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Sample records for men msm community

  1. Prevalence of HIV, STIs, and Risk Behaviors in a Cross-Sectional Community- and Clinic-Based Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Salvatierra, H. Javier; Segura, Eddy R.; Hall, Eric R.; Montano, Silvia M.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeff D.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Clark, Jesse L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Further research is necessary to understand the factors contributing to the high prevalence of HIV/STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. We compared HIV/STI prevalence and risk factors between two non-probability samples of MSM, one passively enrolled from an STI clinic and the other actively enrolled from community venues surrounding the clinic in Lima, Peru. Methods A total of 560 self-identified MSM were enrolled between May-December, 2007. 438 subjects enrolled from a municipal STI clinic and 122 subjects enrolled during community outreach visits. All participants underwent screening for HIV, syphilis, HSV-2, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia and completed a survey assessing their history of HIV/STIs, prior HIV testing, and sexual behavior. Results HIV prevalence was significantly higher among MSM enrolled from the clinic, with previously undiagnosed HIV identified in 9.1% compared with 2.6% of community participants. 15.4 % of all MSM screened were infected with ≥1 curable STI, 7.4% with early syphilis (RPR≥1∶16) and 5.5% with urethral gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia. No significant differences between populations were reported in prevalence of STIs, number of male sex partners, history of unprotected anal intercourse, or alcohol and/or drug use prior to sex. Exchange of sex for money or goods was reported by 33.5% of MSM enrolled from the clinic and 21.2% of MSM from the community (p = 0.01). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the prevalence of HIV and STIs, including syphilis, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia are extremely high among MSM enrolled from both clinic and community venues in urban Peru. New strategies are needed to address differences in HIV/STI epidemiology between clinic- and community-enrolled samples of MSM. PMID:23634201

  2. Correlates of group sex among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E

    2014-08-01

    Participation of MSM in group sex events (GSEs) is an understudied phenomenon. Studies on GSEs identified significant proportions of MSM engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). We sought to identify the prevalence of group sex participation among MSM in Washington, DC and to characterize these experiences. Data were collected for NHBS-MSM-3 in 2011. More than one-quarter of MSM (27.2 %) reported engaging in group sex in the prior year, with one-third reporting no condom use with their sex partners (33.0 %). In multivariable logistic regression, men who participated in a GSE in the prior year were significantly younger, more likely to be white, and to have used crystal meth, poppers, and downers in the past year. The high prevalence of UAI during GSEs, especially in view of the fact that HIV-positive MSM were significantly less likely to report condom use, offers an opportunity to develop risk reduction interventions specific to GSE attendees. PMID:23700223

  3. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS): Results of a Baseline Biological and Behavioral HIV Surveillance Survey in Two MSM Communities in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Tim; Osmand, Thomas; Marr, Alexander; Shade, Starley B.; Dunkle, Kristin; Sandfort, Theodorus; Struthers, Helen; Kegeles, Susan; McIntyre, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS) is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%–35.3%) in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%–19.6%) in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%–72.9%) vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%–23.9%), P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%–56.0%) vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%–13.9%), P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%–47.9%), P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%–64.2%), P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%–46.4%), P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%–50.9%), P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%–74.0%) in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%–76.8%) in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%–41.4%) in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%–37.8%) in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni), or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively), or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively). MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use

  4. Toward a Better Understanding of Non-Addicted, Methamphetamine-Using, Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has increasingly become linked with sexual risk behaviors among men have sex with men (MSM). Yet, the majority of research has been done with methamphetamine dependent MSM or with samples in which addiction to the substance was not evaluated. Furthermore, research with methamphetamine-using MSM in the Southern U.S. is lacking. In this study, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the motives, context, and other facilitators and barriers of methamphetamine use among non-addicted MSM residing in Atlanta. Participants included 30 non-addicted, methamphetamine-using MSM and 16 local mental and public health officials. Findings from the first of this two-phase formative research project will result in the initial development of a community-tested, culturally-specific social marketing campaign and an individual-based intervention based in HIV-testing facilities. PMID:20657718

  5. HIV Knowledge and Beliefs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, MA; Balan, I; Marone, R; Dolezal, C; Barreda, V; Carballo Dieguez, A; Avila, MM

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men (MSM), recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed in order to assess knowledge and beliefs about HIV infection. The mean proportion of HIV correct knowledge answers was 62%; however participants whose sexual partners in the prior year included women (MSM&W) had lower frequencies of correct answers than participants with no women partners. Men with previous HIV testing experience and those who were HIV positive had higher HIV knowledge. In relation to HIV beliefs, less than half of participants responded correctly to each of the scenarios presented. Accurate answers for all items were more likely among those who only have sex with men. Men have basic HIV knowledge but also many misconceptions about transmission and prevention. Furthermore, MSM&W have less information than those who are exclusively MSM, probably related to the fact that information campaigns specifically targeted gay identified men. PMID:23297085

  6. What is in a label? Multiple meanings of 'MSM' among same-gender-loving Black men in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Truong, Nhan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Burton, Melissa; Gipson, June; Hickson, DeMarc

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and other same-gender-loving (SGL) men continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS, particularly among the Black population. Innovative strategies are needed to support the health of this community; however, public health efforts primarily approach MSM as a monolithic population erasing the diverse identities, practices, and sexualities within and beyond this category. To better understand diversity within MSM in a geographic region with the largest proportion of Black Americans in the U.S.A. and among the most heavily affected by the epidemic, the Deep South, we conducted four focus groups (n = 29) with Black men who reported having sex with other men residing in Jackson, Mississippi. Results suggest multiple overlapping usages of MSM as identity and behaviour, reflecting internalisation of behavioural categories and co-creation of identities unique to the Black community. These narratives contribute to the literature by documenting the evolving understandings of the category 'MSM' among Black men to reflect intersections between race, socioeconomic status, sexual behaviour, sexuality, subjectivities, and social context. Findings suggest the current monolithic approach to treating MSM may limit public health efforts in developing effective HIV prevention and promotion programmes targeting SGL Black men in the Deep South. PMID:26950431

  7. HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenc, Theo; Marrero-Guillamon, Isaac; Llewellyn, Alexis; Aggleton, Peter; Cooper, Chris; Lehmann, Angela; Lindsay, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of qualitative evidence relating to the views and attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) concerning testing for HIV. Studies conducted in high-income countries (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development members) since 1996 were included. Seventeen studies were identified, most of gay or bisexual…

  8. A CBPR Partnership Increases HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Outcome Findings from a Pilot Test of the "CyBER/Testing" Internet Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Reece, Michael; Bachmann, Laura H.; Ore, Addison; Ross, Michael W.; Hendrix, Ellen; Eng, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted "CyBER/testing", a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing…

  9. Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men – New York City, 2001 . MMWR 2002;51(38);853. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... –- Six U.S. Cities, 1994 -1998 . MMWR 2002;51(33);733. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ...

  10. Evolution of MSM community and experienced stigma among MSM in Chengdu, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yuji; Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To understand the stigma and discrimination experienced by MSM in Chengdu, and to evaluate their impact on effective HIV prevention. Methods Focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews were conducted from June to September, 2006. Results Stigma and social pressure for MSM were reported to mainly arise from their families to get married and have children to protect family reputation and lineage. Few participants reported experiencing stigma and discrimination from friends, colleagues, or general society. Nevertheless, fear of being ostracized because of their sexual orientation was frequently expressed, and was a major barrier for participating in HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Fear of stigma and discrimination related to HIV infection from inside the MSM community was also identified as a major reason for MSM reluctance to seek HIV testing and treatment. Conclusions Stigma and discrimination related to homosexual activities and HIV/STD infection have been major barriers against MSM seeking health services. HIV/AIDS programs must be sensitive to issues of stigma both from outside and inside the MSM community. PMID:20104118

  11. Friends, sisters, and wives: Social support and social risks in peer relationships among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India

    PubMed Central

    Tomori, Cecilia; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Ridgeway, Kathleen; Solomon, Sunil S.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Globally men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Many HIV-prevention efforts rely on community outreach and mobilization to engage MSM. This study examines peer relationships and their potential role in HIV-prevention through 31 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 121 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 363 MSM across 15 sites in India. Results indicate that MSM receive social support in friendships, sex-worker collaborations, constructed kin relationships, and romantic partnerships. Access to these relationships, however, is uneven across MSM, and can carry risks of disclosure of same-sex behavior and exclusion based on HIV-positive status. Positive peer relationships can serve as the basis of community empowerment, education and couple-based interventions for MSM, and peer counselors can also provide a buffer against the social risks of peer relationships and facilitate linkage to care and continued engagement in treatment. These insights can improve HIV-interventions for MSM in India and elsewhere. PMID:27459166

  12. “Boys Must be Men, and Men Must Have Sex with Women”: A Qualitative CBPR Study to Explore Sexual Risk among African American, Latino, and White Gay Men and MSM

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A. Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), white (n=21), and bi-racial/ethnic (n=6). Mean age was 27 (range 18–60) years. Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low HIV and STD knowledge particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually “dominant” and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of “barebacking.” Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets; harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM; and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action. PMID:20413391

  13. Boys must be men, and men must have sex with women: a qualitative CBPR study to explore sexual risk among African American, Latino, and White gay men and MSM.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Vissman, Aaron T; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2011-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), White (n=21), and biracial/ethnic (n=6). The mean age was 27 years (range=18-60 years). Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually "dominant" and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of "barebacking." Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets, harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM, and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action. PMID:20413391

  14. HIV-testing behavior among young migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Yinjie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies suggested a rapid increase of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China in recent years, from 0.4% in 2004 to 5.8% in 2006. However, some MSM had never been tested for HIV. In order to expand the accessibility to HIV testing, understanding HIV-testing behavior and barriers among MSM is important. Using data collected from 307 young migrant MSM (aged 18-29 years) in 2009 in Beijing, we aimed to identify psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. MSM were recruited through peer outreach, informal social networks, Internet outreach, and venue-based outreach. Participants completed a confidential self-administered questionnaire. Results show that about 72% of MSM ever had an HIV test. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the HIV-testing behavior was associated with sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use for anal sex) and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Eighty four MSM (28%) who never had an HIV test reported that the psychological barriers mainly were perceived low risk of HIV infection and fears of being stigmatized. The structural barriers reported inconvenience of doing test and lack of confidentiality. Future HIV prevention programs should be strengthened among MSM to increase their awareness of HIV risk. Efforts are needed to increase access to quality and confidential HIV testing among MSM and reduce stigma against MSM. PMID:21259130

  15. Use of geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications to find men for sex by men who have sex with men (MSM) in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E

    2014-09-01

    Current advances have added geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications as an option for men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet other men. This is the first study to assess GSN application use and sex-seeking behaviors of MSM recruited using venue-based sampling. Among the 379 MSM in this study, 63.6 % reported using GSN applications to find men in the past year. Nearly one-quarter of MSM had sex with a man met using a GSN application in the prior year; these men were more likely to be under 35 years old and have had sex with a man met on the Internet; they were also less likely to be HIV-positive and have <5 male sex partners in the last year. GSN applications are a viable option for use in sampling and delivering interventions to young MSM who are often missed through other methods. PMID:24682866

  16. Increased HIV disclosure three months after an online video intervention for men who have sex with men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Chiasson, Mary Ann; Shaw, Francine Shuchat; Humberstone, Mike; Hirshfield, Sabina; Hartel, Diana

    2009-09-01

    A behavioral intervention for men who have sex with men (MSM) was created for online delivery. The nine-minute video drama "The Morning After" (www.hivbigdeal.org) was designed to promote critical thinking about HIV risk. MSM were recruited for the evaluation through banner ads on a subscription-based gay sexual meeting web site. Participants viewed the intervention online and completed online behavioral questionnaires at enrollment and three month follow-up. Each participant served as his own control. No participant incentives were provided. Follow-up was completed by 522 (54%) of 971 eligible men. Men completing follow-up were similar to those who did not by age and prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) but reported more lifetime sex partners. They also differed somewhat by race, education, and HIV testing. In the three months after the intervention, men were significantly more likely to disclose HIV status to partners (odds ratio [OR] = 3.37, p<0.001) and less likely to report a casual partner or UAI in their most recent sexual encounter than at baseline. Of 120 men HIV tested during follow-up, 17 (14%) reported being HIV seropositive. These findings show that MSM at high risk for HIV will participate in a brief online video intervention designed to engage critical thinking and that significant, self-reported increases in HIV disclosure and decreases in risk behavior occurred three months after MSM viewed the video. PMID:20024766

  17. HPV vaccine acceptability in HIV-infected and HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sadlier, C; Lynam, A; O'Dea, S; Delamere, S; Quinlan, M; Clarke, S; Sheils, O; Bergin, C

    2016-06-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly HIV-infected MSM are disproportionately affected by HPV infection and associated disease. The HPV vaccine has potential to greatly reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease including anal cancer in MSM. The efficacy of the HPV vaccine is dependent on high levels of vaccine uptake. The aim of this study was to examine HPV vaccine acceptability and factors influencing vaccine acceptability in MSM in Ireland. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to HIV-infected and HIV negative MSM examining HPV vaccine acceptability and factors associated with vaccine acceptability. Logistic regression was used to identify key variables and predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability. Results 302 MSM participated in the study. Acceptability of HPV vaccine was 31% (unconditional), 51% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €300), 65% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €100) and 78% (conditional on stated efficacy and no cost). Cost was negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptability (p<0.01) while knowledge of HPV vaccine efficacy was significantly associated with vaccine acceptability, even in the context of associated cost (p<0.01). Conclusions Acceptability of HPV vaccine in MSM in Ireland is high based on no cost vaccine and on stated vaccine efficacy (78%). Cost is negatively associated with vaccine acceptability. Understanding levels of knowledge of HPV infection, HPV associated disease and attitudes toward HPV vaccination are important as they will contribute to HPV vaccine acceptability among MSM and will help guide effective preventive programs. PMID:27153289

  18. Problem drinking is associated with increased prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Deiss, Robert G.; Clark, Jesse L.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol use is an important but understudied HIV risk factor among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in Latin America. We studied the relationship between problem drinking and sexual risk among MSM in Lima, Peru. Methods We recruited 718 participants from 24 neighborhoods for a study on sexually transmitted infections and community-building among MSM. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with problem drinking, which was defined via the CAGE Questionnaire. Results Of 718 participants, 58% met criteria for problem drinking. In univariate analysis, problem drinkers were significantly more likely to report failing to always use condoms, use alcohol or drugs prior to their most recent sexual encounter, report a history of sexual coercion and to engage in transactional sex. Problem drinkers also reported significantly higher numbers of recent and lifetime sexual partners. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with problem drinking included a history of sexual coercion [OR 1.8 95%, CI 1.2–2.6], having consumed alcohol prior to the most recent sexual encounter [OR 2.1 95%, CI 1.5–2.9], receiving compensation for sex in the last six months [OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2] or having reported a prior HIV+ test [OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–0.9]. Discussion We found a high prevalence of problem drinking among MSM in Lima, Peru, which was associated with increased sexual risk in our study. Of note, individuals who were already HIV-infected were less likely to be problem drinkers. Further studies and targeted interventions to reduce problem drinking among MSM are warranted. PMID:23434130

  19. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  20. "Hard to crack": experiences of community integration among first- and second-generation Asian MSM in Canada.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Chan, Elic; Fischer, Benedikt

    2013-07-01

    Asians are the largest racial minority in Canada making up 11% of the population and represented over 60% of new immigrants between 2001 and 2006. We examined the experiences of community integration for first-generation (n = 27) and second-generation (n = 22) Asian Canadian men who have sex with men (MSM) in their ethnic and gay communities. Through focus group interviews, we explored their level of connectedness and the level of discrimination they experienced in the two communities. Findings indicate that Asian MSM in general perceived their ethnic community as homophobic, stemming from a combination of seeing sex as taboo, stereotypes about being gay, and the affiliation with religion. Although the literature indicates that immigrants rely on the support of their ethnic communities, our finding suggest that this is not the case for Asian immigrant MSM, who in our sample reported feeling less connected compared to their second-generation counterparts. For the gay community, our sample reported mixed experiences as some regarded it as welcoming, whereas others described it as racist. However, these experiences did not differ by generational status. Many were aware of explicit messages stating "No Asians" in dating contexts, while at the same time being aware that some older White men were interested in dating Asians exclusively. Barriers to integration in both communities may contribute to feelings of isolation. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23875850

  1. Engagement in group sex among geosocial networking (GSN) mobile application-using men who have sex with men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Gregory; Grov, Christian; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. At least one-quarter of MSM report engagement in group sex events (GSEs), which can pose a risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. In this study, we sought to identify event-level correlates of sexual and drug use behaviors at GSEs to better inform prevention activities. Methods For this study, we recruited participants via banner and pop-up advertisements placed on a geosocial networking mobile phone application for MSM to meet. Results Of the 1,997 individuals who completed the study screener, 36.0% reported participating in at least one GSE in the prior year. In multivariable logistic regression, attendance at a GSE in the past year was significantly associated with older age, full/part time employment, and being HIV-positive. Of the men who attended a GSE, more than half reported condomless anal sex (CAS) with at least one of their partners (insertive: 57.7%; receptive: 56.3%). MSM who indicated drug use had significantly higher odds of having insertive CAS (odds ratio (OR) = 2.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37, 4.39) and receptive CAS (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.96, 6.63) at their last GSE. Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV-positive MSM engaging in group sex, coupled with their greater odds of CAS, poses a significant risk for HIV/STI transmission within the group sex setting. More research is needed to determine patterns of condom use at these events, and whether seroadaptive behaviors are driving CAS. PMID:26255156

  2. Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Experiences from Clark County, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Pharr, Jennifer R; Lough, Nancy L; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-01-01

    Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group discussion to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among eleven young MSM in March, 2015. The primary barrier to HIV testing identified by the group was a lack of awareness or knowledge about testing for HIV. Other barriers within the person included: fear of results, fear of rejection, and fear of disclosure. Barriers identified within the environment included: access issues, stigma, and unfriendly test environments for young people. In addition to increasing awareness, intervention to increase HIV testing among MSM young people should incorporate access to testing in environments where the adolescents are comfortable and which reduces stigma. HIV testing sites should be convenient, accessible and young person/gay friendly. PMID:26925893

  3. Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Experiences from Clark County, Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Pharr, Jennifer R.; Lough, Nancy L.; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2016-01-01

    Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group discussion to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among eleven young MSM in March, 2015. The primary barrier to HIV testing identified by the group was a lack of awareness or knowledge about testing for HIV. Other barriers within the person included: fear of results, fear of rejection, and fear of disclosure. Barriers identified within the environment included: access issues, stigma, and unfriendly test environments for young people. In addition to increasing awareness, intervention to increase HIV testing among MSM young people should incorporate access to testing in environments where the adolescents are comfortable and which reduces stigma. HIV testing sites should be convenient, accessible and young person/gay friendly. PMID:26925893

  4. Social media technologies for HIV prevention study retention among minority men who have sex with men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D

    2014-09-01

    This brief report describes results on study retention among minority men who have sex with men (MSM) from a 12-week, social networking-based, HIV prevention trial with 1-year follow-up. Participants, primarily minority MSM, were recruited using online and offline methods and randomly assigned to a Facebook (intervention or control) group. Participants completed a baseline survey and were asked to complete two follow-up surveys (12-week follow-up and 1-year post-intervention). 94 % of participants completed the first two surveys and over 82 % completed the baseline and both post-intervention surveys. Participants who spent a greater frequency of time online had almost twice the odds of completing all surveys. HIV negative participants, compared to those who were HIV positive, had over 25 times the odds of completing all surveys. HIV prevention studies on social networking sites can yield high participant retention rates. PMID:24062015

  5. The Relationship between Online Social Networking and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sean D.; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Online social networking usage is growing rapidly, especially among at-risk populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). However, little research has studied the relationship between online social networking usage and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations. One hundred and eighteen Facebook-registered MSM (60.1% Latino, 28% African American; 11.9% other) were recruited from online (social networking websites and banner advertisements) and offline (local clinics, restaurants and organizations) venues frequented by minority MSM. Inclusion criteria required participants to be men who were 18 years of age or older, had had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were living in Los Angeles, and had a Facebook account. Participants completed an online survey on their social media usage and sexual risk behaviors. Results from a multivariable regression suggest that number of sexual partners met from online social networking technologies is associated with increased: 1) likelihood of having exchanged sex for food, drugs, or a place to stay within the past 3 months; 2) number of new partners within the past 3 months; 3) number of male sex partners within the past 3 months; and 4) frequency of engaging in oral sex within the past 3 months, controlling for age, race, education, and total number of sexual partners. Understanding the relationship between social media sex-seeking and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations will help inform population-focused HIV prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:23658716

  6. The relationship between online social networking and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Online social networking usage is growing rapidly, especially among at-risk populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). However, little research has studied the relationship between online social networking usage and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations. One hundred and eighteen Facebook-registered MSM (60.1% Latino, 28% African American; 11.9% other) were recruited from online (social networking websites and banner advertisements) and offline (local clinics, restaurants and organizations) venues frequented by minority MSM. Inclusion criteria required participants to be men who were 18 years of age or older, had had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were living in Los Angeles, and had a Facebook account. Participants completed an online survey on their social media usage and sexual risk behaviors. Results from a multivariable regression suggest that number of sexual partners met from online social networking technologies is associated with increased: 1) likelihood of having exchanged sex for food, drugs, or a place to stay within the past 3 months; 2) number of new partners within the past 3 months; 3) number of male sex partners within the past 3 months; and 4) frequency of engaging in oral sex within the past 3 months, controlling for age, race, education, and total number of sexual partners. Understanding the relationship between social media sex-seeking and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations will help inform population-focused HIV prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:23658716

  7. Antiretroviral Therapy and Reasons for Not Taking It among Men Having Sex with Men (MSM)—Results from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS)

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Ulrich; Hickson, Ford; Weatherburn, Peter; Furegato, Martina; Breveglieri, Michele; Berg, Rigmor C.; Schmidt, Axel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The preventive effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on onward transmission of HIV are a major reason for broadening eligibility for ART. In the WHO European Region, surveillance reveals substantial differences in access to ART across regions and sub-populations. We analysed self-reported data on ART and reasons for not taking ART from EMIS, a large Pan-European Internet survey among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Methods Respondents from 38 European countries reported their last HIV test result and, if diagnosed with HIV, their treatment status, and reasons for not taking or having stopped ART from a 7 item multiple choice list and/ or answered an open-ended question to give other reasons. Responses were classified as fear of consequences, perceived lack of need, and ART inaccessibility based on factor analysis. Associations between not taking ART because of fear of consequences, and demographic, behavioural and contextual indicators were identified in a multivariable regression model. Results 13,353 (7.7%) of 174,209 respondents had been diagnosed with HIV. Among them 3,391 (25.4%) had never received ART, and 278 (2.1%) had stopped taking ART. Perceived lack of need was by far the most common reason for not taking or stopping ART (mentioned by 3259 (88.8%) respondents), followed by fear of consequences (428 (11.7%)), and ART inaccessibility (86 (2.3%)). For all reasons, an East-West gradient could be seen, with larger proportions of men living in Central and Eastern Europe reporting reasons other than medical advice for not taking ART. A minority of men were reluctant to start ART independent of medical advice and this was associated with experiences of discrimination in health care systems. Conclusions ART is widely available for MSM diagnosed with HIV across Europe. Not being on treatment is predominantly due to treatment not being recommended by their physician and/or not perceived to be needed by the respondent. PMID:25793882

  8. High frequency of HIV-1 infections with multiple HIV-1 strains in men having sex with men (MSM) in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Leye, Nafissatou; Vidal, Nicole; Ndiaye, Ousseynou; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Wade, Abdoulaye Sidibé; Mboup, Souleymane; Delaporte, Eric; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Peeters, Martine

    2013-12-01

    Circulating and unique recombinant HIV-1 strains continue to be identified and their number increases over time, suggesting that co-infection with multiple HIV-1 is frequent. In this study we analyzed to what extent dual infections with different HIV-1 variants occur in a population group with high risk behaviour, high HIV-1 prevalence and in an area where multiple HIV-1 subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) co-circulate. We studied 69 MSM with our recently developed multi-region hybridization assay (MHA), based on fluorescent probe detection for eight common variants circulating in West and West Central Africa. At least 11 (15.9%) of the 69 patients were simultaneously infected with two different HIV-1 subtypes and/or CRFs. Among the 29 samples identified as subtype C by MHA in gag, 15 (57.7%) reacted with both C1 and C2 probes. Sequence analysis suggests that the majority of the samples reactive with C1 and C2 probes are most likely infected with two different subtype C clades. Single genome amplification and DNA dilutions confirmed dual infection with subtype D and C for MSM1193, triple infection with two different C subtype strains and one CRF02_AG strain in MSM1157 and showed that MSM3017 is at least co-infected with CRF06_cpx and CRF02_AG and another strain that could not be classified. Comparison of all subtype C sequences from the MSM population and from the general population from this and previous studies confirmed the intermixing of HIV-1 variants between low-risk women and high-risk men as shown by the intermixing of subtype C variants from MSM1157 and a female patient (02SN-HALD478). Comparison of dual infection rates between the general population and MSM in Senegal, show also clearly the importance of high HIV prevalence and high risk behavior in dual infections and subsequent intermixing of HIV-1 variants which can lead to emergence and spread of new recombinants (CRFs). PMID:24035811

  9. Conducting HIV Interventions for Asian Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men: Challenges and Compromises in Community Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru; Ng, Terence; Syed, Javid; Mazarei, Mazdak

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the process of implementing a community collaborative HIV prevention intervention research project targeting Asian and Pacific Islander (API) men who have sex with men (MSM). This article traces the genesis of the project--which linked university researchers with an API-focused community based organization--starting from its…

  10. A CBPR Partnership Increases HIV Testing among men who have sex with men (MSM): Outcome Findings from a Pilot Test of the CyBER/testing Internet Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Reece, Michael; Bachmann, Laura H.; Ore, Addison; Ross, Michael W.; Hendrix, Ellen; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted CyBER/testing, a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing Internet chat rooms. Using a quasi-experimental, single-group study design, cross-sectional data were collected from chat room participants, known as “chatters,” at pretest (n=346) and post-test (n=315). Extant profile data also were collected to describe the demographics of the online population. The intervention significantly increased self-reported HIV testing among chatters overall, increasing rates from 44.5% at pretest to nearly 60% at post-test (p<.001). Furthermore, chatters who reported having both male and female sexual partners had nearly 6 times the odds of reporting HIV testing at post-test. Findings suggest that chat room-based HIV testing intervention may increase testing among MSM who may be difficult to reach in traditional physical spaces. PMID:21393625

  11. Novel approaches to HIV prevention and sexual health promotion among Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2014-08-01

    The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission. PMID:25068181

  12. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three. PMID:25604209

  13. Incidence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing: An Open Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Xia, Dongyan; Sun, Yanming; Mi, Guodong; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background This study investigated HIV and syphilis incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. Methods An open cohort was established from September 2009 to April 2012. Participants were followed up with every three to four months after recruitment and for thirty-one months in total. Chi-square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioral characteristics between participants who were followed up with and those lost to follow up. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine demographic and behavioral associations with HIV and syphilis incidence. Results 69.7% (699/1,003) of the participants finished at least two follow-up surveys during the study period. Variables which corresponded to increased loss to follow-up included younger age, less education, non-identification of homosexual identity, and migrant status. A total of 1,045 person-years (PYs) and 1,016.4 PYs were followed up for HIV and syphilis incidence estimation, respectively. The HIV incidence was 5.9 per 100 PYs and 7.8 per 100 PYs for syphilis. The predictors for the high HIV incidence included unsafe anal sex, sex after drinking alcohol and STI infection. Conclusion HIV incidence increased rapidly within the cohort, but syphilis incidence remained stable and decreased. More research is needed to provide multi-pronged HIV prevention interventions among MSM in order to reduce the increasing burden of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. PMID:26426271

  14. Randomized Trial to Reduce Club Drug Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Jon; Bux, Donald A.; Parsons, Jeffrey; Hagman, Brett T.; Wainberg, Milton; Irwin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examined the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) on club drug use and risky sex in non-treatment-seeking men who have sex with men (MSM). Method MSM (N=150) were assessed and randomly assigned to four sessions of MI or an educational control intervention. Follow up occurred at quarterly intervals for 1 year. Primary outcomes were days of any club drug use and number of unsafe sex acts. Results On average, club drug use declined during follow up. A significant interaction effect showed that MI was associated with less club drug use during follow up compared to education, but only among participants with lower severity of drug dependence (p<.02; small to medium effect size). MI did not result in a significant reduction in risky sex relative to education. Conclusions The results support the use of MI targeting club drug use in at-risk or mildly dependent users not seeking treatment, but not in more severely dependent users. MI does not appear effective in reducing risky sexual behavior in this population. PMID:19634958

  15. Differences in hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and clearance by mode of acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Seaberg, Eric C; Witt, Mallory D; Jacobson, Lisa P; Detels, Roger; Rinaldo, Charles R; Young, Steve; Phair, John P; Thio, Chloe L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV) prevalence and HCV clearance between injection drug using (IDU) and non-IDU men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Stored serum and plasma samples were tested for anti-HCV and HCV RNA to determine the HCV status of 6925 MSM at enrollment into the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Prevalence and clearance ratios (PR and CR) were calculated to determine the characteristics associated with HCV prevalence and clearance. Multivariable analyses were performed using Poisson regression methods with robust variance estimation. Results Anti-HCV prevalence was significantly higher among IDU than non-IDU MSM (42.9% vs. 4.0%) while clearance was significantly lower among IDU MSM (11.5% vs. 34.5% among non-IDU MSM). HIV infection, Black race, and older age were independently associated with higher prevalence in both groups while smoking, transfusion history, and syphilis were significantly associated with prevalence only among non-IDU MSM. The rs12979860-C/C genotype was the only characteristic independently associated with HCV clearance in both groups, but the effects of both rs12979860-C/C genotype (CR=4.16 IDUs vs. 1.71 non-IDUs; p=0.03) and HBsAg positivity (CR=5.06 IDUs vs. 1.62 non-IDUs; p=0.03) were significantly larger among IDU MSM. HIV infection was independently associated with lower HCV clearance only among non-IDU MSM (CR=0.59, 95% CI=0.40–0.87). Conclusions IDU MSM have higher anti-HCV prevalence and lower HCV clearance than non-IDU MSM. Differences in the factors associated with HCV clearance suggest that the mechanisms driving the response to HCV may differ according to the mode of acquisition. PMID:25280229

  16. Community-Based HIV-1 Early Diagnosis and Risk Behavior Analysis of Men Having Sex with Men in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Mandy; Lee, Man-Po; Wang, Haibo; Li, Chun-ho; Chan, Chun-Chung; Nishiura, Kenji; Tang, Xian; Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Cheung, Ka-Wai; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of HIV-1 among men having sex with men (MSM) calls for an investigation of HIV-1 prevalence and incidence in MSM by early diagnosis to assist with early preventive interventions in Hong Kong. The participants were recruited randomly from MSM communities within a one-year period. Rapid HIV Test (RHT) and real-time dried blood spot (DBS)-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (DBS-qPCR) were used for the early diagnosis of 474 participants. Risk behavior analysis was performed by studying information obtained from the participants during the study period. The HIV-1 prevalence and incident rates in the studied MSM population were 4.01% (19/474) and 1.47% (7/474), respectively. Three infected participants were found at the acute phase of infection by DBS-qPCR. Only 46.4% (220/474) MSM were using condoms regularly for anal sex. HIV infection significantly correlated with unprotected receptive anal sex and syphilis infection. An increased number of infections was found among foreign MSM in Hong Kong. This study is the first to use DBS-qPCR to identify acutely infected individuals in a community setting and to provide both the prevalence and incident rates of HIV-1 infection among MSM in Hong Kong. The risk analysis provided evidence that behavior intervention strengthening is necessary to fight against the increasing HIV-1 epidemic among MSM in Hong Kong and surrounding regions in Asia. PMID:25915755

  17. Community-Based HIV-1 Early Diagnosis and Risk Behavior Analysis of Men Having Sex with Men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianguo; Liu, Li; Cheung, Mandy; Lee, Man-Po; Wang, Haibo; Li, Chun-Ho; Chan, Chun-Chung; Nishiura, Kenji; Tang, Xian; Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Cheung, Ka-Wai; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of HIV-1 among men having sex with men (MSM) calls for an investigation of HIV-1 prevalence and incidence in MSM by early diagnosis to assist with early preventive interventions in Hong Kong. The participants were recruited randomly from MSM communities within a one-year period. Rapid HIV Test (RHT) and real-time dried blood spot (DBS)-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (DBS-qPCR) were used for the early diagnosis of 474 participants. Risk behavior analysis was performed by studying information obtained from the participants during the study period. The HIV-1 prevalence and incident rates in the studied MSM population were 4.01% (19/474) and 1.47% (7/474), respectively. Three infected participants were found at the acute phase of infection by DBS-qPCR. Only 46.4% (220/474) MSM were using condoms regularly for anal sex. HIV infection significantly correlated with unprotected receptive anal sex and syphilis infection. An increased number of infections was found among foreign MSM in Hong Kong. This study is the first to use DBS-qPCR to identify acutely infected individuals in a community setting and to provide both the prevalence and incident rates of HIV-1 infection among MSM in Hong Kong. The risk analysis provided evidence that behavior intervention strengthening is necessary to fight against the increasing HIV-1 epidemic among MSM in Hong Kong and surrounding regions in Asia. PMID:25915755

  18. A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; García, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Alegría-Ortega, José; Miller, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2013-07-01

    Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion. PMID:23075504

  19. Is HIV/AIDS Stigma Dividing the Gay Community? Perceptions of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Wolitski, Richard J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Gomez, Cynthia A.

    2006-01-01

    Stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS has existed since the beginning of the epidemic, but little is known about HIV/AIDS stigma within the gay community and how it affects men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on this population is needed to reduce it and its harmful effects. Our study used…

  20. Use of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) Generates a Very Diverse Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balan, Ivan; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Barreda, Victoria; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior research focusing on men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina, used convenience samples that included mainly gay identified men. To increase MSM sample representativeness, we used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) for the first time in Argentina. Using RDS, under certain specified conditions, the observed estimates for the percentage of the population with a specific trait are asymptotically unbiased. We describe, the diversity of the recruited sample, from the point of view of sexual orientation, and contrast the different subgroups in terms of their HIV sexual risk behavior. Methodology 500 MSM were recruited using RDS. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Web-based CASI. Conclusion In contrast with prior studies, RDS generated a very diverse sample of MSM from a sexual identity perspective. Only 24.5% of participants identified as gay; 36.2% identified as bisexual, 21.9% as heterosexual, and 17.4% were grouped as “other.” Gay and non-gay identified MSM differed significantly in their sexual behavior, the former having higher numbers of partners, more frequent sexual contacts and less frequency of condom use. One third of the men (gay, 3%; bisexual, 34%, heterosexual, 51%; other, 49%) reported having had sex with men, women and transvestites in the two months prior to the interview. This population requires further study and, potentially, HIV prevention strategies tailored to such diversity of partnerships. Our results highlight the potential effectiveness of using RDS to reach non-gay identified MSM. They also present lessons learned in the implementation of RDS to recruit MSM concerning both the importance and limitations of formative work, the need to tailor incentives to circumstances of the less affluent potential participants, the need to prevent masking, and the challenge of assessing network size. PMID:22102896

  1. The Relationship Between HIV Risk, High-Risk Behavior, Religiosity, and Spirituality Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Tommie L; Simpson, Cathy; Cofield, Stacey S; Davies, Susan; Kohler, Connie; Usdan, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Blacks in the USA, including black men who have sex with men (MSM), tend to have stronger religious and spiritual affiliations compared with other racial/ethnic populations. HIV and STD incidence rates continue to rise among Black MSM. Using data from the CDC Brothers y Hermanos (ByHS) project, this study examined correlations between high-risk behavior, e.g., substance use and high-risk sexual behavior (e.g., condom use history, unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV infection status, and STD infection status) religiosity, spirituality, age, among Black MSM (N = 1141). This exploratory study examined whether religiosity and spirituality were associated with high-risk behavior and high-risk sexual behavior among Black MSM. Religiosity and spirituality indices were compiled from the ByHS data. The religiosity index was significantly associated with HIV infection and use of cocaine, crack, and poppers as well as marginally associated with ecstasy use. Spirituality was significantly associated with HIV infection status, STD infection status, alcohol use, and crack use. Given these relationships, current and future HIV prevention models targeting Black MSM should consider the potential importance of the roles of religiosity and spirituality in the lives of Black MSM to increase the efficacy of risk reduction interventions. PMID:26475314

  2. Evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE transmission clusters among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Lim, Sin How; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9%) were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253-3275) showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2-7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1) were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion. PMID:23840653

  3. Evolutionary History of HIV-1 Subtype B and CRF01_AE Transmission Clusters among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Lim, Sin How; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9%) were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253–3275) showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2–7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1) were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion. PMID:23840653

  4. From personal survival to public health: community leadership by men who have sex with men in the response to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Trapence, Gift; Collins, Chris; Avrett, Sam; Carr, Robert; Sanchez, Hugo; Ayala, George; Diouf, Daouda; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D

    2013-01-01

    Community leadership and participation by gay men and men who have sex with men (MSM) have been central to the response to HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. Through a wide array of actions, engagement of MSM has been important in the protection of communities. The connection between personal and community health as drivers of health advocacy continue to be a powerful element. The passion and urgency brought by MSM communities have led to the targeting and expansion of HIV and AIDS research and programming, and have improved the synergy of health and human rights, sustainability, accountability, and health outcomes for all people affected by HIV. MSM are, however, frequently excluded from the evidence-based services that they helped to develop, despite them generally being the most effective actors in challenging environments. Without MSM community involvement, government-run health programmes might have little chance of effectively reaching communities or scaling up interventions to lessen, and ultimately end, the HIV pandemic. PMID:22819662

  5. HIV Infection Rates and Risk Behavior among Young Men undergoing community-based Testing in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Morris, Sheldon R; Little, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 80% of new HIV infections in the United States occur in men. Four out of five men diagnosed with HIV infection are men who have sex with men (MSM), with an increasing proportion of young MSM (i.e. ≤24 years of age). We performed a retrospective analysis 11,873 cisgender men participating in a community based HIV screening program in San Diego between 2008 and 2014 to characterize the HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors among young men. In young heterosexual men HIV prevalence was lower compared to heterosexual men between 25 and 49 years of age (0.3% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.043). Among young MSM, HIV prevalence was 5.5%, per test positivity rate 3.6%, and HIV incidence 3.4 per 100 person years (95% CI 2.2-5.4). Per test positivity rate (p = 0.008) and incidence (p < 0.001) were significantly higher among young MSM than among MSM above 24-years of age. Young MSM diagnosed with HIV infection reported significantly more serodiscordant condomless anal intercourse, bacterial sexually transmitted infections, and higher rates of methamphetamine and gamma hydroxybutyrate use when compared to young MSM who tested negative. In conclusion, young MSM are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection and may represent ideal candidates for targeted prevention interventions that increase testing uptake and/or decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection. PMID:27181715

  6. HIV Infection Rates and Risk Behavior among Young Men undergoing community-based Testing in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Morris, Sheldon R.; Little, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 80% of new HIV infections in the United States occur in men. Four out of five men diagnosed with HIV infection are men who have sex with men (MSM), with an increasing proportion of young MSM (i.e. ≤24 years of age). We performed a retrospective analysis 11,873 cisgender men participating in a community based HIV screening program in San Diego between 2008 and 2014 to characterize the HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors among young men. In young heterosexual men HIV prevalence was lower compared to heterosexual men between 25 and 49 years of age (0.3% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.043). Among young MSM, HIV prevalence was 5.5%, per test positivity rate 3.6%, and HIV incidence 3.4 per 100 person years (95% CI 2.2–5.4). Per test positivity rate (p = 0.008) and incidence (p < 0.001) were significantly higher among young MSM than among MSM above 24-years of age. Young MSM diagnosed with HIV infection reported significantly more serodiscordant condomless anal intercourse, bacterial sexually transmitted infections, and higher rates of methamphetamine and gamma hydroxybutyrate use when compared to young MSM who tested negative. In conclusion, young MSM are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection and may represent ideal candidates for targeted prevention interventions that increase testing uptake and/or decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection. PMID:27181715

  7. A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: The HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; Garcia, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Miller, AAS, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2014-01-01

    Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership engaged in a multi-step process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership; (2) establish an Intervention Team; (3) review the existing sexual health literature; (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM; (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable; (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM’s lived experiences; (7) design an intervention conceptual model; (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials; and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors (LHAs) known as “Navegantes”. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion. PMID:23075504

  8. HIV status disclosure among infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Dolezal, Curtis; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men were recruited in Buenos Aires using respondent driven sampling. Of them, 46 respondents (24 of them not gay identified) who were HIV infected were asked questions on serodisclosure. The sample was characterized by indicators of low socioeconomic status. Most of the respondents reported being in good to excellent health despite 42% of them having been diagnosed with AIDS. Only 10% of respondents had not disclosed their serostatus to at least one person. Coworkers and lovers or main sexual partners were those most likely to know the respondents' serostatus. Reactions to disclosure were for the most part supportive. Those who had not disclosed anticipated less favorable reactions than those who had disclosed. No significant differences were observed between gay and non-gay identified respondents. The progressive social environment of Argentina that includes federal laws recognizing gay marriage may contribute to create a climate favorable for serostatus disclosure. PMID:24245593

  9. A commentary on the role of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the transmission and prevention of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Rosser, B R Simon; Grey, Jeremy A; Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Brady, Sonya S; Smolenski, Derek J; Horvath, Keith J

    2012-08-01

    Although research has been conducted over the last half century to test the hypothesis that pornography, or sexually explicit media (SEM), influences behavior, information regarding usage and its effect on men who have sex with men (MSM) is limited. It is important for researchers studying online risk factors for HIV to consider the relationship between SEM consumption and risky sexual behavior, particularly given the exponential increase in SEM exposure as a result of the near-compulsory use of the Internet. In this commentary, we review findings regarding this relationship from studies of international and heterosexual populations. We then suggest future directions for research regarding MSM in the United States and practical applications of such research if the results from other populations extend to them. Research suggests there might be ways to use SEM to create innovative approaches to online HIV prevention, particularly among such at-risk populations as youth and MSM of lower socio-economic statuses. PMID:22252476

  10. Finding the "community" in community-level HIV/AIDS interventions: formative research with young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kraft, J M; Beeker, C; Stokes, J P; Peterson, J L

    2000-08-01

    Data from 76 qualitative interviews with 18- to 29-year-old African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chicago and Atlanta were examined to identify perceptions of "community" and components of a community-level HIV/AIDS intervention. Many men reported feeling marginal to African American and gay White communities because of perceived homophobia and racism. Those who reported feeling part of gay African American communities characterized communities in terms of settings, social structures, and functions, including social support, socialization, and mobility. Despite these positive functions, divisions among groups of MSM, lack of settings for nonsexual interaction with other MSM, lack of leadership, and negative attitudes toward homosexuality may make it difficult for men to participate in activities to alter community contexts that influence behavior. Rather, changing norms, increasing social support, and community building should be part of initial community-level interventions. Community building might identify leaders, create new settings, and create opportunities for dialogue between MSM and African American community groups to address negative perceptions of homosexuality. PMID:10929751

  11. HIV Prevalence Trends, Risky Behaviours, and Governmental and Community Responses to the Epidemic among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric P. F.; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Zhang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Numerous studies reported the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. This paper aims to investigate the overall epidemic trend and associated high-risk behaviours among Chinese MSM and to explore the governmental and community responses to the epidemic. Recent Findings. HIV prevalence among Chinese MSM increased rapidly in all Chinese regions in the past decade and disproportionally affected the Southwest China. In addition to the high-risk homosexual behaviours, overlapping bisexual, commercial, and drug use behaviours are commonly observed among Chinese MSM. The Chinese government has significantly expanded the surveillance efforts among MSM over the past decade. Community responses against HIV have been substantially strengthened with the support of international aid. However, lack of enabling legal and financial environment undermines the role of community-based organisations (CBOs) in HIV surveillance and prevention. Conclusion. HIV continues to spread rapidly among MSM in China. The hidden nature of MSM and the overlapping homosexual, bisexual, and commercial behaviours remain a challenge for HIV prevention among MSM. Strong collaboration between the government and CBOs and innovative intervention approaches are essential for effective HIV surveillance and prevention among MSM in China. PMID:24822214

  12. Willingness of US Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) to Participate in Couples HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (CVCT)

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, Bradley H.; Christiansen-Lindquist, Lauren; Khosropour, Christine; Salazar, Laura F.; Benbow, Nanette; Prachand, Nik; Sineath, R. Craig; Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated willingness to participate in CVCT and associated factors among MSM in the United States. Methods 5,980 MSM in the US, recruited through MySpace.com, completed an online survey March-April, 2009. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using being “willing” or “unwilling” to participate in CVCT in the next 12 months as the outcome. Results Overall, 81.5% of respondents expressed willingness to participate in CVCT in the next year. Factors positively associated with willingness were: being of non-Hispanic Black (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–1.8), Hispanic (aOR: 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.6), or other (aOR: 1.4, CI: 1.1–1.8) race/ethnicity compared to non-Hispanic White; being aged 18–24 (aOR: 2.5, CI: 1.7–3.8), 25–29 (aOR: 2.3, CI: 1.5–3.6), 30–34 (aOR: 1.9, CI: 1.2–3.1), and 35–45 (aOR: 2.3, CI: 1.4–3.7) years, all compared to those over 45 years of age; and having had a main male sex partner in the last 12 months (aOR: 1.9, CI: 1.6–2.2). Factors negatively associated with willingness were: not knowing most recent male sex partner’s HIV status (aOR: 0.81, CI: 0.69–0.95) compared to knowing that the partner was HIV-negative; having had 4–7 (aOR: 0.75, CI: 0.61–0.92) or >7 male sex partners in the last 12 months (aOR: 0.62, CI: 0.50–0.78) compared to 1 partner; and never testing for HIV (aOR: 0.38, CI: 0.31–0.46), having been tested over 12 months ago (aOR: 0.63, CI: 0.50–0.79), or not knowing when last HIV tested (aOR: 0.67, CI: 0.51–0.89), all compared to having tested 0–6 months previously. Conclusions Young MSM, men of color, and those with main sex partners expressed a high level of willingness to participate in couples HIV counseling and testing with a male partner in the next year. Given this willingness, it is likely feasible to scale up and evaluate CVCT interventions for US MSM. PMID:22905191

  13. Enhancing Retention of an Internet-Based Cohort Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) via Text Messaging: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khosropour, Christine M; Johnson, Brent A; Ricca, Alexandra V

    2013-01-01

    Background Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. The Internet is a promising vehicle for delivery of HIV prevention interventions to these men, but retention of MSM of color in longitudinal Internet-based studies has been problematic. Text message follow-up may enhance retention in these studies. Objective To compare retention in a 12-month prospective Internet-based study of HIV-negative MSM randomized to receive bimonthly follow-up surveys either through an Internet browser online or through text messages. Methods Internet-using MSM were recruited through banner advertisements on social networking and Internet-dating sites. White, black, and Hispanic men who were ≥18, completed an online baseline survey, and returned an at-home HIV test kit, which tested HIV negative, were eligible. Men were randomized to receive follow-up surveys every 2 months on the Internet or by text message for 12 months (unblinded). We used time-to-event methods to compare the rate of loss-to-follow-up (defined as non-response to a follow-up survey after multiple systematically-delivered contact attempts) in the 2 follow-up groups, overall and by race/ethnicity. Results are reported as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the rate of loss-to-follow-up for men randomized to text message follow-up compared to online follow-up. Results Of 1489 eligible and consenting men who started the online baseline survey, 895 (60%) completed the survey and were sent an at-home HIV test kit. Of these, 710 of the 895 (79%) returned the at-home HIV test kit, tested HIV-negative, and were followed prospectively. The study cohort comprised 66% white men (470/710), 15% (106/710) black men, and 19% (134/710) Hispanic men. At 12 months, 77% (282/366) of men randomized to online follow-up were retained in the study, compared to 70% (241/344) men randomized to text message follow-up (HR=1.30, 95% CI 0.97-1.73). The rate

  14. Experiences of Antihomosexual Attitudes and Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the South: A Need for Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ricks, JaNelle M.; McGladrey, Margaret; Crosby, Richard A.; Mena, Leandro A.; Ottmar, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: In 2012, Jackson, Mississippi, had the third highest incidence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). The goal of this qualitative study (the initial phase of an HIV prevention clinical trial) was to explore how cultural norms regarding antihomosexual attitudes interfere with the safe sex practices and relationship norms of young Black MSM in Mississippi. Methods: Nine focus groups (N = 54) were conducted with young Black MSM aged 18–29. Participants were recruited through medical providers at local sexually transmitted infection clinics and through community organizers at local LGBT outreach programs. The data were analyzed through the use of grounded theory, multiple coders for consistency and intercoder reliability, and a qualitative data analysis software. Results: Three major themes were identified during the analysis: (1) resiliency and condom use, (2) inconsistent condom use among closeted young Black MSM, and (3) intimate partner violence (IPV) among closeted young Black MSM. Black MSM in Mississippi continue to be highly stigmatized within their social networks (i.e., families, sexual partners, and community). Conclusions: The findings suggest that cultural and community norms regarding antihomosexual attitudes may be a barrier to the practices of safe sex and a contributing factor to IPV among young Black MSM. There is a need for tailored interventions that address these cultural norms and establish social and community support for young Black MSM in Mississippi. PMID:26886074

  15. Structural and environmental factors are associated with internalised homonegativity in men who have sex with men: findings from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) in 38 countries.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rigmor C; Ross, Michael W; Weatherburn, Peter; Schmidt, Axel J

    2013-02-01

    Internalised homonegativity refers to a gay person's negative feelings about homosexuality and is believed to stem from negative societal stereotypes and attitudes towards homosexuality. Surprisingly, little research has centred on this link. In this research, we aimed to examine the associations between internalised homonegativity and structural forces, cultural influence, and access to sexual health promotion measures among a sample of 144,177 men who have sex with men (MSM) in 38 European countries. Participants were recruited as part of the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) during 2010. It was a self-completion, multilingual Internet-based survey for men living in Europe who have sex with men and/or feel attracted to men. Assumed causal relations were tested through multiple regression models. Variables at the structure of rule-systems (macro-level) that were significantly and negatively associated with internalised homonegativity were the presence of laws recognising same-sex relationships and same-sex adoption. In the meso-level model, greater proportions of the population expressing that they would not like to have homosexuals as neighbours predicted higher internalised homonegativity. In the last model, five variables were significantly and negatively associated with internalised homonegativity: being exposed to HIV/STI information for MSM, access to HIV testing, access to STI testing, access to condoms, and experience of gay-related hostility. In turn, men who had tested for HIV in the past year evidenced lower internalised homonegativity. This is the largest and certainly most geographically diverse study to date to examine structural and environmental predictors of internalised homonegativity among MSM. Our results show that one insidious consequence of society's stigma towards homosexuals is the internalisation of that stigma by gay and bisexual men themselves, thus, drawing attention to the importance of promoting social equity for self

  16. The Effect of Commuting Patterns on HIV Care Attendance Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Atlanta, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Michael R; Rosenberg, Eli S; Sanchez, Travis H; Reed, Landon; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    Background Travel-related barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care, such as commute time and mode of transportation, have been reported in the United States. Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the association between public transportation use and HIV care attendance among a convenience sample of Atlanta-based, HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), evaluate differences across regions of residence, and estimate the relationship between travel distance and time by mode of transportation taken to attend appointments. Methods We used Poisson regression to estimate the association between use of public transportation to attend HIV-related medical visits and frequency of care attendance over the previous 12 months. The relationship between travel distance and commute time was estimated using linear regression. Kriging was used to interpolate commute time to visually examine geographic differences in commuting patterns in relation to access to public transportation and population-based estimates of household vehicle ownership. Results Using public transportation was associated with lower rates of HIV care attendance compared to using private transportation, but only in south Atlanta (south: aRR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.56, 1.0, north: aRR: 0.90, 95% CI 0.71, 1.1). Participants living in south Atlanta were more likely to have longer commute times associated with attending HIV visits, have greater access to public transportation, and may live in areas with low vehicle ownership. A majority of attended HIV providers were located in north and central Atlanta, despite there being participants living all across the city. Estimated commute times per mile traveled were three times as high among public transit users compared to private transportation users. Conclusions Improving local public transit and implementing use of mobile clinics could help address travel-related barriers to HIV care. PMID:27227128

  17. Prevalence of HIV Infection and Associated Risk Factors among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Harbin, P. R. China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Baowen; Wang, Shangbo; Liu, Yanlin; Wang, Jian; Li, Xin; Shang, Xiaoyun; Li, Hongyuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of HIV infection and characteristically risk of factors which associated with HIV infection among MSM in Harbin, China. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among 463 Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) who were recruited by the snowball sampling in Harbin from April, 2011 to July, 2011. The questionnaire mainly included demographics, AIDS knowledge, homosexual behavior and the status of intervention in MSM. Blood specimens were obtained and tested for the diagnoses of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Associations between above exposed factors and HIV infection were analyzed using a univariate analysis and forward stepwise logistic regression. Results The prevalence of HIV and syphilis was 9.5 and 14.3%. The awareness rate of AIDS was 86.8%. The rate of unprotected sexual behavior was 57.6% of MSM during the past 6 months. The univariate analysis identified that the age (age≥35 years old), cohabitation, more than 10 years of homosexual behavior and more than 10 homosexual partners were risk factors which associated with the HIV infection, and that protected sex during the past 6 months was a protective factor for the HIV infection. The multivariate analysis identified that the duration of homosexual behavior and commercial sexual behavior were independent risk factors which associated with the HIV infection, and the protected sex during the past 6 months was a protective factor for the HIV infection. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV among MSM in Harbin has been rapidly increasing in the past few years. Targeted, tailored, and comprehensive interventions are urgently needed to prevent the HIV infection from MSM. PMID:23516481

  18. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. Methods The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Results Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Conclusions Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention. PMID:25124457

  19. Vulnerability in the context of HIV and syphilis infection in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila D; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-05-01

    Social, individual, and programmatic vulnerability of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the context of the HIV epidemic and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a reality in many countries. The survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities selected 383 MSM in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) technique. Individual vulnerability early sexual initiation (51%), average of eight sex partners, and unprotected receptive anal sex with casual (32%) and steady partners (45%) and positive rapid tests HIV (6.5%) and syphilis (9%). Social vulnerability young adults (80%), black race/skin color (91%), mean monthly family income of BRL 1,000.00, and personal history of discrimination (57%). Programmatic factors no previous HIV test (63%) and no access to lubricant gel (88%). The study showed a profile of vulnerability and the urgent need for interventions and STI prevention in the MSM population in Salvador, in addition to high prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis. PMID:26083178

  20. HIV among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maulsby, Cathy; Millett, Greg; Lindsey, Kali; Kelley, Robin; Johnson, Kim; Montoya, Daniel; Holtgrave, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Millett published a seminal literature review that examined 12 hypotheses to explain the high rates of HIV among black MSM. This paper augments Millett's article by reviewing the recent literature on behavioral, biomedical, structural, social contextual, psychosocial, and social network factors that affect HIV rates among black MSM. We searched three databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. First we searched all articles that included black or African American and MSM and HIV. We then searched the following terms for each area: behavioral (drug use during sex, crack cocaine use, and serosorting); biomedical (circumcision, STDs, and STIs); structural (access to care, HIV care, ART, HAART, patient-provider communication, HIV quality of care); social contextual (stigma, discrimination, internalized homophobia, internalized heterosexism, medical mistrust, social isolation, and incarceration); psychosocial (peer support and mental health); and social network (sexual mixing, partner characteristics, and social networks) factors. We identified 39 articles to include in this review. We found inconclusive evidence that incarceration, stigma, discrimination, social isolation, mental health disparities, or social networks explain the elevated rates of HIV among black MSM. We found evidence that the differences in rates of HIV between black and white MSM may be explained by differences in STIs, undiagnosed seropositivity, access to care and treatment services, and use of HAART. There is an overwhelming need for HIV testing, linkage to care, retention in care, and adherence programs for black MSM. PMID:23620241

  1. Is the HIV Epidemic Stable among MSM in Mexico? HIV Prevalence and Risk Behavior Results from a Nationally Representative Survey among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Colchero, M. Arantxa; Romero, Martín; Conde-Glez, Carlos J.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence points to the apparent increase of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in different settings with concentrated epidemics, including the Latin American region. In 2011, Mexico implemented an ambitious HIV prevention program in all major cities, funded by the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The program was intended to strengthen the prevention response for the most at risk populations: MSM and injecting drug users. This paper presents the HIV prevalence results of a nationally representative baseline survey in 24 Mexican cities throughout the 5 regions in the country and reports the socio-demographic and sexual risk behaviors that predict the probability of infection. Methods The survey was implemented in two phases. We first identified and characterized places where MSM gather in each city and then conducted in a second phase, a seroprevalence survey that included rapid HIV testing and a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was estimated by adjusting for positive predicted value. We applied a probit model to estimate the probability of having a positive result from the HIV test as a function of socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported sexual risk behaviors. Results We found an overall HIV prevalence among MSM gathering in meeting points of 16.9% [95% CI: 15.6–18.3], significantly higher than previously reported estimates. Our regression results suggest that the risk of infection increases with age, with the number of sexual partners, and among those who play a receptive sexual role, and the risk decreases with higher education. Discussion Our findings suggest a higher HIV prevalence among MSM than previously acknowledged and that a significant regional variability exist throughout the country. These two findings combined, signal an important dynamic in the epidemic that should be better understood and promptly addressed with strong prevention efforts targeted at key

  2. Incidence of Hepatitis-C among HIV infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexual health service: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the incidence of Hepatitis C (HCV) infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a Sexual Health Centre. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out among HIV-infected MSM seen at least once between February 2002 and March 2010. The analysis was restricted to MSM who had had a negative HCV antibody test at least 6 months after their diagnosis for HIV. Duration of follow up was taken from the date of HIV diagnosis to the first positive or last negative HCV antibody test. Results During the time 1445 HIV-infected men attended the clinic of whom 1065 (74%) were MSM. Of these, 869 (82%) were tested for HCV at any time after HIV diagnosis. Of these 869, 69% (620) tested HCV negative at least 6 months after their HIV diagnosis. These 620 men had a mean age of 34 years (range 17-72) at HIV diagnosis and a total of 4,359 person years (PY) of follow up. There were 40 incident cases of HCV, of which 16 were in injecting drug users (IDU) and 24 in non-IDU. The overall incidence of HCV among HIV-infected MSM was 0.9/100 PY (95% CI 0.6-1.2). The incidence among HIV-infected IDU was 4.7/100 PY (95% CI 2.7-7.5) while the incidence among HIV-infected non-IDU was 0.6/100 PY (95% CI 0.4-0.8) (hazard ratio of 8.7 and 95% CI 4.6-16.6, P < 0.001). The majority (78%) were tested for HCV because they developed abnormal liver transaminases (n = 31) or hepatitis symptoms (n = 2), while others (n = 7) were identified through routine HCV testing. Conclusion A considerable proportion of HIV-positive MSM who did not inject drugs contracted HCV, presumably via sexual transmission and the main trigger for investigation was abnormal liver transaminases. PMID:21291565

  3. Factors Associated with Low Levels of HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Ana Maria; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Dourado, Inês; Pinho, Adriana A.; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Brignol, Sandra; Reingold, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess risk factors associated with low levels of HIV testing among MSM recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Brazil. Of 3,617 participants, 48.4% had never tested previously for HIV. A logistic model indicated that younger age, lower socioeconomic class, education, poor HIV/AIDS knowledge, no history of cruising, and having been tested during the study were characteristics independently associated with low levels of previous HIV testing. The HIV testing rate among MSM in Brazil is still low in spite of the availability of a large number services providing universal and free access to HIV/AIDS diagnosis and treatment. To respond to low utilization, the authors propose a higher priority for testing for key populations such as MSM, expanded education, expanding testing sites and a welcoming and nonjudgmental environment in health services. PMID:26098559

  4. Heterogeneous Evolution of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Other Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaorong; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to grow in most countries. However, the phylodynamic and virological differences among HIV-1 strains circulating in MSM and other populations are not well characterized. Methods Nearly full-length genomes (NFLGs) of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE were obtained from the Los Alamos HIV database. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the NFLG, gag, pol and env genes, using the maximum likelihood method. Selection pressure analyses at the codon level were performed for each gene in the phylogenetic clusters using PAML. Results Sequences isolated from MSM in China clustered in Clusters 1 (92.5%) and 2 (85.71%). The major risk factor for Cluster 3 was heterosexual transmission (62.16%). The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the env gene (0.7–0.75) was higher than the gag (0.26–0.34) or pol (0.21–0.26) genes. In env gene, Cluster 1 (4.56×10-3subs/site/year) and 2 (6.01×10-3subs/site/year) had higher evolutionary rates than Cluster 3 (1.14×10-3subs/site/year). Positive selection affected 4.2–6.58% of the amino acid sites in the env gene. Two sites (HXB2:136 and 316) evolved similarly in Clusters 1 and 2, but not Cluster 3. Conclusion The HIV-1 CRF01_AE in MSM is evolving differently than in other populations. PMID:26623642

  5. HIV Prevalence, Risks for HIV Infection, and Human Rights among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Stefan; Trapence, Gift; Motimedi, Felistus; Umar, Eric; Iipinge, Scholastika; Dausab, Friedel; Beyrer, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background In the generalized epidemics of HIV in southern Sub-Saharan Africa, men who have sex with men have been largely excluded from HIV surveillance and research. Epidemiologic data for MSM in southern Africa are among the sparsest globally, and HIV risk among these men has yet to be characterized in the majority of countries. Methodology A cross-sectional anonymous probe of 537 men recruited with non-probability sampling among men who reported ever having had sex with another man in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana using a structured survey instrument and HIV screening with the OraQuick© rapid test kit. Principal Findings The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3% (20/241); 20.0% (42/210) among those 24–29; and 35.7% (30/84) among those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI 14.4–20.8). In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25 (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0–8.0), and not always wearing condoms during sex (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3–4.9) were significantly associated with being HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months. Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses, including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent with 42.1% (222/527) reporting at least one abuse. Conclusions MSM are a high-risk group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana. Concurrency of sexual partnerships with partners of both genders may play important roles in HIV spread in these populations. Further epidemiologic and evaluative research is needed to assess the contribution of MSM to southern Africa's HIV epidemics and how best to mitigate this. These countries should initiate and adequately fund evidence-based and targeted HIV

  6. Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Factors Associated with Not Using a Condom at Last Sexual Intercourse with a Man and with a Woman in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Larmarange, Joseph; Wade, Abdoulaye S.; Diop, Abdou K.; Diop, Oulimata; Gueye, Khady; Marra, Adama; du Loû, Annabel Desgrées

    2010-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with other men (MSM) are a vulnerable population in Africa that has been insufficiently explored. Given the high rate of bisexuality among MSM (73% in the past year), it is important to understand their risk-taking behaviors regarding both men and women. Methodology/Principal Findings A socio-behavioral survey was carried out in 2007 among 501 MSM recruited using the snowball sampling method. We explore in this article why a condom was not used during last sexual intercourse with a man and with a woman, taking into account the respondent's characteristics, type of relationship and the context of the sexual act. In the survey, 489 men reported that they had had sexual intercourse at least once with another man during the previous year, and 358 with a man and with a woman. The main risk factors for not using a condom at last sexual intercourse with another man were having sex in a public place (aOR = 6.26 [95%CI: 2.71–14.46]), non-participation in an MSM prevention program (aOR = 3.47 [95%CI: 2.12–5.69]), a 19 years old or younger partner (aOR = 2.6 [95%CI: 1.23–4.53]), being 24 years or younger (aOR = 2.07 [95%CI: 1.20–3.58]) or being 35 years or over (aOR = 3.08 [95%CI:1.11–8.53]) and being unemployed (aOR = 0.36 [95%CI: 0.10–1.25]). The last sexual intercourse with the respondent's wife was hardly ever protected (2%). With women, the other factors were a 15 years or younger partner (aOR = 6.45 [95%CI: 2.56–16.28]), being educated (primary: aOR = 0.45 [95%CI: 0.21–0.95], secondary or higher: aOR = 0.26 [95%CI: 0.11–0.62]), being a student (aOR = 2.20 [95%CI: 1.07–4.54]) or unemployed (aOR = 3.72 [95%CI: 1.31–10.61]) and having participated in a MSM prevention program (aOR = 0.57 [95%CI: 0.34–0.93]). Conclusion Having participated in a prevention program specifically targeting MSM constitutes a major prevention factor. However, these programs targeting MSM must

  7. “They see you as a different thing”: The Experiences of Men Who Have Sex with Men with Health Care Workers in South African Township Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Tim; Mogale, Thomas; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To describe interactions between men who have sex with men (MSM) and health care workers (HCWs) in peri-urban township communities in South Africa. Method Qualitative study using semistructured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in the Gauteng province townships of Soweto and Mamelodi. We purposively sampled 32 MSM for in-depth interviews and 15 for focus group discussions. Topics explored included identity, sexuality, community life, use of health services, and experiences of stigma and discrimination. Results MSM felt their options for non-stigmatizing sexual health care services were limited by homophobic verbal harassment by HCWs. Gay-identified men sought out clinics with reputations for employing HCWs who respected their privacy and their sexuality, and challenged those HCWs who mistreated them. Non-gay identified MSM presented masculine, heterosexual identities when presenting for sexual health problems, and avoided discussing their sexuality with HCWs. Conclusions The strategies MSM employ to confront or avoid homophobia from HCWs may not be conducive to sexual health promotion in this population. Interventions that increase the capacity of public sector HCWs to provide appropriate sexual health services to MSM are urgently needed. PMID:19028941

  8. Community-Based Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Infection in Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Molly M; Weiss, Don; Ridpath, Alison; Zucker, Jane R; Geevarughese, Anita; Rakeman, Jennifer; Varma, Jay K

    2015-08-01

    In September 2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene identified an outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C invasive meningococcal disease among men who have sex with men (MSM). Twenty-two case-patients and 7 deaths were identified during August 2010-February 2013. During this period, 7 cases in non-MSM were diagnosed. The slow-moving outbreak was linked to the use of websites and mobile phone applications that connect men with male sexual partners, which complicated the epidemiologic investigation and prevention efforts. We describe the outbreak and steps taken to interrupt transmission, including an innovative and wide-ranging outreach campaign that involved direct, internet-based, and media-based communications; free vaccination events; and engagement of community and government partners. We conclude by discussing the challenges of managing an outbreak affecting a discrete community of MSM and the benefits of using social networking technology to reach this at-risk population. PMID:26197087

  9. High HIV prevalence and incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) across 12 cities in India

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Sunil S.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Mcfall, Allison M.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Anand, Santhanam; Nandagopal, P.; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Lucas, Gregory M.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize prevalence, incidence and associated correlates of HIV infection among MSM in 12 cities across India. Design Cross-sectional sample using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from September 2012-June 2013 Methods A total 12,022 MSM (∼1000 per city) were recruited. Participants had to be ≥18 years, self-identify as male and report oral/anal intercourse with a man in the prior year. HIV infection was diagnosed using 3 rapid tests. Cross-sectional HIV incidence was estimated using a multi-assay algorithm. All estimates incorporate RDS-II weights. Results Median age was 25 years, 45.0% self-identified as “panthi” (predominantly penetrative anal intercourse) and 30.6% reported being married to a woman. Weighted HIV prevalence was 7.0% (range: 1.7% to 13.1%). In multivariate analysis, significantly higher odds of HIV infection was observed among those who were older, had lower educational attainment, were practicing purely receptive anal sex or both receptive and penetrative sex and those who were HSV-2 positive. Of 1,147 MSM who tested HIV positive, 53 were identified as recent HIV infections (annualized incidence = 0.87%; range = 0 to 2.2%). In multivariate analysis, injecting drugs in the prior 6 months, syphilis, higher number of male partners and fewer female partners were significantly associated with recent HIV infection. Conclusions We observed a high burden of HIV among MSM in India with tremendous diversity in prevalence, incidence and risk behaviors. In particular, we observed high incidence in areas with relatively low prevalence suggesting emerging epidemics in areas not previously recognized to have high HIV burden. PMID:25849835

  10. Profiles of men-who-have-sex-with-men seeking anonymous voluntary HIV counseling and testing at a community-based centre in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, K C; Kamarulzaman, A

    2011-12-01

    Community-based HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services is an effective alternative for mapping the local demographics of at-risk populations for HIV as well as provide an acceptable and reliable means of early detection of HIV. We describe the profiles of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) who sought VCT services in a community based centre in Kuala Lumpur. PMID:22390108

  11. A study of perceived racial discrimination in Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and its association with healthcare utilization and HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Irvin, R; Wilton, L; Scott, H; Beauchamp, G; Wang, L; Betancourt, J; Lubensky, M; Wallace, J; Buchbinder, S

    2014-07-01

    In HPTN 061, a study of Black men who have sex with men (MSM), we evaluated the association of healthcare-specific racial discrimination with healthcare utilization and HIV testing among 1167 HIV-negative participants. Median age was 38 years, 41 % were uninsured, and 38 % had an annual household income <$10,000. Overall, 19 % reported healthcare-specific racial discrimination directed toward family, friend, or self; 61 % saw a healthcare provider in the previous 6 months and 81 % HIV tested within the past year. Healthcare-specific racial discrimination was positively associated with seeing a provider [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.4 (1.0, 2.0)] and HIV testing [AOR = 1.6 (1.1, 2.4)] suggesting that barriers other than racial discrimination may be driving health disparities related to access to medical care and HIV testing among Black MSM. These results contrast with previous studies, possibly due to measurement or cohort differences, strategies to overcome discrimination, or because of greater exposure to healthcare. PMID:24569888

  12. Depression and HIV Risk Taking among Men Who Have Sex with Other Men (MSM) and Who Use the Internet to Find Partners for Unprotected Sex

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study examines the prevalence of depression in a sample of MSM who are at high risk for HIV. It examines the relationship between depressive symptomatology and involvement in HIV risk behaviors, and the factors associated with greater depressive symptomatology. METHODS The data come from a national random sample of 332 MSM who used any of 16 websites to identify men with whom they could engage in unprotected sex. Data were collected via telephone interviews. RESULTS Depression was more prevalent in this population (26.7%) than among men in the general population. Depression was not related directly to any of the HIV risk behaviors examined, but it was related to men’s attitudes toward condom use, which was the strongest predictor of their involvement in risky behaviors. Five factors were identified as being associated with greater depression: lower educational attainment, greater discrimination based on sexual orientation, greater eroticizing of ejaculatory fluids, experiencing more substance abuse problems, and greater childhood maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS Depression is a consequential problem in this population. Although depression does not appear to be related directly to HIV risk practices in this population, its influence cannot be discounted because of its effects on other key predictors of risk involvement. PMID:26877831

  13. Sex and condom use in a large jail unit for men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgenders.

    PubMed

    Harawa, Nina T; Sweat, Jeffery; George, Sheba; Sylla, Mary

    2010-08-01

    Few data are available on factors contributing to sexual activity and condom use in custody settings, particularly among self-identified sexual minority prisoners. To address this gap, we undertook a study of sexual behavior and condom use of 101 randomly-selected men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender inmates in a segregated Los Angeles jail unit that has weekly condom access. Most survey participants (53%) reported anal sex during custody. Although 65% of these reported using condoms, 75% also reported having sex without condoms. Qualitative interviews (n=17) indicate a wide range of reasons for participating in protected and unprotected sex during custody, the use of cues within the custody environment to assess potential partners' HIV status, and support for increased condom availability. Findings also indicate that high-risk sex occurs frequently in this unit and that condom distribution likely prevents a substantial amount of related HIV/STD risk. PMID:20693745

  14. HIV Knowledge and Associated Factors among Internet-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in South Africa and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, Bradley H.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Stephenson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Background We compared factors associated with low HIV/AIDS knowledge among internet-using MSM in South Africa and the United States. Methods 1,154 MSM in the US and 439 MSM in South Africa, recruited through Facebook.com, completed an online survey using a US-validated HIV knowledge scale (HIV-KQ-18). Separate multivariable logistic regression models were built, one for the US and one for South Africa, using a dichotomized variable of scoring less than and equal to 13/18 (“low knowledge”) on the HIV-KQ-18 as outcome. Results Median knowledge scores were 16/18 for both groups of respondents. For South African MSM, factors associated with low knowledge were: a high school education or less (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–4.6), not using condom-compatible lubrication during last anal sex with another man (aOR: 1.9, CI: 1.0–3.5), number of gay or bisexual acquaintances (aOR: 0.89, CI: 0.81–0.99), being unemployed (aOR: 2.2, CI: 1.0–4.6), and testing HIV negative (aOR: 0.30, CI: 0.16–0.59) or testing HIV positive (aOR: 0.15, CI: 0.03–0.74) compared to those never HIV tested. For US MSM, associated factors were: a high school education or less (aOR: 2.7, CI: 1.9–3.8), low pride and acceptance of homosexuality (aOR: 1.3, CI: 1.2–1.5), age 18–24 (aOR: 2.3, CI: 1.3–3.8) or age 50+ (aOR: 3.2, CI: 1.6–6.3) compared to age 25–29, Hispanic ethnicity compared to white non-Hispanic (aOR: 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.2), and testing HIV positive (aOR: 0.34, CI: 0.16–0.69) or testing HIV negative (aOR: 0.59, CI: 0.39–0.89) compared to those tested. Conclusions Those developing programs for MSM in South Africa should weigh these data and other relevant factors, and might consider focusing education services towards MSM with limited education, less integration into gay/bisexual communities, no HIV testing history, limited use of condom-compatible lube, and the unemployed. In the United States, Hispanic MSM, those with limited

  15. Optimism, community attachment and serostatus disclosure among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Patrick J; Hevey, David; O'Dea, Siobhán; Ní Rathaille, Neans; Mulcahy, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between HIV health optimism (HHO) (the belief that health will remain good after HIV infection due to treatment efficacy), HIV-positive community attachment (HCA), gay community attachment (GCA) and serostatus disclosure to casual sex partners by HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Cross-sectional questionnaire data were gathered from 97 HIV-positive MSM attending an HIV treatment clinic in Dublin, Ireland. Based on self-reported disclosure to casual partners, participants were classified according to their pattern of disclosure (consistent, inconsistent or non-disclosers). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess HHO, HCA and GCA as predictors of participants' pattern of disclosure. Classification as a non-discloser (compared to a consistent discloser) was associated with higher HHO, less HCA and greater GCA. Classification as an inconsistent discloser (compared to a consistent discloser) was associated with higher GCA. The study provided novel quantitative evidence for associations between the constructs of interest. The results suggest that (1) HHO is associated with reduced disclosure, suggesting optimism may preclude individuals reaping the benefits of serostatus disclosure and (2) HCA and GCA represent competing attachments with conflicting effects on disclosure behaviour. Limitations and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25495615

  16. Transactional Sex: Supply and Demand Among European Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) in the Context of Local Laws

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Rigmor C.; Schmidt, Axel J.; Weatherburn, Peter; The EMIS Network

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Transactional sex (TS) is generally defined as the trading of sex for material goods. Cast within the broader context of prostitution laws, we examined variations in the sociodemographic profile of men who have sex with men engaging in TS by payment direction (buying/selling). Methods: The data were collected as part of the 38-country European Men who have sex with men Internet Survey project, conducted in 2010. Results: About 12% of respondents reported engaging in TS in the past year. TS was associated with laws, age, education, employment, and residence. Conclusions: The striking sociodemographic differences in TS by payment direction suggest a power differential and a leading role of socioeconomic factors in TS. PMID:26430474

  17. The Predominant Relationship Between Sexual Environment Characteristics and HIV-Serodiscordant Condomless Anal Sex Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicholas S; Wade Taylor, S; Elsesser, Steven; Safren, Steven A; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2016-06-01

    In some studies, situational factors have been shown to be stronger predictors of condomless sex than individual risk factors. Cross-sectional relationships between condomless anal sex (CAS) with HIV-serodiscordant partners and risk factors across ecological levels (individual, sexual environment) were examined using a sample (N = 60) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who reported multiple recent episodes of CAS. Negative binomial regressions were used to evaluate the association of contextual risk factors (e.g., substance use during sex, transactional sex, public sex, sex at a sex party) with recent condomless sex, controlling for demographics and mental health. Results demonstrated that sexual environment factors, particularly sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (B = .019, p < .05), transactional sex (B = .035, p < .01), and public sex (B = .039, p < .01) explained a large proportion of the variance in CAS. Only sex at a sex party was not related to CAS (p = .39). For each additional sexual environment in which men engaged, their rates of CAS increased (B = .39, p < .01). Secondary prevention interventions that are tailored to the proximal sexual environment could be maximally effective, particularly if they address substance use and other challenging sexual situations. PMID:26395194

  18. Enhancement of a locally developed HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic/Latino MSM: A partnership of community-based organizations, a university, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Freeman, Arin; Sun, Christina J.; Garcia, Manuel; Painter, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, no efficacious behavioral interventions are currently available for use with this vulnerable population. We describe the development and enhancement of HOLA en Grupos, a community-based behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino MSM that is currently being implemented and evaluated. Our enhancement process included incorporating local data on risks and context; identifying community priorities; defining intervention core elements and key characteristics; developing a logic model; developing an intervention logo; enhancing intervention activities and materials; scripting intervention delivery; expanding the comparison intervention; and establishing a materials review committee. If efficacious, HOLA en Grupos will be the first behavioral intervention to be identified for potential use with Hispanic/Latino MSM, thereby contributing to the body of evidence-based resources that may be used for preventing HIV/STD infection among these MSM and their sex partners. PMID:26241382

  19. Enhancement of a Locally Developed HIV Prevention Intervention for Hispanic/Latino MSM: A Partnership of Community-Based Organizations, a University, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Freeman, Arin; Sun, Christina J; Garcia, Manuel; Painter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, no efficacious behavioral HIV/STD prevention interventions are currently available for use with this vulnerable population. We describe the enhancement of HOLA en Grupos, a community-based behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino MSM that is currently being implemented and evaluated in North Carolina with support from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our intervention enhancement process included incorporating local data on risks and context; identifying community needs and priorities; defining intervention core elements and key characteristics; developing a logic model; developing an intervention logo; enhancing intervention activities and materials; scripting intervention delivery; expanding the comparison intervention; and establishing a materials review committee. If the CDC-sponsored evaluation determines that HOLA en Grupos is efficacious, it will be the first such behavioral HIV/STD prevention intervention to be identified for potential use with Hispanic/Latino MSM, thereby contributing to the body of evidence-based resources that may be used for preventing HIV/STD infection among these MSM and their sex partners. PMID:26241382

  20. Factors associated with satisfaction with community-based non-medicalized counseling and testing using HIV rapid tests among MSM in France.

    PubMed

    Préau, Marie; Lorente, Nicolas; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Champenois, Karen; Gall, Jean Marie Le; Mabire, Xavier; Spire, Bruno; Mora, Marion; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Suzan, Marie

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the level of satisfaction of men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in two community-based non-medicalized counseling and testing programs (ANRS-DRAG and ANRS-COM'TEST) offering HIV rapid tests (hereafter CBOffer), and to identify factors associated with satisfaction. Between 2009 and 2011, 436 participants voluntarily benefited from a CBOffer in the two programs. They completed self-administered questionnaires before and after testing. Psychosocial scores were constructed using principal component analyses to reflect the following dimensions: post-test satisfaction, avoidance of at-risk situations as a HIV risk-reduction strategy, and attitudes towards condom use. Logarithmic regression of the post-test satisfaction score was performed on these scores and on other selected explanatory variables, including the variable "self-identification as homosexual or bisexual". Post-test satisfaction ranged between 90-99 and below 90 for 50% and 25% of the participants, respectively. Post-test satisfaction with the CBOffer was independently associated with self-defined sexuality, meeting place for sexual partners, participants' attitudes about being HIV-positive, and condom use. The very high level of satisfaction was associated with both personal and socio-behavioral factors. Vulnerable MSM could be targeted better and, accordingly, could use this offer more frequently as a combined prevention tool. PMID:27088324

  1. Assessing the role of peripheral CD8 T cells in neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: data from the MSM Neurocog Study.

    PubMed

    Rawson, T M; Dubb, S; Pozniak, A; Kelleher, W P; Mandalia, S; Gazzard, B; Barber, T J

    2015-02-01

    Studies have suggested CD8 lymphocytes may be a possible marker for inflammation, which is believed to be a contributing factor to neurocognitive impairment. Individuals enrolled in the MSM Neurocog Study were analysed. Those with depression, anxiety or mood disorders were excluded. Individuals with neurocognitive impairment were identified using the Brief NeuroCognitive Screen and compared to those with normal scores. CD4 and CD8 T cell values and CD4:CD8 ratios were compared between groups. In all, 144 men, aged 18-50 years, were included in the analysis. Twenty were diagnosed with neurocognitive impairment. We were unable to identify any significant difference between current, nadir or peak CD4 and CD8 counts. CD4:CD8 ratios and CD4:CD8 ratio inversion (<1) were also found to be similar between both groups. However, neurocognitive impairment subjects were 8% more likely to have inversion of CD4:CD8 ratio and higher median peak CD8 cell counts reported compared to non-impaired subjects. Analysis of data from the MSM Neurocog Study, demonstrated trends in peripheral CD8 counts and CD4:CD8 ratios. However, we are unable to demonstrate any significant benefit. Plasma biomarkers of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected subjects would be of great benefit over current methods of invasive CSF analysis and technical neuroimaging used in the diagnosis of neurocognitive impairment. Future, prospective, longitudinal work with large numbers of neurocognitive impairment subjects is required to further investigate the role of peripheral CD8 T cells as markers of neurocognitive impairment. PMID:24759562

  2. Correlates of Seroadaptation Strategies Among Black Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) in 4 US Cities.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Leo; Koblin, Beryl; Nandi, Vijay; Xu, Guozhen; Latkin, Carl; Seal, David; Flores, Stephen A; Spikes, Pilgrim

    2015-12-01

    We assessed associations of demographic, psychosocial, and substance use factors with seroadaptation strategies among 835 BMSM in four US cities. Seroadaptation strategies were practiced by 59.8 % of men, with 10.5 % practicing 100 % condom use, 26.5 % serosorting, 7.2 % condom serosorting, and 15.6 % seropositioning. In multivariable analyses, compared to men who used no seroadaptation strategies, serosorters were older, were less likely to be HIV infected, had fewer male sex partners, and had higher levels of social support and sexual self-efficacy. Condom serosorters had less psychological distress, were more likely to use methamphetamine, and had higher levels of sexual self-efficacy. Seropositioners were older, were less likely to be HIV infected, to have a main partner, and report alcohol/drug use with sex, while having higher levels of sexual self-efficacy. Seroadaptation practices among BMSM need to be considered to address perceived safer sex strategies and strengthen access to a broader reach of culturally-relevant prevention efforts. PMID:26363789

  3. Correlates of Seroadaptation Strategies Among Black Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) in 4 US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Koblin, Beryl; Nandi, Vijay; Xu, Guozhen; Latkin, Carl; Seal, David; Flores, Stephen A.; Spikes, Pilgrim

    2015-01-01

    We assessed associations of demographic, psychosocial, and substance use factors with seroadaptation strategies among 835 BMSM in four US cities. Seroadaptation strategies were practiced by 59.8 % of men, with 10.5 % practicing 100 % condom use, 26.5 % serosorting, 7.2 % condom serosorting, and 15.6 % seropositioning. In multivariable analyses, compared to men who used no seroadaptation strategies, serosorters were older, were less likely to be HIV infected, had fewer male sex partners, and had higher levels of social support and sexual self-efficacy. Condom serosorters had less psychological distress, were more likely to use methamphetamine, and had higher levels of sexual self-efficacy. Seropositioners were older, were less likely to be HIV infected, to have a main partner, and report alcohol/drug use with sex, while having higher levels of sexual self-efficacy. Seroadaptation practices among BMSM need to be considered to address perceived safer sex strategies and strengthen access to a broader reach of culturally-relevant prevention efforts. PMID:26363789

  4. Associations of current marital status and living arrangements with HIV and syphilis risk: findings from a community-based sample of men who have sex with men in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Li, Dongliang; Vermund, Sten H; Zhang, Chen; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Liu, Hongjie; Amico, K Rivet; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but little is known about the role of current marital status and living arrangements in shaping their HIV/syphilis risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China to assess their sociodemographic/behavioral characteristics between married and single MSM, and test the hypothesis that currently married MSM have a lower odds of being HIV- and/or syphilis-infected. Participants were recruited via short message services, peer referral, internet, and community outreach. Data collection was based on a questionnaire survey and self-report. Infection status was lab-confirmed. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the association of marital status and living arrangement with HIV/syphilis risk. Of the 3588 MSM, infection prevalence was high (HIV = 12.7%; syphilis = 7.5%). Compared to single MSM living with their boyfriends or male sex partners, single/alone MSM and married MSM living with wives were less likely to practice condomless insertive (CIAI) or receptive (CRAI) anal intercourse with men; while married MSM living with boyfriends or male sex partner were more likely to practice CIAI and CRAI, and married MSM were more likely to practice condomless vaginal sex. Compared to men living with boyfriends/sexual partners, significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive were seen among married MSM who were living alone (aOR: 0.52; 95%CI: 0.28, 0.94) or living with their wives (aOR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.31, 0.89). Similarly, single MSM living alone (aOR: 0.67; 95%CI: 0.48, 0.95) and married MSM living with their wives were comparatively less likely to be syphilis-infected (aOR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23, 0.79). Future efforts should consider characteristics of marital status and living arrangements for designing subgroup-specific risk reduction strategies among Chinese MSM. PMID:27236988

  5. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence

  6. Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Dustin C.

    2011-01-01

    Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…

  7. Estimating the Population Sizes of Men Who Have Sex With Men in US States and Counties Using Data From the American Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kyle T; Sullivan, Patrick S; Purcell, David W; Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, male-to-male sexual transmission accounts for the greatest number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses and a substantial number of sexually transmitted infections (STI) annually. However, the prevalence and annual incidence of HIV and other STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) cannot be estimated in local contexts because demographic data on sexual behavior, particularly same-sex behavior, are not routinely collected by large-scale surveys that allow analysis at state, county, or finer levels, such as the US decennial census or the American Community Survey (ACS). Therefore, techniques for indirectly estimating population sizes of MSM are necessary to supply denominators for rates at various geographic levels. Objective Our objectives were to indirectly estimate MSM population sizes at the county level to incorporate recent data estimates and to aggregate county-level estimates to states and core-based statistical areas (CBSAs). Methods We used data from the ACS to calculate a weight for each county in the United States based on its relative proportion of households that were headed by a male who lived with a male partner, compared with the overall proportion among counties at the same level of urbanicity (ie, large central metropolitan county, large fringe metropolitan county, medium/small metropolitan county, or nonmetropolitan county). We then used this weight to adjust the urbanicity-stratified percentage of adult men who had sex with a man in the past year, according to estimates derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), for each county. We multiplied the weighted percentages by the number of adult men in each county to estimate its number of MSM, summing county-level estimates to create state- and CBSA-level estimates. Finally, we scaled our estimated MSM population sizes to a meta-analytic estimate of the percentage of US MSM in the past 5 years (3.9%). Results We found

  8. Community-Based Surveys for Determining the Prevalence of HIV, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhoea in Men Having Sex with Men in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H. T. H.; Wong, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Leung, R. W. M.; Lee, K. C. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Community sampling of men having sex with men (MSM) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections prevalence studies poses challenges in view of problems in logistics and the hidden nature of MSM population. Methods. MSM in Hong Kong were recruited through social venues and the Internet. All participants were invited to complete a behavioural questionnaire and submit a urine specimen for HIV, Chlamydia, and gonorrhoea testing. Results. Totally, 994 MSM were recruited. No differences between venue and online-recruited respondents were identified regarding their demographics and infection status. The prevalence of HIV, Chlamydia, and gonorrhoea was 3.6% (95% CI: 2.6–5.0%), 4.7% (95% CI: 3.6–6.2%), and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1–0.7%), respectively. Of all HIV cases, only 8.3% were aware of the infection; reflecting newly infected MSM were probably overrepresented. Some 58.3% had had HIV test within the past year, and 11.1% had CT/NG coinfection. HIV infection was associated with group sex [aOR: 2.67 (1.03–6.92)], receiving money for anal sex [aOR: 4.63 (1.12–19.18)], and unprotected anal sex with nonregular partners [aOR: 3.047 (1.16–8.01)]. Conclusion. Difference between venue- and online-recruited MSM was observed. A combination of sampling methods is complementary for epidemiology purpose. Overall, risk behaviours practised by undiagnosed HIV-positive MSM remains a cause for concern. PMID:26316969

  9. Subsequent HIV Infection Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Used Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis at a Boston Community Health Center: 1997–2013

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) has been recommended to prevent HIV acquisition for nearly 20 years. However, limited behavioral and clinical outcome data exist after men who have sex with men (MSM) present for NPEP. We reviewed the electronic medical records of HIV-uninfected adults who presented for NPEP at a large community health center in Boston between July, 1997 and August, 2013. Data from 894 patients were analyzed, 88.1% of whom were MSM. Consensual unprotected sex was the most common reason for NPEP visits among MSM (64.2%), followed by condom failure (30.6%). The HIV serostatus of the partner was unknown for 64.4% of the MSM, positive with unknown treatment status for 18.1%, positive and not on treatment for 4.1%, and positive and on treatment for 13.4%. Thirty-nine patients subsequently became HIV-infected (4.4%), all of whom were MSM. The MSM-specific HIV incidence after NPEP use was 2.2 cases per 100 person-years. Incident HIV infection was associated with younger age (AHR=0.94; p=0.003), being Latino (AHR=2.44; p=0.044), and/or being African American (AHR=3.43; p=0.046). Repeated NPEP use was not associated with incident HIV infection (AHR=0.67; p=0.26). Younger MSM of color who access NPEP, in particular, may benefit from early HIV risk-reduction and pre-exposure prophylaxis counseling. PMID:25369451

  10. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM.

    PubMed

    Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Martinez, Marcos; Aguirre, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay. PMID:24864201

  11. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM

    PubMed Central

    Solorio, Rosa; Forehand, Mark; Aguirre, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay. PMID:24864201

  12. The dynamics of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) from 2005 to 2012 in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin; Chen, Lin; Chaillon, Antoine; Zheng, Chenli; Cai, Wende; Yang, Zhengrong; Li, Guilian; Gan, Yongxia; Wang, Xiaohui; Hu, Yihong; Zhong, Ping; Zhang, Chiyu; Smith, Davey M.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics among MSM are a major public health concern in China, especially in large cities. This study sought to better understand the dynamics of HIV molecular epidemiology among MSM in Shenzhen, a rapidly developing city with over 13.8 million people. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained from 996 (53.5%) of 1862 HIV-infected MSM and 403(9.0%) of 4498 heterosexuals and injection drug users in Shenzhen, China from 2005-2012. Eight HIV-1 subtypes and some inter-subtype recombinants were identified among sampled MSM with CRF07_BC (39.1%) and CRF01_AE (35.1%) being the most predominant. From 2006 to 2012, the prevalence of CRF07_BC and CRF55_01B rapidly increased, while the prevalence of subtypes B and CRF01_AE gradually decreased. The genetic distances within CRF07_BC and CRF55_01B groups were significantly lower than within CRF01_AE and B groups. The vast majority (90.3%) of HIV-1 infected MSM in Shenzhen were migrants who came from 31 of the 34 provinces of China, and these migrants had significantly different HIV-1 subtype distributions from the local MSM. This study highlighted the importance of CRF07_BC and migrants in the changing HIV epidemic among MSM in China, and provides a molecular epidemiology framework for understanding how HIV-1 epidemics can change in large cities with diverse risk groups. PMID:27352965

  13. Diverse Rates of Depression Among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Across India: Insights from a Multi-site Mixed Method Study.

    PubMed

    Tomori, Cecilia; McFall, Allison M; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Mehta, Shruti H; Solomon, Sunil S; Anand, Santhanam; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2016-02-01

    Poor psychosocial health contributes to HIV risk behavior and reduced engagement in treatment and care. This study investigates depression and its correlates among 11,992 MSM recruited via respondent driven sampling in 12 cities across India using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and supplemented by analysis of qualitative research from 15 sites with 363 MSM. Overall prevalence of depression was 11 %, with substantial variation across sites and subgroups of MSM, and high prevalence of suicidal thoughts among depressed MSM. In multivariable analyses identification as a kothi (feminine sexual identity) [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.91], disclosure of being MSM to non-family (aOR = 1.7) and family (aOR = 2.4), disclosure of HIV-status (aOR = 5.6), and substance use were associated with significantly higher odds of depression. Qualitative results emphasized dire social consequences of disclosing MSM- and HIV-status, especially to family, including suicidality. Combination prevention interventions should include mental health services that address disclosure, suicidality, and substance use. PMID:26386592

  14. Phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and the recently emerging CRF51_01B among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kim Tien; Ng, Kah Ying; Khong, Wei Xin; Chew, Kuan Kiat; Singh, Palvinder Kaur; Yap, Joe Kwan; Tan, Mei Ting; Leo, Yee Sin; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Quinn, Thomas C; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng; Ng, Oon Tek

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE are the predominant infecting subtypes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. The genetic history, population dynamics and pattern of transmission networks of these genotypes remain largely unknown. We delineated the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and the recently characterized CRF51_01B strains circulating among the MSM population in Singapore. A total of 105 (49.5%) newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve MSM were recruited between February 2008 and August 2009. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the protease gene (HXB2: 2239 - 2629), gp120 (HXB2: 6942 - 7577) and gp41 (HXB2: 7803 - 8276) of the env gene uncovered five monophyletic transmission networks (two each within subtype B and CRF01_AE and one within CRF51_01B lineages) of different sizes (involving 3 - 23 MSM subjects, supported by posterior probability measure of 1.0). Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the emergence and dissemination of multiple sub-epidemic networks occurred between 1995 and 2005, driven largely by subtype B and later followed by CRF01_AE. Exponential increase in effective population size for both subtype B and CRF01_AE occurred between 2002 to 2007 and 2005 to 2007, respectively. Genealogical estimates suggested that the novel CRF51_01B lineages were probably generated through series of recombination events involving CRF01_AE and multiple subtype B ancestors. Our study provides the first insight on the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and CRF51_01B viral strains circulating among MSM in Singapore. PMID:24312505

  15. Phylodynamic Profile of HIV-1 Subtype B, CRF01_AE and the Recently Emerging CRF51_01B among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kim Tien; Ng, Kah Ying; Khong, Wei Xin; Chew, Kuan Kiat; Singh, Palvinder Kaur; Yap, Joe Kwan; Tan, Mei Ting; Leo, Yee Sin; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Quinn, Thomas C.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng; Ng, Oon Tek

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE are the predominant infecting subtypes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. The genetic history, population dynamics and pattern of transmission networks of these genotypes remain largely unknown. We delineated the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and the recently characterized CRF51_01B strains circulating among the MSM population in Singapore. A total of 105 (49.5%) newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve MSM were recruited between February 2008 and August 2009. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the protease gene (HXB2: 2239 – 2629), gp120 (HXB2: 6942 – 7577) and gp41 (HXB2: 7803 – 8276) of the env gene uncovered five monophyletic transmission networks (two each within subtype B and CRF01_AE and one within CRF51_01B lineages) of different sizes (involving 3 – 23 MSM subjects, supported by posterior probability measure of 1.0). Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the emergence and dissemination of multiple sub-epidemic networks occurred between 1995 and 2005, driven largely by subtype B and later followed by CRF01_AE. Exponential increase in effective population size for both subtype B and CRF01_AE occurred between 2002 to 2007 and 2005 to 2007, respectively. Genealogical estimates suggested that the novel CRF51_01B lineages were probably generated through series of recombination events involving CRF01_AE and multiple subtype B ancestors. Our study provides the first insight on the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and CRF51_01B viral strains circulating among MSM in Singapore. PMID:24312505

  16. The Development and Feasibility of a Brief Risk Reduction Intervention for Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Santos, Jonathan; Watt, Melissa H.; Wilson, Patrick A.; DeLorenzo, Allyson; Laudato, Jay; Mayer, Gal

    2011-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more than half of all new HIV infections in the United States. Utilizing a collaborative, community-based approach, a brief risk reduction intervention was developed and pilot tested among newly HIV-diagnosed MSM receiving HIV care in a primary care setting. Sixty-five men, within 3 months of diagnosis,…

  17. MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wrinkles, protection against sun/wind burn, eye inflammation, oral hygiene, gum disease, wounds, cuts, and abrasions/accelerated wound healing. People also take MSM by mouth for relief of allergies, chronic constipation, "sour stomach", ...

  18. Community-based HIV prevention interventions that combat anti-gay stigma for men who have sex with men and for transgender women.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Sean; Valadéz, Robert; Ibarrola, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been disproportionately affected by HIV since the onset of the epidemic. Public health discourse about prevention has traditionally focused on individual risk behavior and less on the socio-structural factors that place MSM at increased risk of infection. Anti-gay bias and stigma are key structural drivers of HIV and must therefore be treated as a public health threat. Community-based prevention intervention programs that affirm the healthy formation of gay and transgender identities are strongly needed. Gay affirming school-based interventions and resiliency-focused social marketing campaigns have shown positive impact on health outcomes and should be implemented on a broader scale to challenge anti-gay stigma. PMID:23151921

  19. Moving Beyond Biomedicalization in the HIV Response: Implications for Community Involvement and Community Leadership Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, Peter; Parker, Richard

    2015-08-01

    As the world enjoys the promise of biomedical advances against HIV, numerous challenges remain. Some of these are connected to politics, others are connected to resource constraints. Other barriers are linked to the need to ensure that the concepts used to think about HIV remain current. Terms such as "MSM" (men who have sex with men) and "community" require critical interrogation at a moment when their political origins seem forgotten. Likewise, struggles between groups most affected by HIV and scientists and policymakers (an enduring feature of the epidemic) remain a key aspect of the response. The dangers of co-option and distraction remain real. In this context, it is vital to promote community ownership, political commitment, solidarity, and respect for differences, not as competing values, but as part of the ultimate solution to HIV. PMID:26066963

  20. Community-Based Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Infection in Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA, 2010−2013

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Don; Ridpath, Alison; Zucker, Jane R.; Geevarughese, Anita; Rakeman, Jennifer; Varma, Jay K.

    2015-01-01

    In September 2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene identified an outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C invasive meningococcal disease among men who have sex with men (MSM). Twenty-two case-patients and 7 deaths were identified during August 2010−February 2013. During this period, 7 cases in non-MSM were diagnosed. The slow-moving outbreak was linked to the use of websites and mobile phone applications that connect men with male sexual partners, which complicated the epidemiologic investigation and prevention efforts. We describe the outbreak and steps taken to interrupt transmission, including an innovative and wide-ranging outreach campaign that involved direct, internet-based, and media-based communications; free vaccination events; and engagement of community and government partners. We conclude by discussing the challenges of managing an outbreak affecting a discrete community of MSM and the benefits of using social networking technology to reach this at-risk population. PMID:26197087

  1. The relationship between online social network use, sexual risk behaviors, and HIV sero-status among African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, ChingChe J.; Young, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking technologies have emerged as potential platforms to reach HIV(+) MSM of color in HIV interventions. This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNS) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(-) individuals among a sample of SNS-using MSM of color. A total of 112 African American and Latino MSM Facebook users completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. Being HIV positive was significantly associated with having a greater number of sexual partners met online (B:8.04, 95%CI:2.11–13.97), male sexual partners (9.09:1.52–16.66), and one-time sexual partners (8.99:1.90–16.07), and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status online (aOR:0.23:0.072–0.71). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among MSM of color SNS users. We discuss the implications for online HIV prevention. PMID:25572831

  2. A cross-sectional evaluation of correlates of HIV testing practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Faiza; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Jamiyanjamts, Naranchimeg; Sovd, Tugsdelger; Mason, Krystal; Baral, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzed patterns and associations of HIV testing including sexual practices, HIV related knowledge, and human rights contexts among MSM in Mongolia. 313 participants were accrued using respondent-driven sampling and administered a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are presented with crude and adjusted-point estimates with confidence intervals (95 % CI); and logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with HIV testing in the last 12 months. RDS-adjustment demonstrated that 48.9 % (95 % CI = 36.7-58.3) of MSM had an HIV test in the past 12 months. Logistic regression revealed that experience of a human rights violation, enacted (OR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.26-0.97) or perceived (OR = 0.56, 95 % CI = 0.26-0.97), was inversely associated with a recent HIV test. Higher level of education (OR = 1.84, 95 % CI = 1.14-2.99), knowledge that anal sex is highest risk for HIV infection (OR = 4.54, 95 % CI = 2.41-8.56), and having 5 or more male sexual partners (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI = 1.00-3.30), were positively associated with a recent HIV test. MSM in Mongolia are at high risk for HIV infection and coverage of HIV testing is suboptimal. Understanding the variable sexual risk practices and barriers to HIV testing are vital to designing effective and relevant HIV-status dependent HIV intervention services. PMID:23354852

  3. High Risks of HIV Transmission for Men Who Have Sex with Men — A Comparison of Risk Factors of HIV Infection among MSM Associated with Recruitment Channels in 15 Cities of China

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jinlei; Zhang, Dapeng; Fu, Xiaojing; Li, Chengmei; Meng, Sining; Dai, Min; Liu, Hui; Sun, Jiangping

    2015-01-01

    Objective While the HIV epidemic varies greatly by region and population group throughout China, the HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to rise at an alarmingly fast pace. We seek to analyze the risk factors associated with HIV infection among MSM recruited from different channels in large urban centers across China, in an attempt to shed light on the design of future targeted intervention strategies. Methods A total of 33,684 MSM from 14 cities and one province were recruited from July to December 2011. Demographic (e.g. age, marital status, education) and behavioral (e.g. condom use, HIV testing history) data were collected using information collection cards. Blood samples were also collected to test for HIV and Syphilis. Results Participants were recruited from five different channels, and all demonstrated distinct characteristics. The overall rate of positive HIV screening was 6.27% and the rate of syphilis infection was 6.50%. Participants recruited from bathhouses had the highest HIV (11.80%) and syphilis infection rates (11.20%). Participants who were infected with syphilis had the highest HIV-positive screening rate (13.75%; 95% CI OR, 2.33-3.06). living in the southwest region of the country (11.64%; OR=2.76, 95%CI OR 2.19-3.47), Being >20 years of age (P<0.001), living in the southwest region of the country (OR=2.76, 95%CI 2.19-3.47), not having sex with female over the previous 3 months (OR=1.27, 95%CI 1.09-1.48), no condom use during the last anal intercourse (OR=1.54, 95%CI 1.39-1.70) and other factors were all associated with a higher probability of having an HIV-positive test result. Conclusion Depending on the way they are recruited, more targeted interventions are required to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS among MSM with different characteristics and behaviors. Results from this study could provide evidence for researchers to conduct further studies and policy-makers to establish more effective and strategic interventions

  4. Factors Affecting the Prevalence of Strongly and Weakly Carcinogenic and Lower-Risk Human Papillomaviruses in Anal Specimens in a Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Dorothy J.; Li, Xiuhong; Hsu, Hilary; Seaberg, Eric C.; Cranston, Ross D.; Young, Stephen; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; DeAzambuja, Katherine; Chua, Kristofer; Hussain, Shehnaz K.; Detels, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background MSM are at higher risk for invasive anal cancer. Twelve human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer in women (Group 1 high-risk HPVs (hrHPVs)) and 13 HPVs are probable/possible causes (Group 2 hrHPVs) of cervical malignancy. HPVs rarely associated with malignancy are classified as lower-risk HPVs (lrHPVs). Materials and Methods Dacron-swab anal-cytology specimens were collected from and data complete for 97% (1262/1296) of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) men tested for HPVs using the Linear Array assay. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses estimated adjusted prevalence ratios for Group 1/2 hrHPVs and lrHPVs, controlling for the effects of age, race, ethnicity, sexual partnerships, smoking; HIV-infection characteristics, treatment, and immune status among HIV-infected men. Results HIV-infected men showed 35–90% higher prevalence of Group 1/2 hrHPVs and lrHPVs than HIV-uninfected men, and higher prevalence of multi-Type, and multiple risk-group infections. CD4+ T-cell count was inversely associated with HPV Group 2 prevalence (p<0.0001). The number of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) partners reported in the 24 months preceding HPV testing predicted higher prevalence of Group 1/2 hrHPVs. Men reporting ≥30 lifetime male sex partners before their first MACS visit and men reporting ≥1 RAI partners during the 24 months before HPV testing showed 17–24% and 13–17% higher prevalence of lrHPVs (p-values ≤0.05). Men reporting smoking between MACS visit 1 and 24 months before HPV testing showed 1.2-fold higher prevalence of Group 2 hrHPVs (p = 0.03). Both complete adherence to CART (p = 0.02) and HIV load <50 copies/mL (p = 0.04) were protective for Group 1 hrHPVs among HIV-infected men. Conclusions HIV-infected men more often show multi-type and multi-group HPV infections HIV-uninfected men. Long-term mutual monogamy and smoking cessation, generally, and CART-adherence that promotes (HIV) viremia control and prevents

  5. The syndemic of AIDS and STDS among MSM

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The spread of HIV and other STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been labeled a syndemic because in this population a number of different and interrelated health problems have come together and interact with one another. The various elements of the syndemic have an additive effect, each one intensifying the others. These factors include the number of infectious diseases endemic in this population, the high rate of substance abuse problems and psychological disorders, and the significant percentage of MSM who have experienced childhood sexual abuse and other adverse events. While MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV, syphilis, and other STDs, health activists from the gay community have systematically resisted the application of the full range of public health strategies traditionally used to prevent their spread. In the more than three decades since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there have been substantial advances in testing and treatment, yet the infection rate among MSM, and particularly young MSM, remains high, even as it has been dropping among other risk groups. This paper deals with the history of the syndemic, the failure of various risk reduction strategies, and treatment as prevention. PMID:24899736

  6. Case finding advantage of HIV rapid tests in community settings: men who have sex with men in 12 programme areas in China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dapeng; Qi, Jinlei; Fu, Xiaojing; Meng, Sining; Li, Chengmei; Sun, Jiangping

    2015-05-01

    We sought to describe the advantage of rapid tests over ELISA tests in community-based screening for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of China. Data of 31,406 screening tests conducted over six months in 2011 among MSM across 12 areas were analyzed to compare the differences between those receiving rapid testing and ELISA. Rapid tests accounted for 45.8% of these screening tests. The rate of being screened positive was 7.2% among rapid tests and 5.3% for ELISA tests (χ(2 )= 49.161, p < 0.001). This advantage of rapid test in HIV case finding persisted even when socio-demographic, behavioural, screening recruitment channel and city were controlled for in logistic regression (exp[beta] = 1.42, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 1.27,1.59). MSM who received rapid tests, compared with those tested by ELISA, were less likely to use condoms during last anal sex (50.8% vs. 72.3%, χ(2 )= 1706.146, p < 0.001), more likely to have multiple sex partners (55.7% vs. 49.5%, χ(2 )= 238.188, p < 0.001) and less likely to have previously undergone HIV testing (38.8% vs. 54.7%, χ(2 )= 798.476, p < 0.001). These results demonstrate the robustness of the advantage of rapid tests over traditional ELISA tests in screening for MSM with HIV infection in cooperation with community-based organizations in urban settings in China. PMID:25028452

  7. Building a Mobile HIV Prevention App for Men Who Have Sex With Men: An Iterative and Community-Driven Process

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, Sarah J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stekler, Joanne D; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) account for a disproportionate burden of new HIV infections in the United States. Mobile technology presents an opportunity for innovative interventions for HIV prevention. Some HIV prevention apps currently exist; however, it is challenging to encourage users to download these apps and use them regularly. An iterative research process that centers on the community’s needs and preferences may increase the uptake, adherence, and ultimate effectiveness of mobile apps for HIV prevention. Objective The aim of this paper is to provide a case study to illustrate how an iterative community approach to a mobile HIV prevention app can lead to changes in app content to appropriately address the needs and the desires of the target community. Methods In this three-phase study, we conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with MSM and HIV testing counselors in Atlanta, Seattle, and US rural regions to learn preferences for building a mobile HIV prevention app. We used data from these groups to build a beta version of the app and theater tested it in additional FGDs. A thematic data analysis examined how this approach addressed preferences and concerns expressed by the participants. Results There was an increased willingness to use the app during theater testing than during the first phase of FGDs. Many concerns that were identified in phase one (eg, disagreements about reminders for HIV testing, concerns about app privacy) were considered in building the beta version. Participants perceived these features as strengths during theater testing. However, some disagreements were still present, especially regarding the tone and language of the app. Conclusions These findings highlight the benefits of using an interactive and community-driven process to collect data on app preferences when building a mobile HIV prevention app. Through this process, we learned how to be inclusive of the larger MSM population without

  8. Cruising in cyber space: comparing Internet chat room versus community venues for recruiting Hispanic men who have sex with men to participate in prevention studies.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Isabel; Warren, Jacob C; Varga, Leah M; Prado, Guillermo; Hernandez, Nilda; Bowen, G Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties with recruitment of hidden populations, such as Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM), have hampered HIV prevention research, leading researchers to explore alternative recruitment modalities such as the Internet. In this paper, we compare the efficiency and cost of recruiting HMSM from Internet chat rooms versus community venues and examine the differences between participants recruited from each type of venue. Internet recruitment was more efficient and somewhat less costly than community recruitment. Although the two groups were comparable in most demographic factors and HIV risk behaviors, Internet recruits were more likely to be bisexual, more likely to be HIV seropositive, had a higher level of education, and reported higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of gay community attachment. Implications of our findings for using Internet chatrooms as recruitment venues are discussed. PMID:18192208

  9. Characteristics of Latino MSM who have sex in public settings.

    PubMed

    Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria C; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J

    2011-04-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) have sexual encounters in public places, and some data suggest that this behavior is more common among Latino than non-Hispanic white MSM in the USA. In a sample of 482 Latino MSM born in Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic, and living in the New York City metropolitan area, we examined how demographic and psychosocial characteristics are related to having sex in public venues. Logistic regression was performed with the dichotomous outcome of sex in a public place in the previous six months. Demographic variables included education, HIV-positive serostatus, unknown HIV serostatus, and years in the USA; psychosocial variables included self-efficacy for safer sex, depression, and gay community involvement. Results indicated that those individuals with unknown serostatus were more likely than those with HIV-negative serostatus to have had sex in a public setting, as were men with lower self-efficacy for safer sex. These findings suggest that the partner pool may pose some risk to men who have sex in public sex venues, and therefore, low-risk sexual practices and condom use should be promoted in such settings. Contrary to expectations, higher education was related to sex in public settings, but neither depression nor more recent immigration was. Greater involvement in the gay community was also associated with having sex in public places, which may reflect the larger social function served by gay venues such as bathhouses and bars. PMID:21271397

  10. Health-related characteristics of men who have sex with men: a comparison of those living in "gay ghettos" with those living elsewhere.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, T C; Stall, R; Pollack, L; Paul, J P; Binson, D; Canchola, J; Catania, J A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the limitations of probability samples of men who have sex with men (MSM), limited to single cities and to the areas of highest concentrations of MSM ("gay ghettos"). METHODS: A probability sample of 2881 MSM in 4 American cities completed interviews by telephone. RESULTS: MSM who resided in ghettos differed from other MSM, although in different ways in each city. Non-ghetto-dwelling MSM were less involved in the gay and lesbian community. They were also less likely to have only male sexual partners, to identify as gay, and to have been tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: These differences between MSM who live in gay ghettos and those who live elsewhere have clear implications for HIV prevention efforts and health care planning. PMID:11392945

  11. Community member perspectives from transgender women and men who have sex with men on pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention strategy: implications for implementation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An international randomized clinical trial (RCT) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-prevention intervention found that taken on a daily basis, PrEP was safe and effective among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women. Within the context of the HIV epidemic in the United States (US), MSM and transgender women are the most appropriate groups to target for PrEP implementation at the population level; however, their perspectives on evidenced-based biomedical research and the results of this large trial remain virtually unknown. In this study, we examined the acceptability of individual daily use of PrEP and assessed potential barriers to community uptake. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with an ethnoracially diverse sample of thirty HIV-negative and unknown status MSM (n = 24) and transgender women (n = 6) in three California metropolitan areas. Given the burden of disease among ethnoracial minorities in the US, we purposefully oversampled for these groups. Thematic coding and analysis of data was conducted utilizing an approach rooted in grounded theory. Results While participants expressed general interest in PrEP availability, results demonstrate: a lack of community awareness and confusion about PrEP; reservations about PrEP utilization, even when informed of efficacious RCT results; and concerns regarding equity and the manner in which a PrEP intervention could be packaged and marketed in their communities. Conclusions In order to effectively reduce HIV health disparities at the population level, PrEP implementation must take into account the uptake concerns of those groups who would actually access and use this biomedical intervention as a prevention strategy. Recommendations addressing these concerns are provided. PMID:23181780

  12. Partnering Patterns and Sexual Behavior Among Korean Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the different methods for selecting sex partners by Korean homosexuals considering factors related to homosexual identity and sexual behavior. We take the approach of the grounded theory to examine the issue of sexual partnering of men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews of urban MSM and bisexual men were conducted. The snowball sampled through a MSM portal web site. Three key informants from the several areas were collected through a MSM portal website, and then, participants were gradually recruited with the snowball samplings in South Korea, 2011 (n=32). The results of coding the interviews based on the grounded theory approach identified three types of partnering: 1) MSM who do not prefer anal intercourse, but pursue safe sex in long-term relationships with fixed partners; 2) those who have fixed partners and perform anal sex, a category into which both MSM and bisexuals fall; and 3) those engaged in anal sex, but enjoy a concurrent sexual relationship without having fixed partners, which was common among bisexuals. The findings from this study elucidate several MSM and bisexual partnering types practice safe sex. This diversity in MSM partnering may increase the vulnerability of some MSM to HIV infection as safe-sex practices remain a matter of individual choice. Changes in Korean societal policies are necessary to enhance capacity building and encourage the practice of safe sex at the community level. PMID:27347275

  13. Partnering Patterns and Sexual Behavior Among Korean Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the different methods for selecting sex partners by Korean homosexuals considering factors related to homosexual identity and sexual behavior. We take the approach of the grounded theory to examine the issue of sexual partnering of men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews of urban MSM and bisexual men were conducted. The snowball sampled through a MSM portal web site. Three key informants from the several areas were collected through a MSM portal website, and then, participants were gradually recruited with the snowball samplings in South Korea, 2011 (n=32). The results of coding the interviews based on the grounded theory approach identified three types of partnering: 1) MSM who do not prefer anal intercourse, but pursue safe sex in long-term relationships with fixed partners; 2) those who have fixed partners and perform anal sex, a category into which both MSM and bisexuals fall; and 3) those engaged in anal sex, but enjoy a concurrent sexual relationship without having fixed partners, which was common among bisexuals. The findings from this study elucidate several MSM and bisexual partnering types practice safe sex. This diversity in MSM partnering may increase the vulnerability of some MSM to HIV infection as safe-sex practices remain a matter of individual choice. Changes in Korean societal policies are necessary to enhance capacity building and encourage the practice of safe sex at the community level. PMID:27347275

  14. Who is omitted from repeated offline HIV behavioural surveillance among MSM? Implications for interpreting trends.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter; Dickson, Nigel; Hughes, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Repeated behavioural surveillance should sample all epidemiologically relevant subgroups to provide a complete picture of trends in HIV risk behaviours. Web-based recruitment has been mooted but little empirical data exist on country experiences. We describe who is omitted from three rounds of a conventional offline-only surveillance programme among men who have sex with men (MSM) 2006-2011, but recruited subsequently on Internet dating sites, and the implications of this for understanding trends. The latter were younger, less gay identified and less gay community attached. Importantly, they reported different partnering patterns, lower condom use with casual and fuckbuddy-type male partners, and lower rates of HIV testing, compared to MSM routinely captured in offline surveillance. The replacement of offline socio-sexual activity by the Internet among many MSM means that current venue-based surveillance systems may underestimate risk behaviours, overlook trends among unsampled online MSM, and misinterpret trends observed in sampled MSM due to "sample drift" of most-at-risk MSM. PMID:23605157

  15. An updated protocol to detect invalid entries in an online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM): how do valid and invalid submissions compare?

    PubMed

    Grey, Jeremy A; Konstan, Joseph; Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Galos, Dylan; Rosser, B R Simon

    2015-10-01

    Researchers use protocols to screen for suspicious survey submissions in online studies. We evaluated how well a de-duplication and cross-validation process detected invalid entries. Data were from the Sexually Explicit Media Study, an Internet-based HIV prevention survey of men who have sex with men. Using our protocol, 146 (11.6 %) of 1254 entries were identified as invalid. Most indicated changes to the screening questionnaire to gain entry (n = 109, 74.7 %), matched other submissions' payment profiles (n = 56, 41.8 %), or featured an IP address that was recorded previously (n = 43, 29.5 %). We found few demographic or behavioral differences between valid and invalid samples, however. Invalid submissions had lower odds of reporting HIV testing in the past year (OR 0.63), and higher odds of requesting no payment compared to check payments (OR 2.75). Thus, rates of HIV testing would have been underestimated if invalid submissions had not been removed, and payment may not be the only incentive for invalid participation. PMID:25805443

  16. Depression and Oral FTC/TDF Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men (MSM/TGW).

    PubMed

    Defechereux, Patricia A; Mehrotra, Megha; Liu, Albert Y; McMahan, Vanessa M; Glidden, David V; Mayer, Kenneth H; Vargas, Lorena; Amico, K Rivet; Chodacki, Piotr; Fernandez, Telmo; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Burns, David; Grant, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of depressive symptomology in iPrEx, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily, oral FTC/TDF HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in men and transgender women who have sex with men. Depression-related adverse events (AEs) were the most frequently reported severe or life-threatening AEs and were not associated with being randomized to the FTC/TDF arm (152 vs. 144 respectively OR 0.66 95 % CI 0.35-1.25). Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and a four questions suicidal ideation scale scores did not differ by arm. Participants reporting forced sex at anal sexual debut had higher CES-D scores (coeff: 3.23; 95 % CI 1.24-5.23) and were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR 2.2; 95 % CI 1.09-4.26). CES-D scores were higher among people reporting non-condom receptive anal intercourse (ncRAI) (OR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.09-1.94). We recommend continuing PrEP during periods of depression in conjunction with provision of mental health services. PMID:26078115

  17. Gay men and ambivalence about 'gay community': from gay community attachment to personal communities.

    PubMed

    Holt, Martin

    2011-09-01

    The concept of 'gay community', and gay men's attachment to and involvement in gay community activities, has held both a symbolic and practical role in understanding and guiding responses to HIV in developed world contexts. In the West, the HIV epidemic has disproportionately affected gay men. Being involved in and connected to gay community activities (what, in Australia, is described as 'gay community attachment') predicted the adoption of safe sex practices. However, the meaning of gay community is changing. This presents a challenge to those working in HIV prevention. With reference to previous research, the meaning of gay community is analysed in qualitative interviews conducted with Australian gay men. The interview data indicate that gay men are often ambivalent about gay communities, suggesting a need for subtlety in the ways we think about and address gay men in HIV education and health promotion. The concept of 'personal communities' may better reflect the ways in which gay men engage with each other and their social networks. Recognising and responding to the changing nature of gay life will ensure that the flexibility and pragmatism of HIV programmes aimed at gay men are maintained. PMID:21644116

  18. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  19. Correlates of internalized homonegativity among black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Kelly, Jeffrey A; St Lawrence, Janet S; Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Broaddus, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States. Such disparities cannot be attributed to individual behavioral risk factors alone, prompting the exploration of social and contextual factors experienced by minority MSM. Societal homonegativity and the internalization of those attitudes by Black MSM may play an important role in understanding racial and ethnic disparities in HIV incidence and prevalence. This study explores the correlates of internalized homonegativity in a large multi-site sample of Black MSM. Findings reveal a number of significant contextual and psychosocial factors related to internalized homonegativity including religiosity, resilience, and gay community acculturation, which have important implications for HIV risk, HIV testing, and social and psychological wellbeing for Black MSM. PMID:26010313

  20. Correlates of internalized homonegativity among black men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lawrence, Janet S.; Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Broaddus, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States. Such disparities cannot be attributed to individual behavioral risk factors alone, prompting the exploration of social and contextual factors experienced by minority MSM. Societal homonegativity and the internalization of those attitudes by Black MSM may play an important role in understanding racial and ethnic disparities in HIV incidence and prevalence. This study explores the correlates of internalized homonegativity in a large multi-site sample of Black MSM. Findings reveal a number of significant contextual and psychosocial factors related to internalized homonegativity including religiosity, resilience, and gay community acculturation, which have important implications for HIV risk, HIV testing, and social and psychological wellbeing for Black MSM. PMID:26010313

  1. Intimate partner, familial and community violence among men who have sex with men in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113

  2. Intimate partner, familial and community violence among men who have sex with men in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113

  3. Sex hustling, injection drug use, and non-gay identification by men who have sex with men. Associations with high-risk sexual behaviors and condom use.

    PubMed

    Rietmeijer, C A; Wolitski, R J; Fishbein, M; Corby, N H; Cohn, D L

    1998-08-01

    With HIV incidence rates as high as 0.7-2.4% per year, men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for half of all AIDS cases and 43% of non-AIDS HIV cases among men reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996. Subgroups of MSM who are at particular risk of HIV infection, such as MSM who inject drugs, MSM who have sex in exchange for money or drugs (hustlers), and non-gay-identified MSM, may be less likely to be reached by HIV/AIDS prevention messages targeted at the broader MSM community. Sex behavior-related data were collected from 1290 MSM recruited in Denver and Long Beach from gay bars and bath houses, adult video arcades, and outdoor cruising areas between September 1993 and June 1994. The 531 MSM sampled in Denver and 759 in Long Beach reported having had sex with a man during the preceding year. 417 (32%) were non-gay-identified, 86 (7%) had injected drugs in the past 6 months, and 117 (9%) had exchanged sex for drugs or money. 10% of non-gay-identified men identified themselves as being straight. Of drug-injecting MSM and hustlers, 19% and 13%, respectively, were straight-identified. Detailed information on HIV testing and serostatus, number of partners, and sex practices, including condom use, was available for the 482 men who had reported anal or oral sex with a man or who had injected drugs in the past 30 days. 55% of drug-injecting MSM reported sex hustling and 40% of hustlers reported IV drug use. Hustling was associated with a higher number of sex partners, more frequent anal sex with men and women, and less frequent condom use during anal sex with occasional male partners. Hustlers and drug-injecting MSM used condoms less consistently during vaginal intercourse with female partners than did other MSM. PMID:9713915

  4. Men who have sex with men in India: A diverse population in need of medical attention

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Viraj V.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Makadon, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    A significant proportion of men engage in sexual relationships with other men which has direct health implications, but the unique health care needs of these patients are often ignored or overlooked. Moreover, due to a fear of stigmatization by the medical community, one of the more significant health risks for men who have sex with men (MSM) may be that they avoid routine or appropriate health care. Physicians and other providers can help overcome this barrier and improve the health care of MSM by keeping a non-judgmental attitude toward these patients, differentiating sexual behaviour from sexual identity, communicating with gender neutral terms, and maintaining awareness of how their own attitudes affect clinical judgment. The purpose of this article is to help contextualize health issues affecting MSM and provide a framework for physicians and other providers to deliver optimum and appropriate health care for men who have sex with men in India. PMID:23168696

  5. HPV Infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Yin, Yue-Ping; Feng, Tie-Jian; Hong, Fu-Chang; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Bao-Xi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among this group. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001). Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P = 0.001). The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%), HPV16 (7.2%), HPV11 (6.4%), HPV18 (4.7%), HPV58 (4.7%), and HPV52 (4.2%). Conclusions In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18). PMID:24801331

  6. Partner Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Potential Contribution to Spread of HIV Within Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Hammond, Sydney; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Most prior research into drivers of HIV transmission has focused on individual characteristics rather than on dyadic-level behaviors such as sex partner selection. This article explores racial/ethnic preferences in sex and relationship partner selection among MSM to further contextualize the spread of HIV within minority groups. Methods: Participants were recruited through a mobile application (app) for men to meet other men in 2015 and completed an online survey on behaviors related to HIV risk. All analyses on the sample of 530 MSM were conducted in 2015. Results: There was significant homophily in partner selection within racial/ethnic minorities, but not for white MSM. In general, mobile app-using MSM reported a general preference for white and Hispanic men and a dispreference for black and Asian men, both for sex and relationship partners. Conclusion: Racial/ethnic preferences were found to drive intentions to form partnerships within this sample. Combined with the stigma many of these racial/ethnic minorities may also feel from homophobic attitudes within their own racial/ethnic communities, these MSM may be at particular risk for social isolation. These partner preferences likely affect the structure of the sexual networks of MSM and may contribute to increased clustering within high HIV incident sexual networks. PMID:26907954

  7. HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM: a cross-sectional comparison study in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Internal migration plays a significant role in China’s HIV epidemic. However, few studies have directly compared migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) with local MSM with regard to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risks. Methods. We conducted a study in Guangzhou, China, with the aim of understanding the differences in HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 273 migrant MSM and 249 local MSM in Guangzhou, China. Their behavioral and serologic data on HIV/syphilis were collected and compared between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between HIV/STIs risks and migratory status. Results. Migrant MSM, compared to local MSM, have higher odds of reporting unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (OR = 1.4; 95% CI [0.9–2.0]) and having multiple homosexual partners (OR = 1.2; 95% CI [0.8–1.8]). A lower rate of condom use at homosexual debut was reported in migrant MSM than in local MSM (OR = 0.7; 95% CI [0.5–0.9]). Migrant MSM have less odds of reporting HIV/STIs testing in the previous 6 months relative to local MSM (OR = 0.5; 95% CI [0.4–0.8]). In addition, migrant MSM demonstrated a lower level of HIV knowledge than local MSM (OR = 0.4; 95% CI [0.2–0.8]). Conclusion. Migrant MSM are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors, report a lower level of HIV knowledge and have less access to HIV/STIs testing. Further comprehensive interventions targeting migrant MSM are urged. PMID:27478695

  8. HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM: a cross-sectional comparison study in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Li, Pengsheng; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Internal migration plays a significant role in China's HIV epidemic. However, few studies have directly compared migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) with local MSM with regard to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risks. Methods. We conducted a study in Guangzhou, China, with the aim of understanding the differences in HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 273 migrant MSM and 249 local MSM in Guangzhou, China. Their behavioral and serologic data on HIV/syphilis were collected and compared between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between HIV/STIs risks and migratory status. Results. Migrant MSM, compared to local MSM, have higher odds of reporting unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (OR = 1.4; 95% CI [0.9-2.0]) and having multiple homosexual partners (OR = 1.2; 95% CI [0.8-1.8]). A lower rate of condom use at homosexual debut was reported in migrant MSM than in local MSM (OR = 0.7; 95% CI [0.5-0.9]). Migrant MSM have less odds of reporting HIV/STIs testing in the previous 6 months relative to local MSM (OR = 0.5; 95% CI [0.4-0.8]). In addition, migrant MSM demonstrated a lower level of HIV knowledge than local MSM (OR = 0.4; 95% CI [0.2-0.8]). Conclusion. Migrant MSM are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors, report a lower level of HIV knowledge and have less access to HIV/STIs testing. Further comprehensive interventions targeting migrant MSM are urged. PMID:27478695

  9. Space: The New Frontier in HIV Prevention for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Delia; Iverson, Ellen; Cribbin, Melissa; Wilson, Erin; Weiss, George

    2007-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of the United States continue to be vulnerable to HIV infection. Qualitative data collected with participants in a community level HIV intervention in West Hollywood and Orange County, California, suggest that space--both actual physical space and the concept of having space--should be an…

  10. The relationship of stigma to the sexual risk behavior of rural men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Preston, Deborah Bray; D'Augelli, Anthony R; Kassab, Cathy D; Starks, Michael T

    2007-06-01

    Most studies of risky sexual behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) have been conducted in cities. Few have documented risky sexual behavior of rural men despite increases in rural HIV. Fewer have addressed stigma and risk. This study explored the effects of stigma on sexual risk behavior among rural MSM. We hypothesized that stigma emanating from families, health care providers, and the communities of rural MSM would indirectly affect their sexual risk behavior through their mental health status, specifically self-esteem and internalized homophobia. A convenience sample of 414 rural MSM obtained through political, health service, and social organizations completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Over half of the men reported high-risk sexual behavior. Sensation seeking directly affected levels of sexual risk while the effects of stigma on sexual risk behavior were mediated by mental health variables. Stigma related to respondents' low self-esteem, and low internalized homophobia increased risk behavior. PMID:17563276

  11. Substance use and experienced stigmatization among ethnic minority men who have sex with men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steve; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented deleterious effects of racism among ethnic minorities and of homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about the impact of multiple forms of stigmatization on ethnic minority MSM. This study examined substance use by African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino MSM, and the associations of experienced racism and homophobia from various sources with polydrug use and stimulant drug use. Experienced racism within the general community was associated with higher levels of use; other forms of discrimination were either not associated with polydrug or stimulant use or had more complex relationships with use. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed. PMID:25397640

  12. Sexual identity stigma and social support among men who have sex with men in Lesotho: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Bechtold, Kali; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) face sexual identity stigma in many settings, which can increase risk for HIV by limiting access to care. This paper examines the roles of social support, sexual identity stigma, and sexual identity disclosure among MSM in Lesotho, a lower-middle income country within South Africa. Qualitative data were collected from 23 in-depth interview and six focus group participants and content analysis was performed to extract themes. Four primary themes emerged: 1) Verbal abuse from the broader community is a major challenge faced by MSM in Lesotho, 2) participants who were open about their sexual identity experienced greater stigma but were more self-sufficient and had higher self-confidence, 3) relationships between MSM tend to be conducted in secrecy, which can be associated with unhealthy relationships between male couples and higher risk sexual practices, and 4) MSM community organisations provide significant social and emotional support. Friends and family members from outside the MSM community also offer social support, but this support cannot be utilised by MSM until the risk of disclosing their sexual identity is reduced. Greater acceptance of same-sex practices would likely result in more open, healthy relationships and greater access to social support for MSM. PMID:26719004

  13. An Exploratory Assessment of the Validity of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM): Implications for Serving Veteran Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Garza, Thomas; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) assesses predictors of student success for historically underrepresented and underserved men in community colleges. The instrument is designed to inform programming and service-delivery for male students (Wood & Harris, 2013). While the instrument was designed for community college men in general,…

  14. High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in anal and pharyngeal sites among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Segundo R; Segura, Eddy R; Konda, Kelika A; Flores, Juan A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. Setting Cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru. Participants We recruited a group of 510 MSM and 208 TW for a subsequent community-based randomised controlled trial. The presence of CT and NG were evaluated using Aptima Combo2 in pharyngeal and anal swabs. We also explored correlates of these infections. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Study end points included overall prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in anal and pharyngeal sites. Results Overall prevalence of CT was 19% (95% CI 16.1% to 22.1%) and 4.8% (95% CI 3.3% to 6.6%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively, while prevalence of NG was 9.6% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.0%) and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8% to 8.5%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of each infection declined significantly among participants older than 34 years (p<0.05). Efforts towards prevention and treatment of extraurogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infections in high-risk populations like MSM and TW in Lima, Peru, are warranted. Trial registration number NCT00670163; Results. PMID:26739719

  15. The Relationship Between Online Social Network Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Sero-Status Among a Sample of Predominately African American and Latino Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) Social Media Users.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Social networking technologies have emerged as potential platforms to reach HIV(+) MSM in HIV interventions. This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNSs) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(-) individuals among a sample of predominately African American and Latino SNS-using MSM. A total of 112 MSM Facebook users were recruited online and offline and completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for age, race, and employment status, being HIV positive was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners (ARR = 2.84, p = 0.0017) and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status on SNSs (AOR: 0.23, p = 0.011). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among SNS-using MSM. We discuss the implications for online HIV prevention. PMID:25572831

  16. Community Context and Men's Control-Seeking in Intimate Relationships.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, M Pippin

    2015-01-01

    This study explores social-ecological influences on men's control-seeking in intimate relationships with women. Desire for control is central to the battered women's movement and is incorporated into intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention work. Recent IPV scholarship re-focuses on control, but the role of community contexts is underdeveloped. Community contexts have been associated with men's risk for IPV and evidence supports that social ecology facilitates IPV against women. Given the importance of the social ecology to control in IPV, this study examines community contexts that influence men's control-seeking of women partners. The sample comprised 2,342 in-state, male undergraduate students who completed a cross-sectional survey at a public university. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear modeling. Results support a connection between county contexts and men's control-seeking toward women partners. Implications for IPV research and practice are discussed. PMID:26300340

  17. Social and Behavioral Characteristics of HIV-positive MSM Who Trade Sex for Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research among drug-using men who have sex with men (MSM) indicates that trading sex for methamphetamine may be common. Objectives This study identified background characteristics, substance use variables, contextual factors, and sexual risk behaviors associated with trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-positive MSM. Baseline data were gathered from 155 participants who were enrolled in a sexual risk-reduction intervention. Logistic regression was used to compare MSM who traded sex for methamphetamine with men who did not. Results Forty-three percent of the sample reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past 2 months. Trading sex for methamphetamine was associated with being a binge user, homelessness, having an income of less than $20,000 per year, being less assertive at turning down drugs, engaging in more anal sex without a condom, and seeking out risky sex partners when high on methamphetamine. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These data suggest that the trading of sex for methamphetamine may be a primary source of new HIV infections within and outside of the MSM community, necessitating targeted interventions with this vulnerable subgroup. PMID:20955106

  18. HIV-infected men who have sex with men, before and after release from jail: the impact of age and race, results from a multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Vagenas, Panagiotis; Zelenev, Alexei; Altice, Frederick L; Di Paola, Angela; Jordan, Alison O; Teixeira, Paul A; Frew, Paula M; Spaulding, Anne C; Springer, Sandra A

    2016-01-01

    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Black men are disproportionately affected by incarceration and Black MSM experience higher infection rates and worse HIV-related health outcomes compared to non-Black MSM. We compared HIV treatment outcomes for Black MSM to other HIV-infected men from one of the largest cohorts of HIV-infected jail detainees (N = 1270) transitioning to the community. Of the 574 HIV-infected men released, 113 (19.7%) self-identified as being MSM. Compared to other male subgroups, young Black MSM (<30 years old, N = 18) were significantly less likely: (1) before incarceration, to have insurance, access to an HIV healthcare provider, and use cocaine; (2) during incarceration, to receive a disease management intervention; and (3) in the 6 months post-release, to link to HIV care. Interventions that effectively link and retain young HIV-infected Black MSM in care in communities before incarceration and post-release from jail are urgently needed. PMID:26275122

  19. Young, Online and in the Dark: Scaling Up HIV Testing among MSM in ASEAN

    PubMed Central

    Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Cheung, Doug H.; Wei, Chongyi; Koe, Stuart; Lim, Sin How

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor HIV testing uptake by MSM may be attributable to unique challenges that are localized in Southeast Asia. Objective To characterize MSM who never tested for HIV, to identify correlates of never testing, and to elucidate the perceived barriers to HIV testing. Methods The present study used data from the Asian Internet MSM Sex Survey (AIMSS) and restricted the analysis to 4,310 MSM from the ten member countries of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Results Among MSM participants from ASEAN in our sample, 1290 (29.9%) reported having never been tested for HIV, 471 (10.9%) tested for HIV more than 2 years ago, and 2186 (50.7%) reported their last test date was between 6 months and two years ago, with only 363 (8.4%) of these men having been tested in the past 6 months. In multivariable logistic regression, younger MSM (age 15–22 years old [AOR: 4.60, 95% CI: 3.04–6.96]), MSM with lower education (secondary school or lower [AOR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.03–1.83]), MSM who identify as bisexual or heterosexual (compared to gay-identified) (AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.60–2.35), and MSM who had never used a condom with male partners (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.32–1.97) had higher odds of never been HIV tested. Main reason for not being tested was a low risk perception of HIV exposure (n = 390, 30.2%). Conclusion Current HIV prevention response must not leave MSM “in the dark,” but instead meet them where they are by utilizing the Internet creatively through social media and smart phones. As ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is quickly becoming a reality, so must there be an equally fast and united response to slowing down the HIV epidemics among MSM in ASEAN. PMID:25973907

  20. Demographic and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Risk among Men and Transgender Women Recruited from Gay Entertainment Venues and Community-based Organizations in Thailand: Implications for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2012-01-01

    High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Thailand suggest a vital need for targeted interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to examine and compare sexual risk behaviors, and demographic and behavioral correlates of risk, among MSM and transgender women recruited from gay entertainment venue staff and community-based organization (CBO) participants. We used venue-based sampling across nine sites in Bangkok and Chiang Mai. Among 260 participants (57.3% gay-identified, 26.9% heterosexual/bisexual-identified, 15.8% transgender; mean age=26.7 years), nearly one-fifth (18.5%) reported unprotected anal sex (UAS), half (50.4%) sex in exchange for money, and one-fifth (20.0%) STI diagnosis (past year). Nearly one-fourth (23.1%) reported oral erectile dysfunction medication use and nearly one-fifth (19.2%) illicit drug use (past 3 months). Overall, 43.1% indicated that healthcare providers exhibited hostility towards them. Gay entertainment venue staff were significantly more likely to self-identify as heterosexual/bisexual (versus gay or transgender female), and to have less than high school degree education, higher monthly income, to have engaged in sex in exchange for money, sex with women and unprotected vaginal sex, but were significantly less likely to have engaged in UAS than CBO participants. Targeted interventions for younger MSM and transgender women, for non gay-identified men, and strategies to address structural determinants of risk, including low education and discrimination from healthcare providers, may support HIV prevention among MSM and transgender women, and serve broader national HIV prevention efforts in Thailand. PMID:22528046

  1. What is the potential impact of adult circumcision on the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in San Francisco?

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongyi; Raymond, H Fisher; McFarland, Willi; Buchbinder, Susan; Fuchs, Jonathan D

    2011-04-01

    With the help of a community-based survey, we assess the potential effect of circumcision on the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco. Only a small minority of MSM would both derive benefit from circumcision (i.e., were uncircumcised, HIV-negative, predominantly insertive, and reported unprotected insertive anal sex) and be willing to participate in circumcision trials (0.7%) or be circumcised if proven effective as a prevention strategy (0.9%). Circumcision would have limited public health significance for MSM in San Francisco. PMID:21085057

  2. weCARE: A Social Media-Based Intervention Designed to Increase HIV Care Linkage, Retention, and Health Outcomes for Racially and Ethnically Diverse Young MSM.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amanda E; Mann, Lilli; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Schafer, Katherine; Arellano, Elías; Garcia, Jesus M; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-06-01

    Estimates suggest that only about 30% of all individuals living with HIV in the U.S. have achieved viral suppression. Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly racial/ethnic minority young MSM, are at increased risk for HIV infection and may have even lower viral suppression rates. HIV testing rates among MSM are low, and when tested, racial/ethnic minority young MSM have disproportionately lower rates of retention in care and viral suppression compared to other subgroups. This article describes the design and development of weCare, our social media-based intervention to improve care linkage and retention and health outcomes among racially and ethnically diverse MSM, ages 13-34, living with HIV that will be implemented and evaluated beginning in late 2016. The intervention harnesses established social media that MSM between these ages commonly use, including Facebook, text messaging, and established GPS-based mobile applications (apps). We are using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to enhance the quality and validity of weCare, equitably involving community members, organization representatives, healthcare providers, clinic staff, and academic researchers. PMID:27244190

  3. Gym exercising patterns, lifestyle and high-risk sexual behaviour in men who have sex with men and in heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Z; Parfionov, K; Davidovitch, N; Grotto, I

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lifestyle may be associated with risk behaviours. This study compares gym exercise and sexual risk behaviour between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men. The research was based on the assumption that men who become muscular and physically attractive increase their number of sex partners and consequently their risk of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Setting Five gyms in central Tel Aviv, Israel. Participants In 2012, a sample of 182 (48%) MSM and 197 (52%) heterosexual men who train in gyms completed anonymous questionnaires regarding their training, health and sexual behaviours. Outcomes Participants in this cross-sectional study who exercised more than the median number of anaerobic training hours were defined as performing intensive anaerobic training (IAT), and those who had performed more than one act of unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse in the preceding 6 months with a partner whose HIV status was unknown were defined as high risk. Results MSM showed a stronger desire to become muscular than heterosexual men, were more likely to perform IAT, and used protein powders or anabolic steroids. They reported that improving their body shape and increasing their self-confidence were their main reasons for training, whereas heterosexual men indicated weight loss and health improvement as the main reasons for training. MSM engaged in riskier sexual behaviour than heterosexual men. Of all the high-risk men, 61.9% (N=70) performed IAT, while 38.1% (N=43) performed moderate anaerobic training (p<0.01). The association between IAT and sexual risk was stronger in MSM than in heterosexual men (p<0.01 vs p=0.05, respectively). The interaction between MSM and IAT in high-risk participants was multiplicative. Conclusions MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association

  4. A qualitative assessment of health seeking practices among and provision practices for men who have sex with men in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of a generalized epidemic and criminalization of homosexuality, men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi have a disproportionate burden of HIV compared to other adults. Past research has documented low uptake of HIV prevention and health services among MSM, self-reported fear of seeking health services, and concerns of disclosure of sexual orientation and discrimination in health settings. Qualitative research was conducted among MSM and health service providers in Blantyre, Malawi to understand underlying factors related to disclosure and health seeking behaviors and inform the development of a community-based comprehensive HIV prevention intervention. Methods Using peer recruitment, eight MSM participants representing a range of ages, orientations, and social and behavioral characteristics were enrolled for in-depth interviews. Five service providers were recruited from the district hospital, local health and STI clinics, and a HIV prevention service organization. We use the Health Belief Model as a framework to interpret the influential factors on 1) health seeking and uptake among MSM, and 2) influences on provision of services by healthcare providers for MSM. Results Results highlight disclosure fears among MSM and, among providers, a lack of awareness and self-efficacy to provide care in the face of limited information and political support. Service providers reported concerns of adverse repercussions related to the provision of services to men in same sex sexual relationships. Some MSM demonstrated awareness of HIV risk but believed that within the wider MSM community, there was a general lack of HIV information for MSM, low awareness of appropriate prevention, and low perception of risks related to HIV infection. Conclusions Qualitative research highlights the need for appropriate information on both HIV risks and acceptable, effective HIV prevention options for MSM. Information and educational opportunities should be available to

  5. Discussion of HIV Status by Serostatus and Partnership Sexual Risk among Internet-Using MSM in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Amy K.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Khosropour, Christine M.; Rosenberg, Eli S.

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly black MSM, are disproportionally infected with HIV. Little is known about how discussion of HIV status between partners varies among MSM by race/ethnicity, and by HIV transmission risk. Among a national survey of 2,031 MSM reporting 5,410 partnerships, black MSM, especially black HIV-positive MSM, serodiscussed with UAI partners less than did white MSM. Although non-black HIV-positive, non-black HIV-negative MSM, and black HIV-negative MSM were more likely to report serodiscussion with UAI partners, black HIV-positive MSM were not. Differential serodiscussion may play a role in explaining the racial/ethnic disparity in HIV incidence. PMID:22549381

  6. The global response to HIV in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D; Collins, Chris; Richardson, Eugene T; Sullivan, Patrick S; Sanchez, Jorge; Trapence, Gift; Katabira, Elly; Kazatchkine, Michel; Ryan, Owen; Wirtz, Andrea L; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to have disproportionately high burdens of HIV infection in countries of low, middle, and high income in 2016. 4 years after publication of a Lancet Series on MSM and HIV, progress on reducing HIV incidence, expanding sustained access to treatment, and realising human rights gains for MSM remains markedly uneven and fraught with challenges. Incidence densities in MSM are unacceptably high in countries as diverse as China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and the USA, with substantial disparities observed in specific communities of MSM including young and minority populations. Although some settings have achieved sufficient coverage of treatment, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and human rights protections for sexual and gender minorities to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic in MSM, these are exceptions. The roll-out of PrEP has been notably slow and coverage nowhere near what will be required for full use of this new preventive approach. Despite progress on issues such as marriage equality and decriminalisation of same-sex behaviour in some countries, there has been a marked increase in anti-gay legislation in many countries, including Nigeria, Russia, and The Gambia. The global epidemic of HIV in MSM is ongoing, and global efforts to address it remain insufficient. This must change if we are ever to truly achieve an AIDS-free generation. PMID:27411880

  7. COBA-Cohort: a prospective cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men, attending community-based HIV testing services in five European countries (a study protocol)

    PubMed Central

    Fernàndez-López, Laura; Fuertes, Ricardo; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Pichon, François; Cigan, Bojan; Chanos, Sophocles; Meireles, Paula; Morel, Stéphane; Slaaen Kaye, Per; Agustí, Cristina; Klavs, Irena; Casabona, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Community-based voluntary counselling and testing (CBVCT) services for men who have sex with men (MSM) can reach those most-at-risk and provide an environment for gay men that is likely to be non-stigmatising. Longitudinal data on the behaviour of HIV-negative MSM are scarce in Europe. The aim of this protocol, developed during the Euro HIV Early Diagnosis And Treatment (EDAT) project, is to implement a multicentre community-based cohort of HIV-negative MSM attending 15 CBVCT services in 5 European countries. Research objectives (1) To describe the patterns of CBVCT use, (2) to estimate HIV incidence, and to identify determinants of (3) HIV seroconversion and (4) HIV and/or sexually transmitted infection (STI) test-seeking behaviour. Methods and analysis All MSM aged 18 years or over and who had a negative HIV test result are invited to participate in the COmmunity-BAsed Cohort (COBA-Cohort). Study enrolment started in February 2015, and is due to continue for at least 12 months at each study site. Follow-up frequency depends on the testing recommendations in each country (at least 1 test per year). Sociodemographic data are collected at baseline; baseline and follow-up questionnaires both gather data on attitudes and perceptions, discrimination, HIV/STI testing history, sexual behaviour, condom use, and pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Descriptive, exploratory and multivariate analyses will be performed to address the main research objectives of this study, using appropriate statistical tests and models. These analyses will be performed on the whole cohort data and stratified by study site or country. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Public Health authorities of each country where the study is being implemented. Findings from the COBA-Cohort study will be summarised in a report to the European Commission, and in leaflets to be distributed to study participants. Articles and conference abstracts will be submitted to peer

  8. “If You Tell People That You Had Sex with a Fellow Man, It Is Hard to Be Helped and Treated”: Barriers and Opportunities for Increasing Access to HIV Services among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wanyenze, Rhoda K.; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Kiguli, Juliet; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Musinguzi, Joshua; Arinaitwe, Jim; Wagner, Glenn J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the high HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about their access to HIV services. This study assessed barriers and opportunities for expanding access to HIV services among MSM in Uganda. Methods In October-December 2013, a cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in 12 districts of Uganda. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 85 self-identified MSM by snowball sampling and 61 key informants including HIV service providers and policy makers. Data were analysed using manifest content analysis and Atlas.ti software. Results Three quarters of the MSM (n = 62, 72.9%) were not comfortable disclosing their sexual orientation to providers and 69 (81.1%) felt providers did not respect MSM. Half (n = 44, 51.8%) experienced difficulties in accessing health services. Nine major barriers to access were identified, including: (i) unwelcoming provider behaviours; (ii) limited provider skills and knowledge; (iii) negative community perceptions towards MSM; (iv) fear of being exposed as MSM; (v) limited access to MSM-specific services; (vi) high mobility of MSM, (vii) lack of guidelines on MSM health services; viii) a harsh legal environment; and ix) HIV related stigma. Two-thirds (n = 56, 66%) participated in MSM social networks and 86% of these (48) received support from the networks to overcome barriers to accessing services. Conclusions Negative perceptions among providers and the community present barriers to service access among MSM. Guidelines, provider skills building and use of social networks for mobilization and service delivery could expand access to HIV services among MSM in Uganda. PMID:26808653

  9. A Census Tract–Level Examination of Social Determinants of Health among Black/African American Men with Diagnosed HIV Infection, 2005–2009—17 US Areas

    PubMed Central

    Gant, Zanetta; Gant, Larry; Song, Ruiguang; Willis, Leigh; Johnson, Anna Satcher

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV disproportionately affects black men in the United States: most diagnoses are for black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM). A better understanding of the social conditions in which black men live and work may better explain why HIV incidence and diagnosis rates are higher than expected in this population. Methods Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey, we examined the relationships of HIV diagnosis rates and 5 census tract–level social determinants of health variables for 21,948 black MSM and non-MSM aged ≥15 years residing in 17 areas in the United States. We examined federal poverty status, marital status, education level, employment status, and vacancy status and computed rate ratios (RRs) and prevalence odds ratios (PORs), using logistic regression with zero-inflated negative binomial modeling. Results Among black MSM, HIV diagnosis rates decreased as poverty increased (RR: 0.54). At the time of HIV diagnosis, black MSM were less likely than black non-MSM to live in census tracts with a higher proportion below the poverty level (POR: 0.81) and with a higher proportion of vacant houses (POR: 0.86). In comparison, housing vacancy was positively associated with HIV diagnosis rates among black non-MSM (RR: 1.65). HIV diagnosis rates were higher for black MSM (RR: 2.75) and non-MSM (RR: 4.90) whose educational level was low. Rates were significantly lower for black MSM (RR: 0.06) and non-MSM (RR: 0.26) as the proportion unemployed and the proportion married increased. Conclusions This exploratory study found differences in the patterns of HIV diagnosis rates for black MSM and non-MSM and provides insight into the transmission of HIV infection in areas that reflect substantial disadvantage in education, housing, employment, and income. PMID:25268831

  10. The Lisbon Cohort of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Paula; Lucas, Raquel; Martins, Ana; Carvalho, Ana Cláudia; Fuertes, Ricardo; Brito, João; Campos, Maria José; Mendão, Luís; Barros, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Newly diagnosed HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) are rising in many European countries. Surveillance tools must be tailored to the current state of the epidemic, and include decentralised prospective monitoring of HIV incidence and behavioural changes in key populations. In this scenario, an open prospective cohort study was assembled—The Lisbon Cohort of MSM—aiming to dynamically monitor the frequency of disease and its predictors. Participants The Lisbon Cohort of MSM is an ongoing observational prospective study conducted at a community-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing centre in Lisbon, Portugal (CheckpointLX). Men testing negative for HIV, aged 18 or over and reporting having had sex with men are invited to follow-up visits every 6 months. At each evaluation, a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire is conducted, and HIV and syphilis rapid tests are performed by trained peer counsellors. From April 2011 to February 2014, 3106 MSM were eligible to the cohort of whom 923 (29.7%) did not participate. The remaining 2183 (70.3%) MSM were enrolled and 804 had at least one follow-up evaluation, for a total of 893 person-years of observation. Future plans The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. The follow-up of this cohort of HIV-negative MSM will be a valuable tool for monitoring HIV incidence in a setting where limited prospective information existed. Moreover, it will allow for a deeper analytical approach to the study of population time trends and individual changes in risk factors that currently shape the HIV epidemic among MSM. PMID:25967995

  11. Predictors of reporting bareback sex among a diverse sample of MSM recruited through a Swedish website.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rigmor C; Tikkanen, Ronny; Ross, Michael W

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to understand how person, health and sexual behavior, HIV-risk cognitions, and gay community involvement relate to barebacking among 3634 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited by way of the Swedish website QX.se. In this sample, 10% reported that they had engaged in barebacking in the past year. Variables found to be statistically significant in the bivariate analyses were incorporated into a logistic regression domain-specific model. Variables that remained significantly associated with barebacking in domain 1 were being HIV-positive and having had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past year. The variable talked with someone in HIV services remained significant in domain 2, and for domain 3, the variable used the Internet to look for a bareback partner remained significant. Two variables, believing taking semen in one's mouth involves no or low risk of HIV transmission and believing that engaging in insertive unprotected anal intercourse (IUAI) involves no or low risk of HIV transmission, remained significant in domain 4. The final multivariate regression analysis included six variables (from domains 1 to 4) and had a significant fit (χ (2)(6) = 2.571, p=0.958). The likelihood of engaging in barebacking was higher for those men who reported being HIV-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 2.77), having had an STI in the past year (OR = 1.67), and having used the Internet to look for a bareback partner (OR = 12.59). This first study to explore the predictors of bareback sex among a Nordic MSM sample suggests that bareback sex among northern European MSM is less common than among other samples. The findings reconfirm that MSM who engage in bareback sex may represent a unique subset of MSM with distinct HIV prevention needs. PMID:22117126

  12. Assessing appearance-related disturbances in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM): psychometrics of the body change and distress questionnaire-short form (ABCD-SF).

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Wilson, Johannes M; Baker, Joshua S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    Appearance-related disturbances are common among HIV-infected MSM; however, to date, there have been limited options in the valid assessment of this construct. The aim of the current study was to assess the structural, internal, and convergent validity of the assessment of body change distress questionnaire (ABCD) and its short version. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both versions fit the data well. Four subfactors were revealed measuring the following body disturbance constructs: (1) negative affect about appearance, (2) HIV health-related outcomes and stigma, (3) eating and exercise confusion, and (4) ART non-adherence. The subfactors and total scores revealed bivariate associations with salient health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, and ART non-adherence. The ABCD and its short form, offer valid means to assess varied aspects of body image disturbance among HIV-infected MSM, and require modest participant burden. PMID:24057934

  13. Seasons of Risk: Anticipated Behavior on Vacation and Interest in Episodic Antiretroviral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among a Large National Sample of U.S. Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Elsesser, Steven A; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Biello, Katie B; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A; Egan, James E; Novak, David S; Krakower, Douglas S; Stall, Ron; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    The current analysis evaluates interest in and acceptability of daily PrEP during short episodes of anticipated increased risk (i.e. Epi-PrEP). In 2013, U.S. members of an internet-based MSM sexual networking site were invited to complete a survey about HIV prevention practices in the context of vacationing. 7305 MSM responded to the survey. Of respondents who had vacationed in the past year, 25.6 % reported condomless anal sex (CAS) with new male sex partners while vacationing. Most (92.6 %) respondents agreed that having to use PrEP every day was a barrier to PrEP use and 74.3 % indicated they would take PrEP if they knew it would be helpful for short periods of anticipated increased risk. MSM who reported increased CAS while on vacation in the past year were more likely to indicate that they would take PrEP if it were helpful when used for short periods than respondents who did not (aOR = 2.02, 95 % CI 1.59-2.56, p < 0.001). Studies designed to evaluate uptake, adherence, and protective benefit of short PrEP courses are warranted. PMID:26538056

  14. Acceptability of Sexually Explicit Images in HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM) and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heteronormative culture and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. Seventy-nine MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro themes-audience, location, and community representation-emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages. PMID:26075485

  15. Elevated HIV Prevalence Despite Lower Rates of Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Black Men in the District of Columbia Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Irene; Phillips, Gregory; Shelley, Katharine; Rawls, Anthony; Montanez, Luz; Peterson, James; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Hader, Shannon; Greenberg, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The District of Columbia (DC) has among the highest HIV/AIDS rates in the United States, with 3.2% of the population and 7.1% of black men living with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to examine HIV risk behaviors in a community-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in DC. Data were from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. MSM who were 18 years were recruited via venue-based sampling between July 2008 and December 2008. Behavioral surveys and rapid oral HIV screening with OraQuick ADVANCE ½ (OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, PA) with Western blot confirmation on positives were collected. Factors associated with HIV positivity and unprotected anal intercourse were identified. Of 500 MSM, 35.6% were black. Of all men, 14.1% were confirmed HIV positive; 41.8% of these were newly identified HIV positive. Black men (26.0%) were more likely to be HIV positive than white (7.9%) or Latino/Asian/other (6.5%) men (p < 0.001). Black men had fewer male sex partners than non-black, fewer had ever engaged in intentional unprotected anal sex, and more used condoms at last anal sex. Black men were less likely to have health insurance, have been tested for HIV, and disclose MSM status to health care providers. Despite significantly higher HIV/AIDS rates, black MSM in DC reported fewer sexual risks than non-black. These findings suggest that among black MSM, the primary risk of HIV infection results from nontraditional sexual risk factors, and may include barriers to disclosing MSM status and HIV testing. There remains a critical need for more information regarding reasons for elevated HIV among black MSM in order to inform prevention programming. PMID:20863246

  16. Elevated HIV prevalence despite lower rates of sexual risk behaviors among black men in the District of Columbia who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Phillips, Gregory; Shelley, Katharine; Rawls, Anthony; Montanez, Luz; Peterson, James; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Hader, Shannon; Greenberg, Alan E

    2010-10-01

    The District of Columbia (DC) has among the highest HIV/AIDS rates in the United States, with 3.2% of the population and 7.1% of black men living with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to examine HIV risk behaviors in a community-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in DC. Data were from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. MSM who were 18 years were recruited via venue-based sampling between July 2008 and December 2008. Behavioral surveys and rapid oral HIV screening with OraQuick ADVANCE ½ (OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, PA) with Western blot confirmation on positives were collected. Factors associated with HIV positivity and unprotected anal intercourse were identified. Of 500 MSM, 35.6% were black. Of all men, 14.1% were confirmed HIV positive; 41.8% of these were newly identified HIV positive. Black men (26.0%) were more likely to be HIV positive than white (7.9%) or Latino/Asian/other (6.5%) men (p<0.001). Black men had fewer male sex partners than non-black, fewer had ever engaged in intentional unprotected anal sex, and more used condoms at last anal sex. Black men were less likely to have health insurance, have been tested for HIV, and disclose MSM status to health care providers. Despite significantly higher HIV/AIDS rates, black MSM in DC reported fewer sexual risks than non-black. These findings suggest that among black MSM, the primary risk of HIV infection results from nontraditional sexual risk factors, and may include barriers to disclosing MSM status and HIV testing. There remains a critical need for more information regarding reasons for elevated HIV among black MSM in order to inform prevention programming. PMID:20863246

  17. Evolution of the syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Marc M; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2015-04-01

    Syphilis has existed for millenni, but its epidemiology was only recently linked to men who have sex with men (MSM) after the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s; the syphilis epidemic became concentrated within the MSM community in subsequent decades. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the 1980s led to a surge of new syphilis cases and revealed the potentiation between HIV and syphilis, as evidenced by a shift in the natural history of neurosyphilis. In response, MSM revolutionised their sexual behaviour by implementing community-driven seroadaptive strategies to stem HIV transmission. The Centers for Disease Control in the US called for the elimination of syphilis in the late 1990s since the rates had fallen sharply but this effort was overtaken by a resurgence of global outbreaks among MSM in the 2000s, many of which were linked to methamphetamine use and sexual networking websites. Syphilis remains highly prevalent today, especially among MSM and individuals infected with HIV, and it continues to present a significant public health conundrum. Innovative syphilis prevention strategies are warranted. MSM engaging in high-risk behaviour such as condomless anal receptive intercourse, sex with multiple partners or recreational drug use should be routinely screened for syphilis infection; they should also be counselled about the limits of seroadaptive behaviours and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis as they relate to syphilis transmission. PMID:25514173

  18. Evolution of the syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marc M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis has existed for millenni, but its epidemiology was only recently linked to men who have sex with men (MSM) after the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s; the syphilis epidemic became concentrated within the MSM community in subsequent decades. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the 1980s led to a surge of new syphilis cases and revealed the potentiation between HIV and syphilis, as evidenced by a shift in the natural history of neurosyphilis. In response, MSM revolutionised their sexual behaviour by implementing community-driven seroadaptive strategies to stem HIV transmission. The Centers for Disease Control in the US called for the elimination of syphilis in the late 1990s since the rates had fallen sharply but this effort was overtaken by a resurgence of global outbreaks among MSM in the 2000s, many of which were linked to methamphetamine use and sexual networking websites. Syphilis remains highly prevalent today, especially among MSM and individuals infected with HIV, and it continues to present a significant public health conundrum. Innovative syphilis prevention strategies are warranted. MSM engaging in high-risk behaviour such as condomless anal receptive intercourse, sex with multiple partners or recreational drug use should be routinely screened for syphilis infection; they should also be counselled about the limits of seroadaptive behaviours and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis as they relate to syphilis transmission. PMID:25514173

  19. Community collectivization and its association with consistent condom use and STI treatment-seeking behaviors among female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men/transgenders in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Proddutoor, Laxminarayana; Tucker, Saroj; Kovvali, Dolly; Parimi, Prabhakar; Wheeler, Tisha

    2013-01-01

    We examine community collectivization among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men and transgenders (HR-MSM) following several years of HIV prevention programming with these populations, and its association with selected outcome indicators measuring individual behaviors (condom use with different partners and sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment-seeking from government health facilities). Data for this study were collected from a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010–2011 among FSWs (sample size: 3557) and HR-MSM (sample size: 2399) in Andhra Pradesh, India. We measured collectivization among FSWs in terms of three binary (low, high) indices of collective efficacy, collective agency, and collective action. Collectivization among HR-MSM was measured by participation in a public event (no, yes), and a binary (low, high) index of collective efficacy. Adjusted odds ratios (adjusted OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationships between collectivization and outcome indicators directly and through mediation of variables such as self-efficacy for condom use and utilization of government health facilities. Results show that among FSWs, high levels of collective efficacy (adjusted OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.7) and collective action (adjusted OR:1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.8) were associated with consistent condom use (CCU) with regular clients. Among HR-MSM, participation in a public event (adjusted OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.0–3.6) and collective efficacy (adjusted OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5–2.3) were correlated with condom use with paying partners. The association between collectivization and outcome indicators continued to be significant in most cases even after adjusting for the potential mediators. Indicators of collectivization exhibited significant positive association with self-efficacy for condom use and service utilization from government health facilities among both FSWs and HR-MSM. The

  20. HIV and Syphilis Testing Preferences among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South China: A Qualitative Analysis to Inform Sexual Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ramon; Lo, Elaine J.; Yang, Li Gang; Yang, Bin; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health services for men who have sex with men (MSM) are inadequate in many areas around the world. HIV and syphilis test uptake remain suboptimal among MSM in China and many other regions. To inform the development of more comprehensive sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing programs among MSM, we collected descriptive data on MSM testing practices and preferences. Methods MSM in two large urban Chinese cities were recruited through community-based organizations and clinics to participate in semi-structured interviews. We purposively sampled MSM across a range of sociodemographic characteristics and testing history, and assessed preferences for HIV and syphilis testing in the context of facilitators and barriers to testing and previous testing experiences. Each interview transcript was coded and thematically analyzed using Atlas.ti 7.0. Results 35 MSM were interviewed. Confidentiality and privacy were the most important factors influencing participants’ decisions about whether and where to get tested. Men preferred rapid testing (results available within 30 minutes) compared to conventional tests where results take several hours or days to return. Participants described concerns about quality and accuracy of rapid tests offered in non-clinical settings such as community-based organizations. Men preferred testing service providers who were MSM-friendly, non-discriminatory, and medically trained. Preferred service center environments included: convenient but discrete location, MSM-friendly atmosphere, and clean/standard medical facilities. Conclusion Our data highlight the need for HIV/syphilis testing services that are confidential and inclusive of MSM. Rapid testing in decentralized (i.e. peripheral health facilities and community-level, non-clinical venues) settings provides an opportunity to reach individuals who have not been tested before, but must be accompanied by quality assurance systems and technical competence. Implementation research

  1. Are MSM willing to SMS for HIV prevention?

    PubMed

    Khosropour, Christine M; Lake, Jason G; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Text messaging is a potential HIV-prevention tool for men who have sex with men (MSM), specifically young MSM and MSM of color. To determine the willingness of MSM to receive text messages as part of an HIV-prevention intervention, we administered an online survey to MSM recruited from MySpace.com, which included questions about mobile phone ownership and willingness to participate in a future text message-based HIV research study. Of participants, 85% (n = 5,378) reported owning a mobile phone and 49% (n = 2,483) of mobile phone owners reported being willing to receive text messages in a future HIV research study. Black and Hispanic men were more willing than White non-Hispanic men to receive text messages. Men with a college degree were less willing to receive texts than men with a high school level of education, and men >22 years old were less likely to be willing to receive texts than those younger than 22 years of age. The authors' findings demonstrate that willingness to receive text messages as part of an HIV research study is moderate, and mirrors patterns of text message use in age and race. Variations in willingness should be taken into account when designing and implementing future interventions. PMID:23905653

  2. Community Involvement among Behaviourally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern USA: Experiences and Perceptions across Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Nix, Ryan; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Murray, Maresa; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Limited research exists regarding community involvement and social support among behaviourally bisexual men. Previous studies suggest that bisexual men experience high levels of social stigma in both heterosexual and homosexual community settings. Research focusing on social support has demonstrated that individuals with limited access to similar individuals experience greater risk for negative health outcomes. Using a community-based research design, participants were recruited using multiple methods in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 75 men who reported having engaged in bisexual behaviour within the past six months. Interviews elucidated the experiences of behaviourally bisexual men in heterosexual and homosexual settings, as well as their perceptions of the existence of a bisexual community or bisexual spaces. All participants perceived a lack of a visible bisexual community and expressed difficulty with being comfortable, or feeling belonging, within a variety of heterosexual and homosexual community spaces. Findings suggest the need for interventions focused on community building among, as well as creating spaces specifically designed for, bisexual men in order to increase perceived social support and decrease isolation and possible negative health outcomes. PMID:22978551

  3. Using Social Media to Increase HIV Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men, Other Men Who Have Sex With Men, and Transgender Persons: Outcomes From a Randomized Community Trial.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P; Tanner, Amanda E; Stowers, Jason; Bachmann, Laura H; Nguyen, Annie L; Ross, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    We tested an intervention designed to increase human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among men who have sex with men and transgender persons within existing and commonly used social media. At follow-up, intervention communities had significantly higher past 12-month HIV testing than the comparison communities. Findings suggest that promoting HIV testing via social media can increase testing. PMID:26980878

  4. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Ryan; Grosso, Ashley; Scheibe, Andrew; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ketende, Sosthenes; Dausab, Friedel; Iipinge, Scholastica; Beyrer, Chris; Trapance, Gift; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, South Africa approved a constitution providing freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation. Other Southern African countries, including Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia, criminalize same-sex behavior. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been shown to experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, increasing their vulnerability to negative health and other outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between criminalization of same-sex behavior and experiences of human rights abuses by MSM. It compares the extent to which MSM in peri-urban Cape Town experience human rights abuses with that of MSM in Gaborone, Botswana; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior. Participants accrued in each site were compared using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Encouragingly, the results indicate MSM in Cape Town were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to family or healthcare workers and less likely to be blackmailed or feel afraid in their communities than MSM in Botswana, Malawi, or Namibia. However, South African MSM were not statistically significantly less likely experience a human rights abuse than their peers in cities in other study countries, showing that while legal protections may reduce experiences of certain abuses, legislative changes alone are insufficient for protecting MSM. A comprehensive approach with interventions at multiple levels in multiple sectors is needed to create the legal and social change necessary to address attitudes, discrimination, and violence affecting MSM. PMID:26764467

  5. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Ryan; Grosso, Ashley; Scheibe, Andrew; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ketende, Sosthenes; Dausab, Friedel; Iipinge, Scholastica; Beyrer, Chris; Trapance, Gift; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, South Africa approved a constitution providing freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation. Other Southern African countries, including Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia, criminalize same-sex behavior. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been shown to experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, increasing their vulnerability to negative health and other outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between criminalization of same-sex behavior and experiences of human rights abuses by MSM. It compares the extent to which MSM in peri-urban Cape Town experience human rights abuses with that of MSM in Gaborone, Botswana; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior. Participants accrued in each site were compared using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Encouragingly, the results indicate MSM in Cape Town were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to family or healthcare workers and less likely to be blackmailed or feel afraid in their communities than MSM in Botswana, Malawi, or Namibia. However, South African MSM were not statistically significantly less likely experience a human rights abuse than their peers in cities in other study countries, showing that while legal protections may reduce experiences of certain abuses, legislative changes alone are insufficient for protecting MSM. A comprehensive approach with interventions at multiple levels in multiple sectors is needed to create the legal and social change necessary to address attitudes, discrimination, and violence affecting MSM. PMID:26764467

  6. The impact of childhood gender expression on childhood sexual abuse and psychopathology among young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marco A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16–20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae. PMID:26002599

  7. The impact of childhood gender expression on childhood sexual abuse and psychopathology among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marco A; Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16-20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae. PMID:26002599

  8. ENSURING IT WORKS: A COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO HIV PREVENTION INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT FOR MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN CHENNAI, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Beena; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Closson, Elizabeth F.; Johnson, Carey V.; Menon, Sunil; Mani, Jamuna; Vijaylakshmi, R.; Dilip, Meenalochini; Betancourt, Theresa; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India have an HIV seroprevalence 22 times greater than the country’s general population and face unique challenges that may hinder the effectiveness of current HIV prevention efforts. To obtain an understanding of the logistical and sociocultural barriers MSM experience while accessing HIV prevention services, focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai, India. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative content analysis. Sixty-five percent of participants identified as kothi (receptive partners), 9% as panthi (insertive partners), 22% as double decker (receptive and insertive), and 4% did not disclose. Themes included: (a) fatigue with current HIV risk reduction messages; (b) increased need for non-judgmental and confidential services; and (c) inclusion of content that acknowledges individual and structural-level determinants of risk such as low self-esteem, depression, and social discrimination. MSM interventions may benefit from approaches that address multilevel psychosocial factors, including skills building and strategies to foster self-acceptance and increased social support. PMID:23206199

  9. Ensuring it works: a community-based approach to HIV prevention intervention development for men who have sex with men in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Beena; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Closson, Elizabeth F; Johnson, Carey V; Menon, Sunil; Mani, Jamuna; Vijaylakshmi, R; Dilip, Meenalochini; Betancourt, Theresa; Safren, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India have an HIV seroprevalence 22 times greater than the country's general population and face unique challenges that may hinder the effectiveness of current HIV prevention efforts. To obtain an understanding of the logistical and sociocultural barriers MSM experience while accessing HIV prevention services, focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai, India. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative content analysis. Sixty-five percent of participants identified as kothi (receptive partners), 9% as panthi (insertive partners), 22% as double decker (receptive and insertive), and 4% did not disclose. Themes included: (a) fatigue with current HIV risk reduction messages; (b) increased need for non-judgmental and confidential services; and (c) inclusion of content that acknowledges individual and structural-level determinants of risk such as low self-esteem, depression, and social discrimination. MSM interventions may benefit from approaches that address multilevel psychosocial factors, including skills building and strategies to foster self-acceptance and increased social support. PMID:23206199

  10. High prevalence and incidence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia among young Thai men who have sex with men with and without HIV

    PubMed Central

    Phanuphak, Nittaya; Teeratakulpisarn, Nipat; Triratanachat, Surang; Keelawat, Somboon; Pankam, Tippawan; Kerr, Stephen J.; Deesua, Amornrat; Tantbirojn, Patou; Numto, Saranya; Phanuphak, Praphan; Palefsky, Joel M.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at elevated risk of having anal cancer. However, the prevalence and incidence among MSM of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the putative precursor of anal cancer, is understudied, particularly in Asians. Methods A total of 123 HIV-positive and 123 HIV-negative MSM were enrolled at the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre in Bangkok, Thailand, and followed for 12 months. Anal sample collection for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsies were performed at every visit. Results Mean age at enrollment was 28.9 years. HIV-positive MSM were more commonly infected with high-risk HPV types in the anus than HIV-negative MSM (57.5% vs. 36.6%, p=0.001). The prevalence of HGAIN was 18.9% in HIV-positive and 11.4% in HIV-negative MSM (p=0.1). The incidence of HGAIN at 12 months was 29% in HIV-positive and 8% in HIV-negative MSM (p=0.001). The hazard ratios for incident HGAIN in multivariate models were 5.16 (95% CI 1.89–14.08, p<0.001) in MSM with persistent HPV 16 and/or 18 infection and 2.62 (95% CI 1.04–6.61, p=0.042) in HIV-positive MSM. Conclusions Approximately one-third of HIV-positive MSM developed incident HGAIN within 12 months. Given the relative increased prevalence of HIV among MSM worldwide, local HGAIN data are needed to guide practitioners, policy makers, and communities in planning for strategies to screen for and treat HGAIN in this population. PMID:23807271

  11. Developing a Text Messaging Risk Reduction Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using MSM: Research Note

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J; Ling, Deborah; Shoptaw, Steven; Rohde, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection due to sexual transmission behaviors often engaged in when under the influence of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-using MSM use various forms of information technology (IT) communication such as instant messaging, social networking sites, and websites to facilitate a sexual and/or drug “hook up.” Given the acceptability of IT communication in their daily lives, an IT intervention represents an appropriate strategy to reach and intervene with out-of-treatment, methamphetamine-using MSM. The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviors among out-of-treatment MSM, which involved conducting focus groups, community partners’ meetings, and a pre-test intervention. These activities culminated in the development of a two-week, text-messaging intervention that delivered real-time electronic correspondence based on the behavioral change theories of Social Support Theory, Health Belief Model, and Social Cognitive Theory. The focus groups, community meetings, and pre-test were used to identify the IT communication device, the text messages that best support risk reduction and healthier behavioral choices, and logo, flyer and website development. The input and feedback from the target population and community partners were critical to the successful development of a culturally appropriate intervention. The knowledge gleaned from the formative work of this study will be vitally helpful in designing future IT studies. PMID:20657827

  12. Sexual and geographic organisation of men who have sex with men in a large East African city: opportunities for outreach

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W; Nyoni, Joyce; Bowen, Anne M; Williams, Mark L; Kashiha, John J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe geographical and dispersion patterns of men who have sex with men (MSM)-related venues in a large East African city and their associations with times, participants and venue type. Methods Mapping of MSM sites in Dar es Salaam was carried out by community research workers who catalogued, observed and reported data on venue sites, formality, times of operation, type of participant, police or vigilante activity, length of operation and the degree to which it is known both in and outside the MSM and gay communities. Results There is a large and widely disseminated MSM/gay satellite cultures of at least 98 sites, which has some formal sites, but is largely informal and operates within mixed entertainment environments and at particular times (including some weekend-only locales) across the city. There is a mix of places for sexual contact, largely social venues and sex on location sites. Cruising appears to be limited to open spaces and parks, with no vehicular component and almost no internet component. They are widely disseminated across all suburbs and there is no central location for MSM activities. MSM sex workers (SWs) operate at a third of these sites. Conclusions There is a large number of ‘local’ MSM contact, social and sex sites and any work with MSM will have to include these less-formal and less-known sites. The widely disseminated nature of the MSM sites, however, also suggests that sexual networks may not be closely linked between sites. The climate of stigma, abuse and potential violence appear to be limiting the development of more formal sites. This pattern is probably typical of other large urban areas in East Africa and perhaps across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). PMID:23180391

  13. Reconciling Epidemiology and Social Justice in the Public Health Discourse Around the Sexual Networks of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Derrick D; Smith, Justin C; Brown, Andre L; Malebranche, David J

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have implicated the sexual networks of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) as facilitating disproportionally high rates of new HIV infections within this community. Although structural disparities place these networks at heightened risk for infection, HIV prevention science continues to describe networks as the cause for HIV disparities, rather than an effect of structures that pattern infection. We explore the historical relationship between public health and Black MSM, arguing that the current articulation of Black MSM networks is too often incomplete and counterproductive. Public health can offer a counternarrative that reconciles epidemiology with the social justice that informs our discipline, and that is required for an effective response to the epidemic among Black MSM. PMID:26890175

  14. “You’re an Open Target to Be Abused”: A Qualitative Study of Stigma and HIV Self-Disclosure Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a health crisis among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV-related stigma presents a primary barrier to sexual communication and effective HIV prevention. Using in-depth, qualitative interviews conducted with 20 HIV-positive Black MSM between 2007 and 2008 in Chicago, Illinois, we explored the themes related to HIV-related stigma and the underlying messages HIV-positive Black MSM receive regarding their status. Stigmatizing messages stem from family, churches, and the gay community and from negative, internalized, beliefs HIV-positive Black MSM held about infected individuals before their own infection. HIV stigma influences sexual silence around HIV disclosure, especially to sexual partners. PMID:24134345

  15. Feasibility and willingness of using e-technologies for HIV prevention and research targeting Chinese MSM.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; He, Na; Wang, Xiaodong; Lin, Lavinia; Wong, Frank Y; Yu, Fan

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study examines the feasibility and willingness for three types of e-technologies for HIV prevention and research among a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chengdu, China. A total of 605 self-identified MSM (200 HIV seropositive, 405 HIV-) were recruited through a community-based HIV/AIDS service organization and completed a cross-sectional survey. The majority used cell phones for voice and text (99 and 95%), 53% used email, and 83% used Tencent QQ (an instant messaging technology); 54% indicated they would participate in future research studies; and 77% provided contact information for at least one e-technology. In multivariate analyses, those who were not official city residents, those better educated, and those who were HIV seropositive were more likely to provide contact information. This research indicates that MSM in China would be likely to engage in e-technology research and studies should explore these innovative communication methods. PMID:23061806

  16. What's in a label?: Multiple meanings of ‘MSM’ among same-gender-loving Black men in Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Nhan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Burton, Melissa; Gipson, June; Hickson, DeMarc

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and other same-gender-loving men continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS, particularly among the Black population. Innovative strategies are needed to support the health of this community; however, public health efforts primarily approach MSM as a monolithic population erasing the diverse identities, practices, and sexualities within and beyond this category. To better understand diversity within MSM in a geographic region with the largest proportion of Black Americans in the U.S. and among the most heavily affected by the epidemic, the Deep South, we conducted four focus groups (n=29) with Black men who reported having sex with other men residing in Jackson, Mississippi. Results suggest multiple overlapping usages of MSM as identity and behavior, reflecting internalization of behavioral categories and co-creation of identities unique to the Black community. These narratives contribute to the literature by documenting the evolving understandings of the category ‘MSM’ among Black men to reflect intersections between race, socioeconomic status, sexual behavior, sexuality, subjectivities, and social context. Findings suggest the current monolithic approach to treating MSM may limit public health efforts in developing effective HIV prevention and promotion programs targeting same-gender-loving Black men in the Deep South. PMID:26950431

  17. Willingness to be circumcised for preventing HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yuhua; Qian, Han-Zhu; Li, Dongliang; Shi, Wei; Li, Qingchun; Liang, Hongyuan; Yang, Ye; Luo, Fengji; Vermund, Sten H; Shao, Yiming

    2009-05-01

    Male circumcision can reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among heterosexual men, but its effectiveness is uncertain in men who have sex with men (MSM). Additionally, its acceptability among Chinese men is unknown given a lack of history and cultural norms endorsing neonatal and adult circumcision. This study evaluated the willingness to participate in a clinical trial of circumcision among 328 Chinese MSM. Some 11.6% respondents reported having been circumcised, most of them due to a tight foreskin. Of 284 uncircumcised MSM, 16.9% said they were absolutely willing to participate, 26.4% were probably, 28.9% were probably not, and 27.8% were absolutely not; 81% said male circumcision would help maintain genital hygiene. The major motivators for willingness to participate included contribution to AIDS scientific research and getting free medical service. Men also had concerns about ineffectiveness of circumcision in reducing HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risks and side effects of the surgery. Those who did not have a Beijing resident card (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-3.38), did not find sexual partners through the Internet (AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.21-3.75), and were not concerned about the effectiveness of circumcision (AOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.34-4.19) were more likely to be willing to participate in a trial. The study suggests that circumcision is uncommon among Chinese MSM. Considerable community education will be needed in circumcision advocacy among MSM in China. A clinical trial for efficacy among MSM should be considered. PMID:19335172

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; Montanez, Luz; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E

    2014-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been reported to be disproportionately higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men; it has also been found to be significantly positively associated with HIV status and HIV risk factors, including unprotected anal intercourse. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlates of CSA in a sample of community-recruited MSM, investigate race as a potential effect modifier, and describe the independent association between CSA and HIV infection in Washington, DC. A total of 500 MSM were recruited by venue-based sampling in 2008 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. More than one-half of MSM identified as White, while one-third identified as Black. CSA was reported by 17.5 % of the 451 MSM, with the first instance of abuse occurring at a median age of 8.3 (interquartile range = 5.0, 11.0). In multivariable analysis, HIV-positive men were significantly more likely to report a history of CSA compared to HIV-negative men after adjusting for intimate partner violence in the last 12 months, having been arrested in the last 12 months, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive MSM had more than four times the odds of reporting CSA after controlling for other correlates (aOR = 4.19; 95 % CI 2.26, 7.75). Despite hypothesizing that race modified the effect of CSA on HIV infection we found this was not the case in this sample. More research is needed to investigate the potential pathway between a history of CSA and HIV infection, and how this contributes to driving the HIV epidemic among MSM in Washington, DC. PMID:24573398

  19. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change. PMID:23215551

  20. Trends in Serosorting and the Association With HIV/STI Risk Over Time Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Julia C.; Swanson, Fred; Kerani, Roxanne P.; Katz, David A.; Barbee, Lindley A.; Hughes, James P.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Golden, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serosorting among men who have sex with men (MSM) is common, but recent data to describe trends in serosorting are limited. How serosorting affects population-level trends in HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk is largely unknown. Methods: We collected data as part of routine care from MSM attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic (2002–2013) and a community-based HIV/sexually transmitted disease testing center (2004–2013) in Seattle, WA. MSM were asked about condom use with HIV-positive, HIV-negative, and unknown-status partners in the prior 12 months. We classified behaviors into 4 mutually exclusive categories: no anal intercourse (AI); consistent condom use (always used condoms for AI); serosorting [condom-less anal intercourse (CAI) only with HIV-concordant partners]; and nonconcordant CAI (CAI with HIV-discordant/unknown-status partners; NCCAI). Results: Behavioral data were complete for 49,912 clinic visits. Serosorting increased significantly among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men over the study period. This increase in serosorting was concurrent with a decrease in NCCAI among HIV-negative MSM, but a decrease in consistent condom use among HIV-positive MSM. Adjusting for time since last negative HIV test, the risk of testing HIV positive during the study period decreased among MSM who reported NCCAI (7.1%–2.8%; P= 0.02), serosorting (2.4%–1.3%; P = 0.17), and no CAI (1.5%–0.7%; P = 0.01). Serosorting was associated with a 47% lower risk of testing HIV positive compared with NCCAI (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.53; 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.62). Conclusions: Between 2002 and 2013, serosorting increased and NCCAI decreased among Seattle MSM. These changes paralleled a decline in HIV test positivity among MSM. PMID:26885806

  1. Comparing three cohorts of MSM sampled via sex parties, bars/clubs, and Craigslist.org: Implications for researchers and providers

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    With limited exceptions, few studies have systematically reported on psychosocial and demographic characteristic differences in samples of men who have sex with men (MSM) based on where they were recruited. This study compared three sexually active cohorts of MSM recruited via Craigslist.org (recruited via modified time-space sampling), gay bars and clubs (recruited via time-space sampling), and private sex parties (identified via passive recruitment and listserves), finding mixed results with regard to differences in demographic characteristics, STI history, and psychosocial measures. Men recruited from sex parties were significantly older, reported more symptoms of sexual compulsivity, more likely to be HIV-positive, more likely to report a history of STIs, and more likely to self-identify as a barebacker, than men recruited from the other two venues. In contrast, men from Craigslist.org reported the lowest levels of attachment to the gay and bisexual community and were the least likely to self-identify as gay. Men from bars and clubs were significantly younger, and were more likely to report use of hallucinogens and crack or cocaine. Our findings highlight that the venues in which MSM are recruited have meaningful consequences in terms of the “types” of individuals who are reached. PMID:25068182

  2. MALE HOMOSEXUAL IDENTITIES, RELATIONSHIPS, AND PRACTICES AMONG YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN VIETNAM: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W.; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A.; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15–24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population. PMID:19519239

  3. Imagined comrades and imaginary protections: identity, community and sexual risk among men who have sex with men in China.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rodney H

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development of identity and community among gay men in China. It focuses both on the ways emerging forms of gay identity relate to larger ideological and discursive shifts within society, and on the ways these new forms of identity and community affect situated social interaction among gay men themselves. In particular, it addresses the question of how these emerging forms of gay identity and gay community affect the ways gay men in China understand the threat of HIV and make concrete decisions about sexual risk and safety. Among the chief tactics used by gay men in China to forge identity and community involves appropriating and adapting elements from dominant discourses of the Party-State and the mass media. This strategy has opened up spaces within which gay men can claim "cultural citizenship" in a society in which they have been heretofore marginalized. At the same time, this strategy also implicated in the formation of attitudes and social practices that potentially increase the vunerability of Chinese gay men to HIV infection. PMID:18032288

  4. Characterizing the Individual, Social, and Structural Determinants of Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carolyn Adele; Grosso, Ashley Lynn; Adams, Darrin; Sithole, Bhekie; Ketende, Sosthenes; Greene, Jessica; Maziya, Sibusiso; Mnisi, Zandile; Mabuza, Xolile; Baral, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Within the broadly generalized HIV epidemic in Swaziland, men who have sex with men (MSM) have specific HIV acquisition and transmission risks. In the current era of expanding antiretroviral therapy-based prevention and treatment approaches, condom use remains a core component of mitigating these risks. A cross-sectional study characterizing the vulnerabilities for HIV among MSM in Swaziland was analyzed to describe factors associated with condom use at last sex with a male partner. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of condom use at last sex with both casual and regular male partners. Disclosure of sexual practices to a healthcare provider and being able to count on other MSM to support condom use were significantly associated with condom use at last sex with a causal and a regular partner, respectively. Reporting difficulty insisting on condom use was inversely associated with condom use at last sex with both regular and casual partners. In addition, having faced legal discrimination was similarly inversely associated with condom use at last sex with a regular partner. Condom use among MSM in Swaziland may increase with improved partner communication, provider sensitization to encourage sexual disclosure, and the promotion of safer sex norms within MSM communities. These approaches, in combination with existing and emerging evidence of informed and human rights affirming prevention and HIV treatment approaches may reduce the incidence of HIV among MSM in Swaziland and all those in their sexual networks. PMID:26651122

  5. Client and Provider Perspectives on New HIV Prevention Tools for MSM in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Koester, Kimberly A.; Amico, K. Rivet; Lama, Javier R.; Martinez Fernandes, Nilo; Gonzales, Pedro; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Liu, Al; Buchbinder, Susan; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Americas require targeted, combination HIV prevention approaches. We solicited client and provider perspectives on emerging prevention interventions including HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HIV self-tests through focus groups and in-depth interviews with 130 MSM and 41 providers across four sites: New York, San Francisco, Lima, and Rio de Janeiro. Among the MSM participants, we identified three prevention typologies: non-condom users, inconsistent condom users, and consistent condom users. Northern and Southern MSM differed in the variety of harm reduction strategies utilized: where U.S. MSM relied on condom use as well as disclosure and seroadaptive behaviors for prevention, condom use without disclosure or serostatus discussions was the norm in South America. Interest in new prevention technologies was shaped by the social context. U.S. MSM preferences differed by typology, such that non-condom users were interested in taking PrEP and using home HIV tests. MSM in Brazil, regardless of typology, were interested in exploring new prevention options. MSM in Peru demonstrated moderate interest but were less comfortable with adopting new strategies. MSM and providers’ opinions differed substantially with respect to new prevention options. Across sites, most providers were reticent to engage with new prevention options, though some NGO-based providers were more supportive of exploring new prevention tools. Both clients and providers will need to be engaged in developing integrated prevention strategies for MSM. PMID:25826246

  6. The increase in global HIV epidemics in MSM.

    PubMed

    Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick; Sanchez, Jorge; Baral, Stefan D; Collins, Chris; Wirtz, Andrea L; Altman, Dennis; Trapence, Gift; Mayer, Kenneth

    2013-11-13

    Epidemics of HIV in MSM continue to expand in most low, middle, and upper income countries in 2013 and rates of new infection have been consistently high among young MSM. Current prevention and treatment strategies are insufficient for this next wave of HIV spread. We conducted a series of comprehensive reviews of HIV prevalence and incidence, risks for HIV, prevention and care, stigma and discrimination, and policy and advocacy options. The high per act transmission probability of receptive anal intercourse, sex role versatility among MSM, network level effects, and social and structural determinants play central roles in disproportionate disease burdens. HIV can be transmitted through large MSM networks at great speed. Molecular epidemiologic data show marked clustering of HIV in MSM networks, and high proportions of infections due to transmission from recent infections. Prevention strategies that lower biological risks, including those using antiretrovirals, offer promise for epidemic control, but are limited by structural factors including, discrimination, criminalization, and barriers to healthcare. Subepidemics, including among racial and ethnic minority MSM in the United States and UK, are particularly severe and will require culturally tailored efforts. For the promise of new and combined bio-behavioral interventions to be realized, clinically competent healthcare is necessary and community leadership, engagement, and empowerment are likely to be key. Addressing the expanding epidemics of HIV in MSM will require continued research, increased resources, political will, policy change, structural reform, community engagement, and strategic planning and programming, but it can and must be done. PMID:23842129

  7. Structural violence against Kothi-identified men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; McLuckie, Alan; Melwin, Fredrick

    2007-08-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the experiences and contexts of stigma and discrimination among HIV-positive and high-risk kothi-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chennai, India, and ramifications for HIV prevention. MSM were recruited through community agencies (n = 10) and public sex environments (n = 8), along with three key informants. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Narrative thematic analysis and a constant comparative method were used to identify themes. Findings revealed multiple intersecting social and institutional contexts and experiences of stigmatization, discrimination, and violence across police, community, family, and health care systems, as well as illuminating consequences for MSM. Multisystemic structural violence places kothis at extreme vulnerability for HIV infection and AIDS. Public mass media antidiscrimination campaigns, education and training of health care providers and police, funding of indigenous MSM community organizations, and decriminalization of consensual sex between same-sex adults may help to combat stigma, discrimination, and violence against MSM, which is fundamental to effective HIV prevention. PMID:17685847

  8. Arrest History among Men and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Milroy, Michael E.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Klahn, Jennifer A.; Wood, Michele M.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored associations between ever having been arrested and other variables among 490 male drug users. Participants were classified into three groups based on recent sexual history: men who had not had sex (NOSEX), men who had had sex with women (HETERO), and men who had had sex with men (MSM). We found that MSM who had been arrested…

  9. Prevalence Estimates of Health Risk Behaviors of Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the health status of rural immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). These MSM comprise a subpopulation that tends to remain "hidden" from both researchers and practitioners. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors of Latino MSM living in…

  10. HIV and Men Who Have Sex with Men: Where Is the Canadian Epidemic Headed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siushansian, Jennifer A.; Nguyen, Mai; Archibald, Chris P.

    2000-01-01

    Canada's recent increase in HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) is substantiated by data on ongoing sexual risk behavior and increases in sexually transmitted diseases among MSM. This situation is discussed in the international context, noting an upswing in HIV-associated risk behaviors among MSM worldwide and possible…

  11. Moderating Effect of Age on the Association between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk in MSM: Evidence for Elevated Risk among Younger MSM

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS in the United States. Alcohol use is frequently studied as a predictor of sexual risk in MSM, but findings for this association have been mixed. Developmental differences in this effect may help to explain equivocal findings. 143 MSM (analytic sample 137) ages 16–40 completed weekly diaries of sexual encounters and associated situational factors for 12 weeks. Analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Alcohol use before sex was not associated with sexual risk across all participants. Participant age moderated this effect; alcohol use before sex was associated with increased odds of sexual risk in younger MSM only. These analyses expand on previous findings by utilizing a wider age range than most prior studies and adjusting for the effects of several theoretically-selected covariates. Young MSM are an important group to target for addressing alcohol use in the context of sexual behavior. PMID:23553348

  12. HIV Testing Patterns among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Typology

    PubMed Central

    Hussen, Sophia A.; Stephenson, Robert; del Rio, Carlos; Wilton, Leo; Wallace, Jermel; Wheeler, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Southeastern United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. Black MSM are more likely to have unrecognized HIV infection, suggesting that testing may occur later and/or infrequently relative to current recommendations. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the HIV testing behaviors of Black MSM in Atlanta, Georgia, who were participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN 061). Methods and Findings We conducted 29 in-depth interviews and four focus groups with a community-recruited sample. Modified grounded theory methodologies were used to guide our inductive analysis, which yielded a typology comprised of four distinct HIV testing patterns. Participants could be categorized as: (1) Maintenance Testers, who tested regularly as part of routine self-care; (2) Risk-Based Testers, whose testing depended on relationship status or sexual behavior; (3) Convenience Testers, who tested irregularly depending on what testing opportunities arose; or (4) Test Avoiders, who tested infrequently and/or failed to follow up on results. We further characterized these groups with respect to age, socioeconomic factors, identity, stigma and healthcare access. Conclusions Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of HIV testing patterns among Black MSM, and offer a framework for conceptualizing HIV testing in this group. Public health messaging must account for the diversity of Black MSM's experiences, and multiple testing approaches should be developed and utilized to maximize outreach to different types of testers. PMID:24069408

  13. A call to action for comprehensive HIV services for men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Sanchez, Jorge; Dowdy, David; Altman, Dennis; Trapence, Gift; Collins, Chris; Katabira, Elly; Kazatchkine, Michel; Sidibe, Michel; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    Where surveillance has been done, it has shown that men (MSM) who have sex with men bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Yet they continue to be excluded, sometimes systematically, from HIV services because of stigma, discrimination, and criminalisation. This situation must change if global control of the HIV epidemic is to be achieved. On both public health and human rights grounds, expansion of HIV prevention, treatment, and care to MSM is an urgent imperative. Effective combination prevention and treatment approaches are feasible, and culturally competent care can be developed, even in rights-challenged environments. Condom and lubricant access for MSM globally is highly cost effective. Antiretroviral-based prevention, and antiretroviral access for MSM globally, would also be cost effective, but would probably require substantial reductions in drug costs in high-income countries to be feasible. To address HIV in MSM will take continued research, political will, structural reform, community engagement, and strategic planning and programming, but it can and must be done. PMID:22819663

  14. Comprehensive clinical care for men who have sex with men: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Stall, Ron; Grulich, Andrew E; Colfax, Grant; Lama, Javier R

    2012-07-28

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have unique health-care needs, not only because of biological factors such as an increased susceptibility to infection with HIV and sexually transmitted infections associated with their sexual behaviour, but also because of internalisation of societal stigma related to homosexuality and gender non-conformity, resulting in depression, anxiety, substance use, and other adverse outcomes. Successful responses to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic will require the development of culturally sensitive clinical care programmes for MSM that address these health disparities and root causes of maladaptive behaviour (eg, societal homophobia). Health-care providers need to become familiar with local outreach agencies, hotlines, and media that can connect MSM with positive role models and social opportunities. Research is needed to understand how many MSM lead resilient and productive lives in the face of discrimination to develop assets-based interventions that build on community support. Optimum clinical care for sexual and gender minorities is a fundamental human right. MSM deserve to be treated with respect, and health-care providers need to interact with them in ways that promote disclosure of actionable health information. PMID:22819653

  15. Predictors of HIV testing among men who have sex with men: a focus on men living outside major urban centres in Canada.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Susan; Landis, Lisa; Walsh, Zachary; Puterman, Eli; Roberts, Daryle; Saya-Moore, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent almost half of new HIV infections in Canada each year. However, the vast majority of research on HIV testing among MSM has been conducted in major urban centres. The present study addressed this gap by investigating HIV testing behaviour and predictors of HIV testing among MSM living outside major urban centres, in the Interior of British Columbia. An anonymous online survey of 153 MSM assessed HIV testing behaviour and psychosocial factors that may impact HIV testing (internalized homophobia, disclosure to healthcare providers (HCPs) of same sex attraction, and gay community involvement). Almost one-quarter (24%) had never been tested and over one-third (35%) had not disclosed same sex attraction to HCPs. Internalized homophobia was associated with a lower likelihood of HIV testing, and this relationship was partially explained by the fact that those high in internalized homophobia were less likely to disclose same sex attraction to their HCPs. Neither formal nor informal involvement in the gay community was related to HIV testing, and both types of involvement were relatively low in our sample. Further research is needed to better understand the distinctive health issues facing MSM living outside major urban centres. PMID:27043184

  16. Engaging men as promotores de salud: perceptions of community health workers among Latino men in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Villa-Torres, Laura; Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare

    2015-02-01

    The promotor de salud, or community health worker (CHW) role, is highly feminized and little is known about how men view their participation in CHW programs. We conducted in-depth interviews with Latino men in North Carolina to explore this gap. We used systematic coding and display procedures informed by Grounded Theory to analyze the data. Men described their communities as lacking cohesion, making integration of Latino immigrants difficult. Most did not consider themselves leaders or feel they had leaders in their communities. Their perceptions of the feminized CHW role as well as the volunteer or low-paid nature of CHW work conflicted with men's provider role. They also did not think they could perform the CHW role because they lacked education, skills, and broad networks. Efforts to increase male participation in CHW programs in new Latino immigrant destinations will need to understand and address these gender and migration-related dynamics in order to engage both women and men in improving the health of their communities. PMID:24989349

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT AND FEASIBILITY OF A BRIEF RISK REDUCTION INTERVENTION FOR NEWLY HIV-DIAGNOSED MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Santos, Jonathan; Watt, Melissa H.; Wilson, Patrick A.; DeLorenzo, Allyson; Laudato, Jay; Mayer, Gal

    2011-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more than half of all new HIV infections in the United States. Utilizing a collaborative, community based approach, a brief risk reduction intervention was developed and pilot tested among newly HIV-diagnosed MSM receiving HIV care in a primary care setting. Sixty-five men, within 3 months of diagnosis, were randomly assigned to the experimental condition or control condition and assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. Effect sizes were calculated to explore differences between conditions and over time. Results demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the intervention in reducing risk behavior, improving mental health, and increasing use of ancillary services. Process evaluation data demonstrated the acceptability of the intervention to patients, clinic staff, and administration. The results provide evidence that a brief intervention can be successfully integrated into HIV care services for newly diagnosed MSM and should be evaluated for efficacy. PMID:22228917

  18. Access to Basic HIV-Related Services and PrEP Acceptability among Men Who Have sex with Men Worldwide: Barriers, Facilitators, and Implications for Combination Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Makofane, Keletso; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Beck, Jack; Do, Tri D.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Pyun, Thomas; Arreola, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV globally. Easily accessible combination HIV prevention strategies, tailored to the needs of MSM, are needed to effectively address the AIDS pandemic. Methods and Materials. We conducted a cross-sectional study among MSM (n = 3748) from 145 countries from April to August 2012. Using multivariable random effects models, we examined factors associated with acceptability of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and access to condoms, lubricants, HIV testing, and HIV treatment. Results. Condoms and lubricants were accessible to 35% and 22% of all respondents, respectively. HIV testing was accessible to 35% of HIV-negative respondents. Forty-three percent of all HIV-positive respondents reported that antiretroviral therapy was easily accessible. Homophobia, outness, and service provider stigma were significantly associated with reduced access to services. Conversely, community engagement, connection to gay community, and comfort with service providers were associated with increased access. PrEP acceptability was associated with lower PrEP-related stigma, less knowledge about PrEP, less outness, higher service provider stigma, and having experienced violence for being MSM. Conclusions. Ensuring HIV service access among MSM will be critical in maximizing the potential effectiveness of combination approaches, especially given the interdependence of both basic and newer interventions like PrEP. Barriers and facilitators of HIV service access for MSM should be better understood and addressed. PMID:26316968

  19. Ties that bind: community attachment and the experience of discrimination among Black men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Van Sluytman, Laurens; Spikes, Pilgrim; Nandi, Vijay; Van Tieu, Hong; Frye, Victoria; Patterson, Jocelyn; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, the impact of psychological distress may be greater for Black men who have sex with men given that they may experience both racial discrimination in society at large and discrimination due to sexual orientation within Black communities. Attachments to community members may play a role in addressing psychological distress for members of this vulnerable population. This analysis is based on 312 Black men who have sex with men recruited for a behavioural intervention trial in New York City. Analyses were conducted using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of discrimination and community attachment to psychological distress. Most participants (63%) reported exposure to both discrimination due to race and sexual orientation. However, a majority of participants (89%) also reported racial and/or sexual orientation community attachment. Psychological distress was significant and negatively associated with older age (40 years and above), being a high school graduate and having racial and/or sexual orientation community attachments. Psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with being HIV-positive and experiencing both racial and sexual orientation discrimination. Similar results were found in the multivariable model. Susceptibility to disparate psychological distress outcomes must be understood in relation to social membership, including its particular norms, structures and ecological milieu. PMID:25647586

  20. Ties that bind: community attachment and the experience of discrimination among Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Van Sluytman, Laurens; Spikes, Pilgrim; Nandi, Vijay; Van Tieu, Hong; Frye, Victoria; Patterson, Jocelyn; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, the impact of psychological distress may be greater for Black men who have sex with men given that they may experience both racial discrimination in society at large and discrimination due to sexual orientation within Black communities. Attachments to community members may play a role in addressing psychological distress for members of this vulnerable population. This analysis is based on 312 Black men who have sex with men recruited for a behavioural intervention trial in New York City. Analyses were conducted using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of discrimination and community attachment to psychological distress. Most participants (63%) reported exposure to both discrimination due to race and sexual orientation. However, a majority of participants (89%) also reported racial and/or sexual orientation community attachment. Psychological distress was significant and negatively associated with older age (40 years and above), being a high school graduate and having racial and/or sexual orientation community attachments. Psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with being HIV-positive and experiencing both racial and sexual orientation discrimination. Similar results were found in the multivariable model. Susceptibility to disparate psychological distress outcomes must be understood in relation to social membership, including its particular norms, structures and ecological milieu. PMID:25647586

  1. Sexual Stigma, Psychological Well-Being and Social Engagement among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule, or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual; limiting interaction with MSM to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Our findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of MSM in Beirut, much like what has been found in Western gay communities. PMID:23730919

  2. Partner Selection among Latino Immigrant Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Shedlin, Michele G.; Brooks, Kelly D.; Penha, Marcelo Montes; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592

  3. Engaging Men as Promotores de Salud: Perceptions of Community Health Workers among Latino Men in North Carolina*

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Torres, Laura; Fleming, Paul; Barrington, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The promotor de salud, or community health worker (CHW) role, is highly feminized and little is known about how men view their participation in CHW programs. We conducted in-depth interviews with Latino men in North Carolina to explore this gap. We used systematic coding and display procedures informed by Grounded Theory to analyze the data. Men described their communities as lacking cohesion, making integration of Latino immigrants difficult. Most did not consider themselves leaders or feel they had leaders in their communities. Their perceptions of the feminized CHW role as well as the volunteer or low-paid nature of CHW work conflicted with men’s provider role. They also did not think they could perform the CHW role because they lacked education, skills, and broad networks. Efforts to increase male participation in CHW programs in new Latino immigrant destinations will need to understand and address these gender and migration-related dynamics in order to engage both women and men in improving the health of their communities. PMID:24989349

  4. Suicidality, clinical depression, and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in men who have sex with men in Mumbai, India: findings from a community-recruited sample.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, Vivek R; Johnson, Carey V; Prabhugate, Priti; Safren, Steven A

    2011-08-01

    In India men who have sex with men (MSM) are a stigmatized and hidden population, vulnerable to a variety of psychosocial and societal stressors. This population is also much more likely to be HIV-infected compared to the general population. However, little research exists about how psychosocial and societal stressors result in mental health problems. A confidential, quantitative mental-health interview was conducted among 150 MSM in Mumbai, India at The Humsafar Trust, the largest non-governmental organization serving MSM in India. The interview collected information on sociodemographics and assessed self-esteem, social support and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants' mean age was 25.1 years (SD = 5.1); 21% were married to women. Forty-five percent reported current suicidal ideation, with 66% low risk, 19% moderate risk, and 15% high risk for suicide per MINI guidelines. Twenty-nine percent screened in for current major depression and 24% for any anxiety disorder. None of the respondents reported current treatment for any psychiatric disorder. In multivariable models controlling for age, education, income, and sexual identity, participants reporting higher levels of self-esteem and greater levels of satisfaction with the social support they receive from family and friends were at lower risk of suicidality (self-esteem AOR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.78-0.93; social support AOR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.93) and major depression (self-esteem AOR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71-0.89; social support AOR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54-0.85). Those who reported greater social support satisfaction were also at lower risk of a clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99). MSM in Mumbai have high rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Programs to improve self-esteem and perceived social support may improve these mental health outcomes. Because they are also a high-risk group for HIV

  5. The influence of stigma on the sexual risk behavior of rural men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Preston, Deborah Bray; D'Augelli, Anthony R; Kassab, Cathy D; Cain, Richard E; Schulze, Frederick W; Starks, Michael T

    2004-08-01

    Research investigating predictors of risky sexual behavior of rural MSM is sparse, even though the prevalence of HIV in rural areas has increased. This study explored two sets of predictors of 93 rural MSM's levels of risky sexual behavior: mental health variables and stigma emanating from men's family members, health care professionals, and people in the rural communities in which they live. Over 47% of the men were found to be at modified high to high risk. Logistic regression using a continuation logit model was used to test the relationship of the predictor variables and the four levels of risk. Findings indicate that self-esteem was predictive of the highest sexual risk behavior but not lower levels of risk. Stigma was predictive of modified high sexual risk when compared to low and no risk categories. No variables differentiated men at low risk from men at no risk. PMID:15342332

  6. Intragroup Stigma Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data Extraction from Craigslist Ads in 11 Cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vansia, Dhrutika; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) regularly experience homophobic discrimination and stigma. While previous research has examined homophobic and HIV-related intergroup stigma originating from non-MSM directed at MSM, less is known about intragroup stigma originating from within MSM communities. While some research has examined intragroup stigma, this research has focused mostly on HIV-related stigma. Intragroup stigma may have a unique influence on sexual risk-taking behaviors as it occurs between sexual partners. Online sexual networking venues provide a unique opportunity to examine this type of stigma. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the presence and patterns of various types of intragroup stigma represented in Men Seeking Men Craigslist sex ads. Methods Data were collected from ads on Craigslist sites from 11 of the 12 US metropolitan statistical areas with the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence. Two categories of data were collected: self-reported characteristics of the authors and reported biases in the ads. Chi-square tests were used to examine patterns of biases across cities and author characteristics. Results Biases were rarely reported in the ads. The most commonly reported biases were against men who were not “disease and drug free (DDF),” representing stigma against men living with HIV or a sexually transmitted infection. Patterns in bias reporting occurred across cities and author characteristics. There were no variations based on race, but ageism (mostly against older men) varied based on the ad author’s age and self-reported DDF status; bias against feminine gender expression varied based on self-reported sexual orientation; bias against “fat” men varied by self-reported DDF status; bias against “ugly” men varied by a self-report of being good-looking; and bias against people who do not have a DDF status varied based on self-reported HIV status and self-reported DDF status. Conclusions

  7. MSM law in francophone Africa and the fight against AIDS: the hypocrisy of certain countries.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Alain; Yomb, Yves; Bourrelly, Michel; Lorente, Nicolas; NKom, Alice

    2010-06-01

    In addition to being the targets of frequent discrimination and violence,African men who have sex with men (MSM) are being hit hard by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Although there is still insufficient research regarding the methods of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, several studies show that the prevalence of HIV infection among MSM is more than ten times higher than among the general population. PMID:21188938

  8. Men Who Have Sex With Men in Kisumu, Kenya: Comfort in Accessing Health Services and Willingness to Participate in HIV Prevention Studies

    PubMed Central

    OKALL, DANCUN O.; ONDENGE, KEN; NYAMBURA, MONICAH; OTIENO, FREDRICK O.; HARDNETT, FELICIA; TURNER, KYLE; MILLS, LISA A.; MASINYA, KENNEDY; CHEN, ROBERT T.; GUST, DEBORAH A.

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a crucial and marginalized at risk population for HIV in Africa but are poorly studied. Like other areas of Africa, homosexuality is illegal in Kenya. We assessed MSM comfort in accessing health services and willingness to participate in HIV prevention research in Kisumu, Kenya—an area of high HIV prevalence. We conducted a two-phase formative study with individual interviews (n = 15) and a structured survey (n = 51). Peer contact or snowball method (n = 43, 84.3%) was the primary recruitment strategy used to locate MSM. Exact logistic regression models were used for survey data analysis. Over 60% (32/51) of survey participants were not very comfortable seeking health services from a public hospital. Almost all MSM (49/51; 96.1%) reported willingness to be contacted to participate in future HIV research studies. Efforts to provide facilities that offer safe and confidential health services and health education for MSM is required. Continued community engagement with the MSM population in Kenya is needed to guide best practices for involving them in HIV prevention research. PMID:25089554

  9. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin

    2014-01-01

    We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7.6%) medium risk, 11 (30.6%) high risk, and 13 (7.7%) unsure risk). We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk. PMID:25053941

  10. HIV Risk and Perceptions of Masculinity among Young Black MSM

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Errol L.; Bogart, Laura M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Malebranche, David J.; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Young Black men who have sex with men (MSM) have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the US. Although reported rates of unprotected anal intercourse are similar to MSM of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, young Black MSM (YBMSM) aged 15–22 are 5 times more likely than comparably aged white MSM to be HIV-infected. We explored contextual social-environmental factors that may influence how YBMSM assess risk, choose partners, and make decisions about condom use. Methods We analyzed semi-structured interviews with 35 YBMSM (18–24) in New York City, upstate NY, and Atlanta. We used structured analytic coding based on a theoretical scheme that emerged from the data. Results Perception of masculinity was the primary contextual factor influencing partner selection, risk assessment, and condom decision-making. Four primary themes emerged: 1) greater preference for partners perceived as masculine; 2) discomfort with allowing men perceived as feminine to be the insertive partner in anal intercourse; 3) a power dynamic such that partners perceived as more masculine made condom-use decisions within the dyad; and 4) use of potential partners’ perceived masculinity to assess HIV risk. Conclusions Perceived masculinity may play a significant role in HIV risk for YBMSM and may be an important concept to consider in prevention strategies directed towards this population. PMID:22325136

  11. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romney, Paulette B.

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  12. What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know about Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Fact Sheet: What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases Recommend ... an STD, sexually active gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at ...

  13. Evidence-based HIV/STD prevention intervention for black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Painter, Thomas M; Tomlinson, Hank L; Alvarez, Maria E

    2014-04-18

    This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HIV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs. PMID:24743663

  14. Self-Reported Sexual Assault in Convicted Sex Offenders and Community Men

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A.; Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically-comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation towards sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23262829

  15. An HIV Intervention Tailored for Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in the House Ball Community

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Hotton, Anna L.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Telander, Kyle; Bell, Margo; Footer, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Black young men who have sex with men (BYMSM) are the group most disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States and most in need of efficacious interventions to address community-level factors that increase their vulnerability to HIV. The House Ball Community (HBC) is a distinct social network within the larger BYMSM community that may be particularly vulnerable to social norms and stigma around HIV. This study tailored an evidence-based, community-level popular opinion leader (OL) intervention for use within the HBC. The intervention, called POSSE, was then piloted to evaluate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy. Recruiting opinion leaders from the community and training them to deliver risk reduction messages was found to be feasible and highly acceptable. Community-level surveys (n=406) were completed over 5 waves of data collection. Overall exposure to the intervention increased across waves. Statistically significant (p < .05) declines were observed for multiple sexual partners, condomless anal intercourse with any male partners and with male partners of unknown HIV status. HIV stigma declined as well, but the trend was not statistically significant. PMID:25300319

  16. An HIV intervention tailored for black young men who have sex with men in the House Ball Community.

    PubMed

    Hosek, Sybil G; Lemos, Diana; Hotton, Anna L; Fernandez, M Isabel; Telander, Kyle; Footer, Dana; Bell, Margo

    2015-01-01

    Black young men who have sex with men (BYMSM) are the group most disproportionately impacted by HIV in the USA and most in need of efficacious interventions to address community-level factors that increase their vulnerability to HIV. The House Ball Community (HBC) is a distinct social network within the larger BYMSM community that may be particularly vulnerable to social norms and stigma around HIV. This study tailored an evidence-based, community-level popular opinion leader (OL) intervention for use within the HBC. The intervention, called Promoting Ovahness through Safer Sex Education (POSSE), was then piloted to evaluate feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy. Recruiting OLs from the community and training them to deliver risk reduction messages were found to be feasible and highly acceptable. Community-level surveys (n = 406) were completed over five waves of data collection. Overall exposure to the intervention increased across waves. Statistically significant (p < .05) declines were observed for multiple sexual partners, condomless anal intercourse with any male partners, and with male partners of unknown HIV status. HIV stigma declined as well, but the trend was not statistically significant. PMID:25300319

  17. Sex in public and private settings among Latino MSM

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A; Iracheta, Miguel A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute a group at high risk for HIV. Recent approaches to understanding sexual risk have emphasized the role that contextual factors can play in shaping behavior. This study examined sexual behavior of Latino MSM in private and public settings. First, a within-person comparison of behaviors performed in sexual encounters that occurred in public and private settings was conducted. Unprotected anal intercourse and other sexual behaviors involving anal stimulation were more common in private settings; group sex was more likely in public settings. Second, a between-person analysis compared sexual behaviors of MSM who went to three different types of public sex settings during the previous six months. The types were: 1) commercial sex venues (CSVs), which were defined as businesses with the function of providing a space where MSM can go to have sexual encounters, such as gay bathhouses; 2) commercial sex environments (CSEs), which were defined as businesses with another apparent function, but in which MSM sometimes have sexual encounters, such as gay bars or pornographic movie houses; and 3) public sex environments (PSEs), which were defined as free public areas where MSM can go to find partners for anonymous sex, such as parks or public restrooms. Results indicated that anal sexual behavior was most likely to occur in CSVs and least likely in PSEs, but the probability of unprotected anal intercourse was not found to differ among the three types of settings. Behavioral differences were discussed in terms of structural conditions related to privacy and safety, and psychological factors related to intimacy. PMID:20461575

  18. Stigma and self-esteem across societies: avoiding blanket psychological responses to gay men experiencing homophobia

    PubMed Central

    Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Lyons, Evanthia; Dinos, Sokratis

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method The relationship between homophobia (varying from actual and perceived to internalised) and measures of well-being is well documented. A study in Athens, Greece and London, UK attempted to examine this relationship in two cities with potentially different levels of homophobia. One-hundred and eighty-eight men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London and 173 MSM living in Athens completed a survey investigating their views on their sexuality, perceptions of local homophobia and their identity evaluation in terms of global self-esteem. Results The results confirmed a negative association between homophobia and self-esteem within each city sample. However, Athens MSM, despite perceiving significantly higher levels of local homophobia than London MSM, did not differ on most indicators of internalised homophobia and scored higher on global self-esteem than London MSM. The city context had a significant impact on the relationship. Clinical implications The findings are discussed in relation to the implications they pose for mental health professionals dealing with MSM from communities experiencing variable societal stigmatisation and its effect on a positive sense of self. PMID:26755948

  19. Stigma and self-esteem across societies: avoiding blanket psychological responses to gay men experiencing homophobia.

    PubMed

    Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Lyons, Evanthia; Dinos, Sokratis

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method The relationship between homophobia (varying from actual and perceived to internalised) and measures of well-being is well documented. A study in Athens, Greece and London, UK attempted to examine this relationship in two cities with potentially different levels of homophobia. One-hundred and eighty-eight men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London and 173 MSM living in Athens completed a survey investigating their views on their sexuality, perceptions of local homophobia and their identity evaluation in terms of global self-esteem. Results The results confirmed a negative association between homophobia and self-esteem within each city sample. However, Athens MSM, despite perceiving significantly higher levels of local homophobia than London MSM, did not differ on most indicators of internalised homophobia and scored higher on global self-esteem than London MSM. The city context had a significant impact on the relationship. Clinical implications The findings are discussed in relation to the implications they pose for mental health professionals dealing with MSM from communities experiencing variable societal stigmatisation and its effect on a positive sense of self. PMID:26755948

  20. Home sampling for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in men who have sex with men: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Martin; Wayal, Sonali; Smith, Helen; Llewellyn, Carrie; Alexander, Sarah; Ison, Catherine; Parry, John V; Singleton, Garth; Perry, Nicky; Richardson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To determine uptake of home sampling kit (HSK) for STI/HIV compared to clinic-based testing, whether the availability of HSK would increase STI testing rates amongst HIV infected MSM, and those attending a community-based HIV testing clinic compared to historical control. Prospective observational study in three facilities providing STI/HIV testing services in Brighton, UK was conducted. Adult MSM attending/contacting a GUM clinic requesting an STI screen (group 1), HIV infected MSM attending routine outpatient clinic (group 2), and MSM attending a community-based rapid HIV testing service (group 3) were eligible. Participants were required to have no symptomatology consistent with STI and known to be immune to hepatitis A and B (group 1). Eligible men were offered a HSK to obtain self-collected specimens as an alternative to routine testing. HSK uptake compared to conventional clinic-based STI/HIV testing in group 1, increase in STI testing rates due to availability of HSK compared to historical controls in group 2 and 3, and HSK return rates in all settings were calculated. Among the 128 eligible men in group 1, HSK acceptance was higher (62.5% (95% CI: 53.5-70.9)) compared to GUM clinic-based testing (37.5% (95% CI: 29.1-46.5)), (p = 0.0004). Two thirds of eligible MSM offered an HSK in all three groups accepted it, but HSK return rates varied (highest in group 1, 77.5%, lowest in group 3, 16%). HSK for HIV testing was acceptable to 81% of men in group 1. Compared to historical controls, availability of HSK increased the proportion of MSM testing for STIs in group 2 but not in group 3. HSK for STI/HIV offers an alternative to conventional clinic-based testing for MSM seeking STI screening. It significantly increases STI testing uptake in HIV infected MSM. HSK could be considered as an adjunct to clinic-based services to further improve STI/HIV testing in MSM. PMID:25848769

  1. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  2. Switching on After Nine: Black gay-identified men's perceptions of sexual identities and partnerships in South African towns.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Tocco, Jack Ume; Osmand, Thomas; Sandfort, Theo; Lane, Tim

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable diversity, fluidity and complexity in the expressions of sexuality and gender among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some non-gay identified MSM are known colloquially by gay-identified men in Mpumalanga, Province, South Africa, as 'After-Nines' because they do not identify as gay and present as straight during the day but also have sex with other men at night. Based on, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in two districts in Mpumalanga, we explored Black gay-identified men's perceptions of and relationships with After-Nine men, focusing on sexual and gender identities and their social consequences. Gay-identified men expressed ambivalence about their After-Nine partners, desiring them for their masculinity, yet often feeling dissatisfied and exploited in their relationships with them. The exchange of sex for commodities, especially alcohol, was common. Gay men's characterisation of After-Nines as men who ignore them during the day but have sex with them at night highlights the diversity of how same-sex practicing men perceive themselves and their sexual partners. Sexual health promotion programmes targeting 'MSM' must understand this diversity to effectively support the community in developing strategies for reaching and engaging different groups of gay and non-gay identified men. PMID:26878380

  3. Willingness to Accept HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuming; Li, Dongliang; Zhang, Lifen; Fan, Wensheng; Yang, Xueying; Yu, Mingrun; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Li; Zhang, Zheng; Shi, Wei; Luo, Fengji; Ruan, Yuhua; Jin, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the awareness and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and potential predicting factors. Methods This study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Study participants, randomly selected from an MSM cohort, completed a structured questionnaire, and provided their blood samples to test for HIV infection and syphilis. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors associated with willingness to accept (WTA) PrEP. Factors independently associated with willingness to accept were identified by entering variables into stepwise logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 152 MSM completed the survey; 11.2% had ever heard of PrEP and 67.8% were willing to accept it. Univariate analysis showed that age, years of education, consistent condom use in the past 6 months, heterosexual behavior in the past 6 months, having ever heard of PrEP and the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, and worry about antiretroviral drugs cost were significantly associated with willingness to accept PrEP. In the multivariate logistic regression model, only consistent condom use in the past 6 months (odds ratio [OR]: 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13–0.70) and having ever heard of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs (OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.14–0.67) were independently associated with willingness to accept PrEP. Conclusions The awareness of PrEP in the MSM population was low. Sexual behavioral characteristics and knowledge about ART drugs may have effects on willingness to accept PrEP. Comprehensive prevention strategies should be recommended in the MSM community. PMID:22479320

  4. Optimizing Partner Notification Programs for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Factorial Survey Results from South China

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D.; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Cohen, Myron S.; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Syphilis is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Syphilis partner notification (PN) programs targeting MSM has been considered as one of effective strategies to prevention and control of the infection in the population. We examined willingness and preferences for PN among MSM to measure feasibility and optimize uptake. Methods Participation in a syphilis PN program was measured using a factorial survey from both the perspective of the index patient and the partner. Respondents were recruited from April-July 2011 using convenience sampling at two sites—a MSM sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic and a MSM community based organization (CBO). Respondents first evaluated three factorial survey vignettes to measure probability of participation and then an anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire. A two-level mixed linear model was fitted for the factorial survey analysis. Results In 372 respondents with mean age (± SD) 28.5 (± 6.0) years, most were single (82.0%) and closeted gays (66.7%). The Internet was the most frequent place to search for sex. Few (31.2%) had legal names for casual partners, but most had instant messenger (86.5%) and mobile phone numbers (77.7%). The mean probability of participation in a syphilis PN program was 64.5% (± 32.4%) for index patients and 63.7% (± 32.6%) for partners. Referral of the partner to a private clinic or MSM CBO for follow-up decreased participation compared to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or public STD clinic. Conclusions Enhanced PN services may be feasible among MSM in South China. Internet and mobile phone PN may contact partners untraceable by traditional PN. Referral of partners to the local CDC or public STD clinic may maximize PN participation. PMID:27462724

  5. Willingness to Participate in HIV Vaccine Trials among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chennai and Mumbai, India: A Social Ecological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Singhal, Neeti; Jerajani, Jhalak; Shunmugam, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Background Recruitment of low- and middle-income country volunteers from most-at-risk populations in HIV vaccine trials is essential to vaccine development. In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionately high risk for HIV infection and an important population for trial recruitment. Investigations of willingness to participate (WTP) in HIV vaccine trials have focused predominantly on individual-level determinants. We explored multi-level factors associated with WTP among MSM in India. Methods We conducted 12 focus groups (n = 68) with low socioeconomic MSM in Chennai and Mumbai, and 14 key informant interviews with MSM community leaders and service providers. Focus groups/interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Two bilingual investigators conducted thematic analysis using line-by-line coding and a constant comparative method, with member-checking by community representatives. Results Factors associated with WTP were evidenced across the social ecology of MSM–social-structural: poverty, HIV-, sexual- and gender non-conformity stigma, institutionalized discrimination and government sponsorship of trials; community-level: endorsement by MSM community leaders and organizations, and fear of within-group discrimination; interpersonal: anticipated family discord, partner rejection, having financially-dependent family members and disclosure of same-sex sexuality; and individual-level: HIV vaccine trial knowledge and misconceptions, safety concerns, altruism and preventive misconception. Conclusion Pervasive familial, community and social-structural factors characteristic of the Indian sociocultural context may complicate individual-focused approaches to WTP and thereby constrain the effectiveness of interventions to support recruitment and retention in HIV vaccine trials. Interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination against MSM and people living with HIV, capacity-building of MSM community organizations and

  6. Willingness to Take, Use of, and Indications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—20 US Cities, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hoots, Brooke E.; Finlayson, Teresa; Nerlander, Lina; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective prevention tool for people at substantial risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To monitor the current state of PrEP use among men who have sex with men (MSM), we report on willingness to use PrEP and PrEP utilization. To assess whether the MSM subpopulations at highest risk for infection have indications for PrEP according to the 2014 clinical guidelines, we estimated indications for PrEP for MSM by demographics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2014 cycle of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system among MSM who tested HIV negative in NHBS and were currently sexually active. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from log-linked Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to explore differences in willingness to take PrEP, PrEP use, and indications for PrEP. Results Whereas over half of MSM said they were willing to take PrEP, only about 4% reported using PrEP. There was no difference in willingness to take PrEP between black and white MSM. PrEP use was higher among white compared with black MSM and among those with greater education and income levels. Young, black MSM were less likely to have indications for PrEP compared with young MSM of other races/ethnicities. Conclusions Young, black MSM, despite being at high risk of HIV acquisition, may not have indications for PrEP under the current guidelines. Clinicians may need to consider other factors besides risk behaviors such as HIV incidence and prevalence in subgroups of their communities when considering prescribing PrEP. PMID:27282710

  7. The Association of HIV Stigma and HIV/STD Knowledge With Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent and Adult Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Aluoch, Marilyn; Thach, Chia T; Owiredu Hanson, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-06-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV seroprevalence, but despite a critical need to address this public health concern, research evidence has been extremely limited on influences on sexual risk behavior among MSM in Ghana. To investigate associations between HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, and sexual behaviors in a sample of MSM in Ghana, we conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a non-probability sample of Ghanaian MSM (N = 137). Nearly all the men (93%) had more than one current sex partner (M = 5.11, SD = 7.4). Of those reported partners, the average number of current female sexual partners was 1.1 (SD = 2.6). Overall, knowledge levels about HIV and STDs were low, and HIV stigma was high. There was no age-related difference in HIV stigma. Younger MSM (≤25 years) used condoms less often for anal and vaginal sex than did those over 25. Relative frequency of condom use for oral sex was lower in younger men who had higher STD knowledge and also was lower in older men who reported high HIV stigma. Knowledge and stigma were not associated with condom use for anal or vaginal sex in either age group. These descriptive data highlight the need for the development of intervention programs that address HIV/STD prevention knowledge gaps and reduce HIV stigma in Ghanaian communities. Intervention research in Ghana should address age-group-specific HIV prevention needs of MSM youth. PMID:25809638

  8. Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men)

    MedlinePlus

    ... its early stages. A single intramuscular injection of penicillin, an antibiotic, will cure a person who has ... a year. For people who are allergic to penicillin, other antibiotics are available to treat syphilis. There ...

  9. Sexual transmission of intestinal parasites in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Abdolrasouli, Alireza; McMillan, Alexander; Ackers, John P

    2009-09-01

    Direct oral-anal sexual contact is a common practice among men who have sex with men (MSM) and is implicated in the transmission of various enteric pathogens including intestinal parasites. The present study reviewed data on the sexual transmission of intestinal parasites among MSM, and highlighted advances in the diagnosis of such infections. The emergence and spread of intestinal parasites is of public health concern particularly in the homosexual community. Intestinal parasitic infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in this population. Combination of traditional diagnostic procedures with implementation of testing based on novel molecular methods in the accurate identification of intestinal parasites is important so that early intervention and control of infection is facilitated. PMID:19653954

  10. Lifetime Substance Use and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Predict Treatment Response to Contingency Management among Homeless, Substance-dependent MSM

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J; Peck, James A; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Nuno, Miriam; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    Homeless, substance-dependent MSM continue to suffer health disparities, including high rates of HIV. One-hundred and thirty one homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM) were randomized into a contingency management (CM) intervention to increase substance abstinence and health-promoting behaviors. Participants were recruited from a community-based, health education/risk reduction HIV prevention program and the research activities were also conducted at the community site. Secondary analyses were conducted to identify and characterize treatment responders (defined as participants in a contingency management intervention who scored at or above the median on three primary outcomes). Treatment responders were more likely to be Caucasian/white (p < .05); reported fewer years of lifetime methamphetamine, cocaine, and polysubstance use (p ≤ .05); and reported more recent sexual partners and high-risk sexual behaviors than non-responders (p < .05). The application of evidence-based interventions continues to be a public health priority, especially in the effort to implement effective interventions for use in community settings. The identification of both treatment responders and non-responders is important for intervention development tailored to specific populations, both in service programs and research studies, to optimize outcomes among highly impacted populations. PMID:22880545

  11. How Participants Envision Community Music in Welsh Men's Choirs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Rohwer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe choristers' perceptions of Welsh men's choir participation. Four choirs were observed in concert and rehearsal settings across Wales. Focus group interviews were conducted with between 4 and 10 members in each of the 4 choral settings for a total of 24 total interview respondents. The interviewees had a…

  12. Accessing HIV testing and treatment among men who have sex with men in China: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongyi; Yan, Hongjing; Yang, Chuankun; Raymond, H Fisher; Li, Jianjun; Yang, Haitao; Zhao, Jinkou; Huan, Xiping; Stall, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Barriers to HIV testing and HIV care and treatment pose significant challenges to HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. We carried out a qualitative study to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing and treatment among Chinese MSM. In 2012, seven focus group (FG) discussions were conducted with 49 MSM participants in Nanjing, China. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a diverse group of MSM participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect FG data. Major barriers to testing included gay- and HIV-related stigma and discrimination, relationship type and partner characteristics, low perception of risk or threat, HIV is incurable or equals death, concerns of confidentiality, unaware that testing is offered for free, and name-based testing. Key facilitators of testing included engaging in high-risk sex, sense of responsibility for partner, collectivism, testing as a part of standard/routine medical care, MSM-friendly medical personnel, increased acceptance of gay/bisexual men by the general public, legal recognition and protection of homosexuals, and home self-testing. Barriers to treatment included negative coping, nondisclosure to families, misconceptions of domestically produced antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and the benefits of treatment, and costs associated with long-term treatment. Facilitators of treatment included sense of hopefulness that a cure would be found, the cultural value of longevity, peer social support and professional psychological counseling, affordable and specialized treatment and care, and reduced HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Finally, for both testing and treatment, more educational and promotional activities within MSM communities and among the general public are needed. PMID:23909807

  13. A Comparison of Men Who Committed Different Types of Sexual Assault in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining predictors of different types of sexual assault perpetration in a community sample. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 163 men in one large urban community. As hypothesized, many variables that are significant predictors of sexual assault perpetration in…

  14. Exploring Living-Learning Communities as a Venue for Men's Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Johnson, Brianne N.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how male undergraduate students experienced living-learning community environments. Findings revealed that living-learning communities provided men a "safe haven" from rigid gender role expectations, offered a plethora of involvement opportunities, and fostered relationships with faculty and peers. The findings…

  15. Taking Charge at Any Age: Learning and Wellbeing by Older Men through Community Organisations in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares learning narratives associated with older men's participation in three community organisations in an Australian rural setting: an adult and community education provider, an emergency service organization and an aged care facility. The interview data are from a larger Australian study of learning in community…

  16. Community Involvement, Perceived Control, and Attitudes toward Aging among Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A person-environment approach was used to explore the relationship between community involvement and attitudes toward aging among middle-age and older lesbians and gay men. Specifically, this study investigated the relationships between participation in gay community activities, perceived control, and aging-related concerns among two…

  17. Attitudes Toward HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: Concerns Underlying Reluctance to Test.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Sitzler, Cheryl

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) can produce viral suppression of HIV, maintain health, and prevent onward HIV transmission from infected persons to their sexual partners, giving rise to the concept of treatment as prevention. Successful implementation of test-and-treat strategies rests on the early detection of HIV infection through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) followed by entry and retention in care, ART initiation and adherence, and subsequent viral suppression. In the United States, African American men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and have high rates of undetected and untreated HIV infection. However, little research has examined racial minority MSM's views about HIV testing. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 96 key informants knowledgeable about racial minority MSM as well as 100 African American MSM community members in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Miami. Most men in the sample were aware of the availability of testing and knew testing locations, but many voiced great personal ambivalence about being tested, feared knowing their HIV status, expressed concern about stigma and loss of confidentiality, and held beliefs indicative of medical mistrust. Participants did not spontaneously cite benefits of being tested, risk reduction behavior changes made as a consequence of testing, nor the benefits of testing to get early medical care for HIV infection. There is a gap between the public health field's perception of testing benefits and the beliefs about testing held by racial minority MSM in this sample. To increase the desired outcomes from VCT for minority MSM, VCT promotion should address the concerns of African American MSM and underscore the benefits of early entry into medical care. PMID:26010312

  18. Dyadic Characteristics and Intimate Partner Violence among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Salazar, Laura F; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although the research community has begun to recognize intimate partner violence (IPV) as an important issue in same-sex relationships, there has been a lack of attention to characteristics of these relationships that may be associated with IPV. In particular, there has been a lack of attention paid to the associations between dyadic characteristics and IPV in same-sex relationships. This paper examined associations between dyadic characteristics, including relationship satisfaction, communal coping and efficacy, and perpetrating and experiencing IPV among a sample of United States men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: We collected data via an online survey with 528 MSM, who were greater than 18 years of age and reported at least one male sex partner in the last 12 months. The analysis examined dyadic factors associated with reporting of experiencing and perpetrating emotional violence, physical violence, and sexual violence. Results: The prevalence of violence in the sample ranged from nine percent reporting perpetrating sexual violence to 33% of men reporting experiencing emotional violence. MSM who reported greater satisfaction with their relationship or who reported a higher degree of concordance with their partner on lifestyle choices were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating emotional violence. MSM who perceived a stigma to being in a male same-sex couple were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating sexual violence. Conclusion: The results presented here demonstrate high levels of IPV among MSM and that dyadic characteristics are associated with the occurrence of IPV. Understanding relationship characteristics associated with increased IPV among same-sex male couples can contribute to the development of more accurate IPV screening tools, and more sensitively and appropriately designed intervention messages. PMID:21731790

  19. Developing a Conceptual Framework of Seroadaptive Behaviors in HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Rönn, Minttu; White, Peter J.; Hughes, Gwenda; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background. Seroadaptive behaviors are strategies employed by men who have sex with men (MSM) to reduce the transmission risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that they contribute to the increasing diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-diagnosed MSM. To understand the context in which the reemerging sexually transmitted infections appear, we developed a social epidemiological model incorporating the multiple factors influencing seroadaptive behaviors. Methods. A literature review of seroadaptive behaviors in HIV-diagnosed MSM was conducted. The literature was synthesized using a social epidemiological perspective. Results. Seroadaptive behaviors are adopted by MSM in high-income countries and are a way for HIV-diagnosed men to manage and enjoy their sexual lives. Influences are apparent at structural, community, interpersonal, and intrapersonal levels. There is little evidence of whether and when the behavior forms part of a premeditated strategy; it seems dependent on the social context and on time since HIV diagnosis. Social rules of HIV disclosure and perception of risk depend on the setting where partners are encountered. Conclusions. Seroadaptive behaviors are strongly context dependent and can reduce or increase transmission risk for different infectious diseases. Further data collection and mathematical modeling can help us explore the specific conditions in more detail. PMID:25381379

  20. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among a sample of general MSM and money boys in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y; He, Na; Huang, Z Jennifer; Zheng, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The use and misuse of alcohol and their relation to risky sex have received modest scholarly attention in China. This type of research in high HIV/STI groups such as men who have sex with men (general MSM) and men who sell sex to other men ("money boys") (MB) in China is essentially absent. Therefore, the primary purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the types of alcohol consumed and levels of daily alcohol consumption among Chinese general MSM and MB in Shanghai, China. A secondary purpose was to explore demographic, lifetime sexual behavior, and psychosocial correlates of daily consumption levels. The sample consisted of 404 MSM (200 MB) who live in Shanghai, China. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and filled out a cross-sectional behavioral survey. Where appropriate, comparisons were made between MB and general MSM. Over 73% of participants reported drinking at least moderately every day. MB reported drinking Western red wine and other Western hard liquors (e.g., vodka) more frequently than general MSM. Conversely, general MSM consumed Chinese white wine more frequently than MB. Results from the regression analyses showed that MSM having higher lifetime sexual risks were more likely to drink in excess; though MB with greater social provisions were less likely to drink in excess. These results begin to highlight high levels of drinking and drinking-sexual risk relationships among groups of general MSM and MB and are useful for guiding intervention efforts among high-risk groups in China. PMID:21902561

  1. Community influences on married men's uptake of HIV testing in eight African countries.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Miriam Elfstrom, K; Winter, Amy

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15-54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Multilevel models were fitted in each country for the outcome of ever receiving an HIV test. After controlling for individual and household level factors, community level factors of demographics, economics, and behavior and knowledge remain significantly associated with HIV testing among men. The results of this analysis highlight the need to recognize the impact of community influences on men's HIV test seeking behavior, and to harness these community factors in the design of programs aimed at encouraging the uptake of HIV testing among men in Africa. PMID:22677974

  2. Sex in the city: privacy-making practices, spatialized intimacies and the environmental risks of men-who-have-sex-with-men in South India.

    PubMed

    Lorway, Robert; Hwang, Sandra D H; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Pasha, Akram; Rahman, Syed Hafeez Ur; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James

    2011-09-01

    Employing community-based approaches, the spatialization of sexual risk among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) at local cruising spots was explored in South India. To move beyond individualistic and structural deterministic understandings of sexual risk the study examined how erotic associations and networks formed and dissolved as social actors connect to each other through their material world (which includes other bodies). Crowding was important for safely establishing intimacy in public but also created contexts of discrimination and violence, particularly for feminine-acting males. Risk itineraries drawn by MSM anticipated fluctuating levels of risk, enabling them to avoid dangerous situations. Although sexual typologies connected gender nonconforming males to HIV prevention networks, they reinforce the exclusion of men who did not identify with sexual minority identities. Future work must therefore address the HIV prevention needs of men whose identities cannot be readily separated from "the general population". PMID:21703909

  3. Sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Henry J C

    2014-01-01

    Homosexuality is a global human phenomenon. Although the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of disorders more than 35years ago, homophobia among physicians is still widely prevalent. Men who have sex with men (MSM) form a relatively new epidemiological risk group for STI. To perform correct management, clinicians evaluating men with male-male sex contacts for STI related complaints or STI screening must obtain a thorough sexual history. Emerging STI like lymphogranuloma venereum, hepatitis C, and multidrug resistant N. gonorrhea strains have been described first in MSM. STI related proctitis often occur in MSM. Within the MSM population, HIV positive patients form a special group affected by STI related diseases, such as anal carcinoma and neurosyphilis. The final part of this review concludes with recommendations to reduce the STI burden in MSM. PMID:24559552

  4. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. PMID:26829254

  5. Exploring Men's Perpetrator Programs in Small Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Shirley; Wendt, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of an exploratory study conducted in a small rural community in South Australia in 2006. Human service providers, experienced in working with victims and/or perpetrators of domestic violence, were asked about their experiences and perceptions of perpetrator programs in small rural communities. Specifically,…

  6. Depression and Social Stigma among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM. PMID:25969182

  7. HIV testing among MSM in Bogotá, Colombia: The role of structural and individual characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.; del Río González, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A. Aguayo; Pérez, Carolin

    2014-01-01

    This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as interrelationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180

  8. Depression and Social Stigma Among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM. PMID:25969182

  9. [Review on the association between social culture and HIV prevalence among MSM in China].

    PubMed

    He, Huijing; Lyu, Fan

    2015-11-01

    Social culture have significant influence on HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM), have their own sub-culture, by which made them very different with other population in social norm, behavior mode, as well as some HIV related behavior and the disease transmission risk. Up to date, study focused on the association between social culture and HIV transmission among MSM was limited, thus we reviewed relevant studies in the view of social culture and sub-culture of MSM, analyzed how social culture could potentially influence HIV transmission, and how sub-culture could affect MSM's friend-making, HIV risk behaviors in three aspects including social identity, social norm and social development. Furthermore, we provided some recommendations and suggestions on the future work. PMID:26833018

  10. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors among HIV-positive MSM in Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Wang, Jun; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Xue; Chen, Jian; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Bi, Peng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Anhui, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit HIV-positive MSM in Anhui, China. A total of 184 HIV-positive MSM gave informed consent and completed the interview. Correlates of suicidal ideation were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Fifty-seven (31%) of HIV-positive MSM had suicidal ideations within six months before the interview. Multivariable analyses showed that learning of their HIV status in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6-7.3), perceived HIV stigma (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.2), depression symptoms (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-5.9) and anxiety symptoms (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-6.1) were significantly associated with the suicidal ideation among HIV-positive MSM. The results indicated that suicidal ideation was common among HIV-positive MSM in Anhui, China. There is an urgent need to establish psychological counselling services among HIV-positive MSM in China. Targeting of these potential risk factors could be an effective approach to reduce the suicide risk among this high-risk subgroup by the implementation of early intervention measurements. PMID:25060699

  11. Sexual risk and HIV prevention behaviours among African-American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the feasibility of recruiting minority men who have sex with men Facebook users for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies and notes demographic and sexual risk behaviours. Facebook-registered men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 118) were recruited using online and offline methods. Participants validated Facebook-user status through using a Facebook Connect (computer science) application. Participants were primarily Latino (60.2%) and African-American (28.0%), with 33.1% using social media to find sex partners. Black MSM social networking users reported engaging in a lower frequency (coefficient = -0.48, p < 0.05) of unprotected receptive anal intercourse compared to Latino MSM. Results suggest that minority social media users can be recruited for HIV studies and that sexual risk behavioural differences exist among minority social networking users. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating technologies into population-focused HIV interventions. PMID:23970575

  12. How do community-based HIV prevention programmes for men who have sex with men 'travel'? Lessons from the Ukwazana/Zwakalani journey in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Andrew; de Swardt, Glenn; McIntyre, James; Struthers, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Research reveals how homophobia and stigma link closely to HIV among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper considers the varying impact of homophobic stigma on HIV prevention programmes among men who have sex with men in South Africa. It explores how a community-based HIV prevention programme based in the peri-urban townships of Cape Town was 'translated' to peri-urban Johannesburg. Drawing on interviews with volunteers and programme facilitators in Johannesburg, it argues that an altered homophobic environment to that found in Cape Town gave different opportunities to engage both with other men who have sex with men and the broader community. It also argues that programme facilitators should be mindful of how varying degrees of homophobic stigma may relate to broader theoretical debates about sexual binary relationships, which can help us understand why particular programmes choose to focus on certain activities rather than others. PMID:25752360

  13. The Mpowerment Project: a community-level HIV prevention intervention for young gay men.

    PubMed Central

    Kegeles, S M; Hays, R B; Coates, T J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Since young gay men are engaging in alarmingly high rates of unsafe sex and few seek help for changing risky behaviors, community-level programs to prevent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among them are urgently needed. METHODS. We developed and implemented a community-level HIV prevention program in a midsized Oregon community. The peer-led program had three components: out-reach, small groups, and a publicity campaign. Independently from the prevention program, a cohort of young gay men (n = 300) was surveyed in this and in a similar comparison community pre- and postintervention. RESULTS. Following intervention, the proportion of men engaging in any unprotected anal intercourse decreased from 41.0% to 30.0% (-27% from baseline), decreased from 20.2% to 11.1% (-45% from baseline) with nonprimary partners, and decreased from 58.9% to 44.7% (-24% from baseline) with boyfriends. No significant changes occurred in the comparison community over the same period. CONCLUSIONS. This prevention approach effectively led to HIV risk reduction. To reach risk-taking young gay men, HIV prevention activities must be embedded in social activities and community life. PMID:8712273

  14. "HIV Testing Is so Gay": The Role of Masculine Gender Role Conformity in HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Torrey, Carrie; Michaels, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new cases of HIV infection in the United States. Yet, many MSM are unaware of their HIV serostatus. Consistent with research indicating that gender role conformity impacts health behaviors, this study examined how masculine norms may influence HIV testing among MSM in the United…

  15. Trends in Infectious Diseases and the Male to Female Ratio: Possible Clues to Changes in Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrami, John F.; Shouse, R. Luke; Blake, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a priority population for HIV care and prevention programs. This report describes HIV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) trends among MSM in metropolitan Atlanta by analyzing nine databases. We describe the use of the male-to-female (M:F) ratio, a surrogate marker for MSM in databases without…

  16. “What Could Have Been Different”: A Qualitative Study of Syndemic Theory and HIV Prevention among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Thomas; Johnson, Amy K.; Garofalo, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) experience multiple health disparities, including alcohol and drug use, partner violence, victimization due to sexual orientation, and HIV infection. Syndemic theorists explain the clustering of these disparities among adult MSM as a result of cultural marginalization. To date, research on a similar emerging syndemic among young MSM has been limited to quantitative studies. This study seeks to better understand these disparities, and how they may cluster together, via qualitative interviews with 21 ethnically diverse, HIV infected young MSM aged 18–24 years old. These youth report a lack of gay-specific HIV prevention education, absence of role models, and lack of productive future goal-related activities as factors related to their acquisition of HIV, and downplay substance use as a factor. Although not necessarily the components traditionally cited by syndemic theorists, these findings support the notion that multiple factors of cultural marginalization cluster together in the lives of young MSM, and underscore the importance of community-level interventions, such as sexual health education, access to mentors, and assistance with future goal setting and planning. PMID:24244112

  17. A Comparison of Men Who Have Sex with Men, People Who Inject Drugs and High-Risk Heterosexuals' Risk for HIV Infection, San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Raymond, H F; Ick, T O; Chen, Y-H

    2016-02-01

    HIV in the United States is concentrated in populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), women of color and people living in poverty. These populations are labeled high-risk for HIV infection because of the higher levels of HIV or HIV risk taking behaviors seen in these groups compared to other sub-populations. It is also possible that a group may engage in behaviors that are "high-risk" for HIV infection but never become infected since HIV is not present or not present to a great extent in their social or sexual networks. We analyzed samples of MSM, PWID and high-risk heterosexuals (HRH) collected through the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system in San Francisco to examine HIV risk taking and HIV burden to determine if the label "high-risk" is appropriately applied. NHBS samples MSM using time location sampling and PWID and HRH using Respondent Driven Sampling. We sampled 508 MSM in 2011, 570 PWID in 2012 and 267 HRH in 2013. There were, as expected, differences in demographic characteristics across the three groups. HRH had a greater number of high-risk behaviors compared to MSM and PWID but had the lowest HIV prevalence. Focusing on risk behavior alone to label populations without considering the background HIV prevalence in communities, the types of risks engaged in and actual HIV infections may obscure which populations truly merit the label "high-risk" for HIV infection. PMID:26334446

  18. Emerging themes for sensitivity training modules of African healthcare workers attending to men who have sex with men: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Maartje; van der Elst, Elise M.; Micheni, Murugi; Gichuru, Evanson; Musyoki, Helgar; Duby, Zoe; Lange, Joep M.A.; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity training of front-line African health care workers (HCWs) attending to men who have sex with men (MSM) is actively promoted through national HIV prevention programming in Kenya. Over 970 Kenyan-based HCWs have completed an eight-modular online training free of charge (http://www.marps-africa.org) since its creation in 2011. Before updating these modules, we performed a systematic review of published literature of MSM studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) in the period 2011–2014, to investigate if recent studies provided: important new knowledge currently not addressed in existing online modules; contested information of existing module topics; or added depth to topics covered already. We used learning objectives of the eight existing modules to categorise data from the literature. If data could not be categorised, new modules were suggested. Our review identified 142 MSM studies with data from sSA, including 34 studies requiring module updates, one study contesting current content, and 107 studies reinforcing existing module content. ART adherence and community engagement were identified as new modules. Recent MSM studies conducted in sSA provided new knowledge, contested existing information, and identified new areas of MSM service needs currently unaddressed in the online training. PMID:25596188

  19. HIV-Untested Men who have Sex with Men in South Africa: The Perception of Not Being at Risk and Fear of Being Tested

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Juan A.; Yi, Huso; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Rich, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A community-based needs assessment among men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa found that 27% (n=280/1045) of MSM had never been tested for HIV. The most frequently reported reasons for not having been tested were the perception of not being at risk (57%) and fear of being tested (52%). This article explores factors associated with these two reasons among the untested MSM. In multiple logistic regressions, the perception of not being at risk of HIV infection was negatively associated with being black, coloured or Indian, being sexually active, knowing people living with HIV, and a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past 24 months (adj. OR = 0.24, 0.32, 0.38, and 0.22, respectively). Fear of being tested for HIV was positively associated with being black, coloured or Indian, preferred gender expression as feminine, being sexually active, a history of STIs, and experience of victimization on the basis of sexual orientation (adj. OR = 2.90, 4.07, 4.62, 5.05, and 2.34, respectively). Results suggest that HIV prevention programs directed at South African MSM will be more effective if testing and treatment of STIs are better integrated into HIV testing systems. Finally, social exclusion on the basis of race and sexual orientation ought to be addressed in order to reach hidden, at-risk, populations of MSM. PMID:23054041

  20. Attitudes toward, and interest in, the test-and-treat strategy for HIV prevention among Thai men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Teeratakulpisarn, Nipat; Pakam, Charnwit; Kanteeranon, Thaneth; Chaiya, Orathai; Mansawat, Thanaporn; Teeratakulpisarn, Somsong; Nonenoy, Siriporn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes toward, and interest in, the test-and-treat strategy, comprising regular HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 363 participants completed the questionnaires before and after learning about their HIV status. Previous HIV testing reported by 69.8% and 34.7% tested at least annually. Before pretest counseling, 83.2% expressed interest in regular HIV testing and 78.8% in immediate ART. MSM who tested HIV-positive at enrollment were less likely than those who tested HIV-negative to have been tested for HIV before (45.7% vs. 60.8%, p < 0.0001). Among MSM who tested HIV-positive (n = 69, 15.9%), the median level of willingness to take ART immediately increased significantly after learning about their positive results (90 vs.100%, p < 0.0001). Interest in regular HIV testing remained high among HIV-negative MSM after becoming aware of their status (70.9% before vs. 71.9% after, p = 0.55). MSM participants have a strong desire and willingness to start ART immediately upon receiving an HIV-positive test result; it is important to provide the necessary information on the health benefits of early ART and education to the community to maintain their health and prevent HIV transmission. PMID:24766659

  1. "What Could Have Been Different": A Qualitative Study of Syndemic Theory and HIV Prevention among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Thomas; Johnson, Amy K; Garofalo, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) experience multiple health disparities, including alcohol and drug use, partner violence, victimization due to sexual orientation, and HIV infection. Syndemic theorists explain the clustering of these disparities among adult MSM as a result of cultural marginalization. To date, research on a similar emerging syndemic among young MSM has been limited to quantitative studies. This study seeks to better understand these disparities, and how they may cluster together, via qualitative interviews with 21 ethnically diverse, HIV infected young MSM aged 18-24 years old. These youth report a lack of gay-specific HIV prevention education, absence of role models, and lack of productive future goal-related activities as factors related to their acquisition of HIV, and downplay substance use as a factor. Although not necessarily the components traditionally cited by syndemic theorists, these findings support the notion that multiple factors of cultural marginalization cluster together in the lives of young MSM, and underscore the importance of community-level interventions, such as sexual health education, access to mentors, and assistance with future goal setting and planning. PMID:24244112

  2. Men

    MedlinePlus

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  3. A Syndemic including Cigarette Smoking and Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of MSM in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, F; Nehl, EJ; Zheng, T; He, N; Berg, CJ; Lemieux, AF; Lin, L; Tran, A; Sullivan, PS; Wong, FY

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We explored possible correlates of cigarette smoking and their associations with levels of smoking among a sample of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We also explored the syndemic associations of substance use and psychosocial problems on sexual risk behaviors. Methods Cross-sectional data collection from 404 MSM in Shanghai, China. Results MSM exhibit a high prevalence of smoking (66.3%). Both light and heavy smoking were associated with alcohol and drug use, depression, intimate partner violence, sexual attitudes, and gay identity (though the associations for light smokers were moderate compared to those for heavy smokers). Conclusions Our findings indicate the presence of a health syndemic among MSM, and suggest that smoking prevention and cessation and other substance abuse interventions should be integrated into efforts preventing sexual risk behaviors among MSM. PMID:23517682

  4. Peer social support is associated with recent HIV testing among young black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Hyman M; Pollack, Lance; Rebchook, Gregory M; Huebner, David M; Peterson, John; Kegeles, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Resiliency factors such as social support have been associated with more frequent HIV testing among MSM. We examined the association between social support and delayed HIV testing in the context of structural discrimination and individual factors among young Black MSM. We combined two independent cross-sectional samples recruited 1 year apart from a venue-based, modified time-location sampling study of young Black MSM aged 18-29 years in the US South. Our subsample (N = 813) was men who self-reported not being HIV positive and who indicated they had one or more male sex partners in the past 2 months. Using a social epidemiology framework we estimated associations of structural (racism and homophobia), social (social support from other Black MSM friends) and individual factors with delayed HIV testing (>6 months ago) using logistic regression. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that individual level variables as well as experiences of racism (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.41) and homophobia (OR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.02-2.17) were associated with higher risk of delayed HIV testing. Receiving social support from other Black MSM friends was associated with lower risk of delayed HIV testing (OR 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67-0.95). In multivariable models, social support remained significantly associated with lower risk of delayed HIV testing after inclusion of structural and individual level variables. Social support has a positive and robust association with HIV testing among young Black MSM. Whether community building and development of resiliency factors can overcome structural, social, and individual-level barriers to HIV prevention and care for young Black MSM warrants further study. PMID:24065436

  5. Suicide Among Young Alaska Native Men: Community Risk Factors and Alcohol Control

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I examined community risk factors that explained variation in suicide rates among young rural Alaska Native men, evaluating the effectiveness of local alcohol control as a public health policy to reduce this population’s historically high vulnerability. Methods. I compiled suicide data, alcohol control status, and community-level social, cultural, and economic characteristics for Alaska Native men aged 15 to 34 years in 178 small Alaska communities from 1980 to 2007. Poisson regression equations explained variation in suicide rates as a function of endogenous alcohol control and community characteristics. Results. Suicide rates were higher in communities prohibiting alcohol importation under state law, but the effect was not significant after controlling for other community characteristics. More remote communities, those with fewer non-Natives, and those with evidence of cultural divides had higher suicide risks. Communities with higher incomes, more married couples, and traditional elders had lower risks. Conclusions. Alcohol control is ineffective in preventing suicide among Alaska Natives; suicide instead appears related to particular complex community characteristics that are either protective or increase risk. Communities have limited means to pursue economic and cultural development strategies that might offer more protection. PMID:24754505

  6. Men's extramarital sex, marital relationships and sexual risk in urban poor communities in India.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Stephen L; Mekki-Berrada, Abdelwahed; Nastasi, Bonnie K; Singh, Rajendra; Burleson, Joseph A; Bojko, Martha

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of this paper are to (1) understand the nature of men's extramarital sexuality in three low income communities in Mumbai, India; (2) explore the associations between marital relationships and extramarital sex; and (3) assess the implications of the research results for intervention. Results are based on survey data collected from 2,408 randomly selected men from the three study communities and a matched subset of 260 randomly selected men and their wives who responded to a female version of the men's survey. These surveys produced a unique data set, which allows sociodemographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables from husband and wife and variables that are the product of husband and wife interaction to be utilized to predict men's extramarital sex through multiple sequential logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that men's extramarital sex is significantly associated with husband's and wife's age, wife's perception of domestic violence, husband's education and place of birth, husband's alcohol use, wife's willingness to engage in marital sex, and types of marital sexual acts. These results confirm the need to move from the individual to the couple as the unit of research and the need for intervention to reduce the risk of HIV/STI transmission within marriage both in India and internationally. PMID:16755388

  7. Community Health Worker Hepatitis B Education for Cambodian American Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Sos, Channdara; Do, H. Hoai; Liu, Qi; Yasui, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Background Cambodian Americans have high rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer. There is very limited information about the utility of community health worker (CHW) approaches to cancer education for Asian American men. We have previously reported our positive findings from a trial of CHW education about HBV for Cambodian Americans who had never been tested for HBV. This report describes similarities and differences between the outcomes of our CHW HBV educational intervention among Cambodian American men and women. Methods The study group for this analysis included 87 individuals (39 men and 48 women) who were randomized to the experimental (HBV education) arm of our trial, participated in the CHW educational intervention, and provided follow-up data six months post-intervention. We examined HBV testing rates at follow-up, changes in HBV-related knowledge between baseline and follow-up, and barriers to HBV testing (that were reported to CHWs) by gender. Results At follow-up, 15% of men and 31% of women reported they had received a HBV test (p=0.09). HBV-related knowledge levels increased significantly among both men and women. With respect to HBV testing barriers, women were more likely than men to cite knowledge deficits, and men were more likely than women to cite logistic issues. Discussion Our study findings indicate that CHW interventions can positively impact knowledge among Cambodian American men, as well as women. They also suggest CHW interventions may be less effective in promoting the use of preventive procedures by Cambodian American men than women. Future CHW research initiatives should consider contextual factors that may differ by gender and, therefore, potentially influence the relative effectiveness of CHW interventions for men versus women. PMID:24083730

  8. Experiences of Discrimination and Their Impact on the Mental Health Among African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jay; Ayala, George; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations between specific types and sources of discrimination and mental health outcomes among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and how these associations varied by race/ethnicity. Methods. A chain-referral sample of 403 African American, 393 Asian and Pacific Islander (API), and 400 Latino MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, California completed a standardized questionnaire. Data were obtained from the Ethnic Minority Men’s Health Study from May 2008 to October 2009. Results. Past-year experiences of racism within the general community and perceived homophobia among heterosexual friends were positively associated with depression and anxiety. Past-year homophobia experienced within the general community was also positively associated with anxiety. These statistically significant associations did not vary across racial/ethnic groups. The positive association of perceived racism within the gay community with anxiety differed by race/ethnicity, and was statistically significant only for APIs. Perceived homophobia within the family was not associated with either depression or anxiety. Conclusions. Higher levels of experiences of discrimination were associated with psychological distress among MSM of color. However, specific types and sources of discrimination were differentially linked to negative mental health outcomes among African American, API, and Latino MSM. PMID:23488483

  9. Comparison of strategies to increase HIV testing among African-American gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Baytop, Chanza; Royal, Scott; Hubbard McCree, Donna; Simmons, Ron; Tregerman, Rebecca; Robinson, Carolyn; Johnson, Wayne D; McLaughlin, Mike; Price, Cristofer

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of three strategies - alternate venue testing (AVT), the social network strategy (SNS), and partner counseling and referral services (PCRS; standard care) - for reaching and motivating previously undiagnosed, African-American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) to be tested for HIV. Data were collected between June 2008 and February 2010 at a gay-identified, community-based organization (CBO) serving AA MSM in Washington, DC. Men were eligible to participate if they were 18-64 years old, self-identified as black or African-American, were biologically male, and self-reported oral or anal sex with a man in the past six months. Fisher's exact test of independence was used to assess differences in demographics, testing history, HIV status and sexual behaviors across the three strategies. The final sample included 470 men who met all eligibility requirements. There were no statistically significant differences in HIV positivity rates across the three strategies. However, relative to standard care, the SNS, and (to a lesser degree) the AVT strategies were more successful in recruiting men that had never been tested. Additionally, the results indicate that each strategy recruited different subgroups of men. Specifically, heterosexually identified men and men who reported engaging in unprotected sex were most likely to be recruited via SNS. Bisexually identified men and older men were most likely to be recruited via AVT or SNS, while standard care tended to reach greater proportions of young men and homosexually identified men. These findings suggest that a combination of strategies may be the best approach for engaging African-American MSM in HIV testing. PMID:24116886

  10. Health Care Access and Health Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: The Cost of Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirnan, David J.; Du Bois, Steve N.; Alvy, Lisa M.; Jones, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) appear to experience barriers to health care compared with general population men. This report examines individual differences in health care access within a diverse sample of urban MSM ("N" = 871). The authors examined demographic differences in health care access and the relation between access and health-related…

  11. Lack of HIV Testing and Awareness of HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lui, Hui; Guo, Yaqi; Han, Lei; Mandel, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. However, little is known about their HIV testing behavior. From September 2001 to January 2002, we recruited 482 men through social networks and MSM venues. We conducted HIV testing and counseling, and anonymous, standardized face-to-face interviews. Eighty-two percent of…

  12. Perceived Sources of Stress and Resilience in Men in an African-American Community

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Meldrum, Marcia; Jones, Felica; Brown, Anthony; Daaood, Rasudaan; Jones, Loretta

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the perceived causes of stress and what strategies African-American men use to promote resiliency. Participatory research approaches are recommended as an approach to engage minority communities. A key goal of participatory research is to shift the locus of control to community partners. Objective To understand perceived sources of stress and tools used to promote resiliency in African American men in South Los Angeles. Methods Our study utilized a community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) approach to collect and analyze open-ended responses from 295 African American men recruited at a local, cultural festival in Los Angeles using thematic analysis and the Levels of Racism framework. Results Almost all (93.2%) men reported stress. Of those reporting stress, 60.8% reported finances and money and 43.2% reported racism as a specific cause. Over 60% (63.4%) reported that they perceived available sources of help to deal with stress. Of those noting a specific source of help for stress (n=76), 42.1% identified religious faith. Almost all of the participants (92.1%) mentioned specific sources of resiliency such as religion and family. Conclusions Stress due to psycho-social factors such as finances and racism are common in African American men. But at the same time, most men found support for resiliency to ameliorate stress in religion and family. Future work to engage African-American men around alleviating stress and supporting resiliency should both take into account the perceived causes of stress and incorporate culturally appropriate sources of resiliency support. PMID:25727976

  13. Implementation of a Confidential Helpline for Men Having Sex With Men in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) often face physical violence and harassment from police and the general society. Many MSM may not openly disclose their sexual identity, especially if they are married to women and have families. Due to pervasive stigma and discrimination, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs are unable to reach many MSM effectively. Objective The objective of this paper was to describe the design, operations, and monitoring of the Sahaay helpline, a mHealth intervention for the MSM population of India. Methods We established the “Sahaay” mHealth intervention in 2013; a MSM-dedicated helpline whose main goal was to increase access to comprehensive, community-based HIV prevention services and improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of MSM towards HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in three states of India (Chhattisgarh, Delhi, and Maharashtra). The helpline provided a 24x7 confidential and easy to use interactive voice response system (IVRS) to callers. IVRS function was monitored through an online dashboard of indicators. The system also provided real-time reporting on callers and services provided. Results The helpline received more than 100,000 calls from 39,800 callers during the first nine months of operation. The helpline maintained an operational uptime of 99.81% (6450/6462 hours); and answered more than 81.33% (83,050/102,115) of all calls. More than three-fourths of the calls came between 9:00 am-12:00 pm. The most successful promotional activity was “interpersonal communication” (reported by 70.05%, 27,880/39,800, of the callers). Nearly three-fourths of the callers self-identified as MSM, including 17.05% (6786/39,800) as rural MSM and 5.03% (2001/39,800) as a married MSM. Most callers (93.10%, 37,055/39,800) requested information, while some (27.01%, 10,750/39,800) requested counseling on HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), STIs, and other health and nonhealth issues

  14. Confronting Stigma: Community Involvement and Psychological Well-Being among HIV-Positive Latino Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Fergus, Stevenson; Reisen, Carol A.; Poppen, Paul J.; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Theories of social integration and stress process posit that community involvement may buffer or may compensate the adverse effects of stigma on psychological well-being. In this article, the authors explore this thesis in a stigmatized and seldom studied group of HIV-positive Latino gay men. Specifically, they examine the effects of community…

  15. A Typology of Maritally Violent Men and Correlates of Violence in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delsol, Catherine; Margolin, Gyala; John, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Tests A. Holtzworth-Munroe and G. L. Stuart's (1994) typology of male batterers in a community sample. Analyses based on severity of physical aggression, generality of violence, and psychopathology partially replicated the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart typology by identifying 3 types of violent men: family-only, medium-violence, and generally…

  16. Creating REAL MEN: Description of an Intervention to Reduce Drug Use, HIV Risk, and Rearrest Among Young Men Returning to Urban Communities From Jail

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Jessie; Crum, Martha; Ramaswamy, Megha; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the life circumstances and risk behaviors of 552 adolescent males returning home from jail. Most young men reported several sources of support in their lives and many had more tolerant views toward women and intimate relationships than portrayed in mainstream media. They also reported high levels of marijuana and alcohol use, risky sexual behavior, and prior arrests. Investigators designed the Returning Educated African American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN) program, a jail and community program to reduce drug use, HIV risk, and rearrest. By helping participants examine alternative paths to manhood and consider racial/ethnic pride as a source of strength, REAL MEN addressed the assets of these young men as well as their challenges. Our findings suggest that interventions that emphasize the assets of these young men may be better able to engage them than programs that seek to impose adult values. PMID:19346408

  17. Methamphetamine Treatment Issues and Considerations among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), but treatment has lagged for this group. The author reviews literature concerning use, individual effects of the drug, and treatment for MSM and discusses implications for counselor training, future practice, and research.

  18. Being high and taking sexual risks: findings from a multisite survey of urban young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Stueve, Ann; O'Donnell, Lydia; Duran, Richard; San Doval, Alexi; Geier, Jamie

    2002-12-01

    Adolescent and young adult males who have sex with men (MSM) remain at high risk of HIV infection. Many sexual risk factors have been identified, yet the role of substance use remains controversial. We assess the extent to which urban young MSM report being "high" on drugs or alcohol during sex and the association between being "high" and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). During summer 2000, 3,075 MSM aged 15-25 years completed a 20-minute interview for the Community Intervention Trial for Youth Project. Participants were asked about their last sexual contact with main and nonmain partners, including whether they were "high on drugs or alcohol." 18.6% of MSM with a main partner reported being high during their last sexual encounter; 25.0% reported UAI. Among men with a nonmain partner, 29.3% reported being high, and 12.3% reported UAI. Being high was associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse with nonmain partners (odds ratio = 1.66, p = .02). HIV prevention should include messages about the potential dangers of drinking and drug use in situations where sexual encounters with nonmain partners may occur. PMID:12512849

  19. The Community College Survey of Men: An Initial Validation of the Instrument's Non-Cognitive Outcomes Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. \\Luke; Harris, Frank, III.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the utility of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM[c]), an instrument designed to examine predictors of student success for men in community colleges. The authors highlight initial validation results from a recent pilot of the CCSM[c], with a focus on the non-cognitive outcomes construct employed…

  20. Attitudes Towards Couples-Based HIV Testing Among MSM in Three US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick S.; Salazar, Laura F.; Gratzer, Beau; Allen, Susan; Seelbach, Erick

    2012-01-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT)—in which couples receive counseling and their HIV test results together—has been shown to be an effective strategy among heterosexual sero-discordant couples in Africa for reducing HIV transmission by initiating behavioral change. This study examined attitudes towards CVCT among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three US cities. Four focus group discussions (FGD) were held with MSM in Atlanta, Chicago, and Seattle. Although initially hesitant, participants reported an overwhelming acceptance of CVCT. CVCT was seen as a sign of commitment within a relationship and was reported to be more appropriate for men in longer-term relationships. CVCT was also seen as providing a forum for the discussion of risk-taking within the relationship. Our results suggest that there may be a demand for CVCT among MSM in the United States, but some modifications to the existing African CVCT protocol may be needed. PMID:21336607

  1. Prevalence of recent illicit substance use and reporting bias among MSM and other urban males.

    PubMed

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Fendrich, Michael; Johnson, Timothy P

    2008-08-01

    This paper explores whether elevated rates of self-reported substance use among MSM compared to other males may be an artifact of reporting bias. Past month prevalence rates of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, Ecstasy, and Ketamine use were compared between a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM), and a general household sample of men, all residing in Chicago. We compared rates of self-reported use, and corrected rates based on the results of drug testing (urine and oral fluid tests). While MSM over 30 years old were significantly more likely than other men in this age group to report past month use of cocaine, test-corrected rates of use were equivalent. On the other hand, test-corrected estimates confirmed elevated rates of Ketamine and Ecstasy use in the MSM sample. Differential disclosure of substance use between MSM and other males may in some cases lead to distorted conclusions about differences in substance use between these groups. The use of biological testing in epidemiological studies of substance use can reduce the uncertainty of such comparisons. PMID:18430520

  2. Stigma Toward Men Who Have Sex with Men Among Future Healthcare Providers in Malaysia: Would More Interpersonal Contact Reduce Prejudice?

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Lim, Sin How; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) living in countries with strong stigma toward MSM are vulnerable to HIV and experience significant barriers to HIV care. Research is needed to inform interventions to reduce stigma toward MSM in these countries, particularly among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional survey of 1158 medical and dental students was conducted at seven Malaysian universities in 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest that students who had interpersonal contact with MSM were less prejudiced toward and had lower intentions to discriminate against MSM. Path analyses with bootstrapping suggest stereotypes and fear mediate associations between contact with prejudice and discrimination. Intervention strategies to reduce MSM stigma among healthcare providers in Malaysia and other countries with strong stigma toward MSM may include facilitating opportunities for direct, in-person or indirect, media-based prosocial contact between medical and dental students with MSM. PMID:26324078

  3. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Identity, and Substance Abuse Among Low-Income Bisexual and Non-Gay-Identifying African American Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Williams, John K.; Ramamurthi, Hema C.; Manago, Cleo; Avina, Sergio; Jones, Marvin

    2008-01-01

    We examined the role of drug use and addiction in same-sex sexuality among non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men or with both men and women (MSM/MSMW). Between July 2005 and February 2006, we conducted seven focus groups with 46 predominately low socioeconomic status African American MSM/MSMW. A total of 29 men self-identified as HIV-infected and 17 self-identified as uninfected. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using consensual qualitative research techniques. Alcohol, crack cocaine, and crystal methamphetamine were the primary drugs mentioned by participants. Drug use was identified as playing a central role in same-sex sexuality for many African American MSM/MSMW. Participants described alcohol use and drug transactions, use, and addiction as motivating sex with men, allowing and rationalizing same-sex activity and unprotected sex, and facilitating access to male sex partners. Some of those in treatment for substance abuse indicated that a readiness to admit their same-sex activity and come to terms with their homosexuality/bisexuality was necessary for recovery. Because successful engagement of non-gay-identifying African American MSM/MSMW is essential to the reduction of HIV transmission and substance abuse in Black communities, findings call for drug treatment approaches that acknowledge and accept diverse sexuality in clients. Service providers and policy-makers may be guided by these findings toward building cultural competency among direct service staff. Future research should examine interrelated dynamics of sexual activity, identity, and drug use as they evolve within individual African American MSM/MSMW and compare the frequency with which sex, condom use, and substance use co-occur with male versus female partners. PMID:18546069

  4. Sexual behavior, sexual identity, and substance abuse among low-income bisexual and non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Manago, Cleo; Avina, Sergio; Jones, Marvin

    2008-10-01

    We examined the role of drug use and addiction in same-sex sexuality among non-gay-identifying African American men who have sex with men or with both men and women (MSM/MSMW). Between July 2005 and February 2006, we conducted seven focus groups with 46 predominately low socioeconomic status African American MSM/MSMW. A total of 29 men self-identified as HIV-infected and 17 self-identified as uninfected. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using consensual qualitative research techniques. Alcohol, crack cocaine, and crystal methamphetamine were the primary drugs mentioned by participants. Drug use was identified as playing a central role in same-sex sexuality for many African American MSM/MSMW. Participants described alcohol use and drug transactions, use, and addiction as motivating sex with men, allowing and rationalizing same-sex activity and unprotected sex, and facilitating access to male sex partners. Some of those in treatment for substance abuse indicated that a readiness to admit their same-sex activity and come to terms with their homosexuality/bisexuality was necessary for recovery. Because successful engagement of non-gay-identifying African American MSM/MSMW is essential to the reduction of HIV transmission and substance abuse in Black communities, findings call for drug treatment approaches that acknowledge and accept diverse sexuality in clients. Service providers and policy-makers may be guided by these findings toward building cultural competency among direct service staff. Future research should examine interrelated dynamics of sexual activity, identity, and drug use as they evolve within individual African American MSM/MSMW and compare the frequency with which sex, condom use, and substance use co-occur with male versus female partners. PMID:18546069

  5. Charting a Moral Life: The Influence of Stigma and Filial Duties on Marital Decisions among Chinese Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Wayne T.; Miège, Pierre; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stigma constitutes a critical challenge to the rising rates of HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). It reduces willingness to disclose one’s sexual orientation and can lead to concurrent sexual partnerships. Disclosure decisions are also affected by cultural norms that place pressures on sons to marry. In this manuscript, we characterize how stigma and cultural factors influenced Chinese MSM’s decisions around disclosure and marriage. We seek to show that MSM’s actions were motivated by moral considerations, even when those choices posed HIV transmission risks. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 MSM in Beijing, China. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English for analysis. Transcripts were coded using a procedure that allowed for themes to emerge organically. Results Participants struggled with feelings of shame and believed that others possessed stigmatizing attitudes about homosexuality. They had experienced relatively little discrimination because they infrequently disclosed their MSM status. In response to marital pressures, participant had to reconcile same-sex attractions with filial expectations. Their choices included: not being involved with women; putting on the appearance of a heterosexual relationship by marrying a lesbian; or fulfilling family expectations by marrying a heterosexual woman. Regardless of the decision, many rooted the justifications for their choices in the considerations they had given to others’ needs. Conclusion The growing epidemic among MSM in China requires action from the public health community. As programs are scaled up to serve these men, it is critical to remember that MSM, who often fear social sanction if they were to reveal their sexual orientation, continue to face the same pressures from culturally normative social duties as heterosexual men. Interventions must find ways to help men navigate a balance between their own needs and the

  6. Attitudes Toward HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: Concerns Underlying Reluctance to Test

    PubMed Central

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Sitzler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) can produce viral suppression of HIV, maintain health, and prevent onward HIV transmission from infected persons to their sexual partners, giving rise to the concept of treatment as prevention. Successful implementation of test-and-treat strategies rests on the early detection of HIV infection through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) followed by entry and retention in care, ART initiation and adherence, and subsequent viral suppression. In the United States, African American men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and have high rates of undetected and untreated HIV infection. However, little research has examined racial minority MSM’s views about HIV testing. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 96 key informants knowledgeable about racial minority MSM as well as 100 African American MSM community members in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Miami. Most men in the sample were aware of the availability of testing and knew testing locations, but many voiced great personal ambivalence about being tested, feared knowing their HIV status, expressed concern about stigma and loss of confidentiality, and held beliefs indicative of medical mistrust. Participants did not spontaneously cite benefits of being tested, risk reduction behavior changes made as a consequence of testing, nor the benefits of testing to get early medical care for HIV infection. There is a gap between the public health field’s perception of testing benefits and the beliefs about testing held by racial minority MSM in this sample. To increase the desired outcomes from VCT for minority MSM, VCT promotion should address the concerns of African American MSM and underscore the benefits of early entry into medical care. PMID:26010312

  7. Partner selection among Latino immigrant men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Shedlin, Michele G; Brooks, Kelly D; Montes Penha, Marcelo; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592

  8. High HIV Prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is associated with Social Vulnerability and other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, JP; Weir, SS; Jones-Cooper, C; Byfield, L; Hobbs, MM; McKnight, I; Cummings, S

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. Methods With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. MSM were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. Results One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2% – 47.9%) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: Chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhea 3.5% and Trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had a STI (48% vs. 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21 – 5.04, p=0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs. 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21 – 4.71, p=0.008). MSM who were of low socio-economic status, ever homeless and victims of physical violence were twice as likely to be HIV positive. The majority (60%) of HIV positive MSM had not disclosed their status to their partner and over 50% were not comfortable disclosing their status to anyone. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence among MSM is an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in Jamaica. More effective ways need to be found to reduce the high prevalence of HIV among MSM including measures to reduce their social vulnerability, combat stigma and discrimination and empower them to practice safe sex. PMID:24756602

  9. The green shoots of a novel training programme: progress and identified key actions to providing services to MSM at Kenyan health facilities

    PubMed Central

    van der Elst, Elise M; Kombo, Bernadette; Gichuru, Evans; Omar, Anisa; Musyoki, Helgar; Graham, Susan M; Smith, Adrian D; Sanders, Eduard J; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa are at high risk for HIV acquisition, access to and quality of health and HIV services within this population are negatively affected by stigma and capacity within the health sector. A recently developed online MSM training programme (www.marps-africa.org) was shown to contribute to reductions in MSM prejudice among healthcare providers (HCPs) in coastal Kenya. In this study, we used qualitative methods to explore the provision of MSM healthcare services two years post-training in coastal Kenya. Methods From February to July 2014, we held 10 focus group discussions (FGD) with 63 participants, including HCP from 25 facilities, county AIDS coordinators and MSM from local support groups. Participants discussed availability, acceptability and accessibility of HIV healthcare for MSM. HCP also discussed changes in their health service practices after completing the training. FGD were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Ritchie and Spencer's “framework approach” for qualitative data. Results HCPs described continued improvements in their ability to provide service in a non-stigmatizing way to MSM patients since completing the training programme and expressed comfort engaging MSM patients in care. Four additional recommendations for improving MSM healthcare services were identified: 1) expanding the reach of MSM sensitivity training across the medical education continuum; 2) establishing guidelines to manage sexually transmitted anal infections; 3) promoting legal and policy reforms to support integration of MSM-appropriate services into healthcare; and 4) including MSM information in national reporting tools for HIV services. Conclusions Positive impacts of this sensitivity and skills training programme were reflected in HCP attitudes two years post-intervention. Scaling-up of efforts will rely on continued policies to include MSM in healthcare programmes to reduce stigma in

  10. Childhood sexual abuse and depression in Latino MSM: Does resilience protect against nonadherence to ART?

    PubMed Central

    Sauceda, John A.; Wiebe, John S.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested depression as a mediator between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), an effect moderated by resilience. One-hundred and forty-nine HIV+ Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited for this study. Using a regression-based bootstrap approach, depression mediated the relationship between CSA and ART adherence, with worse adherence for participants at lowest percentiles of the resilience index. The prevalence of CSA and depression in HIV+ MSM is high and must be addressed to better prevent disease progression, reduce transmission, especially in expanding Latino populations. PMID:25156387

  11. Sexual Networks and HIV Risk among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Tieu, Hong-Van; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Hussen, Sophia; Connor, Matthew; Wang, Lei; Buchbinder, Susan; Wilton, Leo; Gorbach, Pamina; Mayer, Kenneth; Griffith, Sam; Kelly, Corey; Elharrar, Vanessa; Phillips, Gregory; Cummings, Vanessa; Koblin, Beryl; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual networks may place U.S. Black men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased HIV risk. Methods Self-reported egocentric sexual network data from the prior six months were collected from 1,349 community-recruited Black MSM in HPTN 061, a multi-component HIV prevention intervention feasibility study. Sexual network composition, size, and density (extent to which members are having sex with one another) were compared by self-reported HIV serostatus and age of the men. GEE models assessed network and other factors associated with having a Black sex partner, having a partner with at least two age category difference (age difference between participant and partner of at least two age group categories), and having serodiscordant/serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI) in the last six months. Results Over half had exclusively Black partners in the last six months, 46% had a partner of at least two age category difference, 87% had ≤5 partners. Nearly 90% had sex partners who were also part of their social networks. Among HIV-negative men, not having anonymous/exchange/ trade partners and lower density were associated with having a Black partner; larger sexual network size and having non-primary partners were associated with having a partner with at least two age category difference; and having anonymous/exchange/ trade partners was associated with SDUI. Among HIV-positive men, not having non-primary partners was associated with having a Black partner; no sexual network characteristics were associated with having a partner with at least two age category difference and SDUI. Conclusions Black MSM sexual networks were relatively small and often overlapped with the social networks. Sexual risk was associated with having non-primary partners and larger network size. Network interventions that engage the social networks of Black MSM, such as interventions utilizing peer influence, should be developed to address stable partnerships, number

  12. Methods for recruiting men of color who have sex with men in prevention-for-positives interventions.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Laura A; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Jacoby, Scott M; Cain-Nielsen, Anne; Kilian, Gunna; McKay, Tara; Rosser, B R Simon

    2010-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), especially MSM of color, are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS compared to heterosexuals and Caucasians. Nonetheless, fewer sexual and ethnic minorities participate in prevention interventions for people with HIV. We consider recruitment for Positive Connections, a randomized controlled trial comparing unsafe sex prevention interventions primarily for HIV-positive (HIV+) MSM in six US epicenters. One community-based organization (CBO) in each city recruited adult MSM, particularly men of color and HIV+. Recruitment methods included on-line and print advertising, outreach events, health professionals, and social networks. Data on demographics, HIV status, and recruitment method were collected at registration. We tested for differences in registration proportions and attendance rates by recruitment strategy, stratified on race/ethnicity and serostatus. Of the 1,119 registrants, 889 attended the intervention. The sample comprised 41% African American, 18% Latino/Hispanic, and 77% HIV+. Friend referral was reported by the greatest proportion of registrants, particularly among African American (33%) and HIV+ men (25%). Print advertising yielded the largest proportions of non-Hispanic white (27%) and HIV-negative registrants (25%). Registrants recruited on-line were the least likely to attend (45% versus 69% average); this effect was strongest among Latino/Hispanic (27% attendance) and non-Hispanic white men (36%). Retention during the follow-up period did not differ by serostatus, race/ethnicity, or recruitment method. Differential attendance and retention according to recruitment strategy, serostatus, and racial/ethnic group can inform planning for intervention sample size goals. PMID:19731034

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Risk and HIV Testing Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Rana, Yashodhara; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) may account for most new HIV infections in Lebanon, yet little is known about the factors that influence sexual risk behavior and HIV testing in this population. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 MSM living in Beirut, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. Mean age of the participants was 28.4 years, and all identified as either gay (77%) or bisexual (23%). Half reported not using condoms consistently and one quarter had not been HIV-tested. Many described not using condoms with a regular partner in the context of a meaningful relationship, mutual HIV testing, and a desire to not use condoms, suggesting that trust, commitment and intimacy play a role in condom use decisions. Condoms were more likely to be used with casual partners, partners believed to be HIV-positive, and with partners met online where men found it easier to candidly discuss HIV risk. Fear of infection motivated many to get HIV tested and use condoms, but such affect also led some to avoid HIV testing in fear of disease and social stigma if found to be infected. Respondents who were very comfortable with their sexual orientation and who had disclosed their sexuality to family and parents tended to be more likely to use condoms consistently and be tested for HIV. These findings indicate that similar factors influence the condom use and HIV testing of MSM in Beirut as those observed in studies elsewhere of MSM; hence, prevention efforts in Lebanon can likely benefit from lessons learned and interventions developed in other regions, particularly for younger, gay-identified men. Further research is needed to determine how prevention efforts may need to be tailored to address the needs of men who are less integrated into or do not identify with the gay community. PMID:23029103

  14. A qualitative exploration of sexual risk and HIV testing behaviors among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn J; Aunon, Frances M; Kaplan, Rachel L; Rana, Yashodhara; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) may account for most new HIV infections in Lebanon, yet little is known about the factors that influence sexual risk behavior and HIV testing in this population. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 MSM living in Beirut, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. Mean age of the participants was 28.4 years, and all identified as either gay (77%) or bisexual (23%). Half reported not using condoms consistently and one quarter had not been HIV-tested. Many described not using condoms with a regular partner in the context of a meaningful relationship, mutual HIV testing, and a desire to not use condoms, suggesting that trust, commitment and intimacy play a role in condom use decisions. Condoms were more likely to be used with casual partners, partners believed to be HIV-positive, and with partners met online where men found it easier to candidly discuss HIV risk. Fear of infection motivated many to get HIV tested and use condoms, but such affect also led some to avoid HIV testing in fear of disease and social stigma if found to be infected. Respondents who were very comfortable with their sexual orientation and who had disclosed their sexuality to family and parents tended to be more likely to use condoms consistently and be tested for HIV. These findings indicate that similar factors influence the condom use and HIV testing of MSM in Beirut as those observed in studies elsewhere of MSM; hence, prevention efforts in Lebanon can likely benefit from lessons learned and interventions developed in other regions, particularly for younger, gay-identified men. Further research is needed to determine how prevention efforts may need to be tailored to address the needs of men who are less integrated into or do not identify with the gay community. PMID:23029103

  15. The Men Who Have Sex with Men HIV Care Cascade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Corrêa, Renato Girade; Derrico, Monica; Lemos, Katia; Grangeiro, Jose Roberto; de Jesus, Beto; Pires, Denise; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has a concentrated HIV epidemic and men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected. Yet, no data is available on the HIV care cascade for this population. This study aimed to assess the HIV care cascade among MSM newly diagnosed through innovative testing strategies in Rio de Janeiro. Data from 793 MSM and travestites/transgender women (transwomen) tested for HIV at a non-governmental LGBT organization and a mobile testing unit located at a gay friendly venue were analyzed. A 12-month-after-HIV-diagnosis-censored cohort was established using CD4, viral load and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinal data from those diagnosed with HIV. A cross-sectional HIV care cascade was built using this data. The relative risks of achieving each cascade-stage were estimated using generalized linear models according to age, self-declared skin-color, education, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), drug use and prior HIV testing. From Jan-2013 to Jan-2014, 793 MSM and transwomen were tested, 131 (16.5%) were HIV-infected. As of January 2015, 95 (72.5%) were linked to HIV care, 90 (68.7%) were retained in HIV care, 80 (61.1%) were on cART, and 50 (38.2%) were virally suppressed one year after HIV diagnosis. Being non-white (Relative risk [lower bound; upper bound of 95% confidence interval] = 1.709 [1.145; 2.549]) and having a prior HIV-test (1.954 [1.278; 2.986]) were associated with an HIV-positive diagnosis. A higher linkage (2.603 [1.091; 6.211]) and retention in care (4.510 [1.880; 10.822]) were observed among those who were older than 30 years of age. Using community-based testing strategies, we were able to access a high-risk MSM population and a small sample of transwomen. Despite universal care coverage and the test-and-treat policy adopted in Brazil, the MSM cascade of care indicates that strategies to increase linkage to care and prompt cART initiation targeted to these populations are critically needed. Interventions

  16. The Men Who Have Sex with Men HIV Care Cascade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rodolfo; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Corrêa, Renato Girade; Derrico, Monica; Lemos, Katia; Grangeiro, Jose Roberto; Jesus, Beto de; Pires, Denise; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has a concentrated HIV epidemic and men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected. Yet, no data is available on the HIV care cascade for this population. This study aimed to assess the HIV care cascade among MSM newly diagnosed through innovative testing strategies in Rio de Janeiro. Data from 793 MSM and travestites/transgender women (transwomen) tested for HIV at a non-governmental LGBT organization and a mobile testing unit located at a gay friendly venue were analyzed. A 12-month-after-HIV-diagnosis-censored cohort was established using CD4, viral load and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinal data from those diagnosed with HIV. A cross-sectional HIV care cascade was built using this data. The relative risks of achieving each cascade-stage were estimated using generalized linear models according to age, self-declared skin-color, education, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), drug use and prior HIV testing. From Jan-2013 to Jan-2014, 793 MSM and transwomen were tested, 131 (16.5%) were HIV-infected. As of January 2015, 95 (72.5%) were linked to HIV care, 90 (68.7%) were retained in HIV care, 80 (61.1%) were on cART, and 50 (38.2%) were virally suppressed one year after HIV diagnosis. Being non-white (Relative risk [lower bound; upper bound of 95% confidence interval] = 1.709 [1.145; 2.549]) and having a prior HIV-test (1.954 [1.278; 2.986]) were associated with an HIV-positive diagnosis. A higher linkage (2.603 [1.091; 6.211]) and retention in care (4.510 [1.880; 10.822]) were observed among those who were older than 30 years of age. Using community-based testing strategies, we were able to access a high-risk MSM population and a small sample of transwomen. Despite universal care coverage and the test-and-treat policy adopted in Brazil, the MSM cascade of care indicates that strategies to increase linkage to care and prompt cART initiation targeted to these populations are critically needed. Interventions

  17. Correlates of forced sex among populations of men who have sex with men in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wimonsate, Wipas; Varangrat, Anchalee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Jommaroeng, Rapeepun; Mock, Philip A; Tappero, Jordan W; van Griensven, Frits

    2011-04-01

    Although forced sex is a correlate of HIV infection, its prevalence and associated risks are not well described among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing-country settings. Between March and October 2005, we assessed the prevalence of forced sex and correlates among populations of MSM (this includes general MSM, male sex workers, and male-to-female transgender persons) in Thailand using a community-based sample. Participants were enrolled from venues around Bangkok, Chiangmai, and Phuket using venue day-time sampling. Handheld computer-assisted self-interviewing was used to collect demographic and behavioral data and logistic regression evaluated factors associated with forced sex, defined as ever being forced to have sexual intercourse against one's will. Of the 2,049 participants (M age, 24.8 years), a history of forced sex was reported by 376 (18.4%) men and, of these, most were forced by someone they knew (83.8%), forced more than once (67.3%), and had first occurrence during adolescence (55.1%). In multivariate analysis, having a history of forced sex was significantly associated with being recruited in Phuket, classification as general MSM or transgender (versus classification as male sex worker), drug use, increased number of male sexual partners, and buying sex. The findings in our assessment were consistent with assessments from Western countries. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of the relationships between forced sex correlates found in our assessment and HIV acquisition and transmission risks. PMID:19830540

  18. Emerging technologies for HIV prevention for MSM: what we have learned, and ways forward.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Grey, Jeremy A; Simon Rosser, Brian R

    2013-06-01

    Technology-enabled HIV research and prevention has emerged in the past 10 years as an exciting dynamic field that offers great potential to help bring HIV prevention efforts to scale in key risk communities. Evolutions in technologies and in HIV epidemics suggest mutual opportunities to reach most at risk populations in novel ways. New technologies cannot completely replace interventions and services currently delivered by the people. However, we suggest that emerging technologies hold promise to bring services to scale and produce efficiencies in reaching rural populations of men who have sex with men (MSM), connecting with populations who are not reached in current urban outreach efforts, and providing services or research surveys that can be described algorithmically. Furthermore, the types of technologies (eg, internet-based, smartphone-based, text messaging) should be matched with both the content to be delivered and the technology usage patterns of target populations. We suggest several key principles and lessons learned that comprise a framework in which to consider the opportunities of technologies and HIV prevention and research. Future directions include improvement of data quality in online surveying, better characterization of biases, developing improved sampling approaches, working with funders to ensure compatibility of funding mechanisms and online research proposals, and promoting consensus approaches to the duplication and presentation of research and program evaluation results from online research. Given the current calls for comprehensive packages of prevention services for MSM, effective prevention might require an intentional combination of technology-enabled prevention services to achieve scale and strategic use of personally delivered package components in cases where non-algorithmic services, such as individualized counseling, are needed. PMID:23673879

  19. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  20. Community-Level HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Prevalence among Women and Men in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Stewart, James; Voss, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on HIV risk in sub-Saharan Africa focus on individual-level socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of risk. Only recently have researchers and programmers considered the context within which individuals live. This study uses the 2005–6 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey to examine the correlation between the prevalence of HIV at the community level and the prevalence of HIV risk-taking behaviors. Results show that women and men living in communities with higher HIV prevalence in the opposite sex are at increased risk of HIV. In addition, rural women and men living in communities with greater premarital and non-marital sex are at greater risk of HIV. Finally, HIV prevalence is higher among women and men living in urban areas with higher intimate partner violence. Programs should address community-level social norms that make high-risk behaviors acceptable and thus increase all women and men’s risk of HIV, not just those engaged in high-risk behaviors. PMID:22010807

  1. Correlates of anal sex roles among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin How

    2016-03-01

    Identifying roles for anal sex is an important issue for populations of MSM. We describe the prevalence of identifying as being 'top', 'bottom', 'versatile', or 'don't know/not applicable' among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and behavioural outcomes according to these labels for sexual role identity. Data analysis was conducted on a survey administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur in 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM who reported roles for anal sex. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the odds of behavioural outcomes among MSM who identified as 'bottom', 'versatile,' and 'don't know' compared to MSM who reported that 'top' was their sexual role. Labels for anal sex roles were significantly associated with condom use for last anal sex. Among MSM who used labels for anal sex roles, MSM who identified as 'bottom' had highest level of not using condoms for last anal sex (24.1%, p = .045). In binary logistic regression model, identifying as 'top' was significantly associated with reporting using a condom during last anal sex and reported consistent condom use for anal sex in the past six months (p = .039 and .017, respectively). With regard to sexual role identity, some MSM may be a part of a special subgroup of at-risk men to be targeted. Future research should evaluate the origins, meanings, and perceptions of these labels, and the developmental process of how these MSM identify with any of these categories. Research should also uncover condom use decision making with regard to these labels for sexual positioning. PMID:25887064

  2. Family and community influences on the social and sexual lives of Latino gay men.

    PubMed

    Guarnero, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of family and community on the social and sexual lives of a group of Latino gay men living in a metropolitan area. A secondary analysis of four focus groups with 28 Latino gay men was conducted. Families had a difficult time acknowledging and supporting participants' homosexuality. Participants experienced racism, discrimination, and physical and verbal abuse as a result of their ethnicity and homosexuality. These negative effects contributed to their marginalization and made them vulnerable to depression and suicide. Health care professionals should be aware of the effect of family and culture on the social and sexual lives of Latino gay men so that they can intervene and direct the client to the services needed to manage depression, suicidal ideation, and high-risk sexual behavior. PMID:17202524

  3. Where young MSM meet their first sexual partner: the role of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Bolding, Graham; Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to examine how many young men who have sex with men (MSM) meet their first sexual partner through the Internet and whether this has increased over time. In 2003, 2505 MSM surveyed on UK Internet sites completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed for 810 MSM who were under 30 years old at the time of the survey and who first had sex with another man between 1993-2002. During this period there was a significant increase in the percentage of MSM who met their first male sexual partner through the Internet (2.6-61.0%). There was a corresponding decrease in the percentage who met their first sexual partner at a gay venue (34.2-16.9%), school (23.7-1.3%), a public sex environment, through small ads or telephone chatlines (10.5-1.3%). An increasing number of young MSM appear to meet their first sexual partner through the Internet. Online sexual health interventions should be developed targeting men early in their sexual careers. PMID:17347876

  4. Determinants of never having tested for HIV among MSM in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    den Daas, Chantal; Doppen, Martine; Schmidt, Axel J; Op de Coul, Eline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) who are unaware of their HIV infection are more likely to infect others, and unable to receive treatment. Therefore, we aimed to identify the proportion and characteristics of Dutch MSM who never tested for HIV. Methods In 2010, the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) recruited 174 209 men from 38 countries through an anonymous online questionnaire in 25 languages. We analysed data from participants living in the Netherlands (N=3787). The outcome we investigated was having never (lifetime) been tested for HIV. Results A total of 770 MSM (20.4%) had never been tested for HIV. In multivariate regression analyses, not being from Amsterdam (adjusted OR, aOR 1.54, CI 1.17 to 2.03), with low education (aOR 1.28, CI 1.04 to 1.57) and low knowledge on HIV-testing (aOR 2.23, CI 1.37 to 3.64) were significantly associated with never having tested. Lower sexual risk (including having fewer sexual partners (aOR 2.19, CI 1.57 to 3.04) and no anal intercourse (aOR 5.99, CI 3.04 to 11.77)), and less social engagement (including being less out (aOR 1.93, CI 1.55 to 2.40)) were also associated with having never been tested. Additionally, 36.1% of MSM who never tested for HIV reported high-risk sexual behaviour that may have put them at HIV risk. Conclusions MSM make their own risk assessments that inform their choices about HIV-testing. Nevertheless, MSM who were never tested may have been at risk for HIV, and remain important to target for HIV interventions. PMID:26758261

  5. The differential diagnostic accuracy of the PTSD Checklist among men versus women in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Parker-Guilbert, Kelly S; Leifker, Feea R; Sippel, Lauren M; Marshall, Amy D

    2014-12-15

    We evaluated the specific version of the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S) as a screening tool for the recruitment of community-residing men and women with diverse trauma experiences. We administered the PCL-S via telephone in the context of participant recruitment, as well as in a laboratory setting preceding administration of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the gold standard PTSD assessment tool. In the laboratory, the PCL-S performed reasonably well for men and women, yielding overall diagnostic efficiency (ODE) values (representing percentage of cases accurately identified) of 0.78 and 0.73, respectively, for our recommended cut-points of 42 for men and 49 for women. In contrast, as a recruitment tool, the PCL-S yielded an acceptable ODE of 0.79 for men at the recommended cut-point of 47, but only an ODE of 0.56 (representing diagnostic efficiency no greater than chance) for women at the recommended cut-point of 50. A recruitment cut-point of 57 for women yields a similarly modest ODE of 0.61, but with substantial cost to sensitivity. These findings suggest that use of the PCL-S to screen for PTSD among potential study participants may lead to gender biased study results, even when separate diagnostic cut-points for men and women are used. PMID:25190345

  6. Physiological Reactivity in a Community Sample of Sexually Aggressive Young Men: A Test of Competing Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Zoë D.; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Men’s sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men’s salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men’s sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. PMID:24310818

  7. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Viral and Bacterial Infections in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Loutfy, Mona R.; Tharao, Wangari; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Huibner, Sanja; Kesler, Maya; Halpenny, Roberta; Grennan, Troy; Brunetta, Jason; Smith, Graham; Reko, Tatjana; Kaul, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been associated with HIV transmission risk and disease progression among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM), but the frequency and distribution of STIs in this community in Canada has not been extensively studied. Methods We recruited MSM living with and without HIV from a large primary care clinic in Toronto. Participants completed a detailed socio-behavioural questionnaire using ACASI and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, HBV and HCV, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and a self-collected anal swab for human papillomavirus (HPV) molecular diagnostics. Prevalences were expressed as a proportion and compared using chi-square. Results 442 MSM were recruited, 294 living with HIV and 148 without. Active syphilis (11.0% vs. 3.4%), ever HBV (49.4% vs. 19.1%), HCV (10.4% vs. 3.4%), HSV-2 (55.9% vs. 38.2%), CMV (98.3% vs. 80.3%) and high-risk (HR) anal HPV (67.6% vs. 51.7%) infections were significantly more common in men living with HIV. Chlamydia and gonorrhea were infrequent in both groups. Regardless of HIV infection status, age and number of lifetime male sexual partners were associated with HBV infection and lifetime injection drug use with HCV infection. Conclusions Syphilis and viral infections, including HBV, HCV, HSV-2, CMV, and HR-HPV, were common in this clinic-based population of MSM in Toronto and more frequent among MSM living with HIV. This argues for the implementation of routine screening, vaccine-based prevention, and education programs in this high-risk population. PMID:27391265

  8. Preferences for a Mobile HIV Prevention App for Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, Sarah J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stekler, Joanne D; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    important factors in men’s willingness to use a mobile HIV prevention app. Finally, men described the potential impact that a mobile HIV prevention app could have, identifying individual, interpersonal, and community-based benefits. Conclusions In summary, participants described a comprehensive app that should incorporate innovative ideas to educate and engage men so that they would be motivated to use the app. In order for an app to be useful, it needs to feel safe and trustworthy, which is essential when considering the app’s language and privacy. Participants provided a range of preferences for using an HIV prevention app, including what they felt MSM need with regards to HIV prevention and what they want in order to engage with an app. Making an HIV prevention app enjoyable and usable for MSM is a difficult challenge. However, the usability of the app is vital because no matter how great the intervention, if MSM do not use the app, then it will not be useful. PMID:25355249

  9. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Service Engagement by Men and Women During Community Reentry Following Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Begun, Audrey L; Early, Theresa J; Hodge, Ashleigh

    2016-03-01

    Individuals reentering the community following incarceration are at high risk for experiencing mental health and substance use problems. This longitudinal study explores patterns and barriers for engaging treatment services during early reentry. Seventy-five men and 62 women in jail, prison, or community based correctional facilities (CBCFs) participated in pre- and post-release interviews. Findings indicate that services were engaged at a lower-than-needed rate and barriers were greater for individuals leaving jails compared to prison or CBCF. Exploratory factor analysis of the barriers instrument is presented. Implications for extending service access to this population are discussed, as are future directions for research. PMID:25663094

  10. Gay Apps for Seeking Sex Partners in China: Implications for MSM Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Bien, Cedric H; Best, John M; Muessig, Kathryn E; Wei, Chongyi; Han, Larry; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Anti-gay stigma and harsh local environments in many low and middle-income countries (LMIC) encourage men who have sex with men (MSM) partner-seeking mobile application (gay app) use. To investigate the sexual risk profiles of gay app users and guide future HIV prevention programs, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 1,342 MSM in China examining associations between gay app use and sexual behaviors, including HIV and sexually transmitted disease testing. Compared to non-app users, app users were more likely to be younger, better educated, "out" about their sexual orientation, and single. They were also more likely to report multiple recent sex partners and HIV testing, but there was no difference in condomless sex between the two groups. Future research among MSM in LMIC is needed to characterize gay app use and explore its potential for future public health interventions. PMID:25572834

  11. Gay apps for seeking sex partners in China: Implications for MSM sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Cedric H.; Best, John M.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Wei, Chongyi; Han, Larry; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-gay stigma and harsh local environments in many low and middle-income countries (LMIC) encourage men who have sex with men (MSM) partner-seeking mobile application (gay app) use. To investigate the sexual risk profiles of gay app users and guide future HIV prevention programs, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 1,342 MSM in China examining associations between gay app use and sexual behaviors, including HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing. Compared to non-app users, app users were more likely to be younger, better educated, “out” about their sexual orientation, and single. They were also more likely to report multiple recent sex partners and HIV testing, but there was no difference in condomless sex between the two groups. Future research among MSM in LMIC is needed to characterize gay app use and explore its potential for future public health interventions. PMID:25572834

  12. Innovative uses of communication technology for HIV programming for men who have sex with men and transgender persons.

    PubMed

    Allison, Susannah M; Adams, Darrin; Klindera, Kent C; Poteat, Tonia; Wolf, R Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Globally, overall rates of HIV are on the decline; however, rates among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons are increasing. Meanwhile, there has been exponential growth in access to communication technology over the last decade. More innovative prevention and care technology-based programmes are needed to help address the growing numbers of MSM and transgender persons living with HIV and those at risk for infection. To address this need, a meeting was hosted by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and co-sponsored by amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The meeting brought together researchers, community implementers, advocates and federal partners to discuss the current landscape of technology-based interventions for MSM and transgender persons and to discuss key considerations. Presentations and discussions focused on the research gaps, facilitators and barriers to programme implementation and public-private partnerships. This article summarizes the meeting proceedings and outlines key considerations for future work in this area. PMID:25280864

  13. Innovative uses of communication technology for HIV programming for men who have sex with men and transgender persons1

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Susannah M; Adams, Darrin; Klindera, Kent C; Poteat, Tonia; Wolf, R Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Globally, overall rates of HIV are on the decline; however, rates among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons are increasing. Meanwhile, there has been exponential growth in access to communication technology over the last decade. More innovative prevention and care technology-based programmes are needed to help address the growing numbers of MSM and transgender persons living with HIV and those at risk for infection. To address this need, a meeting was hosted by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and co-sponsored by amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The meeting brought together researchers, community implementers, advocates and federal partners to discuss the current landscape of technology-based interventions for MSM and transgender persons and to discuss key considerations. Presentations and discussions focused on the research gaps, facilitators and barriers to programme implementation and public–private partnerships. This article summarizes the meeting proceedings and outlines key considerations for future work in this area. PMID:25280864

  14. Predictors of Condom Use among Peer Social Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  15. Predictors of condom use among peer social networks of men who have sex with men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  16. An Assessment of Health Interventions Required to Prevent the Transmission of HIV Infection Among Men Having Sex with Men in Bujumbura, Burundi.

    PubMed

    Coulaud, Pierre-Julien; Mujimbere, Gabriel; Nitunga, Arsène; Kayonde, Candide; Trenado, Emmanuel; Spire, Bruno; Bernier, Adeline

    2016-10-01

    Data regarding HIV among men having sex with men (MSM) in Burundi are scarce. In a context where same-sex practices are illegal, national recommendations including MSM have been issued in 2012. However, no study has been conducted to evaluate MSM's health needs, which would be useful to adapt recommendations and implement evidence-based interventions. This study aimed at identifying health needs expressed by MSM. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bujumbura in 2014, in collaboration with the National Association for HIV positive people and AIDS patients. Fifty-one MSM, recruited during HIV prevention activities, self-completed a questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Participants had a median age of 23 years, over 60 % declared being a member of an LGBT organisation and 76 % lived their homosexuality secretly or discretely. Over the last month, 67 % declared having had sex with a man and 32 % with a woman. In the previous 6 months, 40 % declared having systematically used a condom during sexual intercourse. In terms of health needs, 22 % did not use the services offered by HIV providers. Participants expressed needs in terms of prevention (access to rapid HIV tests, in a confidential setting, with counselling) and care (listening centre, free treatment, confidentiality). Medical expertise and being a good listener were the predominant healthcare staff qualities desired by participants. Results suggest that Burundian MSM represent an at-risk population, with low access to HIV services, in need of a comprehensive approach for HIV prevention, with community-based activities (HIV testing, counselling, prevention tools), psychological and social support. PMID:27020779

  17. Low willingness and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; Yan, Huamei; Ning, Zhen; Cai, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yin; Pan, Rong; Zhou, Yanqiu; Zheng, Huang; Gao, Meiyang; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; He, Na

    2016-05-23

    Little is known about the acceptance and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. This study is the baseline survey of an intervention study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of tenofovirdisoproxil fumarate (TDF) on a daily use for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention among MSM in Shanghai, China. From October 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1,033 MSM in Shanghai were recruited by local district Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a MSM community-based non-governmental organization (NGO). Among them, 197 (19.1%) participants expressed willingness to use the TDF group at baseline survey, but only 26 (2.5%) participated in the TDF group and took TDF one tablet a day. Higher willingness to use PrEP was associated with being 45 years or older, non-local residents, having more male sex partners in the past 6 months and not using condom at last anal sex with man. Acutal uptake of PrEP was associated with having ≥ 11 male sex partners in lifetime and reporting no female sex partners in lifetime. Reasons for not participating in TDF group among those who expressed willingness to use PrEP at baseline survey included loss of contact, ineligiblity because of abnormal results for liver or renal function tests, change of mind, and HIV seroconversion before uptake of PrEP. Our findings suggest that promotion of PrEP in MSM remains challenging at current circumstancein China. Future research is needed to solicit effective education and intervention programs to promote acceptance of PrEP among Chinese MSM. PMID:27052151

  18. Psychological distress, drug use, sexual risks and medication adherence among young HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men: exposure to community violence matters.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Voisin, Dexter R; Bouris, Alida; Schneider, John

    2016-07-01

    In the USA, Black males are disproportionately affected by community violence and HIV. The aim of this study was to assess whether exposures to community violence are related to psychological distress, drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and medication adherence among a sample of HIV-positive young Black men who had sex with men (YBMSM). Data are from 98 YBMSM ages 18-29 years recruited from Chicago who completed measures on demographics, exposures to community violence, psychological distress, drug use, condomless anal intercourse, and medication adherence. Rates of exposure to community violence were high and youth reported victimization and witnessing numerous types of violence in their lifetime. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, models indicate that YBMSM reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence had significantly higher rates of condomless anal intercourse in the previous 6 months (AOR: 5.33, 95%CI: 1.38-20.55). Additionally, exposure to community violence was positively associated with psychological distress, hard drug use, and use of marijuana as a sex drug. Adherence to HIV antiretroviral medication was negatively associated with community violence (AOR: 0.36, 95%CI: 0.13-0.97). Rates of exposure to community violence are especially high in urban communities. Overall findings suggest that treatment, intervention, and programmatic approaches that include initiatives to address exposure to community violence might correlate with better health-related outcomes for HIV-positive YBMSM. PMID:26917328

  19. Student Success for Men of Color in Community Colleges: A Review of Published Literature and Research, 1998-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of scholarship on men of color in postsecondary education has emerged since the late 1990s. Yet, only recently have scholars begun to pursue empirical insights about the status of men of color who attend community colleges. In an effort to inform future research, this article reviews the published scholarship on student success…

  20. The conflation of gender and sex: Gaps and opportunities in HIV data among transgender women and MSM.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; German, Danielle; Flynn, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Historically, HIV studies have conflated men who have sex with men (MSM) with transgender (trans) women, explicitly excluded trans individuals, or included sample sizes of trans people that are too small to reach meaningful conclusions. Despite the heavy burden of HIV among trans women, conflation of this population with MSM has limited the information available on the social and behavioural factors that increase HIV vulnerability among trans women and how these factors may differ from MSM. Using data sets from quantitative studies among MSM (n = 645) and trans women (n = 89), as well as qualitative in-depth interviews with 30 trans women in Baltimore, we explore what these data tell us about similarities and differences in HIV vulnerability between the two groups and where they leave gaps in our understanding. We conclude with implications for data collection and intervention development. PMID:26785751

  1. Increasing the Reach of HIV Testing to Young Latino MSM: Results of a Pilot Study Integrating Outreach and Services

    PubMed Central

    Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Duan, Naihua; Grusky, Oscar; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Kerrone, Dustin; Rudy, Ellen T.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the U.S., HIV infections are increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young, racial/ethnic minority MSM. Objective To examine the feasibility of increasing HIV testing among young Latino MSM by integrating tailored outreach strategies with testing, counseling, and HIV medical services. Design Descriptive study comparing demographic characteristics, behaviors, and HIV test results of clients from the intervention period with clients who tested during other time periods. Results Clients in the intervention period were younger and more likely to be Latino than those in other time periods. In addition, clients who received outreach were more likely than those who did not receive outreach to report methamphetamine use, sex with an HIV-positive person, and sex with a sex worker. Conclusion Venue-based and selective media outreach, in combination with linking rapid testing to HIV care, may help overcome some of the barriers to testing among high-risk young Latino MSM. PMID:19648703

  2. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM. PMID:17360882

  3. Internet Sex Ads for MSM and Partner Selection Criteria: The Potency of Race/Ethnicity Online

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jay P.; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The explosive growth in Internet use by MSM to find sexual partners has been noted in the research literature. However, little attention has been given to the impact of participating in this online sexual marketplace for MSM of color, despite race/ethnicity as a frequently used selection criterion in personal ads or profiles. Six focus group discussions [n=50], and 35 in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with African American, Latino, Asian and Pacific Islander MSM in Los Angeles, which included discussion of their use of Internet sites to meet/interact with other MSM. Men reported race/ethnicity as a pervasive and powerful factor in facilitating or derailing Internet-mediated sexual encounters. The racialized interactions that MSM of color reported ranged from simple expressions of race-based preferences to blatantly discriminatory/hostile interactions and often demeaning race-based sexual objectification. Experiences of rejection and a perceived hierarchy of value in the sexual market based on race had definite costs for these MSM using these online sites. Furthermore, the private and solitary nature of seeking partners online meant that there was little to buffer the corrosive aspects of those negative experiences. These online dynamics have implications for the power balance in Internet-mediated sexual liaisons, including sexual decision-making and sexual risk. PMID:21322176

  4. Linkage and Retention in HIV Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Das, Moupali

    2011-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While the MSM population does better than other HIV infection risk groups with regard to linkage to and retention in care, little is known about engagement in care outcomes for important subpopulations of MSM. There is also a dearth of research on engagement in care strategies specific to the MSM population. Key MSM subpopulations in the United States on which to focus future research efforts include racial/ethnic minority, young, and substance-using MSM. Health care systems navigation may offer a promising engagement in care strategy for MSM and should be further evaluated. As is the case for HIV-infected populations in general, future research should also focus on identifying the best metrics for measuring engagement in care. PMID:21342910

  5. Meningococcal disease among men who have sex with men - United States, January 2012-June 2015.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Hajime; MacNeil, Jessica; Blain, Amy; Patel, Manisha; Martin, Stacey; Weiss, Don; Ngai, Stephanie; Ezeoke, Ifeoma; Mascola, Laurene; Civen, Rachel; Ngo, Van; Black, Stephanie; Kemble, Sarah; Chugh, Rashmi; Murphy, Elizabeth; Petit, Colette; Harriman, Kathleen; Winter, Kathleen; Beron, Andrew; Clegg, Whitney; Conover, Craig; Misegades, Lara

    2015-11-13

    Since 2012, three clusters of serogroup C meningococcal disease among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported in the United States. During 2012, 13 cases of meningococcal disease among MSM were reported by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (1); over a 5-month period during 2012–2013, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health reported four cases among MSM; and during May–June 2015, the Chicago Department of Public Health reported seven cases of meningococcal disease among MSM in the greater Chicago area. MSM have not previously been considered at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Determining outbreak thresholds* for special populations of unknown size (such as MSM) can be difficult. The New York City health department declared an outbreak based on an estimated increased risk for meningococcal infection in 2012 among MSM and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected MSM compared with city residents who were not MSM or for whom MSM status was unknown (1). The Chicago Department of Public Health also declared an outbreak based on an increase in case counts and thresholds calculated using population estimates of MSM and HIV-infected MSM. Local public health response included increasing awareness among MSM, conducting contact tracing and providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts, and offering vaccination to the population at risk (1–3). To better understand the epidemiology and burden of meningococcal disease in MSM populations in the United States and to inform recommendations, CDC analyzed data from a retrospective review of reported cases from January 2012 through June 2015. PMID:26562570

  6. Risk Factors for Sexual Offending in Men Working With Children: A Community-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Hoyer, Juergen; Schmidt, Alexander F; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-10-01

    Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major scientific and societal relevance. A total of 8649 German men from the community were assessed in an extensive anonymous and confidential online survey. Of those, 37 (0.4 %) could be classified as child sexual abusers working with children, 90 (1.0 %) as child sexual abusers not working with children, and 816 (9.4 %) as men who work with children and who have not abused a child. We assessed the impact of working with children as an individual risk factor for self-reported child sexual abuse and compared personal factors, pedophilic sexual fantasies, deviant sexual behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and hypersexuality among the three groups. Most interestingly, working with children was significantly associated with a self-reported sexual offense against children; however, it explained only three percent of its variance. Child sexual abusers working with children admitted more antisocial and more sexually deviant behaviors than child sexual abusers not working with children and than men working with children who have not abused a child. Our findings support some of the suggestions made by other researchers concerning factors that could be considered in applicants for child- or youth-serving institutions. However, it has to be pointed out that the scientific basis still seems premature. PMID:27184566

  7. Depressive symptoms among MSM who engage in bareback sex: Does mood matter?

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo; Dolezal, Curtis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Much research has examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men (MSM), but little is known about how depression is related to the sexual behavior of men who intentionally engage in unprotected anal intercourse, or bareback sex. In this study, we explored the extent to which depressive symptoms were associated with rates of unprotected sex among barebackers, and whether this relationship was dependent upon HIV serostatus. Using a sample of 120 MSM who engage in intentional condomless sex, we found that for HIV-negative participants, depressive symptoms were associated with the overall frequency of unprotected anal intercourse as well as unprotected anal intercourse with a serodiscordant partner. For HIV-positive participants, depressive symptoms were not associated unprotected intercourse. Additional research is needed to better understand depression among men who bareback and how interventions could be designed to address depression and reduce sexual risk behaviors. PMID:22323005

  8. Church Attendance in Men Who Have Sex With Men Diagnosed With HIV Is Associated With Later Presentation for HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Van Wagoner, Nicholas; Mugavero, Michael; Westfall, Andrew; Hollimon, John; Slater, Larry Z.; Burkholder, Greer; Raper, James L.; Hook, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an interdependent relationship between sexual behavior and church attendance on timing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and presentation for care. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and who attend church are more likely to present with lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts than MSM who do not attend church. PMID:24198225

  9. Socially Optimized Learning in a Virtual Environment: Reducing Risky Sexual Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Stephen J.; Miller, Lynn C.; Appleby, Paul Robert; Nwosu, Mary E.; Reynaldo, Sadina; Lauren, Ada; Putcha, Anila

    2006-01-01

    A socially optimized learning approach, which integrates diverse theoretical perspectives, places men who have sex with men (MSM) in an interactive virtual environment designed to simulate the emotional, interpersonal, and contextual narrative of an actual sexual encounter while challenging and changing MSM's more automatic patterns of risky…

  10. A Holistic Approach to Addressing HIV Infection Disparities in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Wolitski, Richard J.; Millett, Gregorio A.

    2013-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic in the United States and in many other parts of the world. The HIV epidemic is inextricably tied to other health problems that disproportionately affect gay, bisexual, and other MSM including…

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Goal Choice Interventions for Alcohol Use Disorders among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Jon; Irwin, Thomas W.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Muench, Frederick; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marcus, Susan; Schulz-Heik, Jay

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of behavioral treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUD) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and who are at risk for HIV transmission. HIV-negative MSM with current AUD (N = 198) were recruited, offered treatment focused on reducing drinking and HIV risk, and followed during treatment and 12 months posttreatment.…

  12. Mediators of Childhood Sexual Abuse and High-Risk Sex among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, Joseph A.; Paul, Jay; Osmond, Dennis; Folkman, Susan; Pollack, Lance; Canchola, Jesse; Chang, Jason; Neilands, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Mediators of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior were examined for men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Method: Data from a dual frame survey of urban MSM (N = 1078) provided prevalence estimates of CSA, and a test of two latent variable models (defined by partner type) of CSA-risk behavior mediators. Results: A 20%…

  13. Comprehensive Characterization of the Transmitted/founder env Genes from a Single MSM Cohort in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tong; Huang, Xiaojie; Cai, Fangping; Vandergrift, Nathan; Xin, Ruolei; Meng, Zhefeng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Chunlai; Xu, Xiaoning; Montefiori, David C; Gao, Feng; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background The men having sex with men (MSM) population has become one of major risk groups for HIV-1 infection in China. However, the epidemiological patterns, function of the env genes, and autologous and heterologous neutralization activity in the same MSM population have not been systematically characterized. Methods The env gene sequences were obtained by the single genome amplification (SGA). The time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) was estimated for each genotype using the Bayesian MCMC approach. Coreceptor usage was determined in NP-2 cells. Neutralization was analyzed using Env pseudoviruses in TZM-bl cells. Results We have obtained 547 full-length env gene sequences by SGA from 30 acute/early HIV-1-infected individuals in the Beijing MSM cohort. Three genotypes (Subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC) were identified and 20% of the individuals were infected with multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. The tight clusters of the MSM sequences regardless of geographic origins indicated nearly exclusive transmission within the MSM population and limited number of introductions. The tMRCA for each genotype was 10-15 years after each was first introduced in China. Disparate preferences for coreceptor usages among three genotypes might lead to the changes in percentage of different genotypes in the MSM population over time. The genotype-matched and -mismatched neutralization activity varied among the three genotypes. Conclusions Identification of unique characteristics for transmission, coreceptor usage, neutralization profile and epidemic patterns of HIV-1 is critical for the better understanding of transmission mechanisms, development of preventive strategies, and evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the MSM population in China. PMID:25886933

  14. Sexual Orientation- and Race-Based Discrimination and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Among Urban MSM

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  15. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  16. Ideologies of Black churches in New York City and the public health crisis of HIV among Black men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Wittlin, Natalie M.; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by the HIV and AIDS in New York City (NYC). Black churches in NYC have a history of engaging in community mobilisation; however, research suggests that churches play a role in promoting stigma against Black MSM, which impedes prevention efforts. The goal of this study was to explore church ideologies surrounding sexuality and health, and the relationship of these ideologies to church mobilisation in response to HIV/AIDS among Black MSM. We conducted interviews and focus groups with pastors and parishioners at Black churches in NYC. Three prominent themes were identified: (1) `Love the sinner, hate the sin' – distinguishing behaviour and identity; (2) `Don't ask, don't tell' – keeping same-sex behaviour private; and (3) `Your body is a temple' – connecting physical and spiritual health. We discuss the implications of these ideologies for church mobilisation and HIV prevention efforts. In doing so, we pay close attention to how ideologies may both impede and facilitate church dialogue around sexuality and heightened responses to the HIV crisis affecting Black MSM. PMID:21892894

  17. The Role of Stigma and Medical Mistrust in the Routine Health Care Engagement of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Driffin, Daniel D.; Kegler, Christopher; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher; White, Denise; Cherry, Chauncey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed how health care–related stigma, global medical mistrust, and personal trust in one’s health care provider relate to engaging in medical care among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. In 2012, we surveyed 544 Black MSM attending a community event. We completed generalized linear modeling and mediation analyses in 2013. Results. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported experiencing racial and sexual orientation stigma from heath care providers and 48% reported mistrust of medical establishments. We found that, among HIV-negative Black MSM, those who experienced greater stigma and global medical mistrust had longer gaps in time since their last medical exam. Furthermore, global medical mistrust mediated the relationship between stigma and engagement in care. Among HIV-positive Black MSM, experiencing stigma from health care providers was associated with longer gaps in time since last HIV care appointment. Conclusions. Interventions focusing on health care settings that support the development of greater awareness of stigma and mistrust are urgently needed. Failure to address psychosocial deterrents will stymie progress in biomedical prevention and cripple the ability to implement effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25521875

  18. High HIV Prevalence among Men who have Sex with Men in a Time-Location Sampling Survey, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Mascena Veras, Maria Amelia; Calazans, Gabriela Junqueira; de Almeida Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio; de Freitas Oliveira, Carmem Aparecida; Giovanetti, Marcia Regina; Facchini, Regina; França, Isadora Lins; McFarland, Willi

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a time-location sampling sero-behavioral surveillance survey of men who have sex with men (MSM) in São Paulo, Brazil, the largest city in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere (N = 1,217 interviewed with serological results for 771). HIV prevalence was 15.4 % (95 % CI 11.6-20.1), with only 45.8 % previously aware of their infection. HIV prevalence achieved 6.4 % among youth 18-24 years and was higher among MSM with lower socio-economic status. In multivariate analysis, correlates of HIV were older age, gay identity, lower socio-economic status, social networks with HIV-positive MSM, receptive anal sex, and internet sex partners. Policy change towards increasing avenues for HIV testing coupled with antiretroviral treatment regardless of CD4 count or stage of disease stand to benefit the MSM community if scaled up fast enough. PMID:25384906

  19. Stigma and Homophobia: Persistent Challenges for HIV Prevention Among Young MSM in Puerto Rico1

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Melissa Marzán; Madera, Sheilla Rodríguez; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the most affected populations by HIV/AIDS. Over the last years an increase of cases has been reported in younger groups. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that stigma and homophobia may have a profound impact on the lives of MSM, and could influence them to engage in HIV risky behaviors. In the U.S and Puerto Rico, an increase in HIV cases among young MSM has been reported. For the period of 2005-2009 an increase of HIV cases was reported with 4.3% in the age group of 13-24 and 55.6% in the age group of 25-34. Understanding the dynamics related HIV risk behaviors among young MSM requires transcending traditional individual behavior oriented perspectives in order to adopt a more comprehensive socio-structural approach. In this manuscript we present a critical analysis of HIV prevention issues among young MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:25678720

  20. A qualitative exploration of the relationship between racism and unsafe sex among Asian Pacific Islander gay men.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong-suk

    2008-10-01

    Although reported cases of HIV/AIDS among gay Asian Pacific Islander (API) American men and API men who have sex with men (MSM) are still relatively low, current research findings indicate that incidences of unsafe sexual activity may be higher for this group than for any other group. Among the explanations offered to explain the levels of increasing unsafe sex among gay API men have been sexual norms found in Asian cultures, the lack of culturally relevant and/or linguistically appropriate intervention material, lack of integration into the mainstream gay community, and internalized homophobia. What are often ignored in these analyses are the contextual norms in which sexual behavior for gay API men occur. In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group. PMID:18286364

  1. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    PubMed Central

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. Methods We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Results MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%–95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. Conclusions National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. PMID:26965869

  2. Why Rectal Douches May Be Acceptable Rectal-Microbicide Delivery Vehicles for MSM

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Bauermeister, José; Ventuneac, Ana; Dolezal, Curtis; Mayer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Rationale To explore age of onset of rectal douching among men who have sex with men (MSM) and reasons leading to and maintaining douching behavior; and to consider whether rectal douches containing microbicidal agents might be acceptable for men at HIV risk. Methods In Stage 1, we used qualitative methods to explore douching behavior in a sample of 20 MSM. Subsequently, we developed a structured questionnaire that was administered in Stage 2 to 105 MSM. Results More than half of participants who completed Stage 1 douched during the trial despite having been advised not to do so. Of the 105 HIV uninfected participants in Stage 2, 51% reported using rectal douches in the prior six months; 47% douched before and 25% after anal intercourse. Most participants reported douching frequently or always. On average, men reported douching about two hours prior to or one hour following intercourse. Average age of onset was late 20s. Most men who douched wanted to be clean or were encouraged to douche by their partners. Some men thought douching after sex could prevent STIs. Conclusion Rectal douching appears to be a popular behavior among men who have RAI. It is necessary to identify harmless douches. If HIV/STI preventive douches can be developed, rectal douching prior to or following sexual intercourse could become an important additional prevention tool. To reshape an existing behavior to which some men strongly adhere, like douching, by suggesting use of one type of douche over another may be more successful than trying to convince MSM to engage in behaviors they never practiced before or those they resist (e.g., condom use). PMID:19959973

  3. Changes in sexual risk behavior among MSM participating in a research cohort in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Geskus, Ronald B.; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Wahome, Elizabeth; Price, Matt A.; Prins, Maria; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe changes in sexual risk behavior among Kenyan MSM who received regular risk reduction counseling (RRC). Design Data were derived from two cohorts of HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive MSM in Kenya. Behavioral data were collected at enrollment and at monthly or quarterly scheduled follow-up visits. At each visit, RRC was provided to all men and HIV-1 testing to seronegative men. Methods Random effects logistic and Poisson regression models with time since study entry as main variable of interest were used to evaluate changes in number of sex partners and unprotected sex in the past week, and insertive, receptive, and unprotected anal intercourse in the past 3 months. Analyses were adjusted for HIV-1-status, calendar year of follow-up, and several baseline characteristics. Trends over follow-up time were allowed to differ by HIV-1-status. Men were censored when they seroconverted for HIV. Results Number of regular and casual sex partners and unprotected anal intercourse decreased in both HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive men. Unprotected sex with both regular and casual sex partners decreased more strongly early in follow-up in HIV-1-positive men than in HIV-1-negative men. Decreases in insertive anal intercourse were found for HIV-1-positive men only, whereas decreases in receptive anal intercourse were found for HIV-1-negative men only. Conclusion MSM who were regularly exposed to RRC showed some reductions in sexual risk behavior, but it is uncertain if these reductions are sustained over time. As HIV-1 incidences in Kenyan MSM are very high, RRC should be supported by comprehensive biomedical interventions. PMID:26562810

  4. Men who have sex with men inadequately addressed in African Aids National Strategic Plans

    PubMed Central

    Makofane, K.; Gueboguo, C.; Lyons, D.; Sandfort, T.

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of Aids National Strategic Plans (NSPs), this study investigated the responses of African governments to the HIV epidemics faced by men who have sex with men (MSM). NSPs from 46 African countries were systematically analysed, paying attention to (1) the representation of MSM and their HIV risk, (2) inclusion of epidemiologic information on the HIV epidemic amongst MSM and (3) government-led interventions addressing MSM. 34 out of 46 NSPs mentioned MSM. While two-thirds of these NSPs acknowledged vulnerability of MSM to HIV infection, fewer than half acknowledged the role of stigma or criminalisation. Four NSPs showed estimated HIV prevalence amongst MSM, and one included incidence. Two-thirds of the NSPs proposed government-led HIV interventions that address MSM. Those that did plan to intervene planned to do so through policy interventions, social interventions, HIV prevention interventions, HIV treatment interventions, and monitoring activities. Overall, the governments of the countries included in the study exhibited little knowledge of HIV disease dynamics amongst MSM and little knowledge of the social dynamics behind MSM’s HIV risk. Concerted action is needed to integrate MSM in NSPs and governmental health policies in a way that acknowledges this population and its specific HIV/AIDS related needs. PMID:23252398

  5. HIV Risk among MSM in Senegal: A Qualitative Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Enforcing Laws That Criminalize Same Sex Practices

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ndaw, Marieme; Traore, Cheikh; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July–August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law. PMID:22194906

  6. Effects of a Social Network HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Men Who Have Sex with Men in Russia and Hungary: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Takacs, Judit; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Toth, Tamas P.; Mocsonaki, Laszlo; DiFranceisco, Wayne J.; Meylakhs, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a novel social network HIV risk reduction intervention for MSM in Russia and Hungary, where same-sex behavior is stigmatized and men may best be reached through their social network connections. Design A 2-arm trial with 18 sociocentric networks of MSM randomized to the social network intervention or standard HIV/STD testing/counseling. Setting St. Petersburg, Russia and Budapest, Hungary. Participants 18 “seeds” from community venues invited the participation of their MSM friends who, in turn, invited their own MSM friends into the study, a process that continued outward until eighteen 3-ring sociocentric networks (mean size=35 members, n=626) were recruited. Intervention Empirically-identified network leaders were trained and guided to convey HIV prevention advice to other network members. Main Outcome and Measures Changes in sexual behavior from baseline to 3- and 12-month followup, with composite HIV/STD incidence measured at 12-months to corroborate behavior changes. Results There were significant reductions between baseline, first followup, and second followup in the intervention versus comparison arm for proportion of men engaging in any unprotected anal intercourse (P=.04); UAI with a nonmain partner (P=.04); and UAI with multiple partners (P=.002). The mean percentage of unprotected AI acts significantly declined (P=.001), as well as the mean number of UAI acts among men who initially had multiple partners (P=.05). Biological HIV/STD incidence was 15% in comparison condition networks and 9% in intervention condition networks. Conclusions Even where same-sex behavior is stigmatized, it is possible to reach MSM and deliver HIV prevention through their social networks. PMID:25565495

  7. Targeting screening and social marketing to increase detection of acute HIV infection in men who have sex with men in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Robert, Wayne; Doupe, Glenn; Krajden, Mel; Rekart, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The contribution of acute HIV infection (AHI) to transmission is widely recognized, and increasing AHI diagnosis capacity can enhance HIV prevention through subsequent behavior change or intervention. We examined the impact of targeted pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and social marketing to increase AHI diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vancouver. Design: Observational study. Methods: We implemented pooled NAAT following negative third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing for males above 18 years in six clinics accessed by MSM, accompanied by two social marketing campaigns developed by a community gay men's health organization. We compared test volume and diagnosis rates for pre-implementation (April 2006–March 2009) and post-implementation (April 2009–March 2012) periods. After implementation, we used linear regression to examine quarterly trends and calculated diagnostic yield. Results: After implementation, the AHI diagnosis rate significantly increased from 1.03 to 1.84 per 1000 tests, as did quarterly HIV test volumes and acute to non-acute diagnosis ratio. Of the 217 new HIV diagnoses after implementation, 54 (24.9%) were AHIs (25 detected by pooled NAAT only) for an increased diagnostic yield of 11.5%. The average number of prior negative HIV tests (past 2 years) increased significantly for newly diagnosed MSM at the six study clinics compared to other newly diagnosed MSM in British Columbia, per quarter. Conclusion: Targeted implementation of pooled NAAT at clinics accessed by MSM is effective in increasing AHI diagnoses compared to third-generation EIA testing. Social marketing campaigns accompanying pooled NAAT implementation may contribute to increasing AHI diagnoses and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:23921608

  8. Sexual Compulsivity and Sexual Risk in Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the association between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS; Kalichman et al., 1994) and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been limited to samples of HIV positive MSM only. Using data from a community-based survey of gay and bisexual men (n = 1214), this analysis sought to further evaluate the association between the SCS and sexual risk behavior. The SCS was significantly associated with a variety of sexual risk behaviors, including having sex under the influence of club drugs, engaging in unprotected anal sex (receptive or insertive) with partners of the same and/or different HIV serostatus, identity as a barebacker, intentions to have bareback sex, number of recent sex partners, and temptation for unsafe sex. The SCS was also significantly associated with having engaged in a variety of specialized sexual behaviors (i.e., fetishes), many of which can increase HIV transmission risks. Finally, in multivariate analyses, the SCS significantly predicted unprotected sex with a non-main partner even when controlling for race, HIV serostatus, age, identity as a barebacker, and club drug use. These data indicate that the SCS may be able to serve as an indicator to detect HIV-associated sexual risk behavior in community-based samples of gay and bisexual men. PMID:19308715

  9. Involvement in Specific HIV Risk Practices among Men Who Use the Internet to Find Male Partners for Unprotected Sex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Men who have sex with other men (MSM) account for more than one-half of all new HIV infections in the USA. This study reports on the prevalence of a variety of HIV risk behaviors in one specific subpopulation of risk-seeking MSM. Methods. The study was based on a national sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to find partners for unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Results. Unprotected oral and anal sex was commonplace among study participants. Men engaged in a large number of other risky behaviors as well, including having had multiple recent sex partners (mean number = 11), simultaneous double-penile penetration of the anus (16%), eating semen out of another man's anus (17%), engaging in multiple-partner sexual encounters (47%), engaging in anonymous sex (51%), and having sex while “under the influence” (52%). Conclusions. HIV intervention and prevention programs need to address numerous behaviors that place MSM at risk for contracting/transmitting HIV. Merely focusing on unprotected anal sex does a disservice to members of this community, who typically engage in many types of behavioral risks, each of which requires addressing if HIV transmission rates are to be reduced. PMID:24826369

  10. An exploration of the down-low identity: nongay-identified young African-American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jaime; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urges that strategies are needed to increase the proportion of young men who have sex with men (MSM) who are linked to primary care and prevention services. One subgroup of young men engaging in male-male sex, those that do not identify as gay, may be less likely to be reached by prevention and intervention services that are aimed at the broader MSM community. Additionally, nongay-identified young men engaging in male-male sex may have risk-reduction needs that are different from those that identify as gay. At present, very little is known about this subgroup of men. This study qualitatively interviewed six nongay-identified young men engaging in male-male sex about their sexual identity, their relationships with both men and women, their perceptions of their own sexual risk behavior and their comfort in accessing primary care services. The information gathered in these interviews can be used to increase the understanding of this understudied population while improving prevention and primary care services aimed at these youth. PMID:16173325

  11. Sibanye Methods for Prevention Packages Program Project Protocol: Pilot Study of HIV Prevention Interventions for Men Who Have Sex With Men in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Rachel; Siegler, Aaron J; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Stephenson, Rob; Baral, Stefan D; Brookmeyer, Ron; Yah, Clarence S; Lambert, Andrew J; Brown, Benjamin; Rosenberg, Eli; Blalock Tharp, Mondie; de Voux, Alex; Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention intervention programs and related research for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the southern African region remain limited, despite the emergence of a severe epidemic among this group. With a lack of understanding of their social and sexual lives and HIV risks, and with MSM being a hidden and stigmatized group in the region, optimized HIV prevention packages for southern African MSM are an urgent public health and research priority. Objective The objective of the Sibanye Health Project is to develop and evaluate a combination package of biomedical, behavioral, and community-level HIV prevention interventions and services for MSM in South Africa. Methods The project consists of three phases: (1) a comprehensive literature review and summary of current HIV prevention interventions (Phase I), (2) agent-based mathematical modeling of HIV transmission in southern African MSM (Phase II), and (3) formative and stigma-related qualitative research, community engagement, training on providing health care to MSM, and the pilot study (Phase III). The pilot study is a prospective one-year study of 200 men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The study will assess a package of HIV prevention services, including condom and condom-compatible lubricant choices, risk-reduction counseling, couples HIV testing and counseling, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for eligible men, and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis for men with a high risk exposure. The pilot study will begin in October 2014. Results Preliminary results from all components but the pilot study are available. We developed a literature review database with meta-data extracted from 3800 documents from 67 countries. Modeling results indicate that regular HIV testing and promotion of condom use can significantly impact new HIV infections among South African MSM, even in the context of high coverage of early treatment of HIV-positive men and high

  12. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    PubMed

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention. PMID:26873022

  13. A pilot cohort study to assess the feasibility of HIV prevention science research among men who have sex with men in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Dramé, Fatou Maria; Crawford, Emily E; Diouf, Daouda; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by HIV in Senegal, across sub-Saharan Africa and throughout the world. This is driven in part by stigma, and limits health achievements and social capital among these populations. To date, there is a limited understanding of the feasibility of prospective HIV prevention studies among MSM in Senegal, including HIV incidence and cohort retention rates. Methods One hundred and nineteen men who reported having anal sex with another man in the past 12 months were randomly selected from a sampling frame of 450 unique members of community groups serving MSM in Dakar. These men were enrolled in a 15-month pilot cohort study implemented by a community-based partner. The study included a structured survey instrument and biological testing for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B virus at two time points. Results Baseline HIV prevalence was 36.0% (43/114), with cumulative HIV prevalence at study end being 47.2% (51/108). The annualized incidence rate was 16% (8/40 at risk for seroconversion over 15 months of follow-up, 95% confidence interval 4.6–27.4%). Thirty-seven men were lost to follow up, including at least four deaths. Men who were able to confide in someone about health, emotional distress and sex were less likely to be HIV positive (OR 0.36, p < 0.05, 95% CI 0.13, 0.97). Conclusions High HIV prevalence and incidence, as well as mortality in this young population of Senegalese MSM indicate a public health emergency. Moreover, given the high burden of HIV and rate of incident HIV infections, this population appears to be appropriate for the evaluation of novel HIV prevention, treatment and care approaches. Using a study implemented by community-based organizations, there appears to be feasibility in implementing interventions addressing the multiple levels of HIV risk among MSM in this setting. However, low retention across arms of this pilot intervention, and in the cohort, will need to be

  14. Challenges in providing counselling to MSM in highly stigmatized contexts: results of a qualitative study from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Davies, Alun; Mwangome, Mary; van der Elst, Elisabeth M; Graham, Susan M; Price, Matt A; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-01-01

    The role of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the African HIV epidemic is gaining recognition yet capacity to address the HIV prevention needs of this group is limited. HIV testing and counselling is not only a critical entry point for biomedical HIV prevention interventions, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, rectal microbicides and early treatment initiation, but is also an opportunity for focused risk reduction counselling that can support individuals living in difficult circumstances. For prevention efforts to succeed, however, MSM need to access services and they will only do so if these are non-judgmental, informative, focused on their needs, and of clear benefit. This study aimed to understand Kenyan providers' attitudes towards and experiences with counselling MSM in a research clinic targeting this group for HIV prevention. We used in-depth interviews to explore values, attitudes and cognitive and social constructs of 13 counsellors and 3 clinicians providing services to MSM at this clinic. Service providers felt that despite their growing experience, more targeted training would have been helpful to improve their effectiveness in MSM-specific risk reduction counselling. They wanted greater familiarity with MSM in Kenya to better understand the root causes of MSM risk-taking (e.g., poverty, sex work, substance abuse, misconceptions about transmission, stigma, and sexual desire) and felt frustrated at the perceived intractability of some of their clients' issues. In addition, they identified training needs on how to question men about specific risk behaviours, improved strategies for negotiating risk reduction with counselling clients, and improved support supervision from senior counsellors. This paper describes the themes arising from these interviews and makes practical recommendations on training and support supervision systems for nascent MSM HIV prevention programmes in Africa. PMID:23762241

  15. Challenges in Providing Counselling to MSM in Highly Stigmatized Contexts: Results of a Qualitative Study from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Davies, Alun; Mwangome, Mary; van der Elst, Elisabeth M.; Graham, Susan M.; Price, Matt A.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the African HIV epidemic is gaining recognition yet capacity to address the HIV prevention needs of this group is limited. HIV testing and counselling is not only a critical entry point for biomedical HIV prevention interventions, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, rectal microbicides and early treatment initiation, but is also an opportunity for focused risk reduction counselling that can support individuals living in difficult circumstances. For prevention efforts to succeed, however, MSM need to access services and they will only do so if these are non-judgmental, informative, focused on their needs, and of clear benefit. This study aimed to understand Kenyan providers' attitudes towards and experiences with counselling MSM in a research clinic targeting this group for HIV prevention. We used in-depth interviews to explore values, attitudes and cognitive and social constructs of 13 counsellors and 3 clinicians providing services to MSM at this clinic. Service providers felt that despite their growing experience, more targeted training would have been helpful to improve their effectiveness in MSM-specific risk reduction counselling. They wanted greater familiarity with MSM in Kenya to better understand the root causes of MSM risk-taking (e.g., poverty, sex work, substance abuse, misconceptions about transmission, stigma, and sexual desire) and felt frustrated at the perceived intractability of some of their clients' issues. In addition, they identified training needs on how to question men about specific risk behaviours, improved strategies for negotiating risk reduction with counselling clients, and improved support supervision from senior counsellors. This paper describes the themes arising from these interviews and makes practical recommendations on training and support supervision systems for nascent MSM HIV prevention programmes in Africa. PMID:23762241

  16. A Randomized Trial of a Behavioral Intervention for High Risk Substance-Using MSM

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven P.; Stall, Ronald D.; Buttram, Mance E.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Chen, Minxing

    2013-01-01

    Substance-using men who have sex with men (MSM) are among the groups at highest risk for HIV infection in the United States. We report the results of a randomized trial testing the efficacy of a small group sexual and substance use risk reduction intervention based on empowerment theory compared to an enhanced efficacious control condition among 515 high risk not-in-treatment MSM substance users. Effect sizes for sexual risk and substance use outcomes were moderate to large: HIV transmission risk frequency, d = 0.71 in the control versus 0.66 in the experimental group; number of anal sex partners, d = 1.04 versus 0.98; substance dependence symptoms, d = 0.49 versus 0.53; significant differences were not observed between conditions. Black MSM reduced their risks at a greater rate than White or Latino men. The findings point to a critically important research agenda to reduce HIV transmission among MSM substance users. PMID:23732957

  17. An Analysis of Nonfirst-Generation Community College Men of Color: Comparing GPA, Noncognitive, and Campus Ethos Differences across Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Angélica M. G.; Alvarez, Rafael D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the Community College Socio-Ecological Outcomes model, this study is among the first to have addressed the outcomes of nonfirst-generation community college men of color. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences across ethnicities for key factors in two socioecological domains, including noncognitive and campus ethos…

  18. Inequities in access to HIV prevention services for transgender men: results of a global survey of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Scheim, Ayden I; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Hebert, Patrick; Thomann, Matthew; Ayala, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Free or low-cost HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants are foundational HIV prevention strategies, yet are often inaccessible for men who have sex with men (MSM). In the global context of stigma and poor healthcare access, transgender (trans) MSM may face additional barriers to HIV prevention services. Drawing on data from a global survey of MSM, we aimed to describe perceived access to prevention services among trans MSM, examine associations between stigma and access, and compare access between trans MSM and cisgender (non-transgender) MSM. Methods The 2014 Global Men's Health and Rights online survey was open to MSM (inclusive of trans MSM) from any country and available in seven languages. Baseline data (n=3857) were collected from July to October 2014. Among trans MSM, correlations were calculated between perceived service accessibility and anti-transgender violence, healthcare provider stigma, and discrimination. Using a nested matched-pair study design, trans MSM were matched 4:1 to cisgender MSM on age group, region, and HIV status, and conditional logistic regression models compared perceived access to prevention services by transgender status. Results About 3.4% of respondents were trans men, of whom 69 were included in the present analysis. The average trans MSM participant was 26 to 35 years old (56.5%); lived in western Europe, North America, or Oceania (75.4%); and reported being HIV-negative (98.6%). HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants were accessible for 43.5, 53.6, and 26.1% of trans MSM, respectively. Ever having been arrested or convicted due to being trans and higher exposure to healthcare provider stigma in the past six months were associated with less access to some prevention services. Compared to matched cisgender controls, trans MSM reported significantly lower odds of perceived access to HIV testing (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.98) and condom-compatible lubricants (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30, 0.98). Conclusions This first look at access

  19. Effects of witnessing or exposure to community violence on mental health of Iraqi men

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Maha A.; Hamad, Ruaa A.; Lafta, Riyadh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iraq is consistently exposed to large-scale traumatic events such as successive wars since 1980 to the present day, economic sanctions, sustained organized violence, and terrorism. These unsafe circumstances have negatively impacted the psychosocial status of the Iraqi community. Objective: To study the prevalence of witnessing or exposure to various types of violence, and its association with mental health problems in a sample of Iraqi men. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted from April to September 2014. The target population were men from different age groups that were collected through a convenience sampling technique from two large cities; Baghdad (the capital city) and Mosul (the second largest city in Iraq). The source of data was from different institutions, colleges and lay people. The data collection process was done using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 which is recommended by the World Health Organization for screening psychiatric disturbances. Results: A total of 480 Iraqi males agreed to participate in the study. The main type of violence reported was witnessing violence (55.4%), followed by exposure of friends or relatives to violence (51.4%), and witnessing or exposure to sexual assault was least reported (3.8%). The most frequent feeling recorded was of worry (72.9%), getting easily upset (65.4%), suffering from headaches (62.7%) and lethargy (59.4%). Severe psychological changes were evident in 68.5% of men, while moderate changes were present in 31.5%. Analysis of the feelings and behavioral changes in relation to the participants' history of exposure to violence revealed a significant association with witnessing shooting or stabbings, displacement, friends or relatives' exposure to violence, and viewing corpses. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence among Iraqi men of exposure to, or witnessing violence that showed an association with their mental condition, which, if proved causally, may be a leading

  20. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection and new sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Noah; Davey, Dvora Joseph; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-09-10

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize rates of sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV versus MSM not using PrEP. Incidence rate ratios showed that MSM using PrEP were 25.3 times more likely to acquire a Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, 11.2 times more likely to acquire a Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and 44.6 times more likely to acquire a syphilis infection versus MSM not using PrEP. PMID:27314179

  1. Why are men less tested for sexually transmitted infections in remote Australian Indigenous communities? A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiunn-Yih; Belton, Suzanne; Ryder, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    Gender disparities in testing rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been identified as one potential factor sustaining high rates of STIs and repeat infections in the Northern Territory of Australia, especially in remote Indigenous communities. The study aimed to investigate the reasons for these disparities utilising a mixed-method study design. We conducted an audit on client information at a remote community health clinic, focus-group discussions with young men in the same community and interviews with experienced remote area clinicians. The clinic audit found a significantly higher proportion of female residents of the community than males visited the clinic (72.8 versus 55.3%, p < 0.005). Women were also more likely to be tested for STIs than men when visiting the clinic (49.7 versus 40.3%, p = 0.015). Major barriers to men's seeking STI testing included a sense of shame from being seen visiting the clinic by women, men's lack of understanding of STIs and the need for testing, and inadequate access to male clinicians. Increasing men's access to healthcare and STI testing requires offering testing at a gender-sensitive and separate locations, and community-based sexual health promotion to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:27142316

  2. Psycho-social factors related to willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men attending a community event

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Driffin, Daniel D.; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher; White, Denise; Cherry, Chauncey

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In the US, Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) holds tremendous promise for curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among these men. However, many psycho-social components must be addressed in order to effectively implement this prevention tool among BMSM. METHODS We assessed PrEP knowledge and use, health care access experiences, race-based medical mistrust, sexual partners and behaviors, and drug and alcohol use among 699 men attending a community event in the southeastern US. We used generalized linear modeling to assess factors associated with their willingness to use PrEP. RESULTS Three hundred ninety-eight men reported being BMSM and HIV negative status. Among these men, 60% reported being willing to use PrEP. Lack of being comfortable with talking to a health care provider about having sex with men, not having discussed having sex with a man with a health care provider, race-based medical mistrust, and alcohol consumption and substance use were all identified as barriers to willingness to use PrEP. Sexual risk taking, including number of sex partners and STI diagnosis, was not associated with willingness to use PrEP. CONCLUSIONS Findings from the current paper demonstrate the importance of acknowledging the role of various psycho-social factors in the uptake of PrEP. It is imperative that we prioritize research into better understanding these barriers as the failure to do so will impede the tremendous potential of this prevention technology. PMID:25001553

  3. Clinically Significant Depressive Symptoms as a Risk Factor for HIV Infection Among Black MSM in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Skeer, Margie; Bright, Donna; Cranston, Kevin; Isenberg, Deborah; Bland, Sean; Barker, Thomas A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of depression have been observed among men who have sex with men (MSM) relative to the general adult male population; however, a dearth of research has explored depression among Black MSM. Black MSM (n = 197) recruited via modified respondent-driven sampling between January and July 2008 completed an interviewer-administered quantitative assessment and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression procedures examined the associations of demographics, behavioral HIV risk factors, and psychosocial variables with depressive symptoms by severity, using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Adjusting for demographic and behavioral variables, significant factors associated with (1) clinically significant depressive symptoms (33%; CES-D score ≥ 16): being publicly insured by Medicaid, having serodiscordant anal sex with a casual male partner, and being diagnosed with an STD in the prior 12 months; (2) moderate depressive symptoms (19%; CES-D score 16–26): having serodiscordant unprotected anal sex with a casual male partner and being diagnosed with an STD in the prior 12 months; (3) severe depressive symptoms (14%; CES-D score 27+): being publicly insured by Medicaid and reporting difficulty accessing healthcare in the past 12 months. Moderately depressed Black MSM may be more likely to engage in behaviors that place them at increased risk for HIV and other STDs. HIV prevention interventions for Black MSM may benefit from incorporating screening and/or treatment for depression, allowing MSM who are depressed to respond more effectively to behavioral change approaches. PMID:19462228

  4. Negotiating exclusion: MSM, identity, and blood policy in the age of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    In the US, blood donors face a variety of restrictions that leave many people excluded entirely from the donor pool. This paper explores the specific circumstances and meanings surrounding the donor ban on Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men (MSM). The ban on MSM is one of the few existing donor guidelines to receive considerable criticism on grounds that it effectively prohibits any sexually active gay man from donating blood and thus discriminates against gays. Due in part to these questions of fairness, the Blood Products Advisory Committee (BPAC) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) met to reconsider the decades-old policy, first in 1997 and again in 2000. The FDA asked its advisory committee to address the efficacy and utility of the MSM ban in light of technological developments in blood-banking, epidemiological data on the spread of HIV, and mounting pressures from gay rights and blood-banking organizations to update the policy. Through a detailed reading of meeting and conference transcripts that took place between 1997 and 2000, I argue that 'MSM' became a contested definitional category during the FDA's reappraisal of the policy. During and between the Committee's discussions, presenters and experts debated the differences between sexual behavior and sexual identity in relation to HIV and, eventually, HHV-8, a virus known to cause Kaposi's sarcoma in immunosuppressed individuals. I argue that the underlying flexibility in the meanings behind the term 'MSM' allowed Committee members, in the end, to retract their more nuanced discussions of human behavior and HIV and to uphold the contested policy. Finally, I suggest how the debates surrounding the MSM donor ban can help us to better understand the place of sexuality in discussions and claims of biopolitical citizenship in early 21st-century America. PMID:20527321

  5. Social Support and the Mental Health of Older Gay Men: Findings From a National Community-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    This study examines different types and sources of social support in relation to psychological distress levels among older Australian gay men. A national community-based survey was conducted involving 242 gay-identified men aged 50 years and older. In univariable regressions, psychological distress was less likely if men were receiving emotional support, practical support, or had a sense of belonging, and also if they had a greater number of close friends and received some or a lot of support from family and gay friends but not from straight friends. Of all these factors, a multivariable regression showed that receiving emotional support was the only significant independent factor. Emotional support appears to play a greater role in the mental health of older gay men than many other types and sources of support. Ensuring access to emotional support may need to be considered when promoting healthier aging among gay men. PMID:26092208

  6. Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D; van Griensven, Frits; Goodreau, Steven M; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Wirtz, Andrea L; Brookmeyer, Ron

    2012-07-28

    Epidemics of HIV in men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in most countries. We sought to understand the epidemiological drivers of the global epidemic in MSM and why it continues unabated. We did a comprehensive review of available data for HIV prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and the molecular epidemiology of HIV in MSM from 2007 to 2011, and modelled the dynamics of HIV transmission with an agent-based simulation. Our findings show that the high probability of transmission per act through receptive anal intercourse has a central role in explaining the disproportionate disease burden in MSM. HIV can be transmitted through large MSM networks at great speed. Molecular epidemiological data show substantial clustering of HIV infections in MSM networks, and higher rates of dual-variant and multiple-variant HIV infection in MSM than in heterosexual people in the same populations. Prevention strategies that lower biological transmission and acquisition risks, such as approaches based on antiretrovirals, offer promise for controlling the expanding epidemic in MSM, but their potential effectiveness is limited by structural factors that contribute to low health-seeking behaviours in populations of MSM in many parts of the world. PMID:22819660

  7. Enhancing benefits or increasing harms: community responses for HIV among men who have sex with men, transgender women, female sex workers, and people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Baral, Stefan; Holland, Claire E; Shannon, Kate; Logie, Carmen; Semugoma, Paul; Sithole, Bhekie; Papworth, Erin; Drame, Fatou; Beyrer, Chris

    2014-08-15

    Studies completed over the past 15 years have consistently demonstrated the importance of community-level determinants in potentiating or mitigating risks for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or mitigate HIV-related outcomes for key populations. The results of the review suggest that although health communication programs represent community-level strategies that have demonstrated the effectiveness in increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the experienced stigma among people living with HIV, there are limited studies focused on key populations in low- and middle-income settings. Moreover, interpretation from the 22 studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria reinforce the importance of the continued measurement of community-level determinants of HIV risks and of the innovation in tools to effectively address these risks as components of the next generation of the HIV response. Consequently, the next generation of effective HIV prevention science research must improve our understanding of the multiple levels of HIV risk factors, while programming for key populations must address each of these risk levels. Failure to do so will cost lives, harm communities, and undermine the gains of the HIV response. PMID:25007203

  8. The Effect of Relationship Characteristics on HIV Risk Behaviors and Prevention Strategies in Young Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Migling; Whyte, James

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether relationship status, relationship ideation, and sexual agreements affected HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention strategies and high-risk behaviors in young men who have sex with men (MSM). Using an online survey, we found that partnered MSM more commonly used condoms with casual partners and knew the reported HIV status of all their partners, compared to single MSM (p < .05). Men scoring high in relationship exclusivity reported higher condom use with casual partners compared to men scoring lower (p < .05). Of partnered MSM, 58% reported a sexual agreement. MSM reporting restricted sexual agreements more commonly used condoms during oral and anal intercourse with their main partners and casual partners compared to MSM reporting unrestricted sexual agreements. The data suggest that relationship status should be considered by health care providers when counseling MSM and that behavioral interventions should target sexual agreements as a mechanism to reduce HIV/STD transmission. PMID:26066694

  9. Community Cleavages: Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of Gay and Mainstream Community Acceptance in the Post-AIDS, Post-Rights Era.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathaniel M; Bauer, Greta R; Coleman, Todd A; Blot, Soraya; Pugh, Daniel; Fraser, Meredith; Powell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gay and bisexual men's connectedness to the gay community are related to the declining public visibility of HIV/AIDS and greater acceptance for homosexuality and bisexuality in mainstream society. Little work, however, has focused on perceived acceptance for subgroups within the gay community or broader society. Using interviews (n = 20) and a survey (n = 202) of gay and bisexual men in a mid-sized Canadian city, we find perceived hierarchies of acceptance for the various subgroups as well as an age effect wherein middle-aged men perceive the least acceptance for all groups. These differences are linked with the uneven impact of social, political, and institutional changes relevant to gay and bisexual men in Canada. PMID:26011048

  10. “It's a quick way to get what you want”: a formative exploration of HIV risk among urban Massachusetts men who have sex with men who attend sex parties.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Bland, Sean; Cranston, Kevin; Isenberg, Deborah; Driscoll, Maura A; VanDerwarker, Rodney; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2010-10-01

    Community-based studies with men who have sex with men (MSM) suggest that between 8% and 25% of MSM have met recent male sexual partners at private sex parties. Little is known about HIV sexual risk behaviors of MSM who attend sex parties and whether risk reduction interventions can be delivered in this setting. In 2008, 40 MSM who reported attending and/or hosting sex parties in Massachusetts in the past 12 months completed a qualitative interview and quantitative assessment. Participants reported attending a mean number of 10 sex parties in Massachusetts in the past 12 months. A significant percentage (43%) reported also hosting sex parties. Participants had made sexual partner connections across multiple venues, including public cruising areas, bars/clubs, and the Internet. At the most recent sex party attended, the majority had used alcohol (58%) and/or drugs (50%), and one quarter (25%) put themselves at risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by having unprotected anal sex with a mean number of three serodiscordant male sex partners. Although many participants perceived that communicating about sexual health in the sex party context would “ruin the mood,” the majority (80%) considered some form of HIV prevention at sex parties to be appropriate and necessary, as well as acceptable. Nonintrusive prevention and education activities were especially endorsed (i.e., condoms, lubricants, and coupons for free HIV/STI testing). The majority of participants (75%) expressed some interest in “safer sex” parties. MSM attending sex parties appear to be a subpopulation at high risk for HIV and STI acquisition and transmission. Risk reduction interventions responsive to the needs of MSM who attend sex parties are warranted. PMID:20846008

  11. An Online Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating HIV Prevention Digital Media Interventions for Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Joseph, Heather; Scheinmann, Roberta; Johnson, Wayne D.; Remien, Robert H.; Shaw, Francine Shuchat; Emmons, Reed; Yu, Gary; Margolis, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Background As HIV infection continues unabated, there is a need for effective interventions targeting at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Engaging MSM online where they meet sexual partners is critical for HIV prevention efforts. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted online among U.S. MSM recruited from several gay sexual networking websites assessed the impact of 2 HIV prevention videos and an HIV prevention webpage compared to a control condition for the study outcomes HIV testing, serostatus disclosure, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) at 60-day follow-up. Video conditions were pooled due to reduced power from low retention (53%, n = 1,631). No participant incentives were provided. Principal Findings Follow-up was completed by 1,631 (53%) of 3,092 eligible men. In the 60 days after the intervention, men in the pooled video condition were significantly more likely than men in the control to report full serostatus disclosure (‘asked and told’) with their last sexual partner (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01–1.74). Comparing baseline to follow-up, HIV-negative men in the pooled video (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91) and webpage condition (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25–0.72) significantly reduced UAI at follow-up. HIV-positive men in the pooled video condition significantly reduced UAI (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20–0.67) and serodiscordant UAI (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28–0.96) at follow-up. Conclusions/Significance Findings from this online RCT of MSM recruited from sexual networking websites suggest that a low cost, brief digital media intervention designed to engage critical thinking can increase HIV disclosure to sexual partners and decrease sexual risk. Effective, brief HIV prevention interventions featuring digital media that are made widely available may serve as a complementary part of an overall behavioral and biomedical strategy for reducing sexual risk by addressing the specific needs and circumstances of the target population, and by changing

  12. Consistent condom use with regular, paying, and casual male partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: findings from an assessment of a large-scale HIV prevention program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a marginalized population at high risk for HIV infection. Promoting consistent condom use (CCU) during anal sex is a key risk reduction strategy for HIV prevention among MSM. To inform effective HIV prevention interventions, we examined the factors associated with CCU among MSM with their regular, paying, and casual partners, as well as with all three types of partners combined. Methods Data for this analysis were from a large-scale bio-behavioural survey conducted during 2009–2010 in Tamil Nadu, India. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited for the survey using time-location cluster sampling at cruising sites in four districts of Tamil Nadu. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of CCU with selected socio-demographic characteristics and other contextual factors. Results Among 1618 MSM interviewed, CCU during anal sex with regular, paying, and a casual male partner was 45.3%, 50.8% and 57.9%, respectively. CCU with all three types of partners combined was 52.6%. Characteristics associated with increased odds for CCU with MSM having all three types of partners combined were frequent receptive anal sex acts with regular partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.65), fewer number of casual partners (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.50-7.73) and membership in a community-based organization (CBO) for MSM (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.62-7.74). CCU with regular partners was associated with membership in a CBO (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.11), whereas CCU with paying, and casual male partners was associated with perceived higher risk of acquiring HIV (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.22-3.01) and exposure to any HIV prevention intervention (AOR 3.62, 95% CI 1.31-10.0), respectively. Being aged 26 years or older, being in debt, and alcohol use were factors associated with inconsistent condom use across partner types. Conclusion HIV interventions among MSM need to promote CCU with all

  13. Comparing Samples of Men Who Have Sex with Men Recruited Online and in Venues, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling-en; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Yan, Hongjing; Li, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Two common methods to sample men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV research are venue- and internet-based approaches. However, it is unclear which is best to sample Chinese MSM. Methods: We conducted side-by-side comparisons of time-location sampling (TLS) and an online sample of MSM in Nanjing, China. Results: TLS-recruited MSM tended to be older and of lower socio-economic status compared to online-recruited MSM, whereas online-recruited MSM reported higher risk behavior and lower frequency of HIV testing. Conclusion: Significant differences were observed between the two separate samples. Without a gold standard, the choice of sampling method or recruitment approach should be guided by the segment of the population targeted to be reached. PMID:26651841

  14. FINDING AND RECRUITING THE HIGHEST RISK HIV-NEGATIVE MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Andrea C.; Starks, Tyrel J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the ability of different field and online recruitment venues to reach those at highest risk for HIV infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM), given that some subgroups are difficult to reach, and venues vary in the demographic characteristics of the samples they yield. Compared to other venues, dating/hookup websites reached significantly higher-than-expected concentrations of White MSM aged 40 and above, including those who reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Facebook was the most successful venue for the recruitment of MSM who used stimulants, including those who reported UAI. MSM who reported UAI were more likely to be recruited online. This study points to systematic variation in the samples obtained via different recruitment strategies, which should be taken into consideration when designing intervention/prevention programs targeting HIV-negative MSM. PMID:24450278

  15. Finding and recruiting the highest risk HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Vial, Andrea C; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the ability of different field and online recruitment venues to reach those at highest risk for HIV infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM), given that some subgroups are difficult to reach, and venues vary in the demographic characteristics of the samples they yield. Compared to other venues, dating/hookup websites reached significantly higher-than-expected concentrations of White MSM aged 40 and above, including those who reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Facebook was the most successful venue for the recruitment of MSM who used stimulants, including those who reported UAI. MSM who reported UAI were more likely to be recruited online. This study points to systematic variation in the samples obtained via different recruitment strategies, which should be taken into consideration when designing intervention/prevention programs targeting HIV-negative MSM. PMID:24450278

  16. Substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM social media users.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Nianogo, Roch A; Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Lucho; Galea, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Peru is experiencing a concentrated HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Substance use (alcohol and drug use) has been found to be associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A recent surge in the number of social media users in Peru has enabled these technologies to be potential tools for reaching HIV at-risk individuals. This study sought to assess the relationship between substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM who use social media. A total of 556 Peruvian MSM Facebook users (ages 18-59) were recruited to complete a 92-item survey on demographics, sexual risk behaviors, and substance use. We performed a logistic regression of various sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, casual sex) on substance abuse, including alcohol, adjusting for potential covariates. Drinking more than five alcoholic drinks a day in the past three months was associated with an increased odds of having unprotected sex (vaginal and anal) (aOR: 1.52; 95% CL: 1.01, 2.28), casual sex (1.75; 1.17, 2.62), and sex with unknown persons (1.82; 1.23, 2.71). Drug use was not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Among Peruvian MSM social media users, findings suggest that alcohol use was associated with increased HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26324405

  17. Stress and Coping with Racism and Their Role on Sexual Risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, is well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (n = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (n = 393), and Latino (n = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008–2009. Almost two-thirds (65%) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51% of the sample reported having UAI in the prior six months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI. PMID:25060122

  18. "You're Really Gonna Kick Us All Out?" Sustaining Safe Spaces for Community-Based HIV Prevention and Control among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Caroline; Parker, Richard G; Wilson, Patrick A; Philbin, Morgan M; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience among the highest rates of HIV infection in the United States. We conducted a community-based ethnography in New York City to identify the structural and environmental factors that influence BMSMs vulnerability to HIV and their engagement with HIV prevention services. Methods included participant observation at community-based organizations (CBOs) in New York City, in-depth interviews with 31 BMSM, and 17 key informant interviews. Our conceptual framework shows how creating and sustaining safe spaces could be a critical environmental approach to reduce vulnerability to HIV among BMSM. Participant observation, in-depth and key informant interviews revealed that fear and mistrust characterized men's relation to social and public institutions, such as churches, schools, and the police. This fear and mistrust created HIV vulnerability among the BMSM in our sample by challenging engagement with services. Our findings suggest that to be successful, HIV prevention efforts must address these structural and environmental vulnerabilities. Among the CBOs that we studied, "safe spaces" emerged as an important tool for addressing these environmental vulnerabilities. CBOs used safe spaces to provide social support, to address stigma, to prepare men for the workforce, and to foster a sense of community among BMSM. In addition, safe spaces were used for HIV and STI testing and treatment campaigns. Our ethnographic findings suggest that safe spaces represent a promising but so far under-utilized part of HIV prevention infrastructure. Safe spaces seem integral to high impact comprehensive HIV prevention efforts, and may be considered more appropriately as part of HIV capacity-building rather than being nested within program-specific funding structures. PMID:26492412

  19. Sexual identities and sexual health within the Celtic nations: An exploratory study of men who have sex with men recruited through social media.

    PubMed

    McAloney-Kocaman, Kareena; Lorimer, Karen; Flowers, Paul; Davis, Mark; Knussen, Christina; Frankis, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Associations of sexual identity with a range of sexual and sexual health behaviours were investigated amongst men who have sex with men (MSM). Data from 1816 MSM recruited from 4 Celtic nations (Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland) were collected via a cross-sectional online survey advertised via social media. About 18.3% were non-gay identified MSM (NGI-MSM). In the last year, 30% of NGI-MSM reported high-risk unprotected anal intercourse and 45% reported never having had an sexually transmitted infection (STI) test. When compared to MSM who were gay identified (GI-MSM), NGI-MSM were more likely to be older, have a female partner, fewer sex partners, fewer anal sex partners, STI diagnoses and less likely to be HIV positive, more likely to never use the gay scene and be geographically further from a gay venue. NGI-MSM were also less likely to report STI and HIV testing behaviours. The findings highlight variations in risk by sexual identities, and unmet sexual health needs amongst NGI-MSM across Celtic nations. Innovative research is required regarding the utility of social media for reaching populations of MSM and developing interventions which target the heterogeneity of MSM and their specific sexual health needs. PMID:27194116

  20. Socialization patterns and their associations with unprotected anal intercourse, HIV, and syphilis among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru.

    PubMed

    Verre, Michael C; Peinado, Jesus; Segura, Eddy R; Clark, Jesse; Gonzales, Pedro; Benites, Carlos; Cabello, Robinson; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-10-01

    The association of socialization patterns with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and HIV/STI prevalence remains underexplored in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in developing country settings. We evaluated the correlation of UAI, HIV, and syphilis with MSM/TW venue attendance and social network size among high-risk MSM and TW in Peru according to self-reported sexual identity. Frequency of venue attendance and MSM/TW social network size were lowest among heterosexual MSM and highest among TW respondents. Attendance (frequent or occasional) at MSM/TW venues was associated with increased odds of insertive UAI among heterosexual participants. Frequent venue attendance was associated with increased odds of receptive UAI among gay/homosexual, bisexual, and TW participants. Further investigation of the differing socialization patterns and associations with HIV/STI transmission within subgroups of Peruvian MSM and TW will enable more effective prevention interventions for these populations. PMID:24788782

  1. Socialization Patterns and Their Association with Unprotected Anal Intercourse, HIV, and Syphilis Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Verre, MC; Peinado, J; Segura, ER; Clark, JC; Gonzales, P; Benites, C; Cabello, R; Sanchez, J; Lama, JR

    2014-01-01

    The association of socialization patterns with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and HIV/STI prevalence remains underexplored in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in developing country settings. We evaluated the correlation of UAI, HIV, and syphilis with MSM/TW venue attendance and social network size among high-risk MSM and TW in Peru according to self-reported sexual identity. Frequency of venue attendance and MSM/TW social network size were lowest among heterosexual MSM and highest among TW respondents. Attendance (frequent or occasional) at MSM/TW venues was associated with increased odds of insertive UAI among heterosexual participants. Frequent venue attendance was associated with increased odds of receptive UAI among gay/homosexual, bisexual, and TW participants. Further investigation of the differing socialization patterns and associations with HIV/STI transmission within subgroups of Peruvian MSM and TW will enable more effective prevention interventions for these populations. PMID:24788782

  2. Risk of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Men Who Have Sex with Men: Lessons Learned from an Outbreak in Germany, 2012—2013

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Vogel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Background We undertook investigations in response to an invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) outbreak in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Berlin 2012–2013 to better understand meningococcal transmission and IMD risk in MSM. Methods We retrospectively searched for further IMD cases in MSM in Germany through local health departments and undertook exploratory interviews. We performed antigen sequence typing, characterized fHbp and aniA genes of strains with the outbreak finetype and reviewed epidemiologically or spatiotemporally linked cases from 2002–2014. Results Among the 148 IMD-cases notified from 01.01.2012–30.09.2013 in 18–59 year-old men we identified 13 MSM in 6 federal states: 11 serogroup C (MenC, all finetype C:P1.5–1,10–8:F3-6), 2 MenB. Interviews with 7 MSM revealed frequent meeting of multiple partners online or via mobile apps and illicit drug use as potential risk factors. MenC incidence was 13-fold higher in MSM than non-MSM. MenC isolates from 9/11 MSM had a novel fHbp allele 766. All C:P1.5–1,10–8:F3-6 strains from MSM versus 16/23 from non-MSM had intact aniA genes (p = 0.04). Although definitive evidence for transmission among MSM in epidemiological or spatiotemporal clusters in 2002–2014 was lacking, clusters were more frequent in men aged 20–49 years. Molecular analysis of C:P1.5–1,10–8:F3-6 strains revealed cases with intact aniA since 2007, mainly associated with fHbp361, fHbp766 and fHbp813, all involving one or more MSM. Conclusions MenC incidence was elevated in MSM during the study period. Multiple casual sexual contacts and illicit drug use were common in affected MSM. In all strains from MSM we detected an intact aniA gene coding for a nitrite reductase, which permits survival in microanaerobic environments and could play a role in meningococcal transmission in MSM through urogenital colonization. Furthermore, meningococcal transmission among MSM may be sustained over large areas and thus require modified

  3. Reinventing Mpowerment for black men: long-term community implementation of an evidence-based program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robin Lin; Forney, Jason C; Hubbard, Peter; Camacho, Lizeth M

    2012-03-01

    Although research on the dissemination of evidence-based programs to community providers has rapidly grown, research describing implementation of evidence-based efforts remains a central need. Insight on implementation may aid in developing approaches to assisting organizations to use a variety of evidence-based practices effectively and to improve the design of programs that can and will be used faithfully. This mixed-method case study provides a descriptive account of the implementation of an evidence-based program designed principally for white gay and bisexual young men, the Mpowerment Project, in the 4th and 5th years after its initial adoption by an organization serving black gay and bisexual men. We identify factors that have shaped how the program has evolved and is currently operated. The case study results highlight how the dynamic interaction of practice-based experiences, skills, relationships, local context, and practitioner judgments about the relevance and credibility of evidence for specific actions propel the reinvention of evidence-based program procedures. Implications for research and practice are provided. PMID:21773862

  4. Knowledge and Awareness of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Mobile App-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Missed Public Health Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; Sanchez, Travis; Sineath, R. Craig; Grey, Jeremy; Kahle, Erin; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    In a national online survey, we assessed awareness and knowledge of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection manifestation among 1748 men who have sex with men (MSM). Only 39% of respondents were aware that acute HIV infection may be accompanied by symptoms. Education and increased access to acute HIV testing may facilitate MSM to appropriately seek acute HIV testing. PMID:26034766

  5. The Efficacy of Social Role Models to Increase Motivation to Obtain Vaccination against Hepatitis B among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vet, R.; de Wit, J. B. F.; Das, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of role models in persuasive messages about risk and social norms to increase motivation to obtain hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM at risk for HBV in The Netherlands (N = 168) were recruited online via a range of websites and were randomly assigned to one of four…

  6. HIV Testing Patterns and Unrecognized HIV Infection among Young Asian and Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do, Tri D.; Chen, Sanny; McFarland, Willi; Secura, Gina M.; Behel, Stephanie K.; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Valleroy, Linda A.; Cho, Kyung-Hee

    2005-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is rising in Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM), who are often first diagnosed with HIV at a late stage of disease. We investigated the HIV testing patterns, correlates of prior testing, and awareness of HIV infection of 495 API MSM aged 18-29 years recruited from venues in San Francisco, using…

  7. HIV Testing Trends and Correlates among Young Asian and Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two U.S. Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do, Tri D.; Hudes, Esther S.; Proctor, Kristopher; Han, Chung-Sook; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of recent HIV testing (within the past year) among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) in two U.S. cities. We conducted serial, cross-sectional, interviewer-administered surveys of 908 API MSM aged 15-25 years, sampled from randomly selected…

  8. The process of adaptation of a community-level, evidence-based intervention for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men in two cities.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Beatrice E; Galbraith, Jennifer S; Lund, Sharon M; Hamilton, Autumn R; Shankle, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two community-based organizations (CBOs) working in partnership with two research organizations. We describe five steps of the MAP, assessment, selection, preparation, pilot, and implementation, and the use of qualitative interviews, field observations, and a cross-sectional survey. We recommend: (1) development of a centralized interactive website, listserv, or other resources where agencies adapting EBIs can share tools, materials, experiences, lessons learned, and best practices; (2) strengthening Funding Opportunity Announcements by funding incrementally in phases linked to the MAP; and (3) research should examine (a) whether EBIs adapted by CBOs remain efficacious and (b) the best "fit" between the cultural and climate characteristics of effective collaborations between community- and research-based organizations. PMID:22676461

  9. Prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among Latino migrant men in a new receiving community

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Patricia; Althoff, Meghan; Burton, Nicole; Schmidt, Norine; Hembling, John; Salinas, Oscar; Shedlin, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, patterns and predictors (individual, social, cultural, and environmental) of illicit drug use and binge drinking in a cohort of Latino migrant men (LMM) in a new receiving community. Methods A cohort of LMM in New Orleans (n = 125) was assembled in 2007 using respondent driven sampling and interviewed quarterly for 18 months regarding past month substance use and other potential covariates. Baseline frequencies were weighted using RDSAT and longitudinal analyses included generalized estimating equations (GEE) and the Cochran–Armitage test for trends. Results At baseline, substance use behaviors were: drug use 15.0% (range 7.3–25.0%) and binge drinking 58.3% (range 43.6–74.6%). All three of these behaviors decreased over follow-up (P < 0.01). Baseline alcohol dependence and drug problem were 11.8% (range 5.6–24.3%) and 0.08% (range 0.00–2.7%) and both remained the same over time. Baseline rate of chlamydia was 9% (range 0.00–22.4%); all men tested negative for gonorrhea, HIV, and syphilis. For both binge drinking and drug use, having sex with a female sex worker was associated with increased risk, whereas belonging to a club or organization was associated with less risk. Additional factors associated with increased drug use were: having a friend in New Orleans upon arrival, symptoms of depression, and working in construction. An additional factor associated with less binge drinking was having family in New Orleans upon arrival. Conclusion Among LMM, substance use is influenced by social and environmental factors. Interventions increase community connectedness may help decrease usage. PMID:24099968

  10. Latino gay and bisexual men's relationships with non-gay-identified men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; Shedlin, Michele G; Penha, Marcelo Montes

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results concerning an attitude sometimes attributed to Latinos that sexual orientation is defined by sexual role, with receptive MSM seen as gay and insertive MSM seen as straight. Although there were no significant associations between partner sexual orientation and unprotected anal intercourse, gay men were less likely to take the insertive role in oral or anal sex with straight-identified male partners than with gay partners. PMID:20818527

  11. Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Roswell; Salvatierra, Javier; Solari, Vicky; Calderon, Martha; Ton, Thanh G.N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) is the primary risk factor for anal cancer. Of 105 Peruvian MSM examined, 77.1% were infected with HPV; of these 79.0% were coinfected with two or more types and 47.3% were infected by a carcinogenic type. HPV types 53, 6, 16, and 58 were the most frequent HPV infections detected. High-risk HPV type infection was associated with sex work, HIV status, and having rectal chlamydial or gonorrheal infection. These findings support broadening HPV vaccine coverage and increasing surveillance for the development of cancer in MSM infected with HPV. PMID:22519744

  12. Internet use and sexual health of young men who have sex with men: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Lyons, Tom; Garcia, Steve C

    2011-04-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual health disparities due to a lack of support in settings that traditionally promote positive youth development. The Internet may help to fill this void, but little is known about how it is used for sexual health purposes among young MSM. This mixed-methods study reports quantitative results of a large survey of 18- to 24-year-old MSM in an HIV testing clinic (N = 329) as well as qualitative results from interviews. Level of Internet use was high in this sample and the majority of participants reported using the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Black and Latino youth used the Internet less frequently than White youth, and after controlling for age, education, and frequency of Internet use, Black youth were 70% less likely to use the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Qualitative analyses identified themes related to the role of the Internet in finding sexual health information, sexual minority identity development, and sexual risk taking behaviors. Participants reported that the Internet filled an important and unmet need for sexual health education. It allowed for connections to the gay community and support during the coming out process, but also exposure to homophobic messages. There was no evidence of increased risk behaviors with partners met online, but at the same time the potential for the use of the Internet to facilitate safer sex communication was largely untapped. Our findings generally present an optimistic picture about the role of the Internet in the development of sexual health among young MSM. PMID:20182787

  13. Internet Use and Sexual Health of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Lyons, Tom; Garcia, Steve C.

    2010-01-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual health disparities due to a lack of support in settings that traditionally promote positive youth development. The Internet may help to fill this void, but little is known about how it is used for sexual health purposes among young MSM. This mixed-methods study reports quantitative results of a large survey of 18–24 year old MSM in an HIV testing clinic (N = 329) as well as qualitative results from interviews. Level of Internet use was high in this sample and the majority of participants reported using the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Black and Latino youth used the Internet less frequently than White youth, and after controlling for age, education, and frequency of Internet use, Black youth were 70% less likely to use the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Qualitative analyses identified themes related to the role of the Internet in finding sexual health information, sexual minority identity development, and sexual risk taking behaviors. Participants reported that the Internet filled an important and unmet need for sexual health education. It allowed for connections to the gay community and support during the coming out process, but also exposure to homophobic messages. There was no evidence of increased risk behaviors with partners met online, but at the same time the potential for the use of the Internet to facilitate safer sex communication was largely untapped. Our findings generally present an optimistic picture about the role of the Internet in the development of sexual health among young MSM. PMID:20182787

  14. Frontline Health Service Providers’ Perspectives on HIV Vaccine Trials among Female Sex Workers and Men Who Have Sex with Men in Karnataka, South India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shamshad; Ramesh, B. M.; Doshi, Monika; Becker, Marissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little qualitative research is available on the role of frontline health service providers (FHSPs) in the implementation of clinical trials, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study about the perspectives of FHSPs on future HIV vaccine trials involving female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in three districts of Karnataka, India. In particular, we explore FHSPs’ knowledge of and views on clinical trials in general, and examine their potential willingness to play a role if such trials were introduced or implemented in the region. Methods A field team of four researchers from Karnataka—two of whom self-identified with FSW or MSM communities (“community researchers”) and two with backgrounds in social work—conducted in-depth interviews with FHSPs. Including community researchers in the study helped to build rapport with FSW and MSM participants and facilitate in-depth discussions. A coding scheme for transcribed and translated data was developed using a framework analysis approach. Data was then analysed thematically using a combination of a priori and emergent codes. Results Over half of FHSPs demonstrated limited knowledge or understanding of clinical trials. Despite reported skepticism around the testing of HIV vaccines in developing countries and concerns around potential side effects, most FHSPs strongly advocated for the implementation of HIV vaccine clinical trials in Karnataka. Further, most FHSPs expressed their willingness to be involved in future HIV vaccine clinical trials in varying capacities. Conclusion Given that FHSPs are often directly involved in the promotion of health and well-being of FSWs and MSM, they are well-positioned to play leadership, ethical, and communicative roles in future HIV vaccine trials. However, our findings reveal a lack of awareness of clinical trials among FHSP participants, suggesting an important area for capacity building and

  15. Antiretroviral Therapy Fails to Restore Levels of HIV-1 Restriction miRNAs in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected MSM

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Tang, Li; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In this study, we examined the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the expression of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1–infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Compared with male healthy donors, HIV-infected MSM had significantly lower levels of 9 HIV-1 restriction miRNAs. The treatment of HIV-1–infected MSM with cART, however, failed to restore the levels of these miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the suppression of the cellular restriction miRNAs by HIV-1 may attribute to the virus latency during cART. PMID:26579828

  16. Antiretroviral Therapy Fails to Restore Levels of HIV-1 Restriction miRNAs in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected MSM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Tang, Li; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2015-11-01

    A number of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In this study, we examined the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the expression of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Compared with male healthy donors, HIV-infected MSM had significantly lower levels of 9 HIV-1 restriction miRNAs. The treatment of HIV-1-infected MSM with cART, however, failed to restore the levels of these miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the suppression of the cellular restriction miRNAs by HIV-1 may attribute to the virus latency during cART. PMID:26579828

  17. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Resilience in a National Community-Based Cohort of Australian Gay Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Rozbroj, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    HIV-positive gay men may experience multiple sources of adversity and stress, related both to their HIV diagnosis and sexual identity. Most of these men, however, do not experience mental health problems. Little is known about factors that help them achieve resilience in the face of life challenges. This study examined psychosocial factors associated with resilience in a national community-based sample of 357 Australian HIV-positive gay men. Resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Higher levels of resilience were linked with experiencing low or no internalized HIV-related stigma, having no previous history of mental health problems, and a number of socioeconomic indicators. In addition to providing a more complete picture of the mental health of HIV-positive gay men, findings from this study can be used to inform strength-based approaches to mental health prevention and support. PMID:26884311

  18. Elements of condom use decision-making among MSM in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; de Voux, Alex; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Baral, Stefan D.; Winskell, Kate; Kose, Zamakayise; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection, and male condoms are fundamental to HIV prevention programs. We explored condom use experiences through in-depth interviews with 34 MSM in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. For data analysis, we generated a codebook and used the constant comparison method. Condom use reinforcing elements included use of alternative sexual strategies, having a high level of self-worth that was linked to protective behaviors, and use of ready-made condom negotiation scripts. Elements inhibiting condom use included perceiving substantial declines in sexual pleasure/performance, experiences of condom failure (possibly related to petroleum-based lubricant), and being in trusted relationships. Our findings suggest nuanced HIV prevention approaches such as bolstering condom negotiation skills based on successful tactics already in use. Further research is needed to address how to mitigate perceptions and experiences that condoms negatively impact sexual pleasure and performance. PMID:24935692

  19. Correlates of Condom Use Intentions and Behaviors Among a Community-Based Sample of Latino Men in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jillian T.

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has disproportionately affected Latino communities. The majority of research addressing HIV risk behaviors within this population has focused on women. However, men who have sex with women (MSW) are a population increasingly becoming infected with HIV and heterosexual contact is the primary source of HIV transmission among Latinos diagnosed with AIDS. It has been assumed that because men are likely to control condom use, relationship factors are less likely to influence safer sex behavior among men. However, because condom use is an interdependent behavior, understanding factors that predict safer sex behavior among MSW is critical. This study examined the influence of multiple factors on condom use behavior in a community-based sample of young Latino men. Data from 191 Latino men who completed baseline interviews for an intervention were analyzed to examine the association of background, intrapersonal and relationship factors with intentions to use condoms and condom use in the past three months. Findings from multivariate analyses indicated that more positive attitudes toward condoms, stronger partner condom norms and greater participation in decision-making about condom use were significantly associated with both condom use and condom use intentions. Additionally, men reporting lower expectations of negative partner reactions to condom requests were more likely to use condoms, and condom use intentions were higher among men reporting more health protective communication in the relationship. Findings suggest that interventions to prevent HIV need to include men as well as women and address the role of relationship factors and dynamics in safer sex practices. PMID:16845495

  20. Modeling the community-level effects of male incarceration on the sexual partnerships of men and women.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Riolo, Rick L; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Men who have been incarcerated experience substantial changes in their sexual behavior after release from jail and prison, and high rates of incarceration may change sexual relationship patterns at a community level. Few studies, however, address how rates of incarceration affect community patterns of sexual behavior, and the implications of those patterns for HIV and STD risk. We describe a "proof of principle" computational model that tests whether rates of male incarceration could, in part, explain observed population-level differences in patterns of sexual behavior between communities with high rates of incarceration and those without. This validated agent-based model of sexual partnership among 20-25 year old heterosexual urban residents in the United States uses an algorithm that incarcerates male agents and then releases them back into the agent community. The results from these model experiments suggest that at rates of incarceration similar to those observed for urban African American men, incarceration can cause an increase in the number of partners at the community level. The results suggest that reducing incarceration and creating a more open criminal justice system that supports the maintenance of inmates' relationships to reduce instability of partnerships for men who are incarcerated may have important sexual health and public health implications. Incarceration is one of many social forces that affect sexual decision-making, and incarceration rates may have substantial effects on community-level HIV and STD risks. PMID:26610077

  1. Military and Veteran Student Achievement in Postsecondary Education: A Structural Equation Model Using the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De LaGarza, Thomas R.; Manuel, Marcus A.; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2016-01-01

    Few quantitative studies exist on veteran success in postsecondary education, and existing qualitative research has also not accurately identified factors related to veteran achievement or pathways to success in postsecondary education. In this article, the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) evaluates predictors of student success for…

  2. The Storage and Transmission of Men's Non-Formal Skills in Working Class Communities: A Working Paper. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dorothy E.

    A descriptive study observed the transmission of manual job skills from older to younger men in working class communities in Ontario and the effects of massive downsizing in industrial plants on this process. Current as well as previous ethnographic research was used. Some of the outcomes of the continual downsizing included the following: (1) the…

  3. Use of multiple sex venues and prevalence of HIV risk behavior: identifying high risk MSM

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Pollack, Lance M.; Woods, William J.; Blair, Johnny; Binson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy emphasizes the importance of bringing prevention to the most at-risk populations. Interventions targeting all men who have sex with men (MSM) fail in that respect because only a minority engages in behavior that is likely to lead to HIV infection. Previous studies have shown that MSM who seek male sexual partners in more than one venue type (e.g., bathhouse, cruising area, online) are most likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), compared to men who only meet partners in any one of these setting types or who do not use venues. The present study reports differences in prevalence of UAI among MSM by their use of venue sites to meet sexual partners. A probability sample of 459 bathhouse patrons completed exit surveys. In the three months before the current bathhouse visit, 63.5% visited a bathhouse (not including the visit at which they were recruited), 46.7% visited a cruising area, 46.5% used online cruise sites to find sex partners, and 30.9% reported UAI. While UAI was associated with online cruise site use, prevalence of UAI with men met online was relatively low. The odds of UAI among men who used all three venues was significantly higher compared to men using zero [Odds Ratio (OR)=4.4; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.6, 12.1)] one (OR=5.3; 95% CI: 2.2, 12.8) or two venues (OR=4.3; 95% CI: 1.9, 9.6). The findings suggest that prevention would benefit from screening for venue use to help identify men with the greatest behavioral risk. PMID:25245930

  4. Risk behaviour and HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in a multiethnic society: a venue-based study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kanter, J; Koh, C; Razali, K; Tai, R; Izenberg, J; Rajan, L; Van Griensven, F; Kamarulzaman, A

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to determine HIV prevalence, risk behaviour and knowledge of transmission methods among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Venue-day-time sampling (VDTS) was applied to identify venues where men congregate to solicit sex from other men. Participants recruited from clubs, massage parlours, saunas and one park self-completed a computerized behavioural questionnaire, were administered an oral rapid HIV test and given the opportunity to return later to receive full counselling and learn their HIV status. A total of 517 men were enrolled into the study. The majority were Malays (47.0%) and Chinese (43.7%). Twenty tested HIV positive (3.9%). Significant predictors of HIV infection included having unprotected anal sex with a casual partner (44.9% of participants, odds ratio [OR] = 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.90; P = 0.027), having unprotected receptive anal sex (27.9%, OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.10-6.54; P = 0.030) and having group sex (33.3%, OR = 3.95; 95% CI 1.55-10.09; P = 0.004). One in five participants (20.1% and 19.5%) did not believe that HIV could be transmitted through insertive or receptive anal sex, respectively. Risk behaviour is high and knowledge of HIV transmission methods was low among MSM in Kuala Lumpur. Future prevention efforts should focus on providing risk reduction education to this community. PMID:21364064

  5. Boredom Proneness, Social Connectedness, and Sexual Addiction among Men Who Have Sex with Male Internet Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)

  6. The Natural History of Genital Human Papillomavirus Among HIV-Negative Men Having Sex With Men and Men Having Sex With Women

    PubMed Central

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Chang, Mihyun; Villa, Luisa L.; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative men having sex with men (MSM) bear a substantial burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated disease, prospective studies of genital HPV infection in this population are scarce. Methods. HPV genotyping was conducted on genital samples from men (aged 18–70 years) from Brazil, Mexico, or the United States who provided specimens at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Eligibility criteria included no history of genital warts or HIV infection. Evaluable specimens were collected from 564 MSM and 3029 men having sex with women (MSW). Incidence and clearance estimates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. The 12-month cumulative incidence of genital HPV was high in both MSM (25%; 95% confidence interval, 21%–30%) and MSW (21%; 20%–23%). After stratifying by city, MSM and MSW incidence rates were comparable, with 3 exceptions where MSM had higher incidence in ≥1 city: the group of quadrivalent vaccine types, HPV-45, and HPV-11. Median times to HPV-16 clearance were also comparable, with point estimates of >6 months for both MSM and MSW. Conclusions. Unlike with many other sexually transmitted infections, genital HPV natural history may be similar in HIV-negative MSM and MSW. Study periods of ≤6 months, however, may not be long enough to accurately measure the persistence of these infections in men. PMID:25649172

  7. HIV and STI behavioural surveillance among men who have sex with men in Europe.

    PubMed

    Elford, J; Jeannin, A; Spencer, B; Gervasoni, J P; van de Laar, M J; Dubois-Arber, F

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes behavioural surveillance for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe, focusing on the methods and indicators used. In August 2008, questionnaires were sent to European Union Member States and European Free Trade Association countries seeking information on behavioural surveillance activities among eight population groups including MSM. Thirty-one countries were invited to take part in the survey and 27 returned a questionnaire on MSM. Of these 27 countries, 14 reported that there was a system of behavioural surveillance among MSM in their country while another four countries had conducted behavioural surveys of some kind in this subpopulation. In the absence of a sampling frame, all European countries used convenience samples for behavioural surveillance among MSM. Most European countries used the Internet for recruiting and surveying MSM for behavioural surveillance reflecting increasing use of the Internet by MSM for meeting sexual partners. While there was a general consensus about the main behavioural indicators (unprotected anal intercourse, condom use, number of partners, HIV testing), there was considerable diversity between countries in the specific indicators used. We suggest that European countries reach an agreement on a core set of indicators. In addition we recommend that the process of harmonising HIV and STI behavioural surveillance among MSM in Europe continues. PMID:19941807

  8. Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among men who have sex with men attending an STI clinic in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Joore, I K C W; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; de Neeling, A J; van Dam, Alje; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    Objective Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is unknown whether this is also the case in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Sexually transmitted infection outpatient low-threshold clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants Between October 2008 and April 2010, a total of 211 men were included, in two groups: (1) 74 MSM with clinical signs of a skin or soft tissue infection (symptomatic group) and (2) 137 MSM without clinical signs of such infections (asymptomatic group). Primary outcome measures S aureus and MRSA infection and/or colonisation. Swabs were collected from the anterior nasal cavity, throat, perineum, penile glans and, if present, from infected skin lesions. Culture for S aureus was carried out on blood agar plates and for MRSA on selective chromagar plates after enrichment in broth. If MRSA was found, the spa-gene was sequenced. Secondary outcome measures Associated demographic characteristics, medical history, risk factors for colonisation with S aureus and high-risk sexual behaviour were collected through a self-completed questionnaire. Results The prevalence of S aureus colonisation in the nares was 37%, the pharynx 11%, the perianal region 12%, the glans penis 10% and in skin lesions 40%. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, anogenital S aureus colonisation was significantly associated with the symptomatic group (p=0.01) and marginally with HIV (p=0.06). MRSA was diagnosed in two cases: prevalence 0.9% (95% CI 0.1% to 3.4%)). Neither had CA-MRSA strains. Conclusions CA-MRSA among MSM in Amsterdam is rare. Genital colonisation of S aureus is not associated with high-risk sexual behaviour. PMID:23468471

  9. Inflammation, sleep disturbances, and depressed mood among community-dwelling older men

    PubMed Central

    Smagula, Stephen F.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Lane, Nancy E.; Redline, Susan; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High rates of sleep disturbances occur in depression. Sleep disturbances are linked to heightened inflammation. We sought to determine if sleep disturbances explain a portion of the putative inflammation – depression association among older adults. In late life, age-related immunoregulation changes may modify the inflammation-depression relationship. Methods Cross-sectional associations of a panel of serum inflammatory markers with probable depression (measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale) were assessed among 2,560 community-dwelling older men. We tested whether inflammatory marker - probable depression associations were independent of chronic diseases, as well as objective and subjectively measured sleep disturbances. We also tested whether inflammation-probable depression associations were moderated by age. Results Inflammatory markers were not independently associated with higher odds of probable depression. A significant age by C - reactive protein (CRP) interaction (p=0.01) was detected such that the strength of the CRP - probable depression association decreased with age. When stratifying by the median age of 76, elevated odds of probable depression were found for men with CRP levels above the median only among the younger group (OR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.18–3.69). In the final adjusted model, independent effects of chronic diseases and subjective sleep disturbances contributed to a total of 37% attenuation of the original OR (adjusted OR = 1.68, 95% CI 0.911–3.10, p = .09). Conclusions In late-life, associations between inflammatory markers and mood may be explained by both chronic diseases and subjectively reported sleep disturbances. Our findings indicate that the association of CRP with probable depression diminishes in strength with age. PMID:24745777

  10. Risk factors for incident erectile dysfunction among community-dwelling men

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Susan A.; Shackelton, Rebecca; Rosen, Raymond C.; Araujo, Andre B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Compared to the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED), fewer studies have focused on the incidence of ED and even fewer have focused on non-medical risk factors. Aim We examined psychosocial, demographic/socioeconomic, medical/behavioral, and sexual function risk factors at T1 (1987–1989) and development of incident ED at T2 (1995–1997). Methods Longitudinal population-based epidemiologic study of 814 community-dwelling men participating in the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Main outcome measure ED was defined according to a validated, discriminant-analytic formula based on questionnaire responses and categorized as moderate/complete ED vs. none/minimal. Multivariate logistic regression models (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were used to estimate the association of risk factors with ED. Results Among 814 men free of ED at T1, 22% developed moderate/complete ED at T2 (on average approximately 8.8 years later). In a multivariate model, sexual function variables captured at baseline were inversely associated with ED (e.g., more or similar level of sexual arousal compared to adolescence vs. less, OR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.92; frequency of sexual thoughts at least 2–3 times weekly vs. less, OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.92) after adjustment for age, education, and other risk factors. Conclusions Our results indicate that in the context of other risk factors, sexual desire variables at baseline were associated with incident ED. This in turn suggests that indications of reduced function appear earlier than ED itself, and that there may be a time window for intervention before a loss of erectile function. PMID:19929915

  11. High Prevalence and Genotype Diversity of Anal HPV Infection among MSM in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Supindham, Taweewat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Ruanpeng, Darin; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Wongthanee, Antika

    2015-01-01

    Background HPV infection is common and may cause cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal HPV infection (HPV+) was found in 85% of HIV-positive (HIV+) and 59% of HIV-negative (HIV-) MSM in Bangkok, central Thailand. As little is known about HPV in this group in northern Thailand, we studied MSM subgroups comprised of gay men (GM), bisexual men (BM), and transgender women (TGW). Methods From July 2012 through January 2013, 85 (42.5% of 200) GM, 30 (15%) BM, and 85 (42.5%) TGW who practiced receptive anal intercourse were recruited after informed consent, followed by self-assisted computer interview, HIV testing, and anal swabs for HPV genotyping. Results Of 197 adequate specimens, the overall prevalence of any HPV was 157 (80%). Prevalence was 89% (76/85) in GM, 48% (14/29) in BM, and 81% (67/83) in TGW. The most common high-risk types were HPV16 (27% of 197), HPV58 (23%), and HPV51 (18%). Prevalence of high-risk types was 74% in 85 GM, 35% in 29 BM, and 71% in 83 TGW. Prevalence of any HPV type, or high-risk type, was 100% and 94%, respectively, among 48 HIV+ MSM, 70% and 54% among 120 HIV- MSM. Of the 197 specimens, 36% (70) had HPV types 16 and/or 18 in the bivalent vaccine, compared to 48% (95) with ≥1 of types 16/18/06/11 in the quadrivalent, 56% (111) for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in the 7-valent, and 64% (126) for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58/06/11 in the 9-valent. HIV+, GM, and TGW were independently associated with HPV infection. Conclusions We found higher rates of both any HPV and high-risk types than previous studies. Among the heretofore unstudied TGW, their equivalent HPV rates were comparable to GM. Current and investigational HPV vaccines could substantially protect GM, BM, and TGW from the serious consequences of HPV infection especially among HIV + MSM. PMID:25932915

  12. Prevalence of Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Sample of A/PI MSM.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alvin; Lin, Lavinia; Nehl, Eric J; Talley, Colin L; Dunkle, Kristin L; Wong, Frank Y

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of three forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) (i.e., experience of physical, psychological/symbolic, and sexual battering) among a national sample of Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and identifies their characteristics. The study also reports the differences of substance use behavior between MSM with and without a previous history of IPV. Our sample was recruited through venue-based sampling from seven metropolitan cities as part of the national Men of Asia Testing for HIV (MATH) study. Among 412 MSM, 29.1% experienced IPV perpetrated from a boyfriend or same-gender partner in the past 5 years. Within the previous 5 years, 62.5%, 78.3%, and 40.8% of participants experienced physical, psychological/symbolic, and sexual battering, respectively. Collectively, 35.8% of participants reported that they have experienced at least one type of victimization and 64.2% have experienced multiple victimizations (two or three types of battering victimization). Overall, 21.2% of our sample reported any substance use within the past 12 months. The present findings suggest that individuals with a history of IPV in the past 5 years were more likely to report substance use (33.6%) compared to those without a history of IPV experience (16.1%). PMID:24390356

  13. Stimulant Use among African American and Latino MSM social networking users

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sean D.; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using state-of-the-art computer science methods, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet/social media usage, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine usage (both over 15% within 12 months). Over 80% reported using social networking technologies to meet people and over 30% used them to find sex partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that: 1) participants using social networks to find sex partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within 12 months, and 2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of reported methamphetamine usage and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within 12 months. Minority MSM who engaged social networks to meet men and find sex partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions. PMID:23480246

  14. Stimulant use among African American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions. PMID:23480246

  15. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART.

    PubMed

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-03-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing-of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment-requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men's HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20-39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed. PMID:25103866

  16. How "Community" Matters for How People Interact With Information: Mixed Methods Study of Young Men Who Have Sex With Other Men

    PubMed Central

    Meadowbrooke, Chrysta Cathleen; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, Jose Artruro

    2013-01-01

    Background We lack a systematic portrait of the relationship between community involvement and how people interact with information. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are a population for which these relationships are especially salient: their gay community involvement varies and their information technology use is high. YMSM under age 24 are also one of the US populations with the highest risk of HIV/AIDS. Objective To develop, test, and refine a model of gay community involvement (GCI) factors in human-information interaction (HII) as applied to HIV/AIDS information among YMSM, specifically examining the role of Internet use in GCI and HII. Methods Mixed methods included: 1) online questionnaire with 194 YMSM; and 2) qualitative interviews with 19 YMSM with high GCI levels. Recruitment utilized social media, dating websites, health clinics, bars/clubs, and public postings. The survey included questions regarding HIV/AIDS–related information acquisition and use patterns, gay community involvement, risk behaviors, and technology use. For survey data, we tested multiple linear regression models using a series of community- and information-related variables as dependent variables. Independent variables included community- and information-related variables and demographic covariates. We then conducted a recursive path analysis in order to estimate a final model, which we refined through a grounded theory analysis of qualitative interview data. Results Four community-related variables significantly predicted how people interact with information (HII variables): 1) gay community involvement (GCI), 2) social costs of information seeking, 3) network expertise accessibility, and 4) community relevance. GCI was associated with significantly lower perceived social costs of HIV/AIDS information seeking (R 2=0.07). GCI and social costs significantly predicted network expertise accessibility (R 2=0.14). GCI predicted 14% of the variance in community relevance and 9% of

  17. Syphilis Trends among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States and Western Europe: A Systematic Review of Trend Studies Published between 2004 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Abara, Winston E.; Hess, Kristen L.; Neblett Fanfair, Robyn; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened with syphilis. This review describes the published literature on trends in syphilis infections among MSM in the US and Western Europe from 1998, the period with the fewest syphilis infections in both geographical areas, onwards. We also describe disparities in syphilis trends among various sub-populations of MSM. We searched electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health, PsychInfo, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and LILACS) for peer-reviewed journal articles that were published between January 2004 and June 2015 and reported on syphilis cases among MSM at multiple time points from 1998 onwards. Ten articles (12 syphilis trend studies/reports) from the US and eight articles (12 syphilis trend studies/reports) from Western Europe were identified and included in this review. Taken together, our findings indicate an increase in the numbers and rates (per 100,000) of syphilis infections among MSM in the US and Western Europe since 1998. Disparities in the syphilis trends among MSM were also noted, with greater increases observed among HIV-positive MSM than HIV-negative MSM in both the US and Western Europe. In the US, racial minority MSM and MSM between 20 and 29 years accounted for the greatest increases in syphilis infections over time whereas White MSM accounted for most syphilis infections over time in Western Europe. Multiple strategies, including strengthening and targeting current syphilis screening and testing programs, and the prompt treatment of syphilis cases are warranted to address the increase in syphilis infections among all MSM in the US and Western Europe, but particularly among HIV-infected MSM, racial minority MSM, and young MSM in the US. PMID:27447943

  18. Syphilis Trends among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States and Western Europe: A Systematic Review of Trend Studies Published between 2004 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Abara, Winston E; Hess, Kristen L; Neblett Fanfair, Robyn; Bernstein, Kyle T; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened with syphilis. This review describes the published literature on trends in syphilis infections among MSM in the US and Western Europe from 1998, the period with the fewest syphilis infections in both geographical areas, onwards. We also describe disparities in syphilis trends among various sub-populations of MSM. We searched electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health, PsychInfo, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and LILACS) for peer-reviewed journal articles that were published between January 2004 and June 2015 and reported on syphilis cases among MSM at multiple time points from 1998 onwards. Ten articles (12 syphilis trend studies/reports) from the US and eight articles (12 syphilis trend studies/reports) from Western Europe were identified and included in this review. Taken together, our findings indicate an increase in the numbers and rates (per 100,000) of syphilis infections among MSM in the US and Western Europe since 1998. Disparities in the syphilis trends among MSM were also noted, with greater increases observed among HIV-positive MSM than HIV-negative MSM in both the US and Western Europe. In the US, racial minority MSM and MSM between 20 and 29 years accounted for the greatest increases in syphilis infections over time whereas White MSM accounted for most syphilis infections over time in Western Europe. Multiple strategies, including strengthening and targeting current syphilis screening and testing programs, and the prompt treatment of syphilis cases are warranted to address the increase in syphilis infections among all MSM in the US and Western Europe, but particularly among HIV-infected MSM, racial minority MSM, and young MSM in the US. PMID:27447943

  19. Performance of the Duke Religion Index and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in Online Samples of Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolensk, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Religiosity is associated with behaviors that reduce the risk of HIV/STI infection among general-population and heterosexual-specific samples. Whether this association is similar for homosexual persons is unknown. Measures of religiosity have not been evaluated psychometrically among men who have sex with men (MSM), a population who, because of stigma, experience religiosity differently than heterosexual persons. We assessed the DUREL and the SWB (short form) in two samples of MSM. Neither instrument produced adequate model fit. To study the association between religiosity and HIV/STI risk behaviors among MSM, scales are needed that measure the religious and spiritual experiences of MSM. PMID:22441843

  20. A prospective cohort study characterising the role of anogenital warts in HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon; Davtyan, Mariam; Leon, Segundo R; Sanchez, Hugo; Calvo, Gino; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Galea, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The HIV epidemic in Latin America is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) with transmission predominately occurring during unprotected anal intercourse. This mode of transmission is also responsible for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as herpes simplex, chlamydia and gonorrhoea, human papillomavirus (HPV)/genital warts and syphilis. Studies assessing the prevalence of HIV and HPV among MSM have not addressed the role of genital warts and HPV-related diseases in the acquisition of HIV infection. Community-based testing programmes are a potentially important way to remove barriers including stigma for individuals to learn about their STI status. Methods and analysis The prospective cohort study will recruit 600 MSM/TGW at a community centre in Lima, Peru, named Epicentro. Half of the participants will have a history of or have current anogenital warts (AGW), and the other half will have no history of AGW. We will measure the prevalence and acquisition of STIs including syphilis, HPV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea and the HIV-incidence in the two groups. To the best of our knowledge, it will be the first study that specifically examines the impact of genital warts on incident HIV infection. This study will help to understand the relationship between AGW and HIV infection among MSM/TGW in Peru. Furthermore, it may facilitate the development of preventive intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of AGW and prevent incident HIV infection. HPV-related manifestations may be a good proxy for HIV risk. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by institutional review boards at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in the USA and Impacta in Peru. Study findings will be shared with the Peruvian Ministry of Health as well as other international and national public health organisations. Study results will be translated into Spanish for participants. Trial registration number The

  1. HIV Type 1 Transmission Networks Among Men Having Sex with Men and Heterosexuals in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Hassan, Amin; Hamers, Raph L.; Mutua, Gaudensia; Anzala, Omu; Mandaliya, Kishor; Cane, Patricia; Berkley, James A.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole; Graham, Susan M.; Price, Matthew A.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya. PMID:23947948

  2. HIV Type 1 transmission networks among men having sex with men and heterosexuals in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, Daniela; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Hassan, Amin; Hamers, Raph L; Mutua, Gaudensia; Anzala, Omu; Mandaliya, Kishor; Cane, Patricia; Berkley, James A; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Wallis, Carole; Graham, Susan M; Price, Matthew A; Coutinho, Roel A; Sanders, Eduard J

    2014-02-01

    We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya. PMID:23947948

  3. Increases in sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviour without a concurrent increase in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in San Francisco: a suggestion of HIV serosorting?

    PubMed Central

    Truong, H M; Kellogg, T; Klausner, J D; Katz, M H; Dilley, J; Knapper, K; Chen, S; Prabhu, R; Grant, R M; Louie, B; McFarland, W

    2006-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) have been increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco. However, HIV incidence has stabilised. Objectives To describe recent trends in sexual risk behaviour, STI, and HIV incidence among MSM in San Francisco and to assess whether increases in HIV serosorting (that is, selective unprotected sex with partners of the same HIV status) may contribute to preventing further expansion of the epidemic. Methods The study applies an ecological approach and follows the principles of second generation HIV surveillance. Temporal trends in biological and behavioural measures among MSM were assessed using multiple pre‐existing data sources: STI case reporting, prevention outreach programmatic data, and voluntary HIV counselling and testing data. Results Reported STI cases among MSM rose from 1998 through 2004, although the rate of increase slowed between 2002 and 2004. Rectal gonorrhoea cases increased from 157 to 389 while early syphilis increased from nine to 492. UAI increased overall from 1998 to 2004 (p<0.001) in community based surveys; however, UAI with partners of unknown HIV serostatus decreased overall (p<0.001) among HIV negative MSM, and among HIV positive MSM it declined from 30.7% in 2001 to a low of 21.0% in 2004 (p<0.001). Any UAI, receptive UAI, and insertive UAI with a known HIV positive partner decreased overall from 1998 to 2004 (p<0.001) among MSM seeking anonymous HIV testing and at the STI clinic testing programme. HIV incidence using the serological testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) peaked in 1999 at 4.1% at the anonymous testing sites and 4.8% at the STI clinic voluntary testing programme, with rates levelling off through 2004. Conclusions HIV incidence among MSM appears to have stabilised at a plateau following several years of resurgence. Increases in the selection of sexual partners of concordant HIV serostatus may be

  4. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation in men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Shindel, Alan W.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Quantitative research into sexual function and dysfunction in men who have sex with men (MSM) has been sparse due in large part to a lack of validated, quantitative instruments for the assessment of sexuality in this population. Aim To assess prevalence and associations of erectile problems and premature ejaculation in MSM. Methods MSM were invited to complete an online survey of sexual function. Ethnodemographic, sexuality, and health related factors were assessed. Main Outcome Measure Participants completed a version of the International Index of Erectile Function modified for use in MSM (IIEF-MSM) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Total score on the erectile function domain of the IIEF-EF (IIEF-MSM-EF) was used to stratify erectile dysfunction (ED) severity (25–30=no ED, 16–24 mild or mild moderate ED, 11–15 moderate ED, and ≤ 10 severe ED). PEDT scores were used to stratify risk of premature ejaculation (PE, diagnosed as PEDT score ≥9). Results Nearly 80% of the study cohort of 2,640 men resided in North America. The prevalence of ED was higher in older men whereas the prevalence of PE was relatively constant across age groups. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing age, HIV seropositivity, prior use of erectogenic therapy, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and lack of a stable sexual partner were associated with greater odds of ED. A separate multivariate analysis revealed that younger age, LUTS, and lower number of lifetime sexual partners were associated with greater odds of PE. Conclusions Risk factors for sexual problems in MSM are similar to what has been observed in quantitative studies of non-MSM males. Urinary symptoms are associated with poorer sexual function in MSM. PMID:22214402

  5. Oral human papillomavirus type-specific infection in HIV-infected men: a prospective cohort study among men who have sex with men and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Darwich, L; Cañadas, M P; Videla, S; Coll, J; Molina-López, R A; Cobarsi, P; Sirera, G; Clotet, B

    2014-09-01

    The natural history of type-specific oral infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) was assessed in a cohort of HIV-infected men (538 men who have sex with men (MSM); 195 heterosexuals). Risk factors associated with oral HPV infections were examined. The overall prevalence of HPV was 16%: HPV-16 was the most prevalent type (3.7% MSM; 7.8% heterosexuals). The prevalence of HPV-16 in heterosexuals was associated with CD4 nadir counts <200 cells/μL (ORadjusted = 3.0, 95% CI, 1.4-6.3). The overall incidence of HPV was similar between groups (11%), but the incidence of HPV-16 was higher in heterosexuals (ORadjusted = 3.2, 95% CI, 1.1-9.5). Not only MSM but also HIV-infected heterosexual men are at risk of HPV infection. Regular and careful oral inspection is needed. PMID:24382308

  6. High levels of acceptability of couples-based HIV testing among MSM in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The acceptability of couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) has not been previously investigated among MSM in South Africa. Using online advertisements, data were collected from 486 MSM, who were 18 years of age or older with a current residence in South Africa and had at least one male sex partner in the previous 12 months. The analysis examined associations between individual characteristics and willingness to utilize CVCT services. The willingness to utilize CVCT services was compellingly high (89%) among this sample of mostly White/European African (89%) and HIV-negative (83%) men. MSM who reported higher numbers of completed school years were less likely to report willingness to use CVCT. Willingness did not vary significantly across other individual demographic or behavioral characteristics. Our results show an overwhelmingly high acceptance of CVCT services. Future studies should survey a more heterogeneous population of MSM, explore the complex nature of same-sex male relationships, and why respondents would or would not use these HIV testing services. PMID:22007940

  7. Community-Level Gender Equity and Extramarital Sexual Risk-Taking Among Married Men in Eight African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT In many parts of Africa, women are most likely to become infected with HIV by having unprotected sex with their husbands, who may have acquired the virus through extramarital sex. However, the ways in which aspects of community environments—particularly those related to gender equity—shape men’s extramarital sexual risk-taking are not well understood. METHODS Demographic and Health Survey data from eight African countries (Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) were used to examine associations between married men’s engaging in risky extramarital sex (i.e., having had both unprotected sex and extramarital sex) and indicators of gender equity and other community characteristics. Separate multilevel logistic regression models that incorporated individual, household and community measures were created for each country. RESULTS In five countries, men who lived in communities with more equal ratios of women to men with at least a primary education were less likely to report risky extramarital sexual activity (odds ratios, 0.4–0.6). A similar relationship was found in four countries for the ratio of women to men who were employed (0.4–0.5). In three countries, men who lived in communities with more conservative attitudes toward wife-beating or male decision making had elevated odds of extramarital sexual risk-taking (1.1–1.5). CONCLUSIONS While HIV prevention programs should focus on reducing gender inequities, they also need to recognize the conservative cultural factors that influence the formation of men’s masculine identities and, in turn, affect their sexual behavior. PMID:21245024

  8. A Mixed-Methods Study on the Acceptability of Using eHealth for HIV Prevention and Sexual Health Care Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Cedric H; Wei, Chongyi; Lo, Elaine J; Yang, Min; Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Ligang; Meng, Gang; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM). Over half of all HIV-positive MSM in China may not know their HIV status. Mobile phones and Web interventions (eHealth) are underutilized resources that show promise for supporting HIV education, testing, and linkage to care. Objective This mixed-methods study among MSM in China assessed technology utilization and eHealth acceptability for sexual health care. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and an online survey. Qualitative analyses informed the development of the Internet survey, which was administered through two popular MSM websites. Bivariate and multivariate analysis assessed characteristics of MSM interested in eHealth for sexual health care. Results The qualitative sample included MSM across a range of ages, education, marital status, sexuality, and HIV testing experience. Qualitative findings included the importance of the Internet as the primary source of information about sexual health, HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), use of the Internet to enable HIV testing opportunities by facilitating connections with both the gay community and health care providers, and mixed perceptions regarding the confidentiality of eHealth tools for sexual health. Among the Internet sample (N=1342), the average age was 30.6 years old, 82.81% (1098/1342) were single, and 53.42% (711/1331) had completed college. In the past 3 months, 38.66% (382/988) had condomless sex and 60.53% (805/1330) self-reported having ever tested for HIV. The majority of men owned computers (94.14%, 1220/1296) and mobile phones (92.32%, 1239/1342), which many had used to search for HIV/STD information and testing sites. In multivariate analysis, interest in using computers or mobile phones to support their sexual health care was associated with being a student, prior use of computers or mobile phones to search for general health information, prior use of

  9. Unmet needs among men with human immunodeficiency virus in community mental health care: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna; Sirotich, Frank; Antoniou, Tony; Roesslein, Kay; Durbin, Janet; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-07-01

    While community-based mental health services play an important role in caring for persons with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and co-existing mental health disorders, the extent to which their support needs are addressed in this setting is unknown. Accordingly, we examined if HIV infection was associated with unmet support needs among men living with and without HIV receiving community mental health care. This cross-sectional study examined 215 men (135 living with HIV and 80 without HIV) receiving case management services in urban Ontario. Using the Camberwell Assessment of Need, we ascertained the prevalence of support needs in 13 domains grouped into three clusters: Basic needs (accommodation, food, benefits, and money management); self-care/functional needs (daytime activities, self-care, and looking after the home); and health/safety needs (physical, psychological distress, psychotic symptoms, safety to self, and safety to others). We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to examine the association between HIV and unmet need in each domain. Compared to HIV-negative men, men with HIV were more likely to have mood and concurrent disorders, and intellectual and developmental disabilities. Following multivariable analyses, men with HIV had greater unmet needs related to food (odds ratio + 95% confidence interval: 9.36 (4.03, 21.75), p < 0.001); money (OR: 1.90 (1.04, 3.47), p = 0.036) [basic need domains]; psychological distress (OR: 2.39 (1.68, 3.41), p < 0.001); drug use (OR: 5.10 (2.16, 12.08) p < 0.001); and safety to self (OR: 3.35 (1.51, 7.52), p < 0.003) [health and safety domains]. Despite living in a setting with universal health insurance, men with HIV receiving community mental health support had greater unmet need in basic and health domains than HIV-negative men receiving such support. Further research is required to develop and evaluate interventions to best support community-dwelling persons with HIV and

  10. HIV testing practices of South African township MSM in the era of expanded access to ART

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2014-01-01

    While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing—of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment—requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men’s HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20–39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed. PMID:25103866

  11. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S.; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary. PMID:25909484

  12. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary. PMID:25909484

  13. Social media use and high-risk sexual behavior among Black men who have sex with men: A three-city study

    PubMed Central

    Broaddus, Michelle R.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV incidence in the United States. Little research has focused on the associations between social media use and sexual behavior among Black MSM. 205 Black MSM completed measures assessing social media use and sexual behaviors. Men spent an average of 34 hours per week on social media sites. 53% arranged sexual hookups online in the previous three months, and did so a mean of 10 times. Overall, users of social media and men who arranged sexual hookups online engaged in more risky behaviors than non-users and men who did not arrange sexual hookups online. However, partner-level data indicated that men engaged in fewer risky behaviors with partners met online compared to partners met in other ways such as at bars or through friends. Social media-based interventions designed to decrease HIV transmission among racial minority MSM are needed. PMID:25566762

  14. Social Media Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Three-City Study.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle R; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Kelly, Jeffrey A; St Lawrence, Janet S; Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Dickson-Gomez, Julia D

    2015-06-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency (HIV) incidence in the United States. Little research has focused on the associations between social media use and sexual behavior among Black MSM. 205 Black MSM completed measures assessing social media use and sexual behaviors. Men spent an average of 34 h per week on social media sites. 53 % arranged sexual hookups online in the previous 3 months, and did so a mean of 10 times. Overall, users of social media and men who arranged sexual hookups online engaged in more risky behaviors than non-users and men who did not arrange sexual hookups online. However, partner-level data indicated that men engaged in fewer risky behaviors with partners met online compared to partners met in other ways such as at bars or through friends. Social media-based interventions designed to decrease HIV transmission among racial minority MSM are needed. PMID:25566762

  15. Age biases in a large HIV and sexual behaviour-related internet survey among MSM

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    higher values for the very young and for older MSM. The highest discrepancies between survey and surveillance data regarding HIV-prevalence were observed in the oldest age group in Sweden and the youngest age group in Portugal. Conclusion Internet samples are biased towards a lower median age because younger men are over-represented on MSM dating websites and therefore may be more likely to be recruited into surveys. Men diagnosed with HIV were over-represented in the internet survey, and increasingly so in the older age groups. A similar effect was observed in the age groups younger than 25 years. Self-reported peak prevalence and peak HIV diagnoses rates are often shifted to higher age groups in internet samples compared to surveillance data. Adjustment for age-effects on online accessibility should be considered when linking data from internet surveys with surveillance data. PMID:24020518

  16. Sources of HIV infection among men having sex with men and implications for prevention ✻

    PubMed Central

    Ratmann, O.; van Sighem, A.; Bezemer, D.; Gavryushkina, A.; Jurriaans, S.; Wensing, A.; de Wolf, F.; Reiss, P.; Fraser, C.

    2016-01-01

    New HIV diagnoses among men having sex with men (MSM) have not decreased appreciably in most countries, even though care and prevention services have been scaled up substantially in the past twenty years. To maximize the impact of prevention strategies, it is crucial to quantify the sources of transmission at the population level. We used viral sequence and clinical patient data from one of Europe’s nation-wide cohort studies to estimate probable sources of transmission for 617 recently infected MSM. 71% of transmissions were from undiagnosed men, 6% from men who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), 1% from men with no contact to care for at least 18 months, and 43% from those in their first year of infection. The lack of substantial reductions in incidence amongst Dutch MSM is not a result of ineffective ART provision or inadequate retention in care. In counterfactual modeling scenarios, 19% of these past cases could have been averted with current annual testing coverage and immediate ART to those testing positive. 66% of these cases could have been averted with available antiretrovirals (immediate ART provided to all MSM testing positive, and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis taken by half of all who test negative for HIV), but only if half of all men at risk of transmission had tested annually. With increasing sequence coverage, molecular epidemiological analyses can be a key tool to direct HIV prevention strategies to the predominant sources of infection, and help send HIV epidemics amongst MSM into a decisive decline. PMID:26738795

  17. The Interaction of Sexual Identity With Sexual Behavior and Its Influence on HIV Risk Among Latino Men: Results of a Community Survey in Northern San Diego County, California

    PubMed Central

    Zellner, Jennifer A.; Sañudo, Fernando; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sipan, Carol L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Carrillo, Héctor

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the sexual behavior, sexual identities, and HIV risk factors of a community sample of Latino men to inform efforts to reduce Latinos' HIV risk. Methods. In 2005 and 2006, 680 Latino men in San Diego County, California, in randomly selected, targeted community venues, completed an anonymous, self-administered survey. Results. Most (92.3%) respondents self-identified as heterosexual, with 2.2%, 4.9%, and 0.6% self-identifying as bisexual, gay, or other orientation, respectively. Overall, 4.8% of heterosexually identified men had a lifetime history of anal intercourse with other men. Compared with behaviorally heterosexual men, heterosexually identified men who had sex with both men and women were more likely to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to have unprotected sexual intercourse with female partners, and to report having sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. Bisexually identified men who had sex with men and women did not differ from behaviorally heterosexual men in these risk factors. Conclusions. Latino men who have a heterosexual identity and bisexual practices are at greater risk of HIV infection, and efforts to reduce HIV risk among Latinos should target this group. PMID:19008512

  18. Examining Delay Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Crowdsourcing Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-09-01

    Some men who have sex with men (MSM) have unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in situations that put them at risk for HIV infection despite having the knowledge and skills to avoid these risks. The present study examined the potential role of delay discounting in sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM. Participants (n = 108) completed the Sexual Discounting Task and a questionnaire regarding UAI and other variables associated with HIV risk (e.g., age, socioeconomic status, substance use, psychiatric problems). MSM discounted the value of condom-protected anal intercourse in a manner that was orderly, hyperbolic, and sensitive to partner characteristics that likely influence realworld decisions about using condoms. Steeper discounting was associated with UAI, and other factors related to sexual HIV risk among MSM, including young age, socioeconomic disadvantage, substance use, sex under the influence of substances, and depression). Delay discounting is likely a critical, but underappreciated facet of HIV risk among MSM. PMID:26066395

  19. The Cumulative Effects of Medication Use, Drug Use, and Smoking on Erectile Dysfunction Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Trevor A.; Moskowitz, David; Cox, Christopher; Li, Xiuhong; Ostrow, David G.; Stall, Ron D.; Gorbach, Pamina M.; Plankey, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is highly prevalent among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-seropositive (HIV+) men who have sex with men (MSM). There is a need for additional research to determine the correlates of HIV+ and HIV-seronegative (HIV−) MSM, especially regarding non-antiretroviral medication use. Aims This study examined the prevalence of ED and the socio-demographic, medical conditions, medication use, and substance use correlates of ED among HIV+ and HIV− MSM. Methods A modified version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for MSM was self-administered by participants enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV infection among MSM in the United States. The study sample included 1,340 participants, including 612 HIV+ and 728 HIV− men. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to estimate prevalence ratios of ED in multivariable models in combined (HIV+/−) and separate analyses. Main outcome measure ED was determined by the summed scores of a modified version of the IIEF validated among MSM. Results Twenty-one percent of HIV+ MSM and 16% of HIV− MSM reported ED. Being >55 years of age, Black race, cumulative pack-years of smoking, cumulative antihypertensive use, and cumulative antidepressant use had significant positive associations with the prevalence of ED in the total sample. Among HIV+ men, duration of antihypertensive use and antidepressant use were significantly associated with increasing prevalence of ED. Among HIV− men, being >55 years of age, Black race, and cigarette smoking duration were associated with increased prevalence of ED. Conclusion Predictors of ED may differ by HIV status.. Although smoking cessation and effective medication management may be important as possible treatment strategies for ED among all MSM, there may be a burden on sexual functioning produced by non-HIV medications for HIV+ men. PMID

  20. Intercontinental Dispersal of HIV-1 Subtype B Associated with Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Yuki; Raghwani, Jayna; Fearnhill, Esther; Sano, Takako; Kusagawa, Shigeru; Mbisa, Jean L.; Zhang, Hongyi; Matano, Tetsuro; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Dunn, David; Kondo, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transmission clusters of HIV-1 subtype B uniquely associated with the epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East Asia have recently been identified. Using the Los Alamos HIV sequence database and the UK HIV drug resistance database, we explored possible links between HIV MSM epidemics in East Asia and the rest of the world by using phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses. We found that JP.MSM.B-1, a subtype B MSM variant that accounts for approximately one-third of the infections among Japanese MSM, was detected worldwide, in the United Kingdom (n = 13), mainland China (n = 3), the United States, Germany, Canada, and Taiwan (n = 1 each). Interestingly, 10 United Kingdom samples plus two from Germany and the United States formed a distinct monophyletic subgroup within JP.MSM.B-1. The estimated divergence times of JP.MSM.B-1 and the latter subgroup were ∼1989 and ∼1999, respectively. These dates suggest that JP.MSM.B-1 was circulating for many years in Japan among MSM before disseminating to other countries, most likely through global MSM networks. A significant number of other Asian MSM HIV lineages were also detected in the UK HIV drug resistance database. Our study provides insight into the regional and global dispersal of Asian MSM HIV lineages. Further study of these strains is warranted to elucidate viral migration and the interrelationship of HIV epidemics on a global scale. IMPORTANCE We previously identified several transmission clusters of HIV-1 subtype B uniquely associated with the epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East Asia. Using the Los Alamos HIV sequence database and the UK HIV drug resistance database, we explored the possible interplay of HIV MSM epidemics in the different geographic regions and found previously unrecognized interrelationships among the HIV-1 epidemics in East Asia, the United Kingdom, and the rest of the world. Our study provides insight into the regional and global dispersal of Asian MSM

  1. Use of an HIV-risk screening tool to identify optimal candidates for PrEP scale-up among men who have sex with men in Toronto, Canada: disconnect between objective and subjective HIV risk

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, James; Kain, Taylor; Fowler, Shawn; Hart, Trevor A; Grennan, Troy; Maxwell, John; Tan, Darrell HS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Identifying appropriate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates is a challenge in planning for the safe and effective roll-out of this strategy. We explored the use of a validated HIV risk screening tool, HIV Incidence Risk Index for Men who have Sex with Men (HIRI-MSM), to identify “optimal” candidates among MSM testing at a busy sexual health clinic's community testing sites in Toronto, Canada. Methods Between November 2014 and April 2015, we surveyed MSM undergoing anonymous HIV testing at community testing sites in Toronto, Canada, to quantify “optimal” candidates for scaling up PrEP roll-out, defined as being at high objective HIV risk (scoring ≥10 on the HIRI-MSM), perceiving oneself at moderate-to-high HIV risk and being willing to use PrEP. Cascades were constructed to identify barriers to broader PrEP uptake. The association between HIRI-MSM score and both willingness to use PrEP and perceived HIV risk were explored in separate multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Of 420 respondents, 64.4% were objectively at high risk, 52.5% were willing to use PrEP and 27.2% perceived themselves at moderate-to-high HIV risk. Only 16.4% were “optimal” candidates. Higher HIRI-MSM scores were positively associated with both willingness to use PrEP (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.3–2.2) and moderate-to-high perceived HIV risk (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.2–2.3). The proportion of men who were “optimal” candidates increased to 42.9% when the objective HIV risk cut-off was changed to top quartile of HIRI-MSM scores (≥26). In our full cascade, a very low proportion (5.3%) of MSM surveyed could potentially benefit from PrEP under current conditions. The greatest barrier in the cascade was low perception of HIV risk among high-risk men, but considerable numbers were also lost in downstream cascade steps. Of men at high objective HIV risk, 68.3% did not perceive themselves to be at moderate-to-high HIV risk

  2. Heterosexual behaviours among men who sell sex to men in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adrian D.; Muhaari, Allan D.; Agwanda, Carole; Kowuor, Dickens; van der Elst, Elise; Davies, Alun; Graham, Susan M.; Jaffe, Harold W.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective African men who have sex with men often sell sex to men, and MSM who sell sex (MSM-SW) often also have female partners. We compared sexual risk behaviour of MSM-SW who were sexually active with female partners (bisexual MSW) to MSM-SW with only male partners (exclusive MSW). Design Descriptive behavioural study Methods A novel, validated daily event and partner diary self-completed by 82 MSM who sold sex over a follow-up period of 42 days with weekly review. Cumulative individual counts of sex and condomless sex were compiled by partner characteristics. The incidence of specific partnerships and sex acts were compared within and between bisexual and exclusive MSW. Results Most (59%) MSM-SW reported female partners during follow-up. The majority of both male and female partners were cash-paying clients originating locally. Bisexual MSW reported a similar rate of condomless sex with male and female partners, but significantly fewer male partners than exclusive MSW. Bisexual MSW had lower HIV prevalence, were more likely to only report insertive anal sex roles, and reported lower frequencies of condomless receptive anal sex than exclusive MSW. Conclusion Bisexually active male sex workers in coastal Kenya create HIV and other sexually transmitted infection transmission pathways to partners and clients in both MSM and heterosexual networks, but differed from exclusive MSW in having lower HIV acquisition and transmission risks. Epidemiological projection methods are liable to overestimate bridging potential of MSM-SW and MSM populations without account for systematic differences in risk within these populations. PMID:26565965

  3. Intensified shigellosis epidemic associated with sexual transmission in men who have sex with men--Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei in England, 2004 to end of February 2015.

    PubMed

    Simms, I; Field, N; Jenkins, C; Childs, T; Gilbart, V L; Dallman, T J; Mook, P; Crook, P D; Hughes, G

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance data suggest an intensification of the shigellosis epidemic associated with sexual transmissionin men who have sex with men (MSM) in England with separate introductions into the population. In 2014, sexual transmission between MSM might have accounted for 97%, 89%, and 43% of non-travel associated Shigella flexneri 3a and S. flexneri 2a, andS. sonnei diagnoses. Clinicians should sensitively ascertain sexual history for men with enteric infections to facilitate prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25953129

  4. Experiences of social discrimination among men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jenny X; Choi, Kyung

    2006-07-01

    In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increasingly high risk for HIV. However, prevention efforts targeting this population may be hindered because of the stigma associated with homosexuality in traditional Chinese culture. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 MSM in Shanghai to better understand the types and sources of stigma and discrimination and how MSM respond to them. The stigma associated with homosexuality can be traced back to four culturally based factors: social status and relationships, the value of family, perceptions of immorality and abnormality, and gender stereotypes of masculinity. In particular, the centrality of the family and the importance of maintaining key relationships caused stress and anxiety, contributing to more frequent encounters with felt stigma. In response, MSM often evaded the scrutiny of family members through various tactics, even prompting some to leave their rural homes. Implications of these findings on HIV/AIDS prevention are discussed. PMID:16715344

  5. Rates of Prevalent HIV Infection, Prevalent Diagnoses, and New Diagnoses Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in US States, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Counties, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) increasingly represent the majority of people living with and acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Local and federal surveillance programs estimate the number of persons living with an HIV diagnosis, persons living with HIV infection, and new diagnoses. Given the absence of population-based estimates of the number of MSM for US states, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), or counties, it is not possible to accurately estimate rates using these indicators at these levels, inhibiting the ability to understand HIV burden and to direct prevention efforts. Objective To synthesize recently published estimates of MSM population size with publicly available HIV surveillance data, in order to estimate the prevalence of HIV diagnosis and infection and the rate of new diagnoses, at the national, state, MSA, and county levels. Methods The number of MSM living with HIV infection in 2012 (prevalence), living with an HIV diagnosis in 2012 (diagnosed prevalence), and newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2013 (new diagnosis), at state, MSA, and county levels, were obtained from publicly available data from AIDSVu.org and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The estimated number of MSM living in every US county was calculated using recently published methodology that utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and American Community Survey. Estimated county-level MSM counts were aggregated to form MSA- and state-level totals. From this, we estimated HIV prevalence, diagnosed prevalence, and new diagnosis rates. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among MSM in the United States in 2012 was 15.0% (666,900/4,452,772), the diagnosed HIV prevalence in 2012 was 11.1% (493,453/4,452,772), and the new diagnosis rate for 2013 was 0.7 per 100 MSM. For diagnosed prevalence at the state level, 6 states had both <15,000 cases and diagnosed prevalence rates of ≥15

  6. The impact of anticipated HIV stigma on delays in HIV testing behaviors: findings from a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Golub, Sarit A; Gamarel, Kristi E

    2013-11-01

    Treatment as prevention (TaSP) is a critical component of biomedical interventions to prevent HIV transmission. However, its success is predicated on testing and identifying undiagnosed individuals to ensure linkage and retention in HIV care. Research has examined the impact of HIV-associated stigma on HIV-positive individuals, but little work has explored how anticipated HIV stigma-the expectation of rejection or discrimination against by others in the event of seroconversion-may serve as a barrier to HIV testing behaviors. This study examined the association between anticipated stigma and HIV testing behaviors among a sample of 305 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women living in New York City. Participants' mean age was 33.0; 65.5% were racial/ethnic minority; and 50.2% earned <$20,000 per year. Overall, 32% of participants had not had an HIV test in the past 6 months. Anticipated stigma was negatively associated with risk perception. In multivariate models, anticipated stigma, risk perception, and younger age were significant predictors of HIV testing behaviors. Anti-HIV stigma campaigns targeting HIV-negative individuals may have the potential to significantly impact social norms around HIV testing and other biomedical strategies, such pre-exposure prophylaxis, at a critical moment for the redefinition of HIV prevention. PMID:24138486

  7. Elderly Men Have Low Levels of Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin B, but with High Interpersonal Variation: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Sertoli Cell Hormones in 615 Community-Dwelling Men

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yih Harng; Dennis, Nicola A.; Connolly, Martin J.; Teh, Ruth; Jones, Gregory T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Farrand, Stephanie; Campbell, A. John; MLennan, Ian S.

    2013-01-01

    The Sertoli cells of the testes secrete anti-Müllerian hormone (Müllerian inhibiting Substance, AMH) and inhibin B (InhB). AMH triggers the degeneration of the uterine precursor in male embryos, whereas InhB is part of the gonadal-pituitary axis for the regulation of sperm production in adults. However, both hormones are also putative regulators of homeostasis, and age-related changes in these hormones may therefore be important to the health status of elderly men. The levels of AMH in elderly men are unknown, with limited information being available about age-related changes in InhB. We have therefore used ELISAs to measure Sertoli cell hormone levels in 3 cohorts of community-dwelling men in New Zealand. In total, 615 men were examined, 493 of which were aged 65 or older. Serum AMH and InhB levels inversely correlated with age in men older than 50 years (p<0.001) but not in the younger men. A minority of elderly men had undetectable levels of AMH and InhB. The variation in hormone levels between similarly aged men increased with the age of men. AMH and InhB partially correlated with each other as expected (r = 0.48, p<0.001). However, the ratio of the two Sertoli hormones varied significantly between men, with this variation increasing with age. Elderly men selected for the absence of cardiovascular disease had AMH levels similar to those of young men whereas their InhB levels did not differ from aged-matched controls. These data suggests that Sertoli cell number and function changes with age, but with the extent and nature of the changes varying between men. PMID:23940675

  8. HIV-Related Stigma and HIV Prevention Uptake Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Weaver, James; Roungkraphon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2016-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is a pervasive structural driver of HIV. With an HIV epidemic among young men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) in Thailand characterized as explosive, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG aged 18-30 years. From April-August 2013, participants recruited using venue-based sampling from gay entertainment sites and community-based organizations completed a tablet-assisted survey interview in Thai language. We conducted multiple logistic regression to assess correlations between HIV-related stigma (felt-normative, vicarious domains) and socio-demographic variables, HIV vulnerabilities (gay entertainment employment, sex work, forced sex history), and HIV prevention uptake (condom use, HIV testing, rectal microbicide acceptability). Among participants (n = 408), 54% identified as gay, 25% transgender, and 21% heterosexual. Two-thirds (65.7%) were employed at gay entertainment venues, 67.0% had more than three male partners (past month), 55.6% had been paid for sex, and 4.5% were HIV-positive. One-fifth (21.3%) reported forced sex. Most participants reported experiencing felt-normative and vicarious HIV-related stigma. Adjusting for socio-demographics, participants with higher total HIV-related stigma scores had significantly lower odds of HIV testing and rectal microbicide acceptability, and higher odds of having experienced forced sex. Both vicarious and felt-normative dimensions of HIV-related stigma were inversely associated with HIV testing and rectal microbicide acceptability. Our findings suggest that HIV-related stigma harms the health of HIV-negative MSM and TG at high risk for HIV infection. HIV-related interventions and research among young MSM and TG in Thailand should address multiple dimensions of HIV-related stigma as a correlate of risk and a barrier to accessing prevention. PMID:26788978

  9. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  10. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Painter, Thomas M.; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. Methods We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupos intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupos intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Results Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Conclusion Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention’s key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants’ stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants’ intentions to

  11. HIV among men who have sex with men in Malawi: elucidating HIV prevalence and correlates of infection to inform HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Jumbe, Vincent; Trapence, Gift; Kamba, Dunker; Umar, Eric; Ketende, Sosthenes; Berry, Mark; Strömdahl, Susanne; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data characterizing the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi. Epidemiologic research and access to HIV prevention, treatment and care services have been traditionally limited in Malawi by criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices. To inform the development of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention for Malawian MSM, we conducted a community-led assessment of HIV prevalence and correlates of infection. Methods From April 2011 to March 2012, 338 MSM were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling methods (RDS), reaching 19 waves. Trained staff administered the socio-behavioural survey and HIV and syphilis voluntary counselling and testing. Results Crude HIV and syphilis prevalence estimates were 15.4% (RDS-weighted 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.3–17.8) and 5.3% (RDS-weighted 4.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–7.6), respectively. Ninety per cent (90.4%, unweighted) of HIV infections were reported as being previously undiagnosed. Participants were predominantly gay-identified (60.8%) or bisexually identified (36.3%); 50.7% reported recent concurrent relationships. Approximately half reported consistent condom use (always or almost always) with casual male partners, and proportions were relatively uniform across partner types and genders. The prevalence of perceived and experienced stigma exceeded 20% for almost all variables, 11.4% ever experienced physical violence and 7% were ever raped. Current age >25 years (RDS-weighted adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.7), single marital status (RDS-weighted AOR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8) and age of first sex with a man <16 years (RDS-weighted AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2–15.0) were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Results demonstrate that MSM represent an underserved, at-risk population for HIV services in Malawi and merit comprehensive HIV prevention

  12. Circumcision and penile human papillomavirus prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men: heterosexual and men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Canadas, M P; Darwich, L; Videla, S; Sirera, G; Coll, J; Rafael, M-L A; Clotet, B

    2013-07-01

    Male circumcision is associated with a lower risk of penile human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uninfected men. Few studies have evaluated the role of male circumcision in penile HPV infection in HIV-infected men. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between male circumcision and the prevalence of penile HPV infection among HIV-infected men-both men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men. Samples from 706 consecutive men included in the CARH-MEN cohort (overall 24% circumcised: 26% of MSM, 18% of heterosexual men) were examined by Multiplex-PCR. In the overall group (all HIV-infected men included), the prevalence of any penile HPV infection was 22% in circumcised men and 27% in uncircumcised men (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.6, adjusted analysis). In the circumcised group the overall prevalence of HPV infection was 22% in MSM and 24% in the heterosexual men, whereas in the uncircumcised group the prevalence was 26% and 28%, respectively. The prevalence of high-risk HPV types tended to be lower in the circumcised MSM (14% vs 21%, OR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1, p 0.088), but it was similar in the heterosexual men (18% in circumcised vs 20% in uncircumcised). These results suggest that male circumcision may be associated with a lower prevalence of oncogenic high-risk penile HPV infection in HIV-infected MSM. PMID:22676057

  13. Macro System Model (MSM) User Guide, Version 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.

    2011-09-01

    This user guide describes the macro system model (MSM). The MSM has been designed to allow users to analyze the financial, environmental, transitional, geographical, and R&D issues associated with the transition to a hydrogen economy. Basic end users can use the MSM to answer cross-cutting questions that were previously difficult to answer in a consistent and timely manner due to various assumptions and methodologies among different models.

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection among homeless men referred from a community clinic.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Dixon, Elizabeth L; Wiley, Dorothy; Christiani, Ashley; Lowe, Ann

    2006-06-01

    In this study of factors related to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 104 homeless HCV-infected men and 94 uninfected homeless men, findings reveal that homeless men with HCV infection are older and more likely to be cocaine injectors than those not infected. Moreover, the sharing of needles, use of injected cocaine during the past 6 months, previous incarce