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We examined the effect of spatial iconicity (a perceptual simulation of canonical locations of objects) and word-order frequency on language processing and episodic memory of orientation. Participants made speeded relatedness judgments to pairs of words presented in locations typical to their real world arrangements (e.g., ceiling on top and floor on bottom). They then engaged in a surprise orientation recognition task for the word pairs. We replicated Louwerse’s finding (2008) that word-order frequency has a stronger effect on semantic relatedness judgments than spatial iconicity. This is consistent with recent suggestions that linguistic representations have a stronger impact on immediate decisions about verbal materials than perceptual simulations. In contrast, spatial iconicity enhanced episodic memory of orientation to a greater extent than word-order frequency did. This new finding indicates that perceptual simulations have an important role in episodic memory. Results are discussed with respect to theories of perceptual representation and linguistic processing.
We examined the effect of spatial iconicity (a perceptual simulation of canonical locations of objects) and word-order frequency on language processing and episodic memory of orientation. Participants made speeded relatedness judgements to pairs of words presented in locations typical of their real-world arrangements (e.g., ceiling on top and floor on bottom). They then engaged in a surprise orientation recognition task
In two experiments it was investigated which aspects of memory are influenced by emotion. Using a framework proposed by Roediger (American Psychologist 45 (1990) 1043–1056), two dimensions relevant for memory were distinguished the implicit–explicit distinction, and the perceptual versus conceptual distinction. In week 1, subjects viewed a series of slides accompanied with a spoken story in either of the two
An on-road evaluation of two perceptual countermeasure treatments (an enhanced curve post treatment and peripheral transverse edgelines on the approach to an intersection) was conducted over one year to indicate potential for reducing travel speed. Measures included speed and deceleration profiles, braking, and lateral placement observations taken from video recordings at each site. Data were collected before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 12 months after treatment. The results obtained were quite variable across sites and treatments. At curves, speed effects were mixed with both speed reductions and increases observed immediately after and 12-months later. Braking results tended to support travel speed findings and some improvement in lateral placement were also observed at these locations. At intersections, the results were more stable where speed reductions were more common both immediately after treatment as well as longer-term. There were no differences in braking and lateral placement at these straight-road locations. The findings seem to have been unduly influenced to some degree by misadventure and wear and tear at these sites. It is argued that while the effectiveness of these treatments may be site specific to some degree, they do offer a low-cost solution to reducing travel speed at hazardous locations. PMID:16179136
e recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed) are also related to gray and white matter volume, and whether any of
Daniëlle Posthuma; W. F. C. Baare; Hilleke E. Hulshoff Pol; René S. Kahn; Dorret I. Boomsma; Geus de E. J. C
Background: Although cross-sectional studies have demonstrated associations between visual contrast sensitivity and cognitive test performance, it remains unclear whether peripheral visual or perceptual factors explain the association. Objective: We aimed at determining whether reducing static contrast of the study stimuli would simulate the performance deficits on measures of processing speed and associative memory that are associated with aging. Methods: We
Kaarin J. Anstey; Peter Butterworth; Maria Borzycki; Sally Andrews
Research examining the relation between explicit and implicit forms of memory has generated a great deal of evidence concerning the issue of multiple memory systems. This article focuses on an extensively studied implicit memory phenomenon, known as direct or repetition priming, and examines the hypothesis that priming effects on various tasks reflect the operation of a perceptual representation system (PRS)a
There is ongoing debate whether the efficiency of local cognitive processes leads to global cognitive ability or whether global ability feeds the efficiency of basic processes. A prominent example is the well-replicated association between inspection time (IT), a measure of perceptual discrimination speed, and intelligence (IQ), where it is not known whether increased speed is a cause or consequence of
Michelle Luciano; Danielle Posthuma; Margaret J. Wright; Eco J. C. de Geus; Glen A. Smith; Gina M. Geffen; Dorret I. Boomsma; Nicholas G. Martin
In this position paper we attempt to derive an architecture and mechanism for perceptual associative memory and learning for software agents and cognitive robots from what is known, or believed, about the same faculties in human and other animal cognition. Based on that of the IDA model of global workspace theory, a conceptual and computational model of cognition, this architecture,
Reports experiments designed to explore the relationship between the more aware autobiographical form of memory that is measured by a recognition memory test and the less aware form of memory that is expressed in perceptual learning. Ss were 247 undergraduates. Variables such as the level of processing of words during study influenced recognition memory, but not subsequent perceptual recognition. In
The aims of this study were to examine and compare perceptual and conceptual implicit memory (CIM) in Huntington's disease (HD) and to characterize the relationship between tests of frontal lobe functioning and CIM. Sixteen HD patients and 16 normal controls completed structurally parallel tests of perceptual implicit memory and CIM (i.e., rhyme and category exemplar generation), tests of explicit memory,
Pauline M. Maki; Frederick W. Bylsma; Jason Brandt
Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22749926
|Purpose: To examine several cognitive and perceptual abilities--including working memory (WM), information processing speed (PS), perceptual closure, and perceptual disembedding skill--as factors contributing to individual differences in lipreading performance and to examine how patterns in predictor variables change across age groups. Method:…
Attention and memory are typically studied as separate topics, but they are highly intertwined. Here we discuss the relation between memory and two fundamental types of attention: perceptual and reflective. Memory is the persisting consequence of cognitive activities initiated by and/or focused on external information from the environment (perceptual attention) and initiated by and/or focused on internal mental representations (reflective attention). We consider three key questions for advancing a cognitive neuroscience of attention and memory: To what extent do perception and reflection share representational areas? To what extent are the control processes that select, maintain, and manipulate perceptual and reflective information subserved by common areas and networks? During perception and reflection, to what extent are common areas responsible for binding features together to create complex, episodic memories and for reviving them later? Considering similarities and differences in perceptual and reflective attention helps integrate a broad range of findings and raises important unresolved issues.
|In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…
Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus
We used implicit measures of memory to ascertain whether false memories for critical nonpresented items in the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) contain structural and perceptual detail. In Experiment 1, we manipulated presentation modality in a visual word-stem-completion task. Critical item priming was significant and unaffected by modality. In contrast, priming of critical items was absent in
The disclosed embodiments relate to a Flash-based memory module having high-speed serial communication. The Flash-based memory module comprises, among other things, a plurality of I/O modules, each configured to communicate with an external device over one or more external communication links, a plurality of Flash-based memory cards, each comprising a plurality of Flash memory devices, and a plurality of crossbar switching elements, each being connected to a respective one of the Flash-based memory cards and configured to allow each one of the I/O modules to communicate with the respective one of the Flash-based memory cards. Each I/O module is connected to each crossbar switching element by a high-speed serial communication link, and each crossbar switching element is connected to the respective one of the Flash-based memory cards by a plurality of parallel communication links.
Frost; Holloway H. (Houston, TX); Hutsell; Rebecca J. (Houston, TX)
The study investigates the effects of intelligence, perceptualspeed and age on intraindividual growth in attentional speed and attentional accuracy over the course of a 6-minute testing session. A sample of 193 subjects completed the Advanced Progressive Matrices and the Vienna Matrices Test representing intelligence, the tests Alertness and GoNogo representing simple perceptual processing, and the Frankfurt Adaptive Concentration-Performance Test,
Frank Goldhammer; Wolfgang A. Rauch; Karl Schweizer; Helfried Moosbrugger
\\u000a Memory constitutes an essential cognitive capability of humans and animals. It allows them to act in very complex, non-stationary\\u000a environments. In this paper, we propose a perceptualmemory system, which is intended to be applied on a humanoid robot learning\\u000a affordances. According to the properties of biological memory systems, it has been designed in such a way as to enable
Marc Kammer; Marko Tscherepanow; Thomas Schack; Yukie Nagai
Reports of critical lure priming in perceptual implicit tasks [e.g., McKone, E., & Murphy, B. (2000). Implicit false memory: Effects of modality and multiple study presentations on long-lived semantic priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 89–109] using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of
Dawn M. McBride; Jennifer H. Coane; Bascom A. Raulerson
Research examining the importance of surface-level information to familiarity in recognition memory tasks is mixed: Sometimes it affects recognition and sometimes it does not. One potential explanation of the inconsistent findings comes from the ideas of dual process theory of recognition and the transfer-appropriate processing framework, which suggest that the extent to which perceptual fluency matters on a recognition test depends in large part on the task demands. A test that recruits perceptual processing for discrimination should show greater perceptual effects and smaller conceptual effects than standard recognition, similar to the pattern of effects found in perceptual implicit memory tasks. This idea was tested in the current experiment by crossing a levels of processing manipulation with a modality manipulation on a series of recognition tests that ranged from conceptual (standard recognition) to very perceptually demanding (a speeded recognition test with degraded stimuli). Results showed that the levels of processing effect decreased and the effect of modality increased when tests were made perceptually demanding. These results support the idea that surface-level features influence performance on recognition tests when they are made salient by the task demands. PMID:23231004
A number of studies in recent years have suggested that exogenous and endogenous attention might enhance the perceived magnitude\\u000a of various perceptual attributes, such as contrast and motion speed. Those studies have generally used comparative judgments\\u000a as a measure to assess the point of subjective equality; however, similarity judgments have been proposed as possibly less\\u000a prone to decision biases (Schneider
The study investigates the effects of intelligence, perceptualspeed and age on intraindividual growth in attentional speed and attentional accuracy over the course of a 6-minute testing session. A sample of 193 subjects completed the Advanced Progressive Matrices and the Vienna Matrices Test representing intelligence, the tests Alertness and…
Goldhammer, Frank; Rauch, Wolfgang A.; Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried
|Recent data (T. J. Perfect, C. J. A. Moulin, M. A. Conway, & E. Perry, 2002) have suggested that retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) depends on conceptual memory because the effect is not found in perceptually driven tasks. In 3 experiments, the authors aimed to show that the presence of RIF depends on whether the procedure induces appropriate…
Bajo, M. Teresa; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Fernandez, Angel; Marful, Alejandra
In this position paper we attempt to derive an architecture and mechanism for perceptualmemory and learning for software agents and robots from what is known, or believed, about the same faculties in human and other animal cognition. Based on that of the IDA model of Global Workspace Theory, a conceptual and computational model of cognition, this architecture, together with
In three experiments with 164 individuals between 4 and 80 years old, we examined age-related changes in explicit memory for three perceptual features—item identity, color, and location. In Experiments 1–2, feature recognition was assessed in an incidental learning, gamelike task resembling the game Concentration. In Experiment 3, feature recognition was assessed using a pencil-and-paper task after intentional learning instructions. The
Michelle Gulya; Alba Rossi-George; Kristin Hartshorn; Aurora Vieira; Carolyn Rovee-Collier; Marcia K. Johnson; Barbara L. Chalfonte
In two experiments, predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory of memory were tested. Perceptual information may play a role in retrieval and recognition processes for verbatim, but not for gist, memory. Perceptual modality effects were assessed in the present study by presenting three-sentence stories (e.g., The bird is in the cage. The cage is over the table. The bird is yellow) and then testing recognition of probes that varied on three dimensions: (1) semantic accuracy (true vs. false), (2) wording (all original words vs. one novel word included), and (3) sentence type (premise vs. inference). In Experiment 1, study modality (auditory vs. visual) was manipulated, and in Experiment 2, both study and test modalities were manipulated. Despite replicating a number of findings consistent with fuzzy-trace theory (e.g., instruction and probe type effects), the results of both experiments failed to support the idea that perceptual information plays a role in performance on verbatim memory tests. PMID:15117000
In the perceptual learning (PL) literature, researchers typically focus on improvements in accuracy, such as d'. In contrast, researchers who investigate the practice of cognitive skills focus on improvements in response times (RT). Here, we argue for the importance of accounting for both accuracy and RT in PL experiments, due to the phenomenon of speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT): at a given level of discriminability, faster responses tend to produce more errors. A formal model of the decision process, such as the diffusion model, can explain the SAT. In this model, a parameter known as the drift rate represents the perceptual strength of the stimulus, where higher drift rates lead to more accurate and faster responses. We applied the diffusion model to analyze responses from a yes-no coherent motion detection task. The results indicate that observers do not use a fixed threshold for evidence accumulation, so changes in the observed accuracy may not provide the most appropriate estimate of learning. Instead, our results suggest that SAT can be accounted for by a modeling approach, and that drift rates offer a promising index of PL. PMID:21958757
When viewing a stimulus that has multiple plausible real-world interpretations, perception alternates between these interpretations every few seconds. Alternations can be halted by intermittently removing the stimulus from view. The same interpretation dominates over many successive presentations, and perception stabilizes. Here we study perception during long sessions of such intermittent presentation. We demonstrate that, rather than causing truly stable perception, intermittent presentation gives rise to a perceptual alternation cycle with its own characteristics and dependencies, different from those during continuous presentation. Alternations during intermittent viewing typically occur once every few minutes—much less frequently than the seconds-scale alternations during continuous viewing. Strikingly, alternations during intermittent viewing occur at fairly regular intervals, making for a surprisingly periodic alternation cycle. The duration of this cycle becomes longer as the blank duration between presentations is increased, reaching dozens of minutes in some cases. We interpret our findings in terms of a mathematical model that describes a neural network with competition between alternative interpretations. Network sensitivities depend on prior dominance, thus providing a memory for past perception. Slow changes in sensitivity produce both perceptual stabilization and the regular but infrequent alternations, meaning that the same memory traces are responsible for both. This model provides a good description of psychophysical findings, and offers several indications regarding their neural basis.
Brascamp, J. W.; Pearson, J.; Blake, R.; van den Berg, A. V.
This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptualspeed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…
Four experiments demonstrate that imagery can promote priming on perceptual implicit memory tests. When Ss were given words during a study phase and asked to form mental images of corresponding pictures, more priming was obtained on a picture fragment identification test than from a study condition in which Ss performed semantic analyses of words. Imaginal priming of picture fragment identification occurred for recoverable fragments, but not for nonrecoverable fragments. The imagery effect was restricted to the imaged type of material: Imagining pictures (when presented with words) enhanced priming on a picture fragment identification test but not on word fragment completion. Similarly, when pictures were presented, imagining the corresponding words increased priming on word fragment completion but not on picture fragment identification. Overall, results support the hypothesis that imagining engages some of the same mechanisms used in perception and thereby produces priming. PMID:7983469
The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks. PMID:22561890
|The aim of the present study was to examine executive dysfunctioning and decreased processing speed as potential mediators of age-related differences in episodic memory. We compared the performances of young and elderly adults in a free-recall task. Participants were also given tests to measure executive functions and perceptual processing speed…
Baudouin, Alexia; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Isingrini, Michel
We propose that representations of visual stimuli are a consequence of both perceptual and conceptual factors that may be revealed in systematic errors in memory. Three experiments demonstrated increased (horizontal or vertical) symmetry in perception and memory of nearly symmetric curves in graphs and rivers in maps. Next, a conceptual factor, an accompanying description biasing toward symmetry or asymmetry, also
In two experiments, we examined whether the encoding processes leading to perceptual implicit memory satisfied the intentionality\\u000a and load insensitivity criteria for automaticity. Whether participants intended to process words or digits, in displays containing\\u000a both, was manipulated in Experiment 1. Results showed an effect of intention on a subsequent perceptual identification task\\u000a and a recognition task. Load (one, two, and
What brain mechanisms underlie learning of new knowledge from single events? We studied encoding in long-term memory of a unique type of one-shot experience, induced perceptual insight. While undergoing an fMRI brain scan, participants viewed degraded images of real-world pictures where the underlying objects were hard to recognize (‘camouflage’), followed by brief exposures to the original images (‘solution’), which led to induced insight (“Aha!”). A week later, participants’ memory was tested; a solution image was classified as ‘remembered’ if detailed perceptual knowledge was elicited from the camouflage image alone. During encoding, subsequently remembered images enjoyed higher activity in mid-level visual cortex and medial frontal cortex, but most pronouncedly in the amygdala, whose activity could be used to predict which solutions will remain in long-term memory. Our findings extend the known roles of amygdala in memory to include promoting of long-term memory of the sudden reorganization of internal representations.
This study asked whether perceptual analysis of a stimulus can continue while a response to this stimulus is being generated. In Experiment 1, subjects rapidly named a word that was visually degraded with superimposed pixels. Near the time of response, degradation was removed for a short time and then followed by a mask. Subjects then made a second, unspeeded judgment about the identity of the word. Unspeeded judgments were more accurate, showing that the degradation-free stimulus exposure was processed. In Experiment 2, the task was the same, but the degradation was gradually faded out for an individually adjusted duration. Comparison of unspeeded-response accuracy on trials with and without a speeded response showed that stimulus analysis continued at full efficiency during speeded-response generation. The results support conclusions of Rabbit and Vyas (1981) that perceptual analysis continues during response stages. This form of continuous processing does not necessarily contradict discrete stage models of human information processing, however. PMID:8525873
The authors describe a series of experiments that explore 3 major ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition in the context of prior theory (e.g., P.L. Ackerman, 1988) and subsequent empirical and theoretical research. Experiment 1 assessed the predictability of individual differences in asymptotic skill levels on the Kanfer-Ackerman Air Traffic Controller (ATC) task. Experiment 2 provided an exploration of the construct space underlying perceptual-speed abilities. Experiment 3 concerned an evaluation of theoretical predictions for individual differences in performance over skill development in a complex air traffic control simulation task (TRACON) and the ATC task, with an extensive battery of general and perceptual-speed measures, along with a newly developed PC-based suite of psychomotor ability measures. Evidence addressing the predictability of individual differences in performance at early, intermediate, and asymptotic levels of practice is presented. PMID:11218338
Research in perceptual decision making is dominated by paradigms that tap the visual system, such as the random-dot motion (RDM) paradigm. In this study, we investigated whether the behavioral signature of perceptual decisions in the auditory domain is similar to those observed in the visual domain. We developed an auditory version of the RDM task, in which tones correspond to dots and pitch corresponds to motion (the random-tone pitch task, RTP). In this task, participants have to decide quickly whether the pitch of a "sound cloud" of tones is moving up or down. Stimulus strength and speed-accuracy trade-off were manipulated. To describe the relationship between stimulus strength and performance, we fitted the proportional-rate diffusion model to the data. The results showed a close coupling between stimulus strength and the speed and accuracy of perceptual decisions in both tasks. Additionally, we fitted the full drift diffusion model (DDM) to the data and showed that three of the four participants had similar speed-accuracy trade-offs in both tasks. However, for the RTP task, drift rates were larger and nondecision times slower, suggesting that some DDM parameters might be dependent on stimulus modality (drift rate and nondecision time), whereas others might not be (decision bound). The results illustrate that the RTP task is suitable for investigating the dynamics of auditory perceptual choices. Future studies using the task might help to investigate modality-specific effects on decision making at both the behavioral and neuronal levels. PMID:23572205
Mulder, Martijn J; Keuken, Max C; van Maanen, Leendert; Boekel, Wouter; Forstmann, Birte U; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
Our perception of speed has been shown to be distorted under a number of viewing conditions. Recently the well-known reduction of perceived speed at low contrast has led to Bayesian models of speed perception that account for these distortions with a slow speed ‘prior’. To test the predictive, rather than the descriptive, power of the Bayesian approach we have investigated
Stephen T. Hammett; Rebecca A. Champion; Peter G. Thompson; Antony B. Morland
Purpose To examine several cognitive and perceptual abilities—including working memory (WM), information processing speed (PS), perceptual closure, and perceptual disembedding skill—as factors contributing to individual differences in lipreading performance and to examine how patterns in predictor variables change across age groups. Method Forty-three younger adults (mean age = 20.8 years, SD = 2.4) and 38 older adults (mean age = 76.8 years, SD = 5.6) completed tasks measuring lipreading ability, verbal WM, spatial WM (SWM), PS, and perceptual abilities. Results Younger adults demonstrated superior lipreading ability and perceptual skills compared with older adults. In addition, younger participants exhibited longer WM spans and faster PS than did the older participants. SWM and PS accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in lipreading ability in both younger and older adults, and the pattern of predictor variables remained consistent over age groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that the large individual variability in lipreading ability can be explained, in part, by individual differences in SWM and PS. Furthermore, as both of these abilities are known to decline with age, the findings suggest that age-related impairments in either or both of these abilities may account for the poorer lipreading ability of older compared with younger adults.
Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows
A memory and speed efficient CAVLC (context adaptive variable length coding) decoder for H.264/AVC baseline profile is proposed. Because the CAVLC consists of a kind of bit-level operations, general processor (like RISC or MIPS) and DSP incorporating multiple parallel arithmetic units (like SIMD or VLIW) are ineffective to decode it. Though the dedicated hardwires are very effective to decode the CAVLC, they are expensive and not programmable. Also, the size of the CAVLC lookup table is more than 400 bytes. Demand for highly flexible and fast implementations and lower memory size for CAVLC decoding is rising nowadays. The four instructions-ShowBits, GetBits, FlushBits and LeadingBits, are designed after the exploiting of the functions coverage. In order to reduce the codewords matching miss and the lookup table size, a new grouping, remainder generation method and a merged lookup table (LUT) are used; and the specific group decoding instruction GroupDecoding is also presented. In summary, a based instruction set level acceleration with the codewords group partition hardware architecture is proposed to speed up the CAVLC decoding. Based on those instructions and the hardware platform, the CAVLC decoding can be significantly accelerated compared with the method in H.264 reference software. Simulation results show that the architecture is sufficient for the CAVLC decoding of 30 frames HDTV (1902 × 1080 pixels) per second.
Caffeine, the world’s most common psychoactive substance, is used by approximately 90% of North Americans everyday. Little is known, however, about its benefits for memory. Napping has been shown to increase alertness and promote learning on some memory tasks. We directly compared caffeine (200mg) with napping (60–90 minutes) and placebo on three distinct memory processes: declarative verbal memory, procedural motor skills, and perceptual learning. In the verbal task, recall and recognition for unassociated words were tested after a 7hr retention period (with a between-session nap or drug intervention). A second, different, word list was administered post-intervention and memory was tested after a 20min retention period. The non-declarative tasks (finger tapping task and texture discrimination task) were trained before the intervention and then retested afterwards. Naps enhanced recall of words after a 7hr and 20min retention interval relative to both caffeine and placebo. Caffeine significantly impaired motor learning compared to placebo and naps. Napping produced robust perceptual learning compared with placebo; however, naps and caffeine were not significantly different. These findings provide evidence of the limited benefits of caffeine for memory improvement compared with napping. We hypothesize that impairment from caffeine may be restricted to tasks that contain explicit information; whereas strictly implicit learning is less compromised.
Mednick, Sara C.; Cai, Denise J.; Kanady, Jennifer; Drummond, Sean P.A.
This paper reviews an online learning algorithm for incremental learning of memory-based utterance models. The simple core algorithm is augmented with a strategy for selecting the compression set-a subset of the input data that possesses some optimality characteristics. These sets are again found incrementally. Several strategies are formulated and empirically compared on three standard data sets. The algorithm is used
The cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in learning and memory, and have been the centre of attention when it comes to diseases containing cognitive deficits. It is therefore not surprising, that the cholinergic transmitter system has experienced detailed examination of its role in numerous behavioural situations not least with the perspective that cognition may be rescued with appropriate cholinergic
Purpose. Perceptual learning has been shown to be effective in improving visual functions in the normal adult visual system, as well as in adults with amblyopia. In this study, the feasibility of applying perceptual learning to enhance reading speed in people with long-standing central vision loss was evaluated. Methods. Six observers (mean age, 73.8) with long-standing central vision loss practiced an oral sentence-reading task, with words presented sequentially using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). A pre-test consisted of measurements of visual acuities, RSVP reading speeds for six print sizes, the location of the preferred retinal locus for fixation (fPRL), and fixation stability. Training consisted of six weekly sessions of RSVP reading, with 300 sentences presented per session. A post-test, identical with the pre-test, followed the training. Results. All observers showed improved RSVP reading speed after training. The improvement averaged 53% (range, 34–70%). Comparisons of pre- and post-test measurements revealed little changes in visual acuity, critical print size, location of the fPRL, and fixation stability. Conclusions. The specificity of the learning effect, and the lack of changes to the fPRL location and fixation stability suggest that the improvements are not due to observers adopting a retinal location with better visual capability, or an improvement in fixation. Rather, the improvements are likely to represent genuine plasticity of the visual system despite the older ages of the observers, coupled with long-standing sensory deficits. Perceptual learning might be an effective way of enhancing visual performance for people with central vision loss.
Normal aging is associated with a degradation of perceptual abilities and a decline in higher-level cognitive functions, notably working memory. To remediate age-related deficits, cognitive training programs are increasingly being developed. However, it is not yet definitively established if, and by what mechanisms, training ameliorates effects of cognitive aging. Furthermore, a major factor impeding the success of training programs is a frequent failure of training to transfer benefits to untrained abilities. Here, we offer the first evidence of direct transfer-of-benefits from perceptual discrimination training to working memory performance in older adults. Moreover, using electroencephalography to evaluate participants before and after training, we reveal neural evidence of functional plasticity in older adult brains, such that training-induced modifications in early visual processing during stimulus encoding predict working memory accuracy improvements. These findings demonstrate the strength of the perceptual discrimination training approach by offering clear psychophysical evidence of transfer-of-benefit and a neural mechanism underlying cognitive improvement.
Berry, Anne S.; Zanto, Theodore P.; Clapp, Wesley C.; Hardy, Joseph L.; Delahunt, Peter B.; Mahncke, Henry W.; Gazzaley, Adam
The cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in learning and memory, and have been the centre of attention when it comes to diseases containing cognitive deficits. It is therefore not surprising, that the cholinergic transmitter system has experienced detailed examination of its role in numerous behavioural situations not least with the perspective that cognition may be rescued with appropriate cholinergic 'boosters'. Here we reviewed the literature on (i) cholinergic lesions, (ii) pharmacological intervention of muscarinic or nicotinic system, or (iii) genetic deletion of selective receptor subtypes with respect to sensory discrimination and conditioning procedures. We consider visual, auditory, olfactory and somatosensory processing first before discussing more complex tasks such as startle responses, latent inhibition, negative patterning, eye blink and fear conditioning, and passive avoidance paradigms. An overarching reoccurring theme is that lesions of the cholinergic projection neurones of the basal forebrain impact negatively on acquisition learning in these paradigms and blockade of muscarinic (and to a lesser extent nicotinic) receptors in the target structures produce similar behavioural deficits. While these pertain mainly to impairments in acquisition learning, some rare cases extend to memory consolidation. Such single case observations warranted replication and more in-depth studies. Intriguingly, receptor blockade or receptor gene knockout repeatedly produced contradictory results (for example in fear conditioning) and combined studies, in which genetically altered mice are pharmacological manipulated, are so far missing. However, they are desperately needed to clarify underlying reasons for these contradictions. Consistently, stimulation of either muscarinic (mainly M(1)) or nicotinic (predominantly ?7) receptors was beneficial for learning and memory formation across all paradigms supporting the notion that research into the development and mechanisms of novel and better cholinomimetics may prove useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders with cognitive endophenotypes. PMID:21315109
In a previous study, Chung, Legge & Cheung (2004) showed that training using repeated presentation of trigrams (sequences of three random letters) resulted in an increase in the size of the visual span (number of letters recognized in a glance) and reading speed in the normal periphery. In this study, we asked whether we could optimize the benefit of trigram training on reading speed by using trigrams more specific to the reading task (i.e. trigrams frequently used in the English language) and presenting them according to their frequencies of occurrence in normal English usage and observers’ performance. Averaged across seven observers, our training paradigm (four days of training) increased the size of the visual span by 6.44 bits, with an accompanied 63.6% increase in the maximum reading speed, compared with the values before training. However, these benefits were not statistically different from those of Chung et al (2004) using a random-trigram training paradigm. Our findings confirm the possibility of increasing the size of the visual span and reading speed in the normal periphery with perceptual learning, and suggest that the benefits of training on letter recognition and maximum reading speed may not be linked to the types of letter strings presented during training.
In a previous study, Chung, Legge, and Cheung (2004) showed that training using repeated presentation of trigrams (sequences of three random letters) resulted in an increase in the size of the visual span (number of letters recognized in a glance) and reading speed in the normal periphery. In this study, we asked whether we could optimize the benefit of trigram training on reading speed by using trigrams more specific to the reading task (i.e., trigrams frequently used in the English language) and presenting them according to their frequencies of occurrence in normal English usage and observers' performance. Averaged across seven observers, our training paradigm (4 days of training) increased the size of the visual span by 6.44 bits, with an accompanied 63.6% increase in the maximum reading speed, compared with the values before training. However, these benefits were not statistically different from those of Chung, Legge, and Cheung (2004) using a random-trigram training paradigm. Our findings confirm the possibility of increasing the size of the visual span and reading speed in the normal periphery with perceptual learning, and suggest that the benefits of training on letter recognition and maximum reading speed may not be linked to the types of letter strings presented during training. PMID:22750053
Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Arunkumar, Amit; Chung, Susana T L
The plated-wire memory, combined with functional circuit integration, is a strong contender for economic, high-speed, large-capacity memory systems. Important attributes of the plated-wire memory are high-speed DRO and NDRO capability, low digit WRITE current, high output sense signal and low word-to-digit line crosspoint capacitance. Design and operational results for a 1024-word by 80-bit store model are reported in detail. Utilizing
Traditionally, the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is thought to be dedicated to declarative memory. Recent evidence challenges this view, suggesting that perirhinal cortex (PrC), which interfaces the MTL with the ventral visual pathway, supports highly integrated object representations in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination. Even with comparable representational demands, perceptual and memory tasks differ in numerous task demands and the subjective experience they evoke. Here, we tested whether such differences are reflected in distinct patterns of connectivity between PrC and other cortical regions, including differential involvement of prefrontal control processes. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging data for closely matched perceptual and recognition memory tasks for faces that engaged right PrC equivalently. Multivariate seed analyses revealed distinct patterns of interactions: Right ventrolateral prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices exhibited stronger functional connectivity with PrC in recognition memory; fusiform regions were part of the pattern that displayed stronger functional connectivity with PrC in perceptual discrimination. Structural equation modeling revealed distinct patterns of effective connectivity that allowed us to constrain interpretation of these findings. Overall, they demonstrate that, even when MTL structures show similar involvement in recognition memory and perceptual discrimination, differential neural mechanisms are reflected in the interplay between the MTL and other cortical regions. PMID:21613466
O'Neil, Edward B; Protzner, Andrea B; McCormick, Cornelia; McLean, D Adam; Poppenk, Jordan; Cate, Anthony D; Köhler, Stefan
Repetition priming has been shown to be independent of recognition memory. Thus, the severely amnesic patient E.P. has demonstrated intact stem completion priming and perceptual identification priming, despite at-chance performance on recognition memory tasks. It has also been shown that perceptual fluency can influence feelings of familiarity, in the sense that items perceived more quickly tend to be identified as familiar. If studied items are identified more fluently, due to perceptual priming, and fluency leads to familiarity, why do severely amnesic patients perform no better than chance on recognition memory tasks? One possibility is that severely amnesic patients do not exhibit normal fluency. Another possibility is that fluency is not a sufficiently strong cue for familiarity. In two experiments, 2 severely amnesic patients, 3 moderately amnesic patients, and 8 controls saw words slowly clearing from a mask. The participants identified each word as quickly as possible and then made a recognition (old/new) judgment. All the participants exhibited fluency, in that old responses were associated with shorter identification times than new responses were. In addition, for the severely amnesic patients, priming was intact, and recognition memory performance was at chance. We next calculated how much priming and fluency should elevate the probability of accurate recognition. The tendency to identify studied words rapidly (.6) and the tendency to label these rapidly identified words old (.6) would result in 36% of the studied words being labeled old. Other studied words were identified slowly (.4) but were still labeled old (.4), resulting in an additional 16% of studied words labeled old. Thus, the presence of fluency increases the probability of accurate recognition judgments to only 52% (chance = 50%). This finding explains why amnesic patients can exhibit both priming and fluency yet still perform at chance on recognition tests.
It has recently been shown, using functional magnetic resonance imaging with a change detection paradigm, that activity in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) correlates with the limited number of objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We replicate this finding and extend it to tasks that use similar stimuli, but without explicit memory requirements. As well as a perceptual task used
When stimulus intensity in simple reaction-time tasks randomly varies across trials, detection speed usually improves after a low-intensity trial. With auditory stimuli, this improvement was often found to be asymmetric, being greater on current low-intensity trials. Our study investigated (1) whether asymmetric sequential intensity adaptation also occurs with visual stimuli; (2) whether these adjustments reflect decision-criterion shifts or, rather, a modulation of perceptual sensitivity; and (3) how sequential intensity adaptation and its underlying mechanisms are affected by mental fatigue induced through prolonged performance. In a continuous speeded detection task with randomly alternating high- and low-intensity visual stimuli, the reaction-time benefit after low-intensity trials was greater on subsequent low- than high-intensity trials. This asymmetry, however, only developed with time on task (TOT). Signal-detection analyses showed that the decision criterion transiently became more liberal after a low-intensity trial, whereas observer sensitivity increased when the preceding and current stimulus were of equal intensity. TOT-induced mental fatigue only affected sensitivity, which dropped more on low- than on high-intensity trials. This differential fatigue-related sensitivity decrease selectively enhanced the impact of criterion down-shifts on low-intensity trials, revealing how the interplay of two perceptual mechanisms and their modulation by fatigue combine to produce the observed overall pattern of asymmetric performance adjustments to varying visual intensity in continuous speeded detection. Our results have implications for similar patterns of sequential demand adaptation in other cognitive domains as well as for real-world prolonged detection performance.
Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Steinborn, Michael B.
When stimulus intensity in simple reaction-time tasks randomly varies across trials, detection speed usually improves after a low-intensity trial. With auditory stimuli, this improvement was often found to be asymmetric, being greater on current low-intensity trials. Our study investigated (1) whether asymmetric sequential intensity adaptation also occurs with visual stimuli; (2) whether these adjustments reflect decision-criterion shifts or, rather, a modulation of perceptual sensitivity; and (3) how sequential intensity adaptation and its underlying mechanisms are affected by mental fatigue induced through prolonged performance. In a continuous speeded detection task with randomly alternating high- and low-intensity visual stimuli, the reaction-time benefit after low-intensity trials was greater on subsequent low- than high-intensity trials. This asymmetry, however, only developed with time on task (TOT). Signal-detection analyses showed that the decision criterion transiently became more liberal after a low-intensity trial, whereas observer sensitivity increased when the preceding and current stimulus were of equal intensity. TOT-induced mental fatigue only affected sensitivity, which dropped more on low- than on high-intensity trials. This differential fatigue-related sensitivity decrease selectively enhanced the impact of criterion down-shifts on low-intensity trials, revealing how the interplay of two perceptual mechanisms and their modulation by fatigue combine to produce the observed overall pattern of asymmetric performance adjustments to varying visual intensity in continuous speeded detection. Our results have implications for similar patterns of sequential demand adaptation in other cognitive domains as well as for real-world prolonged detection performance. PMID:22145041
Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B; Steinborn, Michael B
We explored the relation between individual differences in working memory (WM) and color constancy, the phenomenon of color perception that allows us to perceive the color of an object as relatively stable under changes in illumination. Successive color constancy (measured by first viewing a colored surface under a particular illumination and later recalling it under a new illumination) was better for higher-WM individuals than for lower-WM individuals. Moreover, the magnitude of this WM difference depended on how much contextual information was available in the scene, which typically improves color constancy. By contrast, simple color memory, measured by viewing and recalling a colored surface under the same illumination, showed no significant relation to WM. This study reveals a relation between WM and a low-level perceptual process not previously thought to operate within the confines of attentional control, and provides a first account of the individual differences in color constancy known about for decades.
Allen, Elizabeth C.; Beilock, Sian L.; Shevell, Steven K.
|Three experiments examined whether the survival of the phonological similarity effect (PSE) under articulatory suppression for auditory but not visual to-be-serially recalled lists is a perceptual effect rather than an effect arising from the action of a bespoke phonological store. Using a list of 5 auditory items, a list length at which the…
Jones, Dylan M.; Hughes, Robert W.; Macken, William J.
The ability to process temporal information is fundamental to sensory perception, cognitive processing and motor behaviour of all living organisms, from amoebae to humans1–4. Neural circuit mechanisms based on neuronal and synaptic properties have been shown to process temporal information over the range of tens of microseconds to hundreds of milliseconds5–7. How neural circuits process temporal information in the range of seconds to minutes is much less understood. Studies of working memory in monkeys and rats have shown that neurons in the prefrontal cortex8–10, the parietal cortex9,11 and the thalamus12 exhibit ramping activities that linearly correlate with the lapse of time until the end of a specific time interval of several seconds that the animal is trained to memorize. Many organisms can also memorize the time interval of rhythmic sensory stimuli in the timescale of seconds and can coordinate motor behaviour accordingly, for example, by keeping the rhythm after exposure to the beat of music. Here we report a form of rhythmic activity among specific neuronal ensembles in the zebrafish optic tectum, which retains the memory of the time interval (in the order of seconds) of repetitive sensory stimuli for a duration of up to ~20 s. After repetitive visual conditioning stimulation (CS) of zebrafish larvae, we observed rhythmic post-CS activities among specific tectal neuronal ensembles, with a regular interval that closely matched the CS. Visuomotor behaviour of the zebrafish larvae also showed regular post-CS repetitions at the entrained time interval that correlated with rhythmic neuronal ensemble activities in the tectum. Thus, rhythmic activities among specific neuronal ensembles may act as an adjustable ‘metronome’ for time intervals in the order of seconds, and serve as a mechanism for the short-term perceptualmemory of rhythmic sensory experience.
Memoryspeeds in today's computers have fundamentally lagged behind processor speeds . Today's memory systems incur access latencies that are up to three orders of magnitude larger than the latency of a single arithmetic operation. To alleviate the processor\\/memory performance gap, computer designers employ a hierarchy of cache memories (e. g., three levels in the recently announced IBM Power 4
Several recent studies have indicated that patients who report a history of sexual abuse, on the basis of recovered or delayed recall of memory, process Rorschach stimuli in ways that substantially deviate from non-abused patients. They exhibited sensitivity to threat-relevant imagery that was highly similar to the biased perceptual processing found among patients with continuously held memories of sexual abuse.
Illusions provide a window into the brain's perceptual strategies. In certain illusions, an ostensibly task-irrelevant variable influences perception. For example, in touch as in audition and vision, the perceived distance between successive punctate stimuli reflects not only the actual distance but curiously the inter-stimulus time. Stimuli presented at different positions in rapid succession are drawn perceptually toward one another. This effect manifests in several illusions, among them the startling cutaneous rabbit, in which taps delivered to as few as two skin positions appear to hop progressively from one position to the next, landing in the process on intervening areas that were never stimulated. Here we provide an accessible step-by-step exposition of a Bayesian perceptual model that replicates the rabbit and related illusions. The Bayesian observer optimally joins uncertain estimates of spatial location with the expectation that stimuli tend to move slowly. We speculate that this expectation - a Bayesian prior - represents the statistics of naturally occurring stimuli, learned by humans through sensory experience. In its simplest form, the model contains a single free parameter, tau: a time constant for space perception. We show that the Bayesian observer incorporates both pre- and post-dictive inference. Directed spatial attention affects the prediction-postdiction balance, shifting the model's percept toward the attended location, as observed experimentally in humans. Applying the model to the perception of multi-tap sequences, we show that the low-speed prior fits perception better than an alternative, low-acceleration prior. We discuss the applicability of our model to related tactile, visual, and auditory illusions. To facilitate future model-driven experimental studies, we present a convenient freeware computer program that implements the Bayesian observer; we invite investigators to use this program to create their own testable predictions. PMID:23675360
We report four experiments in which a remember-know paradigm was combined with a response deadline procedure in order to assess\\u000a memory awareness in fast, as compared with slow, recognition judgments. In the experiments, we also investigated the perceptual\\u000a effects of study-test congruence, either for picture size or for speaker’s voice, following either full or divided attention\\u000a at study. These perceptual
John M. Gardiner; Vernon H. Gregg; Irene Karayianni
We examined the conditions under which a feature value in visual working memory (VWM) recruits visual attention to matching stimuli. Previous work has suggested that VWM supports two qualitatively different states of representation: an active state that interacts with perceptual selection and a passive (or accessory) state that does not. An alternative hypothesis is that VWM supports a single form of representation, with the precision of feature memory controlling whether or not the representation interacts with perceptual selection. The results of three experiments supported the dual-state hypothesis. We established conditions under which participants retained a relatively precise representation of a parcticular colour. If the colour was immediately task relevant, it reliably recruited attention to matching stimuli. However, if the colour was not immediately task relevant, it failed to interact with perceptual selection. Feature maintenance in VWM is not necessarily equivalent with feature-based attentional selection. PMID:24018723
Visual-span profiles are plots of letter-recognition accuracy as a function of letter position left or right of the midline. Previously, we have shown that contraction of these profiles in peripheral vision can account for slow reading speed in peripheral vision. In this study, we asked two questions: (1) can we modify visual-span profiles through training on letter-recognition, and if so, (2) are these changes accompanied by changes in reading speed? Eighteen normally sighted observers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: training at 10° in the upper visual field, training at 10° in the lower visual field and a no-training control group. We compared observers’ characteristics of reading (maximum reading speed and critical print size) and visual-span profiles (peak amplitude and bits of information transmitted) before and after training, and at trained and untrained retinal locations (10° upper and lower visual fields). Reading speeds were measured for six print sizes at each retinal location, using the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. Visual-span profiles were measured using a trigram letter-recognition task, for a letter size equivalent to 1.4 × the critical print size for reading. Training consisted of the repeated measurement of 20 visual-span profiles (over four consecutive days) in either the upper or lower visual field. We also tracked the changes in performance in a sub-group of observers for up to three months following training. We found that the visual-span profiles can be expanded (bits of information transmitted increased by 6 bits) through training with a letter-recognition task, and that there is an accompanying increase (41%) in the maximum reading speed. These improvements transferred, to a large extent, from the trained to an untrained retinal location, and were retained, to a large extent, for at least three months following training. Our results are consistent with the view that the visual span is a bottleneck on reading speed, but a bottleneck that can be increased with practice.
Chung, Susana T.L.; Legge, Gordon E.; Cheung, Sing-hang
When stimulus intensity in simple reaction-time tasks randomly varies across trials, detection speed usually improves after a low-intensity trial. With auditory stimuli, this improvement was often found to be asymmetric, being greater on current low-intensity trials. Our study investigated (1) whether asymmetric sequential intensity adaptation also occurs with visual stimuli; (2) whether these adjustments reflect decision-criterion shifts or, rather, a
Robert Langner; Simon B. Eickhoff; Michael B. Steinborn
This study examined how perceptual expertise facilitates encoding and recognition. The electroencephalogram of car experts\\u000a and car novices was recorded in the study as well as test phases of a remember\\/know task with car and bird stimuli. Car expertise\\u000a influenced performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) for cars but not birds. Experts recognized and “recollected” cars\\u000a more accurately, while novices had
|A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory…
We propose and demonstrate a novel all-optical memory to store high-speed optical data for long term. The key elements of the memory are Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZIs) incorporating semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), acting as AND gate and regenerator in a loop configuration. The simulations show that the memory can be operated up to 80 Gb/s. In addition, the memory was demonstrated at 21.3 Gb/s.
A Not-OR (NOR) flash memory cell using a titanium disilicide (TiSi2) drain was designed to increase programming speed and driving current. This NOR flash memory cell with a TiSi2 drain was proposed on the basis of the fundamental structure of conventional NOR flash memory cells with a length of 90 nm. The programming speed and driving current of the NOR flash memory cell with a TiSi2 drain were simulated using T-SUPREM4 and MEDICI. The simulation results showed that the heavily doped carriers existing in the TiSi2 drain can be used to increase the programming speed of the NOR flash memory cell and that a decrease in source/drain series resistance utilizing the silicide in the NOR flash memory cell with a TiSi2 drain helps increase driving current density.
A computational theory of how an observer parses a speech stream into context-sensitive language representations is described. It is shown how temporal lists of events can be chunked into unitized representations, how perceptual groupings of past item sublists can be reorganized due to information carried by newly occurring items, and how item information and temporal order information are bound together into context-sensitive codes. These language units are emergent properties due to intercellular interactions among large numbers of nerve cells. The controlling neural networks can arise through simple rules of neuronal development: random growth of connections along spatial gradients, activity-dependent self-similar cell growth, and competition for conserved synaptic sites. Within these networks, a spatial frequency analysis of temporally evolving activity patterns leads to competitive masking of inappropriate list encodings in short term memory. The neurons obey membrane equations undergoing shunting recurrent on-center off-surround interactions. Several design principles are embodied by the networks, such as the sequence masking principle, the long-term memory invariance principle, and the principle of self-similar growth. PMID:3516940
Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) often experience cognitive impairments in information processing. However, the relative contributions of processing speed abilities and working memory abilities to information processing tasks are not yet fully understood. The current study examined the extent to which processing speed and/or working memory abilities contributed to an information processing task, the Keeping Track Task (KTT). Forty-nine individuals with MS were given tests to assess processing speed and working memory, as well as the KTT. Regression analyses indicated that, in the MS group, processing speed abilities accounted for the majority of the explained variance in KTT performance. The findings suggest that processing speed plays a significant role on KTT performance in MS. Implications for cognitive rehabilitation treatments aimed at improving processing speed abilities in MS are discussed.
Genova, Helen M.; Lengenfelder, Jeannie; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D.; Moore, Nancy B.; DeLuca, John
We report two head-injured patients whose knowledge of living things was selectively disrupted. Their semantic knowledge was tested with naming and verbal comprehension tasks and a verbal questionnaire. In all of them there was consistent evidence that knowledge of living things was impaired and that of non-living things was relatively preserved. The living things deficit emerged irrespective of whether the question tapped associative or perceptual knowledge or required visual or non visual information. In all tasks the category effect was still significant after the influence on the performance of the following variables was partialled out: word frequency, concept familiarity, prototypicality, name agreement, image agreement and visual complexity. In the verbal questionnaire dissociations were still significant even after adjustment for the difficulty of questions for normals, that had proven greater for living things. Besides diffuse brain damage, both patients presented with a left posterior temporo-parietal lesion. PMID:8124946
|Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d")…
We explored the relation between individual differences in working memory (WM) and color constancy, the phenomenon of color perception that allows us to perceive the color of an object as relatively stable under changes in illumination. Successive color constancy (measured by first viewing a colored surface under a particular illumination and later recalling it under a new illumination) was better
Elizabeth C. Allen; Sian L. Beilock; Steven K. Shevell
Adults with sensory impairment, such as reduced hearing acuity, have impaired ability to recall identifiable words, even when their memory is otherwise normal. We hypothesize that poorer stimulus quality causes weaker activity in neurons responsive to the stimulus and more time to elapse between stimulus onset and identification. The weaker activity and increased delay to stimulus identification reduce the necessary strengthening of connections between neurons active before stimulus presentation and neurons active at the time of stimulus identification. We test our hypothesis through a biologically motivated computational model, which performs item recognition, memory formation and memory retrieval. In our simulations, spiking neurons are distributed into pools representing either items or context, in two separate, but connected winner-takes-all (WTA) networks. We include associative, Hebbian learning, by comparing multiple forms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), which strengthen synapses between coactive neurons during stimulus identification. Synaptic strengthening by STDP can be sufficient to reactivate neurons during recall if their activity during a prior stimulus rose strongly and rapidly. We find that a single poor quality stimulus impairs recall of neighboring stimuli as well as the weak stimulus itself. We demonstrate that within the WTA paradigm of word recognition, reactivation of separate, connected sets of non-word, context cells permits reverse recall. Also, only with such coactive context cells, does slowing the rate of stimulus presentation increase recall probability. We conclude that significant temporal overlap of neural activity patterns, absent from individual WTA networks, is necessary to match behavioral data for word recall.
The objective of this research was to quantitatively evaluate the concept of time-domain optical memory (TDOM) using the hole-burning mechanism. The TDOM concept offers both high speed and high memory density. The advantage of TDOM over traditional semico...
Previous research has shown that content representations in working memory (WM) can bias attention in favor of matching stimuli\\u000a in the scene. Using a visual prior-entry procedure, we here investigate whether such WM-driven attention shifts can speed\\u000a up the conscious awareness of memory-matching relative to memory-mismatching stimuli. Participants were asked to hold a color\\u000a cue in WM and to subsequently
The difference between the speed of simple cognitive processes and the speed of complex cognitive processes has various psychological correlates. However, the neural correlates of this difference have not yet been investigated. In this study, we focused on working memory (WM) for typical complex cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during the performance of an N-back task, which is a measure of WM for typical complex cognitive processes. In our N-back task, task speed and memory load were varied to identify the neural correlates responsible for the difference between the speed of simple cognitive processes (estimated from the 0-back task) and the speed of WM. Our findings showed that this difference was characterized by the increased activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the increased functional interaction between the right DLPFC and right superior parietal lobe. Furthermore, the local gray matter volume of the right DLPFC was correlated with participants' accuracy during fast WM tasks, which in turn correlated with a psychometric measure of participants' intelligence. Our findings indicate that the right DLPFC and its related network are responsible for the execution of the fast cognitive processes involved in WM. Identified neural bases may underlie the psychometric differences between the speed with which subjects perform simple cognitive tasks and the speed with which subjects perform more complex cognitive tasks, and explain the previous traditional psychological findings.
Studies of young children with early unilateral brain injury have suggested that while hemispheric differences in visuospatial processing appear to be present early in development, the young brain is better able to compensate for injury than when the injury occurs later, after networks have been established. The aim of this study was to determine if this pattern continues later in development when these children are given a challenging task: the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure. Experiment 1 included longitudinal data from ten children with early left hemisphere (LH) injury and nine children with early right hemisphere (RH) injury. Injury was presumed to be due to a prenatal or perinatal stroke. Compared with typically developing children, both groups were poorer in copying the figure. With development, these children produced reasonably accurate drawings but continued to use the most immature and piecemeal strategy. In Experiment 2, copy and immediate memory drawings from the 19 children with early unilateral brain injury were collected at a single age (11-14 years). Eight of the ten children with LH injury organized their memory reproductions around the core rectangle but included relatively few additional details. In contrast, only two of the nine children with RH injury organized their memory reproductions around the core rectangle and all but one produced the figure in a piecemeal manner. The results from both studies demonstrate the continuation of subtle deficits in visuospatial analysis with development but also the continued capacity for compensation. PMID:11749984
|Recent research has clearly indicated that intoxication with alcohol impairs memory. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol on retrieval from long-term memory by using a set of cognitive decision tasks. Subjects (N=24) were female college students in good health not taking oral contraceptives. Subjects were administered 0 or 1.0…
Children with specific language impairment (LI) have deficits on some nonverbal tasks but it is not clear if these are related to specific visuospatial deficits or to more general deficits in processing strategies. Children with LI were given two visuospatial tasks that we have shown to be sensitive to strategy use as well as specific processing deficits. In Study 1, children with LI (N=29, ages 6 to 12 years) performed significantly worse than typically developing children (N=26) on the Hierarchical Forms Memory task. In Study 2, children with LI (N=15; ages 9 to 12 years) performed significantly worse than typically developing children (N=40) on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure task. Children with LI were less accurate and tended to use a fairly piecemeal (immature) strategy when copying the figure and were less likely to draw the core rectangle in a more integrated fashion during the immediate memory condition. These results suggest children with LI have subtle deficits on visuospatial tasks that may be more indicative of limitations associated with processing load and planning than of specific visuospatial processing deficits.
The present study addressed three related aims: (1) to replicate and extend previous work regarding the non-unitary nature of processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory during development, (2) to quantify the rate at which processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory develop and the extent to which the development of these latter abilities reflect general changes in processing speed, and (3) to evaluate whether commonly used tasks of processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory are valid and reliable when used with a developmentally diverse group. To address these aims, a latent variables approach was used to analyze data from 147 participants 6 to 24 years of age. Results showed that processing speed, response inhibition, and working memory were separable abilities and that the extent of this separability was stable cross the age range of participants. All three constructs improved as a function of age; however, only the effect of age on working memory remained significant after processing speed was controlled. The psychometric properties of tasks used to assess the constructs were age invariant, thus validating their use in studies of executive development.
SUMMARY Binocular rivalry has been extensively studied to understand the mechanisms that control switches in visual awareness and much has been revealed about the contributions of sti- mulus and cognitive factors. Because visual processes are fundamentally adaptive, how- ever, it is also important to understand how ex- perience alters the dynamics of perceptual switches. When observers viewed binocular rivalry repeatedly
Processing-speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This “slowing” in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present
Lisa A. Jacobson; Matthew Ryan; Rebecca B. Martin; Joshua Ewen; Stewart H. Mostofsky; Martha B. Denckla; E. Mark Mahone
Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for processing speed and cognitive abilities. Longitudinal twin data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, including up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period, were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the 1st measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for processing speed was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and memory ability, providing additional support for processing speed theories of cognitive aging.
Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.
The kinetic model accounting for speed-memory effects on the spectral line shape proposed in I [D. Robert, L. Bonamy, Eur. Phys. J. D 2, 245 (1998)] is extended for any density range, within the binary collision framework. The additional Doppler contribution requires to consider the 3D velocity-memory function instead of the 1D speed one, with distinct treatments for the velocity-orientation and velocity-modulus memory mechanisms. Both the collisional confinement narrowing of the Doppler distribution and the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional broadening and shifting parameters are thus conveniently taken into account. In the high density regime, this model leads to the same results as in I. At lower densities, it generalizes the very well-known hard and soft collision models for the Dicke narrowing of the Doppler distribution, but it also includes the second source of inhomogeneity tied to the speed-dependent collisional parameters and, concomitantly, the speed class exchanges. Numerical applications to H2-N2 and H2-Ar gaseous mixtures are in close agreement with experiments. This allows one to clearly analyze the specific role of speed and velocity memory effects on the line profile.
Bonamy, L.; Tran Thi Ngoc, H.; Joubert, P.; Robert, D.
One of the central issues in router performance is IP address lookup based on longest prefix matching. IP address lookup algorithms can be evaluated on a number of metrics--lookup time, update time, memory usage, and to a less important extent, the time to construct the data structure used to support lookups and updates. Many of the existing methods are geared
Rama Sangireddy; Natsuhiko Futamura; Srinivas Aluru; Arun K. Somani
Studies commonly report poor performance in psychotic patients compared with controls on tasks testing a range of cognitive functions, but, because current IQ is often not matched between these groups, it is difficult to determine whether this represents a generalized deficit or specific abnormalities. Fifty-three first-episode psychosis patients and 53 healthy controls, one-to-one matched for sex, age, and full-scale current IQ, were compared on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subtests representing indices of perceptual organization, verbal comprehension, processing speed, and working memory as well as other tests of executive function and episodic memory. The groups showed an equivalent pattern of performance on all WAIS subtests except digit symbol processing speed, on which the patients were significantly worse. Patients were also worse on measures where performance correlated with digit symbol score, namely working and verbal memory tasks. Standardized residual scores for each subtest were calculated for each patient using the difference between their actual subtest score and a predicted subtest score based on their full-scale IQ and the performance of controls. Scaled scores and residual scores were examined for relationships with clinical measures. Digit symbol–scaled score was significantly correlated with concurrent negative syndrome score at baseline, and digit symbol residual score significantly predicted residual negative symptoms at 1-year follow-up. In summary, our comparison of patients and controls precisely matched for IQ revealed that processing speed was attenuated in recent-onset schizophrenia, contributed significantly to working and episodic memory deficits, and was a prognostic factor for poor outcome at 1 year.
Leeson, Verity C.; Barnes, Thomas R. E.; Harrison, Masuma; Matheson, Elizabeth; Harrison, Isobel; Mutsatsa, Stanley H.; Ron, Maria A.; Joyce, Eileen M.
Older adults are at higher risk of falling and of suffering greater devastating effects from such falls. The objective of this study was to longitudinally examine predictors for risk of falling such as cognitive composites (reasoning, memory, speed of processing) along with traditional predictors. Data on falls, cognition, objective functional tests, visual acuity, and demographics were collected on older adults at baseline (N = 698) and at a two-year annual follow-up (n = 550). By using hierarchical multiple regression, we found that older age, being an older Caucasian woman, poorer performance on Turn 360 at baseline, and having a better memory at baseline predicted higher reports of falling in the past two months at the two-year annual follow-up. These results confirm prior findings except for memory; however, better memory as a predictor of falls may indicate that there is a recall bias dependent on memory function.
Vance, David E.; Ross, Lesley A.; Crowe, Michael G.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ball, Karlene K.
The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which executive functioning performance may be associated with indices of attention, working memory, processing speed, and general in- telligence in 45 individuals with schizophrenia from a multicultural sample. It was hypothesized that relatively higher performances on measures of these cognitive processes would be positively associated with higher executive functioning
Ten measures of speed of processing were administered to 157 individuals, aged 18 to 89 years. The 10 measures comprised five pairs, each of which had a paper-and-pencil and a computer, reaction time (RT) based version of the same measure. Three measures of working memory span were also administered. Two structural equation models were fit to the speed data, one with a single latent variable, speed, and another, nested-factor model in which there were also latent variables for the two methods of measurement. The model with the method latent variables provided a better fit. Age was more strongly related to the method latent variables than to the general speed latent variable. Adding the working memory measures showed that there was also shared variance in those measures beyond the general latent variable, also related to age. The results show that any single measure of speed includes variance due to speed but also to the method of measurement. Use of a latent variable approach to speed is recommended. PMID:23586358
|Working memory (WM) has been associated with the acquisition of arithmetic skills, however, the components of WM that underlie this acquisition have not been explored. This study explored the contribution of two WM systems (the phonological loop and the central executive) to mathematical performance in young children. The results showed that a…
A high-speed random number generator (RNG) circuit based on magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) using an error-correcting code (ECC) post processing circuit is presented. ECC post processing increases the quality of randomness by increasing the entropy of random number. We experimentally show that a small error-correcting capability circuit is sufficient for this post processing. It is shown that the ECC post processing circuit powerfully improves the quality of randomness with minimum overhead, ending up with high-speed random number generation. We also show that coupling with a linear feedback shift resistor is effective for improving randomness.
Previous research has shown that content representations in working memory (WM) can bias attention in favor of matching stimuli in the scene. Using a visual prior-entry procedure, we here investigate whether such WM-driven attention shifts can speed up the conscious awareness of memory-matching relative to memory-mismatching stimuli. Participants were asked to hold a color cue in WM and to subsequently perform a temporal order judgment (TOJ) task by reporting either of two different-colored circles (presented to the left and right of fixation with a variable temporal interval) as having the first onset. One of the two TOJ circles could match the memory cue in color. We found that awareness of the temporal order of the circle onsets was not affected by the contents of WM, even when participants were explicitly informed that one of the TOJ circles would always match the WM contents. The null effect of WM on TOJs was not due to an inability of the memory-matching item to capture attention, since response times to the target in a follow-up experiment were improved when it appeared at the location of the memory-matching item. The present findings suggest that WM-driven attention shifts cannot accelerate phenomenal awareness of matching stimuli in the visual field. PMID:21837542
Processing speed (Gs) and working memory (WM) tasks have received considerable interest as correlates of more complex cognitive\\u000a performance measures. Gs and WM tasks are often repetitive and are often rigidly presented, however. The effects of Gs and\\u000a WM may, therefore, be confounded with those of motivation and anxiety. In an effort to address this problem, we assessed the\\u000a concurrent
Quantum memories provide intermediate storage of quantum information until it is needed for the next step of a quantum algorithm or a quantum communication process. Relevant figures of merit are therefore the fidelity with which the information can be written and retrieved, the storage time, and also the speed of the read-write process. Here, we present experimental data on a quantum memory consisting of a single 13C nuclear spin that is strongly coupled to the electron spin of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. The strong hyperfine interaction of the nearest-neighbor carbon results in transfer times of 300 ns between the register qubit and the memory qubit, with an overall fidelity of 88% for the write-storage-read cycle. The observed storage times of 3.3 ms appear to be limited by the T1 relaxation of the electron spin. We discuss a possible scheme that may extend the storage time beyond this limit.
This study evaluated multiple constraints of verbal working memory in typically developing 7- to 11-year-olds. Multiple measures of verbal working memory and the predictors-short-term memory storage, general speed, and domain-general controlled attention were used. General linear modeling (GLM) showed that storage and the efficiency of controlled attention (i.e., speed of updating information during attention switching) contributed to significant variance in children's verbal working memory. In a secondary analysis verbal storage and domain-general attention (focus switching accuracy and speed of updating on switch) emerged as significant predictors. Results suggest domain-general attention and verbal storage mechanisms to be independent constraints of verbal working memory. PMID:22664317
The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…
Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.
The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and Sentence Question, tests of phonological awareness, rapid
|The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…
Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment including slowed processing speed and problems with learning and memory. Stimulants are attractive candidates for improving mental speed but carry risk of addiction and other adverse behavioral effects. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a D-amphetamine prodrug currently approved for attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder with the potential to be better tolerated due to its prolonged clinical effect. This phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LDX in cognitively impaired MS patients. Subjects were patients with clinically definite MS, aged 18-56 years, and impaired on either of two primary outcomes: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Both SDMT and PASAT are measures of cognitive processing speed. Of 174 MS patients screened, 63 were randomized to 30 mg of LDX or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; the dose was increased as tolerated to 70 mg over 4 weeks and then maintained for another 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR), the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT2), both measures of episodic memory, and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults (BRIEF-A), a self-report measure of executive function. Fatigue and depression were also evaluated. There was significant improvement in the SDMT score (+4.6 vs. +1.3) and CVLT2 score (+4.7 vs. -0.9) in the LDX group compared with the placebo group among the 49 completers. There was no change on the other outcomes. A high proportion of both LDX-treated and placebo-treated subjects reported adverse events (73.5 % vs. 68.4 %). However, there were no serious adverse events noted in the study. These preliminary data indicate that LDX has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for MS patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:23001556
Morrow, Sarah A; Smerbeck, Audrey; Patrick, Kara; Cookfair, Diane; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (<2h/month, N=12), casual players (4-8h/month, N=10), and experienced players (>15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed. PMID:23261420
We investigated the effects of collective or individual self-construal priming on recall in a short-term memory (STM) task. We primed participants to either their individual or their collective self-construals or a neutral control condition. Participants then completed a STM retrieval task using either random or patterned digit strings. Findings revealed that priming an individual self-construal resulted in faster retrieval of information from STM for both stimulus types. These results indicate that individual self-accessibility improves retrieval speed of digits from STM, regardless of set configuration. More broadly, the present findings extend prior research by adding further evidence of the effects of self-construal priming on cognitive information processing.
MacDonald, Justin A.; Sandry, Joshua; Rice, Stephen
Comprehenders can rapidly and efficiently interpret expressions with various types of non-adjacent dependencies. In the sentence The boy that the teacher warned fell, boy is readily interpreted as the subject of the verb fall despite the fact that a relative clause, that the teacher warned, intervenes between the two dependent elements. We review research investigating three memory operations proposed for resolving this and other types of non-adjacent dependencies: serial search retrieval, in which the dependent constituent is recovered by a search process through representations in memory, direct-access retrieval in which the dependent constituent is recovered directly by retrieval cue operations without search, and active maintenance of the dependent constituent in focal attention. Studies using speed-accuracy tradeoff methodology to examine the full timecourse of interpreting a wide range of non-adjacent dependencies indicate that comprehenders retrieve dependent constituents with a direct-access operation, consistent with the claim that representations formed during comprehension are accessed with a cue-driven, content-addressable retrieval process. The observed timecourse profiles are inconsistent with a broad class of models based on several search operations for retrieval. The profiles are also inconsistent with active maintenance of a constituent while concurrently processing subsequent material, and suggest that, with few exceptions, direct-access retrieval is required to process non-adjacent dependencies.
A high-speed current mode sense amplifier for Spin Torque Transfer Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT MRAM) is proposed. The sense amplifier is designed in a 0.18 ?m CMOS technology, and 1.8 V supply voltage. The resistance values of high state is 2132 ?, low state is 1215 ?, and reference state is 1512 ?, respectively. The proposed sense amplifier decreases
The goal of the present study was to examine whether individual differences in basic cognitive abilities, processing speed, and working memory, are reliable predictors of individual differences in forgetting rates in old age. The sample for the present study comprised 364 participants aged between 65 and 80 years from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging. The impact of basic
Perceptual learning refers to the phenomenon that practice or training in perceptual tasks often substantially improves perceptual performance. Often exhibiting stimulus or task specificities, perceptual learning differs from learning in the cognitive or motor domains. Research on perceptual learning reveals important plasticity in adult perceptual systems, and as well as the limitations in the information processing of the human observer. In this article, we review the behavioral results, mechanisms, physiological basis, computational models, and applications of visual perceptual learning.
Lu, Zhong-Lin; Hua, Tianmiao; Huang, Chang-Bing; Zhou, Yifeng; Dosher, Barbara Anne
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between sensory and cognitive decline, particularly with respect to speed of processing, memory span, and fluid intelligence. Additionally, the common cause, sensory degradation and speed of processing hypotheses were compared. Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the complex relationships among age-related decrements in these areas. Results: Cross-sectional data analyses included 842 older adult participants (M = 73 years). After accounting for age-related declines in vision and processing speed, the direct associations between age and memory span and between age and fluid intelligence were nonsignificant. Older age was associated with visual decline, which was associated with slower speed of processing, which in turn was associated with greater cognitive deficits. Discussion: The findings support both the sensory degradation and speed of processing accounts of age-related cognitive decline. Further, the findings highlight positive aspects of normal cognitive aging in that older age may not be associated with a loss of fluid intelligence if visual sensory functioning and processing speed can be maintained.
Clay, Olivio J.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Wadley, Virginia G.; Roth, David L.; Ball, Karlene K.
Perceptual learning refers to experience-induced improvements in the pick-up of information. Perceptual constancy describes the fact that, despite variable sensory input, perceptual representations typically correspond to stable properties of objects. Here, we show evidence of a strong link between perceptual learning and perceptual constancy: Perceptual learning depends on constancy-based perceptual representations. Perceptual learning may involve changes in early sensory analyzers, but such changes may in general be constrained by categorical distinctions among the high-level perceptual representations to which they contribute. Using established relations of perceptual constancy and sensory inputs, we tested the ability to discover regularities in tasks that dissociated perceptual and sensory invariants. We found that human subjects could learn to classify based on a perceptual invariant that depended on an underlying sensory invariant but could not learn the identical sensory invariant when it did not correlate with a perceptual invariant. These results suggest that constancy-based representations, known to be important for thought and action, also guide learning and plasticity.
The local turbulent flame speed of an attached flame is not only a function of the local flow and flame conditions, but also of upstream conditions - i.e., it is ''non-local'' or exhibits ''memory''. Non-locality adds an additional degree of freedom to the classic problem of a freely propagating flame propagating normally to the time averaged flow. Non-locality occurs due to mean tangential flow along the flame brush, which causes flame wrinkles to translate downstream. As such, the wrinkling of the flame at any given point is not only a function of the local velocity disturbance, but also a superposition of flame surface perturbations from locations upstream at previous times. This causes the correlation length scale of turbulent flame wrinkles to differ from that of the underlying turbulent velocity fluctuations. The objective of this paper is to provide a physical description of the key flame kinematic processes that cause these non-local effects. Two approaches are adopted in this work. First, analytical solutions of the G-equation that explicitly describe the effect of non-locality in the low turbulence limit are developed. Second, numerical computations of the G-equation are performed that demonstrate the role of non-linearity in flame surface kinematics at higher turbulence intensities. Finally, these predictions are shown to be consistent with data from a turbulent Bunsen flame. (author)
Hemchandra, Santosh; Lieuwen, Tim [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)
We developed an ultrahigh-speed color video camera that operates at 1,000,000 fps (frames per second) and had capacity to store 288 frame memories. In 2005, we developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity portable color camera with a 300,000-pixel single CCD (ISIS-V4: In-situ Storage Image Sensor, Version 4). Its ultrahigh-speed shooting capability of 1,000,000 fps was made possible by directly connecting CCD storages, which record video images, to the photodiodes of individual pixels. The number of consecutive frames was 144. However, longer capture times were demanded when the camera was used during imaging experiments and for some television programs. To increase ultrahigh-speed capture times, we used a beam splitter and two ultrahigh-speed 300,000-pixel CCDs. The beam splitter was placed behind the pick up lens. One CCD was located at each of the two outputs of the beam splitter. The CCD driving unit was developed to separately drive two CCDs, and the recording period of the two CCDs was sequentially switched. This increased the recording capacity to 288 images, an increase of a factor of two over that of conventional ultrahigh-speed camera. A problem with the camera was that the incident light on each CCD was reduced by a factor of two by using the beam splitter. To improve the light sensitivity, we developed a microlens array for use with the ultrahigh-speed CCDs. We simulated the operation of the microlens array in order to optimize its shape and then fabricated it using stamping technology. Using this microlens increased the light sensitivity of the CCDs by an approximate factor of two. By using a beam splitter in conjunction with the microlens array, it was possible to make an ultrahigh-speed color video camera that has 288 frame memories but without decreasing the camera's light sensitivity.
The role of various types of slowing of processing speed, as well as the role of depressed mood, on each stage of verbal memory functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia was investigated. Mixed lists of high- and low-frequency words were presented, and immediate and delayed free recall and recognition were required. Two levels of encoding were studied by contrasting the relatively automatic encoding of the high-frequency words and the more effortful encoding of the low-frequency words. Storage was studied by contrasting immediate and delayed recall. Retrieval was studied by contrasting free recall and recognition. Three tests of motor and cognitive processing speed were administered as well. Regression analyses involving the three processing speed measures revealed that cognitive speed was the only predictor of the recall and recognition of the low-frequency words. Furthermore, slowing in cognitive speed accounted for the deficit in recall and recognition of the low-frequency words relative to a healthy control group. Depressed mood was significantly associated with recognition of the low-frequency words. Neither processing speed nor depressed mood was associated with storage efficiency. It is concluded that both cognitive speed slowing and depressed mood impact on effortful encoding processes. PMID:17166308
Brébion, Gildas; David, Anthony S; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Pilowsky, Lyn S
Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in cognition, as well as neural survival and plasticity. There are several common polymorphisms in the BDNF gene, one of which (rs6265) is an extensively studied non-synonymous coding polymorphism (Val66Met) which has been linked to cognitive performance in healthy controls and some clinical populations. We hypothesized that the Met allele of rs6265 would be associated with poorer cognitive performance in individuals with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury, and that other polymorphisms in the BDNF gene would also affect cognition. Genotype at 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BDNF gene, and measures of speed of information processing, learning, and memory were assessed in 75 patients with mTBI and 38 healthy subjects. Consistent with previous reports, the Met allele of rs6265 was associated with cognition (slower processing speed) in the entire group. Two other SNPs were associated with processing speed in the mTBI group, but both are in linkage disequilibrium with rs6265, and neither remained significant after adjustment for rs6265 status. Within the mTBI group, but not the controls, 4 SNPs, but not rs6265, were associated with memory measures. These associations were not affected by adjustment for rs6265 status. Polymorphisms in BDNF influence cognitive performance shortly after mTBI. The results raise the possibility that a functional polymorphism other than rs6265 may contribute to memory function after mTBI.
Tyler, Anna L.; Flashman, Laura A.; Rhodes, C. Harker; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Moore, Jason H.
Disruption of cerebral white matter has been proposed as an explanation for age-related cognitive declines. However, the role of specific regions in specific cognitive declines remains unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the associations between regional microstructural integrity of the white matter and performance on age-sensitive cognitive tasks in a sample of healthy adults (N=52, age 19-81 years). White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in multiple regions of interest (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, internal capsule limbs, prefrontal, temporal, superior/posterior parietal, occipital white matter) and related to processing speed, working memory, inhibition, task switching, and episodic memory. We found that age and regional white matter integrity differentially influenced cognitive performance. Age-related degradation in anterior brain areas was associated with decreased processing speed and poorer working memory, whereas reduced inhibition and greater task switching costs were linked to decline in posterior areas. Poorer episodic memory was associated with age-related differences in central white matter regions. The observed multiple dissociations among specific age-sensitive cognitive skills and their putative neuroanatomical substrates support the view that age-related cognitive declines are unlikely to stem from a single cause. PMID:19166865
BACKGROUND: Phase-locked gamma oscillations have so far mainly been described in relation to perceptual processes such as sensation, attention or memory matching. Due to its very short latency (?90 ms) such oscillations are a plausible candidate for very rapid integration of sensory and motor processes. RESULTS: We measured EEG in 13 healthy participants in a speeded reaction task. Participants had
Ingo Fründ; Niko A Busch; Jeanette Schadow; Ursula Körner; Christoph S Herrmann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Secondary-progressive MS is characterized by reduced acute inflammation and contrast enhancement but with increased axonal degeneration and cognitive/clinical disability that worsens with advanced disease. Relative recirculation, extracted from DSC is a surrogate measure of BBB integrity. We hypothesized that normal-appearing white matter relative recirculation is reduced in cognitively impaired compared with nonimpaired secondary-progressive MS, reflecting more advanced disease.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cognitive performance was classified as impaired or nonimpaired by use of Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function In MS test components. Demographic data, brain parenchymal fraction, WM lesion fraction, and weighted mean normal-appearing white matter relative recirculation were compared in cognitively dichotomized groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to study the association between cognitive test results and normal-appearing white matter relative recirculation.RESULTS:The mean (SD) age of 36 patients with secondary-progressive MS studied was 55.9 ± 9.3 years; 13 of 36 (36%) patients were male. A highly significant difference between normal-appearing white matter relative recirculation and WM lesion relative recirculation was present for all patients (P < .001). Normal-appearing white matter relative recirculation in impaired patients was significantly lower than in nonimpaired subjects for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (P = .007), Controlled Word Association Test (P = .008), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (P = .024). The Expanded Disability Status Scale demonstrated an inverse correlation with normal-appearing white matter relative recirculation (r = -0.319, P = .075). After adjustment for confounders, significant normal-appearing white matter relative recirculation reduction persisted for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (P = .023) and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (P = .047) but not for the Controlled Word Association Test (P = .13) in impaired patients.CONCLUSIONS:Significant normal-appearing white matter relative recirculation reduction exists in cognitively impaired patients with secondary-progressive MS, localizing to the domains of processing speed and working memory. PMID:23721894
Eilaghi, A; Kassner, A; Sitartchouk, I; Francis, P L; Jakubovic, R; Feinstein, A; Aviv, R I
What is learned in perceptual learning? How does perceptual learning change the perceptual system? We investigate these questions using a systems analysis of the perceptual system during the course of perceptual learning using psychophysical methods and models of the observer. Effects of perceptual learning on an observer’s performance are characterized by external noise tests within the framework of noisy observer models. We find evidence that two independent mechanisms, external noise exclusion and stimulus enhancement support perceptual learning across a range of tasks. We suggest that both mechanisms may reflect re-weighting of stable early sensory representations.
Background Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. Methods We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Results and Discussion Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Conclusions Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.
This paper presents a new security model for protecting soft- ware confldentiality. Difierent from the previous process- centric systems designed for the same purpose, the new model ties cryptographic properties and security attributes to memory instead of a user process. The advantages of such memory centric design over the previous process-centric de- sign are two folds. First, it provides a
Weidong Shi; Hsien-Hsin Sean Lee; Chenghuai Lu; Mrinmoy Ghosh
|Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…
The micromagnetic Hall effect random access memory (MHRAM) has the potential of replacing ROMs, EPROMs, EEPROMs, and SRAMs because of its ability to achieve non-volatility, radiation hardness, high density, and fast access times, simultaneously. Informati...
Observers made speeded old-new recognition judgments of color stimuli embedded in a multidimensional similarity space. The paradigm used multiple lists but with the underlying similarity structures repeated across lists, to allow for quantitative modeling of the data at the individual-participant and individual-item levels. Correct rejection…
|The idea that information processing speed is related to cognitive ability has a long history. Much evidence has been amassed in its support, with respect to both individual differences in general intelligence and developmental trajectories. Two so-called elementary cognitive tasks, reaction time and inspection time, have been used to compile…
Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for processing speed and cognitive abilities. Longitudinal twin data from
Deborah Finkel; Chandra A. Reynolds; John J. McArdle; Fumiaki Hamagami; Nancy L. Pedersen
The use of analog memory units (AMUs) for fast storage in large physics experiments has grown dramatically in the last five years. As more experiments require improvements in measurement precision, the need for precise, fast, small and low-priced temporary data storage has increased to where almost every major experiment has at least one subsystem with imbedded analog memory. Along with the increased usage has come increased expectations of the performance of such memories. The newer high-energy experiments such as the now-defunct Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland require memories that are resistant to ionizing radiation and heavy particles. This thesis presents the development and testing of such memories. Two different memory topologies as well as two different readout amplifiers were designed, fabricated in a radiation-hard CMOS process (Harris AVLSI-RA), and tested. Combinations of these circuits were tested for linearity, pedestal variation, cell droop (leakage), and nearest neighbor interaction. The circuits were tested after exposure to 0-, 1-, and 5MRad of gamma radiation. The results indicated that the CMOS process was radiation-hard to at least 5MRad ionizing radiation. The Voltage-Write -Voltage-Read (VWVR) topology exhibited better linearity, pedestal performance, and less effect on nearest neighbors than the Voltage-Write-Charge-Read (VWCR) topology. A method of pedestal correction used with a memory fabricated in a non-rad-hard process was also tested that indicated address-dependent pedestal noise (so called 'pattern' noise) could be reduced by employing a real-time correction. Radiation levels of up to 75KRad in a standard process had no effect on the correction method.
|Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)|
|Olfactory memory is especially persistent. The current study explored whether this applies to a form of perceptual learning, in which experience of an odor mixture results in greater judged similarity between its elements. Experiment 1A contrasted 2 forms of interference procedure, "compound" (mixture AW, followed by presentation of new mixtures…
Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Tomiczek, Caroline
Olfactory memory is especially persistent. The current study explored whether this applies to a form of perceptual learning, in which experience of an odor mixture results in greater judged similarity between its elements. Experiment 1A contrasted 2 forms of interference procedure, "compound" (mixture AW, followed by presentation of new mixtures…
Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Tomiczek, Caroline
Content filtering-based Intrusion Detection Systems have been widely deployed in enterprise networks, and have become a standard measure to protect networks and network users from cyber attacks. Although several solutions have been proposed recently, finding an efficient solution is considered as a difficult problem due to the limitations in resources such as a small memory size, as well as the
Sungwon Yi; Byoung-koo Kim; Oh Jintae; Jongsoo Jang; George Kesidis; Chita R. Das
Our goal is to quantitatively evaluate the concept of time-domain optical memory (TDOM) based on the stimulated photon echo technique and to prepare for the development of a working prototype. Earlier feasibility studies at SRI International showed that T...
A precision variable delay implemented in a LSI is one of the key elements in LHC experiments. Realizing such delay with a PLL technique, we have been developing low-power and high-density pipeline TDC chips for high-rate tracking detectors. The chip, named Time Memory Cell (TMC), has been adopted in several high-rate experiments and is proposed for the muon high-precision tracker
Our goal is to quantitatively evaluate the concept of time-domain optical memory (TDOM) based on the stimulated photon echo technique and to prepare for the development of a working prototype. Earlier feasibility studies at SRI International showed that TDOM can store not only digital data in the form a series of on-off laser pulses but also two-dimensional (2-D) images with
A switched capacitor, p-channel, 1024-- bit random access memory has been made with electron lithography. The circuit was the same as that described by Boll and Lynch (IEDM, 1972) but with halved lateral dimensions. For a given cell the gate length of the switching transistor was 4µm, and the chip size was 1.2×1.8mm. In order to fabricate the device, a
R. C. Henderson; R. F. W. Pease; A. M. Voshchenkov; P. Mallery; R. L. Wadsack
A switched capacitor, p-channel, 1024 bit random access memory has been made with electron lithography. The basic circuit was the same as that described by Boll and Lynch (see abstr. B35355 or C22818 fo 1973) but with halved lateral dimensions. The gate length of the switching transistor was 4 ?m, and the chip size was 1.2×1.8 mm. In order to
R. C. Henderson; R. F. Pease; A. M. Voshchenkov; R. F. Helm; R. L. Wadsack
The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…
|The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…
The thermal stability of amorphous Sb2Te film can be significantly improved by the addition of Cu. CuSb4Te2 alloy is considered to be a potential candidate for phase change random access memory (PCRAM), as evidenced by a higher crystallization temperature, a better data retention ability, and a faster switching speed in comparison with those of Ge2Sb2Te5. A reversible switching between set and reset states can be realized by an electric pulse as short as 7 ns for CuSb4Te2-based PCRAM cell. In addition, CuSb4Te2 shows endurance up to 1.5 × 105 cycles with a resistance ratio of about two orders of magnitude.
Sb rich Ge2Sb5Te5 materials are investigated for use as the storage medium for high-speed phase change memory (PCM). Compared with conventional Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge2Sb5Te5 films have a higher crystallisation temperature (~200°C), larger crystallisation activation energy (3.13 eV), and a better data retention ability (100.2°C for ten years). A reversible switching between set and reset states can be realised by an electric pulse as short as 5 ns for Ge2Sb5Te5-based PCM cells, over 10 times faster than the Ge2Sb2Te5-based one. In addition, Ge2Sb2Te5 shows a good endurance up to 3 × 106 cycles with a resistance ratio of about three orders of magnitude. This work clearly reveals the highly promising potential of Ge2Sb5Te5 films for applications in high-speed PCM.
|Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.
Monkeys demonstrate improved contrast sensitivity at the goal of a planned memory-guided saccade (Science 299:81–86, 2003). Such perceptual improvements have been ascribed to an endogenous attentional advantage induced by the saccade plan. Speeded reaction times have also been used as evidence for attention. We therefore asked whether the attentional advantage at the goal of a planned memory-guided saccade led to
B. Suresh Krishna; Sara C. Steenrod; James W. Bisley; Yevgeniy B. Sirotin; Michael E. Goldberg
Imagery techniques involve the mental generation of perceptual experiences in the absence of external perceptual stimulation. Such techniques are used for many purposes in psychotherapy but have recently come under attack as a risky practice that may result in memory distortion or the creation of false memories. This article reviews research linking imagery with changes in memory, both to sensitize
Katherine D. Arbuthnott; Dennis W. Arbuthnott; Lucille Rossiter
This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. PC memory is one of the most critical and rapidly advancing assemblies within modern microcomputers. The challenge of developing learners' knowledge of PC memory and keeping it current and directly applicable to today's microcomputer industry is addressed by this module. The three major topics included in this module are ROM/Flash, System Memory, and Cache Systems. Hands-on practice and final skill assessment verify learners' readiness for working with memory in an Intel-based PC system.
Similarities in anomalous perception of internal gastric states and sensitivity to distraction among the obese to variations in perceptual reactance suggest that the obese tend to augment the intensity of visceral cues associated with hunger. It was hypothesized that the obese would be overrepresented at the augmenter end of the perceptual reactance continuum. Thirteen obese (six male, seven female) and
In this paper, we present a perceptual distortion measure that predicts image integrity far better than mean-squared error. This perceptual distortion measure is based on a model of human visual processing that fits empirical measurements of: (1) the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex, and (2) the psychophysics of spatial pattern detection. We also illustrate the usefulness
Two experiments examined explicit recognition memory and perceptual and conceptual contribu- tions to implicit perceptual-identification repetition priming for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Patient M.S. with right-occipital lobectomy. Participants read words (perceptual encoding) and generated words (conceptual encoding) from a definition and letter cue (e.g., \\
Debra A. Fleischman; John D. E. Gabrieli; Sheryl Reminger; Julie Rinaldi
This paper reports the simultaneous improvements in erase speed and data retention characteristics in flash memory using a stacked HfO2/Ta2O5 charge-trapping layer. In comparison to a memory capacitor with a single HfO2 trapping layer, the erase speed of a memory capacitor with a stacked HfO2/Ta2O5 charge-trapping layer is 100 times faster and its memory window is enlarged from 2.7 to 4.8 V for the same ±16 V sweeping voltage range. With the same initial window of ?VFB = 4 V, the device with a stacked HfO2/Ta2O5 charge-trapping layer has a 3.5 V extrapolated 10-year retention window, while the control device with a single HfO2 trapping layer has only 2.5 V for the extrapolated 10-year window. The present results demonstrate that the device with the stacked HfO2/Ta2O5 charge-trapping layer has a strong potential for future high-performance nonvolatile memory application.
|Many aspects of cognition decline from middle to late adulthood, but the dimensionality and generality of this decline have rarely been examined. We analyzed 20-year longitudinal data of 6203 middle-aged to very old adults from Greater Manchester and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK. Participants were assessed up to eight times on 20 tasks of fluid…
While most studies using the task of reading spatially transformed text do not reveal evidence of specific perceptual transfer, a study by Masson (1986, Experiment 3) provides clear evidence of such effects. Several experiments were designed to identify the basis for this empirical discrepancy. The only substantive evidence of specific perceptual transfer occurred when the words were presented in an unfamiliar typography, although each study suggested a trend toward perceptual specificity effects. The results are discussed in terms of Graf and Ryan's (1990) ideas about the role of distinctive memory representations. PMID:7791597
The adult mammalian brain has a remarkable capacity to learn in both the perceptual and motor domains through the formation and consolidation of memories. Such practice-enabled procedural learning results in perceptual and motor skill improvements. Here, we examine evidence supporting the notion that perceptual and motor learning in humans exhibit analogous properties, including similarities in temporal dynamics and the interactions between primary cortical and higher-order brain areas. These similarities may point to the existence of a common general mechanism for learning in humans. PMID:22903222
SONOS-type NAND flash memory cell with metal-Al2O3-SiN-Si3N4-Si was fabricated and key characteristics were investigated. Low voltage and high-speed programming\\/erasing characteristics were achieved, due to low barrier height of Si3N4 and high dielectric constant of Al2O3 compared with those of SiO2. It also showed good endurance up to 10 k cycles, and more than 1.5 V memory windows after 10 years.
The charge storage and program\\/erase mechanisms in polysilicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory structures with charge-storage layers of different materials are investigated in this paper. In particular, the use of a HfAlO charge-storage layer in a SONOS-type memory structure is proposed. Compared to other high-? charge-storage layers, HfAlO has the advantage of high-speed program\\/erase of HfO2 as well as the good charge-retention time
Yan Ny Tan; W. K. Chim; Wee Kiong Choi; Moon Sig Joo; Byung Jin Cho
The chunking hypothesis suggests that during the repeated exposure of stimulus material, information is organized into increasingly larger chunks. Many researchers have not considered the full power of the chunking hypothesis as both a learning mechanism and as an explanation of human behavior. Indeed, in developmental psychology there is relatively little mention of chunking and yet it can be the underlying cause of some of the mechanisms of development that have been proposed. This paper illustrates the chunking hypothesis in the domain of non-word repetition, a task that is a strong predictor of a child’s language learning. A computer simulation of non-word repetition that instantiates the chunking mechanism shows that: (1) chunking causes task behavior to improve over time, consistent with children’s performance; and (2) chunking causes perceived changes in areas such as short-term memory capacity and processing speed that are often cited as mechanisms of child development. Researchers should be cautious when considering explanations of developmental data, since chunking may be able to explain differences in performance without the need for additional mechanisms of development.
The prior entry hypothesis of attention holds that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli. Whereas this speeding of perceptual processing has been repeatedly demonstrated for spatial attention, it has not been reported within the temporal domain. To fill this gap, we tested whether temporal attention accelerates auditory perceptual processing by employing event-related potentials as on-line indicators of perceptual processing. In a modified oddball paradigm, we presented a single tone in each trial, either a frequent standard tone or an infrequent deviant or target tone. Temporal attention to tones was manipulated via constant foreperiods. We observed that the latency of the N2, an event-related potential reflecting perceptual processing, is shortened by temporal attention. This result provides first evidence for the idea that temporal attention accelerates perceptual processing as suggested by the prior entry hypothesis. PMID:20883507
Highly emotional events are associated with vivid "flashbulb" memories. Here we examine whether the flashbulb metaphor characterizes a previously unknown emotion-enhanced vividness (EEV) during initial perceptual experience. Using a magnitude estimation procedure, human observers estimated the relative magnitude of visual noise overlaid on scenes. After controlling for computational metrics of objective visual salience, emotional salience was associated with decreased noise, or heightened perceptual vividness, demonstrating EEV, which predicted later memory vividness. Event-related potentials revealed a posterior P2 component at ?200 ms that was associated with both increased emotional salience and decreased objective noise levels, consistent with EEV. Blood oxygenation level-dependent response in the lateral occipital complex (LOC), insula, and amygdala predicted online EEV. The LOC and insula represented complimentary influences on EEV, with the amygdala statistically mediating both. These findings indicate that the metaphorical vivid light surrounding emotional memories is embodied directly in perceptual cortices during initial experience, supported by cortico-limbic interactions. PMID:22895705
Todd, Rebecca M; Talmi, Deborah; Schmitz, Taylor W; Susskind, Josh; Anderson, Adam K
The paper proposes a mechanism for the spontaneous formation of perceptually grounded meanings under the selectionist pressure of a di~rimination task. The mechanism is defined formally and the results of ,~me simulation experiments are reported.
|This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…
Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed the expected N170 repetition effect-a reduction in amplitude following face repetition. However, when faces were learned with personal information, the N170 repetition effect was eliminated, suggesting that semantic information modulates the N170 repetition effect. To control for the possibility that a simple perceptual effect contributed to the change in the N170 repetition effect, another experiment was conducted using stories that were not related to the person (i.e., stories about rocks and volcanoes). Although viewers were exposed to the faces an equal amount of time, the typical N170 repetition effect was observed, indicating that personal semantic information associated with a face, and not simply perceptual exposure, produced the observed reduction in the N170 repetition effect. These results are the first to reveal a critical perceptual change in face processing as a result of learning person-related information. The results have important implications for researchers studying face processing, as well as learning and memory in general, as they demonstrate that perceptual information alone is not enough to establish familiarity akin to real-world person learning. PMID:18752406
To extend and clarify the nature of the perceptual processes used by sport experts to perceive schematic sport information, two experiments used schematic football diagrams that varied in structure (structured vs. unstructured) and complexity (complex vs. easy). The primary objective was to examine and characterize the nature of the perceptual structures (chunks) that are initially encoded, stored, and subsequently retrieved. In Experiment 1, compared with nonexperts, experts recalled larger perceptual structures following the initial stimulus presentation of structured stimuli only, replicating the recall findings of previous research in other skill domains. Experiment 2 used a long-term memory recognition task and a sorting task. Experts had superior recall and recognition of structured stimuli only, along with more discriminating sorting criteria of perceptual structures within long-term memory. This suggests that experts possess a highly refined semantic network or organized, structured schematic information. This research extends and clarifies the similarities between the perceptual processes of experts in sport (i.e., football) and experts in skill domains that require obvious cognitive involvement (i.e., chess). The results are discussed with reference to the perceptual and conceptual chunking hypotheses. It is proposed that sport experts' knowledge of a conceptual category enables them to retrieve elements using a "generate-and-test process." PMID:1862820
Perceptual load is a key determinant of distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli (e.g., Lavie, N. (2005). Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75–82). Here we establish the role of perceptual load in determining an internal form of distraction by task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs or “mind-wandering”). Four experiments demonstrated reduced frequency of TUTs with high compared to low perceptual load in a visual-search task. Alternative accounts in terms of increased demands on responses, verbal working memory or motivation were ruled out and clear effects of load were found for unintentional TUTs. Individual differences in load effects on internal (TUTs) and external (response-competition) distractors were correlated. These results suggest that exhausting attentional capacity in task-relevant processing under high perceptual load can reduce processing of task-irrelevant information from external and internal sources alike.
|Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform…
Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.
This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits perceptual processing; (3) inhibited perceptual processing makes recollections less vivid and detailed and finally; (4) reduction in vividness and detail promotes
This dissertation introduces, investigates, and evaluates a low-cost high-speed twin-prefetching DSP-based bus- interconnected shared-memory system for real-time image processing applications. The proposed architecture can effectively support 32 DSPs in contrast to a maximum of 4 DSPs supported by existing DSP-based bus-interconnected systems. This significant enhancement is achieved by introducing two small programmable fast memories (Twins) between the processor and the shared bus interconnect. While one memory is transferring data from/to the shared memory, the other is supplying the core processor with data. The elimination of the traditional direct linkage of the shared bus and processor data bus makes feasible the utilization of a wider shared bus i.e., shared bus width becomes independent of the data bus width of the processors. The fast prefetching memories and the wider shared bus provide additional bus bandwidth into the system, which eliminates large memory latencies; such memory latencies constitute the major drawback for the performance of shared-memory multiprocessors. Furthermore, in contrast to existing DSP-based uniprocessor or multiprocessor systems the proposed architecture does not require all data to be placed on on-chip or off-chip expensive fast memory in order to reach or maintain peak performance. Further, it can maintain peak performance regardless of whether the processed image is small or large. The performance of the proposed architecture has been extensively investigated executing computationally intensive applications such as real-time high-resolution image processing. The effect of a wide variety of hardware design parameters on performance has been examined. More specifically tables and graphs comprehensively analyze the performance of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 DSP-based systems, for a wide variety of shared data interconnect widths such as 32, 64, 128, 256 and 512. In addition, the effect of the wide variance of temporal and spatial locality (present in different applications) on the multiprocessor's execution time is investigated and analyzed. Finally, the prefetching cache-size was varied from a few kilobytes to 4 Mbytes and the corresponding effect on the execution time was investigated. Our performance analysis has clearly showed that the execution time converges to a shallow minimum i.e., it is not sensitive to the size of the prefetching cache. The significance of this observation is that near optimum performance can be achieved with a small (16 to 300 Kbytes) amount of prefetching cache.
In this paper, it shown that the Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory (FEBAM) can create its own set of perceptual features. Using a bidirectional associative memory (BAM)-inspired architecture, FEBAM inherits properties such as attractor-like behavior and successful processing of noisy inputs, while being able to achieve principal component analysis (PCA) tasks such as feature extraction. The model is tested by simulating
Gyslain Giguère; Sylvain Chartier; Robert Proulx; S LEINA
A pitch detector based on Licklider's (1979) duplex theory of pitch perception was implemented and tested on a variety of stimuli from human perceptual tests. It is believed that this approach accurately models how people perceive pitch. It is shown that it correctly identifies the pitch of complex harmonic and inharmonic stimuli and that it is robust in the face
Readiness depends on how accessible categories are to the stimulated organism. Accessibility is a function of the likehood of occurrence of previously learned events, and one's need states and habits of daily living. Lack of perceptual readiness can be rectified by relearning the categories, or by constant close inspection of events and objects. Sensory stimuli are \\
We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.
Three experiments considered the development of perceptual causality in children from 3 to 9 years of age ( N ? 176 in total). Adults tend to see cause and effect even in schematic, two-dimensional motion events: Thus, if square A moves toward B, which moves upon contact, they report that A launches B—physical causality. If B moves before contact, adults
Anne Schlottmann; Deborah Allen; Carina Linderoth; Sarah Hesketh
Predicting the near future is important for survival and plays a central role in theories of perception, language processing, and learning. Prediction failures may be particularly important for initiating the updating of perceptual and memory systems and, thus, for the subjective experience of events. Here, we asked observers to make predictions…
Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Haroutunian, Nayiri
|Predicting the near future is important for survival and plays a central role in theories of perception, language processing, and learning. Prediction failures may be particularly important for initiating the updating of perceptual and memory systems and, thus, for the subjective experience of events. Here, we asked observers to make predictions…
Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Haroutunian, Nayiri
The isolation effect is a well-known phenomenon that has a well-accepted explanation: An item that is isolated on a list becomes perceptually salient, which leads to extra rehearsal that enhances memory for the isolate. To evaluate this hypothesis, the authors isolated an item near the beginning of a list. Immediately after each item was presented for study, participants judged the
We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual learning in areas such as aviation, mathematics, and medicine. Research in perceptual learning promises to advance scientific accounts of learning, and perceptual learning technology may offer similar promise in improving education.
A wide variety of organisms employ specialized mech- anisms to cope with the demands of their environment. We suggest that the same is true for humans when acquiring artificial grammars, and at least some basic properties of natural grammars. We show that two basic mechanisms can explain many results in artificial gram- mar learning experiments, and different linguistic regularities rangingfrom
Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (1) the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (2) the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (3) the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.
Jepma, Marieke; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander
People with autism have consistently been found to outperform controls on visuo-spatial tasks such as block design, embedded figures, and visual search tasks. Plaisted, O'Riordan, and others (Bonnel et al., 2003; O'Riordan & Plaisted, 2001; O'Riordan, Plaisted, Driver, & Baron-Cohen, 2001; Plaisted, O'Riordan, & Baron-Cohen, 1998a, 1998b) have suggested that these findings might be explained in terms of reduced perceptual
Lewis Bott; Jon Brock; Noellie Brockdorff; Jill Boucher; Koen Lamberts
The present study used eye tracking methodology to examine rereading benefits for spatially transformed text. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either applying the same type of transformation to the word during the first and second presentations (i.e., the congruent condition), or employing two different types of transformations across the two presentations of the word (i.e., the incongruent condition). Perceptual specificity effects were demonstrated such that fixation times for the second presentation of the target word were shorter for the congruent condition compared to the incongruent condition. Moreover, we demonstrated an additional perceptually non-specific effect such that second reading fixation times were shorter for the incongruent condition relative to a baseline condition that employed a normal typography (i.e., non-transformed) during the first presentation and a transformation during the second presentation. Both of these effects (i.e., perceptually specific and perceptually non-specific) were similar in magnitude for high and low frequency words, and both effects persisted across a 1 week lag between the first and second readings. We discuss the present findings in the context of the distinction between conscious and unconscious memory, and the distinction between perceptually versus conceptually driven processing. PMID:23138157
Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min to induce stroke and were randomly assigned to four groups; Low-Ex, High-Ex, Non-Ex and Sham. On the fourth day after surgery, rats in the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups were forced to exercise using a treadmill for 30 min every day for four weeks. Memory functions were examined during the last 5 days of the experiment (27-32 days after MCAO) by three types of tests: an object recognition test, an object location test and a passive avoidance test. After the final memory test, the infarct volume, number of neurons and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were analyzed by histochemistry. Memory functions in the Low-Ex group were improved in all tests. In the High-Ex group, only the passive avoidance test improved, but not the object recognition or object location tests. Both the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups had reduced infarct volumes. Although the number of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups was increased, the number for the Low-Ex group increased more than that for the High-Ex group. Moreover hippocampal MAP2 immunoreactivity in the High-Ex group was reduced compared to that in the Low-Ex group. These data suggest that the effects of exercise on memory impairment after cerebral infarction depend on exercise intensity. PMID:23266325
Perceptual curiosity, as defined by Berlyne (1954), involves interest in and giving attention to novel perceptual stimulation, and motivates visual and sensory-inspection. A 33-item questionnaire constructed to assess individual differences in perceptual curiosity was administered to 320 undergraduate students (202 females; 118 males). The participants also responded to the trait scales of the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), and to selected
Robert P Collins; Jordan A Litman; Charles D Spielberger
Voluntary control and conscious perception seem to be related: when we are confronted with ambiguous images we are in some cases and to some extent able to voluntarily select a percept. However, to date voluntary control has not been used in neurophysiological studies on the correlates of conscious perception, presumably because the dynamic of perceptual reversals was not suitable. We exposed the visual system to four ambiguous stimuli that instigate bi-stable perception: slant rivalry, orthogonal grating rivalry, house-face rivalry, and Necker cube rivalry. In the preceding companion paper [van Ee, R. (2005). Dynamics of perceptual bi-stability for stereoscopic slant rivalry and a comparison with grating, house-face, and Necker cube rivalry. Vision Research] we focussed on the temporal dynamics of the perceptual reversals. Here we examined the role of voluntary control in the dynamics of perceptual reversals. We asked subjects to attempt to hold percepts and to speed-up the perceptual reversals. The investigations across the four stimuli revealed qualitative similarities concerning the influence of voluntary control on the temporal dynamics of perceptual reversals. We also found differences. In comparison to the other rivalry stimuli, slant rivalry exhibits: (1) relatively long percept durations; (2) a relatively clear role of voluntary control in modifying the percept durations. We advocate that these aspects, alongside with its metrical (quantitative) aspects, potentially make slant rivalry an interesting tool in studying the neural underpinnings of visual awareness. PMID:15571737
In order to overcome difficult dynamic optimization and environment extrema tracking problems, we propose a Self-Regulated Swarm (SRS) algorithm which hybridizes the advantageous characteristics of Swarm Intelligence as the emergence of a societal environmental memory or cognitive map via collective pheromone laying in the landscape (properly balancing the exploration\\/exploitation nature of the search strategy), with a simple Evolutionary mechanism that
Vitorino Ramos; Carlos Fernandes; Agostinho C. Rosa
|It has been suggested that the high levels of comorbidity between attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be attributed to a common underlying neurocognitive mechanism. This study assessed whether children with DCD and ADHD share deficits on tasks measuring working memory, set-shifting,…
Piek, Jan P.; Dyck, Murray J.; Francis, Mona; Conwell, Alistair
The issues to be addressed here are those of ``balance`` in machine architecture. By this, we mean how much emphasis must be placed on various aspects of the system to maximize its usefulness for physics. There are three components that contribute to the utility of a system: How the machine can be used, how big a problem can be attacked, and what the effective capabilities (power) of the hardware are like. The effective power issue is a matter of evaluating the impact of design decisions trading off architectural features such as memory bandwidth and interprocessor communication capabilities. What is studied is the effect these machine parameters have on how quickly the system can solve desired problems. There is a reasonable method for studying this: One selects a few representative algorithms and computes the impact of changing memory bandwidths, and so forth. The only room for controversy here is in the selection of representative problems. The issue of how big a problem can be attacked boils down to a balance of memory size versus power. Although this is a balance issue it is very different than the effective power situation, because no firm answer can be given at this time. The power to memory ratio is highly problem dependent, and optimizing it requires several pieces of physics input, including: how big a lattice is needed for interesting results; what sort of algorithms are best to use; and how many sweeps are needed to get valid results. We seem to be at the threshold of learning things about these issues, but for now, the memory size issue will necessarily be addressed in terms of best guesses, rules of thumb, and researchers` opinions.
The issues to be addressed here are those of balance'' in machine architecture. By this, we mean how much emphasis must be placed on various aspects of the system to maximize its usefulness for physics. There are three components that contribute to the utility of a system: How the machine can be used, how big a problem can be attacked, and what the effective capabilities (power) of the hardware are like. The effective power issue is a matter of evaluating the impact of design decisions trading off architectural features such as memory bandwidth and interprocessor communication capabilities. What is studied is the effect these machine parameters have on how quickly the system can solve desired problems. There is a reasonable method for studying this: One selects a few representative algorithms and computes the impact of changing memory bandwidths, and so forth. The only room for controversy here is in the selection of representative problems. The issue of how big a problem can be attacked boils down to a balance of memory size versus power. Although this is a balance issue it is very different than the effective power situation, because no firm answer can be given at this time. The power to memory ratio is highly problem dependent, and optimizing it requires several pieces of physics input, including: how big a lattice is needed for interesting results; what sort of algorithms are best to use; and how many sweeps are needed to get valid results. We seem to be at the threshold of learning things about these issues, but for now, the memory size issue will necessarily be addressed in terms of best guesses, rules of thumb, and researchers' opinions.
Perceptual priming and recognition for attended and unattended pictures at encoding, compared to nonstudied pictures were examined in second and fifth grade schoolchildren with attention deficit (AD) and children without AD. In the study, a visual perceptual priming paradigm was combined with a selective attention procedure at encoding to look for the influence of attention in implicit and explicit memory
Soledad Ballesteros; José M. Reales; Beatriz García
To explore the possible neural foundations of individual differences in intelligence test scores, we examined the associations between Raven's Matrices scores and two tasks that were administered in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) setting. The two tasks were an n-back working memory (N=37) task and inspection time (N=47). The subjects were members of the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, aged
Gordon D. Waiter; Ian J. Deary; Alison D. Murray; Helen C. Fox; John M. Starr; Lawrence J. Whalley
|Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…
Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli
|In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…
Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas
Structural and resistance switching properties were investigated in the CoO resistance random access memory (RRAM) with the Ta electrode. The intermediate layer consisting of Co and Ta oxides was confirmed at the interface by the transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The great affinity with oxygen in Ta together with a high resistivity of the Ta oxide improves the operational performance of RRAM. The controllability of the resistance after forming and the low-current operation property were substantially improved by using the load resistor connected in series with CoO RRAM with the Ta electrode. The reset current less than 0.2 mA and the switching speed faster than 20 ns were demonstrated.
To enhance task performance in partially structured environment, enhancement of teleoperation was proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couples sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, presented in this paper is a perceptual basis for the motor agents. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extracts environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms--sensor fission, fusion, and fashion--becomes basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.
Park, Y. S.; Ewing, T. F.; Boyle, J. M.; Yule, T. J.
Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor ...
The degree to which repetition priming is perceptually specific is informative about the mechanisms of implicit memory as well as of perceptual processing. In 2 sets of experiments with pictures as stimuli, we tested the effects of color and pattern manipulations between study and test on implicit memory (i.e., naming facilitation) and explicit memory (i.e., 2 forms of recognition). These
Carolyn Backer Cave; Preston R. Bost; Ronald E. Cobb
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between writing to dictation, handwriting, orthographic, and perceptual-motor skills among Chinese children with dyslexia. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 45 third graders with dyslexia were assessed. Results of stepwise multiple regression models showed that Chinese character naming was the only predictor associated with word dictation (?=.32); handwriting speed was related to deficits in rapid automatic naming (?=-.36) and saccadic efficiency (?=-.29), and visual-motor integration predicted both of the number of characters exceeded grid (?=-.41) and variability of character size (?=-.38). The findings provided support to a multi-stage working memory model of writing for explaining the possible underlying mechanism of writing to dictation and handwriting difficulties. PMID:23911643
Cheng-Lai, Alice; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Chan, Alan H L; Lo, Amy G W
Certain simple visual displays consisting of moving 2-D geometric shapes can give rise to percepts with high-level properties such as causality and animacy. This article reviews recent research on such phenomena, which began with the classic work of Michotte and of Heider and Simmel. The importance of such phenomena stems in part from the fact that these interpretations seem to be largely perceptual in nature - to be fairly fast, automatic, irresistible and highly stimulus driven - despite the fact that they involve impressions typically associated with higher-level cognitive processing. This research suggests that just as the visual system works to recover the physical structure of the world by inferring properties such as 3-D shape, so too does it work to recover the causal and social structure of the world by inferring properties such as causality and animacy. PMID:10904254
Viewed as a neural network disorder, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) may cause widespread deficits in human brain functions.\\u000a Impairments in cognitive functions such as memory and language have been well addressed, but perceptual deficits have only\\u000a been considered in terms of behavioral data. Little imaging research on perceptual deficits in mTLE has been reported. The\\u000a present study is expected
People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here we report on 11 color-grapheme synesthetes with startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These data are the first and only to show learned synesthesia of this kind in a group larger than a single case. While some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, these results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, where perceptual contents are brought to mind, akin to mental imagery or the perceptual reinstatement effects found in the memory literature.
The present study examined implicit memory transfer in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID). To determine priming\\u000a impairments in DID, we included both several perceptual priming tasks and a conceptual priming task using neutral material.\\u000a We tested a large sample of DID patients (n=31), in addition to 25 controls and 25 DID simulators, comparable on sex, age, and education. Controls
Rafaële J. C. Huntjens; Albert Postma; Ellen L. Hamaker; Liesbeth Woertman; Onno Van Der Hart; Madelon Peters
Ge44Sn14Te42 phase change material exhibits a higher crystallization temperature (~221 °C), a larger crystallization activation energy (~2.88 eV) and a better data retention ability (~126 °C for 10 years) in comparison with those of Ge2Sb2Te5. A reversible switching between set and reset can be realized by an electric pulse as short as 10 ns for Ge44Sn14Te42 based phase change memory (PCM) cell. In addition, PCM based on Ge44Sn14Te42 shows endurance up to 2.7 × 103 cycles with a resistance of about two orders of magnitude on/off ratio.
|Two experimental series are reported using both reaction time (RT) and a data-limited perceptual report to examine the effects of perceptual load on object-based attention. Perceptual load was manipulated across 3 levels by increasing the complexity of perceptual judgments. Data from the RT-based experiments showed object-based effects when the…
The traditional study of associations is part of a more inclusive problem, one that concerns the relation between the objective structure of the stimulus and the coherence of its parts, as evident in perception and memory. The classical association experiment has restricted observation to a limited phase of this problem. It has concentrated on the coherence established between pairs of
The current investigation was conducted to elucidate whether errors of commission in the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) are indicators of perceptual or motor decoupling. Twenty-eight participants completed SARTs with motor and perceptual aspects of the task manipulated. The participants completed four different SART blocks whereby stimuli location uncertainty and stimuli acquisition were manipulated. In previous studies of more traditional sustained attention tasks stimuli location uncertainty reduces sustained attention performance. In the case of the SART the motor manipulation (stimuli acquisition), but not the perceptual manipulation (stimuli location uncertainty) significantly reduced commission errors. The results suggest that the majority of SART commission errors are likely to be indicators of motor decoupling not necessarily perceptual decoupling. PMID:23838467
A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading and disappears from consciousness. This startling phenomenon is commonly believed to arise from local bottom-up sensory adaptation to edge information that occurs early in the visual pathway, such as in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus or retinal ganglion cells. Here we use random dot stereograms to generate perceivable contours or shapes that are not present on the retina and ask whether perceptual fading occurs for such "cortical" contours. Our results show that perceptual fading occurs for "cortical" contours and that the time a contour requires to fade increases as a function of its size, suggesting that retinal adaptation is not necessary for the phenomenon and that perceptual fading may be based in the cortex. PMID:22250867
An optimal agent will base judgments on the strength and reliability of decision-relevant evidence. However, previous investigations of the computational mechanisms of perceptual judgments have focused on integration of the evidence mean (i.e., strength), and overlooked the contribution of evidence variance (i.e., reliability). Here, using a multielement averaging task, we show that human observers process heterogeneous decision-relevant evidence more slowly and less accurately, even when signal strength, signal-to-noise ratio, category uncertainty, and low-level perceptual variability are controlled for. Moreover, observers tend to exclude or downweight extreme samples of perceptual evidence, as a statistician might exclude an outlying data point. These phenomena are captured by a probabilistic optimal model in which observers integrate the log odds of each choice option. Robust averaging may have evolved to mitigate the influence of untrustworthy evidence in perceptual judgments.
Although generation typically enhances item memory, the effect is subject to a number of theoretically important limitations. One potential limitation concerns context memory but there has been debate about whether generation actually enhances or disrupts memory for contextual details. Five experiments assessed the effect of generation on context memory for perceptual attributes of the study stimulus (intrinsic context). The results
This study evaluated visual perceptual grouping in schizophrenia to test the hypothesis that the disorganization syndrome in schizophrenia is related to a deficit in cognitive coordination. Perceptual grouping was examined with three psychophysically well-controlled tasks in patients with disorganized schizophrenia (n=11), non-disorganized schizophrenia (n=24), psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia (n=31) and non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (n=35). These measures assessed processing of
Peter J. Uhlhaas; William A. Phillips; Gordon Mitchell; Steven M. Silverstein
If people represent concepts with perceptual simulations, two predictions follow in the property verification task (e.g., Is face a property of GORILLA?). First, perceptual variables such as property size should predict the performance of neutral subjects, because these variables determine the ease of processing properties in perceptual simulations (i.e., perceptual effort). Second, uninstructed neutral subjects should spontaneously construct simulations to verify properties and therefore perform similarly to imagery subjects asked explicitly to use images (i.e., instructional equivalence). As predicted, neutral subjects exhibited both perceptual effort and instructional equivalence, consistent with the assumption that they construct perceptual simulations spontaneously to verify properties. Notably, however, this pattern occurred only when highly associated false properties prevented the use of a word association strategy. In other conditions that used unassociated false properties, the associative strength between concept and property words became a diagnostic cue for true versus false responses, so that associative strength became a better predictor of verification than simulation. This pattern indicates that conceptual tasks engender mixtures of simulation and word association, and that researchers must deter word association strategies when the goal is to assess conceptual knowledge. PMID:15190717
Why does life speed up as we age? Research on the impact of cognitive aging on personal memories is examined including declines in working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, processing resources and inhibition of unnecessary information. Attentional resources and distinctive processing decline. Life speeds up as we age because our strongest memories occur earlier in our lives. Events occurring in
Cognitive constructs are explored for clinical psychologists interested in cognitive phenomena in depression. Both traditional and modern memory constructs are outlined and described with attention to their contribution to understanding depression. In particular, the notions of memory construction, self-schemas, and autobiographical memory (per [Conway, M.A. (2001). Sensory–perceptual episodic memory and its context: Autobiographical memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
This paper explores several novel approaches to solve the Morris water maze task. In this spatial memory task, the robot must learn how to associate perceptual information with a particular location to aid in navigating to the goal. A self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is used to discretize the perceptual space. The robot must then learn to associate these perceptual states
Mark A. Busch; Marjorie Skubic; James M. Keller; Kevin E. Stone
In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core
Abstract The Natural Input Memory,(NIM) model is a new model for recognition memory,that operates on natural visual input. A biologically-informed perceptual pre-processing method,takes local samples (eye fixations) from a natural image and translates t hese into a feature-vector representation. During recognition, the model compares incoming pre-processed natural input to stored representations. By complementing,the recognition memory,process with a perceptual front-end, the
Joyca P. W. Lacroix; Jaap M. J. Murre; Eric O. Postma; H. Jaap Van Den Herik
Dysfunctional self and bodily processing have been reported from the schizophrenia spectrum. Here, the authors tested 72 students (40 women) to determine whether performance in a mental own-body transformation task relates to self-rated frequency of spontaneously experienced schizotypal body schema alterations (perceptual aberration). Participants provided speeded left–right decisions concerning the body of a visually depicted human figure (front view vs.
Autobiographical memory is described as integrated part of a number of memory systems which serve different functions in human\\u000a information processing. These systems are regarded to be build-up onto each other both phylo- and ontogenetically and are\\u000a named ‘procedural memory’, ‘priming’, ‘perceptualmemory’, ‘semantic memory (or knowledge system)’ and episodic-autobiographical\\u000a memory (EAM)’. Of these, EAM requires an established self and
From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed.
How do children's early social experiences influence their perception of emotion-specific information communicated by the face? To examine this question, we tested a group of abused children who had been exposed to extremely high levels of parental anger expression and physical threat. Children were presented with arrays of stimuli that depicted the unfolding of facial expressions, from neutrality to peak emotions. The abused children accurately recognized anger early in the formation of the facial expression, when few physiological cues were available. The speed of children's recognition was associated with the degree of anger/hostility reported by the child's parent. These data highlight the ways in which perceptual learning can shape the timing of emotion perception.
Messner, Michael; Kistler, Doris J.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.
Periodic bimanual movements are often the focus of studies of the basic organizational principles of human actions. In such movements there is a typical spontaneous tendency towards mirror symmetry. Even involuntary slips from asymmetrical movement patterns into symmetry occur, but not vice versa. Traditionally, this phenomenon has been interpreted as a tendency towards co-activation of homologous muscles, probably originating in motoric neuronal structures. Here we provide evidence contrary to this widespread assumption. We show for two prominent experimental models-bimanual finger oscillation and bimanual four-finger tapping-that the symmetry bias is actually towards spatial, perceptual symmetry, without regard to the muscles involved. We suggest that spontaneous coordination phenomena of this kind are purely perceptual in nature. In the case of a bimanual circling model, our findings reveal that highly complex, even 'impossible' movements can easily be performed with only simple visual feedback. A 'motoric' representation of the performed perceptual oscillation patterns is not necessary. Thus there is no need to translate such a 'motoric' into a 'perceptual' representation or vice versa, using 'internal models' (ref. 29). We suggest that voluntary movements are organized by way of a representation of the perceptual goals, whereas the corresponding motor activity, of sometimes high complexity, is spontaneously and flexibly tuned in. PMID:11689944
Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics
College students generated autobiographical memories from distinct emotional categories that varied in valence (positive vs.\\u000a negative) and intensity (high vs. low). They then rated various perceptual, cognitive, and emotional properties for each memory.\\u000a The distribution of these emotional memories favored a vector model over a circumplex model. For memories of all specific\\u000a emotions, intensity accounted for significantly more variance in
Jennifer M. Talarico; Kevin S. LaBar; David C. Rubin
|A previous explanation of the sex difference on so-called perceptualspeed tests was in terms of a female advantage in accessing and using phonological name codes in making item comparisons. That explanation was extended to a task involving alphabetical transformations without the requirement for comparison of perceptually available items. A…
Research indicates that impairment of working memory may be one of the factors that impede the ability to read fluently and accurately. Although the capacity of working memory is traditionally considered to be constant, recent data point to a certain plasticity in the neural system that underlies working memory, which can be improved by training. We examined whether dyslexic readers’
Sensory perception is a learned trait. The brain strategies we use to perceive the world are constantly modified by experience. With practice, we subconsciously become better at identifying familiar objects or distinguishing fine details in our environment. Current theoretical models simulate some properties of perceptual learning, but neglect the underlying cortical circuits. Future neural network models must incorporate the top-down alteration of cortical function by expectation or perceptual tasks. These newly found dynamic processes are challenging earlier views of static and feedforward processing of sensory information.
The cinematographic archives represent an important part of our collective memory. We present in this paper some advances in automating the color fading restoration process, especially with regard to the automatic color correction technique. The proposed color correction method is based on the ACE model, an unsupervised color equalization algorithm based on a perceptual approach and inspired by some adaptation mechanisms of the human visual system, in particular lightness constancy and color constancy. There are some advantages in a perceptual approach: mainly its robustness and its local filtering properties, that lead to more effective results. The resulting technique, is not just an application of ACE on movie images, but an enhancement of ACE principles to meet the requirements in the digital film restoration field. The presented preliminary results are satisfying and promising.
|Performance in perceptual tasks often improves with practice. This effect is known as "perceptual learning," and it has been the source of a great deal of interest and debate over the course of the last century. Here, we consider the effects of perceptual learning within the context of signal detection theory. According to signal detection…
Gold, Jason M.; Sekuler, Allison B.; Bennett, Partrick J.
Stochastic accumulator models account for response time in perceptual decision-making tasks by assuming that perceptual evidence accumulates to a threshold. The present investigation mapped the firing rate of frontal eye field (FEF) visual neurons onto perceptual evidence and the firing rate of FEF movement neurons onto evidence accumulation to…
Purcell, Braden A.; Heitz, Richard P.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Logan, Gordon D.; Palmeri, Thomas J.
The structuring of the sensory scene (perceptual organization) profoundly affects what we perceive, and is of increasing clinical interest. In both vision and audition, many cues have been identified that influence perceptual organization, but only a little is known about its neural basis. Previous studies have suggested that auditory cortex may play a role in auditory perceptual organization (also called
|Stochastic accumulator models account for response time in perceptual decision-making tasks by assuming that perceptual evidence accumulates to a threshold. The present investigation mapped the firing rate of frontal eye field (FEF) visual neurons onto perceptual evidence and the firing rate of FEF movement neurons onto evidence accumulation to…
Purcell, Braden A.; Heitz, Richard P.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Logan, Gordon D.; Palmeri, Thomas J.
To determine the effect of perceptual anticipation upon reaction time, two different types of experiment were carried out. In the first a skilled response had occasionally to be altered at a given point after a variable warning period. In the second the subject had to react to two auditory signals separated by a short time interval which was systematically varied,
Reaction time is significantly higher to homosexual and sexual words than to neutral words for both high and low scorers on a scale for manifest attitudes toward homosexuality. Fraternity men and applied majors score higher on this scale than nonfraternity men and liberal arts majors. Discussion suggests stereotyping rather than perceptual defense.
Sensory perception is a learned trait. The brain strategies we use to perceive the world are constantly modified by experience. With practice, we subconsciously become better at identifying familiar objects or distinguishing fine details in our environment. Current theoretical models simulate some properties of perceptual learning, but neglect the underlying cortical circuits. Future neural network models must incorporate the top-down
Most current natural language processing (NLP) systems are built using statistical learning algo- rithms trained on large annotated corpora which can be expensive and time-consuming to collect. In contrast, humans can learn language through exposure to linguistic input in the context of a rich, rele- vant, perceptual environment. If a machine learning system can acquire language in a similar manner
|A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading and disappears from consciousness. This startling phenomenon is commonly believed to arise from local bottom-up sensory adaptation to edge information that occurs early in the visual pathway, such as in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus or retinal ganglion cells. Here…
A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading and disappears from consciousness. This startling phenomenon is commonly believed to arise from local bottom-up sensory adaptation to edge information that occurs early in the visual pathway, such as in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus or retinal ganglion cells. Here…
Two relevant dimensions are revealed within which developmental patterns of perceptual organization might be investigated. Within the local-integrative dimension, employing a contour integration task, we found indications that spatial integration develops slowly. We also found reduced contextual modulation of a local target in children employing the Ebbinghaus illusion. Within the action-perception dimension, we hypothesize a relatively slow development of the
How does the brain group together different parts of an object into a coherent visual object representation? Different parts of an object may be processed by the brain at different rates and may thus become desynchronized. Perceptual framing is a process that resynchronizes cortical activities corresponding to the same retinal object. A neural network model is presented that is able
This study examined how aging affects the spatial patterns of repetition effects associated with perceptual priming of unfamiliar visual objects. Healthy young (N=14) and elderly adults (N=13) viewed four repetitions of structurally possible and impossible figures while being scanned with BOLD fMRI. Although explicit recognition memory for the figures was reduced in the elder subjects, repetition priming did not differ
Anja Soldan; Yunglin Gazes; H. John Hilton; Yaakov Stern
|While much developmental research has focused on the strategies that children employ to recognize faces, less is known about the principles governing the organization of face exemplars in perceptualmemory. In this study, we tested a novel, child-friendly paradigm for investigating the organization of face, bird and car exemplars. Children ages…
Tanaka, James W.; Meixner, Tamara L.; Kantner, Justin
Previous studies indicate that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with biphasic pulses applied approximately over the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) suppresses performance in vibrotactile temporal discrimination tasks; these previous results, however, do not allow separating perceptual influence from memory or decision-making. Moreover, earlier studies using external landmarks for directing biphasic TMS pulses to the cortex do not reveal whether the changes
Henri Hannula; Tuomas Neuvonen; Petri Savolainen; Taru Tukiainen; Oili Salonen; Synnöve Carlson; Antti Pertovaara
While much developmental research has focused on the strategies that children employ to recognize faces, less is known about the principles governing the organization of face exemplars in perceptualmemory. In this study, we tested a novel, child-friendly paradigm for investigating the organization of face, bird and car exemplars. Children ages…
Tanaka, James W.; Meixner, Tamara L.; Kantner, Justin
The feeling of knowing (FOK) refers to predictions about subsequent memory performance on previously nonrecalled items. The present research explored predictive accuracy with 2 new FOK criterion tests (in addition to recognition): relearning and perceptual identification. In 2 experiments, Ss attempted to recall the answers to general information questions, then made FOK predictions for all nonrecalled answers, and finally had
In a heterogeneous sample of 436 adult individuals who completed 42 mental ability tests, we evaluated the relative statistical performance of three major psychometric models of human intelligence—the Cattell–Horn fluid-crystallized model, Vernon's verbal–perceptual model, and Carroll's three-strata model. The verbal–perceptual model fit significantly better than the other two. We improved it by adding memory and higher-order image rotation factors. The
Three experiments investigated associations between autobiographical memories and different types of concepts. Two types of concepts, goal-derived categories and taxonomic categories, were used to prime memory retrieval to related category exemplar cues. In all three experiments, only goal-derived categories were found to reliably speedmemory retrieval. Weak associations between speed of memory retrieval and both the specificity and the personal
parts of the brain. Researchers have found dissociations between both explicit\\/implicit tasks and perceptual\\/conceptual tasks, proposing many theories to explain these dis- sociations. These theories can be categorized under two general theoretical approaches: the memory systems approach and the processing approach. The neuropsychological tradition favors the memory systems approach while the cognitive psychological tradition favors processing approaches (Roediger, 1990). Although
When people perform a recognition memory task, they may avail themselves of different forms of information. For example, they may recall specific learning episodes, or rely on general feelings of familiarity. Although subjective familiarity is often valid, it can make people vulnerable to memory illusions. Research using verbal materials has shown that “old” responses are often increased by enhancing perceptual
Five studies explored identification of odors as an aspect of semantic memory. All dealt in one way or another with the accessibility of acquired olfactory information. The first study examined stability and showed that, consistent with personal reports, people can fail to identify an odor one day yet succeed another. Failure turned more commonly to success than vice versa, and once success occurred it tended to recur. Confidence ratings implied that subjects generally knew the quality of their answers. Even incorrect names, though, often carried considerable information which sometimes reflected a semantic and sometimes a perceptual source of errors. The second study showed that profiling odors via the American Society of Testing and Materials list of attributes, an exercise in depth of processing, effected no increment in the identifiability/accessibility beyond an unelaborated second attempt at retrieval. The third study showed that subjects had only a weak ability to predict the relative recognizability of odors they had failed to identify. Whereas the strength of the feeling that they would 'know' an answer if offered choices did not associate significantly with performance for odors, it did for trivia questions. The fourth study demonstrated an association between ability to discriminate among one set of odors and to identify another, but this emerged only after subjects had received feedback about identity, which essentially changed the task to one of recognition and effectively stabilized access. The fifth study illustrated that feedback improves performance dramatically only for odors involved with it, but that mere retrieval leads to some improvement. The studies suggest a research agenda that could include supplemental use of confidence judgments both retrospectively and prospectively in the same subjects to indicate the amount of accessible semantic information; use of second and third guesses to examine subjects' simultaneously held hypotheses about identity; use of category cuing or similar techniques to discover the minimum semantic information needed to precipitate identification; some use of subjects trained in quantitative descriptive analysis to explore whether such training enhances semantic memory; and judicious use of mixtures to explore perceptual versus semantic errors of identification. PMID:9669044
Cain, W S; de Wijk, R; Lulejian, C; Schiet, F; See, L C
Human behavioral studies show that there is greater sensory\\/perceptual detail associated with true memories than false memories. We therefore hypothesized that true recognition of abstract shapes would elicit greater visual cortical activation than would false recognition. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants studied exemplar shapes and later made recognition memory decisions (“old” or “new”) concerning studied exemplars (old shapes),
Summary Attentional orienting and memory are intrinsically bound, but their interaction has rarely been investi- gated. Here we introduce an experimental paradigm using naturalistic scenes to investigate how long- term memory can guide spatial attention and thereby enhance identification of events in the perceptual do- main. In the task, stable memories of objects embed- ded within complex scenes guide spatial
Jennifer J. Summerfield; Jöran Lepsien; Darren R. Gitelman; M. Marsel Mesulam; Anna C. Nobre
Episodic memories contain various forms of contextual detail (e.g., perceptual, emotional, cognitive details) that need to become integrated. Each of these contextual features can be used to attribute a memory episode to its source, or origin of information. Memory for source information is one critical component in the formation of episodic…
A redundancy memory architecture that increases system memory reliability without incurring the memory access speed degradation or size impact that result from using error-correction coding or paper-swapping techniques have been developed. The architecture uses a small associative cache memory to provide redundant memory locations. Logic is provided to perform memory system testing and remapping of fault memory locations. A VLSI
An investigation was made of the effects of different methods of solution on solution efficiency and memory error. The three methods used varied the kind of perceptual assistance Ss used. These methods also varied the availability of previously presented ...
The ability of 16 AD patients and 16 age-matched control Ss to discriminate degraded forms was compared. Also examined were the effects of aging on perceptual organization by comparison of performance of normal Ss ranging in age from 20 to 86 years. Ss discriminated 2 forms, a circle and a square, each composed of randomly distributed dots concurrently embedded in visual noise. By means of a forced-choice procedure, the threshold signal-to-noise ratios at 4 levels of figure degradation were obtained, each presented at 3 durations. Performance by the normal Ss did not vary with age for long-duration stimuli, but did decline with age for briefly presented stimuli. Relative to age-matched control Ss, AD patients had significantly elevated thresholds at all form densities. Disruption of visual processing at the level of perceptual organization is likely a contributing factor to impairment of high-order visual function. PMID:7893427
An investigation was made of the time course of perceptual grouping that is based on two qualitatively different spatial relationships:\\u000a proximity and alignment. An index of grouping capacity was used to assess the processing time required before a backward pattern\\u000a mask interfered with grouping. Stimuli consisted of bistable arrays of disjunct dots that were followed by a mask. Grouping\\u000a cues,
A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children. PMID:23593117
The paper introduces a transformed spherical model to represent the color space. A circular cone with a spherical top tightly circumscribing the RGB color cube is equipped with a spherical coordinate system. Every point in the color cube is represented by three spherical coordinates, with the radius ? measuring the distance to the origin, indicating the brightness attribute of the color, the azimuthal angle ? measuring the angle on the horizontal plane, indicating the hue attribute of the color, and the polar angle ? measuring the opening of the circular cone with the vertical axis as its center, indicating the saturation attribute of the color. Similar to the commonly used perceptual color models including the HSV model, the spherical model specifies color by describing the color attributes recognized by human vision. The conversions between the spherical model and the RGB color model are mathematically simpler than that of the HSV model, and the interpretation of the model is more intuitive too. Most importantly, color changes perceptually smoother in the spherical color model than in the existing perceptual color models.
Individual differences in inspection time explain about 20% of IQ test variance. To determine whether the association between inspection time and IQ is mediated by common genes or by a common environmental factor, inspection time and IQ were assessed in an extended twin de- sign. Data from 688 participants from 271 families were collected as part of a large ongoing
|In the current study, we explored the influence of synesthesia on memory for word lists. We tested 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who reported an experience of color when reading letters or words. We replicated a previous finding that memory is compromised when synesthetic color is incongruent with perceptual color. Beyond this, we found that,…
Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy
In the current study, we explored the influence of synesthesia on memory for word lists. We tested 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who reported an experience of color when reading letters or words. We replicated a previous finding that memory is compromised when synesthetic color is incongruent with perceptual color. Beyond this, we found that,…
Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy
Past research has indicated that runners who wear a Lenox Hill Derotation Brace during treadmill running at 6 mph have an approximate 5% increase in oxygen consumption compared to those who run without the brace. The present study expanded those findings by determining the metabolic and perceptual effects of wearing four commercially available braces while tread mill running at speeds
Carl L. Highgenboten; Allen Jackson; Neil Meske; Jimmy Smith
|The authors investigated the role of perceptual attunement in an emergency braking task in which participants waited until the last possible moment to slam on the brakes. Effects of the size of the approached object and initial speed on the initiation of braking were used to identify the optical variables on which participants relied at various…
The authors investigated the role of perceptual attunement in an emergency braking task in which participants waited until the last possible moment to slam on the brakes. Effects of the size of the approached object and initial speed on the initiation of braking were used to identify the optical variables on which participants relied at various stages of practice. In
|A linked perceptual class consists of two distinct perceptual classes, A' and B', the members of which have become related to each other. For example, a linked perceptual class might be composed of many pictures of a woman (one perceptual class) and the sounds of that woman's voice (the other perceptual class). In this case, any sound of the…
A linked perceptual class consists of two distinct perceptual classes, A' and B', the members of which have become related to each other. For example, a linked perceptual class might be composed of many pictures of a woman (one perceptual class) and the sounds of that woman's voice (the other perceptual class). In this case, any sound of the…
Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.
Theories of autism have proposed that a bias towards low-level perceptual information, or a featural\\/surface-biased information- processing style, may compromise higher-level language processing in such individuals. Two experiments, utilizing linguistic stimuli with competing low-level\\/perceptual and high-level\\/semantic information, tested processing biases in children with autism and matched controls. Whereas children with autism exhibited superior perceptual processing of speech relative to controls,
Anna Järvinen-Pasley; Gregory L. Wallace; Franck Ramus; Francesca Happé; Pamela Heaton
A new speech analysis-synthesis approach that is based on a perceptually-motivated all-pole (PMAP) modeling is described. The main idea is to directly estimate the perceptually relevant pole locations using an auditory excitation pattern-matching method. The all-pole model is synthesized using the perceptual poles and produces improved spectral fitting. We show that the prediction residual obtained from the PMAP analysis has
When an image is viewed at varying resolutions, it is known to create discrete perceptual jumps or transi- tions amid the continuous intensity changes. In this pa- per, we study a perceptual scale-space theory which differs from the traditional image scale-space theory in two aspects. (i) In representation, the perceptual scale-space adopts a full generative model. From a Gaussian pyramid
This paper describes the expansion and modification of an existing data acquisition system to effect extensive improvements in speed and flexibility. A microprocessor, flexible disk drive, analog to digital converter, direct memory access module, and high...
In three experiments, college students provided judgments about a marble's speed along a nonlinear incline. Each experiment revealed widespread support for the slope-speed belief, a mistaken belief holding that an object's speed at any point depends on the slope at that point. In truth, an object's incline speed varies with its elevation. In Experiment 1, participants relied solely on a diagram. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants observed computer animations depicting the descent of a marble at speeds conforming to either the slope-speed belief or Newtonian theory, and they rated the slope-speed version as more "natural" than the correct version. The task in Experiment 1 gauged participants' consciously available knowledge, but the perceptual realism of the slope-speed animations suggests that the slope-speed belief is also held outside awareness. By contrast, virtually all previously identified false beliefs about motion appear unnatural once animated. PMID:12956245
Perceptual learning is required for olfactory function to adapt appropriately to changing odor environments. We here show that newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb are not only involved in, but necessary for, olfactory perceptual learning. First, the discrimination of perceptually similar odorants improves in mice after repeated exposure to the odorants. Second, this improved discrimination is accompanied by an elevated survival rate of newborn inhibitory neurons, preferentially involved in processing of the learned odor, within the olfactory bulb. Finally, blocking neurogenesis before and during the odorant exposure period prevents this learned improvement in discrimination. Olfactory perceptual learning is thus mediated by the reinforcement of functional inhibition in the olfactory bulb by adult neurogenesis.
It is well-known that emotionally salient events are remembered more vividly than mundane ones. Our recent research has demonstrated that such memory vividness (Mviv) is due in part to the subjective experience of emotional events as more perceptually vivid, an effect we call emotionally enhanced vividness (EEV). The present study built on previously reported research in which fMRI data were collected while participants rated relative levels of visual noise overlaid on emotionally salient and neutral images. Ratings of greater EEV were associated with greater activation in the amygdala and visual cortex. In the present study, we measured BOLD activation that predicted recognition Mviv for these same images 1?week later. Results showed that, after controlling for differences between scenes in low-level objective features, hippocampus activation uniquely predicted subsequent Mviv. In contrast, amygdala and visual cortex regions that were sensitive to EEV were also modulated by subsequent ratings of Mviv. These findings suggest shared neural substrates for the influence of emotional salience on perceptual and mnemonic vividness, with amygdala and visual cortex activation at encoding contributing to the experience of both perception and subsequent memory.
Todd, Rebecca M.; Schmitz, Taylor W.; Susskind, Josh; Anderson, Adam K.
Presents three simple distinct operational procedures for transforming the empirical notion of speed into a formal concept. The relationship between these three procedures and Galilean velocity and Einsteinian relativity is also included. (HM)
A series of experiments examined short-term recognition memory for trios of briefly-presented, synthetic human faces derived from three real human faces. The stimuli were graded series of faces, which differed by varying known amounts from the face of the average female. Faces based on each of the three real faces were transformed so as to lie along orthogonal axes in a 3-D face space. Experiment 1 showed that the synthetic faces' perceptual similarity stucture strongly influenced recognition memory. Results were fit by NEMo, a noisy exemplar model of perceptual recognition memory. The fits revealed that recognition memory was influenced both by the similarity of the probe to series items, and by the similarities among the series items themselves. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) showed that faces' perceptual representations largely preserved the 3-D space in which the face stimuli were arrayed. NEMo gave a better account of the results when similarity was defined as perceptual, MDS similarity rather than physical proximity of one face to another. Experiment 2 confirmed the importance of within-list homogeneity directly, without mediation of a model. We discuss the affinities and differences between visual memory for synthetic faces and memory for simpler stimuli.
Yotsumoto, Yuko; Kahana, Michael J.; Wilson, Hugh R.; Sekuler, Robert
This paper presents a computational approach to perceptual grouping in dot patterns. Detection of perceptual organization is done in two steps. The first step called the lowest level grouping, extracts the perceptual segments of dots that group together b...
We have developed a video processing method that achieves human perceptual visual quality-oriented video coding. The patterns of moving objects are modeled by considering the limited human capacity for spatial-temporal resolution and the visual sensory memory together, and an online moving pattern classifier is devised by using the Hedge algorithm. The moving pattern classifier is embedded in the existing visual saliency with the purpose of providing a human perceptual video quality saliency model. In order to apply the developed saliency model to video coding, the conventional foveation filtering method is extended. The proposed foveation filter can smooth and enhance the video signals locally, in conformance with the developed saliency model, without causing any artifacts. The performance evaluation results confirm that the proposed video processing method shows reliable improvements in the perceptual quality for various sequences and at various bandwidths, compared to existing saliency-based video coding methods. PMID:23247854
Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins in infancy. The present study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants’ visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of three weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Further, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared to infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing in infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding.
Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang
College students were asked to reason about the relative speeds of horses turning on a merry-go-round platform. Results revealed that, unlike field independent subjects, field dependent subjects failed to reason analytically. They were misled by perceptually salient aspects of the situation. They resisted accomodating to additional information.…
The study presented here outlines a procedure for mea- suring and quantitatively representing the perceptual tempo of a musical excerpt. We also present a method for apply- ing such measures of perceptual tempo to the design of automatic tempo-trackers in order to more accurately rep- resent the perceived beat in music.
Demosaicing is an important part of the image-processing chain for many digital color cameras. The demosaicing operation converts a raw image acquired with a single sensor array, overlaid with a color filter array, into a full-color image. In this paper, we report the results of two perceptual experiments that compare the perceptual quality of the output of different demosaicing algorithms.
PHILIPPE LONGÈRE; Xuemei Zhang; PETER B. DELAHUNT; DAVID H. BRAINARD
The results in general support the hypotheses that the greater the agreement between the individual's self-description and an objective description of him, the less perceptual defense he will show, the more adequate will be his personal adjustment, and the more adequate his personal adjustment, the less perceptual defence he will show.
Two sets of generalized, perceptual-based features are investigated for use in classifying animal vocalizations. Since many species, especially mammals, share similar physical sound perception mechanisms which vary in size, two features sets commonly used in human speech processing, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) analysis, are modified for use in other species. One modification made to the
This paper deals with the possible benefits of Perceptual Learning in Artificial Intelligence. On the one hand, Per- ceptual Learning is more and more studied in neurobiology and is now considered as an essential part of any living sys- tem. In fact, Perceptual Learning and Cognitive Learning are both necessary for learning and often depends on each other. On the
Nicolas Bredeche; Zhongzhi Shi; Jean-daniel Zucker
To discriminate and to recognize sound sources in a noisy, reverberant environment, listeners need to perceptually integrate the direct wave with the reflections of each sound source. It has been confirmed that perceptual fusion between direct and reflected waves of a speech sound helps listeners recognize this speech sound in a simulated reverberant environment with disrupting sound sources. When the
Theoretical models of unsupervised category learning postulate that humans "invent" categories to accommodate new patterns, but tend to group stimuli into a small number of categories. This "Occam's razor" principle is motivated by normative rules of statistical inference. If categories influence perception, then one should find effects of category invention on simple perceptual estimation. In a series of experiments, we tested this prediction by asking participants to estimate the number of colored circles on a computer screen, with the number of circles drawn from a color-specific distribution. When the distributions associated with each color overlapped substantially, participants' estimates were biased toward values intermediate between the two means, indicating that subjects ignored the color of the circles and grouped different-colored stimuli into one perceptual category. These data suggest that humans favor simpler explanations of sensory inputs. In contrast, when the distributions associated with each color overlapped minimally, the bias was reduced (i.e., the estimates for each color were closer to the true means), indicating that sensory evidence for more complex explanations can override the simplicity bias. We present a rational analysis of our task, showing how these qualitative patterns can arise from Bayesian computations. PMID:24137136
Theoretical models of unsupervised category learning postulate that humans “invent” categories to accommodate new patterns, but tend to group stimuli into a small number of categories. This “Occam's razor” principle is motivated by normative rules of statistical inference. If categories influence perception, then one should find effects of category invention on simple perceptual estimation. In a series of experiments, we tested this prediction by asking participants to estimate the number of colored circles on a computer screen, with the number of circles drawn from a color-specific distribution. When the distributions associated with each color overlapped substantially, participants' estimates were biased toward values intermediate between the two means, indicating that subjects ignored the color of the circles and grouped different-colored stimuli into one perceptual category. These data suggest that humans favor simpler explanations of sensory inputs. In contrast, when the distributions associated with each color overlapped minimally, the bias was reduced (i.e., the estimates for each color were closer to the true means), indicating that sensory evidence for more complex explanations can override the simplicity bias. We present a rational analysis of our task, showing how these qualitative patterns can arise from Bayesian computations.
Many companies have launched their products or services online as a new business focus, but only a few of them have survived the competition and made profits. The most important key to an online business's success is to create "brand value" for the customers. Although the concept of online brand has been discussed in previous studies, there is no empirical study on the measurement of online branding. As Web 2.0 emerges to be critical to online branding, the purpose of this study was to measure Taiwan's major Web sites with a number of personality traits to build a perceptual map for online brands. A pretest identified 10 most representative online brand perceptions. The results of the correspondence analysis showed five groups in the perceptual map. This study provided a practical view of the associations and similarities among online brands for potential alliance or branding strategies. The findings also suggested that brand perceptions can be used with identified consumer needs and behaviors to better position online services. The brand perception map in the study also contributed to a better understanding of the online brands in Taiwan. PMID:18785819
This research explored ways gifted children with learning disabilities perceive and recall auditory and visual input and apply this information to reading, mathematics, and spelling. 24 learning-disabled/gifted children and a matched control group of normally achieving gifted students were tested for oral reading, word recognition and analysis, listening comprehension, and spelling. In mathematics, they were tested for numeration, mental and written computation, word problems, and numerical reasoning. To explore perception and memory skills, students were administered formal tests of visual and auditory memory as well as auditory discrimination of sounds. Their responses to reading and to mathematical computations were further considered for evidence of problems in visual discrimination, visual sequencing, and visual spatial areas. Analyses indicated that these learning-disabled/gifted students were significantly weaker than controls in their decoding skills, in spelling, and in most areas of mathematics. They were also significantly weaker in auditory discrimination and memory, and in visual discrimination, sequencing, and spatial abilities. Conclusions are that these underlying perceptual and memory deficits may be related to students' academic problems. PMID:1594421
The way we perceive the visual world depends crucially on the state of the observer. In the present study we show that what we are holding in working memory (WM) can bias the way we perceive ambiguous structure from motion stimuli. Holding in memory the percept of an unambiguously rotating sphere influenced the perceived direction of motion of an ambiguously rotating sphere presented shortly thereafter. In particular, we found a systematic difference between congruent dominance periods where the perceived direction of the ambiguous stimulus corresponded to the direction of the unambiguous one and incongruent dominance periods. Congruent dominance periods were more frequent when participants memorized the speed of the unambiguous sphere for delayed discrimination than when they performed an immediate judgment on a change in its speed. The analysis of dominance time-course showed that a sustained tendency to perceive the same direction of motion as the prior stimulus emerged only in the WM condition, whereas in the attention condition perceptual dominance dropped to chance levels at the end of the trial. The results are explained in terms of a direct involvement of early visual areas in the active representation of visual motion in WM.
Scocchia, Lisa; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Triesch, Jochen
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) without dementia, and may be present even at diagnosis.(1,2) Although a wide range of cognitive domains may be affected in patients with PD without dementia, early cognitive deficits usually occur in the domains of attention and executive function (planning, sequencing, processing speed, and working memory).(3) While cholinesterase inhibitors improve cognition in PD dementia, only a limited number of trials have investigated pharmacologic agents for mild cognitive impairment in PD, and none has been proven to be effective.(1) There is limited evidence for nonpharmacologic cognitive interventions in PD; existing studies have focused on physical exercise(1) or enhancing sensory-perceptual function, thereby improving stimulus quality to enable better cognitive processing.(4,5.) PMID:24014502
Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that humans are less sensitive to image acceleration than to image speed (e.g., Gottsdanker, 1956; Werkhoven, Snippe, & Toet, 1992). Because there is evidence that a common motion-processing stage subserves perception and pursuit (e.g., Watamaniuk & Heinen, 1999), either pursuit should be similarly impaired in discriminating acceleration or it must receive input from a system different from the one that processes visual motion for perception. We assessed the sensitivity of pursuit to acceleration or speed, and compared the results with those obtained in perceptual experiments done with similar stimuli and tasks. Specifically, observers pursued or made psychophysical judgments of targets that moved at randomly selected base speeds and subsequent accelerations. Oculomotor and psychophysical discrimination were compared by analyzing performance for the entire stimulus set sorted by either target acceleration or speed. Thresholds for pursuit and perception were higher for target acceleration than speed, further evidence that a common motion-processing stage limits the performance of both systems. PMID:14765954
Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgments in reference to the self, a close other (one’s mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). Results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details as well.
Serbun, Sarah J.; Shih, Joanne Y.; Gutchess, Angela H.
Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Experiment 1) and false memories that were accompanied by the phenomenal experience of remembering them (Experiment 2) than did surface-level processing. Moreover, conceptual elaboration consistently led to higher rates of false memory than did perceptual elaboration. The false memory effects that resulted from conceptual elaboration were highly dependent on the organization of the postevent interview questions, such that conceptual elaboration only increased false memory beyond surface level processing when participants evaluated both true and suggested information in relation to the same theme or dimension.
Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah
SUMMARY The feeling of knowing refers to predictions about subsequent memory performance on previously nonrecalled items. The most frequently investigated type of subsequent performance has been recognition. The present research explored predictive accuracy with two new feeling-of-knowing criterion tests (in addition to recognition): relearning and perceptual identification. In two experiments, people attempted to recall the answers to general-information questions such
Position emission tomography was used to investigate whether retrieval of perceptual knowledge from long-term memory activates\\u000a unique cortical regions associated with the modality and\\/or attribute type retrieved. Knowledge about the typical color, size,\\u000a and sound of common objects and animals was probed, in response to written words naming the objects. Relative to a nonsemantic\\u000a control task, all the attribute judgments
Marion L. Kellenbach; Matthew Brett; Karalyn Patterson
It has been shown experimentally that under certain combinations of sensory stimuli, human subjects can perceive one of several distinct illusions about their overall orientation in or movement through space. In at least some cases, the structure of such multistable illusory perceptions of orientation can be efficiently described by perceptual transformations that act on a current orientation estimate to yield an updated perceptual construct. Repeated application of identified generating transformations yields a limited set of predicted illusions for a given sensory environment. This approach is especially valuable for perceptual data that exhibits discretely differing classes of illusions between subjects or trials. In a previous study, application of a semigroup of perceptual centering transformations has succeeded in reproducing and simplifying data from an experiment in which subjects experiencing visual vection reported a range of illusions about the orientations of their gaze, head, and torso to gravity. After reviewing previously obtained results on perceptual centering, this article generalizes the approach, presenting the mathematics required to characterize perceptual transformations. The developed framework should be widely applicable in the understanding of perceptual illusions, particularly when these are guided by alignment with preferred constructs. Secondly, the article reveals the nontrivial mathematical process of perceptual semigroup formation and evaluation, deducing the complete description of the semigroup constructed in the previous study. Perceptual centering transformations identified in terrestrial experiments may predict illusions to be expected in spaceflight. For example, our results indicate that under certain conditions, many astronauts will misperceive a visual rotation axis to be centered in front of the head or even the torso. PMID:18626136
A gate-all-around polycrystalline silicon nanowire (NW) floating-gate (FG) memory device was fabricated and characterized in this work. The cross-section of the NW channels was intentionally made to be triangular in shape in order to study the effects of the corners on the device operation. Our results indicate that the channel corners are effective in lowering the programming and erasing (P/E) operation voltages. As compared with the charge-trapping type devices, a larger memory window is obtained with the FG scheme under low-voltage P/E conditions. A model considering the nature of the charge storage medium is proposed to explain the above findings.
|Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it…
Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue
|Auditory and visual recognition were studied in subjects ranging in age from 10 to 60 years. In comparison with perceptual and response factors, memory scanning time is relatively insensitive to age differences, and auditory recognition involves the use of a pre-linguistic memory system insensitive to age differences. (Author/MF)|
Working memory is often conceptualized as storage buffers that retain information briefly, rehearsal processes that refresh the buffers, and executive processes that manipulate the contents of the buffers. We review evidence about the brain mechanisms that may underlie storage and rehearsal in working memory. We hypothesize that storage is mediated by the same brain structures that process perceptual information and
Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult “tutors”, and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.
Working memory involves the short-term maintenance of an active representation of information so that it is available for further processing. Visual working memory tasks, in which subjects retain the memory of a stimulus over brief delays, require both the perceptual encoding of the stimulus and the subsequent maintenance of its representation after the stimulus is removed from view. Such tasks
Susan M. Courtney; Leslie G. Ungerleider; Katrina Keil; James V. Haxby
|Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…
The characteristics of memory in infants and adults seem vastly different. The neuromaturational model attributes these differences to an ontogenetic change in the basic memory process, namely, to the hierarchical maturation of two distinct memory systems. The early-maturing (implicit) system is functional during the first third of infancy and supports the gradual learning of perceptual and motor skills; the late-maturing
Perceptual motor activities for physically handicapped children are presented in the areas of fine and gross motor skills. Also detailed are activities to develop body image, visual motor skills, and tactile and auditory perception. (JD)
The geometry of perceptual space needs to be known to model spatial orientation constancy or to create virtual environments. To examine one main aspect of this geometry, the angular relation between the three spatial axes was measured. Experiments were pe...
The earliest stages in our perception of the world have a subtle but powerful influence on later thought processes; they provide the contextual cues within which our thoughts are framed and they adapt to many different environments throughout our lives. Understanding the changes in these cues is crucial to understanding how our perceptual ability develops, but these changes are often difficult to quantify in sufficiently complex tasks where objective measures of development are available. Here we simulate perceptual learning using neural networks and demonstrate fundamental changes in these cues as a function of skill. These cues are cognitively grouped together to form perceptual templates that enable rapid `whole scene' categorisation of complex stimuli. Such categories reduce the computational load on our capacity limited thought processes, they inform our higher cognitive processes and they suggest a framework of perceptual pre-processing that captures the central role of perception in expertise.
This study is the first step in the psychoacoustic exploration of perceptual differences between the sounds of different violins. A method was used which enabled the same performance to be replayed on different ``virtual violins\\
We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry). Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A) were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict.
Brouwer, Gijs Joost; Tong, Frank; Hagoort, Peter; van Ee, Raymond
|The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…
Perceptual differences were investigated between 50 college students who were non-drug users and 50 hippies who used LSD. The groups were matched for race, sex, and age. No significant differences were found between intelligence and social class. The seven perceptual tests used were Color-Form Attention Test, Judgment of Sounds, Autokinetic Effect, Six-Inch Estimation, Rod and Frame Test, Estimation of Head
In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.
Certain visual stimuli can give rise to contradictory perceptions. In this paper we examine the temporal dynamics of perceptual reversals experienced with biological motion, comparing these dynamics to those observed with other ambiguous structure from motion (SFM) stimuli. In our first experiment, naïve observers monitored perceptual alternations with an ambiguous rotating walker, a figure that randomly alternates between walking in clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) directions. While the number of reported reversals varied between observers, the observed dynamics (distribution of dominance durations, CW/CCW proportions) were comparable to those experienced with an ambiguous kinetic depth cylinder. In a second experiment, we compared reversal profiles with rotating and standard point-light walkers (i.e. non-rotating). Over multiple test repetitions, three out of four observers experienced consistently shorter mean percept durations with the rotating walker, suggesting that the added rotational component may speed up reversal rates with biomotion. For both stimuli, the drift in alternation rate across trial and across repetition was minimal. In our final experiment, we investigated whether reversals with the rotating walker and a non-biological object with similar global dimensions (rotating cuboid) occur at random phases of the rotation cycle. We found evidence that some observers experience peaks in the distribution of response locations that are relatively stable across sessions. Using control data, we discuss the role of eye movements in the development of these reversal patterns, and the related role of exogenous stimulus characteristics. In summary, we have demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of reversal with biological motion are similar to other forms of ambiguous SFM. We conclude that perceptual switching with biological motion is a robust bistable phenomenon.
Neurons in the visual cortex are responsive to the presentation of oriented and curved line segments, which are thought to act as primitives for the visual processing of shapes and objects. Prolonged adaptation to such stimuli gives rise to two related perceptual effects: a slow change in the appearance of the adapting stimulus (perceptual drift), and the distortion of subsequently presented test stimuli (adaptational aftereffects). Here we used a psychophysical nulling technique to dissociate and quantify these two classical observations in order to examine their underlying mechanisms and their relationship to one another. In agreement with previous work, we found that during adaptation horizontal and vertical straight lines serve as attractors for perceived orientation and curvature. However, the rate of perceptual drift for different stimuli was not predictive of the corresponding aftereffect magnitudes, indicating that the two perceptual effects are governed by distinct neural processes. Finally, the rate of perceptual drift for curved line segments did not depend on the spatial scale of the stimulus, suggesting that its mechanisms lie outside strictly retinotopic processing stages. These findings provide new evidence that the visual system relies on statistically salient intrinsic reference stimuli for the processing of visual patterns, and point to perceptual drift as an experimental window for studying the mechanisms of visual perception.
Muller, Kai-Markus; Schillinger, Frieder; Do, David H.; Leopold, David A.
Broadbent (1983) has suggested that the influence of unattended speech on immediate serial recall is a perceptual phenomenon rather than a memory phenomenon. In order to test this, subjects were required to classify visually presented pairs of consonants on the basis of either case or rhyme. They were tested both in silence and against a background of continuous spoken Arabic
Studies of attention and working memory address the fundamental limits in our ability to encode and maintain behaviorally relevant information, processes that are critical for goal-driven processing. Here we review our current understanding of the interactions between these processes, with a focus on how each construct encompasses a variety of dissociable phenomena. Attention facilitates target processing during both perceptual and
The central problems of vision are often divided into object identification and localization. Object identification, at least at fine levels of discrimination, may require the application of top-down knowledge to resolve ambiguous image information. Utilizing top-down knowledge, however, may require the initial rapid access of abstract object categories based on low-level image cues. Does object localization require a different set of operating principles than object identification or is category determination also part of the perception of depth and spatial layout? Three-dimensional graphics movies of objects and their cast shadows are used to argue that identifying perceptual categories is important for determining the relative depths of objects. Processes that can identify the causal class (e.g. the kind of material) that generates the image data can provide information to determine the spatial relationships between surfaces. Changes in the blurriness of an edge may be characteristically associated with shadows caused by relative motion between two surfaces. The early identification of abstract events such as moving object/shadow pairs may also be important for depth from shadows. Knowledge of how correlated motion in the image relates to an object and its shadow may provide a reliable cue to access such event categories.
In picture quality assessment, the amount of distortion perceived by a human observer differs from one region to another according to its particular local content. This subjective perception can be explained/predicted by considering some simple psychovisual properties (masking) of the Human Visual System (HVS). We have implemented a HVS model based on a pyramid decomposition for extracting the spatial frequencies, associated with a multi-resolution motion representation. Then the visibility of the decoded errors is computed by exploiting the Kelly's contrast sensitivity spatio-velocity model. The resulting data is called a 'Quality-map.' Special attention has been paid to temporal/moving effects since, in the case of video sequences, motion strongly influences the subjective quality assessment. The quality of the motion information is thus preponderant. In the second part, two possible uses of these psychovisual properties for improving MPEG video encoding performances are depicted: (1) The pre-processing of the pictures to remove non-visible information using a motion adapted filtering. This process is efficient in term of bits saved and degradation is not significant especially on consumer electronic TV sets. (2) A perceptual quantizer based on a local adaptation scheme in order to obtain Quality-maps as uniform as possible (homogeneous perceived distortion), at constant bit-rate. Further improvements have been considered, especially when the viewer is tracking a moving object in the scene.
Seven male runners (21--42 years) were examined before and after the 1976 Boston Marathon to provide data concerning the cardio-respiratory and perceptual recovery from the performance. Treadmill runs, 30 min in duration, were administered 1 week prior to the marathon and 2--3, 6--7 and 13--15 days following. Treadmill speed was held constant and based on each runner's planned race pace. Maximal performance data were collected 1 week before and 2 weeks after the race. Data were analyzed using a 2-way ANOVA (4 thirty min run data collection periods and 3 exercise time points--5, 15 and 30 min) and "t" tests. Treatment effects were not observed for either HR or VE, however, perceived exertion (RPE) was significantly elevated 2--3 and 6--7 days post-marathon and VO2 was significantly lower at 13--15 days. HR and RPE showed significant time effects indicating a non-steady state response. None of the maximal test variables were significantly displaced. All variables were returned to pre-marathon levels by 13--15 days except VO2 which was lower. Aerobic capacity was not a limiting factor in the recovery from a marathon run. Muscle soreness and stiffness seem to be related to the increased perceptual ratings following a marathon run. PMID:522633
What, if anything, is cognitive architecture and how is it implemented in neural architecture? Focusing on perceptual organization, this question is addressed by way of a pluralist approach which, supported by metatheoretical considerations, combines complementary insights from representational, connectionist, and dynamic systems approaches to cognition. This pluralist approach starts from a representationally inspired model which implements the intertwined but functionally distinguishable subprocesses of feedforward feature encoding, horizontal feature binding, and recurrent feature selection. As sustained by a review of neuroscientific evidence, these are the subprocesses that are believed to take place in the visual hierarchy in the brain. Furthermore, the model employs a special form of processing, called transparallel processing, whose neural signature is proposed to be gamma-band synchronization in transient horizontal neural assemblies. In neuroscience, such assemblies are believed to mediate binding of similar features. Their formal counterparts in the model are special input-dependent distributed representations, called hyperstrings, which allow many similar features to be processed in a transparallel fashion, that is, simultaneously as if only one feature were concerned. This form of processing does justice to both the high combinatorial capacity and the high speed of the perceptual organization process. A naturally following proposal is that those temporarily synchronized neural assemblies are "gnosons", that is, constituents of flexible self-organizing cognitive architecture in between the relatively rigid level of neurons and the still elusive level of consciousness. PMID:22086351
Previous research has shown that, when hearers listen to artificially speeded speech, their performance improves over the\\u000a course of 10–15 sentences, as if their perceptual system was “adapting” to these fast rates of speech. In this paper, we further\\u000a investigate the mechanisms that are responsible for such effects. In Experiment 1, we report that, for bilingual speakers\\u000a of Catalan and
Christophe Pallier; Nuria Sebastian-Gallés; Emmanuel Dupoux; Anne Christophe; Jacques Mehler
Visual, cognitive, and perceptual analysis of the processing speed and effects of visual distractors were used to identify characteristics differences between the 'reading disabled' population and students with normal reading ability. A total of eighty-four students, ages 7-16, from the Kentucky's Warren County school system volunteered to participate in the study through responses to newspaper advertisements and teacher referrals. Seventy-one
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conceptual and perceptual properties of words on the speed and accuracy of lexical retrieval of children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during a picture-naming task. Participants consisted of 13 3–5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS. All participants had speech, language, and hearing development within
Multi-level phase change character of superlattice-like (SLL) Sb50Se50/Ga30Sb70 thin films was investigated through in-situ film resistance measurement. SLL structure of the thin films was confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy. Three resistance states were observed during heating process, and their thermal stability was also examined. A picosecond laser pump-probe system was used to measure phase-change time of the SLL Sb50Se50/Ga30Sb70 thin films. Phase change memory cells based on the SLL [SS(5 nm)/GS(10 nm)]3 thin films were fabricated to test and verify multi-level switch between set and reset states.
Most neuropsychological assessments of episodic memory bear little similarity to the events that patients actually experience as memories in daily life. The first aim of this study was to use a virtual environment to characterize episodic memory profiles in an ecological fashion, which includes memory for central and perceptual details,…
Plancher, G.; Tirard, A.; Gyselinck, V.; Nicolas, S.; Piolino, P.
|Most neuropsychological assessments of episodic memory bear little similarity to the events that patients actually experience as memories in daily life. The first aim of this study was to use a virtual environment to characterize episodic memory profiles in an ecological fashion, which includes memory for central and perceptual details,…
Plancher, G.; Tirard, A.; Gyselinck, V.; Nicolas, S.; Piolino, P.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n?=?13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n?=?14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n?=?13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant
Thomasin E. McCoy; Amy L. Conrad; Lynn C. Richman; Peg C. Nopoulos; Edward F. Bell
Abstract: Hardware memory caches improve memory access speed by taking advantage of the temporaland spatial locality common to most memory references. By assuming that accesspatterns exhibit these localities, hardware designers can optimize caches design, creatingsystems in which more than 95% of memory references in an average program need notaccess main memory.
Acquired memory skills best account for differences in memory performance. According to Chase and Ericsson's theory of skilled memory, improved memory or memory skills are due to the acquisition of more efficient storage and retrieval processes using long-term memory (LTM). Their theory specifies three principles which characterize the structure of memory skills. First, information rapidly stored in LTM is encoded
We examined 20 individuals who had worn coloured glasses (Irlen filters) for a period of at least 3 months and who claimed to find them beneficial. Sixteen had a history of reading difficulties. The performance of a variety of visual tasks was compared: (1) using the coloured lenses; (2) using neutral density filters of similar photopic transmittance; and (3) using trial lenses to correct any residual refractive error. The coloured lenses appeared to reduce discomfort and susceptibility to anomalous perceptual effects upon viewing grating patterns. They also improved the speed of visual search by a small amount. The lenses had idiosyncratic effects on ocular muscle balance and acuity. They did not affect contrast sensitivity at a spatial frequency of 4 c/deg. PMID:2062541
Objective: Memory decline commonly occurs among elderly individuals. This observation is often attributed to early neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus and related brain regions. However, the contribution of vascular lesions, such as brain infarcts, to hippocampal integrity and age-associated memory decline remains unclear. Methods: We studied 658 elderly participants without dementia from a prospective, community-based study on aging and dementia who received high-resolution structural MRI. Cortical and subcortical infarcts were identified, and hippocampal and relative brain volumes were calculated following standard protocols. Summary scores reflecting performance on tasks of memory, language, processing speed, and visuospatial function were derived from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. We used multiple regression analyses to relate cortical and subcortical infarcts, hippocampal and relative brain volume, to measures of cognitive performance in domains of memory, language, processing speed, and visuospatial ability. Results: Presence of brain infarcts was associated with a smaller hippocampus. Smaller hippocampus volume was associated with poorer memory specifically. Brain infarcts were associated with poorer memory and cognitive performance in all other domains, which was independent of hippocampus volume. Conclusions: Both hippocampal volume and brain infarcts independently contribute to memory performance in elderly individuals without dementia. Given that age-associated neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer disease, are defined primarily by impairment in memory, these findings have clinical implications for prevention and for identification of pathogenic factors associated with disease symptomatology.
A neuropsychological model of memory is proposed that incorporates Fodor's (1983) idea of modules and central systems. The model has four essential components: (1) a non-frontal neocortical component that consists of perceptual (and perhaps interpretative semantic) modules that mediate performance on item-specific, implicit tests of memory, (2) a modular medial temporal\\/hippocampal component that mediates encoding, storage, and retrieval on explicit,
Flash memory using a dual phase TiO(x)N(y)/TiN charge trapping layer has been fabricated and its electrical properties were investigated. The TiO(x)N(y)/TiN layer was formed by partial oxidation of a pre-deposited TiN layer, and the formation of TiO(x)N(y)/SiO(x)N(y) was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The enlarged conduction (deltaphi(c) = 3.6 eV) and valence (deltaphi(v) = 2.5 eV) band offsets of the TiO(x)N(y)/TiN to SiO2 enabled low-voltage (+/- 6 V) and fast programming/erasing (P: 2.7 x 10(4) V/s and E: -5.1 x 10(4) V/s) operations, while the transition layer suppressed the trapped charge leakage, giving rise to good 10-year data retention with less than 35% V(th) decay. PMID:19908806
Summary Memory and perception have long been considered separate cognitive processes, and amnesia resulting from medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage is thought to reflect damage to a dedicated memory system. Recent work has questioned these views, suggesting that amnesia can result from impoverished perceptual representations in the MTL, causing an increased susceptibility to interference. Using a perceptual matching task for which fMRI implicated a specific MTL structure, the perirhinal cortex, we show that amnesics with MTL damage including the perirhinal cortex, but not those with damage limited to the hippocampus, were vulnerable to object-based perceptual interference. Importantly, when we controlled such interference, their performance recovered to normal levels. These findings challenge prevailing conceptions of amnesia, suggesting that effects of damage to specific MTL regions are better understood not in terms of damage to a dedicated declarative memory system, but in terms of impoverished representations of the stimuli those regions maintain.
Barense, Morgan D.; Groen, Iris I.A.; Lee, Andy C.H.; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Brady, Sinead M.; Gregori, Mariella; Kapur, Narinder; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Henson, Richard N.A.
A key function of the sense of smell is to guide organisms towards rewards and away from dangers. However, because relatively few volatile chemicals in the environment carry intrinsic biological value, the meaning of an odor often needs to be acquired through learning and experience. The tremendous perceptual and neural plasticity of the olfactory system provides a design that is ideal for the establishment of links between odor cues and behaviorally relevant events, promoting appropriate adaptive responses to foods, friends, foes, and mates. This article describes recent human neuroimaging data showing the dynamic effects of olfactory perceptual learning and aversive conditioning on the behavioral discrimination of odor objects, with parallel plasticity and reorganization in the posterior piriform and orbitofrontal cortices. The findings presented here highlight the important role of experience in shaping odor object perception and in ensuring the human sense of smell achieves its full perceptual potential.
The extent to which different cognitive processes are "embodied" is widely debated. Previous studies have implicated sensorimotor regions such as lateral intraparietal (LIP) area in perceptual decision making. This has led to the view that perceptual decisions are embodied in the same sensorimotor networks that guide body movements. We use event-related fMRI and effective connectivity analysis to investigate whether the human sensorimotor system implements perceptual decisions. We show that when eye and hand motor preparation is disentangled from perceptual decisions, sensorimotor areas are not involved in accumulating sensory evidence toward a perceptual decision. Instead, inferior frontal cortex increases its effective connectivity with sensory regions representing the evidence, is modulated by the amount of evidence, and shows greater task-positive BOLD responses during the perceptual decision stage. Once eye movement planning can begin, however, an intraparietal sulcus (IPS) area, putative LIP, participates in motor decisions. Moreover, sensory evidence levels modulate decision and motor preparation stages differently in different IPS regions, suggesting functional heterogeneity of the IPS. This suggests that different systems implement perceptual versus motor decisions, using different neural signatures. PMID:23365248
Filimon, Flavia; Philiastides, Marios G; Nelson, Jonathan D; Kloosterman, Niels A; Heekeren, Hauke R
Studies of people with memory impairments have shown that a specific set of brain structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is vital for memory function. However, whether these structures have a role outside of memory remains contentious. Recent studies of amnesic patients with damage to two structures within the MTL, the hippocampus and the perirhinal cortex, indicated that these patients also performed poorly on perceptual tasks. More specifically, they performed worse than controls when discriminating between objects, faces and scenes with overlapping features. In order to investigate whether these perceptual deficits are reflected in their viewing strategies, we tested a group of amnesic patients with MTL damage that included the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex on a series of oddity discrimination tasks in which they had to select an odd item from a visual array. Participants' eye movements were monitored throughout the experiment. Results revealed that patients were impaired on tasks that required them to discriminate between items that shared many features, and tasks that required processing items from different viewpoints. An analysis of their eye movements revealed that they exhibited a similar viewing pattern as controls: they fixated more on the target item on trials answered correctly, but not on trials answered incorrectly. In addition, their impaired performance was not explained by an abnormal viewing-strategy that assessed their use of working memory. These results suggest that the perceptual deficits in the MTL patients are not a consequence of abnormal viewing patterns of the objects and scenes, but instead, could involve an inability to bind information gathered from several fixations into a cohesive percept. These data also support the view that MTL structures are important not only for long-term memory, but are also involved in perceptual tasks. PMID:23154380
Studies of people with memory impairments have shown that a specific set of brain structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is vital for memory function. However, whether these structures have a role outside of memory remains contentious. Recent studies of amnesic patients with damage to two structures within the MTL, the hippocampus and the perirhinal cortex, indicated that these patients also performed poorly on perceptual tasks. More specifically, they performed worse than controls when discriminating between objects, faces and scenes with overlapping features. In order to investigate whether these perceptual deficits are reflected in their viewing strategies, we tested a group of amnesic patients with MTL damage that included the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex on a series of oddity discrimination tasks in which they had to select an odd item from a visual array. Participants' eye movements were monitored throughout the experiment. Results revealed that patients were impaired on tasks that required them to discriminate between items that shared many features, and tasks that required processing items from different viewpoints. An analysis of their eye movements revealed that they exhibited a similar viewing pattern as controls: they fixated more on the target item on trials answered correctly, but not on trials answered incorrectly. In addition, their impaired performance was not explained by an abnormal viewing-strategy that assessed their use of working memory. These results suggest that the perceptual deficits in the MTL patients are not a consequence of abnormal viewing patterns of the objects and scenes, but instead, could involve an inability to bind information gathered from several fixations into a cohesive percept. These data also support the view that MTL structures are important not only for long-term memory, but are also involved in perceptual tasks.
Erez, Jonathan; Lee, Andy C.H.; Barense, Morgan D.
Purpose of review This paper describes recent advances in perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic, and endoscopic imaging methods for assessing voice production. Recent findings Perceptual assessment Speech-language pathologists are being encouraged to use the new CAPE-V inventory for auditory perceptual assessment of voice quality, and recent studies have provided new insights into listener reliability issues that have plagued subjective perceptual judgments of voice quality. Acoustic assessment Progress is being made on the development of algorithms that are more robust for analyzing disordered voices, including the capability to extract voice quality-related measures from running speech segments. Aerodynamic assessment New devices for measuring phonation threshold air pressures and air flows have the potential to serve as sensitive indices of glottal phonatory conditions, and recent developments in aeroacoustic theory may provide new insights into laryngeal sound production mechanisms. Endoscopic imaging The increased light sensitivity of new ultra high-speed color digital video processors is enabling high-quality endoscopic imaging of vocal fold tissue motion at unprecedented image capture rates, which promises to provide new insights into mechanisms of normal and disordered voice production. Summary Some of the recent research advances in voice quality assessment could be more readily adopted into clinical practice, while others will require further development.
Systems and methods are described for high-speedmemory assignment schemes for routing packets in a sharable parallel memory module based switch system. A method includes receiving a parameter, determining availability of memory location, determining if an available memory location is pre-assigned, and assigning a packet a parameter if the memory location is available. Systems of the present invention provides hardware and/or software based components for implementing the steps of receiving a parameter, determining available memory location, determining if available memory location is pre-assigned, and assigning a packet a parameter if the memory location is available.
By most theories of lexical access, idiosyncratic aspects of speech (such as voice details) are considered noise and are filtered in perception. However, episodic theories suggest that perceptual details are stored in memory and mediate later perception. By this view, perception and memory are intimately linked. The present investigation tested this hypothesis by creating symmetric illusions, using words and voices. In two experiments, listeners gave reduced noise estimates to previously heard words, but only when the original voices were preserved. Conversely, in two recognition memory experiments, listeners gave increased old responses to words (or voices) presented in relatively soft background noise. The data suggest that memory can be mistaken for perceptual fluency, and perceptual fluency can be mistaken for memory. The data also underscore the role of detailed episodes in lexical access. PMID:10226442
A recent proposal that structures of the medial temporal lobe support visual perception in addition to memory challenges the long-standing idea that the ability to acquire new memories is separable from other cognitive and perceptual functions. In four experiments, we have put this proposal to a rigorous test. Six memory-impaired patients with well characterized lesions of either the hippocampal region or the hippocampal region plus additional medial temporal lobe structures were assessed on difficult tests of visual perceptual discrimination. Across all four experiments, the patients performed as well as controls. The results show that visual perception is intact in memory-impaired patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe even when perception is assessed with challenging tasks. Furthermore, the results support the principle that the ability to acquire new memories is a distinct cerebral function, dissociable from other perceptual and cognitive functions.
Shrager, Yael; Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.
Processor speeds are increasing so much faster than memoryspeeds that within a decade processors may spend most of their time waiting for data. Most modern DRAM components support modes that make it possible to perform some access sequences more quickly than others. The authors describe how reordering streams can result in better memory performance
Sally A. Mckee; Robert H. Klenke; Kenneth L. Wright; William A. Wulf; Maximo H. Salinas; James H. Aylor; Alan P. Baston
Recent evidence from cognitive neuroscience suggests that certain cognitive processes employ perceptual representations. Inspired by this evidence, a few researchers have proposed that cognition is inherently perceptual. They have developed an innovative theoretical approach that rests on the notion of perceptual simulation and marshaled several…
Psychophysical phenomena such as categorical perception and the perceptual magnet effect indicate that our auditory perceptual spaces are warped for some stimuli. This paper investigates the effects of two dif- ferent kinds of training on auditory perceptual space. It is first shown that categorization training using non-speech stimuli, in which subjects learn to identify stimuli within a particular frequency range
Frank H. Guenther; Fatima T. Husain; Michael A. Cohen; Barbara G. Shinn-Cunningham
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques provide a promising measurement strategy for characteriz- ing individual differences in cognitive processing, which many clinical theories associate with the development, maintenance, and treatment of psychopathology. The authors describe the use of deter- ministic and probabilistic MDS techniques for investigating numerous aspects of perceptual organization, such as dimensional attention, perceptual correlation, within-attribute organization, and perceptual variability.
Teresa A. Treat; Richard M. McFall; Richard J. Viken; Robert M. Nosofsky; David B. MacKay; John K. Kruschke
|Recent evidence from cognitive neuroscience suggests that certain cognitive processes employ perceptual representations. Inspired by this evidence, a few researchers have proposed that cognition is inherently perceptual. They have developed an innovative theoretical approach that rests on the notion of perceptual simulation and marshaled several…
In a recent note1, D. L. Shell has described a high-speed sorting procedure for lists contained in internal memory. The method has the great virtues of requiring no additional memory space and being considerably faster than other such methods, which require a time proportional to the square of the list length. The present authors have studied the statistics of Shell's
|Despite decades of studies of human infants, a still open question concerns the role of visual experience in the development of the ability to perceive complete shapes over partial occlusion. Previous studies show that newborns fail to manifest this ability, either because they lack the visual experience required for perceptual completion or…
This talk will consider the implications of sensorineural hearing loss for auditory perceptual organization. In everyday environments, the listener is often faced with the difficulty of processing a target sound that intermingles acoustically with one or more extraneous sounds. Under such circumstances, several auditory processes enable the complex waveforms reaching the two ears to be interpreted in terms of putative auditory objects giving rise to the target and extraneous sounds. Such processes of perceptual organization depend upon the central analysis of cues that allow distributed spectral information to be either linked together or split apart on the basis of details related to such variables as synchrony of onset/modulation, harmonic relation, rhythm, and interaural differences. Efficient perceptual organization must depend not only upon such central auditory analyses but also upon the fidelity with which the peripheral auditory system encodes the spectral and temporal characteristics of sound. We will consider the implications of sensorineural hearing loss for perceptual organization in terms of both peripheral and central auditory processes.
|Recent work demonstrates that learning to understand noise-vocoded (NV) speech alters sublexical perceptual processes but is enhanced by the simultaneous provision of higher-level, phonological, but not lexical content (Hervais-Adelman, Davis, Johnsrude, & Carlyon, 2008), consistent with top-down learning (Davis, Johnsrude, Hervais-Adelman,…
Hervais-Adelman, Alexis G.; Davis, Matthew H.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Taylor, Karen J.; Carlyon, Robert P.
Designed for parents, the guide offers instructions for home activities to supplement the school program for children with perceptual motor disturbances. An individual program sheet is provided; behavioral characteristics and the child's need for structure are explained. Activities detailed include motor planning, body image, fine motor…
It is difficult to see how current models of discourse comprehension can be “scaled up” to account for the rich situation models that may be constructed during naturalistic language comprehension, as when readers are immersed in the story world. Recent proposals about embodied cognition and perceptual symbols, such as those put forth by Glenberg and Robertson and by Roth might
This paper provides a classification of perceptual issues in augmented reality, created with a visual processing and interpretation pipeline in mind. We organize issues into ones related to the environment, capturing, augmentation, display, and individual user differences. We also illuminate issues associated with more recent platforms such as handhelds or projector-camera systems. Throughout, we describe current approaches to addressing these
To understand the brain mechanisms of olfaction we must understand the rules that govern the link between odorant structure and odorant perception. Natural odors are in fact mixtures made of many molecules, and there is currently no method to look at the molecular structure of such odorant-mixtures and predict their smell. In three separate experiments, we asked 139 subjects to rate the pairwise perceptual similarity of 64 odorant-mixtures ranging in size from 4 to 43 mono-molecular components. We then tested alternative models to link odorant-mixture structure to odorant-mixture perceptual similarity. Whereas a model that considered each mono-molecular component of a mixture separately provided a poor prediction of mixture similarity, a model that represented the mixture as a single structural vector provided consistent correlations between predicted and actual perceptual similarity (r?0.49, p<0.001). An optimized version of this model yielded a correlation of r?=?0.85 (p<0.001) between predicted and actual mixture similarity. In other words, we developed an algorithm that can look at the molecular structure of two novel odorant-mixtures, and predict their ensuing perceptual similarity. That this goal was attained using a model that considers the mixtures as a single vector is consistent with a synthetic rather than analytical brain processing mechanism in olfaction. PMID:24068899
Snitz, Kobi; Yablonka, Adi; Weiss, Tali; Frumin, Idan; Khan, Rehan M; Sobel, Noam
|This study investigated some of the differences in a perceptual discrimination performance task due to: (1) sex and (2) level of aspiration of each group of subjects. It was found that there is an interaction effect between femaleness, maleness, and aspiration level. (Author)|
Results of an Austrian-German comparison pertaining to different aspects of job satisfaction are presented. It is argued that even at this early stage in their development, perceptual indicators can be used to reveal overall trends and to point up trouble spots where socio-economic action on the part of the authorities is called for.
In this paper we propose an ontology and a software architecture for observing and modeling context and situation. We are especially con- cerned with the perceptual components for context awareness. We propose a model in which a user's context is described by a set of roles and relations. Different configurations of roles and relations correspond to situations within the context.
James L. Crowley; Joëlle Coutaz; Gaeten Rey; Patrick Reignier
Perceptual psychology widely operationalizes color appearance as a construct with very close, even isomorphic, ties to color naming structure. Indeed, a considerable body of psychological and psychophysics research uses naming-based tasks to derive structural properties of color ap- pearance space. New research investigating the relations linking color similarity and color naming structures suggest that assumptions involving strong structural correspondences between
For a sensible application of Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Environments (VE) it is necessary to include basic human information processing resources and characteristics. Because there is no fully functional model of human perceptual, cognitive, and motor behavior, this requires empirical analyses. Moreover, these analyses are often based on subjective ratings rather than objective measures. With regard to perception as
Abstract This paper introduces a novel ,speech ,enhancement ,system based on a wavelet denoising framework. In this system, the noisy speech is first preprocessed using a generalized spectral subtraction method ,to initially lower ,the noise level with negligible speech distortion. A perceptual ,wavelet transform isthen,used to decompose ,the resulting speech signal into critical bands. Threshold estimation is implemented ,that is
|People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…
Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.
Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has
Recent work demonstrates that learning to understand noise-vocoded (NV) speech alters sublexical perceptual processes but is enhanced by the simultaneous provision of higher-level, phonological, but not lexical content (Hervais-Adelman, Davis, Johnsrude, & Carlyon, 2008), consistent with top-down learning (Davis, Johnsrude, Hervais-Adelman,…
Hervais-Adelman, Alexis G.; Davis, Matthew H.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Taylor, Karen J.; Carlyon, Robert P.
Performance on perceptual tasks requiring the discrimination of brief, temporally proximate or temporally varying sensory stimuli (temporal processing tasks) is impaired in some individuals with developmental language disorder and\\/or dyslexia. Little is known about how these temporal processes in perception develop and how they relate to language and reading performance in the normal population. The present study examined performance on
Kerry M. M. Walker; Susan E. Hall; Raymond M. Klein; Dennis P. Phillips
Two groups of hypothetically psychosisprone subjects were chosen from among college students who scored deviantly high on scales of Physical Anhedonia (n = 50) or Perceptual Aberration (n = 65). Scores on these two scales had a small negative correlation, indicating that the scales identify different sets of deviant subjects. These experimental subjects and a control group (n = 66)
Loren J. Chapman; William S. Edell; Jean P. Chapman
In this paper I look at dynamic mental representations, motion detection under conditions of certainty or uncertainty, perceptual adaptation, and priming of motion direction. The goal is to bridge the boundaries created in part by the use of different terminology within different literatures. The most fruitful parallel may be between the phenomenon of dynamic mental representation and representa- tional momentum
To understand the brain mechanisms of olfaction we must understand the rules that govern the link between odorant structure and odorant perception. Natural odors are in fact mixtures made of many molecules, and there is currently no method to look at the molecular structure of such odorant-mixtures and predict their smell. In three separate experiments, we asked 139 subjects to rate the pairwise perceptual similarity of 64 odorant-mixtures ranging in size from 4 to 43 mono-molecular components. We then tested alternative models to link odorant-mixture structure to odorant-mixture perceptual similarity. Whereas a model that considered each mono-molecular component of a mixture separately provided a poor prediction of mixture similarity, a model that represented the mixture as a single structural vector provided consistent correlations between predicted and actual perceptual similarity (r?0.49, p<0.001). An optimized version of this model yielded a correlation of r?=?0.85 (p<0.001) between predicted and actual mixture similarity. In other words, we developed an algorithm that can look at the molecular structure of two novel odorant-mixtures, and predict their ensuing perceptual similarity. That this goal was attained using a model that considers the mixtures as a single vector is consistent with a synthetic rather than analytical brain processing mechanism in olfaction.
Weiss, Tali; Frumin, Idan; Khan, Rehan M.; Sobel, Noam
|Pigeons responded in a perceptual categorization task with six different stimuli (shades of gray), three of which were to be classified as "light" or "dark", respectively. Reinforcement probability for correct responses was varied from 0.2 to 0.6 across blocks of sessions and was unequal for correct light and dark responses. Introduction of a new…
Describes three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) models for every component in a representative mechanical system; the CAD models made it easy to generate 3-D animations that are ideal for teaching perceptual skills in multimedia computer-based technical training. Fifteen illustrations are provided. (AEF)
The growth of new imaging technologies has created a need for techniques that can be used for copyright protection of digital images and video. One approach for copyright protection is to introduce an invisible signal, known as a digital watermark, into an image or video sequence. In this paper, we describe digital watermarking techniques, known as perceptually based watermarks, that
Raymond B. Wolfgang; Christine I. Podilchuk; Edward J. Delp
We present a framework for accelerating interactive rendering, grounded in psychophysical models of visual perception. This framework is applicable to multiresolution rendering techniques that use a hierarchy of local simplification operations. Our method drives those local operations directly by perceptual metrics; the effect of each simplification on the final image is considered in terms of the contrast the operation will
|This 115-page annotated bibliography contains material on perceptual motor development. The introductory portion of the bibliography presents general reading on perception, learning, and development. The first portion contains annotated works by six specific authors. The second portion presents works grouped under the following headings: a)…
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.
Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviors, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.'s (2009) perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. This study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modeling, philosophy, psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview of both behavioral experimental research and simulated agent modeling done using the perceptual crossing paradigm. We discuss different contexts in which work on perceptual crossing has been cited. This includes the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition.
Response time in database systems is not getting small as a processor speed is accelerating because of a growing gap between speed of the processor and that of a memory, and increase in data size. A conventional memory controller and caches in a processor cannot provide enough bandwidth of data transfer between a processor and memory. For fast processing with
Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called “dazzle camouflage”. Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.
Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Baddeley, Roland; Palmer, Chloe E.; Cuthill, Innes C.
Two market trends that have been evident for some time are increasing microprocessor speeds and the increasing demand for additional functionality in electronic systems. These market trends in turn are driving the need for increased memory density and higher performance memory in systems such as personal computers, laptop computers and servers. To address these requirements, memory module manufacturers are looking
As the gap between processor and memoryspeeds continues to widen, methods for evaluating memory system designs before they are implemented in hardware are becoming increasingly important. One such method, trace-driven memory simulation, has been the subject of intense interest among researchers and has, as a result, enjoyed rapid development and substantial improvements during the past decade. This article surveys
A critical component of decision making is the ability to adjust criteria for classifying stimuli. fMRI and drift diffusion models were used to explore the neural representations of perceptual criteria in decision making. The specific focus was on the relative engagement of perceptual- and decision-related neural systems in response to adjustments in perceptual criteria. Human participants classified visual stimuli as big or small based on criteria of different sizes, which effectively biased their choices toward one response over the other. A drift diffusion model was fit to the behavioral data to extract estimates of stimulus size, criterion size, and difficulty for each participant and condition. These parameter values were used as modulated regressors to create a highly constrained model for the fMRI analysis that accounted for several components of the decision process. The results show that perceptual criteria values were reflected by activity in left inferior temporal cortex, a region known to represent objects and their physical properties, whereas stimulus size was reflected by activation in occipital cortex. A frontoparietal network of regions, including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal lobule, corresponded to the decision variables resulting from the downstream stimulus-criterion comparison, independent of stimulus type. The results provide novel evidence that perceptual criteria are represented in stimulus space and serve as inputs to be compared with the presented stimulus, recruiting a common network of decision regions shown to be active in other simple decisions. This work advances our understanding of the neural correlates of decision flexibility and adjustments of behavioral bias. PMID:23175825
White, Corey N; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A
The perceptual-interference effect occurs when interference with word perception (by backward masking) enhances later memory\\u000a for the word. In terms of the item-specific-relational framework (Hunt & McDaniel, 1993), this effect is similar to other\\u000a manipulations that enhance item-specific encoding (such as the generation effect). One similarity is that item-specific effects\\u000a typically do not arise in betweensubjects designs. However, the present
Although widely studied in other domains, relatively little is known about the metacognitive processes that monitor and control behaviour during reasoning and decision-making. In this paper, we examined the conditions under which two fluency cues are used to monitor initial reasoning: answer fluency, or the speed with which the initial, intuitive answer is produced (Thompson, Prowse Turner, & Pennycook, 2011), and perceptual fluency, or the ease with which problems can be read (Alter, Oppenheimer, Epley, & Eyre, 2007). The first two experiments demonstrated that answer fluency reliably predicted Feeling of Rightness (FOR) judgments to conditional inferences and base rate problems, which subsequently predicted the amount of deliberate processing as measured by thinking time and answer changes; answer fluency also predicted retrospective confidence judgments (Experiment 3b). Moreover, the effect of answer fluency on reasoning was independent from the effect of perceptual fluency, establishing that these are empirically independent constructs. In five experiments with a variety of reasoning problems similar to those of Alter et al. (2007), we found no effect of perceptual fluency on FOR, retrospective confidence or accuracy; however, we did observe that participants spent more time thinking about hard to read stimuli, although this additional time did not result in answer changes. In our final two experiments, we found that perceptual disfluency increased accuracy on the CRT (Frederick, 2005), but only amongst participants of high cognitive ability. As Alter et al.'s samples were gathered from prestigious universities, collectively, the data to this point suggest that perceptual fluency prompts additional processing in general, but this processing may results in higher accuracy only for the most cognitively able. PMID:23158572
This lab is purely a thought experiment. Although students are given an introduction to angular speed and tangential speed, they will discover the relationship between the two in this activity. The lab is an inquiry activity in that students do not know t
Semantic memory includes all acquired knowledge about the world and is the basis for nearly all human activity, yet its neurobiological foundation is only now becoming clear. Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate two striking results: the participation of modality-specific sensory, motor, and emotion systems in language comprehension, and the existence of large brain regions that participate in comprehension tasks but are not modality-specific. These latter regions, which include the inferior parietal lobe and much of the temporal lobe, lie at convergences of multiple perceptual processing streams. These convergences enable increasingly abstract, supramodal representations of perceptual experience that support a variety of conceptual functions including object recognition, social cognition, language, and the remarkable human capacity to remember the past and imagine the future.
The hypothesis that episodic memory retrieval can occur in parallel with other cognitive processes was tested in 2 experiments. Participants memorized words and then performed speeded cued recall (Experiment 1) or speeded yes-no recognition (Experiment 2) in a dual-task situation. The psychological refractory period design was used: The participant was presented with a single test item at various stimulus onset
The relationship between biomechanical action and perception of self-motion during walking is typically consistent and well-learned but also adaptable. This perceptual-motor coupling can be recalibrated by creating a mismatch between the visual information for self-motion and walking speed. Perceptual-motor recalibration of locomotion has been demonstrated through effects on subsequent walking without vision, showing that learned perceptual-motor coupling influences a dynamic representation of one's spatial position during walking. Our present studies test whether recalibration of wheelchair locomotion, a novel form of locomotion for typically walking individuals, similarly influences subsequent wheelchair locomotion. Furthermore, we test whether adaptation to the pairing of visual information for self-motion during one form of locomotion transfers to a different locomotion modality. We find strong effects of perceptual-motor recalibration for matched locomotion modalities – walking/walking and wheeling/wheeling. Transfer across incongruent locomotion modalities showed weak recalibration effects. The results have implications both for theories of perceptual-motor calibration mechanisms and their effects on spatial orientation, as well as for practical applications in training and rehabilitation.
Kunz, Benjamin R.; Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Thompson, William B.
The radiator speed-memory has been recently shown to have important consequences for spectral lineshapes in the collision regime. This speed-memory controls the speed changing collisional mechanism, which becomes crucial when inhomogeneities arise from the speed dependence of the line broadening and\\/or shifting parameters. The extension of such a memory approach to lower densities requires the introduction of a pertinent velocity-memory
Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information.
We report the emergent functional connectivity of cortical areas during a visuo-perceptual discrimination task with or without the retention in memory of the location of visual targets using EEG. The networks were computed using multivariate Granger causality on groups of electrodes reflecting coarse-grained brain areas. The analysis showed that at alpha band (8-12Hz) there are no significant differences. In contrast, in beta and gamma band, we identified a top-down information flow pattern which was evident for the task that required the activation of the working memory mechanism.
In this study, we examined the impact of concurrent verbal and spatial working memory demands on performance on an alpha-numeric successive target detection task. Seven hundred and forty-five participants performed a target detection task while simultaneously performing either a spatial or a verbal working memory task or they performed matched no-memory control tasks. The vigilance decrement, both an increase in target detection response times and a decrease in perceptual sensitivity A' to target stimuli over time, was exacerbated by concurrent working memory load. The spatial and verbal working memory loads both impacted vigilance performance suggesting utilization of common executive resources. Overall, these results support the view that the vigilance decrement results from high cognitive resource demands (e.g., hard work), not from cognitive under-load (e.g., boredom or mindlessness). PMID:21643711
Background: Memory intervention research with older adults has primarily focused on immediate effects of training. Little is known about whether memory training can prevent forgetting of a learned material over time. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of memory training on forgetting of numerical information in old age. In addition, the effect of speed
Anna Derwinger; Anna Stigsdotter Neely; Stuart MacDonald; Lars Bäckman
Performance gains in memory have traditionally been obtained by increasing memory bus widths and speeds. The diminishing returns of such techniques have led to the proposal of an alternate architecture, the Fully-Buffered DIMM. This new standard replaces the conventional memory bus with a narrow, high-speed interface between the memory controller and the DIMMs. This paper examines how traditional DDRx based
Brinda Ganesh; Aamer Jaleel; David Wang; Bruce L. Jacob
|Humans have a massive capacity to store detailed information in visual long-term memory. The present studies explored the fidelity of these visual long-term memory representations and examined how conceptual and perceptual features of object categories support this capacity. Observers viewed 2,800 object images with a different number of…
Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude
The hypothesis to be explored in this chapter is based on the assumption that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is directly involved in representing a subset of the spatial features associated with spatial information processing and plays an important role in perceptualmemory as well as long-term memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of spatial information. After presentation of the anatomical
Abstract Cache memories can contribute to significant performance advantages due to the gap between CPU and memoryspeed They have traditionally been thought of as contributors to unpredictability because the user can not be sure of ex - actly how much time will elapse while a memory - operation is performed In a real - time system, the cache memory
|This paper will review research on working memory and short-term memory abilities of deaf individuals delineating strengths and weaknesses. The areas of memory reviewed include weaknesses such as sequential recall, processing speed, attention, and memory load. Strengths include free recall, visuospatial recall, imagery and dual encoding.…
The hypothesis that episodic memory retrieval can occur in parallel with other cognitive processes was tested in 2 experiments. Participants memorized words and then performed speeded cued recall (Experiment 1) or speeded yes-no recognition (Experiment 2) in a dual-task situation. The psychological refractory period design was used: The participant was presented with a single test item at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; 50-1,200 ms) after a tone was presented in an auditory-manual 2-alternative choice reaction task. Reducing the SOA increased the memory task reaction times. This slowing was additive with the effect of variables slowing retrieval in the memory task. The results indicate that memory retrieval is delayed by central processes in the choice task, arguing that the central bottleneck responsible for dual-task interference encompasses memory retrieval as well as response selection. PMID:8744967
We demonstrated unconscious learning of task-irrelevant perceptual regularities in a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in both visual and auditory domains. Participants were required to respond to different letters ('F' or 'J', experiment 1) or syllables ('can' or 'you', experiment 2) which occurred in random order. Unbeknownst to participants, the color (red, green, blue or yellow) of the two letters or the tone (1-4) of the syllables varied according to certain rules. Reaction times indicated that people indeed learnt both the color and tonal regularities indicating that task-irrelevant sequence structure can be learned perceptually. In a subsequent prediction test of knowledge of the color or tonal cues using subjective measures, we showed that people could acquire task irrelevant knowledge unconsciously. PMID:23318647
People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal.
In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality. PMID:22123980
SUMMARY Visual perceptual learning is defined as performance enhancement on a sensory task and is distinguished from other types of learning and memory in that it is highly specific for location of the trained stimulus. The location specificity has been shown to be paralleled by changes in neural activity in V1 or V4 of monkeys [1, 2] and enhancement in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in the trained region of the primary visual cortex (V1) [3–5] after visual training. Although recently the role of sleep in strengthening visual perceptual learning has attracted much attention, its underlying neural mechanism has yet to be clarified. Here, for the first time, fMRI activation of early visual cortex was measured and compared during sleep with and without preceding visual perceptual learning training. The fMRI measurement was conducted concurrently with polysomnogram, which indicates a subject’s sleep/wake status. As a result of predetermined region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of the human primary cortex (V1), activation enhancement during non rapid eye movement sleep after training was observed specifically in the trained region of V1. Furthermore, improvement of task-performance measured subsequently to the post-training sleep session was significantly correlated with the amount of the trained-region-specific fMRI activation in V1 during sleep. These results suggest that as far as V1 is concerned, only the trained region is involved in improving task performance after sleep.
In associative agnosia early perceptual processing of faces or objects are considered to be intact, while the ability to access stored semantic information about the individual face or object is impaired. Recent claims, however, have asserted that associative agnosia is also characterized by deficits at the perceptual level, which are too subtle to be detected by current neuropsychological tests. Thus, the impaired identification of famous faces or common objects in associative agnosia stems from difficulties in extracting the minute perceptual details required to identify a face or an object. In the present study, we report the case of a patient DBO with a left occipital infarct, who shows impaired object and famous face recognition. Despite his disability, he exhibits a face inversion effect, and is able to select a famous face from among non-famous distractors. In addition, his performance is normal in an immediate and delayed recognition memory for faces, whose external features were deleted. His deficits in face recognition are apparent only when he is required to name a famous face, or select two faces from among a triad of famous figures based on their semantic relationships (a task which does not require access to names). The nature of his deficits in object perception and recognition are similar to his impairments in the face domain. This pattern of behavior supports the notion that apperceptive and associative agnosia reflect distinct and dissociated deficits, which result from damage to different stages of the face and object recognition process. PMID:17320120
While much developmental research has focused on the strategies that children employ to recognize faces, less is known about the principles governing the organization of face exemplars in perceptualmemory. In this study, we tested a novel, child-friendly paradigm for investigating the organization of face, bird and car exemplars. Children ages 3–4, 5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12 and adults were presented with 50/50 morphs of typical and atypical face, bird and car parent images. Participants were asked to judge whether the 50/50 morph more strongly resembled the typical or the atypical parent image. Young and older children and adults showed a systematic bias to the atypical faces and birds, but no bias toward the atypical cars. Collectively, these findings argue that by the age of 3, children encode and organize faces, birds and cars in a perceptual space that is strikingly similar to that of adults. Category organization for both children and adults follows Krumhansl’s (1978) distance-density principle in which the similarity between two exemplars is jointly determined by their physical appearance and the density of neighboring exemplars in the perceptual space.
Tanaka, James W.; Meixner, Tamara L.; Kantner, Justin
The perceptual fluency hypothesis proposes that items that are easier to perceive at study will be given higher memorability ratings, as compared with less fluent items. However, prior research has examined this metamemorial cue primarily using mixed-list designs. Furthermore, certain memory effects are moderated by the design (mixed list vs. pure list) used to present stimuli. The present study utilized mixed as well as pure lists to assess whether judgments of learning based on perceptual fluency are relative or absolute and whether people are sensitive to differences in recall produced by variation in list composition. Using font size and generation manipulations, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the effect of perceptual fluency on metamemory is relative in nature, occurring only in mixed lists. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that metamemory is insensitive to the effect of list composition on recall. These findings are consistent with the assumptions of Koriat's (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 126: 349-370, 1997) cue-utilization framework, that JOLs reflect a comparative process and are insensitive to cues pertaining to conditions of learning. PMID:23661189
Susser, Jonathan A; Mulligan, Neil W; Besken, Miri
This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits perceptual processing; (3) inhibited perceptual processing makes recollections less vivid and detailed and finally; (4) reduction in vividness and detail promotes distrust in memory. An interactive computer animation was developed in which participants had to perform checking rituals on a virtual gas stove. Two separate experiments were carried out with n=39 (Experiment I) and n=40 (Experiment II) healthy participants. In both studies, the control group and the experimental group were given the same pre-test and post-test on the virtual gas stove. In between, the experimental group engaged in 'relevant checking', i.e. checking the gas stove, while the control group engaged in 'irrelevant checking', i.e. checking virtual light bulbs. In both experiments there were powerful effects of repeated 'relevant checking': while actual memory accuracy remained unaffected, the vividness and detail of the recollections were greatly reduced. Most pertinently, in both experiments relevant checking undermined confidence in memory. No such effects were observed in the control group. One might argue that the pre-test/post-test design may have made the control group anticipate a memory assessment at the post-test and that this artifact made them relatively alert producing memory confidence at post test that was artificially high. A third experiment was carried out (n=2 x 20) in which no pre-test was given while, other than that, Experiment III was identical to the first two experiments. Results confirmed earlier findings: compared to the irrelevant checking control group, recollections in the relevant checking group were non-vivid, non-detailed while confidence in memory was low. The theory and data suggest an answer to the question 'why memory distrust persists despite repetitive checking'. In people who check extensively, memory distrust may persist as a result of repetitive checking. OCD checking may be motivated by the wish to reduce uncertainty, but checking appears to be a counter-productive safety strategy. Rather than reducing doubt, checking fosters doubt and ironically increases meta-memory problems. PMID:12600401
Characteristics of auditory perceptual learning were investigated by monitoring improvements in the identification of tonal\\u000a patterns ranging in length from 135 to 540 msec in total duration. Increasing amounts of temporal complexity were imposed\\u000a by the combination of elementary 3-tone segments into sequences of two, three, or four segments, thus creating patterns of\\u000a 3 to 12 tones that varied in
\\u000a Current systems that learn to process natural language require laboriously constructed human-annotated training data. Ideally,\\u000a a computer would be able to acquire language like a child by being exposed to linguistic input in the context of a relevant\\u000a but ambiguous perceptual environment. As a step in this direction, we present a system that learns to sportscast simulated\\u000a robot soccer games
Current systems that learn to process natural language require laboriously constructed human-annotated training data. Ideally,\\u000a a computer would be able to acquire language like a child by being exposed to linguistic input in the context of a relevant\\u000a but ambiguous perceptual environment. As a step in this direction, we present a system that learns to sportscast simulated\\u000a robot soccer games
The authors compared 55 bulimic subjects and 55 normal control subjects using the Beck Depression Inventory, a new scale designed to detect cognitive distortions (the Bulimia Cognitive Distortion Scale), and several perceptual and attitudinal measures of body image. There were significant differences between the bulimic and control groups on all measures except estimates of face width. These findings are discussed in terms of a multifactorial theory of the psychopathogenesis of bulimia. PMID:3674227
Powers, P S; Schulman, R G; Gleghorn, A A; Prange, M E
Observers categorized perceptual stimuli when the category costs and benefits were manipulated across conditions, and costs\\u000a were either zero or nonzero. The cost-benefit structures were selected so that performance across conditions was equivalent\\u000a with respect to the optimal classifier. Each observer completed several blocks of trials in each of the experimental conditions,\\u000a and a series of nested models was applied
We present a new algorithm for best-effort simplification of polygonal meshes based on principles of visual perception. Building on previous work, we use a simple model of low-level human vision to estimate the perceptibility of local simplification operations in a view-dependent Multi-Triangulation structure. Our algorithm improves on prior perceptual simplification approaches by accounting for textured models and dynamic lighting effects.
Nathaniel Williams; David P. Luebke; Michael Kelley; Brenden Schubert
In four experiments, the effects of sequential priming on the perceptual organization of complex three-dimensional (3-D) displays\\u000a were examined. Observers were asked to view stereoscopic arrays and to search an embedded subset of items for an odd-colored\\u000a target while 3-D orientation of the stimuli was varied randomly between trials. Search times decreased reliably when 3-D stimulus\\u000a orientation was unchanged on
One of the most influential theories in visual cognition proposes that attention is necessary to bind different visual features into coherent object percepts (Treisman & Gelade, 1980). While considerable evidence supports a role for attention in perceptual feature binding, whether attention plays a similar function in visual working memory (VWM) remains controversial. To test the attentional requirements of VWM feature binding, here we gave participants an attention-demanding multiple object tracking task during the retention interval of a VWM task. Results show that the tracking task disrupted memory for color-shape conjunctions above and beyond any impairment to working memory for object features, and that this impairment was larger when the VWM stimuli were presented at different spatial locations. These results demonstrate that the role of visuospatial attention in feature binding is not unique to perception, but extends to the working memory of these perceptual representations as well.
Self-stimulatory behavior is repetitive, stereotyped, functionally autonomous behavior seen in both normal and developmentally disabled populations, yet no satisfactory theory of its development and major characteristics has previously been offered. We present here a detailed hypothesis of the acquisition and maintenance of self-stimulatory behavior, proposing that the behaviors are operant responses whose reinforcers are automatically produced interoceptive and exteroceptive perceptual consequences. The concept of perceptual stimuli and reinforcers, the durability of self-stimulatory behaviors, the sensory extinction effect, the inverse relationship between self-stimulatory and other behaviors, the blocking effect of self-stimulatory behavior on new learning, and response substitution effects are discussed in terms of the hypothesis. Support for the hypothesis from the areas of sensory reinforcement and sensory deprivation is also reviewed. Limitations of major alternative theories are discussed, along with implications of the perceptual reinforcement hypothesis for the treatment of excessive self-stimulatory behavior and for theoretical conceptualizations of functionally related normal and pathological behaviors.
Synesthesia is a remarkable, rare condition where an individual has multimodal perceptual experiences from a unimodal sensory event. We have studied such an individual, an adult male for whom achromatic words and alphanumeric characters are seen in vivid, reliable colors. We used a variety of perceptual tasks to document the perceptual reality of synesthetic colors and to begin to localize the stage of visual processing where this anomalous binding of externally specified form and internally generated color may take place. Synesthetic colors were elicited by forms defined solely by binocular cues or solely by motion cues, which implies a central locus of visual processing for synesthetic binding of form and color. Also included among our measurements was a difficult visual search task on which non-synesthetic subjects required an effortful search through the visual display. Our subject, in contrast to non-synesthetic subjects, accomplished the task with relative ease because the target of the search had a different synesthetic color from the distractors. Thus, synesthetic experiences appear to originate from a binding of color and form that takes place within central stages of visual processing.
Palmeri, Thomas J.; Blake, Randolph; Marois, Rene; Flanery, Marci A.; Whetsell, William
Language-based learning problems affect approximately one person in twelve with no other obvious signs of disorder. Many of these individuals have accompanying deficits in nonlinguistic perception. To determine whether age influences the magnitude of these deficits, thresholds on a set of auditory masking tasks were measured in individuals with learning problems and controls ranging in age from 6 years to adult. Performance improved with increasing age in both groups. However, the thresholds of the individuals with learning problems were most similar to those of controls approximately 2-4 years younger on every task, suggesting that the perceptual development of the affected individuals was delayed by a constant amount. Further, on the subset of conditions on which controls reached adult levels of performance after 10 years of age, the improvement of affected individuals halted at 10 years of age, suggesting that puberty may play a critical role in human perceptual development. Taken together, these data support the idea that some learning problems result from a neuromaturational delay, of unknown breadth, and indicate that neurological changes associated with puberty prevent the complete resolution of delayed perceptual development. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.
Wright, Beverly A.; Zecker, Steven G.; Reid, Miriam D.
The question of whether or not neural activity patterns recorded in the olfactory centres of the brain correspond to olfactory perceptual measures remains unanswered. To address this question, we studied olfaction in honeybees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We conditioned bees to odours and tested generalisation responses to different odours. Sixteen odours were used, which varied both in their functional group (primary and secondary alcohols, aldehydes and ketones) and in their carbon-chain length (from six to nine carbons).The results obtained by presentation of a total of 16 × 16 odour pairs show that (i) all odorants presented could be learned, although acquisition was lower for short-chain ketones; (ii) generalisation varied depending both on the functional group and the carbon-chain length of odours trained; higher generalisation was found between long-chain than between short-chain molecules and between groups such as primary and secondary alcohols; (iii) for some odour pairs, cross-generalisation between odorants was asymmetric; (iv) a putative olfactory space could be defined for the honeybee with functional group and carbon-chain length as inner dimensions; (v) perceptual distances in such a space correlate well with physiological distances determined from optophysiological recordings of antennal lobe activity. We conclude that functional group and carbon-chain length are inner dimensions of the honeybee olfactory space and that neural activity in the antennal lobe reflects the perceptual quality of odours.
The ability to discriminate complex temporal envelope patterns submitted to temporal compression or expansion was assessed in normal-hearing listeners. An XAB, matching-to-sample-procedure was used. X, the reference stimulus, is obtained by applying the sum of two, inharmonically related, sinusoids to a broadband noise carrier. A and B are obtained by multiplying the frequency of each modulation component of X by the same time expansion/compression factor, alpha (alphain[0.35-2.83]). For each trial, A or B is a time-reversed rendering of X, and the listeners' task is to choose which of the two is matched by X. Overall, the results indicate that discrimination performance degrades for increasing amounts of time expansion/compression (i.e., when alpha departs from 1), regardless of the frequency spacing of modulation components and the peak-to-trough ratio of the complex envelopes. An auditory model based on envelope extraction followed by a memory-limited, template-matching process accounted for results obtained without time scaling of stimuli, but generally underestimated discrimination ability with either time expansion or compression, especially with the longer stimulus durations. This result is consistent with partial or incomplete perceptual normalization of envelope patterns. PMID:18345847
Williams Syndrome is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an uneven cognitive profile and surprisingly large neurobehavioral differences among individuals. Previous studies have already shown different forms of memory deficiencies and learning difficulties in WS. Here we studied the capacity of WS subjects to improve their performance in a basic visual task. We employed a contour integration paradigm that addresses occipital visual function, and analyzed the initial (i.e. baseline) and after-learning performance of WS individuals. Instead of pooling the very inhomogeneous results of WS subjects together, we evaluated individual performance by expressing it in terms of the deviation from the average performance of the group of typically developing subjects of similar age. This approach helped us to reveal information about the possible origins of poor performance of WS subjects in contour integration. Although the majority of WS individuals showed both reduced baseline and reduced learning performance, individual analysis also revealed a dissociation between baseline and learning capacity in several WS subjects. In spite of impaired initial contour integration performance, some WS individuals presented learning capacity comparable to learning in the typically developing population, and vice versa, poor learning was also observed in subjects with high initial performance levels. These data indicate a dissociation between factors determining initial performance and perceptual learning.
An unsolved problem of biology is the processing of global shape in natural vision. The known processes of early vision are spatially restricted (or local) operations, and little is known about their interactions in organizing the visual image into functionally coherent (or global) objects. Here we introduce a human psychophysical method which allows us to measure the effect of perceptual organization on the activity pattern of local visual detectors. We map differential contrast sensitivity for a target across regions enclosed by a boundary. We show that local contrast sensitivity is enhanced within the boundary even for large distances between the boundary and the target. Furthermore, the locations of maximal sensitivity enhancement in the sensitivity maps are determined by global shape properties. Our data support a class of models which describe shapes by the means of a medial axis transformation, implying that the visual system extracts 'skeletons' as an intermediate-level representation of objects. The skeletal representation offers a structurally simplified shape description which can be used for higher-level operations and for coding into memory. PMID:8065449
Neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding the neural substrates supporting cognitive performance in a number of domains, including memory, perception and decision-making. In contrast, how the human brain generates metacognitive awareness of task performance remains unclear. Here, we address this question by asking participants to perform perceptual decisions while providing concurrent metacognitive reports, during fMRI scanning. We show that activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) satisfies three constraints for a role in metacognitive aspects of decision-making. Right rlPFC showed greater activity during self-report compared to a matched control condition; activity in this region correlated with reported confidence; and the strength of the relationship between activity and confidence predicted metacognitive ability across individuals. In addition, functional connectivity between right rlPFC and both contralateral PFC and visual cortex increased during metacognitive reports. We discuss these findings in a theoretical framework where rlPFC re-represents object-level decision uncertainty to facilitate metacognitive report.
Fleming, Stephen M.; Huijgen, Josefien; Dolan, Raymond J.
In two experiments, we transferred perceptual load theory to the dynamic field of team sports and tested the predictions derived from the theory using a novel task and stimuli. We tested a group of college students (N = 33) and a group of expert team sport players (N = 32) on a general perceptual load task and a complex, soccer-specific perceptual load task in order to extend the understanding of the applicability of perceptual load theory and further investigate whether distractor interference may differ between the groups, as the sport-specific processing task may not exhaust the processing capacity of the expert participants. In both, the general and the specific task, the pattern of results supported perceptual load theory and demonstrates that the predictions of the theory also transfer to more complex, unstructured situations. Further, perceptual load was the only determinant of distractor processing, as we neither found expertise effects in the general perceptual load task nor the sport-specific task. We discuss the heuristic utility of using response-competition paradigms for studying both general and domain-specific perceptual-cognitive adaptations. PMID:23053842
The ratio of cpu speed to memoryspeed in current high-performance computers is growing rapidly, with significant implications for the design and implementation of algorithms in scientific computing. I present the results of a broad survey of memory bandwidth and machine balance for a large variety current computers, including uniprocessors, vector processors, shared-memory systems, and distributed-memory systems. The results are
Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…
Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah
A variety of experimental results have suggested that motor systems can participate in what were thought to be purely perceptual tasks. Extending previous work in the stimulus- response compatibility paradigm, we show that a representation of a visual stimulus accessed from memory can activate potential motor interactions. Other research has shown that mental images and mental models can have analogue
We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be re-presented in
David Soto; Alice Wriglesworth; Alex Bahrami-Balani; Glyn W. Humphreys
|We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…
Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.
|Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…
Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah
This study reports evidence that patients with schizophrenia demonstrate a slowing of working memory (WM) consolidation, which is the process of transforming transient perceptual representations into durable WM representations. Sixteen schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy control participants performed a task measuring the visual WM consolidation rate in a change-detection paradigm. A target display containing 3 colored squares was followed by
Rebecca L. Fuller; Steven J. Luck; Robert P. McMahon; James M. Gold
Effective filtering of distractor information has been shown to be dependent on perceptual load. Given the salience of emotional information and the presence of emotion-attention interactions, we wanted to explore the recognition memory for emotional distractors especially as a function of focused attention and distributed attention by manipulating load and the spatial spread of attention. We performed two experiments to
|Information presented concurrently and redundantly to 2 or more senses (intersensory redundancy) has been shown to recruit attention and promote perceptual learning of amodal stimulus properties in animal embryos and human infants. This study examined whether the facilitative effect of intersensory redundancy also extends to the domain of memory.…
In vision, it is well established that the perceptual load of a relevant task determines the extent to which irrelevant distractors are processed. Much less research has addressed the effects of perceptual load within hearing. Here, we provide an extensive test using two different perceptual load manipulations, measuring distractor processing through response competition and awareness report. Across four experiments, we consistently failed to find support for the role of perceptual load in auditory selective attention. We therefore propose that the auditory system - although able to selectively focus processing on a relevant stream of sounds - is likely to have surplus capacity to process auditory information from other streams, regardless of the perceptual load in the attended stream. This accords well with the notion of the auditory modality acting as an 'early-warning' system as detection of changes in the auditory scene is crucial even when the perceptual demands of the relevant task are high. PMID:23969299
The authors examined whether the perceptual reversal rate changes under monocular versus binocular viewing conditions. Our results suggest that the perceptual reversal interval increases during monocular viewing. The ratio of the reversal rate (1/interval) for the two viewing conditions (binocular/monocular) was 1.28 over a wide range of pattern luminance levels. The quoted ratio was 1.40 when the luminance was high. Such a ratio parallels the value of a well-known binocular summation index (sqrt 2 ), which was derived from the signal detection theory. The binocular summation index shows that the strength of an input signal is enhanced by binocular viewing. However, how the binocular summation shortens the perceptual reversal interval is unclear. This issue can be resolved if the perceptual reversal is derived by integrating the strength of an unconscious image signal. Thus, we discussed the mechanism of perceptual switch by associating two classical, well-studied phenomena, binocular summation and perceptual switch.
When subjects judge whether a test symbol is contained in a short memorized sequence of symbols, their mean reaction-time increases linearly with the length of the sequence. The linearity and slope of the function imply the existence of an internal serial-comparison process whose average rate is between 25 and 30 symbols per second.
Perceptual organization is to group sensoryprimitives arisingfrom a common underlying cause by imposing structuralorgani- zationonsensorydata. Ithasbeenemphasizedasarobustintermediate-levelgroupingprocesstowardobjectrecognitionand reconstruction since it imparts robustness and computational e-ciency to the perceptual process. Sarkar and Boyer (1993) proposed a classiflcatory structure for perceptual organization and clarifled what should be done under each class. Despite intensiveresearchon2Ddata,3Dperceptualorganizationisstillinitsinfancy,however. Increasingresearchefiortsareneeded to understand 3D data from various range sensors such
Performance on perceptual tasks usually improves with training. However, too much consecutive training can be detrimental. Repeated within-day testing or overtraining demonstrates the detrimental effects this has on perceptual learning. Consolidation of learnt information during sleep has the power to prevent such deficits in learning. However, little is known regarding the role of wakeful consolidation in preventing the effects of overtraining. Here, we report that perceptual deterioration may result from the disruption of early wakeful consolidation processes. Three groups were tested on day 1 and again 24 h later, on a motion discrimination task. Participants who had a 1 h break between the two training sessions on the first day displayed improved accuracy on the second day (i.e. learning). Subjects who only completed the first training session on day 1 also exhibited learning. However, individuals who completed two blocks without a break ('overtraining') showed no improvement in accuracy on day 2. Interestingly, changes in reaction times were not susceptible to the effects of overtraining, but instead speeded up as a function of total performed trials. These data suggest that effects of overtraining might be due to disruption of wakeful consolidation processes. PMID:22896650
The present study examined the temporal stationarity of the performance of 16 schizophrenic patients and 16 controls matched for age and sex in a bimanual coordination task and a perceptual task. In the motor task, rhythmic finger oscillations (alternating activity of homologue muscle groups) at increasing speed levels resulted in two measures, the preferred oscillation frequency and the critical frequency at which phase transitions (change towards simultaneous activity of homologue muscle groups) occurred. A measure of local dimensional complexity (pointwise D2 or PD2), which is a measure of non-linear dynamics, was determined for the acceleration profiles of the subjects' movements. Schizophrenics exhibited less stable movement dynamics than controls in horizontal finger cycling, indicated by a lower ratio critical/preferred frequency (critical ratio) and by higher means and standard deviations of the pointwise D2. In vertical cycling, the critical ratio did not differentiate between groups, while PD2 means and standard deviations did. Groups also differed specifically in perception of two ambiguous figures (Schroeder stairs and Rubin vase). Schizophrenics showed significantly higher reversal rates for the Rubin vase and a differential perceptive in comparison to controls in the perception of the Schroeder stairs. Measures of perceptual and motor stability were unrelated, which suggests that perceptual and motor processes are not influenced by a common underlying mechanism. PMID:9789909
The present paper provides a short critical review of the theory of perceptual load. It closely examines the basic tenets and assumptions of the theory and identifies major conceptual and methodological problems that have been largely ignored in the literature. The discussion focuses on problems in the definition of the concept of perceptual load, on the circularity in the characterization and manipulation of perceptual load and the confusion between the concept of perceptual load and its operationalization. The paper also selectively reviews evidence supporting the theory as well as inconsistent evidence which proposed alternative dominant factors influencing the efficacy of attentional selection.
Advanced age and vascular risk are associated with declines in the volumes of multiple brain regions, especially, the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Older adults, even unencumbered by declining health, perform less well than their younger counterparts in multiple cognitive domains, such as episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of perceptual processing. Presence of a known genetic risk factor for cognitive decline and vascular disease, the ?4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, accounts for some share of those declines; however, the extent of the joint contribution of genetic and physiological vascular risk factors on the aging brain and cognition is unclear. In a sample of healthy adults (age 19–77), we examined the effects of a vascular risk indicator (systolic blood pressure, SBP) and volumes of hippocampus (HC), lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and prefrontal white matter (pFWM) on processing speed, working memory (WM), and recognition memory. Using path analyses, we modeled indirect effects of age, SBP, and brain volumes on processing speed, WM, and memory and compared the patterns of structural relations among those variables in APOE ?4 carriers and ?3 homozygotes. Among ?4 carriers, age differences in WM were explained by increase in SBP, reduced FWM volume, and slower processing. In contrast, lPFC and FWM volumes, but not BP, explained a share of age differnces in WM among ?3 homozygotes. Thus, even in healthy older carriers of the APOE ?4 allele, clinically unremarkable increase in vascular risk may be associated with reduced frontal volumes and impaired cognitive functions.
A new device, a spatial light rebroadcaster, is described that can have optical disk resolution and high speed. Experimental results demonstrate resolution, speed, linearity, logic operation, and arithmetic computation. The device is suitable for optical computing, in particular for memory systems. Optical masking for controlling memory recall and 100 x 100 matrix-vector multiplication are demonstrated. A one pass optical heteroassociative memory system was assembled that uses an optical outer product formulation to store associated 32-bit vectors. Recall is achieved by optical matrix-vector multiplication. The results show the suitability of these devices for memory systems in optical computers. PMID:20563134
This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…
|This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language…
The deficit in face recognition in individuals with prosopagnosia has often been attributed to an underlying impairment in holistic processing. Exactly what constitutes holistic processing has remained controversial, however. Here, we compare how configural information and featural information interact during face processing in a group of individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) and matched controls. We adopted Amishav and Kimchi's version of Garner's speeded classification task, in which observers classify upright faces based on configural (intereyes and nose-mouth spacing) or featural (shape of eyes, nose, and mouth) information while the other dimension remains constant or varied randomly. We replicated the finding that normal observers evince symmetric Garner interference--failure to selectively attend to features without being influenced by irrelevant variation in configuration, and vice versa--indicating that featural and configural information are integral in normal face processing. In contrast, the CPs showed no Garner interference: They were able to attend to configural information without interference from irrelevant variation in featural information, and they were able to attend to featural information without interference from irrelevant variation in configural information. The absence of Garner interference in CP provides strong evidence that featural information and configural information are perceptually separable in CP's face processing. These findings indicate that CPs do not perceive faces holistically; rather, they process featural and configural information independently. PMID:23428081
The objective of this paper is to develop a model that can help explain the public's level of concern associated with six dangerous driving behaviours (drinking and driving, speeding, distracted driving, using a cell phone while driving, fatigued or drowsy driving, and using illegal drugs while driving). Understanding the genesis of concern can be useful in addressing it and leveraging it to improve safe driving. Building on a risk perception model that was developed previously, the study investigated the relationship between the level of concern about the unsafe driving behaviours and the perceived level of concern of others about the dangerous driving behaviours, the perception of the prevalence of the dangerous driving behaviours, the perception of the level of risk imposed by these dangerous driving behaviours, and the perception of the severity of injuries that can result from them. Data from two independent samples were modeled using multidimensional scaling and logistic regression analysis. Both samples come from telephone surveys; one was administered to a random sample of 750 drivers in the province of Ontario, Canada in November 2006, the other to a random sample of 1201 drivers across Canada in September 2006. Two dimensions in particular were found to fit the data well: perceived risk and the perceived level of concern of others. The results from these analyses are summarized using a perceptual map. The relevance of such a map is illustrated by explaining the factors that impact levels of concern regarding several of the unsafe driving behaviours. PMID:18760094
Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of the expression (semantic), and valence evaluation (affective). The face stimulus display duration and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) were varied to assess the time course of each process. Results indicated that (a) a smiling mouth was visually more salient than the eyes both in truly happy and blended expressions; (b) a smile led viewers to categorize blended expressions as happy similarly for upright and inverted faces; (c) truly happy, but not blended, expressions primed the affective evaluation of probe scenes 550 ms following face onset; (d) both truly happy and blended expressions primed the detection of a smile in a probe scene by 170 ms post-stimulus; and (e) smile detection and expression categorization had similar processing thresholds and preceded affective evaluation. We conclude that the saliency of single physical features such as the mouth shape makes the smile quickly accessible to the visual system, which initially speeds up expression categorization regardless of congruence with the eyes. Only when the eye expression is later configurally integrated with the mouth, will affective discrimination begin. The present research provides support for serial models of facial expression processing. PMID:22939734
Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Nummenmaa, Lauri
This study aimed at investigating implicit and explicit long-term memory functioning in subjects with Down syndrome (DS) compared to Mental-Age (MA) matched normal children. For this purpose, tests of verbal and visuo-perceptual explicit memory, verbal and visual repetition priming and procedural learning tasks were administered to 14 DS and 20 MA subjects. Our results document comparable implicit memory abilities in
Stefano Vicari; Samantha Bellucci; Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance.
Dye, Matthew W.G.; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne
The authors report 9 new experiments and reanalyze 3 published experiments that investigate factors affecting the time course of perceptual processing and its effects on subsequent decision making. Stimuli in letter-discrimination and brightness-discrimination tasks were degraded with static and dynamic noise. The onset and the time course of…
Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as a long-term improvement in performance on a visual task. In recent years, the idea that conscious effort is necessary for VPL to occur has been challenged by research suggesting the involvement of more implicit processing mechanisms, such as reinforcement-driven processing and consolidation. In addition, we have learnt much about the neural substrates of VPL and it has become evident that changes in visual areas and regions beyond the visual cortex can take place during VPL.
Predictive coding theories posit that the perceptual system is structured as a hierarchically organized set of generative models with increasingly general models at higher levels. The difference between model predictions and the actual input (prediction error) drives model selection and adaptation processes minimizing the prediction error. Event-related brain potentials elicited by sensory deviance are thought to reflect the processing of prediction error at an intermediate level in the hierarchy. We review evidence from auditory and visual studies of deviance detection suggesting that the memory representations inferred from these studies meet the criteria set for perceptual object representations. Based on this evidence we then argue that these perceptual object representations are closely related to the generative models assumed by predictive coding theories. PMID:22047947
An important question is the extent to which declines in memory over time are due to passive loss or active interference from other stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent to which implicit memory effects in the perceptual organization of sound sequences are subject to loss and interference. Toward this aim, we took advantage of two recently discovered context effects in the perceptual judgments of sound patterns, one that depends on stimulus features of previous sounds and one that depends on the previous perceptual organization of these sounds. The experiments measured how listeners' perceptual organization of a tone sequence (test) was influenced by the frequency separation, or the perceptual organization, of the two preceding sequences (context1 and context2). The results demonstrated clear evidence for loss of context effects over time but little evidence for interference. However, they also revealed that context effects can be surprisingly persistent. The robust effects of loss, followed by persistence, were similar for the two types of context effects. We discuss whether the same auditory memories might contain information about basic stimulus features of sounds (i.e., frequency separation), as well as the perceptual organization of these sounds. PMID:23653411
In this paper, first, newly developed state-of-the-art VLSI memory chips, exemplified by DRAM, SRAM, and Flash memory, are discussed. Second, technology trends concerning standard DRAM's, embedded memories, and low-voltage memories are reviewed. For standard DRAM's, memory cells with high cell capacitance, high-speed subsystem technologies (such as synchronous operations, pipelining\\/prefetching, and use of packet protocols), and small-swing interfaces are investigated. And
Caches are frequently incorporated in processor architectures to increase the effective memoryspeed and to reduce memory contention. However, task switches and the coherency problems of large n-way, mainframe-class multiprocessors lessen the effectiveness of cache architectures for general-purpose applications. A proposed alternative approach is to increase the effective memory bandwidth and decrease memory-access delays through instruction prefetch, operand buffering, highly interleave memory, and multiple-word width processor-memory data paths. This approach was evaluated by comparing cache and noncache system performance, using discrete-event simulation. Since the performance of a multiprocessor architecture is a function of its operating environment was well as its design, the system workload was defined. General-purpose applications, running under multitasking operating systems, were characterized with respect to addressing patterns, paging rates, and frequency of input/output operations. The proposed noncache architecture was found to have performance comparable to that of the cache architectures and obviated then need to solve the cache coherency problem.
Numerous studies have shown that memory is enhanced for emotionally negative and positive information relative to neutral information. We examined whether emotion-induced memory enhancement is influenced by low-level perceptual attributes such as color. Because in everyday life red is often used as a warning signal, whereas green signals security, we hypothesized that red might enhance memory for negative information and green memory for positive information. To capture the signaling function of colors, we measured memory for words standing out from the context by color, and manipulated the color and emotional significance of the outstanding words. Making words outstanding by color strongly enhanced memory, replicating the well-known von Restorff effect. Furthermore, memory for colored words was further increased by emotional significance, replicating the memory-enhancing effect of emotion. Most intriguingly, the effects of emotion on memory additionally depended on color type. Red strongly increased memory for negative words, whereas green strongly increased memory for positive words. These findings provide the first evidence that emotion-induced memory enhancement is influenced by color and demonstrate that different colors can have different functions in human memory. PMID:23527500
The purpose of this research study was to investigate the use of an art therapy intevention program designed to improve perceptual experiencing of children with delays in visual perceptual development Seventy-four children, from first grade classes, were screened in this 56-week study at a public elementary school. Troeger's Art Skill Sheet (TASS) was the pretest instrument used for assessment, and
|AN EXPERIMENTAL TRAINING PROGRAM STUDIED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW METHODS OF IDENTIFYING AND TEACHING PERCEPTUALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISORDERS. SUBJECTS WERE SELECTED BY THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA--SPECIFIC LEARNING DEFICITS, PERCEPTUAL DEFICITS, GENERAL COORDINATION DEFICITS, HYPERKINESIS, IMPULSIVITY, EMOTIONAL LIBILITY, SHORT…
|Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…
|In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…
|Perceptual decision-making is thought to involve a gradual accrual of noisy evidence. Temporal integration of the evidence reduces the relative contribution of dynamic internal noise to the decision variable, thereby boosting its signal-to-noise ratio. We aimed to estimate the internal evidence guiding perceptual decisions over time, using a…
We compared the ability of auditory, visual, and audiovisual (bimodal) exogenous cues to capture visuo-spatial attention under conditions of no load versus high perceptual load. Participants had to discriminate the elevation (up vs. down) of visual targets preceded by either unimodal or bimodal cues under conditions of high perceptual load (in…
|Perception is a process by which simple and complex information (stimuli) is experienced. We gain information about how such stimulus inputs are experienced by a child, for example, by his responses or outputs. Outputs are in the form of vocalizations and motor acts. Thus, the perceptual process is frequently called perceptual-motor. But the…
We investigated the relation between perceptual and preferential discriminative ability in taste tests, using a convergence of methods to construct measures of ability. A sample of 175 respondents participated in a taste test of tomatoes. The sample included graduate students, university staff members, high school teachers, and army trainees. Results indicate (a) that perceptual and preferential discriminative abilities are related
What are the mechanisms of spatial attention underlying precue validity effects? We answer this question within the framework of a perceptual template model (PTM) (Lu & Dosher (1998). External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms. Vision Research, 38, 1183-1198; Dosher & Lu (1999). Mechanisms of perceptual learning. Vision Research, 39, 3197-3221) and an external noise plus attention paradigm for orientation judgments in
Compared levels of perceptual articulation in several Israel subgroups to shed light on possible sources of intergroup differences in task achievement. Results consistent with hypotheses indicated, holding intelligence constant, that: (a) 112 19-20 yr. old males of Western ethnic origin achieved a higher level of perceptual articulation than did 88 peers of Middle-Eastern ethnic origin, (b) 145 males raised in
1 ABSTRACT We present a unique polygonal simplification method grounded in rigorous perceptual science. Local simplification operations are driven directly by perceptual metrics, rather than the geometric metrics common to other algorithms. The effect of each operation on the final image is considered in terms of the contrast the operation will induce in the image and the spatial frequency of
Occupational therapists use various treatments and methods to decrease hyperactivity in children. In this article, the etiology and treatment of hyperactivity is reviewed with special emphasis on neurophysiological indices. Application of perceptual motor and electromyographic biofeedback techniques for inhibition of hyperactive behaviors are compared and contrasted as viable treatment options for the occupational therapist. Electromyographic biofeedback and perceptual motor techniques
The performance of adult humans in simple visual tasks improves dramatically with practice. This improvement is highly specific to basic attributes of the trained stimulus, suggesting that the underlying changes occur at low-level processing stages in the brain, where different orientations and spatial frequencies are handled by separate channels. We asked whether these practice effects are determined solely by activity in stimulus-driven mechanisms or whether high-level attentional mechanisms, which are linked to the perceptual task, might control the learning process. We found that practicing one task did not improve performance in an alternative task, even though both tasks used exactly the same visual stimuli but depended on different stimulus attributes (either orientation of local elements or global shape). Moreover, even when the experiment was designed so that the same responses were associated with the same stimuli (although subjects were instructed to attend to the attribute underlying one task), learning did not transfer from one task to the other. These results suggest that specific high-level attentional mechanisms, controlling changes at early visual processing levels, are essential in perceptual learning. Images Fig. 3
Infants are prepared by biology to acquire language, but it is the native language(s) they must learn. Over the first weeks and months of life, infants learn about the sounds and sights of their native language, and use that perceptual knowledge to pull out words and bootstrap grammar. In this paper, I review research showing that infants growing up bilingual learn the properties of each of the their two languages simultaneously, while nonetheless keeping them apart. Thus, they use perceptual learning to break into the properties of each of the two native languages. While the fundamental process of language acquisition is the same whether one or two languages are being acquired, cognitive advantages accrue from the task of language separation, and processing costs accrue from the more minimal input received in each of the two languages. I conclude by suggesting that when there are sufficient cues to which language is being used, the cognitive advantages that accrue from language separation enable the bilingual infant to move forward in language acquisition even in the face of processing costs. PMID:22694186
The criteria by which optically variable devices are judged are aesthetic, semantic, security, ergonomic, and physical/chemical. This paper addresses ergonomic aspects which relate to the human vision and perceptual-cognitive system. Applying some pertinent rules may help greatly to improve the image visual information for easier, more straight-forward reception of a persistent security message. We consider two important aspects of the human visual system that help to determine the ergonomic response to visual displays created using optical diffraction. The human visual system aspect treats the retinal source of information, which is the retinal signal produced when an image of the external world is projected on the retina. The other aspect is the underlying information-processing mechanism of our brains and its constructive operations, which yields the final perceptual information. In this paper we consider information processing methods hidden in the biology of our cognition system. Findings on the relationship between physiology and psychology, sensory results and the activities of the optic pathway and subjective brightness sensations can be applied directly in designing images. Some effects are demonstrated by video tape.
Moser, Jean-Frederic; Staub, Rene; Tompkin, Wayne R.
Research has revealed facts about human memory in general and episodic memory in particular that deviate from both common sense and previously accepted ideas. This paper discusses some of these deviations in light of the proceedings of The Royal Society's Discussion Meeting on episodic memory. Retrieval processes play a more critical role in memory than commonly assumed; people can remember events that never happened; and conscious thoughts about one's personal past can take two distinct forms-'autonoetic' remembering and 'noetic' knowing. The serial-dependent-independent (SPI) model of the relations among episodic, semantic and perceptualmemory systems accounts for a number of puzzling phenomena, such as some amnesic patients' preserved recognition memory and their ability to learn new semantic facts, and holds that episodic remembering of perceptual information can occur only by virtue of its mediation through semantic memory. Although common sense endows many animals with the ability to remember their past experiences, as yet there is no evidence that humanlike episodic memory-defined in terms of subjective time, self, and autonoetic awareness-is present in any other species. PMID:11571040
Light Speed! is an OpenGL-based program developed to illustrate the effects of special relativity on the appearance of moving objects. In particular, the program allows users to see the manner in which an object is distorted based upon the viewpoint from which it is observed. In particular, Lorentz contraction, Doppler shift, the headlight effect, and optical aberration issues are highlighted at relativistic velocities.
We evaluated recent proposals that structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL)—in particular, perirhinal cortex—support not just memory but certain kinds of perceptual abilities as well. Specifically, it has been suggested that the perirhinal cortex supports the perceptual abilities needed to accomplish visual discrimination performance when the stimuli have complex features and overlapping elements. However, the tasks that have been studied are quite challenging. Stimulus features must be held in working memory while attention shifts among the several parts of the display. When working memory capacity is exceeded, performance must depend on retrieval from long-term memory. Five patients with limited hippocampal lesions and one patient with large MTL lesions were asked to identify the unique object among twin pairs of objects that had a high degree of feature overlap and perceptual similarity. The patient groups performed similarly to controls when there were few objects and features in the displays, but exhibited abrupt declines in performance when the displays contained more objects and more features. Notably, the impairment was observed in memory-impaired patients with hippocampal lesions, not only in association with large MTL lesions that included perirhinal cortex. The pattern of performance suggested that patients encountered difficulty because working memory capacity was exceeded in the more difficult conditions such that performance needed to depend at least in part on long-term memory. Furthermore, when the burden on working memory was removed entirely, the patient with large MTL lesions performed as well as controls. Accordingly, we suggest that deficits on difficult discrimination tasks reported for patients with MTL lesions are due to impaired memory rather than impaired perception.
Knutson, Ashley R.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.
Recently, flash memory is widely adopted in embedded ap- plications since it has several strong points: non-volatility, fast access speed, shock resistance, and low power consumption. However, due to its hardware characteristic, namely \\
A linked perceptual class consists of two distinct perceptual classes, A? and B?, the members of which have become related to each other. For example, a linked perceptual class might be composed of many pictures of a woman (one perceptual class) and the sounds of that woman's voice (the other perceptual class). In this case, any sound of the woman's voice would occasion the selection of any picture of the woman and vice versa. In addition, after learning to name the woman in the presence of one picture, that name would be uttered when presented with all of the images of the woman's face and all of the sounds of her voice. This study involved 15 participants and sought to (a) maximize the percentage of participants who formed linked perceptual classes, and (b) determine whether those classes acted as transfer networks, that is, whether the discriminative function of one class member would generalize to other members of the class and not to members of a different class. The rate of emergence of each linked perceptual class was maximized by establishing a single class-linking conditional relation between the clearest member of one class used as a sample stimulus and the most ambiguous member of the other class used as a comparison stimulus. Class formation was demonstrated using the serial and programmed presentation of A?–B? probes that consisted of untrained pairs of stimuli drawn from the A? and B? classes. Most p