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Sample records for memorial trust policy

  1. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 2. Postretirement health benefits.

    PubMed Central

    Dopkeen, J C

    1987-01-01

    One-fourth of all those over 65 have some form of employer-provided retirement medical benefits. For these retirees and dependents, having this medical coverage may mean the difference between retirement security and ruin; but for employers, providing it could mean serious financial strain or even a threat to survival. The unfunded liability for retirement medical coverage has been variously projected from +100 billion to nearly +2 trillion. Continuing corporate concerns over the costs of health care, and recent changes in federal policies regarding Medicare and the taxation of employee benefit funds, threaten to alter the system of postretirement health benefits substantially and perhaps irrevocably for many. Employers are being forced to reassess their retiree commitments. Some corporations have undertaken to modify and even eliminate postretirement medical coverage for those over 65. These changes will affect not only the corporations involved and their retirees, but also the national and state governments to whom retirees may turn for additional assistance in meeting their health care needs. The purpose of this synthesis is to explain the issue of postretirement health benefits (PRHBs) for both public and private sector policymakers who will be most involved with this issue over the next five years. The analysis identifies the issues involved, considers the dimensions of the problem, and attempts to assess the implications for the future. PMID:3106266

  2. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 3. Adolescent pregnancy: the responsibilities of policymakers.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, F; Brindis, C

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, adolescent pregnancy and childbearing have emerged as major health and social policy issues, sparking debates in local and national forums. The concern is a response to rates of adolescent sexual activity, pregnancy, and out-of-wedlock childbirth that have risen sharply in the past 20 years. The deleterious effects of early parenthood, especially in poor communities, have been amply documented; education, future employment, and health status are among the areas affected. Efforts at intervention have ranged from preventing pregnancy by encouraging celibacy to trying to enhance the options available to those who are already parents. Many of these efforts have fallen short, proving unequal to the complexity of the issues being tackled. Relatively successful approaches have also been developed, however, and the synthesis describes several. Strategies addressing the needs of adolescents comprehensively and involving a multiplicity of concerned players appear to be most effective in the long term. There is a pressing need for more program documentation to substantiate this and other promising strategies. PMID:3679836

  3. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  4. Trust and Public Participation in Risk Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Judith A. ); Branch, Kristi M. ); Focht, Will; Ragnar E. Lofstedt and George Cvetkovich

    1999-12-01

    Recent social science literature has paid increasing attention to the concept of trust, albeit with differing definitions and constituents and also with differing emphases on societal origins, functions, and implications. Recently, discussion has shifted to the role of trust in hazard management and, more broadly, to the fundamental role of trust in modern society. In this paper, we provide answers to the following questions, in an attempt to refocus the discussion and identify a more productive research approach to the relationship of trust and public participation in risk policy issues: -What is trust? What are the differing conceptions and dimensions of trust that have been identified in the literature? -What are the social functions of trust? -What is the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? Why is trust particularly important for agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE) that are responsible for development and implementation of policies involving technological risk? -How should we define the research problem in examining the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? What are the key research questions to be addressed? Federal agencies have introduced public participation as a means of addressing public distrust and enhancing their ability to make decisions that can be implemented. In some cases, such as the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board, public participation was explicitly identified as an organizational response that was needed to re-establish public trust and confidence in the Department of Energy (DOE). However, our review of the literature on both trust and public participation and our experience in developing criteria for evaluating public participation initiatives have resulted in our questioning the wisdom of establishing trust as a goal of public participation and caused us to examine the relationship between trust and public participation.

  5. Beyond Locutionary Denotations: Exploring Trust between Practitioners and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ade-Ojo, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a research on the trust relationship between practitioners in the Skills for Life (SfL) area and the policy that informs their practice. The exploration of this relationship was premised on an extended notion of trust relationship which draws from the Speech Act theory of Austin (1962; Searle 1969; Kissine 2008),…

  6. [Public health policies in Chile: seeking to regain trust].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare represents a key area in the public agenda. In the case of Chile, this central part of citizen demands has emerged with an increasing criticism of the health system, its actors and institutions, while a major democratic and legitimacy crisis in Chilean society unfolds. The starting point of this analysis is the link between the critical and widespread societal dissatisfaction with the legitimacy crisis in the health sector. There is an interdependence and parallelism between these two different aspects of the crisis. The analysis is built around the dimensions of trust and legitimacy as a potential driver of the conflict, taking as an analytical framework the socio-political matrix. Conceptual elements around the ideas of trust and legitimacy in public policies are reviewed. This article focuses on recent situations surrounding the dynamics of the Chilean health system such as the rise of the Instituciones de Salud Previsional (ISAPRE) and the market-driven health system, the failed health care reform of the last decade, conflicts of interest in the formulation of public policies, loss of legitimacy of healthcare authorities, and the role of the health professionals in this process. Finally, a discussion arises seeking to regain public trust as a central issue for the future development and sustainability of health policies. PMID:27602919

  7. New Directions for Hardware-assisted Trusted Computing Policies (Position Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratus, Sergey; Locasto, Michael E.; Ramaswamy, Ashwin; Smith, Sean W.

    The basic technological building blocks of the TCG architecture seem to be stabilizing. As a result, we believe that the focus of the Trusted Computing (TC) discipline must naturally shift from the design and implementation of the hardware root of trust (and the subsequent trust chain) to the higher-level application policies. Such policies must build on these primitives to express new sets of security goals. We highlight the relationship between enforcing these types of policies and debugging, since both activities establish the link between expected and actual application behavior. We argue that this new class of policies better fits developers' mental models of expected application behaviors, and we suggest a hardware design direction for enabling the efficient interpretation of such policies.

  8. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  9. A Limited-Memory BFGS Algorithm Based on a Trust-Region Quadratic Model for Large-Scale Nonlinear Equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Yuan, Gonglin; Wei, Zengxin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a trust-region algorithm is proposed for large-scale nonlinear equations, where the limited-memory BFGS (L-M-BFGS) update matrix is used in the trust-region subproblem to improve the effectiveness of the algorithm for large-scale problems. The global convergence of the presented method is established under suitable conditions. The numerical results of the test problems show that the method is competitive with the norm method. PMID:25950725

  10. From 'trust us' to participatory governance: Deliberative publics and science policy.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen a shift from the view that publics need to be educated so that they trust science and its governance to the recognition that publics possess important local knowledge and the capacity to understand technical information sufficiently to participate in policy decisions. There are now a variety of approaches to increasing the role of publics and advocacy groups in the policy and governance of science and biotechnology. This article considers recent experiences that demonstrate that it is possible to bring together those with policy making responsibility and diverse publics to co-produce policy and standards of practice that are technically informed, incorporate wide social perspectives and explicitly involve publics in key decisions. Further, the process of deliberation involving publics is capable of being incorporated into governance structures to enhance the capacity to respond to emerging issues with levels of public engagement that are proportionate to the issues. PMID:24434712

  11. Automatic memory management policies for low power, memory limited, and delay intolerant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahid, Md. Abu

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are energy and memory limited, and implement graphical user interfaces that are intolerant of computational delays. Mobile device platforms supporting apps implemented in languages that require automatic memory management, such as the Dalvik (Java) virtual machine within Google's Android, have become dominant. It is essential that automatic memory management avoid causing unacceptable interface delays while responsibly managing energy and memory resource usage. Dalvik's automatic memory management policies for heap growth and garbage collection scheduling utilize heuristics tuned to minimize memory footprint. These policies result in only marginally acceptable response times and garbage collection signicantly contributes to apps' CPU time and therefore energy consumption. The primary contributions of this research include a characterization of Dalvik's "baseline" automatic memory management policy, the development of a new "adaptive" policy, and an investigation of the performance of this policy. The investigation indicates that this adaptive policy consumes less CPU time and improves interactive performance at the cost of increasing memory footprint size by an acceptable amount.

  12. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  13. 36 CFR 1012.2 - What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... testimony or Presidio Trust records? (a) Except for proceedings covered by § 1012.1(c) and (d), it is the... through 1012.11. United States ex rel. Touhy v. Ragen, 340 U.S. 462 (1951). Responsibilities of Requesters...

  14. Building trust and confidence in laboratory ES and H policy and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.

    2000-08-01

    This report describes a successful pilot event among LANL employees that can see as a model for employee involvement and community input. The conference was designed to begin building trust and confidence in Laboratory policy and practices in the area of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H). It represents a concrete step toward fostering better relationships among Lab employees and creating a new, innovative approach to communication that can also be used to build trust in the larger community. Based on the proven methods of the National Issues Forums and the Jefferson Center Citizen Jury Process, this conference enabled management to learn more about the thoughts and advice of LANL employees, During the course of the day, a random sample of Lab employees representing the LANL workforce learned about issues of health, safety and the environment, and some of the options available to increase trustworthiness in these areas. These Employee Advisors then discussed the options at some length and presented recommendations to senior Lab managers in the role of Decision Makers. At the end of the day, the participants offered their reflections and discussed what they learned during the conference, and Decision Makers responded to what they heard. The most common view expressed by the Employee Advisors was that a bottom-up approach was necessary to develop more relevant ES and H policies. They were unanimous in their desire for more employee inclusion into the decision making process. All Employee Advisors were in support of a Lab wide survey to determine employee concerns about ES and H issues. After listening to the deliberation, the Decision Makers responded with several commitments. The most significant was the pledge to meet with Employee Advisors by the end of February to discuss the status of their recommendations on ES and H policy and practices. The ensuing follow-up meeting explored employee concerns in greater depth resulting in forward-looking action steps

  15. Measuring physicians' trust: A scoping review with implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Adam S; Platt, Jodyn E

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly, physicians are expected to work in productive, trusting relationships with other health system stakeholders to improve patient and system outcomes. A better understanding of physicians' trust is greatly needed. This study assesses the state of the literature on physicians' trust in patients, other health care providers, institutions, and data systems or technology, and identifies key themes, dimensions of trust considered, quantitative measures used, and opportunities for further development via a scoping review. Peer-reviewed, English-language research articles were identified for inclusion in this study based on systematic searches of the Ovid/Medline, Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Elsevier, and Web of Science databases. Search terms included "trust" along with "physician," "doctor," "primary care provider," "family practitioner," "family practice," "generalist," "general practitioner," "general practice," "internist," "internal medicine," or "health professional," and plausible variants. Among the relevant articles identified (n = 446), the vast majority focused on patient trust in physicians (81.2%). Among articles examining physicians' trust, rigorous investigations of trust are rare, narrowly focused, and imprecise in their discussion of trust. Robust investigations of the effects of trust or distrust-as opposed to trust's determinants-and studies using validated quantitative trust measures are particularly rare. Studies typically measured trust using the language of confidence, effective communication, or cooperation, rarely or never capturing other important dimensions of trust, such as fidelity, the trustee's reputation, social capital, vulnerability, and acceptance. Research employing new, validated measures of physicians' trust, especially trust in institutions, may be highly informative to health system leaders and policymakers seeking to hone and enhance tools for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the health care system. PMID

  16. Blood donation and institutional trust: risk, policy rhetoric, and the men who have sex with men lifetime deferral policy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, André; Fiddler, Jay; Walby, Kevin; Hier, Sean

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the process of rebuilding institutional trust in the Canadian blood system in the aftermath of the tainted blood scandal. Our focus is the policy of lifetime deferral from donating blood for men who have sex with men. Drawing on findings from interviews with representatives of Health Canada's Expert Advisory Committee on Blood Regulation, the National Liaison Committee, Canadian Blood Services, and blood consumer groups, we demonstrate how claims making about rights, discrimination, science, and risk contribute to policy continuity. We also examine the link between policy continuity and the management of reputational risk. PMID:22400205

  17. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk - Roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Brandimarte, Luigia; Kuil, Linda; Carr, Gemma; Salinas, José Luis; Scolobig, Anna; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-10-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in the development of urban floodplains. In this paper we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep risk awareness high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk the community is collectively willing to be exposed to; and (iii) trust of the community in risk reduction measures. To this end, we use a dynamic model that represents the feedback between the hydrological and social system components. Model results indicate that, on the one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-taking attitude, community development is severely limited because of high damages caused by flooding. On the other hand, overestimation of risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many scenarios of favourable development resulting from a trade-off between collective memory and trust in risk reduction measures combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to community growth or recession.

  18. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  19. Trusting patients, trusting nurses.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2007-01-01

    The general expectation that patients should be willing to trust nurses is rarely explored or challenged despite claims of diminishing public trust in social and professional institutions. Everyday meanings of trust take account of circumstance and suggest that our understanding of what it means to trust is contextually bound. However, in the context of health care, to trust implies a particular understanding which becomes apparent when abuses of this trust are reported and acknowledged as scandals. The predominant assumption in the literature that trust is something that occurs between equally competent adults cannot explain trust in nursing precisely because of the unequal power relationships between patients on the one hand and healthcare professionals on the other. Moreover, the tendency to conflate terms such as trust, reliance, confidence and so on suggests that confusion permeates discussions of trust in nursing. In this paper, I argue in support of Annette Baier's requirement of good will (or lack of ill will) as the essential feature of trust, and outline how this account (i) enables us to make the necessary distinctions between trust on the one hand and 'trust pretenders' on the other; and (ii) lays the foundations for understanding trust in relationships, such as those between patients and nurses, where power differentials exist. PMID:17238998

  20. Best Fiscal Management for Rural Schools. Rural Trust Policy Brief Series on Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Malhoit, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This policy brief is intended to highlight some of the leading policy issues faced by states, local school districts, policymakers, education leaders, and concerned citizens. State and local policies vary appreciably, a definitive statement on how school finances can and should be managed in every setting is beyond the scope of this paper. Rather,…

  1. Impact of signals and experience on trust and trusting behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hueih; Chien, Shu-Hua; Wu, Jyh-Jeng; Tsai, Pei-Yin

    2010-10-01

    Trust is an essential factor that drives virtual interaction and transactions on the Internet. Researchers have investigated the trust development process, and identified several important factors that form the basis for trust. This research combines the signal perspective and trust theory to examine the impact of market signals and past experience on trust formation and trusting behavior. Three market signals, including brand image, Web-site investment, and privacy policies, are identified and empirically tested to determine their impact on consumer trust. Based on 322 active Web users, the quantitative results suggest that brand image, Web-site investment, privacy policies, and past experience all positively impact trust formation. Furthermore, trust shows a positive effect on Web-site stickiness. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are also offered. PMID:20950178

  2. The challenge for NIH ethics policies: preserving public trust and biomedical progress.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Norka Ruiz

    2007-03-01

    Recently updated ethics rules for employees of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) aim to prevent inappropriate influences on research decisions while preserving employees' professional and scientific interactions. Specific provisions require NIH employees to report their financial holdings in "substantially affected organizations" and require senior employees to divest all holdings greater than $15,000 in any single such organization. Outside institutions that receive NIH grants are bound by separate disclosure requirements. Public-private partnerships have become more important to NIH efforts to advance biomedical research in light of flat NIH budgets in recent years. Such partnerships open the door, however, to financial conflicts that must be prevented or managed in order to maintain scientific integrity and public trust. PMID:17469471

  3. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 5. State coverage for organ transplantation: a framework for decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, P A; McGlynn, E A

    1988-01-01

    Transplantation of hearts and livers for both adults and children is increasingly viewed as therapeutic and lifesaving, but access to these procedures is impeded by their high cost as well as by a limited supply of organs. In the absence of comprehensive federal coverage, pressure is being brought to bear on states to provide broader access to these procedures. This synthesis provides a framework for the consideration of coverage decisions at the state level. While there are no "right" answers about whether a state should support such coverage, the analytic tools of cost analysis, demand estimation, and assessment of capacity described in this synthesis can better inform the decision-making process. PMID:3279012

  4. Fees on health insurance policies and self-insured plans for the patient-centered outcomes research trust fund. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    This document contains final regulations that implement and provide guidance on the fees imposed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on issuers of certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund. These final regulations affect the issuers and plan sponsors that are directed to pay those fees. PMID:23227570

  5. Cassandra and the Politicians: Higher Education and Policy Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with an analysis of the manifesto commitments of the two Coalition partners the author proceeds to set their subsequent policies as they are understood by June 2011 in the context of successive new "frameworks" for UK higher education since the Robbins Report of 1963. This analysis is developed in relation to: the relative positioning of…

  6. TrustBuilder2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-20

    TrustBuilder2 is a flexible framework for supporting research in the area trust negotiation protocols, designed to allow researchers to quickly prototype and experiment with various approaches to trust negotiation. In Trustbuilder2, the primary components of a trust negotiation system are represented using abstract interfaces. Any or all of these components can be implemented or extended by users of the TrustBuilder2 system, thereby making the system's functionality easily extensible. The TrustBuilder2 configuration files can be modifiedmore » to load these custom components in place of the default system components; this facilitates the use of new features without modifications to the underlying runtime system. In our implementation, we provide support for one negotiation strategy, a policy compliance checker based on Jess (the Java Expert System Shell), query interfaces enabling access to disk-based credential and policy repositories, a credential chain construction algorithm, two credential chain verification routines, and both graphical and text-based logging facilities. Trustbuilder2 also supports the interposition of user-defined plug-ins at communication points between system components to allow for easy monitoring of system activity or the modification of messages passed between components.« less

  7. Evaluating the Prince's Trust's Young People's Business Start-Up Programme, 1994?1999: Reflections and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoukos, Stratis; Shutt, John; Sutherland, John

    2005-01-01

    The authors were the principals in the evaluation of the Prince's Trust's Young People's Business Start-up Programme, 1994?1999, as it operated nationally in the UK and in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. In this paper they report the methodologies used in the evaluation and the key findings. They then use their reflections on both…

  8. Rethinking trust.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2009-06-01

    Will we ever learn? We'd barely recovered from Enron and WorldCom before we faced the subprime mortgage meltdown and more scandals that shook our trust in businesspeople. Which raises the question: Do we trust too much? In this article, Stanford professor and social psychologist Kramer explores the reasons we trust so easily--and, often, so unwisely. He explains that genetics and childhood learning make us predisposed to trust and that it's been a good survival mechanism. That said, our willingness to trust makes us vulnerable. Our sense of trust kicks in on remarkably simple cues, such as when people look like us or are part of our social group. We also rely on third parties to verify the character of others, sometimes to our detriment (as the victims of Bernard Madoff learned). Add in our illusions of invulnerability and our tendencies to see what we want to see and to overestimate our own judgment, and the bottom line is that we're often easily fooled. We need to develop tempered trust. For those who trust too much, that means reading cues better; for the distrustful, it means developing more receptive behaviors. Everyone should start with small acts of trust that encourage reciprocity and build up. Having a hedge against potential abuses also helps. Hollywood scriptwriters, for instance, register their treatments with the Writers Guild of America to prevent their ideas from being stolen by the executives they pitch. To attract the right relationships, people must strongly signal their own honesty, proactively allay concerns, and, if their trust is abused, retaliate. Trusting individuals in certain roles, which essentially means trusting the system that selects and trains them, also works but isn't foolproof. And don't count on due diligence alone for protection; constant vigilance is needed to make sure the landscape hasn't changed. PMID:19496472

  9. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  10. An Experimental Investigation of Possible Memory Biases Affecting Support for Racial Health Care Policy

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to test the theory that estimates of racial disparities may be based on small recalled samples of specific individuals (Black vs White), a strategy likely to lead to underestimates of true racial disparities and a corresponding opposition to race-focused health care policies. Methods. We asked a sample of White adults to list the first 5 Black and White individuals who came to mind, and then measured support for various race-focused health care policies. Results. Analyses indicated that the Black individuals recalled by participants tended to be more famous and wealthy than their White counterparts. Furthermore, the tendency to list wealthier Black individuals predicted opposition to progressive racial health care programs. A follow-up study demonstrated that support for certain race-focused health care policies could be increased by informing Whites of potential memory biases. Conclusions. The survival and success of minority health care policies depend partially on public acceptance. Education regarding continuing racial disparities may help to increase support for race-focused health care policies. PMID:22420789

  11. Incomplete Markets and Imperfect Institutions: Some Challenges Posed by Trust for Contemporary Health Care and Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Gray, Bradford H

    2016-08-01

    As contemporary health policy promotes evidence-based practices using targeted incentives, policy makers may lose track of vital aspects of care that are difficult to measure. For more than a half century, scholars have recognized that these latter aspects play a crucial role in high-quality care and equitable health system performance but depend on the potentially frail reed of providers' trustworthiness: that is, their commitment to facets and outcomes of care not easily assessed by external parties. More recently, early experience with pay for performance in health settings suggests that enhancing financial rewards for the measurable undermines providers' commitment to the unmeasurable, degrading the trustworthiness of their practices. Reformers have looked to revised professional norms or reorganized practice arrangements to bolster the intrinsic motivations required for trustworthiness. We suggest here that these responses are likely to prove inadequate. We propose that they be complemented by a renewed policy-making commitment to nonprofit ownership among health care providers, insurers, and integrated delivery systems. We identify some of the concerns raised in the past with ownership-based policies and propose a set of responses. If these are pursued in combination, they hold the promise of a sustainable ownership-based policy reform for the United States. PMID:27127254

  12. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  13. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context. PMID:26297747

  14. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  15. Is It a Trust Issue? Factors That Influence Trust for Persons Living With HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; May, Warren L

    2016-09-01

    Trust in one's health care provider, trust in the health care system in general, and even trust in one's community affects engagement in HIV-related health care. This article examines the issue of trust among a random sample of HIV-infected individuals residing in Mississippi, an area hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Five constructs based on survey responses from these individuals were developed: (1) trust in one's provider to offer the best possible medical care, (2) trust in one's provider to protect patient privacy, (3) willingness to disclose HIV status to one's provider, (4) trust in the health care system, and (5) trust in one's community. Findings suggest that interventions to improve trust in providers to deliver the highest quality of care should be targeted to young people, African Americans, and the more highly educated. Interventions to increase trust in providers to protect privacy should focus on creating and strengthening social support groups or networks that build relationships and foster trust. Interventions aimed to increase community trust also should be targeted to young people. This information is useful to researchers, policy makers, health care providers, and organizations interested in prioritizing interventions and strategies that have the greatest potential to reduce health disparities in HIV diagnosis and treatment in the Deep South. PMID:27095034

  16. The Sutton Trust: Mobility Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Ahead of the party conference season, the Sutton Trust is urging fairer admissions to comprehensives, grammar schools and independent schools as part of a 10-point Mobility Manifesto setting out ten practical policy steps designed to put social mobility at the heart of the 2015 election campaign. The manifesto urges greater use of ballots (random…

  17. In Public Education Expenditures We Trust: Does Trust Increase Support for Public Education Expenditures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Nurullah; Boyaci, Israfil; Ozcan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is one crucial prerequisite for the welfare state. However, very few empirical studies exist that help us understand the mechanisms through which trust affects the welfare state. Influencing public support for developing friendly public policies might be one of these mechanisms. In this study, we use unique micro data from 34 countries to…

  18. 36 CFR 1010.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 1010.1 Section 1010.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.1 Policy. The Presidio Trust's policy is to: (a) Use all practical means, consistent with the Trust's statutory authority, available resources, and national policy,...

  19. Errors of Measurement, Theory, and Public Policy. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The 12th annual William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture was presented by Dr. Michael T. Kane, ETS's (Educational Testing Service) Samuel J. Messick Chair in Test Validity and the former Director of Research at the National Conference of Bar Examiners. Dr. Kane argues that it is important for policymakers to recognize the impact of errors of measurement…

  20. An intersectoral, international policy fellowship experience as a framework for faculty development: the marshall memorial fellowship.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Ayanna V

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the experience of a faculty physician at a historically Black medical school who participated in the Marshall Memorial Fellowship, an intersectoral, international experience in which emerging leaders explore political, economic, social, and cultural institutions. The fellowship facilitates collaboration and sharing these experiences within academia and the community. PMID:23974373

  1. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  2. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  3. Usability and trust in e-banking.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Leotta, Salvatore Nuccio; Lucchiari, Claudio; Misuraca, Raffaella

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking. PMID:18361127

  4. Personal Trust Increases Cooperation beyond General Trust

    PubMed Central

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology which, while allowing for anonymous interaction, it also makes possible to compare decisions of cooperating or defecting when playing games within a group, according to whether or not players personally trust each other. The design thus goes beyond standard approaches to the role of trust in fostering cooperation, which is restricted to general trust. It also allows considering the role of the topology of the social network involved may play in the level of cooperation found. The results of this work support the idea that personal trust promotes cooperation beyond the level of general trust. We also found that this effect carries over to the whole group, making it more cohesive, but that higher levels of cohesion rely on a particular topology. As a conclusion, we hypothesize that personal trust is a psychological mechanism evolved to make human social life possible in the small groups our ancestors lived in, and that this mechanism persists and plays a role in sustaining cooperation and social cohesion. PMID:25144539

  5. Trust-based information system architecture for personal wellness.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Nykänen, Pirkko; Seppälä, Antto; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Modern eHealth, ubiquitous health and personal wellness systems take place in an unsecure and ubiquitous information space where no predefined trust occurs. This paper presents novel information model and an architecture for trust based privacy management of personal health and wellness information in ubiquitous environment. The architecture enables a person to calculate a dynamic and context-aware trust value for each service provider, and using it to design personal privacy policies for trustworthy use of health and wellness services. For trust calculation a novel set of measurable context-aware and health information-sensitive attributes is developed. The architecture enables a person to manage his or her privacy in ubiquitous environment by formulating context-aware and service provider specific policies. Focus groups and information modelling was used for developing a wellness information model. System analysis method based on sequential steps that enable to combine results of analysis of privacy and trust concerns and the selection of trust and privacy services was used for development of the information system architecture. Its services (e.g. trust calculation, decision support, policy management and policy binding services) and developed attributes enable a person to define situation-aware policies that regulate the way his or her wellness and health information is processed. PMID:25160161

  6. 78 FR 35073 - Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application June 4.... Applicants: Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC (the ``Adviser'') and Compass EMP Funds Trust (``the... ``Compass Funds'').\\1\\ Each series of the Trust has its own investment objective, policies and...

  7. Trust in interprofessional collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trust is integral to effective interprofessional collaboration. There has been scant literature characterizing how trust between practitioners is formed, maintained or lost. The objective of this study was to characterize the cognitive model of trust that exists between pharmacists and family physicians working in collaborative primary care settings. Methods: Pharmacists and family physicians who work collaboratively in primary care were participants in this study. Family health teams were excluded from this study because of the distinct nature of these settings. Through a snowball convenience sampling method, a total of 11 pharmacists and 8 family physicians were recruited. A semistructured interview guide was used to guide discussion around trust, relationships and collaboration. Constant-comparative coding was used to identify themes emerging from these data. Results: Pharmacists and family physicians demonstrate different cognitive models of trust in primary care collaboration. For pharmacists, trust appears to be conferred on physicians based on title, degree, status and positional authority. For family physicians, trust appears to be earned based on competency and performance. These differences may lead to interprofessional tension when expectations of reciprocal trust are not met. Conclusions: Further work in characterizing how trust is developed in interprofessional relationships is needed to support effective team formation and functioning. PMID:27540406

  8. Science--neglected ingredient of nutrition policy. 10th Martha F. Trulson Memorial Lecture.

    PubMed

    Gershoff, S N

    1977-05-01

    Programs to alleviate malnutrition in children in developing countries need revision. Intervention field trials in Thailand, Tunisia, and Guatemala, based on amino acid fortification and supplementary vitamins and minerals, have had little effect on children. In fact, it is often a misconception that frank deficiencies are common characteristics of malnutrition in developing countries.Rather, stunted growth--caused by caloric deficiency often in the presence of adequate food supplies--may be the most prevalent form of malnutrition. The situation occurs when the customary staple food--for instance, rice in Thailand--has such a high caloric density that children cannot eat enough food to meet their needs. Knowledge is not vet available on ways to solve this dilemma. Nevertheless nutritionists must come forward and be willing to contribute their knowledge and expertise in the shaping of national and international nutrition policies to improve the healthand well-being of populations. PMID:323327

  9. Signaling When (and When Not) to Be Cautious and Self-Protective: Impulsive and Reflective Trust in Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sandra L.; Pinkus, Rebecca T.; Holmes, John G.; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leder, Sadie

    2011-01-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner’s caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the IAT) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner’s trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity. PMID:21443370

  10. Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective: impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sandra L; Pinkus, Rebecca T; Holmes, John G; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L; Leder, Sadie

    2011-09-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner's caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Association Test; Zayas & Shoda, 2005) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner's trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity. PMID:21443370

  11. The trust formula: Trust = fairness + leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Lovenheim, R.

    1995-11-01

    Many state and compact LLW siting processes have been characterized by slippage and failure. The paper focuses on two major {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} regarding public interaction and trust, and how these lessons are being applied to current siting efforts. The relationship of environmental idealism and trust will be explored further in this paper. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer concludes his 1994 book, Breaking the Vicious Circle by stating: {open_quotes}Finally, this book also reflects a belief that trust in institutions arises not simply as a result of openness in government, responses to local interest groups, or priorities emphasized in the press -- though these attitudes and actions play an important role -- but also from those institutions doing a difficult job well.{close_quotes}

  12. National Education Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapp, Milton J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal from the governor of Pennsylvania for financing all levels of education through a National Education Trust Fund (NETF) that would operate as the present Federal Highway Trust Fund does on a revolving, self-liquidating basis with the cost of an individual's education repaid through a progressive education tax on income. (JT)

  13. Dimensionality of Organizational Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain organizational goals and survive. Leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning This paper builds on prior research concerning…

  14. Trust versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of trust in the education system. What is different about the issue of trust in the education system is the assault upon it, sometimes overt but most often subtle. There is a difference between strong criticism and willful manipulation. The nation's schools are responding to the former--perhaps too slowly for…

  15. The enemies of trust.

    PubMed

    Galford, Robert; Drapeau, Anne Seibold

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have established that trust is critical to organizational effectiveness. Being trustworthy yourself, however, does not guarantee that you are capable of building trust in an organization. That takes old-fashioned managerial virtues like consistency, clear communication, and a willingness to tackle awkward questions. It also requires a good defense: You must protect trust from its enemies. Any act of bad management erodes trust, so the list of potential enemies is endless. Among the most common enemies of trust, though, are inconsistent messages from top management, inconsistent standards, a willingness to tolerate incompetence or bad behavior, dishonest feedback, a failure to trust others to do good work, a tendency to ignore painful or politically charged situations, consistent corporate underperformance, and rumors. Fending off these enemies must be at the top of every chief executive's agenda. But even with constant vigilance, an organization and its leaders will sometimes lose people's trust. During a crisis, managers should enlist the help of an objective third party--chances are you won't be thinking clearly--and be available physically and emotionally. If you "go dark" in the face of a crisis, employees will worry about the company's survival, about their own capacity to cope, and about your abilities as a leader. And if trust has broken down so badly that your only choice is to start over, you can do so by figuring out exactly how the breach of trust happened, ascertaining the depth and breadth of the loss, owning up to the loss instead of downplaying it, and identifying as precisely as possible the specific changes you must make to rebuild trust. PMID:12577656

  16. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramsen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In March and April 2014, the author travelled overseas on a 2013 Churchill Fellowship to study education programs that successfully engage and enthuse primary and middle school students in maths, engineering and science (MES) or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) learning in schools, universities and institutions in the United…

  17. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    PubMed

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. PMID:26668168

  18. Social trust and grassroots governance in rural China.

    PubMed

    Huhe, Narisong; Chen, Jie; Tang, Min

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between social trust and governance has been one of the focal points of the academic and policy-making communities. Empirical studies on this relationship, however, have focused mostly on democracies. The scarcity of such studies in authoritarian countries has left many important questions unanswered: Is social trust associated with effective governance only in democratic settings? Can social trust improve the quality of governance in non-democracies as well? Drawing on data from 2005 China General Social Survey-a representative survey conducted nationwide at both the individual- and village-level in rural China, this paper attempts to answer these questions empirically by examining the relationship between social trust and the quality of governance in rural China. The findings reveal that different types of social trust-particularized trust and generalized trust-correspond with different effects in rural governance: whereas villagers' trust in people whom they knew personally was positively and significantly associated with the provision of various public goods and services, their trust in strangers had virtually no impact on rural governance. PMID:26188459

  19. Macroeconomic Dynamics of Assets, Leverage and Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, Jeroen C.; Malevergne, Yannick; Sornette, Didier

    A macroeconomic model based on the economic variables (i) assets, (ii) leverage (defined as debt over asset) and (iii) trust (defined as the maximum sustainable leverage) is proposed to investigate the role of credit in the dynamics of economic growth, and how credit may be associated with both economic performance and confidence. Our first notable finding is the mechanism of reward/penalty associated with patience, as quantified by the return on assets. In regular economies where the EBITA/Assets ratio is larger than the cost of debt, starting with a trust higher than leverage results in the highest long-term return on assets (which can be seen as a proxy for economic growth). Therefore, patient economies that first build trust and then increase leverage are positively rewarded. Our second main finding concerns a recommendation for the reaction of a central bank to an external shock that affects negatively the economic growth. We find that late policy intervention in the model economy results in the highest long-term return on assets. However, this comes at the cost of suffering longer from the crisis until the intervention occurs. The phenomenon that late intervention is most effective to attain a high long-term return on assets can be ascribed to the fact that postponing intervention allows trust to increase first, and it is most effective to intervene when trust is high. These results are derived from two fundamental assumptions underlying our model: (a) trust tends to increase when it is above leverage; (b) economic agents learn optimally to adjust debt for a given level of trust and amount of assets. Using a Markov Switching Model for the EBITA/Assets ratio, we have successfully calibrated our model to the empirical data of the return on equity of the EURO STOXX 50 for the time period 2000-2013. We find that dynamics of leverage and trust can be highly nonmonotonous with curved trajectories, as a result of the nonlinear coupling between the variables. This

  20. Building a Culture of Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Identifies important aspects of faculty trust and school climate. Trust in the principal and trust in colleagues were aspects of faculty trust that were affected in this study of middle schools. The organizational climate factors of supportive, directive, and restrictive principal behavior and collegial, committed, and disengaged teacher behavior…

  1. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  2. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  4. Computationally modeling interpersonal trust

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Joo; Knox, W. Bradley; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Breazeal, Cynthia; DeSteno, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind's readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naiveté of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to investigate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust. PMID:24363649

  5. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  6. Trusting Beliefs: A Functional Measurement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Massidda, Davide; Noventa, Stefano; Vicentini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Trust is a fundamental aspect of everyday life. Several authors define trust as the wish to depend on another entity and split the concept of trust into several interconnected components such as trusting beliefs (e.g., benevolence, competence, honesty, and predictability), trusting intentions, trusting behaviors, disposition to trust, and…

  7. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    PubMed

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers. PMID:21483683

  8. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  9. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  10. Managing healthcare information: analyzing trust.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Eva; Eriksson, Nomie; Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze two case studies with a trust matrix tool, to identify trust issues related to electronic health records. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative research approach is applied using two case studies. The data analysis of these studies generated a problem list, which was mapped to a trust matrix. Findings - Results demonstrate flaws in current practices and point to achieving balance between organizational, person and technology trust perspectives. The analysis revealed three challenge areas, to: achieve higher trust in patient-focussed healthcare; improve communication between patients and healthcare professionals; and establish clear terminology. By taking trust into account, a more holistic perspective on healthcare can be achieved, where trust can be obtained and optimized. Research limitations/implications - A trust matrix is tested and shown to identify trust problems on different levels and relating to trusting beliefs. Future research should elaborate and more fully address issues within three identified challenge areas. Practical implications - The trust matrix's usefulness as a tool for organizations to analyze trust problems and issues is demonstrated. Originality/value - Healthcare trust issues are captured to a greater extent and from previously unchartered perspectives. PMID:27477934

  11. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  12. Trust metrics in information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Trust is an important concept for machine intelligence and is not consistent across many applications. In this paper, we seek to understand trust from a variety of factors: humans, sensors, communications, intelligence processing algorithms and human-machine displays of information. In modeling the various aspects of trust, we provide an example from machine intelligence that supports the various attributes of measuring trust such as sensor accuracy, communication timeliness, machine processing confidence, and display throughput to convey the various attributes that support user acceptance of machine intelligence results. The example used is fusing video and text whereby an analyst needs trust information in the identified imagery track. We use the proportional conflict redistribution rule as an information fusion technique that handles conflicting data from trusted and mistrusted sources. The discussion of the many forms of trust explored in the paper seeks to provide a systems-level design perspective for information fusion trust quantification.

  13. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  14. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  15. Trust It or Trash It?

    MedlinePlus

    Trust It or Trash It? About | Contact | Español Tab 1 Tab 2 What is Trust It or Trash It? This is a tool to help you think ... here for the developer version. Home Who Said It? Who wrote it? Think about TRUSTING IT if: ...

  16. Four Essential Practices for Building Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…

  17. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  18. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  19. Struggling with imaginaries of trauma and trust: the refugee experience in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Gross, Corina Salis

    2004-06-01

    This article discusses some effects of migration politics on asylum seekers and refugees and on the Swiss health services. It is based on multisited ethnographic research that tracked interpretative concepts of the refugee experience. Following a grounded theory approach, it identifies imaginaries of trauma and trust as key categories in the field of transnational migration and health. The psychiatric concept of trauma and a more popularized discourse of traumatic memory are strongly emphasized in all of the investigated field sites: the providers of primary health care and psychosocial services and representatives of social welfare agencies and law-making bodies use this "diagnosis" extensively. This leads refugees to develop tactics of a) identifying with the trauma discourse in order to become "good refugees" and achieve legal status in Switzerland; b) struggling with the ascribed pathologies and suffering from retraumatizing effects of these predominant trauma policies; and c) trying to refuse or subvert them by emphasizing the existence of structural violence in the receiving countries. An analysis of the interactions of health providers and refugees shows that it takes place in an environment of social and economic insecurity and in a shared imaginary of (mis)trust, putting at stake the moral economy of recent migration politics and the refugee experience. PMID:15470946

  20. The neurobiology of trust.

    PubMed

    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Matzner, William T

    2004-12-01

    This is the first report that endogenous oxytocin in humans is related to social behaviors, which is consistent with a large animal literature. Subjects are put into a social dilemma in which absent communication, cooperative behavior can benefit both parties randomly assigned to a dyad. The dilemma arises because one participant must make a monetary sacrifice to signal the degree of trust in the other before the other's behavioral response is known. We show that receipt of a signal of trust is associated with a higher level of peripheral oxytocin than that in subjects receiving a random monetary transfer of the same average amount. Oxytocin levels were also related to trustworthy behavior (sharing a greater proportion of the monetary gains). We conclude that oxytocin may be part of the human physiology that motivates cooperation. PMID:15677415

  1. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests. PMID:27140657

  2. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Symons, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  3. Capturing Young American Trust in National Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2011-01-01

    A pattern of decreasing trusting proportions in each consecutive decade and increasing trusting proportions with age was revealed in data. Although trust levels were lower in younger adults and the 2000s, findings did not support hypotheses of more rapidly falling trust levels or a college degree procuring less trust in the 2000s. A hypothesis of…

  4. Trust-Effectiveness Patterns in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Patrick B.; Barnes, Laura L. B.; Adams, Curt M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the consequences of relational trust, especially parent measured trust, for desirable school outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Using a US Midwestern state sample of 79 schools, parent and teacher trust data are used to derive a trust-effectiveness typology. Trust was conceptualized as one party's willingness to be…

  5. Retrospective: Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Brad E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations trailblazer Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust, which became an agent for the policies of Adolf Hitler. Discusses how Lee's efforts to use this relationship to persuade his contacts to influence the Nazi leadership failed because of his formal connection with this group. (JD)

  6. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain trusts treated as separate trusts. 26... 1986 § 26.2654-1 Certain trusts treated as separate trusts. (a) Single trust treated as separate trusts—(1) Substantially separate and independent shares—(i) In general. If a single trust consists...

  7. The Need to Trust and to Trust More Wisely in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Where trust is an issue, there is no trust. Trust in diverse organizations has never been lower. A shadow of doubt stalks one's every decision to trust collegially and institutionally. Still, colleagues sense intuitively that institutions cannot function optimally without a bedrock level of trust. In academic life, trust is a form of social…

  8. Only the Carrot, Not the Stick: Incorporating Trust into the Enforcement of Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Juan P.; Wielhouwer, Jacco L.

    2015-01-01

    New enforcement strategies allow agents to gain the regulator’s trust and consequently face a lower audit probability. Prior research suggests that, in order to prevent lower compliance, a reduction in the audit probability (the “carrot”) must be compensated with the introduction of a higher penalty for non-compliance (the “stick”). However, such carrot-and-stick strategies reflect neither the concept of trust nor the strategies observed in practice. In response to this, we define trust-based regulation as a strategy that incorporates rules that allow trust to develop, and using a generic (non-cooperative) game of tax compliance, we examine whether trust-based regulation is feasible (i.e., whether, in equilibrium, a reduction in the audit probability, without ever increasing the penalty for non-compliance, does not lead to reduced compliance). The model shows that trust-based regulation is feasible when the agent sufficiently values the future. In line with the concept of trust, this strategy is feasible when the regulator is uncertain about the agent’s intentions. Moreover, the model shows that (i) introducing higher penalties makes trust-based regulation less feasible, and (ii) combining trust and forgiveness can lead to a lower audit probability for both trusted and distrusted agents. Policy recommendations often point toward increasing deterrence. This model shows that the opposite can be optimal. PMID:25705898

  9. Fuzzy-Based Trust Prediction Model for Routing in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Anita, X.; Bhagyaveni, M. A.; Manickam, J. Martin Leo

    2014-01-01

    The cooperative nature of multihop wireless sensor networks (WSNs) makes it vulnerable to varied types of attacks. The sensitive application environments and resource constraints of WSNs mandate the requirement of lightweight security scheme. The earlier security solutions were based on historical behavior of neighbor but the security can be enhanced by predicting the future behavior of the nodes in the network. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy-based trust prediction model for routing (FTPR) in WSNs with minimal overhead in regard to memory and energy consumption. FTPR incorporates a trust prediction model that predicts the future behavior of the neighbor based on the historical behavior, fluctuations in trust value over a period of time, and recommendation inconsistency. In order to reduce the control overhead, FTPR received recommendations from a subset of neighbors who had maximum number of interactions with the requestor. Theoretical analysis and simulation results of FTPR protocol demonstrate higher packet delivery ratio, higher network lifetime, lower end-to-end delay, and lower memory and energy consumption than the traditional and existing trust-based routing schemes. PMID:25133236

  10. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  11. Building Organizational Capacity through Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the cultivation of collegial trust as a central feature of the capacity-building work of 11 high school principals, nominated for their expertise with capacity building. This qualitative study examined interview data and school documents collected over 18 months. Principals regarded trust as critical and were motivated to…

  12. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    PubMed

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  13. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  14. Building Trust, Forging Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Scott Andrews was a former guidance counselor with no experience in school administration when he became Amityville Memorial High School's principal in 2004, but he brought a wealth of knowledge and experience in psychology--including a doctorate--to the position. He also quickly recruited Peter Hutchison, a special education teacher, to be an…

  15. Trust in performance indicators?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, H. T.; Lampel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The 1980s and 90s have seen the proliferation of all forms of performance indicators as part of attempts to command and control health services. The latest area to receive attention is health outcomes. Published league tables of mortality and other health outcomes have been available in the United States for some time and in Scotland since the early 1990s; they have now been developed for England and Wales. Publication of these data has proceeded despite warnings as to their limited meaningfulness and usefulness. The time has come to ask whether the remedy is worse than the malady: are published health outcomes contributing to quality efforts or subverting more constructive approaches? This paper argues that attempts to force improvements through publishing health outcomes can be counterproductive, and outlines an alternative approach which involves fostering greater trust in professionalism as a basis for quality enhancements. PMID:10185142

  16. The Business of Trust.

    PubMed

    Frisse, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    New mobile devices, social networks, analytics, and communications technologies are emerging at an unparalleled rate. As a result, academic health centers will face both new opportunities and formidable challenges. Unlike previous transitions from paper-based systems to networked computer systems, these new technologies are the product of new entrepreneurial and commercial interests driven by consumers. As these new commercial products and services are more widely adopted, the likelihood grows that data will be used in unanticipated ways inconsistent with societal norms. Academic health centers will have to understand the implications of these technologies and engage more actively in processes governing the collection, aggregation, and use of health data produced in a new era of consumer-driven health care technology. Maintaining public trust should be a paramount concern. PMID:26630611

  17. Trust Building in Virtual Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezgár, István

    By using different types of communication networks various groups of people can come together according to their private or business interest forming a Virtual Community. In these communities cooperation and collaboration plays an important role. As trust is the base of all human interactions this fact is even more valid in case of virtual communities. According to different experiments the level of trust in virtual communities is highly influenced by the way/mode of communication and by the duration of contact. The paper discusses the ways of trust building focusing on communication technologies and security aspects in virtual communities.

  18. Revealing Preconditions for Trustful Collaboration in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses preconditions for trust in virtual learning environments. The concept of trust is discussed with reference to cases reporting trust in cyberspace and through a philosophical clarification holding that trust in the form of self-surrender is a common characteristic of all human co-existence. In virtual learning environments,…

  19. Trust, Behavior, and High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on…

  20. 43 CFR 426.7 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... criteria, the land held in trust will be ineligible to receive irrigation water until all of the criteria..., then irrigation water will not be made available to the land held in trust until the trust satisfies... charge the full-cost rate for irrigation water delivered to any land held by the trust that exceeds...

  1. Does Trust Beget Trustworthiness? Trust and Trustworthiness in Two Games and Two Cultures: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyonari, Toko; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cook, Karen S.; Cheshire, Coye

    2006-01-01

    An important unanswered question in the empirical literature on trust is whether trusting begets trustworthiness. In two experimental games, with Japanese and American participants, respectively, we compared trust and trustworthiness to provide an answer to this question. The trustee in the standard Trust Game knows that he or she is trusted,…

  2. Trust Management Considerations For the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense Framework: Trust Relationships, Evidence, and Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) is a hierarchical, agent-based, adaptive, cyber-security framework designed to collaboratively protect multiple enclaves or organizations participating in a complex infrastructure. CID employs a swarm of lightweight, mobile agents called Sensors designed to roam hosts throughout a security enclave to find indications of anomalies and report them to host-based Sentinels. The Sensors’ findings become pieces of a larger puzzle, which the Sentinel puts together to determine the problem and respond per policy as given by the enclave-level Sergeant agent. Horizontally across multiple enclaves and vertically within each enclave, authentication and access control technologies are necessary but insufficient authorization mechanisms to ensure that CID agents continue to fulfill their roles in a trustworthy manner. Trust management fills the gap, providing mechanisms to detect malicious agents and offering more robust mechanisms for authorization. This paper identifies the trust relationships throughout the CID hierarchy, the types of trust evidence that could be gathered, and the actions that the CID system could take if an entity is determined to be untrustworthy.

  3. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  4. The impact of managed care on patients' trust in medical care and their physicians.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D; Schlesinger, M

    1996-06-01

    Social trust in health care organizations and interpersonal trust in physicians may be mutually supportive, but they also diverge in important ways. The success of medical care depends most importantly on patients' trust that their physicians are competent, take appropriate responsibility and control, and give their patients' welfare the highest priority. Utilization review and structural arrangements in managed care potentially challenge trust in physicians by restricting choice, contradicting medical decisions and control, and restricting open communication with patients. Gatekeeping and incentives to limit care also raise serious trust issues. We argue that managed care plans rather than physicians should be required to disclose financial arrangements, that limits be placed on incentives that put physicians at financial risk, and that professional norms and public policies should encourage clear separation of interests of physicians from health plan organization and finance. PMID:8637148

  5. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  6. Trust in the face of conflict: the role of managerial trustworthy behavior and organizational context.

    PubMed

    Korsgaard, M Audrey; Brodt, Susan E; Whitener, Ellen M

    2002-04-01

    The authors explored the role of attributions in shaping employees' trust in their managers in the context of negative events. The authors examined how 2 forms of managerial trustworthy behavior (open communication and demonstrating concern for employees) and organizational policies relate to attributions, trust in the manager, and organizational citizenship behavior. Participants were 115 credit union employees who responded to a critical incident regarding a disagreement with their managers. As hypothesized, trustworthy behavior was negatively related to attributions of personal responsibility for negative encounters, and this relationship was stronger when human resource policies were perceived as unfair. Managerial trustworthy behavior was also positively related to trust in the manager and organizational citizenship behavior. Personal attributions partially mediated the relationship between trustworthy behavior and trust. PMID:12002959

  7. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  8. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  9. A Conceptual Framework and Principles for Trusted Pervasive Health

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Bernd Gerhard; Seppälä, Antto Veikko; Sorvari, Hannu Olavi; Nykänen, Pirkko Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous computing technology, sensor networks, wireless communication and the latest developments of the Internet have enabled the rise of a new concept—pervasive health—which takes place in an open, unsecure, and highly dynamic environment (ie, in the information space). To be successful, pervasive health requires implementable principles for privacy and trustworthiness. Objective This research has two interconnected objectives. The first is to define pervasive health as a system and to understand its trust and privacy challenges. The second goal is to build a conceptual model for pervasive health and use it to develop principles and polices which can make pervasive health trustworthy. Methods In this study, a five-step system analysis method is used. Pervasive health is defined using a metaphor of digital bubbles. A conceptual framework model focused on trustworthiness and privacy is then developed for pervasive health. On that model, principles and rules for trusted information management in pervasive health are defined. Results In the first phase of this study, a new definition of pervasive health was created. Using this model, differences between pervasive health and health care are stated. Reviewed publications demonstrate that the widely used principles of predefined and static trust cannot guarantee trustworthiness and privacy in pervasive health. Instead, such an environment requires personal dynamic and context-aware policies, awareness, and transparency. A conceptual framework model focused on information processing in pervasive health is developed. Using features of pervasive health and relations from the framework model, new principles for trusted pervasive health have been developed. The principles propose that personal health data should be under control of the data subject. The person shall have the right to verify the level of trust of any system which collects or processes his or her health information. Principles require that

  10. Consumer trust to a Web site: moderating effect of attitudes toward online shopping.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Sonia; Camarero, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, authors suggest a model that reflects the role played by the Web site characteristics and the previous level of satisfaction as determinant factors of trust in the Web site. Also, authors consider the moderating effects of consumers' motives and inhibitors to purchase online. Results show that satisfaction with previous purchases, the Web site security and privacy policies, and service quality are the main determinants of trust. Also, the motives and inhibitors the individuals perceive when buying online determine the type of signals they consider to trust. PMID:18657047

  11. System reliability, performance and trust in adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reduced system reliability on operator performance and automation management in an adaptable automation environment. 39 operators were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: low (60%), medium (80%), and high (100%) reliability of automation support. The support system provided five incremental levels of automation which operators could freely select according to their needs. After 3 h of training on a simulated process control task (AutoCAMS) in which the automation worked infallibly, operator performance and automation management were measured during a 2.5-h testing session. Trust and workload were also assessed through questionnaires. Results showed that although reduced system reliability resulted in lower levels of trust towards automation, there were no corresponding differences in the operators' reliance on automation. While operators showed overall a noteworthy ability to cope with automation failure, there were, however, decrements in diagnostic speed and prospective memory with lower reliability. PMID:26360226

  12. Elimination of Subjectivity from Trust Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Omar; Brunie, Lionel; Pierson, Jean-Marc; Bertino, Elisa

    In many distributed applications, a party who wishes to make a transaction requires that it has a certain level of trust in the other party. It is frequently the case that the parties are unknown to each other and thus share no pre-existing trust. Trust-based systems enable users to establish trust in unknown users through trust recommendation from known users. For example, Bob may choose to trust an unknown user Carol when he receives a recommendation from his friend Alice that Carol’s trustworthiness is 0.8 on the interval [0,1].

  13. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  14. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good. PMID:22681564

  15. Online Health Information: Can You Trust It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... trust the health information I get on the Internet?” There are thousands of medical websites. Some provide ... trust is an important part of using the Internet. How Do I Find Reliable Health Information Online? ...

  16. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  17. Building trusting relationships in online health communities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Ha, Sejin; Widdows, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates consumers' use of online health communities (OHCs) for healthcare from a relationship building perspective based on the commitment-trust theory of relationships. The study proposes that perspective taking, empathic concern, self-efficacy, and network density affect the development of both cognitive and affective trust, which together determine OHC members' membership continuance intention (MCI) and knowledge contribution. Data collected from eight existing OHCs (N=255) were utilized to test the hypothesized model. Results show that perspective taking and self-efficacy can increase cognitive trust and affective trust, respectively. Network density contributes to cognitive and affective trust. Both cognitive trust and affective trust influence MCI, while only affective trust impacts members' knowledge contribution behaviors. PMID:23786170

  18. Nature's Trust: A Paradigm for Natural Resources Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. C.; Whitelaw, E.; Doppelt, B.; Burchell, A.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change uncertainty puts a premium on all remaining natural resources. Farmland, air, water, wetlands, wildlife, soils, mineral resources and forests must be protected to ensure that Americans - present citizens and future generations - have the fundamental survival resources they need in a future that holds many unknowns. Moreover, in light of the need to manage resources given climate and particle forcing, government must mitigate dangerous carbon loading of the atmosphere. Confronting climate change and protecting natural resources requires a clear sense of government obligation that is inherent to sovereignty, not a matter of political choice. Our government representatives can and must reframe government's discretion into a trustee obligation to protect Nature and ensure natural resource stewardship. Drawing upon enduring legal principles and court decisions, government can be characterized as a trustee of the natural resources essential to human survival. A trust is a fundamental type of ownership whereby one manages property for the benefit of another. Viewed as a trust, the environment consists of a portfolio of quantified natural assets that government manages. As beneficiaries, citizens hold a common property interest in defined, bounded assets that make up Nature's Trust. Such trust principles form the bedrock of statutory law. Trustees have a fiduciary obligation to protect trust assets and may not allow destruction of property they manage. This session will provide a policy frame for current scientific efforts to address climate change and natural resources loss. Under the Nature's Trust frame, U.S. government leaders and agencies at every level inherit a strict fiduciary obligation to protect our collective natural resources, including our water and the atmosphere, as assets in the trust. Their fiduciary standard of care consists of a proportionate responsibility, which ties directly to "Nature's Mandate" as defined by current climate

  19. Trust or Consequences: The Relationship between Faculty Trust and Faculty Learning Communities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gaye R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between FLC membership and faculty trust in higher education colleagues and faculty trust in higher education administration in public and private universities in the United States. This quantitative study examines trust in colleagues and trust in administration in higher education, two…

  20. 77 FR 5065 - Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application January 26...'') and Northern Lights Fund Trust (the ``Trust''). FILING DATES: The application was filed on...

  1. Assessment of Organizational Trust: Italian Adaptation and Factorial Validity of the Organizational Trust Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco; Argentero, Piergiorgio; Bromiley, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Trust influences interactions among individuals and organizations but has been an elusive concept to define and measure. The Organizational Trust Inventory (OTI) measures three dimensions of organizational trust, as defined by Cummings and Bromiley (in: Kramer and Tyler (eds) Trust in Organizations, 1996), believing or feeling that others: keep…

  2. Research of trust model in P2P network based on trusted computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Li, Lei

    2013-03-01

    In order to strengthen the security of P2P networks, it is necessary to build trust relationships between nodes of networks. However, the traditional trust evaluation models can't resist the attacks of Pseudospoofing and Pseudostheft effectively. To resolve the problems, in this paper, the trusted computing method is introduced into P2P networks, and an idea of group trust model based on trusted computing methods is proposed. In the process of trust evaluation, the model can realize the anonymous attestation of the node body, which improves the creditability of trust relationships between nodes and resolves the security problems of P2P networks.

  3. 32 CFR 290.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM DEFENSE CONTRACT AUDIT AGENCY (DCAA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 290.4 Policy. Agency policy and procedures are those cited in DoD 5400.7-R. In addition, DCAA will: (a) Promote public trust... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 290.4 Section 290.4 National...

  4. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  5. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  6. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  7. Enhancing Trust in SOA Based Collaborative Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa; Bourimi, Mohamed; Hommel, Wolfgang; Kesdogan, Dogan

    Considering trust and privacy requirements for online and collaborative distance learning environments, this paper discusses potential extensions of SOA based applications to simultaneously support authentication and authorization services, and offering mutual trust to both learners and service providers. This study shows that the security mechanisms integrated in the SOA platform can be effectively extended and correlated with a trust model.

  8. The Role of Trust in Information Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Stephen; Dibben, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the notion of trust as it relates to information science and technology, specifically user interfaces, autonomous agents, and information systems. Highlights include theoretical meaning of trust; trust and levels of analysis, including organizational trust; electronic commerce, user interfaces, and static trust; dynamic trust; and trust…

  9. The Administrative Team, Trust & Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Elliot Z.

    This paper describes the first phase of a research study that examined (1) how superintendents define and select their administrative teams; (2) how team values are conceptualized by superintendents; (3) how "trust" is defined and its value perceived by superintendents; and (4) whether or not gender influences the way superintendents define "team"…

  10. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  11. Education and the National Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Gareth

    1995-01-01

    Defines the British National Trust as it marks its centenary. Known for its work in protecting historic buildings and places of natural beauty, a major focus is now education. Schoolchildren may attend curriculum-based special programs when visiting historic houses and the countryside. Others use open-space sites with no specific education…

  12. Trust as a Teaching Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon-Weil, Anica; Hewitt, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Should I stop the conflict or narrate it? Do I redirect or reassure? Two infant/toddler teachers explain how they use trust as a teaching tool, "teaching" less and involving the toddlers in their classroom in the decisions that affect them. They took to heart the philosophy of Magda Gerber, who urged parents to "observe more, do less." The author…

  13. Trust enhances IT service management.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    ITIL process adoption may be a prerequisite for the National Programme for IT (NPfIT), but implementation is far from straightforward. IT services company Plan-Net has been assisting Barts and The London NHS Trust with implementing its ambitious ITIL processes deployment. PMID:17847874

  14. Trust management of information vital.

    PubMed

    Rayfield, Jason

    2005-02-01

    The Freedom of Information (FOI) Act, which came into force on 1 January this year, requires all NHS bodies to disclose, when requested, any information they hold. Jason Rayfield reports on the work done by legal firm Morgan Cole to prepare NHS Trusts to deal with their responsibilities under the new legislation. PMID:15729999

  15. Trust Information-Based Privacy Architecture for Ubiquitous Health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. Objective The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. Methods A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections

  16. Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor and trust in organization.

    PubMed

    Tan, H H; Tan, C S

    2000-05-01

    Trust in supervisor and trust in organization are argued to be distinct but related constructs, each with its own set of antecedents and outcomes. Empirical field results supported the proposition. Although trust in supervisor and trust in organization were positively and significantly correlated, trust in supervisor was more strongly associated with proximal variables (ability, benevolence, and integrity of supervisor), whereas trust in organization was more strongly correlated with global variables (perceived organizational support and justice). This conclusion held despite the inclusion of proximal variables in the regression on trust in organization and the inclusion of global variables in the regression on trust in supervisor. In addition to the differential antecedents of trust in supervisor and trust in organization, the outcomes for both variables were different. Trust in supervisor was related to increased innovative behavior and satisfaction with supervisor, and trust in organization was related to higher organizational commitment and lower intention to leave. Therefore, the authors provide clear preliminary data on the distinctiveness of trust in supervisor and trust in organization. One implication of this set of results is that organizations should adopt a more holistic approach in building trust, which can be achieved by focusing on the various constituents of the organization and the various levels (e.g., the supervisor level and the organizational level). PMID:10846623

  17. Public trust in health information sharing: implications for biobanking and electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jodyn; Kardia, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are made all the more valuable when the biological samples they hold can be linked to health information collected in research, electronic health records, or public health practice. Public trust in such systems that share health information for research and health care practice is understudied. Our research examines characteristics of the general public that predict trust in a health system that includes researchers, health care providers, insurance companies and public health departments. We created a 119-item survey of predictors and attributes of system trust and fielded it using Amazon's MTurk system (n = 447). We found that seeing one's primary care provider, having a favorable view of data sharing and believing that data sharing will improve the quality of health care, as well as psychosocial factors (altruism and generalized trust) were positively and significantly associated with system trust. As expected, privacy concern, but counterintuitively, knowledge about health information sharing were negatively associated with system trust. We conclude that, in order to assure the public's trust, policy makers charged with setting best practices for governance of biobanks and access to electronic health records should leverage critical access points to engage a diverse public in joint decision making. PMID:25654300

  18. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: Implications for Biobanking and Electronic Health Record Systems

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jodyn; Kardia, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are made all the more valuable when the biological samples they hold can be linked to health information collected in research, electronic health records, or public health practice. Public trust in such systems that share health information for research and health care practice is understudied. Our research examines characteristics of the general public that predict trust in a health system that includes researchers, health care providers, insurance companies and public health departments. We created a 119-item survey of predictors and attributes of system trust and fielded it using Amazon’s MTurk system (n = 447). We found that seeing one’s primary care provider, having a favorable view of data sharing and believing that data sharing will improve the quality of health care, as well as psychosocial factors (altruism and generalized trust) were positively and significantly associated with system trust. As expected, privacy concern, but counterintuitively, knowledge about health information sharing were negatively associated with system trust. We conclude that, in order to assure the public’s trust, policy makers charged with setting best practices for governance of biobanks and access to electronic health records should leverage critical access points to engage a diverse public in joint decision making. PMID:25654300

  19. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  20. Building Stakeholder Trust: Defensible Government Decisions - 13110

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Victor A.

    2013-07-01

    Administrative decisions must be grounded in reasonable expectations, founded on sound principles, and bounded by societal norms. Without these first principles, attaining and retaining public trust is a Herculean task. Decisions made by governmental administrators must be both transparent and defensible: without the former the agency will lose the public's trust and support (possibly prompting a legal challenge to the decision) and without the latter the decision may fail to withstand judicial scrutiny. This presentation and accompanying paper delves into the process by which governmental decisions can achieve both defensibility and openness through building stakeholder trust with transparency. Achieving and maintaining stakeholder trust is crucial, especially in the environs of nuclear waste management. Proving confidence, stability, and security to the surrounding citizenry as well as those throughout the country is the goal of governmental nuclear waste remediation. Guiding administrative decision-making processes and maintaining a broad bandwidth of communication are of incalculable importance to all those charged with serving the public, but are especially essential to those whose decisional impacts will be felt for millennia. A strong, clear, and concise administrative record documenting discrete decisions and overarching policy choices is the strongest defense to a decisional challenge. However, this can be accomplished using transparency as the fundamental building block. This documentation allows the decision-makers to demonstrate the synthesis of legal and technical challenges and fortifies the ground from which challenges will be defended when necessary. Further, administrative actions which capture the public's interest and captivate that interest throughout the process will result in a better-informed, more deeply-involved, and more heavily-invested group of interested parties. Management of information, involvement, and investment on the front-end of

  1. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  2. Sinking slowly: Diversity in propensity to trust predicts downward trust spirals in small groups.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda J; Peterson, Randall S

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of trust spirals in small groups. Drawing on literature on the spiral reinforcement of trust, we theorize that diversity in propensity to trust has affective and cognitive consequences related to trust (i.e., feelings of frustration and perceptions of low similarity), reducing the level of experienced intragroup trust early in a group's development. Reduced experienced trust then fuels relationship conflict and lowers trust even further over time, ultimately having a negative effect on group performance. These ideas are tested using a sample of MBA student groups surveyed at 3 time periods over 4 months. Results confirm our hypothesis that diversity in propensity to trust is sufficient to trigger a downward trust spiral and poor performance in small groups. PMID:25602121

  3. [Memory systems and memory disorders].

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Martial; Juillerat, Anne-Claude

    2003-02-15

    Recent cognitive models suggest that memory has a complex structure, composed of several independent systems (working memory, and four long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual representation system, and procedural memory). Furthermore, neuropsychological studies show that a brain lesion can selectively impair some systems or some particular process in a system, while others are spared. In this theoretical context, the objective of assessment is to detect the impaired memory systems and processes as well as those, which remain intact. To do this, the clinician has to use various-tests specifically designed to assess the integrity of each memory system and process. PMID:12708274

  4. Money and trust among strangers

    PubMed Central

    Camera, Gabriele; Casari, Marco; Bigoni, Maria

    2013-01-01

    What makes money essential for the functioning of modern society? Through an experiment, we present evidence for the existence of a relevant behavioral dimension in addition to the standard theoretical arguments. Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential. To explain these results, we developed an evolutionary model. When behavior in society is heterogeneous, cooperation collapses without tokens. In contrast, the use of tokens makes cooperation evolutionarily stable. PMID:23980139

  5. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  6. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand. PMID:26680285

  7. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  8. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    PubMed Central

    Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W.; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the trust game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another (the trustee). As expected, trustors transferred significantly more money to trustees after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated) cognitive states. PMID:24936194

  9. The Value of Trust to Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2014-01-01

    Trust, one of nursing's intangible assets, impacts nurses' ability to form meaningful relationships with patients and this connection positively impacts health outcomes. Linking trust to the fabric of nursing and investing in its measurement will become essential to nursing's valuation and the resulting investment in nursing. Trust, as nursing's core value, should be fostered by nurse educators as they prepare the next generation of nurses. Nurse administrators should connect the trust a patient has for his or her nurse and patient cooperation and honest transparent communication between providers and the patient. Banking trust as a valuable nursing asset will substantiate nursing's marketing and support its worth. Nursing's trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture. PMID:26267958

  10. Trust-Building in Electronic Markets: Relative Importance and Interaction Effects of Trust-Building Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tams, Stefan

    We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner. Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

  11. 5 CFR 2634.403 - Qualified blind trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified blind trusts. 2634.403 Section... Qualified blind trusts. (a) Definition. A qualified blind trust is a trust in which the filer, his spouse... instrument which establishes a blind trust must adhere substantively to model drafts circulated by the...

  12. 5 CFR 2634.403 - Qualified blind trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified blind trusts. 2634.403 Section... Qualified blind trusts. (a) Definition. A qualified blind trust is a trust in which the filer, his spouse... instrument which establishes a blind trust must adhere substantively to model drafts circulated by the...

  13. Welfare Eligibility: Programs Treat Indian Tribal Trust Fund Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report was sought by the Conference Committee on the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, concerned that federal law allows payments from tribal trust funds to be excluded when determining eligibility for welfare benefits to American Indians. Applicable federal laws and eligibility policies were reviewed to determine the…

  14. Leadership Values, Trust and Negative Capability: Managing the Uncertainties of Future English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The complex leadership attribute of "negative capability" in managing uncertainty and engendering trust may be amongst the qualities enabling institutions to cope with multiple recent government policy challenges affecting English higher education, including significant increases in student fees. Research findings are reported on changes in…

  15. Consumer Trust in the U.S. Food System: An Examination of the Recreancy Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Stephen G.; Arnot, Charlie; Fallon, James; Fleck, Terry; Soorholtz, David; Sutton-Vermeulen, Matt; Wilson, Jannette J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Because consumer opinions to an increasing extent affect the structure and management of the U.S. food system, it is important for social scientists to accurately model consumer trust in this system so they can better understand and anticipate public responses to existing or proposed food-related regulatory policies and facilitate effective…

  16. 17 CFR 210.3-15 - Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to... estate investment trusts. 210.3-15 Section 210.3-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  17. For the Public Good?: Land-Grant Schools Straying from Public Missions, Education Trust Reports Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2011-01-01

    While many land-grant flagships strive to keep costs low for students, they have not been as successful in yielding high graduation rates, and, as a result, many students--including high numbers of Blacks and Latinos--fall through the cracks. Dr. Jose Cruz, the vice president for higher education, policy and practice at the Education Trust, a…

  18. 5 CFR 731.106 - Designation of public trust positions and investigative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Trust” positions. Such positions may involve policy making, major program responsibility, public safety and health, law enforcement duties, fiduciary responsibilities or other duties demanding a significant... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of public trust positions...

  19. 5 CFR 731.106 - Designation of public trust positions and investigative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Trust” positions. Such positions may involve policy making, major program responsibility, public safety and health, law enforcement duties, fiduciary responsibilities or other duties demanding a significant... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of public trust positions...

  20. 5 CFR 731.106 - Designation of public trust positions and investigative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Trust” positions. Such positions may involve policy making, major program responsibility, public safety and health, law enforcement duties, fiduciary responsibilities or other duties demanding a significant... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of public trust positions...

  1. 5 CFR 731.106 - Designation of public trust positions and investigative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Trust” positions. Such positions may involve policy making, major program responsibility, public safety and health, law enforcement duties, fiduciary responsibilities or other duties demanding a significant... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of public trust positions...

  2. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-8 - Certain distributions by charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contributions. Upon the death of D, the proceeds of a life insurance policy on D's life are payable to T, a... receives dividend income of $20,000. As of the valuation date, the trust's assets have a net fair market... 664(b)(1), $20,000 of the distribution is characterized in the hands of the beneficiary as...

  3. Drawing on a Knowledge-Based Trust Perspective to Examine and Conceptualize within-School Trust Development by Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed the importance of trust to schools and pointed to the central role that principals play in cultivating within-school trust, yet less is known about the ways that principals cultivate such trust. Moreover, divergent perspectives and varied contexts for examining trust have limited the transfer of trust scholarship to practice…

  4. 25 CFR 151.3 - Land acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.3 Land acquisition policy. Land not held in trust or restricted status may only be acquired for an individual Indian or a tribe in trust status when such acquisition is authorized by an act of Congress. No...

  5. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship. PMID:24331881

  6. Fear, Trust, and Negotiating Safety

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Platais, Ingrida; Valera, Pamela; Barbieri, Raye; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2010-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews, this study examined the relational context of sexual HIV risk for 10 Black women aged 18–30 who were defendants in a community court setting. A qualitative data analysis identified themes of actual and feared intimate partner violence (IPV) and the expectations of demonstrating trust in a relationship as obstacles to negotiating the use of condoms. The findings speak to the broader structural factors and consequences of IPV and drug use. The article discusses the implications for HIV prevention for Black women who are involved in the criminal justice system. PMID:20445827

  7. Trust: the sublime duty in health care leadership.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2010-01-01

    Trust is the essence of human social existence. From the moment of birth, trust is the basic component in any human relationship and interaction. Trust is the Holy Grail for human confidence in others. From human survival to organizational survival, trust is the primordial bond. No organization is more dependent on trust than health care. This article views trust as the most basic fundamental quality for leadership. Trust is a sublime duty of a leader and the leadership of an organization. Leadership sets the culture of trust. Trust is the one quality that is essential for guiding an organization toward serving others. This article addresses trust from many perspectives. Trust is viewed from our subordinates, our peers, our superiors, and the public we serve. This article postulates how trust in an organization is the sublime duty of leadership that unites all human understanding and without it destroys all human relationships. PMID:20145465

  8. 32 CFR 324.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 324.3 Section 324.3 National Defense... ACT PROGRAM General information § 324.3 Policy. DFAS personnel will comply with the Privacy Act of... public trust. Personal information maintained by DFAS organizational elements will be...

  9. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Wolk, David A; Budson, Andrew E

    2010-08-01

    Converging evidence from patient and neuroimaging studies suggests that memory is a collection of abilities that use different neuroanatomic systems. Neurologic injury may impair one or more of these memory systems. Episodic memory allows us to mentally travel back in time and relive an episode of our life. Episodic memory depends on the hippocampus, other medial temporal lobe structures, the limbic system, and the frontal lobes, as well as several other brain regions. Semantic memory provides our general knowledge about the world and is unconnected to any specific episode of our life. Although semantic memory likely involves much of the neocortex, the inferolateral temporal lobes (particularly the left) are most important. Procedural memory enables us to learn cognitive and behavioral skills and algorithms that operate at an automatic, unconscious level. Damage to the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor area often impair procedural memory. PMID:22810510

  10. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members. PMID:17405387

  11. A Strategic Model of Trust Management in Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqing; Sun, Zhaohao; Li, Yuanzhe; Zhao, Shuliang

    This article examines trust and trust management in web services and proposes a multiagent model of trust relationship in web services. It looks at the hierarchical structure of trust management in web services and proposes a strategic model of trust management in web services. The proposed approach in this article will facilitate research and development of trust management in e-commerce, web services and social networking.

  12. Cognitive memory.

    PubMed

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  13. Further Exploration of Organizational Trust Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain strategic goals and survive. Furthermore, leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning. This paper builds on prior research…

  14. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  15. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  16. Perceptions of Trust in Public Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lucy; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years, the credibility of public examinations in England has increasingly come to the fore. Government agencies have invested time and money into researching public perceptions of the reliability and validity of examinations. Whilst such research overlaps into the conceptual domain of trust, trust in examinations remains an elusive…

  17. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... commodities in whatever form, documentary or electronic, for billing or invoicing purposes. (b) Trust assets..., whether in documentary or electronic form, to preserve trust benefits. Alternately, the licensee's invoice... the affected transactions occur. (4) If the invoice or other billing statement is in electronic...

  18. Trusting Transformational Principals: An Empirical Surprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannion, Patrick T.

    This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership and trust in schools. The central thesis is that high levels of trust should significantly correlate with transformational leadership behaviors by school principals. The study involved a sample of 451 teachers in 39 public secondary schools located in four suburban areas…

  19. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-4 Trusts. (a) Ordinary trusts. In general, the term... the release of substances, preventing future releases of substances, and collecting amounts...

  20. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  1. Trust and the Development of Distributed Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smylie, Mark A.; Mayrowetz, David; Murphy, Joseph; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between trust and the development of distributed leadership. It presents a theoretical argument with supporting evidence from longitudinal fieldwork examining distributed leadership development in comparative cases of two secondary schools. The analysis suggests that trust matters in the design, performance,…

  2. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children…

  3. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR 11800.... 12674, 54 FR 15159, 3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 215, as modified by E.O. 12731, 55 FR 42547, 3 CFR, 1990 Comp... the use of a qualified blind trust is the lack of knowledge, or actual ``blindness,'' by an...

  4. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  5. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  6. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  7. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent... patent will be suspended for a period of 2 years from date of settlement; but in those cases where...

  8. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  9. Trust in prescription drug brand websites: website trust cues, attitude toward the website, and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Shin, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug brand websites, as a form of DTC advertising, are receiving increasing attention due to the growing number and importance as an ad and a consumer information source. This study examined consumer trust in a DTC website as an important factor influencing consumers' attitude toward the website and behavioral intention. Applying the conceptual framework of website trust, the particular focus of investigation was the effect of the website trust cue factor on consumers' perceived DTC website trust and subsequent attitudinal and behavioral responses. Results show a significant relation between the website trust cue factor and consumers' perceived DTC website trust. Perceived DTC website trust, in turn, was found to be significantly associated with consumers' attitude toward the DTC website and behavioral intention. PMID:24094133

  10. DualTrust: A Distributed Trust Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Frincke, Deborah A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Bakken, David E.

    2011-02-01

    For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, trust management is important for the acceptance of the mobile agent sensors and to protect the system from malicious behavior by insiders and entities that have penetrated network defenses. This paper examines the trust relationships, evidence, and decisions in a representative system and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. We then propose the DualTrust conceptual trust model. By addressing the autonomic manager’s bi-directional primary relationships in the ACS architecture, DualTrust is able to monitor the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers, protect the sensor swarm in a scalable manner, and provide global trust awareness for the orchestrating autonomic manager.

  11. Memory Efficient Sequence Analysis Using Compressed Data Structures (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema

    Simpson, Jared [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

    2013-01-22

    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Jared Simpson on "Memory efficient sequence analysis using compressed data structures" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011

  12. Memory Efficient Sequence Analysis Using Compressed Data Structures (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Jared

    2011-10-13

    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Jared Simpson on "Memory efficient sequence analysis using compressed data structures" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011

  13. Trust method for multi-agent consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

    2012-06-01

    The consensus problem in multi-agent systems often assumes that all agents are equally trustworthy to seek agreement. But for multi-agent military applications - particularly those that deal with sensor fusion or multi-robot formation control - this assumption may create the potential for compromised network security or poor cooperative performance. As such, we present a trust-based solution for the discrete-time multi-agent consensus problem and prove its asymptotic convergence in strongly connected digraphs. The novelty of the paper is a new trust algorithm called RoboTrust, which is used to calculate trustworthiness in agents using observations and statistical inferences from various historical perspectives. The performance of RoboTrust is evaluated within the trust-based consensus protocol under different conditions of tolerance and confirmation.

  14. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  15. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  16. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  17. 42 CFR 600.710 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 600.710 Section... (Eff. 1-1-15) BHP Trust Fund § 600.710 Fiscal policies and accountability. The BHP administering agency must assure the fiscal policies and accountability set forth in paragraphs (a) through (g) of...

  18. Trust and cooperation: a new experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Acedo, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2013-09-01

    Several theories within different disciplines emphasize the role of trust in fostering cooperation in human social life. Despite differences, the core of these notions of trust is affectively motivated loyalty, which makes the individuals feel mutually committed and willing to accept vulnerability because of positive expectations about each other's behavior. In evolutionary game theory and experimental economics, the notion of trust is much simpler: it is an expectation about another's behavior, a kind of wager, in which the sense of mutual commitment and vulnerability is completely absent. In order to extend the paradigm of trust games typical in those fields to explore the fuller sense of trust relationships, we have developed a new experimental design, in which an iterated prisoner dilemma is played by participants who do or do not hold a trusting personal relationship, while anonymity is preserved. We present here the results of our two pilot studies, which indicate the relevance of personal trust in fostering cooperation and suggest the influence of the structure of social networks on the degree of cooperation achieved. PMID:25708082

  19. Hype and Public Trust in Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities in designing empirical studies that provide evidence for a causal link between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support, but also illustrate how this may be remedied. Further empirical research on hype and public trust is needed in order to improve public communication of science and to design evidence-based education on the responsible conduct of research for scientists. We conclude that conceptual arguments made on hype and public trust must be nuanced to reflect our current understanding of this relationship. PMID:22045550

  20. Perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne; Sommerfeld, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Disagreement within the global science community about the certainty and causes of climate change has led the general public to question what to believe and whom to trust on matters related to this issue. This paper reports on qualitative research undertaken with Australian residents from two rural areas to explore their perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers. While overall, residents tended to agree that climate change is a reality, perceptions varied in terms of its causes and how best to address it. Politicians, government, and the media were described as untrustworthy sources of information about climate change, with independent scientists being the most trusted. The vested interests of information providers appeared to be a key reason for their distrust. The findings highlight the importance of improved transparency and consultation with the public when communicating information about climate change and related policies. PMID:23825246

  1. Detroit Jobs Trust Fund Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Clarke, Hansen [D-MI-13

    2011-09-14

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Trust build up and break down between stakeholders in water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Trust is a word that is often heard in discussions about stakeholder participation in water management programmes and projects. A break down in trust between participants is often attributed to the failure of a project reaching its objectives. In contrast, the development of trust is often described as a success in itself, and is thought to lead to positive water management outcomes. To explore how trust impacts water management, this research explores the factors that led to trust development and break-down, and the implications of this, in a major stakeholder engagement project in water management in North America. A major review of the Lake Ontario and St Lawrence River water level operating system (the LOSL Study) was commissioned in 1999 by the International Joint Commission (IJC). The goal of the five-year LOSL Study was to produce an operating policy for the system that was acceptable to everyone impacted by the water levels and flows in the basin. Through public meetings and consultations, the Study aimed to bring together and combine public and scientist input to co-produce an operating policy that met the needs of all interest groups. Freely accessible documentation of the public involvement activities that took place is available, which is used to explore trust and mistrust development. Provisional findings show that some public/interest group representatives mistrusted the Study. This was related to concerns over data quality, whether appropriate indicators were selected by the researchers and whether the models used were producing accurate outputs. Scientist responses to questions at public meetings were able to address some of these concerns and therefore build trust in the methods, but could also lead to further mistrust if public concerns and questions were not addressed adequately (for example, simply dismissed as irrelevant by scientists without due explanation). The impacts of distrust between participants and scientists included apathy and low

  3. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  4. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness. PMID:26421343

  5. Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Make your school soar by escalating trust between teachers, students, and families. Trust is an essential element in all healthy relationships, and the relationships that exist in your school are no different. How can your school leaders or teachers cultivate trust? How can your institution maintain trust once it is established? These are the…

  6. A Novel Trust Service Provider for Internet Based Commerce Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyal, M. Y.; Barkat, B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for enhancing trust in Internet commerce. Shows how trust can be provided through a network of Trust Service Providers (TSp). Identifies a set of services that should be offered by a TSp. Presents a distributed object-oriented implementation of trust services using CORBA, JAVA and XML. (Author/AEF)

  7. Trust Building via Risk Taking: A Cross-Societal Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Karen S.; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cheshire, Coye; Cooper, Robin; Matsuda, Masafumi; Mashima, Rie

    2005-01-01

    The role of risk taking in building trust relations has largely been overlooked in the burgeoning literature on trust in the social sciences; yet it is central to understanding how trust develops. We argue that a series of risk-taking behaviors is indispensable to building a trust relation. We conducted experiments in Japan and the United States…

  8. The Nature and Function of Trust in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to advance and test a theoretical model of the nature and function of trust in schools. Unlike other studies, ours specified school trust as a latent construct manifested through parent and teacher trust perceptions. We hypothesized that trust would have a larger direct effect on collective teacher efficacy and achievement…

  9. Principal Leadership: Building Trust to Support School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Pamela; Mathews, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    To develop trust, leaders must understand the determinants of a trusting organization. This study examined how an elementary school principal, new to a school that had been designated "in need of improvement," reacted to this status and worked to develop trust in a climate of low trust and increasing public accountability. Hoy and Tschannen-Moran…

  10. Collective Trust: Why Schools Can't Improve without It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Patrick B.; Adams, Curt M.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2011-01-01

    The culmination of nearly three decades of research, "Collective Trust" offers new insight and practical knowledge on the social construction of trust for school improvement. The authors argue that "collective trust" is not merely an average trust score for a group, but rather an independent concept with distinctive origins and consequences. The…

  11. An Investigation of Teacher Trust in the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makiewicz, Monica Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the concept of trust, its meaning, antecedents, and outcomes as they applied to teacher trust in principals. Since there are very few in-depth studies specifically on trust in a school principal, research on trust from an organizational perspective was consulted. This body of research has numerous and…

  12. 12 CFR 330.10 - Revocable trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are commonly referred to as living trusts or family trusts. (Example 1: Account Owner “A” has a living... beneficiary in more than one revocable trust account, whether it be a payable-on-death account or living trust account, does not increase the total coverage amount.) (Example 3: Account Owner “A” establishes a...

  13. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  14. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  15. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  16. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  17. The market shaping of charges, trust and abuse: health care transactions in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tibandebage, Paula; Mackintosh, Maureen

    2005-10-01

    Effective health care is a relational activity, that is, it requires social relationships of trust and mutual understanding between providers and those needing and seeking care. The breakdown of these relationships is therefore impoverishing, cutting people off from a basic human capability, that of accessing of decent health care in time of need. In Tanzania as in much of Africa, health care relationships are generally also market transactions requiring out-of-pocket payment. This paper analyses the active constitution and destruction of trust within Tanzanian health care transactions, demonstrating systematic patterns both of exclusion and abuse and also of inclusion and merited trust. We triangulate evidence on charges paid and payment methods with perceptions of the trustworthiness of providers and with the socio-economic status of patients and household interviewees, distinguishing calculative, value based and personalised forms of trust. We draw on this interpretative analysis to argue that policy can support the construction of decent inclusive health care by constraining perverse market incentives that users understand to be a source of merited distrust; by assisting reputation-building and enlarging professional, managerial and public scrutiny; and by reinforcing value-based sources of trust. PMID:16005774

  18. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  19. Ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The current status of developments in the field of ferroelectric memory devices has been considered. The rapidly growing market of non-volatile memory devices has been analyzed, and the current state of the art and prospects for the scaling of parameters of non-volatile memory devices of different types have been considered. The basic constructive and technological solutions in the field of the design of ferroelectric memory devices, as well as the "roadmaps" of the development of this technology, have been discussed.

  20. Online health information - what can you trust?

    MedlinePlus

    ... detective work, you can find information you can trust. Search for websites of well-known health institutions. Medical schools, professional health organizations, and hospitals often provide online health content. Look ...

  1. Estate Planning: The Role of Trust Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidermeyer, Ellen; Neidermeyer, Adolph

    1985-01-01

    The authors present estate planning suggestions that address concerns about lifetime care for the disabled children of aging parents. Aspects covered include disinheriting children, trust funds, and medical and legal assistance and food stamps. (CL)

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. (a) In... have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  3. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  4. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  5. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  6. 43 CFR 30.180 - May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true May I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? 30.180 Section 30.180 Public Lands: Interior Office of... I give up an inherited interest in trust or restricted property or trust personalty? You...

  7. An Investigation of Children's Peer Trust across Culture: Is the Composition of Peer Trust Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Petrocchi, Serena; Lecciso, Flavia; Sakai, Atsushi; Maeshiro, Kazumi; Judson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The components of children's trust in same-gender peers (trust beliefs, ascribed trustworthiness, and dyadic reciprocal trust) were examined in samples of 8-11-year-olds from the UK, Italy, and Japan. Trust was assessed by children's ratings of the extent to which same-gender classmates kept promises and kept secrets. Social relations…

  8. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  9. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  10. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  11. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  12. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not...

  13. Welsh Trust sees energy costs reduce.

    PubMed

    Churches, Wayne

    2009-02-01

    Working closely with Honeywell Building Solutions, a division of Honeywell International, under two long-term Energy Performance Contracts, should bring Gwent Healthcare NHS Trust in South Wales guaranteed annual savings of over pounds 1.1 million in energy costs over at least the next 15 years, as the Trust's estates manager, Wayne Churches, explained to delegates at the Healthcare Facilities Consortium (HFC) 2008 Annual Conference. PMID:19297847

  14. [Trust and conflicts in care, legal elements].

    PubMed

    Decroix, Germain

    2013-10-01

    Trust is essential in all forms of medical care. It first appears when the patient chooses the professional, then when the latter suggests a treatment. This medical contract can be broken by both parties, if this trust disappears. The ultimate situation is the occurrence of complications, which can lead to a real distrust of the professional with a complaint made against him or her. PMID:24245040

  15. Interpersonal Trust across Six Asia-Pacific Countries: Testing and Extending the ‘High Trust Society’ and ‘Low Trust Society’ Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trust is regarded as a necessary component for the smooth running of society, although societal and political modernising processes have been linked to an increase in mistrust, potentially signalling social and economic problems. Fukuyama developed the notion of ‘high trust’ and ‘low trust’ societies, as a way of understanding trust within different societies. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test and extend Fukuyama’s theory utilising data on interpersonal trust in Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Australia and Thailand. This paper focuses on trust in family, neighbours, strangers, foreigners and people with a different religion. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 2009–10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Results Our data indicate a tripartite trust model: ‘high trust’ in Australia and Hong Kong; ‘medium trust’ in Japan and Taiwan; and ‘low trust’ in South Korea and Thailand. Trust in family and neighbours were very high across all countries, although trust in people with a different religion, trust in strangers and trust in foreigners varied considerably between countries. The regression models found a consistent group of subpopulations with low trust across the countries: people on low incomes, younger people and people with poor self-rated health. The results were conflicting for gender: females had lower trust in Thailand and Hong Kong, although in Australia, males had lower trust in strangers, whereas females had lower trust in foreigners. Conclusion This paper identifies high, medium and low trust societies, in addition to high and low trusting population subgroups. Our analyses extend the seminal work of Fukuyama, providing both corroboration and

  16. Establishing trust in decentralized smart sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, H.; Cosar, T.; Beyerer, J.

    2011-06-01

    Smart sensors can gather all kind of information and process it. Cameras are still dominating and smart cameras can offer services for face recognition or person tracking. Operators are building collaborations to cover a larger area, to save costs and to add more and different sensors. Cryptographic methods may achieve integrity and confidentiality between operators, but not trust. Even if a partner or one of his sensors is authenticated, no statements can be made about the quality of the sensor data. Hence, trust must be established between the partners and their sensors. Trust can be built based on past experience. A reputation system collects opinions of operators about the behavior of sensors and calculates trust based on these opinions. Many reputation systems have been proposed, e.g., for authentication of files in peer-topeer networks. This work presents a new reputation system, which is designed to calculate the trustworthiness of smart sensors and smart sensor systems. A new trust model, including functions to calculate and update trust on past experiences, is proposed. When fusing information of multiple sensors, it cannot always be reconstructed, which information led to a bad result. Hence, an approach for fair rating is shown. The proposed system has been realized in a Service-Oriented Architecture for easy integration in existing smart sensor systems, e.g., smart surveillance systems. The model itself can be used in every decentralized heterogeneous smart sensor network.

  17. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Provides numerous ideas for helping students write about special memories in the following categories: growing up--future dreams; authors and illustrators; family history; special places; and special memories. Describes how to write a "bio poem," and includes a bibliography of children's books that enhance and enrich student learning and writing.…

  18. Memory Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  19. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  20. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  1. The Influence of Trust in Physicians and Trust in the Healthcare System on Linkage, Retention, and Adherence to HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Graham, James L; Shahani, Lokesh; Grimes, Richard M; Hartman, Christine; Giordano, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    Lack of trust by the patient in the physicians or the healthcare system has been associated with poorer health outcomes. The present study was designed to determine if trust in physicians and the healthcare system among persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection was predictive of patients' subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. 178 newly diagnosed HIV infected patients were administered the trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scales. Median trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scores were compared for all the mentioned subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. Univariate logistic regression using the trust-in-physician scale confirmed significant association with retention in care (p = 0.04), which persisted in multivariate analyses (p = 0.04). No significant association was found between trust-in-physicians and linkage to care or adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Trust in the healthcare system was not associated with any of the outcomes. Patients with higher trust in physicians were more likely to be retained in HIV care. Trust at diagnosis may not be a barrier to better clinical outcomes, either because trust changes based on subsequent interactions, or because trust is not a determining feature. Interventions to improve retention in care could include improving trust in physicians or target persons with low trust in physicians. PMID:26669793

  2. Commentary: one strategy for building public trust in changing times.

    PubMed

    Dauphinee, W Dale; Tamblyn, Robyn; Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L

    2010-06-01

    Major health care reforms are being debated in the United States. While these debates address issues of access and cost, the systems-based problems of patient safety, continuous quality improvement, and an integrated approach to continuing professional development (CPD) remain traditional opportunities for the profession to directly improve health care and maintain professional accountability. Such challenges can be addressed independently of proposed reforms and offer an opportunity for the profession to build greater public trust. Given recent evidence questioning many assumptions behind individually focused CPD, and as physicians' work shifts into group and team contexts, it is an opportune time to address better CPD strategies within emerging group and team settings.The first strategic change requires a focus on managing the development of the individual physician's educational growth into a systems-oriented approach based on better information and feedback within groups of practitioners and health care teams. Second, the renewal of the linked visions of professional collegiality and accountability with professional regulation needs to be seen as a collective responsibility across key organizations within the profession's normal accountability framework. Thus, the professional colleges, certifying boards, and regulatory authorities need to collaborate with the CDP community in refocusing their collective activities to promote the profession's traditional role of improving the quality of care and maintaining the public's trust in these times of intense policy debate. PMID:20505389

  3. Trust and Its Role in Principal Succession: A Preliminary Examination of a Continuum of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Robert B.; Meyer, Matthew J.; Northfield, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Trust is a critical factor in determining whether principal-teacher working relationships are positive or negative. This article begins to explore the concept of trust and its development in twelve Canadian secondary schools that experienced frequent principal turnover in a period of eight years. The authors found that the development of trust…

  4. Foundation trusts. Bradford: how the trust and the regulator finally fell out.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Helen

    2005-02-10

    Foundation regulator Bill Moyes gradually lost confidence in recovery plans put forward by Bradford Teaching Hospitals trust in a series of meetings last November and December. Papers released under the Freedom of Information Act show it accused the trust of not taking 'timely or appropriate action' to resolve the crisis, and not settling disputes with local PCTs. PMID:15736590

  5. Relational Trust and Knowledge Sharing: An Investigation of Principal Trust and School Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Trust among teachers is an important aspect of the capacity for reform in schools. In previous research, trust has traditionally been considered as a monolithic variable that characterizes this special element as a relationship across a school (Bryk & Schneider, 2002, 2003; Goddard, 2003; Kochanek, 2005). However, this study proposes that the…

  6. The Cognitive Basis of Trust. The Relation between Education, Cognitive Ability, and Generalized and Political Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Marien, Sofie; de Vroome, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has established convincingly that there is a strong positive relation between educational attainment and trust. There is less agreement however, about the precise determinants of this relation. In this article, we assess how education is related to generalized and political trust, controlling for cognitive ability and…

  7. Building a Culture of Trust: Trust in the Use of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the place of trust in a school context and its importance in achieving the aims of schooling, "namely high academic performance and positive affects among members of the school community" (Forsyth, 2008). The role of trust in the use of technology and technological change is examined. Literature is surveyed in the…

  8. The European TrustHealth project experiences with implementing a security infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B

    2000-11-01

    Accepting the shared care paradigm, communication and co-operation required between health care establishments must be provided in a trustworthy way. The solution for establishing such trustworthy environment has to be based on a common policy framework, on services, and mechanisms, which have been standardised. In Europe, the legal framework, other policy issues, and the services and mechanisms needed have been developed within projects launched by the European Commission, by the European standards body CEN as well as by temporarily established groups. Within the European TrustHealth projects. a security infrastructure for trustworthy health telematics applications has been specified, implemented, and evaluated. It is based on Health Professional Cards and Trusted Third Party services. Experiences regarding organisational and technological implications of the specification, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of such a security infrastructure are described on the basis of the ONOCONET example. For the complete software lifecycle, the UML methodology has been deployed. PMID:11154971

  9. Risk communication of vaccines: challenges in the post-trust environment.

    PubMed

    Bouder, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Highly publicised vaccine scares and recent debates about the risks suggest that public trust in immunisation programmes is fragile. For instance, the recent outbreak of Measles in Wales was the direct result of almost fifteen years of distrust for the MMR vaccine in the UK. This article shows how the latest science on risk communication will help critical actors, especially policy-makers, to build trust when they communicate risks to citizens and patients. The article offers policy advice on risk communication based on the results of three vaccines case studies. Five procedural principles which were developed for the UK government - the so-called "five As" of public risk communication are used to structure the discussion. Conclusions and recommendations suggest ways to move forward and build a two-way proactive risk communication practice. PMID:25859669

  10. Chimpanzees trust conspecifics to engage in low-cost reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Jan M.; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many of humans' most important social interactions rely on trust, including most notably among strangers. But little is known about the evolutionary roots of human trust. We presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with a modified version of the human trust game—trust in reciprocity—in which subjects could opt either to obtain a small but safe reward on their own or else to send a larger reward to a partner and trust her to reciprocate a part of the reward that she could not access herself. In a series of three studies, we found strong evidence that in interacting with a conspecific, chimpanzees show spontaneous trust in a novel context; flexibly adjust their level of trust to the trustworthiness of their partner and develop patterns of trusting reciprocity over time. At least in some contexts then, trust in reciprocity is not unique to humans, but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social interactions of humans' closest primate relatives. PMID:25589606

  11. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  12. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  13. 12 CFR 330.12 - Accounts held by a depository institution as the trustee of an irrevocable trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by a depository institution as the trustee of an irrevocable trust. 330.12 Section 330.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.12 Accounts held...

  14. Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... following through with current events and activities. Often long-term memories of childhood or young adulthood remain vivid, ... Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • Terms of Use • Disclaimer • We subscribe to the HONcode ...

  15. Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: staff questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Quine, Lyn

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in an NHS community trust; to examine the association between bullying and occupational health outcomes; and to investigate the relation between support at work and bullying. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting NHS community trust in the south east of England. Subjects Trust employees. Main outcome measures Measures included a 20 item inventory of bullying behaviours designed for the study, the job induced stress scale, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the overall job satisfaction scale, the support at work scale, and the propensity to leave scale. Results 1100 employees returned questionnaires—a response rate of 70%. 421 (38%) employees reported experiencing one or more types of bullying in the previous year. 460 (42%) had witnessed the bullying of others. When bullying occurred it was most likely to be by a manager. Two thirds of the victims of bullying had tried to take action when the bullying occurred, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. Staff who had been bullied had significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (mean 10.5 (SD 2.7) v 12.2 (2.3), P<0.001) and higher levels of job induced stress (mean 22.5 (SD 6.1) v 16.9 (5.8), P<0.001), depression (8% (33) v 1% (7), P<0.001), anxiety (30% (125) v 9% (60), P<0.001), and intention to leave the job (8.5 (2.9) v 7.0 (2.7), P<0.001). Support at work seemed to protect people from some of the damaging effects of bullying. Conclusions Bullying is a serious problem. Setting up systems for supporting staff and for dealing with interpersonal conflict may have benefits for both employers and staff. Key messages38% of staff in a community NHS trust reported being subjected to bullying behaviours in the workplace in the previous year and 42% had witnessed the bullying of othersStaff who had been bullied had lower levels of job satisfaction and higher levels of job induced stress, depression, anxiety, and intention to leaveSupport at work

  16. Building Trust in Natural Resource Management Within Local Communities: A Case Study of the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Mae A.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Anderson, Dorothy H.; Jakes, Pamela J.

    2007-03-01

    Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency’s programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A significant body of research has examined barriers to effective public participation as well as strategies for relationship building in planning processes; many of which point to trust as a key factor. Trust is especially tenuous in local communities. This paper explores perceptions of trust, expectations for management, as well as constraints to building trust. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 community members and USDA Forest Service personnel at the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in northeastern Illinois. The interviews revealed that trust is perceived as important to effective management. Distinct expectations for management outcomes and processes emerged, including the values, knowledge, and capacity demonstrated in management decisions and actions and opportunities provided for communication, collaboration, and cooperation within the agency-community relationship. The case study identified several constraints to building trust, including competing values, knowledge gaps, limited community engagement, and staff turnover.

  17. Power, trust, and Science of Unitary Human Beings influence political leadership: a celebration of Barrett's power theory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barbara W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nurses' participation in health policy leadership is discussed within the context of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, Barrett's power theory, and one nurse-politician's experience. Nurses have a major role to play in resolving public policy issues that influence the health of people. A brief review of the history of nurses in the political arena is presented. Research related to power and trust is reviewed. Suggested strategies for success in political situations are offered. PMID:20026730

  18. Trust and Reputation Management for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Filipe; Monteiro, Edmundo; Simões, Paulo

    Today's Critical Infrastructures (CI) depend of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to deliver their services with the required level of quality and availability. ICT security plays a major role in CI protection and risk prevention for single and also for interconnected CIs were cascading effects might occur because of the interdependencies that exist among different CIs. This paper addresses the problem of ICT security in interconnected CIs. Trust and reputation management using the Policy Based Management paradigm is the proposed solution to be applied at the CI interconnection points for information exchange. The proposed solution is being applied to the Security Mediation Gateway being developed in the European FP7 MICIE project, to allow for information exchange among interconnected CIs.

  19. Trust dynamics in multi-agent coalition formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

    2011-05-01

    We present a rigorous treatment of coalition formation based on trust interactions in multi-agent systems. Current literature on trust in multi-agent systems primarily deals with trust models and protocols of interaction in noncooperative scenarios. Here, we use cooperative game theory as the underlying mathematical framework to study the trust dynamics between agents as a result of their trust synergy and trust liability in cooperative coalitions. We rigorously justify the behaviors of agents for different classes of games, and discuss ways to exploit the formal properties of these games for specific applications, such as unmanned cooperative control.

  20. Power decreases trust in social exchange

    PubMed Central

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people’s trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants’ power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals’ hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners’ benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust. PMID:26438869

  1. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust. PMID:26438869

  2. Decision solution, data manipulation and trust: The (un-)willingness to donate organs in Germany in critical times.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Lars

    2015-07-01

    In 2011 and 2012 a change of rules and a data-manipulation scandal focused German public attention on organ donation. This increased citizens' background knowledge as well as their willingness to respond to surveys. The present study is an effort to seize this research opportunity and to create evidence on which policy recommendations can be conceivably based. It uses data from two major representative surveys from 2011 to 2012 to address four central questions: Which characteristics, experiences and attitudes correlate with the written or unwritten willingness of individuals to donate (WTD) their own organs post-mortem? How has the WTD changed over time? To what extent does the WTD depend on normative trust? Which factors correlate with trust? The data is analyzed through summary statistics and regression models. Several hypotheses regarding factors connected with the WTD are confirmed in the survey results. Altruistic motives, relevant knowledge and trust are decisive. The special role of trust is corroborated by the data. As current German politics prevents the introduction of post-mortem donation incentives, potential policy making proposals are restricted to institutional changes to regain trust including the implementation of an organ donor registry and the advancement of counselling talks with general practitioners. PMID:25684705

  3. WDS Trusted Data Services in Support of International Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrane, M.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Today's research is international, transdisciplinary, and data-enabled, which requires scrupulous data stewardship, full and open access to data, and efficient collaboration and coordination. New expectations on researchers based on policies from governments and funders to share data fully, openly, and in a timely manner present significant challenges but are also opportunities to improve the quality and efficiency of research and its accountability to society. Researchers should be able to archive and disseminate data as required by many institutions or funders, and civil society to scrutinize datasets underlying public policies. Thus, the trustworthiness of data services must be verifiable. In addition, the need to integrate large and complex datasets across disciplines and domains with variable levels of maturity calls for greater coordination to achieve sufficient interoperability and sustainability. The World Data System (WDS) of the International Council for Science (ICSU) promotes long-term stewardship of, and universal and equitable access to, quality-assured scientific data and services across a range of disciplines in the natural and social sciences. WDS aims at coordinating and supporting trusted scientific data services for the provision, use, and preservation of relevant datasets to facilitate scientific research, in particular under the ICSU umbrella, while strengthening their links with the research community. WDS certifies it Members, holders and providers of data or data products, using internationally recognized standards. Thus, providing the building blocks of a searchable common infrastructure, from which a data system that is both interoperable and distributed can be formed. This presentation will describe the coordination role of WDS and more specifically activities developed by its Scientific Committee to: Improve and stimulate basic level Certification for Scientific Data Services, in particular through collaboration with the Data Seal of

  4. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually include asking questions of family members and friends. For this reason, they should come to the appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term ...

  5. Who Adolescents Trust May Impact Their Health: Findings from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Marshall, Beth; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-06-01

    This study is one of the first to explore the relevance of trust to the health of adolescents living in a disadvantaged urban setting. The primary objectives were to determine the differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between adolescents who do and do not trust and to examine the associations between trust and health. Data were drawn from the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study, which is a cross-sectional global study of adolescents in very low-income urban settings conducted in 2011-2013. This paper focused on 446 adolescents in Baltimore as it was the primary site where trust was explicitly measured. For the main analyses, six health outcomes were examined: (1) self-rated health; (2) violence victimization; (3) binge drinking; (4) marijuana use; (5) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (6) condom use at last sex. Independent variables included sociodemographic variables (age, gender, current school enrolment, perceived relative wealth, and family structure) and two dimensions of trust: community trust (trust in individuals/groups within neighborhood) and institutional trust (trust in authorities). The results show that more than half the sample had no trust in police, and a high proportion had no trust in other types of authority. Among girls, those with higher levels of community trust were less likely to be victimized and involved in binge drinking. Meanwhile, girls with higher levels of institutional trust were more likely to use a condom and less likely to have used marijuana. Among boys, those with higher levels of community trust were more likely to use a condom, while those with higher levels of institutional trust were less likely to use marijuana, but more likely binge drink. Overall, this study highlights the importance of trust for adolescent health. Most surprising were the differences in the associations between boys and girls with regard to the type of trust and specific health outcome that was

  6. Surrogate Motherhood: A Trust-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Beier, Katharina

    2015-12-01

    Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit--the "surrogacy triad" consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents--whose constituents are bound together by mutual trustful commitments. Even though a trust-based approach does not provide an ultimate answer to whether surrogacy should be sanctioned or prohibited, it allows for at least some practical suggestions. In particular, I will argue that, under certain conditions, surrogacy is tenable within familial or other significant relationships, and I will stress the necessity of acknowledging the new relationships and moral commitments that result from this practice. PMID:26449234

  7. Redefining Genomic Privacy: Trust and Empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B.; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D.; Witkowski, Jan A.; Kain, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research. PMID:25369215

  8. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D; Witkowski, Jan A; Kain, Robert C

    2014-11-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research. PMID:25369215

  9. Distributed Trust Management for Validating SLA Choreographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Alnemr, Rehab; Paschke, Adrian; Schikuta, Erich; Boley, Harold; Meinel, Christoph

    For business workflow automation in a service-enriched environment such as a grid or a cloud, services scattered across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations (VOs) can be aggregated in a producer-consumer manner, building hierarchical structures of added value. In order to preserve the supply chain, the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) corresponding to the underlying choreography of services should also be incrementally aggregated. This cross-VO hierarchical SLA aggregation requires validation, for which a distributed trust system becomes a prerequisite. Elaborating our previous work on rule-based SLA validation, we propose a hybrid distributed trust model. This new model is based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and reputation-based trust systems. It helps preventing SLA violations by identifying violation-prone services at service selection stage and actively contributes in breach management at the time of penalty enforcement.

  10. Trust--can it be controlled?

    PubMed

    Box, Debra; Pottas, Dalenca

    2010-01-01

    Trust is an important component in the security of an information system. The advent of the electronic health record (EHR) and the health information system (HIS) have raised it to greater prominence. These systems and their intended benefits are rendered less effective through a low level of trust between the stakeholders. The potential reciprocal relationship between accountability and trust is investigated. A literature study examines both concepts and their interrelationship. The accountability and audit controls provided by the NIST SP 800-53 security guide and the ISO 27799 security standard are extracted, collated and expanded to strengthen the accountability mechanisms within an HIS security program. A dedicated set of accountability controls (NIM) which is specific to the healthcare environment is produced. It is proposed that through the strengthening of the accountability function of the HIS, its level of trustworthiness may be improved. PMID:20841767

  11. Quantified Trust Levels for Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ivonne; Menzel, Michael; Meinel, Christoph

    Service-oriented Architectures (SOAs) facilitate applications to integrate seamlessly services from collaborating business partners regardless of organizational borders. In order to secure access to these services, mechanisms for authentication and authorisation must be deployed that control the access based on identity-related information. To enable a business partners’ users to access the provided services, an identity federation is often established that enables the brokering of identity information across organisational borders. The establishment of such a federation requires complex agreements and contracts that define common policies, obligations and procedures. Generally, this includes obligations on the authentication process as well.

  12. Integrity Management Infrastructure for Trusted Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munetoh, Seiji; Nakamura, Megumi; Yoshihama, Sachiko; Kudo, Michiharu

    Computer security concerns have been rapidly increasing because of repeated security breaches and leakages of sensitive personal information. Such security breaches are mainly caused by an inappropriate management of the PCs, so maintaining integrity of the platform configuration is essential, and, verifying the integrity of the computer platform and software becomes more significant. To address these problems, the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) has developed various specifications that are used to measure the integrity of the platform based on hardware trust. In the trusted computing technology, the integrity data of each component running on the platform is recorded in the security chip and they are securely checked by a remote attestation. The infrastructure working group in the TCG is trying to define an Integrity Management Infrastructure in which the Platform Trust Services (PTS) is a new key component which deals with an Integrity Report. When we use the PTS in the target platform, it is a service component that collects and measures the runtime integrity of the target platform in a secure way. The PTS can also be used to validate the Integrity Reports. We introduce the notion of the Platform Validation Authority, a trusted third party, which verifies the composition of the integrity measurement of the target platform in the Integrity Reports. The Platform Validation Authority complements the role of the current Certificate Authority in the Public Key Infrastructure which attests to the integrity of the user identity as well as to related artifacts such as digital signatures. In this paper, we cover the research topics in this new area, the relevant technologies and open issues of the trusted computing, and the detail of our PTS implementation.

  13. 25 CFR 170.2 - What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? 170.2 Section 170.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... and conserve the trust resources of tribes and the trust resources of individual Indians. (e)...

  14. 25 CFR 170.2 - What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? 170.2 Section 170.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... and conserve the trust resources of tribes and the trust resources of individual Indians. (e)...

  15. 25 CFR 170.2 - What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? 170.2 Section 170.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... and conserve the trust resources of tribes and the trust resources of individual Indians. (e)...

  16. 25 CFR 170.2 - What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? 170.2 Section 170.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... and conserve the trust resources of tribes and the trust resources of individual Indians. (e)...

  17. 78 FR 46596 - Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... about the trust relationship, other trust models, and trust reform, and aspects of trust that are unique... efforts to empower Indian nations and strengthen nation-to-nation relationships. The Commission...

  18. A Marketing Perspective: Try Looking at Charitable Trusts from the Donor's Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoren, Linda J.

    1979-01-01

    Charitable remainder trusts and charitable income trusts are discussed as essentials in any "marketing mix" of gift-giving options. Unitrusts and annuity trusts are described and tax benefits of the charitable income trust are explained. (MLW)

  19. Capturing Trust in Social Web Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donovan, John

    The Social Web constitutes a shift in information flow from the traditional Web. Previously, content was provided by the owners of a website, for consumption by the end-user. Nowadays, these websites are being replaced by Social Web applications which are frameworks for the publication of user-provided content. Traditionally, Web content could be `trusted' to some extent based on the site it originated from. Algorithms such as Google's PageRank were (and still are) used to compute the importance of a website, based on analysis of underlying link topology. In the Social Web, analysis of link topology merely tells us about the importance of the information framework which hosts the content. Consumers of information still need to know about the importance/reliability of the content they are reading, and therefore about the reliability of the producers of that content. Research into trust and reputation of the producers of information in the Social Web is still very much in its infancy. Every day, people are forced to make trusting decisions about strangers on the Web based on a very limited amount of information. For example, purchasing a product from an eBay seller with a `reputation' of 99%, downloading a file from a peer-to-peer application such as Bit-Torrent, or allowing Amazon.com tell you what products you will like. Even something as simple as reading comments on a Web-blog requires the consumer to make a trusting decision about the quality of that information. In all of these example cases, and indeed throughout the Social Web, there is a pressing demand for increased information upon which we can make trusting decisions. This chapter examines the diversity of sources from which trust information can be harnessed within Social Web applications and discusses a high level classification of those sources. Three different techniques for harnessing and using trust from a range of sources are presented. These techniques are deployed in two sample Social Web

  20. Trust that binds: the impact of collective felt trust on organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Sabrina Deutsch; Robinson, Sandra L

    2008-05-01

    The impact of employees' collective perceptions of being trusted by management was examined with a longitudinal study involving 88 retail stores. Drawing on the appropriateness framework (March, 1994; Weber, Kopelman, & Messick, 2004), the authors develop and test a model showing that when employees in an organization perceive they are trusted by management, increases in the presence of responsibility norms, as well as in the sales performance and customer service performance of the organization, are observed. Moreover, the relationship between perceptions of being trusted and sales performance is fully mediated by responsibility norms. PMID:18457488

  1. Trust and trust relations from the providers' perspective: the case of the healthcare system in India.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sumit; Calnan, Michael; Radkar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Commentators suggest that there is an erosion of trust in the relations between different actors in the health system in India. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of the situation of providers in an urban setting in western India, the nature of their relations in terms of trust and what influences these relations. The data on relationships of trust were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, including public and private providers, regulators, managers and societal actors, such as patients/citizens, politicians and the media. PMID:26228048

  2. Improving the trust algorithm of information in semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zong-bao; Min, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer networks, especially with the introduction of the Semantic Web perspective, the problem of trust computation in the network has become an important research part of current computer system theoretical. In this paper, according the information properties of the Semantic Web and interact between nodes, the definition semantic trust as content trust of information and the node trust between the nodes of two parts. By Calculate the content of the trust of information and the trust between nodes, then get the final credibility num of information in semantic web. In this paper , we are improve the computation algorithm of the node trust .Finally, stimulations and analyses show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve the trust of information more accurately.

  3. Improving the trust algorithm of information in semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zong-Bao; Min, Jiang

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid development of computer networks, especially with the introduction of the Semantic Web perspective, the problem of trust computation in the network has become an important research part of current computer system theoretical. In this paper, according the information properties of the Semantic Web and interact between nodes, the definition semantic trust as content trust of information and the node trust between the nodes of two parts. By Calculate the content of the trust of information and the trust between nodes, then get the final credibility num of information in semantic web. In this paper , we are improve the computation algorithm of the node trust .Finally, stimulations and analyses show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve the trust of information more accurately.

  4. Trust in automation. Part II. Experimental studies of trust and human intervention in a process control simulation.

    PubMed

    Muir, B M; Moray, N

    1996-03-01

    Two experiments are reported which examined operators' trust in and use of the automation in a simulated supervisory process control task. Tests of the integrated model of human trust in machines proposed by Muir (1994) showed that models of interpersonal trust capture some important aspects of the nature and dynamics of human-machine trust. Results showed that operators' subjective ratings of trust in the automation were based mainly upon their perception of its competence. Trust was significantly reduced by any sign of incompetence in the automation, even one which had no effect on overall system performance. Operators' trust changed very little with experience, with a few notable exceptions. Distrust in one function of an automatic component spread to reduce trust in another function of the same component, but did not generalize to another independent automatic component in the same system, or to other systems. There was high positive correlation between operators' trust in and use of the automation; operators used automation they trusted and rejected automation they distrusted, preferring to do the control task manually. There was an inverse relationship between trust and monitoring of the automation. These results suggest that operators' subjective ratings of trust and the properties of the automation which determine their trust, can be used to predict and optimize the dynamic allocation of functions in automated systems. PMID:8849495

  5. Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Scott, Brent A; LePine, Jeffery A

    2007-07-01

    The trust literature distinguishes trustworthiness (the ability, benevolence, and integrity of a trustee) and trust propensity (a dispositional willingness to rely on others) from trust (the intention to accept vulnerability to a trustee based on positive expectations of his or her actions). Although this distinction has clarified some confusion in the literature, it remains unclear (a) which trust antecedents have the strongest relationships with trust and (b) whether trust fully mediates the effects of trustworthiness and trust propensity on behavioral outcomes. Our meta-analysis of 132 independent samples summarized the relationships between the trust variables and both risk taking and job performance (task performance, citizenship behavior, counterproductive behavior). Meta-analytic structural equation modeling supported a partial mediation model wherein trustworthiness and trust propensity explained incremental variance in the behavioral outcomes when trust was controlled. Further analyses revealed that the trustworthiness dimensions also predicted affective commitment, which had unique relationships with the outcomes when controlling for trust. These results generalized across different types of trust measures (i.e., positive expectations measures, willingness-to-be-vulnerable measures, and direct measures) and different trust referents (i.e., leaders, coworkers). PMID:17638454

  6. 36 CFR 1010.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.1 Policy. The Presidio...) Ensure that environmental factors and concerns are given appropriate consideration in decisions and... natural and social sciences and environmental design arts in planning and decision-making which may...

  7. 13 CFR 120.350 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a qualified employee trust (“ESOP”) to: (a) Help finance the growth of its employer's small business... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 120.350 Section 120.350 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans...

  8. 32 CFR 295.5 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) It is the policy of the OIG to promote public trust by conducting its activities in an open manner, and by providing the public with the maximum amount of accurate and timely information concerning... other regulatory requirements will, upon request, be made readily accessible to the public. (3)...

  9. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  11. Trust an Essential Ingredient in Collaborative Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Ripley, Joan; Adams, Curt; Raju, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    The following study explored the relationship between trust and collaboration in one Northeastern suburban district. In sum, 122 teachers responded to a trust and a collaboration survey. We hypothesized that the level of trust would be correlated with the level of collaboration. Bivariate and canonical correlations were used to analyze the…

  12. Trust in Organizations. Symposium 6. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on human resource development (HRD) and trust in organizations. "Organizational Trust: An Orientation for the HRD Practitioner" (Christina L. Lafferty, Brad D. Lafferty) reviews research on organizational trust that was conducted with a focus on cognitive-based theories, affect-based theories, and combined…

  13. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  16. Faculty Trust in Colleagues: Linking the Principal with School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of teachers examined principals' roles in influencing school effectiveness, noting the influence of supportive leadership style on a culture of trust and perceived school effectiveness. Results indicated supportive principal leadership produced collegiality and trust in principals but not in colleagues. Teacher trust in colleagues…

  17. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  18. 26 CFR 1.664-1 - Charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Charitable remainder trusts. 1.664-1 Section 1.664-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.664-1 Charitable remainder trusts....

  19. 5 CFR 2634.404 - Qualified diversified trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... specifically identify current trust assets, or those assets which have been sold or disposed of from trust..., but not limited to, a preference for maximizing current income or long-term capital appreciation; or... information which might specifically identify current trust assets or those assets which have been sold...

  20. Trust in Online Collaborative Groups: A Constructivist Psychodynamic View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.

    2011-01-01

    Trust represents one of the most critical issues facing online collaborative groups (OCG). The growth of online courses and programs and the growth of collaborative learning pedagogical strategies through the text-based online environment can make trust issues more salient. This paper examines trust issues in the OCG from a psychodynamic view;…

  1. A Trust That Can't Be Breached.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Children's Investment Trust is a proposed trust fund for children's services (nutrition, health, education, and social services) similar in design to Social Security fund. The trust would be funded by a small, progressive payroll tax levied on both employer and employee on wages greater than $5 per hour. The tax would raise $25 billion more every…

  2. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  3. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  4. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  5. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  6. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  7. Teachers' Beliefs about the Development of Teacher-Adolescent Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Shannon L.; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Donlan, Alice E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined teachers' beliefs concerning the meaning and nature of teacher--student trust in a diverse sample of secondary-school teachers (n = 34). Using a grounded-theory approach, a process model of teacher-adolescent trust emerged based on semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Antecedents of trust could be categorised as…

  8. A Response to Nicholson's "The Politics of Trust."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathleen S.

    2002-01-01

    Notes a response to any discussion of trust is itself in danger of repeating the very problems that Helen Nicholson raises in her article "The Politics of Trust: Drama Education and the Ethics of Care" (2002). Agrees in part with the elaborations of her thesis, but admits to some serious hesitation regarding any discussion of trust as a guiding…

  9. 78 FR 21424 - Royce Value Trust, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... to be contributed to Global Trust and those to be retained by Value Trust; (c) the cost basis and... COMMISSION Royce Value Trust, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application April 4, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and...) and 12(d)(1)(C) of the Act, under section 17(b) of the Act granting an exemption from section 17(a)...

  10. The Development of an Instrument To Measure Organizational Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Dunlop, Korynne; Lester, Paula E.

    An instrument to measure organizational trust was developed, and a pilot study was conducted to evaluate the instrument and make appropriate revisions. The 23-item Organizational Trust Measure (OTM) was developed based on the perceptions of 42 doctoral students regarding trust and its role in educational leadership. Content analysis procedures and…

  11. The Formation of Parent-School Trust: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors' focus was on understanding antecedents of parent trust toward schools. Two questions guided the inquiry: Is there a systematic difference in parent-school trust across schools? If so, what organizational conditions predict between-school variability in parent-school trust? Research Methods/Approach: Using multilevel modeling,…

  12. Revisiting the Trust Effect in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2013-01-01

    More than a decade after Goddard, Tschannen-Moran, and Hoy (2001) found that collective faculty trust in clients predicts student achievement in urban elementary schools, we sought to identify a plausible link for this relationship. Our purpose in revisiting the trust effect was twofold: (1) to test the main effect of collective faculty trust on…

  13. Creativity and Self-Trust: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Attempted to separate out an entity defined as self-trust from more social components of self-function (self-esteem, social appropriateness). Subjects were 95 high school students, 45 emotionally disturbed girls, and 55 junior college students. Self-trust was differentiated from self-esteem by social feedback issues. Self-trust should contribute…

  14. 26 CFR 25.2702-5 - Personal residence trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... personal residence trust, and the denominator of the fraction is the fair market value of the trust assets... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal residence trusts. 25.2702-5 Section 25... GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2702-5...

  15. Conceptions of Trust: How Designers Approach Usable Privacy and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birge, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Designers who create user interfaces are frequently required to ask users for personal information. For the user, this is a "trust question": Do I, the user, trust the system or entity that is asking me for this information? The creation and management of these trust questions is an important aspect of the research field called usable…

  16. The Lifecycle of Trust in Educational Leadership: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Walker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    As establishing and fostering trust are imperative activities for school leaders, cognizance of the fundamental importance of trust is essential for the leader's moral agency and ethical decision-making. In this article, we use an ecological perspective to uncover the dynamics of the lifecycle of trust as evident from extant literature on…

  17. The Fragility of Trust in the World of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Keith; Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Noonan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the trust-related aspect of the work of school principals. The authors' exploratory examination of the Canadian school principals' perceptions of their moral agency and trust-brokering roles described their establishing, maintaining, and recovering of trust in schools. This article is delimited to…

  18. Middle School Climate, Faculty Trust, and Effectiveness: A Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a study that analyzed relationships among supportive principal behavior, faculty collegiality, faculty trust, and effectiveness. Data from 2,777 middle school teachers indicated that supportive principals, not teacher behavior, promoted trust in the principal. Teacher collegiality, not principal behavior, fostered trust among colleagues.…

  19. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  20. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  1. Exploring the Antecedents of Trust in Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Meng-Hsiang; Chang, Chun-Ming; Yen, Chia-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research has established that interpersonal trust and system trust are critical in shaping individual behaviour in virtual settings, the two perspectives have not been examined by IS researchers in virtual communities (VCs) simultaneously. Drawing from prior literature on trust and VCs, a research model for understanding the…

  2. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  5. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  6. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a unit...

  7. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  8. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  9. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  10. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  11. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  12. Trusting Relationships and Emotional Epistemologies: A Foundational Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Brenda R.; Brew, Christine R.

    2004-01-01

    The connections among relational trust, learning and development are implicit in transformational leadership theory. They have also been established empirically in recent studies. Leadership preparation programs often endorse the need for leaders to build effective collaborative relationships that rely on trust. Trust is an emotional phenomenon.…

  13. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  14. Social Trust, Social Partner Time and Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patulny, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Social trust is an important phenomenon, but the influence of important time-based measures upon trust has not been examined. Such measures include social contact and anti-social activity, such as television watching, which allows for the co-presence of other people. This paper reports on associations between trust and weighted means of co-present…

  15. Collective Trust: A Social Indicator of Instructional Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to test the validity of using collective trust as a social indicator of instructional capacity. Design/methodology/approach: A hypothesized model was advanced for the empirical investigation. Collective trust was specified as a latent construct with observable indicators being principal trust in faculty (PTF),…

  16. 5 CFR 2634.310 - Trusts, estates, and investment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trusts, estates, and investment funds... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.310 Trusts, estates, and investment funds. (a) In general. (1) Except as otherwise...

  17. The Effects of Individual Communicator Styles on Perceived Faculty Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimhall, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    The research problem addressed in this study was the lack of trust between faculty-principal, faculty-client, and faculty-colleague in U.S. secondary schools. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between communicator styles and perceptions of trust. Organizational trust theory served as the theoretical foundation. A…

  18. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  19. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  20. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in...

  1. Trust in School: A Pathway to Inhibit Teacher Burnout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider trust as an important relational source in schools by exploring whether trust lowers teacher burnout. The authors examine how trust relationships with different school parties such as the principal relate to distinct dimensions of teacher burnout. The authors further analyze whether school-level…

  2. Patients' Race, Ethnicity, Language, and Trust in a Physician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanikova, Irena; Mollborn, Stefanie; Cook, Karen S.; Thom, David H.; Kramer, Roderick M.

    2006-01-01

    We examine whether racial/ethnic/language-based variation in measured levels of patients' trust in a physician depends on the survey items used to measure that trust. Survey items include: (1) a direct measure of patients' trust that the doctor will put the patient's medical needs above all other considerations, and (2) three indirect measures of…

  3. 78 FR 30324 - Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... speakers and attendees about the trust relationship, other trust models, and trust reform; review... nation-to-nation relationships. The Commission will complete a comprehensive evaluation of the... speakers and attendees about the trust relationship, other trust models, and trust reform Review...

  4. Memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Squire, Larry R; Genzel, Lisa; Wixted, John T; Morris, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Conscious memory for a new experience is initially dependent on information stored in both the hippocampus and neocortex. Systems consolidation is the process by which the hippocampus guides the reorganization of the information stored in the neocortex such that it eventually becomes independent of the hippocampus. Early evidence for systems consolidation was provided by studies of retrograde amnesia, which found that damage to the hippocampus-impaired memories formed in the recent past, but typically spared memories formed in the more remote past. Systems consolidation has been found to occur for both episodic and semantic memories and for both spatial and nonspatial memories, although empirical inconsistencies and theoretical disagreements remain about these issues. Recent work has begun to characterize the neural mechanisms that underlie the dialogue between the hippocampus and neocortex (e.g., "neural replay," which occurs during sharp wave ripple activity). New work has also identified variables, such as the amount of preexisting knowledge, that affect the rate of consolidation. The increasing use of molecular genetic tools (e.g., optogenetics) can be expected to further improve understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying consolidation. PMID:26238360

  5. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general. PMID:26983799

  6. Effects of Cognitive Load on Trusting Behavior – An Experiment Using the Trust Game

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Last decades have witnessed a progressing decline of social trust, which has been predominantly linked to worsening economic conditions and increasing social inequality. In the present research we propose a different type of explanation for the observed decline – cognitive load related to technological development and the accelerating pace of modern life. In an experimental study participants played the trust game while performing one of two different secondary tasks – listening to a disturbing noise or memorizing a sequence of characters – or with no additional task in the control condition. Results show that in both cognitive load conditions participants expressed significantly less trust in the trust game than in case of no cognitive load. Additionally, when cognitive resources were limited, participants’ behavior was more impulsive than when their resources were fully available. PMID:26010489

  7. 14 CFR 47.8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.8 Voting trusts. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 41979, July 20, 2010. Link... domestic corporation as a U.S. citizen, the corporate applicant must submit to the Registry— (1) A...

  8. Keeping "Community" in a Community Land Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Karen A.; Galande, Mugdha

    2011-01-01

    This instrumental case study examined the role of grassroots community organizing in a community land trust (CLT) in a southern U.S. city. Twenty-nine homeowners, renters, board members, community members, and current and former CLT employees were interviewed. In addition, two focus groups of 11 and six participants composed of CLT residents and…

  9. [Patient-physician relations, consent and trust].

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Marie-Paule

    2013-10-01

    The therapeutic relationship between the doctor and the patient is asymmetric. Through the trust which the patient places in him or her, the doctor is invited to see the illness, in other words the narcissistic flaw which he or she alone is authorised to examine "objectively". PMID:24245035

  10. The Importance of Trust in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, David L.

    2014-01-01

    If one looks at the different philosophies on leadership, each espouses various attributes that are essential to create a bond between the leader and the followers who are being led. This article is intended to focus on how the bond is created that provides the leader with the vehicle for success. Trust is the glue which binds the leader to…

  11. Analysing Trust Building in Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farini, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to offer both a theoretical contribution and examples of practices of trust building in peace education; the article presents an empirical analysis of videotaped interactions in the context of peace education activities in international groups of adolescents. The analysis aims to understand if and in which ways peace education is…

  12. The Role of Trust in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovey, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of trust in the collaborative learning processes that underpin innovation as a competitive strategy in organizations. Design/methodology/approach: As a conceptual paper, the argument is framed by academic perspectives, drawn from the academic literature on the topic and by professional and…

  13. The Devon NUT Campaign against Trust Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinch, Dave

    2008-01-01

    When the Devon County Council announced that six secondary schools in the South Devon area were to become "Pathfinder Schools" for trust status, the Devon National Union of Teachers set about organising a campaign to defend the county's comprehensive schools. This campaign has proved successful in the case of Tavistock College, causing other…

  14. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  15. Do Higher Education Institutes Communicate Trust Well?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul; Dean, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between trust and information sources for new purchasers of higher education is discussed. A range of sources is evaluated by potential entrants into UK higher education, and indicates that universities tend to be regarded as the most trustworthy when information is directly associated with them and social networks, and friends…

  16. Developmental Writing: Trust, Challenge, and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores the idea that basic writing students, when positioned in a classroom setting where safety and trust are paramount, will be willing to take risks. Notes that successful risks will lead students into a more positive relationship with their own writing abilities. Concludes that success in writing leads to a more open-minded approach which…

  17. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  18. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  19. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  20. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  1. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  2. Sudden trust collapse in networked societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Gama Batista, João; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Challet, Damien

    2015-03-01

    Trust is a collective, self-fulfilling phenomenon that suggests analogies with phase transitions. We introduce a stylized model for the build-up and collapse of trust in networks, which generically displays a first order transition. The basic assumption of our model is that whereas trustworthiness begets trustworthiness, panic also begets panic, in the sense that a small decrease in trustworthiness may be amplified and ultimately lead to a sudden and catastrophic drop of collective trust. We show, using both numerical simulations and mean-field analytic arguments, that there are extended regions of the parameter space where two equilibrium states coexist: a well-connected network where global confidence is high, and a poorly connected network where global confidence is low. In these coexistence regions, spontaneous jumps from the well-connected state to the poorly connected state can occur, corresponding to a sudden collapse of trust that is not caused by any major external catastrophe. In large systems, spontaneous crises are replaced by history dependence: whether the system is found in one state or in the other essentially depends on initial conditions. Finally, we document a new phase, in which agents are well connected yet distrustful.

  3. Continuing Trust Education in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blech, Scott A.

    1980-01-01

    The need for continuing professional education in the trust industry is noted and emphasis is placed on need for new or additional training in management, taxation, employee benefits, marketing, and investments. The pros and cons of residential schools are outlined, and the use of regional and state seminars is discussed. Available from 6285…

  4. Building Student Trust in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye Diana

    2014-01-01

    As online learning continues to gain widespread attention and thrive as a legitimate alternative to classroom instruction, educational institutions and online instructors face the challenge of building and sustaining student trust in online learning environments. The present study represents an attempt to address the challenge by identifying the…

  5. Sex Restricted Scholarships and the Charitable Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Law Review, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Examines three areas of vulnerability of charitable trusts which provide scholarships restricting applicants to one sex. The first area is based on constitutional grounds; the second, under the 1972 amendment to the Education Act; and the third, the entitlement of tax exempt status. (Author/PG)

  6. Cultivating Trust among Urban Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Michael A.; Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    By examining data from interviews with students in the Upward Bound program (a federally sponsored program that provides academic support to students at risk who are preparing for college entrance), this study seeks to strengthen an understanding of the role of trust among urban youth at risk in the educational organizations that serve them. This…

  7. Predicting Social Trust with Binary Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; Hufstedler, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This study used binary logistic regression to predict social trust with five demographic variables from a national sample of adult individuals who participated in The General Social Survey (GSS) in 2012. The five predictor variables were respondents' highest degree earned, race, sex, general happiness and the importance of personally assisting…

  8. Partnership as a Product of Trust: Parent-Teacher Relational Trust in a Low-Income Urban School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Heather Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Trust is an important factor affecting parent-teacher relationships. In urban schools, the lack of trust between parents and teachers is exacerbated by racial and social class differences (Bryk and Schneider, 2002). This paper examines how relational trust was both fostered and inhibited between low-income parents and their children's…

  9. "Do You Trust Him?" Children's Trust Beliefs and Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…

  10. Memory clinics

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

    2006-01-01

    Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring together professionals with a range of skills for the benefit of patients, carers, and colleagues, and contribute to health promotion, health education, audit, and research, as well as service to patients. PMID:16517802

  11. Any qualified provider: a qualitative case study of one community NHS Trust's response

    PubMed Central

    Walumbe, Jackie; Swinglehurst, Deborah; Shaw, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine how those managing and providing community-based musculoskeletal (MSK) services have experienced recent policy allowing patients to choose any provider that meets certain quality standards from the National Health Service (NHS), private or voluntary sector. Design Intrinsic case study combining qualitative analysis of interviews and field notes. Setting An NHS Community Trust (the main providers of community health services in the NHS) in England, 2013–2014. Participants NHS Community Trust employees involved in delivering MSK services, including clinical staff and managerial staff in senior and mid-range positions. Findings Managers (n=4) and clinicians (n=4) working within MSK services understood and experienced the Any Qualified Provider (AQP) policy as involving: (1) a perceived trade-off between quality and cost in its implementation; (2) deskilling of MSK clinicians and erosion of professional values; and (3) a shift away from interprofessional collaboration and dialogue. These ways of making sense of AQP policy were associated with dissatisfaction with market-based health reforms. Conclusions AQP policy is poorly understood. Clinicians and managers perceive AQP as synonymous with competition and privatisation. From the perspective of clinicians providing MSK services, AQP, and related health policy reforms, tend, paradoxically, to drive down quality standards, supporting reconfiguration of services in which the complex, holistic nature of specialised MSK care may become marginalised by policy concerns about efficiency and cost. Our analysis indicates that the potential of AQP policy to increase quality of care is, at best, equivocal, and that any consideration of how AQP impacts on practice can only be understood by reference to a wider range of health policy reforms. PMID:26908521

  12. Marrying Heterogeneous Circles of Trust: No Silver Bullet Yet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, Mikaël; Gravier, Christophe; Fayolle, Jacques; Sauviac, Bruno

    2008-11-01

    Numerous business and state-owned entities assert the need of secured information exchanges on digital identities based on trusted third parties. Entities trusting each other create a federation. At first, it is necessary for them to formalize this alliance with legal documents. In a second time, an architecture of identity federation will allow them to establish technical trust links, creating a circle of trust, most often with a public key infrastructure. The real challenge for the identity federation domain is the interoperability of information systems thanks to normalized and standardized protocols, that is to say, realize interconnection of circles of trust.

  13. A Robust Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won; Nam, Seung Yeob

    2015-01-01

    Security techniques like cryptography and authentication can fail to protect a network once a node is compromised. Hence, trust establishment continuously monitors and evaluates node behavior to detect malicious and compromised nodes. However, just like other security schemes, trust establishment is also vulnerable to attack. Moreover, malicious nodes might misbehave intelligently to trick trust establishment schemes. Unfortunately, attack-resistance and robustness issues with trust establishment schemes have not received much attention from the research community. Considering the vulnerability of trust establishment to different attacks and the unique features of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks, we propose a lightweight and robust trust establishment scheme. The proposed trust scheme is lightweight thanks to a simple trust estimation method. The comprehensiveness and flexibility of the proposed trust estimation scheme make it robust against different types of attack and misbehavior. Performance evaluation under different types of misbehavior and on-off attacks shows that the detection rate of the proposed trust mechanism is higher and more stable compared to other trust mechanisms. PMID:25806875

  14. A robust trust establishment scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won; Nam, Seung Yeob

    2015-01-01

    Security techniques like cryptography and authentication can fail to protect a network once a node is compromised. Hence, trust establishment continuously monitors and evaluates node behavior to detect malicious and compromised nodes. However, just like other security schemes, trust establishment is also vulnerable to attack. Moreover, malicious nodes might misbehave intelligently to trick trust establishment schemes. Unfortunately, attack-resistance and robustness issues with trust establishment schemes have not received much attention from the research community. Considering the vulnerability of trust establishment to different attacks and the unique features of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks, we propose a lightweight and robust trust establishment scheme. The proposed trust scheme is lightweight thanks to a simple trust estimation method. The comprehensiveness and flexibility of the proposed trust estimation scheme make it robust against different types of attack and misbehavior. Performance evaluation under different types of misbehavior and on-off attacks shows that the detection rate of the proposed trust mechanism is higher and more stable compared to other trust mechanisms. PMID:25806875

  15. Damage to the insula is associated with abnormal interpersonal trust

    PubMed Central

    Belfi, Amy M.; Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal trust is a crucial component of cooperative, mutually beneficial social relationships. Previous research using tasks that require judging and developing interpersonal trust has suggested that the insula may be an important brain region underlying these processes (King-Casas et al., 2008). Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we investigated the role of the insula in reciprocal trust during the Trust Game (TG), an interpersonal economic exchange. Consistent with previous research, we found that neurologically normal adults reciprocate trust in kind, i.e., they increase trust in response to increases from their partners, and decrease trust in response to decreases. In contrast, individuals with damage to the insula displayed abnormal expressions of trust. Specifically, these individuals behaved benevolently (expressing misplaced trust) when playing the role of investor, and malevolently (violating their partner’s trust) when playing the role of the trustee. Our findings lend further support to the idea that the insula is important for expressing normal interpersonal trust, perhaps because the insula helps to recognize risk during decision-making and to identify social norm violations. PMID:25846668

  16. Memory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amici, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Memory is the cognitive ability that allows to acquire, store and recall information; its dysfunction is called amnesia and can be a presentation of unilateral ischemic stroke in the territory of the posterior cerebral and anterior choroidal artery as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22377863

  17. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  18. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  19. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  20. Promoting Trust in the Registered Nurse-Patient Relationship.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jamie Lynn; Lonneman, William

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of trust in the registered nurse (RN)-patient relationship promotes patient engagement and improves the likelihood that the patient will be an active member of the patient care team. The purpose of this article is to examine nursing literature to identify the antecedents, attributes, and outcomes of trusting relationships between RNs and patients in home healthcare. Antecedents of trust for the RN-patient relationship included 1) meeting a need, 2) respect, 3) attention to time, 4) continuity of care, and 5) the initial visit. Attributes of trust between RN and patient in the home healthcare setting were identified as communication, connection, and reciprocity. For the RN and patient who established mutual trust, patients demonstrated better adaptation and collaboration for improvement of health, expressed a sense of security, and indicated a willingness to engage in additional trusting relationships. Barriers to a trusting relationship included a lack of respect and incompetent and/or unethical care. PMID:26645843

  1. Trusting others: the polarization effect of need for closure.

    PubMed

    Acar-Burkay, Sinem; Fennis, Bob M; Warlop, Luk

    2014-10-01

    Because trust-related issues inherently involve uncertainty, we expected individuals' social-cognitive motivation to manage uncertainty--which is captured by their need for closure--to influence their level of trust in others. Through the results of 6 studies, we showed that higher need for closure was related to more polarized trust judgments (i.e., low trust in distant others and high trust in close others) in the case of both chronic and situational need for closure. Moreover, participants with high need for closure did not revise their level of trust when they received feedback about the trustees' actual trustworthiness, whereas participants with low need for closure did. Overall, our findings indicate that polarized (either high or low, as opposed to moderate) and persistent levels of trust may serve people's seizing and freezing needs for achieving cognitive closure. PMID:25111303

  2. Consumer trust in the Australian food system - The everyday erosive impact of food labelling.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Emma; Webb, Trevor; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Wilson, Annabelle M

    2016-08-01

    Consumer trust in food system actors is foundational for ensuring consumer confidence in food safety. As food labelling is a direct communication between consumers and food system actors, it may influence consumer perceptions of actor trustworthiness. This study explores the judgements formed about the trustworthiness of the food system and its actors through labelling, and the expectations these judgements are based on. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 Australian consumers were conducted. Theoretical sampling focussed on shopping location, dietary requirements, rurality, gender, age and educational background. The methodological approach used (adaptive theory) enabled emerging data to be examined through the lens of a set of guiding theoretical concepts, and theory reconsidered in light of emerging data. Food labelling acted as a surrogate for personal interaction with industry and government for participants. Judgements about the trustworthiness of these actors and the broader food system were formed through interaction with food labelling and were based on expectations of both competence and goodwill. Interaction with labelling primarily reduced trust in actors within the food system, undermining trust in the system as a whole. Labelling has a role as an access point to the food system. Access points are points of vulnerability for systems, where trust can be developed, reinforced or broken down. For the participants in this study, in general labelling demonstrates food system actors lack goodwill and violate their fiduciary responsibility. This paper provides crucial insights for industry and policy actors to use this access point to build, rather than undermine, trust in food systems. PMID:27063669

  3. Managing Trust in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Touhid; Josang, Audun; Xu, Yue

    In recent years, there is a dramatic growth in number and popularity of online social networks. There are many networks available with more than 100 million registered users such as Facebook, MySpace, QZone, Windows Live Spaces etc. People may connect, discover and share by using these online social networks. The exponential growth of online communities in the area of social networks attracts the attention of the researchers about the importance of managing trust in online environment. Users of the online social networks may share their experiences and opinions within the networks about an item which may be a product or service. The user faces the problem of evaluating trust in a service or service provider before making a choice. Recommendations may be received through a chain of friends network, so the problem for the user is to be able to evaluate various types of trust opinions and recommendations. This opinion or recommendation has a great influence to choose to use or enjoy the item by the other user of the community. Collaborative filtering system is the most popular method in recommender system. The task in collaborative filtering is to predict the utility of items to a particular user based on a database of user rates from a sample or population of other users. Because of the different taste of different people, they rate differently according to their subjective taste. If two people rate a set of items similarly, they share similar tastes. In the recommender system, this information is used to recommend items that one participant likes, to other persons in the same cluster. But the collaborative filtering system performs poor when there is insufficient previous common rating available between users; commonly known as cost start problem. To overcome the cold start problem and with the dramatic growth of online social networks, trust based approach to recommendation has emerged. This approach assumes a trust network among users and makes recommendations

  4. Trust Management - Building Trust for International Cross Disciplinary Collaboration on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, K. V.; Gurney, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Successful communication and collaboration entails mutual understanding, and transfer, of information. The risk of misunderstanding and/or miscommunication between collaborating groups is tackled in different ways around the globe; some are well documented whereas others may be unknown outside particular groups, whether defined geographically or by specialism. For example; in some countries legally binding contracts define the terms of collaboration. Some regions place greater emphasis on developing trust relationships, and sometimes an official agreement is implied, such as many electronic data transfers on the web. International collaboration on climate change increasingly involves electronic data exchange (e.g. open access publications, shared documents, data repositories etc.) and with this increased reliance on electronic data a need has arisen for scientists to collaborate both internationally and cross-disciplinarily particularly with information technology and data management specialists. Trust of data and metadata on the internet (e.g. privacy, legitimacy etc.) varies, possibly due to a lack of internationally agreed standards for data governance and management, leaving many national, regional and institutional practices tailored to the needs of that group only. It is proposed that building trust relationships between cross-disciplinary and international groups could help facilitate further communication, understanding and benefits from the relationship, while still maintaining independence as separate groups. Complex international cross-disciplinary group relationship dynamics are not easily mapped and producing a set of trust building rules that can be applied to any current and future collaboration with equal validity may be unfeasible. An alternative to such a set of rules may be found in a Trust Manager, whose role is to improve mutually beneficial knowledge exchange between groups, build trust and increase future collaborative potential. This

  5. Contracting for Trust in Family Practice Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michael

    1983-01-01

    A case is presented, illustrating a problem faced by family physicians who practice obstetrics; women who present with lists of inflexible requirements for labor and delivery may be attempting to control a situation in which they feel a great deal of fear, and little trust for the physician. The physician who tries to deal with every item on the list, rather than to explore the meaning of the total presentation, risks establishing a contract that cannot be met—and attracting more demanding patients. It is better to offer to discuss the patient's fear and distrust; this is described as `contracting for trust', and is a way to promote patient and doctor flexibility. PMID:21283484

  6. Trusted Measurement Model Based on Multitenant Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Zhen-Hu; Shen, Chang-Xiang; Zhao, Yong; Liang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    With a fast growing pervasive computing, especially cloud computing, the behaviour measurement is at the core and plays a vital role. A new behaviour measurement tailored for Multitenants in cloud computing is needed urgently to fundamentally establish trust relationship. Based on our previous research, we propose an improved trust relationship scheme which captures the world of cloud computing where multitenants share the same physical computing platform. Here, we first present the related work on multitenant behaviour; secondly, we give the scheme of behaviour measurement where decoupling of multitenants is taken into account; thirdly, we explicitly explain our decoupling algorithm for multitenants; fourthly, we introduce a new way of similarity calculation for deviation control, which fits the coupled multitenants under study well; lastly, we design the experiments to test our scheme. PMID:24987731

  7. Trusted computation through biologically inspired processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave W.

    2013-05-01

    Due to supply chain threats it is no longer a reasonable assumption that traditional protections alone will provide sufficient security for enterprise systems. The proposed cognitive trust model architecture extends the state-of-the-art in enterprise anti-exploitation technologies by providing collective immunity through backup and cross-checking, proactive health monitoring and adaptive/autonomic threat response, and network resource diversity.

  8. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  9. Peer review of the trusted software methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, G.H.; Gannon, J.D. |; Kemmerer, R.A. |; McHugh, J. |

    1994-02-01

    The review and analysis of the Trusted Software Methodology (TSM) by a panel of experts in various areas of computer science, computer security, and engineering are reported. The approach to the conduct of the review is described, and a brief introduction to the TSM is provided. The findings from the review fall into three categories: achievements, desirable additions, and changes. In addition, several recommendations are made with respect to application of the TSM within the purview of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization.

  10. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  11. Delaying gratification depends on social trust

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H.; Munakata, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977

  12. Young children's selective trust in informants

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul L.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.

    2011-01-01

    Young children readily act on information from adults, setting aside their own prior convictions and even continuing to trust informants who make claims that are manifestly false. Such credulity is consistent with a long-standing philosophical and scientific conception of young children as prone to indiscriminate trust. Against this conception, we argue that children trust some informants more than others. In particular, they use two major heuristics. First, they keep track of the history of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, they endorse claims made by someone who has provided reliable care or reliable information in the past. Second, they monitor the cultural standing of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, children endorse claims made by someone who belongs to a consensus and whose behaviour abides by, rather than deviating from, the norms of their group. The first heuristic is likely to promote receptivity to information offered by familiar caregivers, whereas the second heuristic is likely to promote a broader receptivity to informants from the same culture. PMID:21357240

  13. Young children's selective trust in informants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul L; Corriveau, Kathleen H

    2011-04-12

    Young children readily act on information from adults, setting aside their own prior convictions and even continuing to trust informants who make claims that are manifestly false. Such credulity is consistent with a long-standing philosophical and scientific conception of young children as prone to indiscriminate trust. Against this conception, we argue that children trust some informants more than others. In particular, they use two major heuristics. First, they keep track of the history of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, they endorse claims made by someone who has provided reliable care or reliable information in the past. Second, they monitor the cultural standing of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, children endorse claims made by someone who belongs to a consensus and whose behaviour abides by, rather than deviating from, the norms of their group. The first heuristic is likely to promote receptivity to information offered by familiar caregivers, whereas the second heuristic is likely to promote a broader receptivity to informants from the same culture. PMID:21357240

  14. Dynamic reconfiguration of security policies in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mónica; Gámez, Nadia; Fuentes, Lidia; Amor, Mercedes; Horcas, José Miguel; Ayala, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs) allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies) and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs).We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain. PMID:25746093

  15. Dynamic Reconfiguration of Security Policies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Mónica; Gámez, Nadia; Fuentes, Lidia; Amor, Mercedes; Horcas, José Miguel; Ayala, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs) allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies) and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs). We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain. PMID:25746093

  16. Trust-based learning and behaviors for convoy obstacle avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Karlsen, Robert E.

    2015-05-01

    In many multi-agent systems, robots within the same team are regarded as being fully trustworthy for cooperative tasks. However, the assumption of trustworthiness is not always justified, which may not only increase the risk of mission failure, but also endanger the lives of friendly forces. In prior work, we addressed this issue by using RoboTrust to dynamically adjust to observed behaviors or recommendations in order to mitigate the risks of illegitimate behaviors. However, in the simulations in prior work, all members of the convoy had knowledge of the convoy goal. In this paper, only the lead vehicle has knowledge of the convoy goals and the follow vehicles must infer trustworthiness strictly from lead vehicle performance. In addition, RoboTrust could only respond to observed performance and did not dynamically learn agent behavior. In this paper, we incorporate an adaptive agent-specific bias into the RoboTrust algorithm that modifies its trust dynamics. This bias is learned incrementally from agent interactions, allowing good agents to benefit from faster trust growth and slower trust decay and bad agents to be penalized with slower trust growth and faster trust decay. We then integrate this new trust model into a trust-based controller for decentralized autonomous convoy operations. We evaluate its performance in an obstacle avoidance mission, where the convoy attempts to learn the best speed and following distances combinations for an acceptable obstacle avoidance probability.

  17. A Secure Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won; Nam, Seung Yeob

    2014-01-01

    Trust establishment is an important tool to improve cooperation and enhance security in wireless sensor networks. The core of trust establishment is trust estimation. If a trust estimation method is not robust against attack and misbehavior, the trust values produced will be meaningless, and system performance will be degraded. We present a novel trust estimation method that is robust against on-off attacks and persistent malicious behavior. Moreover, in order to aggregate recommendations securely, we propose using a modified one-step M-estimator scheme. The novelty of the proposed scheme arises from combining past misbehavior with current status in a comprehensive way. Specifically, we introduce an aggregated misbehavior component in trust estimation, which assists in detecting an on-off attack and persistent malicious behavior. In order to determine the current status of the node, we employ previous trust values and current measured misbehavior components. These components are combined to obtain a robust trust value. Theoretical analyses and evaluation results show that our scheme performs better than other trust schemes in terms of detecting an on-off attack and persistent misbehavior. PMID:24451471

  18. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    PubMed

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes. PMID:26567160

  19. Improving the radiologist-CAD interaction: designing for appropriate trust.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, W; Cnossen, F; van Ooijen, P M A

    2015-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has great potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic performance. However, the reported performance of the radiologist-CAD team is lower than what might be expected based on the performance of the radiologist and the CAD system in isolation. This indicates that the interaction between radiologists and the CAD system is not optimal. An important factor in the interaction between humans and automated aids (such as CAD) is trust. Suboptimal performance of the human-automation team is often caused by an inappropriate level of trust in the automation. In this review, we examine the role of trust in the radiologist-CAD interaction and suggest ways to improve the output of the CAD system so that it allows radiologists to calibrate their trust in the CAD system more effectively. Observer studies of the CAD systems show that radiologists often have an inappropriate level of trust in the CAD system. They sometimes under-trust CAD, thereby reducing its potential benefits, and sometimes over-trust it, leading to diagnostic errors they would not have made without CAD. Based on the literature on trust in human-automation interaction and the results of CAD observer studies, we have identified four ways to improve the output of CAD so that it allows radiologists to form a more appropriate level of trust in CAD. Designing CAD systems for appropriate trust is important and can improve the performance of the radiologist-CAD team. Future CAD research and development should acknowledge the importance of the radiologist-CAD interaction, and specifically the role of trust therein, in order to create the perfect artificial partner for the radiologist. This review focuses on the role of trust in the radiologist-CAD interaction. The aim of the review is to encourage CAD developers to design for appropriate trust and thereby improve the performance of the radiologist-CAD team. PMID:25459198

  20. Trust in the Medical Profession: Conceptual and Measurement Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mark A; Camacho, Fabian; Dugan, Elizabeth; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2002-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a multi-item measure for general trust in physicians, in contrast with trust in a specific physician. Data Sources Random national telephone survey of 502 adult subjects with a regular physician and source of payment. Study Design Based on a multidimensional conceptual model, a large pool of candidate items was generated, tested, and revised using focus groups, expert reviewers, and pilot testing. The scale was analyzed for its factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity, and other psychometric properties. Principal Findings The resulting 11-item scale measuring trust in physicians generally is consistent with most aspects of the conceptual model except that it does not include the dimension of confidentiality. This scale has a single-factor structure, good internal consistency (alpha=.89), and good response variability (range=11–54; mean=33.5; SD=6.9). This scale is related to satisfaction with care, trust in one's physician, following doctors' recommendations, having no prior disputes with physicians, not having sought second opinions, and not having changed doctors. No association was found with race/ethnicity. While general trust and interpersonal trust are qualitatively similar, they are only moderately correlated with each other and general trust is substantially lower. Conclusions Emerging research on patients' trust has focused on interpersonal trust in a specific, known physician. Trust in physicians in general is also important and differs significantly from interpersonal physician trust. General physician trust potentially has a strong influence on important behaviors and attitudes, and on the formation of interpersonal physician trust. PMID:12479504

  1. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity: Informing Culturally Appropriate Data-Sharing Practice in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Merson, Laura; Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-07-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context. PMID:26297747

  2. The Integrity of Science: Identifying Logical Fallacies, Deceitful Tactics, and Abuse of the Public Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    Science, government, and society interact in diverse and complex ways, but good scientific information and advice are vital for making sound policy decisions. Recent efforts to discredit or distort science for political agendas raise difficult questions for the scientific community. As a result, there is growing distrust of scientists long held in esteem by the public and a growing misuse of science critical for public policy. This paper will categorize and define more than 20 different kinds of problems that challenge the integrity of science, including logical fallacies, such as Arguments from Ideology, Personal Incredulity, or Ignorance; and deceitful tactics, such as ad hominem attacks, "straw man" mischaracterizations, scientific misconduct, and misuse of facts. Examples from the geophysical sciences and its intersection with the public policy arena will be presented, together with suggestions for strengthening the public trust.

  3. Trust in nurse-patient relationships: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Leyla; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to report the results of a literature review of empirical studies on trust within the nurse-patient relationship. A search of electronic databases yielded 34 articles published between 1980 and 2011. Twenty-two studies used a qualitative design, and 12 studies used quantitative research methods. The context of most quantitative studies was nurse caring behaviours, whereas most qualitative studies focused on trust in the nurse-patient relationship. Most of the quantitative studies used a descriptive design, while qualitative methods included the phenomenological approach, grounded theory, ethnography and interpretive interactionism. Data collection was mainly by questionnaires or interviews. Evidence from this review suggests that the development of trust is a relational phenomenon, and a process, during which trust could be broken and re-established. Nurses' professional competencies and interpersonal caring attributes were important in developing trust; however, various factors may hinder the trusting relationship. PMID:23426234

  4. Trust in healthcare settings: Scale development, methods, and preliminary determinants

    PubMed Central

    LoCurto, Jamie; Berg, Gina M

    2016-01-01

    The literature contains research regarding how trust is formed in healthcare settings but rarely discusses trust formation in an emergent care population. A literature review was conducted to determine which of the trust determinants are important for this process as well as how to develop a scale to measure trust. A search generated a total of 155 articles, 65 of which met eligibility criteria. Determinants that were important included the following: honesty, confidentiality, dependability, communication, competency, fiduciary responsibility, fidelity, and agency. The process of developing a scale includes the following: a literature review, qualitative analysis, piloting, and survey validation. Results suggest that physician behaviors are important in influencing trust in patients and should be included in scales measuring trust. Next steps consist of interviewing emergent care patients to commence the process of developing a scale.

  5. Scripting for Construction of a Transactive Memory System in Multidisciplinary CSCL Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Weinberger, Armin; Mulder, Martin; Chizari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a Transactive Memory System (TMS) is essential for groups of learners, when they are multidisciplinary and collaborate online. Environments for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) could be designed to facilitate the TMS. This study investigates how various aspects of a TMS (i.e., specialization, coordination, and trust)…

  6. Mechanisms of Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the brain processes and brain systems involved in learning and memory from a neuropsychological perspective of analysis. Reports findings related to the locus of memory storage, types of memory and knowledge, and memory consolidation. Models of animal memory are also examined. An extensive reference list is included. (ML)

  7. 78 FR 24447 - Goldman Sachs Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Goldman Sachs Trust, et al.; Notice of Application April 19, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (each a ``Trust,'' together, the ``Trusts''), Goldman Sachs Asset Management,...

  8. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-6 - Income of foreign trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of foreign trust. 1.643(a)-6 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(a)-6 Income of foreign trust. (a) Distributable net income of a foreign trust. In the case of a foreign trust (see section 7701(a)(31)),...

  9. 77 FR 60484 - PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... COMMISSION PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 26, 2012. AGENCY... companies. Applicants: PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, PowerShares Actively Managed Exchange- Traded Fund Trust (each, a ``Trust'') and Invesco...

  10. 78 FR 79519 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust, IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (each, a ``Trust,'' and collectively, the ``Trusts''), IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ Advisors'') and...

  11. Could Talk Therapy Ease Chemo-Related Memory Issues?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Cancer Chemotherapy Cancer--Living with Cancer Memory Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer ...

  12. Acupuncture May Slow Pre-Dementia Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Acupuncture Dementia Memory Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Acupuncture ...

  13. Trust, choice and obligation: a qualitative study of enablers of colorectal cancer screening in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Meyer, Samantha

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer prevalence and mortality rates in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free faecal occult blood testing. The NBCSP aims to offer choice to consumers about whether or not to participate in screening. This article presents data on trust, choice and perceived obligation to participate in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia. We interviewed 94 people from four culturally distinct groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous peoples. This article demonstrates the complexity of factors shaping the choice, or lack thereof, to participate in the NBCSP. Informed choice is based on adequate knowledge, although this varied among our participants, highlighting the need for more health education in appropriate languages. An obligation to participate was found in the Iranian and Anglo-Australian groups and resulted from an established personal relationship with the doctor, a sense of duty, the acknowledgement of government investment and appreciation. Overall, this article makes a link between trust, choice and obligation, adding to literature on the sociology of trust and medical screening and highlighting important issues in the need of a policy and practice to improve CRC screening rates. PMID:25912247

  14. Memory effects in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  15. Experiences of baby-led weaning: trust, control and renegotiation.

    PubMed

    Arden, Madelynne A; Abbott, Rachel L

    2015-10-01

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an approach to introducing solid foods that relies on the presence of self-feeding skills and is increasing in popularity in the UK and New Zealand. This study aimed to investigate the reported experiences and feelings of mothers using a BLW approach in order to better understand the experiences of the mother and infant, the benefits and challenges of the approach, and the beliefs that underpin these experiences. Fifteen UK mothers were interviewed over the course of a series of five emails using a semi-structured approach. The email transcripts were anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. There were four main themes identified from the analysis: (1) trusting the child; (2) parental control and responsibility; (3) precious milk; and (4) renegotiating BLW. The themes identified reflect a range of ideals and pressures that this group of mothers tried to negotiate in order to provide their infants with a positive and healthy introduction to solid foods. One of the key issues of potential concern is the timing at which some of the children ingested complementary foods. Although complementary foods were made available to the infants at 6 months of age, in many cases they were not ingested until much later. These findings have potentially important implications for mother's decision-making, health professional policy and practice, and future research. PMID:24521206

  16. Organizational Failure in an NHS Hospital Trust: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Mannion, Russell; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to explore the key factors associated with organizational failure in an NHS Hospital Trust. This case study adopted a qualitative design. Fifty-seven semistructured interviews and document analyses were conducted as well. Data were analyzed using a framework analysis method. A range of symptoms of organizational performance failure was identified. These relate to a financial deficit, lack of good external relationships, inability to meet core targets, a lack of clear management systems, and low staff morale. These markers had not been taken seriously by the previous senior management team. Symptoms of failure were the reflection of presence of secondary and primary causes of failure. Poor managerial leadership, poor financial control and performance management, lack of open culture, distraction by 2 large projects, and the lack of clinician engagement were perceived as internal causes of failure and the high level of policy changes within the NHS as the key external cause. The level of deprivation in the area was also thought to have had a negative impact on performance. The findings reinforce and expand on those of recent studies across the public sector. Tracking an organization's performance and early diagnosis of performance problems, focusing on performance management systems, and taking into account contextual factors are issues that should be considered. PMID:26506299

  17. Trust-based Access Control in Virtual Learning Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Qingtang

    The virtual learning community is an important application pattern of E-Learning. It emphasizes the cooperation of the members in the community, the members would like to share their learning resources, to exchange their experience and complete the study task together. This instructional mode has already been proved as an effective way to improve the quality and efficiency of instruction. At the present time, the virtual learning communities are mostly designed using static access control policy by which the access permission rights are authorized by the super administrator, the super administrator assigns different rights to different roles, but the virtual and social characteristics of virtual learning community make information sharing and collaboration a complex problem, the community realizes its instructional goal only if the members in it believe that others will offer the knowledge they owned and believe the knowledge others offered is well-meaning and worthy. This paper tries to constitute an effective trust mechanism, which could promise favorable interaction and lasting knowledge sharing.

  18. How Do We Learn to Trust? A Confirmatory Tetrad Analysis of the Sources of Generalized Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Jennifer L.; Paxton, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask whether individuals decide that people are generally trustworthy or untrustworthy by extrapolating from their experiences in localized interactions or whether a more fixed predisposition drives assessments of trustworthiness. These two contrasting theoretical perspectives on generalized trust can be translated into empirically…

  19. To Trust or Not to Trust?--Teacher Marking versus External Marking of National Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Erickson, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In the Swedish educational system, teachers have the dual responsibility of assigning final grades and marking their own students' national tests. The Government has mandated the Swedish Schools Inspectorate to remark samples of the national tests to see if teacher marking can be trusted. Reports from this project have concluded that intermarker…

  20. Teaching, Tasks, and Trust: Functions of the Public Executive. Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, John; Gates, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The mere word "bureaucracy" brings to mind images of endless lines, piles of paperwork, and frustrating battles over rules and red tape. But some bureaucracies are clearly more efficient and responsive than others. Why? In "Teaching, Tasks, and Trust", distinguished political scientists John Brehm and Scott Gates show that a good part of the…

  1. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF... States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return (Form 709) the transfer and the extent to which... transfers $100,000 to an irrevocable generation-skipping trust; B simultaneously transfers $50,000 to...

  2. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF... States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return (Form 709) the transfer and the extent to which... transfers $100,000 to an irrevocable generation-skipping trust; B simultaneously transfers $50,000 to...

  3. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF... States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return (Form 709) the transfer and the extent to which... transfers $100,000 to an irrevocable generation-skipping trust; B simultaneously transfers $50,000 to...

  4. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF... States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return (Form 709) the transfer and the extent to which... transfers $100,000 to an irrevocable generation-skipping trust; B simultaneously transfers $50,000 to...

  5. Towards a Trust Model in E-Learning: Antecedents of a Student's Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongse-ek, Woraluck; Wills, Gary B.; Gilbert, Lester

    2013-01-01

    When a student is faced with uncertainty in the trustworthiness of a learning activity to meet their intended learning goals, it may cause a student to have a state of anxiety and a lack of confidence in the teaching activity. A student's trust in the teaching agents' ability to provide an appropriate teaching activity is needed to reduce the…

  6. 38 CFR 38.633 - Group memorial monuments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with policies established under 38 CFR 38.630. (3) Next of kin—recognized in order: Surviving... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group memorial monuments... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.633 Group memorial monuments....

  7. African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese Physicians: A Social Ecological Approach to Understanding Patient-Physician Trust

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Megan M.; Simonson, Louis; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants’ trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust. Methods / Principal Findings We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants’ trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients’ social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients’ trust of their physicians. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions. PMID:25965064

  8. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  9. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  10. Patient Trust in Physicians: Empirical Evidence from Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Da-Hai; Rao, Ke-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Ruo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient trust in physicians, which can be considered a collective good, is necessary for an effective health care system. However, there is a widespread concern that patient trust in physicians is declining under various threats to the physician–patient relationship worldwide. This article aimed to assess patient trust in physicians through a quantitative study in Shanghai, China, and to provide appropriate suggestions for improving the trust in China. Methods: The data from a survey conducted in Zhongshan Hospital and Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, which are two tertiary public hospitals in Shanghai, were used in this study. Patient trust in physicians was the dependent variable. Furthermore, a 10-item scale was used to precisely describe the dependent variable. The demographic characteristics were independent variables of trust in physicians. Binomial logistic regression was employed to analyze the factors associated with the dependent variable, which was divided into two categories on the basis of the responses (1: Strongly agree or agree and 0: Strongly disagree, disagree, or neutral). Results: This study found that 67% of patients trusted or strongly trusted physicians. The mean score of patient trust in physicians was 35.4 from a total score of 50. Furthermore, patient trust in physicians was significantly correlated with the age, education level, annual income, and health insurance coverage of the patients. Conclusions: Patient trust in physicians in Shanghai, China is higher than previously reported. Furthermore, the most crucial reason for patient distrust in physicians is the information asymmetry between patients and physicians, which is a natural property of the physician–patient relationship, rather than the so-called for-profit characteristic of physicians or patients’ excessive expectations. PMID:26996477

  11. Trust in Physicians Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Manrui; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Trust in physicians influences the health and well-being of older adults and is an important indicator to assess the quality of medical care. However, Asian aging populations are often underrepresented in studies of patient trust in physicians. This study aims to examine the level of trust in physicians among Chinese older adults in a community-dwelling Chinese aging population. Methods. Data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above were surveyed. An 11-item scale was used to measure participants’ trust in physicians. Results. On a scale of 11–55, the level of trust in physician among U.S. Chinese older adults was 42.0 (SD = 6.3). Items related to confidence in physicians’ knowledge and skills were most commonly endorsed, including trusting physicians’ judgment on medical care (84.8%), trusting physicians’ advice (84.2%), and trusting physicians’ words that something is so and must be true (81.2%). Younger age, male gender, higher educational level, fewer years of residing in the United States and in the community, poorer self-reported health status, and poorer quality of life were associated with lower level of trust in physicians. Conclusions. Trust in physician is commonly endorsed among U.S. Chinese older adults. However, future longitudinal studies are needed to improve our understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with trust in physicians among U.S. Chinese older adults. PMID:25378448

  12. 75 FR 11585 - Lincoln Variable Insurance Products Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Lincoln Variable Insurance Products Trust, et al.; Notice of Application March 5, 2010. AGENCY...: Lincoln Variable Insurance Products Trust (``Trust'') and Lincoln Investment Advisors Corporation... Companies'') as the underlying investment vehicles for the variable life insurance and variable...

  13. 77 FR 74231 - Hatteras Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Hatteras Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and.... Applicants: Hatteras Variable Trust (``Trust'') and Hatteras Alternative Mutual Funds (``Hatteras... account supporting variable life insurance contracts (``VLI Accounts'') holds shares of an...

  14. 78 FR 66376 - Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform AGENCY: Office... announcing that the Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform (the Commission) will... INFORMATION: The Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform was established...

  15. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  16. Do emergency physicians trust their patients?

    PubMed

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Tardif, Jacques; Triby, Emmanuel; Ammirati, Christine; Bertrand, Catherine; Charlin, Bernard; Dory, Valérie

    2016-06-01

    The primary focus of research on the physician-patient relationship has been on patients' trust in their physicians. In this study, we explored physicians' trust in their patients. We held semi-structured interviews with expert emergency physicians concerning a patient they had just been managing. The physicians had been equipped with a head-mounted micro camera to film the encounter from an "own point of view perspective". The footage was used to stimulate recall during the interviews. Several participants made judgments on the reliability of their patients' accounts from the very beginning of the encounter. If accounts were not deemed reliable, participants implemented a variety of specific strategies in pursuing their history taking, i.e. checking for consistency by asking the same question at several points in the interview, cross-referencing information, questioning third-parties, examining the patient record, and systematically collecting data held to be objective. Our study raises the question of the influence of labeling patients as "reliable" or "unreliable" on their subsequent treatment in the emergency department. Further work is necessary to examine the accuracy of these judgments, the underlying cognitive processes (i.e. analytic versus intuitive) and their influence on decision-making. PMID:26907536

  17. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  18. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  19. Adolescent Development of Trust. CIRCLE Working Paper 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Connie; Gallay, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to gain a better understanding of dimensions of trust and inter-relationships between those dimensions during the adolescent years. Drawing from survey data collected at the beginning and end of a semester in eighty middle- and high-school social studies classes, relationships were assessed between: social trust,…

  20. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5 Pre-immigration trusts. (a)...

  1. 22 CFR 145.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 145.37 Section 145.37 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 145.37 Property trust relationship....

  2. Facilitating Trust Engenderment in Secondary School Nurse Interactions with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summach, Anne H. J.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses are involved in a complex framework of interactions with students, other professionals, parents, and administrators. Trust between nurse and student is critical for interaction effectiveness. The goal of this study was to understand through phenomenology the process of engendering trust in school nurse-high school student…

  3. Trust in the medical profession and patient attachment style.

    PubMed

    Klest, Bridget; Philippon, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Attachment style is a person's approach to interpersonal relationships, which develops from early experiences with primary caregivers and can remain stable into adulthood. Depending on a person's attachment style, the amount of trust one has in others can vary when forming relationships, and trust is important in formation of the patient-physician relationship. The purpose of this study was to see if there is an association between attachment style and trust in physicians in general. Participants were recruited from an emergency department (ED) and an online university participant pool, and completed short questionnaires assessing attachment style and trust in the medical profession. Results revealed that individuals with a fearful attachment style reported significantly lower levels of trust in the medical profession than those with a secure attachment style. ED participants also reported higher levels of trust in the medical profession in comparison to student participants. This study provides a better understanding of trust in the medical profession, and insight into future care for patients who have low trust. PMID:26652310

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-6 - Trust fund agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trust fund agreements. 319.56-6 Section 319.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-6 Trust...

  5. 77 FR 17091 - Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... land consolidation draft plan (77 FR 5528) and requesting comments by March 19, 2012. This notice... Office of the Secretary Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... commenting on the Cobell Land Consolidation Program Draft Plan (also known as the Trust Land...

  6. An Exploratory Study of Interpersonal Trust between the Sexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrocci, Noreen M.

    To determine the extent to which males and females bring similar or dissimilar attitudes of trust to encounters with members of the same or the opposite sex, a study was conducted that examined attitudes of interpersonal trust according to the subject's perception of the expertness (validity of judgment), reliability, and dynamism of the attitude…

  7. Virtual Environment Interpersonal Trust Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is in the process of interpersonal communication in virtual environments is available from the trust problem is to develop a measurement tool. Trust in the process of distance education today, and has been a factor to be investigated. People, who take distance education course, they could may remain within the process…

  8. Trust, Distrust and Their Impact on Assessment Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper puts forward the case that one of the factors constraining principled learning-oriented assessment practices is lack of trust. It examines a number of assessment dimensions in which trust or distrust plays a role. These issues are illustrated via a discussion of two different iterations of the same module taught in a teacher education…

  9. 12 CFR 745.9-1 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trust accounts. 745.9-1 Section 745.9-1 Banks... AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.9-1 Trust accounts. (a... defined in § 745.2(d)(4)), for the same beneficiary, deposited in an account and established pursuant...

  10. 12 CFR 745.9-1 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trust accounts. 745.9-1 Section 745.9-1 Banks... AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.9-1 Trust accounts. (a... defined in § 745.2(d)(4)), for the same beneficiary, deposited in an account and established pursuant...

  11. 5 CFR 2634.403 - Qualified blind trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information which might specifically identify current trust assets, or those assets which have been sold or... preference for maximizing current income or long-term capital appreciation; (C) To notification of the... interested party information which might specifically identify current trust assets which have been sold...

  12. Protecting Public Trust: An Archival Wake-Up Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speck, Jason G.

    2010-01-01

    While archivists and their repositories depend a great deal on public trust, they do little to cultivate or protect it. All too often, the archival community is passive where it should be fiercely proactive. This article aims to show archivists how they can build on the trust they have and avoid many of the problems that have plagued the archival…

  13. The TRUST Partnership: Institutional Impacts at Lehman College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Heather; Kelly, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the institutional impacts at Lehman College, City University of New York, of the Teacher Renewal for Urban Science Teaching (TRUST) Project, a partnership between the American Museum of Natural History and Brooklyn and Lehman Colleges funded by the National Science Foundation. We examine the impact that TRUST had and continues…

  14. The emergence of trust in clinics of alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Hansen, Vibeke Holm; Grünenberg, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Demands for alternative medicine have increased since the 1970s in nations in which western scientific evidence has become the basis for health care. This paradox has been the impetus to examine how trust emerges in clinics of alternative medicine. Alternative practitioners are self-regulated and the clients pay out of their own pockets to attend non-authorised treatments with very limited scientific evidence of their effects. Trust is a key issue in this context. However, only a few studies have dealt with the ways in which alternative practitioners win their clients' trust. Drawing on three qualitative studies and informing the empirical findings with a sociological concept of trust, this article provides new empirical insights on how trust emerges in Danish clinics of acupuncture, reflexology and homeopathy. The analysis demonstrates how trust is situational and emerges through both clients' susceptibility and practitioners' individual skill development and strategies, as well as from objects, place and space. Trust is developed on relational and bodily as well as material grounds. It is argued that the dynamics and elements of trust identified do not only minimalise uncertainties but sometimes convert these uncertainties into productive new ways for clients to address their ailments, life circumstances and perspectives. PMID:26403077

  15. 24 CFR 84.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 84.37 Section 84.37 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  16. 22 CFR 145.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 145.37 Section 145.37 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF... Standards § 145.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  17. 10 CFR 600.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 600.137 Section 600.137 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform..., Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.137 Property trust...

  18. 34 CFR 74.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 74.37 Section 74.37 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... Property Standards § 74.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property,...

  19. 38 CFR 49.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 49.37 Section 49.37 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  20. 32 CFR 32.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 32.37 Section 32.37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are...

  1. 40 CFR 30.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 30.37 Section 30.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  2. 7 CFR 3019.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 3019.37 Section 3019.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  3. 49 CFR 19.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 19.37 Section 19.37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... Requirements Property Standards § 19.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment,...

  4. 41 CFR 105-72.407 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 105-72.407 Section 105-72.407 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... § 105-72.407 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  5. 40 CFR 30.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 30.37 Section 30.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  6. 22 CFR 518.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property trust relationship. 518.37 Section 518.37 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 518.37 Property trust relationship. Real...

  7. 29 CFR 95.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 95.37 Section 95.37 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS... Requirements Property Standards § 95.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment,...

  8. 45 CFR 2543.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 2543.37 Section 2543.37 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.37 Property trust...

  9. 24 CFR 84.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 84.37 Section 84.37 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  10. 7 CFR 3019.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 3019.37 Section 3019.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  11. 43 CFR 12.937 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 12.937 Section 12.937 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT... Requirements § 12.937 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Property trust relationship. 1260.137 Section 1260.137 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  13. 43 CFR 12.937 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 12.937 Section 12.937 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT... Requirements § 12.937 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  14. 34 CFR 74.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 74.37 Section 74.37 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... Property Standards § 74.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property,...

  15. 41 CFR 105-72.407 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 105-72.407 Section 105-72.407 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... § 105-72.407 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  16. 15 CFR 14.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 14.37 Section 14.37 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.37 Property trust relationship....

  17. 15 CFR 14.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 14.37 Section 14.37 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.37 Property trust relationship....

  18. 32 CFR 32.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 32.37 Section 32.37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are...

  19. 29 CFR 95.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Property trust relationship. 95.37 Section 95.37 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS... Requirements Property Standards § 95.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment,...

  20. 38 CFR 49.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 49.37 Section 49.37 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  1. 36 CFR 1210.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 1210.37 Section 1210.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Standards § 1210.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  2. 2 CFR 215.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 215.37 Section 215.37 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 2543.37 Section 2543.37 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.37 Property trust...

  4. 10 CFR 600.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 600.137 Section 600.137 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform..., Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.137 Property trust...

  5. 49 CFR 19.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 19.37 Section 19.37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... Requirements Property Standards § 19.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment,...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 1210.37 Section 1210.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Standards § 1210.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  7. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  8. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  9. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  10. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  11. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  12. 12 CFR 330.10 - Revocable trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designated charity is entitled to $175,000. The trust also provides that the remainder of the trust assets... the friend, $175,000 for the charity, and $250,000 for the spouse (because the spouse's $935,000 is... cousins, and a charity as beneficiaries. The balance in the account is $1,750,000. Neither A nor B has...

  13. Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Valarie

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether parental divorce is associated with offspring trust in parents, intimate partners, and others. Results reveal that although parental divorce is negatively associated with trust, these effects largely disappear once the quality of the past parent-teen relationship is taken into account. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  14. Organizational Health of High Schools and Dimensions of Faculty Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Page A.; Hoy, Wayne K.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines several dimensions of high school organizational health and faculty trust factors involving students, colleagues, principals, and parents. Finds that the greater the degree of faculty trust the better the organizational health of a school. Draws implications for research and practice. (Contains 26 references.) (PKP)

  15. Establishing and Maintaining Organizational Trust in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Matt; Lara, Tracy M.; Hughey, Aaron W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent corporate and academic scandals have led to decreasing levels of trust and confidence in many organizations. Whether the organization is a college or university, a government agency, a private company or a public corporation, the establishment and maintenance of trust is essential to both short-term success and long-term efficacy. This…

  16. A Cultural Comparison of Trust in eLearning Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Lakisha L.; Simmons, Chris B.; Hayek, Mario; Parks, Rachida; Mbarika, Victor W.

    2012-01-01

    A significant body of literature focuses on learning mediated by technology (eLearning). We conceptually develop and empirically test a model of trust antecedents with online undergraduate students. Contributing to the student eLearning success literature, we posit that eLearning students require the support of technologies and trust in those…

  17. Trust, Accountability, and Integrity: Board Responsibilities for Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The financial and legal dimensions of trusteeship stem from the broader conception of trust that emphasizes trustees' responsibility to uphold and protect the integrity of the institution and its programs as a mission-centered institution of higher education. In accepting the mantle of trust, the board pledges the highest degree of responsibility…

  18. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... development of coal deposits held in trust by the United States for Indians. See 43 CFR...

  19. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... development of coal deposits held in trust by the United States for Indians. See 43 CFR...

  20. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... development of coal deposits held in trust by the United States for Indians. See 43 CFR...