us to propose that plants have two distinct OGTs, SEC- and SPY-like, that originated in prokaryotes. Animals and some fungi have a SEC-like enzyme while plants have both. Green algae and some members of the Apicomplexa and amoebozoa have the SPY-like enzyme. Interestingly the progenitor of the Apicomplexa lineage likely had a photosynthetic plastid that persists in a degenerated form in some species, raising the possibility that plant SPY-like OGTs are derived from a photosynthetic endosymbiont. OGTs have multiple tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) that within the SEC- and SPY-like classes exhibit evidence of strong selective pressure on specific repeats, suggesting that the function of these repeats is conserved. SPY-like and SEC-like OGTs have both unique and overlapping roles in the plant. The phenotypes of sec and spy single and double mutants indicate that O-GlcNAc modification is essential and that it affects diverse plant processes including response to hormones and environmental signals, circadian rhythms, development, intercellular transport and virus infection. The mechanistic details of how O-GlcNAc modification affects these processes are largely unknown. A major impediment to understanding this is the lack of knowledge of the identities of the modified proteins. PMID:19961900

  16. Understanding the Role of O-GlcNAc Modifications in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Neil, E.

    2011-06-16

    This project has contributed towards understanding the role of O-GlcNAc (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) transferases (OGTs) in plants. Through analyses of single and double mutants, we have investigated the unique and overlapping functions of SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY), the arabidopsis OGTs. This work showed that SEC functions as negative regulators of the long-day flowering pathway. SEC also has a positive role in regulation of rosette. An E. coli co-expression system that allows potential substrates to be co-expressed with and O-GlcNAc modified by SEC was developed. We showed that SEC is a bona fide OGT that modifies itself with single O-linked GlcNAc(s). Using this system, we tested a number of proteins that were hypothesized to be substrates of SEC and identified a number of substrates include GIGANTEA (GI), a component of the long day flowering pathway. The hypothesis that O-GlcNAc modification controls GI activity was tested by first mapping where E. coli-expressed SEC modifies GI and then assessing the activity of a non-modifiable mutant form of GI. The activity of the mutant form of GI was indistinguishable from that of wild type suggesting that either O-GlcNAc does not regulate GI activity or that additional modification sites exist on GI. In collaboration with Dr. Juan Antonio Garcia at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid the role of O-GlcNAc modification of the plum pox virus coat protein (PPV-CP) was investigated. SEC was shown to O-GlcNAc modify PPV-CP and the modification was shown to facilitate the infection process. E. coli-expressed SEC was shown to modify the same PPV-CP sites that are modified in plants. SEC has a large protein interaction domain called the TPR domain that has been hypothesized to have a role in determining the substrate specificity of the enzyme and/or to regulate its activity. A mutational analysis of the TPR domain did not find evidence for a role in substrate specificity but did obtain evidence that the domain regulates

  17. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)-Directed Detoxification of Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride (DMAE-CB)

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lequn; Wang, Yingjie; Tian, Min; Yang, Yanwei; Sun, Jinlong; Ban, Jinghao; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) is a polymerizable antibacterial monomer and has been proved as an effective strategy to achieve bioactive bonding with reliable bacterial inhibitory effects. However, the toxicity of DMAE-CB may hamper its wide application in clinical situations. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the toxicity of DMAE-CB and explore the possible protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that chemical binding of NAC and DMAE-CB occurred in a time dependent manner. Pre-incubation of fourty-eight hours is required for adequate reaction between DMAE-CB and NAC. DMAE-CB reduced human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) viability in a dose-dependent manner. The toxic effects of DMAE-CB were accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. NAC alleviated DMAE-CB-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/ Propidium Iodide (PI) staining and Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that DMAE-CB induced apoptosis. Collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 were also observed after DMAE-CB treatment. NAC rescued hDPCs from DMAE-CB-induced apoptosis, accompanied by lower level of MMP loss and caspase-3 activity. This study assists to elucidate the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of DMAE-CB and provides theoretical supports for the searching of effective strategies to reduce toxicity of quaternary ammonium dental monomers. PMID:26274909

  18. Characterizing N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) binding for lead poisoning treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqing; Ercal, Nuran; Huynh, Tien; Volkov, Anatoliy; Chusuei, Charles C

    2012-04-01

    Using antioxidants is an important means of treating lead poisoning. Prior in vivo studies showed marked differences between various chelator antioxidants in their ability to decrease both blood Pb(II) levels and oxidative stress resulting from lead poisoning. The comparative abilities of NAC and NACA to Pb(II) were studied in vitro, for the first time, to examine the role of the -OH/-NH(2) functional group in antioxidant binding behavior. To assay the antioxidant-divalent metal interaction, the antioxidants were probed as solid surfaces, adsorbing Pb(II) onto them. Surface characterization was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis to quantify Pb(II) in the resulting adducts. XPS of the Pb 4f orbitals showed that more Pb(II) was chemically bound to NACA than NAC. In addition, the antioxidant surfaces probed via point-of-zero charge (PZC) measurements of NAC and NACA were obtained to gain further insight into the Pb-NAC and Pb-NACA binding, showing that Coulombic interactions played a partial role in facilitating complex formation. The data correlated well with solution analysis of metal-ligand complexation. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to probe complexation behavior. NACA was found to have the higher binding affinity as shown by free Pb(II) available in the solution after complexation from HPLC data. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was applied to delineate the structures of Pb-antioxidant complexes. Experimental results were further supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of supermolecular interaction energies (E(inter)) showing a greater interaction of Pb(II) with NACA than NAC. PMID:22284448

  19. The role of Ser-(Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-GlucNAc)19-GlucNAc Fasciola gigantica glycoprotein in the diagnosis of prepatent fasciolosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Eman H; Mohamed, Azza H; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H; El Shanawany, Eman E

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the carbohydrate structures associated with Fasciola gigantica adult worm were identified by indirect hemagglutination inhibition test. Glucose was found to be the main monosaccharide associated with the fluke. According to indirect hemagglutination inhibition results, purification of glycoprotein fractions from worm crude extract was carried out by affinity chromatography immobilized glucose agarose gel and Con-A lectin columns. The isolated glycoprotein fractions, FI and FII, were characterized by SDS-PAGE which revealed one band in FI of 26 kDa and another one band of 19.5 kDa in FII compared with 12 bands associated with whole worm extract. Both fractions were also characterized by isoelectric focusing technique which proved that both bands were acidic in nature with pIs 6.4 and 6.5 respectively. The comparative diagnostic evaluation of the two isolated glycoprotein fractions and crude extract of experimental fasciolosis in rabbits by ELISA revealed that FII was more potent in the diagnosis during prepatent (first week post infection) and patent periods (10 weeks post infection) than FI and crude extract. Moreover, infected rabbit sera at ten weeks post infection identified both bands; 26 and 19.5 kDa in western blot analysis confirming its immunodiagnostic activities which was proved previously by ELISA. FII proved potency in diagnosis of fasciolosis in 200 buffalo serum samples of different ages and sexes using ELISA which recorded 95 % positive and 5 % negative samples. Moreover, the detailed structural analyses of the most potent fraction, F11, using mass spectrum was made and elucidated chemical structure; O-glycan [Ser-(Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-GlucNAc)19-GlucNAc]. The present result introduces GlucNAc rich fraction of F .gigantica that can be used successfully in the diagnosis of acute and chronic fasciolosis. PMID:27065591

  20. Distinct roles of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) in transcription during the mammalian unfolded protein response.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hiderou; Akazawa, Rieko; Negishi, Manabu; Mori, Kazutoshi

    2002-01-01

    In response to accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a homoeostatic response, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated in all eukaryotic cells. The UPR involves only transcriptional regulation in yeast, and approx. 6% of all yeast genes, encoding not only proteins to augment the folding capacity in the ER, but also proteins working at various stages of secretion, are induced by ER stress [Travers, Patil, Wodicka, Lockhart, Weissman and Walter (2000) Cell (Cambridge, Mass.) 101, 249-258]. In the present study, we conducted microarray analysis of HeLa cells, although our analysis covered only a small fraction of the human genome. A great majority of human ER stress-inducible genes (approx. 1% of 1800 genes examined) were classified into two groups. One group consisted of genes encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes, and these genes were directly regulated by the ER-membrane-bound transcription factor activating transcription factor (ATF) 6. The ER-membrane-bound protein kinase double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK)-mediated signalling pathway appeared to be responsible for induction of the remaining genes, which are not involved in secretion, but may be important after cellular recovery from ER stress. In higher eukaryotes, the PERK-mediated translational-attenuation system is known to operate in concert with the transcriptional-induction system. Thus we propose that mammalian cells have evolved a strategy to cope with ER stress different from that of yeast cells. PMID:12014989

  1. A Structural Basis for the Allosteric Regulatin of Non-Hydrolysing UDP-G1cNAc 2-Epimerases

    SciTech Connect

    Velloso,L.; Bhaskaran, S.; Schuch, R.; Fischetti, V.; Stebbins, C.

    2008-01-01

    The non-hydrolysing bacterial UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) catalyses the conversion of UDP-GlcNAc into UDP-N-acetylmannosamine, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of several cell-surface polysaccharides. This enzyme is allosterically regulated by its substrate UDP-GlcNAc. The structure of the ternary complex between the Bacillus anthracis UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, its substrate UDP-GlcNAc and the reaction intermediate UDP, showed direct interactions between UDP and its substrate, and between the complex and highly conserved enzyme residues, identifying the allosteric site of the enzyme. The binding of UDP-GlcNAc is associated with conformational changes in the active site of the enzyme. Kinetic data and mutagenesis of the highly conserved UDP-GlcNAc-interacting residues confirm their importance in the substrate binding and catalysis of the enzyme. This constitutes the first example to our knowledge, of an enzymatic allosteric activation by direct interaction between the substrate and the allosteric activator.

  2. Dynamic interplay between catalytic and lectin domains of GalNAc-transferases modulates protein O-glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Lira-Navarrete, Erandi; de las Rivas, Matilde; Compañón, Ismael; Pallarés, María Carmen; Kong, Yun; Iglesias-Fernández, Javier; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.; Peregrina, Jesús M.; Rovira, Carme; Bernadó, Pau; Bruscolini, Pierpaolo; Clausen, Henrik; Lostao, Anabel; Corzana, Francisco; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Protein O-glycosylation is controlled by polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) that uniquely feature both a catalytic and lectin domain. The underlying molecular basis of how the lectin domains of GalNAc-Ts contribute to glycopeptide specificity and catalysis remains unclear. Here we present the first crystal structures of complexes of GalNAc-T2 with glycopeptides that together with enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate a cooperative mechanism by which the lectin domain enables free acceptor sites binding of glycopeptides into the catalytic domain. Atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments further reveal a dynamic conformational landscape of GalNAc-T2 and a prominent role of compact structures that are both required for efficient catalysis. Our model indicates that the activity profile of GalNAc-T2 is dictated by conformational heterogeneity and relies on a flexible linker located between the catalytic and the lectin domains. Our results also shed light on how GalNAc-Ts generate dense decoration of proteins with O-glycans. PMID:25939779

  3. Dynamic interplay between catalytic and lectin domains of GalNAc-transferases modulates protein O-glycosylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira-Navarrete, Erandi; de Las Rivas, Matilde; Compañón, Ismael; Pallarés, María Carmen; Kong, Yun; Iglesias-Fernández, Javier; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.; Peregrina, Jesús M.; Rovira, Carme; Bernadó, Pau; Bruscolini, Pierpaolo; Clausen, Henrik; Lostao, Anabel; Corzana, Francisco; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon

    2015-05-01

    Protein O-glycosylation is controlled by polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) that uniquely feature both a catalytic and lectin domain. The underlying molecular basis of how the lectin domains of GalNAc-Ts contribute to glycopeptide specificity and catalysis remains unclear. Here we present the first crystal structures of complexes of GalNAc-T2 with glycopeptides that together with enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate a cooperative mechanism by which the lectin domain enables free acceptor sites binding of glycopeptides into the catalytic domain. Atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments further reveal a dynamic conformational landscape of GalNAc-T2 and a prominent role of compact structures that are both required for efficient catalysis. Our model indicates that the activity profile of GalNAc-T2 is dictated by conformational heterogeneity and relies on a flexible linker located between the catalytic and the lectin domains. Our results also shed light on how GalNAc-Ts generate dense decoration of proteins with O-glycans.

  4. Copper-dependent reciprocal transcriptional regulation of methane monooxygenase genes in Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporium.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A K; Gerdes, K; Murrell, J C

    1997-07-01

    The methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b convert methane to methanol using the enzyme, methane monooxygenase (MMO). These bacteria are able to express two distinct MMOs: a cytoplasmic or soluble form (sMMO) and a membrane-bound or particulate form (pMMO). Differential expression of sMMO and pMMO is regulated by the amount of copper ions available to the cells; sMMO is expressed at low copper-biomass ratios, whereas pMMO is expressed at high copper-biomass ratios. In both methanotrophs, transcription of the sMMO gene cluster is negatively regulated by copper ions. Data suggest that transcription of the M. trichosporium OB3b sMMO gene cluster is directed from a sigma54-like and a sigma70-like promoter. The pMMO (pmo) genes of M. capsulatus (Bath) are transcribed into a polycistronic mRNA of 3.3 kb. The synthesis of this mRNA was activated by copper ions. Activation of pmo transcription by copper ions was concomitant with repression of sMMO gene transcription in both methanotrophs. This suggests that a common regulatory pathway may be involved in the transcriptional switch between sMMO and pMMO gene expression. PMID:9282751

  5. Lysosomal di-N-acetylchitobiase-deficient mouse tissues accumulate Man2GlcNAc2 and Man3GlcNAc2.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Emanuele; Klein, Katharina; Paciotti, Silvia; Lecointe, Karine; Balducci, Chiara; Franken, Sebastian; Duvet, Sandrine; Matzner, Ulrich; Roberti, Rita; Hartmann, Dieter; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Beccari, Tommaso

    2012-07-01

    Most lysosomal storage diseases are caused by defects in genes encoding for acidic hydrolases. Deficiency of an enzyme involved in the catabolic pathway of N-linked glycans leads to the accumulation of the respective substrate and consequently to the onset of a specific storage disorder. Di-N-acetylchitobiase and core specific α1-6mannosidase represent the only exception. In fact, to date no lysosomal disease has been correlated to the deficiency of these enzymes. We generated di-N-acetylchitobiase-deficient mice by gene targeting of the Ctbs gene in murine embryonic stem cells. Accumulation of Man2GlcNAc2 and Man3GlcNAc2 was evaluated in all analyzed tissues and the tetrasaccharide was detected in urines. Multilamellar inclusion bodies reminiscent of polar lipids were present in epithelia of a scattered subset of proximal tubules in the kidney. Less constantly, enlarged Kupffer cells were observed in liver, filled with phagocytic material resembling partly digested red blood cells. These findings confirm an important role for lysosomal di-N-acetylchitobiase in glycans degradation and suggest that its deficiency could be the cause of a not yet described lysosomal storage disease. PMID:22465033

  6. Genome-wide survey and characterization of greenbug induced NAC transcription factors in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important crop grown world-wide because of its diverse uses as food, forage, and bioenergy feedstock and its wide range of adaption even under the poor nutritional environments. Greenbug can cause severe damage to sorghum plants and economic loss by sucking nutrients from the host whi...

  7. O-GlcNAcase: Promiscuous Hexosaminidase or Key Regulator of O-GlcNAc Signaling?

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jana; Schimpl, Marianne; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAc signaling is regulated by an opposing pair of enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase installs and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes the modification from proteins. The dynamics and regulation of this process are only beginning to be understood as the physiological functions of both enzymes are being probed using genetic and pharmacological approaches. This minireview charts the discovery and functional and structural analysis of OGA and summarizes the insights gained from recent studies using OGA inhibition, gene knock-out, and overexpression. We identify several areas of “known unknowns” that would benefit from future research, such as the enigmatic C-terminal domain of OGA. PMID:25336650

  8. O-GlcNAc Transferase Directs Cell Proliferation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jarrod W.; Tian, Liping; Heresi, Gustavo A.; Farver, Carol F.; Asosingh, Kewal; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Aulak, Kulwant S.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic Pulmonary arterial Hypertension (IPAH) is a cardiopulmonary disease characterized by cellular proliferation and vascular remodeling. A more recently recognized characteristic of the disease is dysregulation of glucose metabolism. The primary link between altered glucose metabolism and cell proliferation in IPAH has not been elucidated. We aimed to determine the relationship between glucose metabolism and smooth muscle cell proliferation in IPAH. Methods and Results Human IPAH and control patient lung tissues and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were used to analyze a specific pathway of glucose metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). We measured the levels of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAc), O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), and O-GlcNAc hydrolase (OGA) in control and IPAH cells and tissues. Our data suggests that the activation of the HBP directly increased OGT levels and activity triggering changes in glycosylation and PASMC proliferation. Partial knockdown of OGT in IPAH PASMCs resulted in reduced global O-GlcNAc levels and abrogated PASMC proliferation. The increased proliferation observed in IPAH PASMCs was directly impacted by proteolytic activation of the cell cycle regulator, host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that HBP flux is increased in IPAH and drives OGT-facilitated PASMC proliferation through specific proteolysis and direct activation of HCF-1. These findings establish a novel regulatory role for OGT in IPAH, shed a new light on our understanding of the disease pathobiology, and provide opportunities to design novel therapeutic strategies for IPAH. PMID:25663381

  9. Glucokinase expression is regulated by glucose through O-GlcNAc glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Steffi F; Steenackers, Agata; Olivier-Van Stichelen, Stéphanie; Mir, Anne-Marie; Mortuaire, Marlène; Lefebvre, Tony; Guinez, Céline

    2016-09-16

    Blood glucose fluctuates with the fasting-feeding cycle. One of the liver's functions is to maintain blood glucose concentrations within a physiological range. Glucokinase (GCK) or hexokinase IV, is the main enzyme that regulates the flux and the use of glucose in the liver leading to a compensation of hyperglycemia. In hepatocytes, GCK catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. This critical enzymatic reaction is determinant for the metabolism of glucose in the liver which includes glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. In liver, simultaneous increase of glucose and insulin enhances GCK activity and gene expression, changes its subcellular location and interaction with regulatory proteins. The post-translational O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) acts as a glucose-sensitive modification and is believed to take part in hepatic glucose sensing by modifying key regulatory proteins. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether GCK is modified by O-GlcNAcylation in the liver of mice and investigated the role that this modification plays in regulating GCK protein expression. We demonstrated that endogenous GCK expression correlated with O-GlcNAc levels in the pathophysiological model ob/ob mice. More specifically, in response to the pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) contents of GCK increased. Using the GlcNAc specific lectin succinylated-WGA and click chemistry labeling approaches, we demonstrated that GCK is modified by O-GlcNAcylation. Further, we demonstrated that siRNA-mediated Ogt knock-down not only decreases O-GlcNAc content but also GCK protein level. Altogether, our in vivo and in vitro results demonstrate that GCK expression is regulated by nutrient-sensing O-GlcNAc cycling in liver. PMID:27520373

  10. Analysis of Melt Flows observed by SIR-2 and LROC NAC: Stevinus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, U.; Wöhler, C.; Grumpe, A.; Bugiolacchi, R.

    2013-09-01

    Impact melt structures occur in and around young craters from 200 m to hundreds of kilometers in diameter. Impact events lead to melting and vaporization processes. Through the combination of high-resolution LROC NAC images and measurements made by the SIR-2 point spectrometer carried by Chandrayaan-1, compositional aspects can be investigated in a manner hitherto impossible. We will present and discuss as a specific example first results for the small lunar crater Stevinus A.

  11. Comprehensive mapping of O-GlcNAc modification sites using a chemically cleavable tag.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matthew E; Jensen, Elizabeth H; Mason, Daniel E; Jenkins, Courtney L; Stone, Shannon E; Peters, Eric C; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

    2016-05-24

    The post-translational modification of serine or threonine residues of proteins with a single N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide (O-GlcNAcylation) is essential for cell survival and function. However, relatively few O-GlcNAc modification sites have been mapped due to the difficulty of enriching and detecting O-GlcNAcylated peptides from complex samples. Here we describe an improved approach to quantitatively label and enrich O-GlcNAcylated proteins for site identification. Chemoenzymatic labelling followed by copper(i)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) installs a new mass spectrometry (MS)-compatible linker designed for facile purification of O-GlcNAcylated proteins from cell lysates. The linker also allows subsequent quantitative release of O-GlcNAcylated proteins for downstream MS analysis. We validate the approach by unambiguously identifying several established O-GlcNAc sites on the proteins α-crystallin and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), as well as discovering new, previously unreported sites on OGT. Notably, these novel sites on OGT lie in key functional domains of the protein, underscoring how this site identification method may reveal important biological insights into protein activity and regulation. PMID:27063346

  12. Microinjection of recombinant O-GlcNAc transferase potentiates Xenopus oocytes M-phase entry

    SciTech Connect

    Dehennaut, Vanessa; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Vilain, Jean-Pierre; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Landrieu, Isabelle; Lippens, Guy; Lefebvre, Tony

    2008-05-02

    In order to understand the importance of the cytosolic and nuclear-specific O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAc) on cell cycle regulation, we recently reported that inhibition of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) delayed or blocked Xenopus laevis oocyte germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Here, we show that increased levels of the long OGT isoform (ncOGT) accelerate X. laevis oocyte GVBD. A N-terminally truncated isoform (sOGT) with a similar in vitro catalytic activity towards a synthetic CKII-derived peptide had no effect, illustrating the important role played by the N-terminal tetratrico-peptide repeats. ncOGT microinjection in the oocytes increases both the speed and extent of O-GlcNAc addition, leads to a quicker activation of the MPF and MAPK pathways and finally results in a faster GVBD. Microinjection of anti-OGT antibodies leads to a delay of the GVBD kinetics. Our results hence demonstrate that OGT is a key molecule for the timely progression of the cell cycle.

  13. NAC selectively inhibit cancer telomerase activity: A higher redox homeostasis threshold exists in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengying; Wu, Meilin; Wang, Jing; Sui, Yilun; Liu, Shanlin; Shi, Dongyun

    2016-08-01

    Telomerase activity controls telomere length, and this plays an important role in stem cells, aging and tumors. Antioxidant was shown to protect telomerase activity in normal cells but inhibit that in cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. Here we found that 7721 hepatoma cells held a higher redox homeostasis threshold than L02 normal liver cells which caused 7721 cells to have a higher demand for ROS; MnSOD over-expression in 7721 decreased endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited telomerase activity; Akt phosphorylation inhibitor and NAC both inhibited 7721 telomerase activity. The over-elimination of ROS by NAC resulted in the inhibition of Akt pathway. Our results suggest that ROS is involved in the regulation of cancer telomerase activity through Akt pathway. The different intracellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant system in normal cells and tumor cells may be the cause of the opposite effect on telomerase activity in response to NAC treatment. Our results provide a theoretical base of using antioxidants selectively inhibit cancer telomerase activity. Findings of the present study may provide insights into novel approaches for cancer treatment. PMID:26771767

  14. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on volume and albumin content of respiratory tract fluid but not on epithelial secretory cell number in "smoking" rats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N; Brattsand, R; Dahlbäck, M

    1990-03-01

    This study was designed to look at the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on epithelial secretory cells and the respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content from the lower airways of "bronchitic" rats. Rats were exposed either to tobacco smoke (TS), TS and NAC, or NAC alone. TS caused a significant increase in epithelial secretory cell number which was not reduced by concomitant NAC administration; NAC alone had no effect on cell numbers. TS increased respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content by a small but non-significant amount, whereas TS and NAC increased the volume and albumin content by a greater and significant amount; NAC alone was also shown to significantly increase both fluid volume and albumin content. PMID:2340888

  15. Enrichment of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides using novel thiol-alkyne and thiol-disulfide exchange.

    PubMed

    Tsumoto, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Hashii, Noritaka; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Endo, Tamao; Miura, Yuri

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a selective method for the enrichment of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)-modified peptides, which uses a newly synthesized thiol-alkyne and a thiol-disulfide exchange. First, O-GlcNAc-modified peptides were enzymatically labeled with an azide-containing GalNAc analog. Then, the azide moiety was reacted with thiol-alkyne through a copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. The thiol-modified peptides were enriched with thiol-reactive resin through a thiol-disulfide exchange. At least 500fmol of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides was selectively isolated from α-crystallin tryptic peptides and detected by mass spectrometry. This novel enrichment strategy could be used for O-GlcNAcome analysis of biological samples. PMID:25980911

  16. Chemical Changes in Nonthermal Plasma-Treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Solution and Their Contribution to Bacterial Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Utku K.; Smith, Josh; Ji, Hai-Feng; Brooks, Ari D.; Joshi, Suresh G.

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our previous reports on the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of atmospheric non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) solution against planktonic and biofilm forms of different multidrug resistant microorganisms, we present here the chemical changes that mediate inactivation of Escherichia coli. In this study, the mechanism and products of the chemical reactions in plasma-treated NAC solution are shown. UV-visible spectrometry, FT-IR, NMR, and colorimetric assays were utilized for chemical characterization of plasma treated NAC solution. The characterization results were correlated with the antimicrobial assays using determined chemical species in solution in order to confirm the major species that are responsible for antimicrobial inactivation. Our results have revealed that plasma treatment of NAC solution creates predominantly reactive nitrogen species versus reactive oxygen species, and the generated peroxynitrite is responsible for significant bacterial inactivation. PMID:26832829

  17. Identification and biological consequences of the O-GlcNAc modification of the human innate immune receptor, Nod2.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ching-Wen; Mohanan, Vishnu; Zachara, Natasha E; Grimes, Catherine Leimkuhler

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2) is an intracellular receptor that can sense the bacterial peptidoglycan component, muramyl dipeptide. Upon activation, Nod2 induces the production of various inflammatory molecules such as cytokines and chemokines. Genetic linkage analysis identified and revealed three major mutations in Nod2 that are associated with the development of Crohn's disease. The objective of this study is to further characterize this protein by determining whether Nod2 is posttranslationally modified by O-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). O-GlcNAcylation is one type of posttranslational modification in which the O-GlcNAc transferase transfers GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to selected serine and threonine residues of intracellular proteins. We found that wild-type Nod2 and a Nod2 Crohn's-associated variant are O-GlcNAcylated and this modification affects Nod2's ability to signal via the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. PMID:26369908

  18. In Vitro Biosynthesis and Chemical Identification of UDP-N-acetyl-d-quinovosamine (UDP-d-QuiNAc)*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiezheng; Simonds, Laurie; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Noel, K. Dale

    2014-01-01

    N-acetyl-d-quinovosamine (2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose, QuiNAc) occurs in the polysaccharide structures of many Gram-negative bacteria. In the biosynthesis of QuiNAc-containing polysaccharides, UDP-QuiNAc is the hypothetical donor of the QuiNAc residue. Biosynthesis of UDP-QuiNAc has been proposed to occur by 4,6-dehydration of UDP-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-xylo-4-hexulose followed by reduction of this 4-keto intermediate to UDP-QuiNAc. Several specific dehydratases are known to catalyze the first proposed step. A specific reductase for the last step has not been demonstrated in vitro, but previous mutant analysis suggested that Rhizobium etli gene wreQ might encode this reductase. Therefore, this gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resulting His6-tagged WreQ protein was purified. It was tested for 4-reductase activity by adding it and NAD(P)H to reaction mixtures in which 4,6-dehydratase WbpM had acted on the precursor substrate UDP-GlcNAc. Thin layer chromatography of the nucleotide sugars in the mixture at various stages of the reaction showed that WbpM converted UDP-GlcNAc completely to what was shown to be its 4-keto-6-deoxy derivative by NMR and that addition of WreQ and NADH led to formation of a third compound. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of acid hydrolysates of the final reaction mixture showed that a quinovosamine moiety had been synthesized after WreQ addition. The two-step reaction progress also was monitored in real time by NMR. The final UDP-sugar product after WreQ addition was purified and determined to be UDP-d-QuiNAc by one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments. These results confirmed that WreQ has UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-xylo-4-hexulose 4-reductase activity, completing a pathway for UDP-d-QuiNAc synthesis in vitro. PMID:24817117

  19. GSK-3β-dependent downregulation of γ-taxilin and αNAC merge to regulate ER stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Hotokezaka, Y; Katayama, I; van Leyen, K; Nakamura, T

    2015-01-01

    The signaling pathway leading to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses has not been fully elucidated. Here we showed that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)-dependent downregulation of γ-taxilin and nascent polypeptide-associated complex α-subunit (αNAC) mediates hypoxia-induced unfolded protein responses (UPRs) and the subsequent apoptotic and autophagic pathways. The degradation of γ-taxilin or αNAC was sufficient to initiate UPRs in normoxic cells. However, the ER stress signaling pathways initiated by γ-taxilin or αNAC were distinct, triggering different ER stress sensors and activating different downstream pathways. Hypoxia caused GSK-3β-dependent tau hyperphosphorylation and cleavage in neuronal cells, but γ-taxilin ablation induced tau hyperphosphorylation alone and αNAC ablation induced neither changes. Notably, downregulation of γ-taxilin and αNAC occurs in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that GSK-3β-dependent downregulation of γ-taxilin and αNAC, which differently activate the UPRs, merge to regulate hypoxia-induced ER stress responses and provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25880086

  20. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    PubMed

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects. PMID:25590685

  1. Transcriptomic analysis suggests a key role for SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE, NAC and YUCCA genes in the heteroblastic development of the temperate rainforest tree Gevuina avellana (Proteaceae).

    PubMed

    Ostria-Gallardo, Enrique; Ranjan, Aashish; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kumar, Ravi; Townsley, Brad T; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Corcuera, Luis J; Sinha, Neelima R

    2016-04-01

    Heteroblasty, the temporal development of the meristem, can produce diverse leaf shapes within a plant. Gevuina avellana, a tree from the South American temperate rainforest shows strong heteroblasty affecting leaf shape, transitioning from juvenile simple leaves to highly pinnate adult leaves. Light availability within the forest canopy also modulates its leaf size and complexity. Here we studied how the interaction between the light environment and the heteroblastic progression of leaves is coordinated in this species. We used RNA-seq on the Illumina platform to compare the range of transcriptional responses in leaf primordia of G. avellana at different heteroblastic stages and growing under different light environments. We found a steady up-regulation of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL), NAC, YUCCA and AGAMOUS-LIKE genes associated with increases in age, leaf complexity, and light availability. In contrast, expression of TCP, TPR and KNOTTED1 homeobox genes showed a sustained down-regulation. Additionally, genes involved in auxin synthesis/transport and jasmonate activity were differentially expressed, indicating an active regulation of processes controlled by these hormones. Our large-scale transcriptional analysis of the leaf primordia of G. avellana sheds light on the integration of internal and external cues during heteroblastic development in this species. PMID:26680017

  2. Hyaluronan synthase assembles chitin oligomers with -GlcNAc(α1→)UDP at the reducing end.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Paul H; West, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng; Wells, Lance; Baggenstoss, Bruce A; Washburn, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    Class I hyaluronan synthases (HASs) assemble a polysaccharide containing the repeating disaccharide [GlcNAc(β1,4)GlcUA(β1,3)]n-UDP and vertebrate HASs also assemble (GlcNAc-β1,4)n homo-oligomers (chitin) in the absence of GlcUA-UDP. This multi-membrane domain CAZy GT2 family glycosyltransferase, which couples HA synthesis and translocation across the cell membrane, is atypical in that monosaccharides are incrementally assembled at the reducing, rather than the non-reducing, end of the growing polymer. Using Escherichia coli membranes containing recombinant Streptococcus equisimilis HAS, we demonstrate that a prokaryotic Class I HAS also synthesizes chitin oligomers (up to 15-mers, based on MS and MS/MS analyses of permethylated products). Furthermore, chitin oligomers were found attached at their reducing end to -4GlcNAc(α1→)UDP [i.e. (GlcNAcβ1,4)nGlcNAc(α1→)UDP]. These oligomers, which contained up to at least seven HexNAc residues, consisted of β4-linked GlcNAc residues, based on the sensitivity of the native products to jack bean β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Interestingly, these oligomers exhibited mass defects of -2, or -4 for longer oligomers, that strictly depended on conjugation to UDP, but MS/MS analyses indicate that these species result from chemical dehydrogenations occurring in the gas phase. Identification of (GlcNAc-β1,4)n-GlcNAc(α1→)UDP as HAS reaction products, made in the presence of GlcNAc(α1→)UDP only, provides strong independent confirmation for the reducing terminal addition mechanism. We conclude that chitin oligomer products made by HAS are derived from the cleavage of these novel activated oligo-chitosyl-UDP oligomers. Furthermore, it is possible that these UDP-activated chitin oligomers could serve as self-assembled primers for initiating HA synthesis and ultimately modify the non-reducing terminus of HA with a chitin cap. PMID:25583822

  3. Giardia Cyst Wall Protein 1 Is a Lectin That Binds to Curled Fibrils of the GalNAc Homopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Carpentieri, Andrea; Ratner, Daniel M.; Bullitt, Esther; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2010-01-01

    The infectious and diagnostic stage of Giardia lamblia (also known as G. intestinalis or G. duodenalis) is the cyst. The Giardia cyst wall contains fibrils of a unique β-1,3-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer and at least three cyst wall proteins (CWPs) composed of Leu-rich repeats (CWPLRR) and a C-terminal conserved Cys-rich region (CWPCRR). Our goals were to dissect the structure of the cyst wall and determine how it is disrupted during excystation. The intact Giardia cyst wall is thin (∼400 nm), easily fractured by sonication, and impermeable to small molecules. Curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are restricted to a narrow plane and are coated with linear arrays of oval-shaped protein complex. In contrast, cyst walls of Giardia treated with hot alkali to deproteinate fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are thick (∼1.2 µm), resistant to sonication, and permeable. The deproteinated GalNAc homopolymer, which forms a loose lattice of curled fibrils, is bound by native CWP1 and CWP2, as well as by maltose-binding protein (MBP)-fusions containing the full-length CWP1 or CWP1LRR. In contrast, neither MBP alone nor MBP fused to CWP1CRR bind to the GalNAc homopolymer. Recombinant CWP1 binds to the GalNAc homopolymer within secretory vesicles of Giardia encysting in vitro. Fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are exposed during excystation or by treatment of heat-killed cysts with chymotrypsin, while deproteinated fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are degraded by extracts of Giardia cysts but not trophozoites. These results show the Leu-rich repeat domain of CWP1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. During excystation, host and Giardia proteases appear to degrade bound CWPs, exposing fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer that are digested by a stage-specific glycohydrolase. PMID:20808847

  4. Homology between O-linked GlcNAc transferases and proteins of the glycogen phosphorylase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Wrabl, J O; Grishin, N V

    2001-11-30

    The O-linked GlcNAc transferases (OGTs) are a recently characterized group of largely eukaryotic enzymes that add a single beta-N-acetylglucosamine moiety to specific serine or threonine hydroxyls. In humans, this process may be part of a sugar regulation mechanism or cellular signaling pathway that is involved in many important diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, no structural information about the human OGT exists, except for the identification of tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) at the N terminus. The locations of substrate binding sites are unknown and the structural basis for this enzyme's function is not clear. Here, remote homology is reported between the OGTs and a large group of diverse sugar processing enzymes, including proteins with known structure such as glycogen phosphorylase, UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, and the glycosyl transferase MurG. This relationship, in conjunction with amino acid similarity spanning the entire length of the sequence, implies that the fold of the human OGT consists of two Rossmann-like domains C-terminal to the TPR region. A conserved motif in the second Rossmann domain points to the UDP-GlcNAc donor binding site. This conclusion is supported by a combination of statistically significant PSI-BLAST hits, consensus secondary structure predictions, and a fold recognition hit to MurG. Additionally, iterative PSI-BLAST database searches reveal that proteins homologous to the OGTs form a large and diverse superfamily that is termed GPGTF (glycogen phosphorylase/glycosyl transferase). Up to one-third of the 51 functional families in the CAZY database, a glycosyl transferase classification scheme based on catalytic residue and sequence homology considerations, can be unified through this common predicted fold. GPGTF homologs constitute a substantial fraction of known proteins: 0.4% of all non-redundant sequences and about 1% of proteins in the Escherichia coli genome are found to belong to the GPGTF