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1

Cerebrospinal fluid lactic acidosis in bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed Central

A rapid, microenzymatic method was used to measure cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels in 205 children with suspected bacterial meningitis. Fifty children with normal CSF containing fewer than 0.005 X 10(9)/l WBC, no segmented neutrophils, glucose 3.4 +/- 0.8 mmol/l (61.2 +/- 14.4 mg/100 ml), and a protein of less than 0.30 g/l had CSF lactate levels below 2.0 mmol/l (18 mg/100 ml) (mean and standard deviation 1.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (11.8 +/- 2.7 mg/100 ml)). In 31 cases of proved viral meningitis as with 58 cases of clinically diagnosed viral meningitis, levels were below 3.8 mmol/l (34.5 mg/100 ml), being 2.3 +/- 0.6 mmol/l (20.9 +/- 5.4 mg/100 ml), and 2.1 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (19.1 +/- 6.4 mg/100 ml) respectively. Sixty-six cases of bacterial meningitis had CSF lactate levels ranging from 3.9 mmol/l (35.4 mg/100 ml) to greater than 10.0 mmol/l (90.0 mg/100 ml). Longitudinal studies in 7 children with bacterial meningitis showed that cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels differentiated bacterial from viral meningitis up to 4 days after starting treatment with antibiotics. Use of CSF lactate measurement for monitoring the efficacy of treatment is illustrated in a case of bacterial meningitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The origin of the cerebrospinal fluid lactate acidosis and the role of lactate in the pathophysiological cycle leading to intensification of brain tissue hypoxia and cellular damage is discussed with respect to the short-term prognosis and the long-term neurological sequelae.

Eross, J; Silink, M; Dorman, D

1981-01-01

2

Cerebrospinal fluid hepatocyte growth factor level in meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional cytokine that has been found to be elevated in tuberculous and bacterial meningitis, but no evaluation has been undertaken of its usefulness in identifying various forms of aseptic meningitis. Methods: In a retrospective study, the levels of HGF in the cerebrospinal fluid of 65 patients were measured prior to treatment.

Cheng-Len Sy; Hung-Chin Tsai; Shue-Ren Wann; Susan Shin-Jung Lee; Yung-Ching Liu; Yao-Shen Chen

2008-01-01

3

Meningitis in Preterm Neonates: Importance of Cerebrospinal Fluid Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cerebrospinal fluid parameters are of great importance in diagnosing meningitis, but normal values for preterm neonates are based on small, single-center studies. We sought to determine current values for preterm neonate cerebrospinal fluid parameters and assess the association of cerebrospinal fluid parameters with culture proven meningitis. Study Design: Cohort study of the first lumbar puncture from 4,632 neonates <34 weeks gestation performed in the years 1997-2004 at 150 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group. Results: We identified 95 cases of meningitis from the 4,632 lumbar punctures. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for white blood cell count, glucose, and protein were 0.80, 0.63, and 0.72 respectively for prediction of culture proven meningitis. Conclusion: Cerebrospinal fluid parameters used to diagnose meningitis in the absence of dependable cerebrospinal fluid cultures are unreliable. Caution should be employed when interpreting cerebrospinal fluid parameters in the premature neonate.

Smith, P. Brian; Garges, Harmony P.; Cotten, C. Michael; Walsh, Thomas J.; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.

2009-01-01

4

The Association of Meningitis with Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula  

PubMed Central

Objective?To determine the risk factors for and the clinical course of postoperative meningitis following lateral skull base surgery and to determine its relationship to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula. Patients?Patients undergoing lateral skull base surgery between July 1999 and February 2010 at an academic tertiary referral center. All subjects had culture-proven meningitis or suspected bacterial meningitis in the postoperative period. Medical records were compared with the lateral skull base patients who did not develop meningitis. Results?Of 508 procedures, 16 patients developed meningitis (3.1%). The most common diagnosis was acoustic neuroma in 81.3%; 68.8% of patients had a CSF leak prior to onset of meningitis, and 50% received a lumbar drain. The median time from surgery to the onset of meningitis was 12 days with a range of 2 to 880 days. The relative risk of developing meningitis in the setting of postoperative CSF fistula is 10.2 (p?meningitis-associated mortality was observed. Conclusions?Postoperative meningitis occurred in a small number of patients undergoing lateral skull base surgery. A postoperative CSF fistula leads to an increased risk of meningitis by a factor of 10.2.

Allen, Kyle P.; Isaacson, Brandon; Kutz, J. Walter; Purcell, Patricia L.; Roland, Peter S.

2012-01-01

5

Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels and dexamethasone therapy in bacterial meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of interleukin (IL)-1 ? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a were measured to assess the effect and application of dexamethasone (Dex) therapy for bacterial meningitis.Methods: associations between clinical findings and CSF parameters were first investigated, and prognosis was compared between 25 patients with Dex and 12 without Dex therapy.Results: patients with the presence of disturbed

Shouichi Ohga; Kenji Okada; Kohji Ueda; Hidetoshi Takada; Mitsuhiro Ohta; Tomonobu Aoki; Naoko Kinukawa; Sumio Miyazaki; Toshiro Hara

1999-01-01

6

Attenuated cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count and sepsis in adults with pneumococcal meningitis: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white-blood cell count (WBC) has been identified as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in adults with bacterial meningitis. Whereas a low CSF WBC indicates the presence of sepsis with early meningitis in patients with meningococcal infections, the relation between CSF WBC and outcome in patients with pneumococcal meningitis is not understood. METHODS:

Martijn Weisfelt; Diederik van de Beek; Lodewijk Spanjaard; Johannes B Reitsma; Jan de Gans

2006-01-01

7

Antibodies to antigen A60 in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with tuberculous meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-mycobacterial antigen 60 (A60) IgM, IgG and IgA in patients affected by meningitis of different etiologies were assayed as a rapid diagnostic test in cases of tuberculous meningitis. A commercial EIA was used to test 127 CSF samples classified as follows: tuberculous meningitis (n=27 CSF samples from 16 patients, 6 of them with AIDS), pyogenic meningitis (n=13),

L. F. López-Cortés; M. C. Nogales-Pérez; J. Gómez-Mateos; D. Jiménez-Hernández; E. Jiménez-Mejias; J. Pachón-Diaz

1994-01-01

8

Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 is a prognostic marker for aseptic meningitis.  

PubMed

In exceptional cases, patients with aseptic meningitis eventually develop aseptic meningoencephalitis. To find a candidate marker for the development of aseptic meningoencephalitis in adult patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis, we compared 12 different cytokines/chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 5 patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis, 8 patients with aseptic meningitis, and 8 patients with control disease. Only the CXCL13 concentration was significantly elevated in the CSF of the group with aseptic meningoencephalitis compared with the group with aseptic meningitis. Thus, CSF CXCL13 may be a useful marker for predicting the prognosis of aseptic meningitis. PMID:24907903

Fujimori, Juichi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Fujihara, Kazuo; Aoki, Masashi

2014-08-15

9

Chemotactic activity of CXCL5 in cerebrospinal fluid of children with bacterial meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

CXCL5 (epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil-activating protein (ENA-)78) is a CXC-chemokine that specifically acts on neutrophils. To obtain insight into the extent of local presence and action of CXCL5 during bacterial meningitis, we measured its concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with culture-proven bacterial meningitis (n=14), aseptic meningitis (n=6), and controls (n=32) and compared these results with levels of other CXC-chemokines, CXCL8-

Petra J. G. Zwijnenburg; Henrica M. A. de Bie; John J. Roord; Tom van der Poll; A. Marceline van Furth

2003-01-01

10

Fibrin degradation products in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with group A meningococcal meningitis.  

PubMed

Forty-one patients suffering from group A meningococcal meningitis in an area within the epidemic meningococcal belt of tropical West Africa were studied. The serum of only two of these patients contained fibrin degradation products (FDPs). The cerebrospinal fluid of 21 of these cases was also examined for FDPs, which were present in 13. Their presence in the cerebrospinal fluid was associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:4212012

Brueton, M J; Tugwell, P; Whittle, H C; Greenwood, B M

1974-05-01

11

Fibrin degradation products in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with group A meningococcal meningitis  

PubMed Central

Forty-one patients suffering from group A meningococcal meningitis in an area within the epidemic meningococcal belt of tropical West Africa were studied. The serum of only two of these patients contained fibrin degradation products (FDPs). The cerebrospinal fluid of 21 of these cases was also examined for FDPs, which were present in 13. Their presence in the cerebrospinal fluid was associated with a poor prognosis.

Brueton, M. J.; Tugwell, P.; Whittle, H. C.; Greenwood, B. M.

1974-01-01

12

Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in human immunodeficiency seropositive and seronegative patients of tuberculous meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Some important clinical differences exist between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients. Alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase have been noted in tuberculous meningitis. In HIV-infected patients, the immunopathogenesis is expected to be different. Materials and Methods: In this study, 64 patients of tuberculous meningitis (28 HIV seropositive and 36 seronegative) were included. The patients were followed up for six months. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of tuberculous meningitis patients and 20 controls were subjected to tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 estimations. The levels were correlated with the patients’ baseline clinical characteristics, CSF parameters, neuroimaging findings, and the outcome. The outcome was assessed and modified with the Barthel index. Results: The CSF cytokines and MMP levels were significantly elevated in tuberculous meningitis when compared with the controls. There was no significant difference seen between HIV seropositive and seronegative tuberculous meningitis, except for the IL-1? level, which was significantly lower in the HIV-infected patients. The cytokine and MMP levels did not correlate with the baseline clinical characteristics, disease severity, cerebrospinal fluid characteristics, neuroimaging findings, and outcome. Conclusion: In conclusion, HIV infection did not affect a majority of the CSF cytokines and MMP levels in tuberculous meningitis except for IL-1? level. None of the estimated inflammatory parameters correlated with the outcome.

Rai, Dheeraj; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Jain, Amita; Verma, Rajesh; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem

2014-01-01

13

Lipocalin 2 in cerebrospinal fluid as a marker of acute bacterial meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background Early differential diagnosis between acute bacterial and viral meningitis is problematic. We aimed to investigate whether the detection of lipocalin 2, a protein of the acute innate immunity response, may be used as a marker for acute bacterial meningitis. Methods Transgenic mice expressing the human transferrin were infected by intraperitoneal route and were imaged. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sampled up to 48hours post- infection to measure lipocalin 2. We also tested a collection of 90 and 44 human CSF with confirmed acute bacterial or acute viral meningitis respectively. Results Lipocalin 2 was detected after 5 h in CSF during experimental infection in mice. Lipocalin 2 levels were significantly higher (p?meningitis (mean 125 pg/mL, range 106–145 pg/mL) than in patients with acute viral meningitis (mean 2 pg/mL, range 0–6 pg/mL) with a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value of 96% and a negative predictive value of 71% in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis. Conclusions Increased levels of lipocalin 2 in cerebrospinal fluid may discriminate between acute bacterial and viral meningitis in patients with clinical syndrome of meningitis.

2014-01-01

14

Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Expression in Tuberculous Meningitis Patients with Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is very high in developing areas of the world. Inflammation and cytokine patterns produced by T lymphocytes play an important role in susceptibility to infections. The inflammatory response and production of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with TBM are well documented. Conversely, little is known about the role of pro-

Rajpal S. Kashyap; Poonam S. Deshpande; Sonali R. Ramteke; Milind S. Panchbhai; Hemant J. Purohit; Girdhar M. Taori; Hatim F. Daginawala

2010-01-01

15

Picornaviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis in Luanda, Angola.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses are the most common cause of viral meningitis. Viral-bacterial interaction may affect the clinical course and outcome of bacterial meningitis. In Africa, viruses might be responsible for 14-25% of all meningitis cases. However, only few studies from Africa have reported detection of viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or mixed viral-bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of picornaviruses in the CSF of children suffering from meningitis in Luanda, Angola. The study included 142 consecutive children enrolled in a prospective study of bacterial meningitis in Luanda between 2005 and 2006, from whom a CSF sample was available. CSF samples were obtained at hospital admission, stored in a deep-freeze, and transported to Finland for testing by real-time PCR for picornaviruses. Enteroviruses were detected in 4 (3%) of 142 children with presumed bacterial meningitis. A 5-month-old girl with rhinovirus and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis recovered uneventfully. An 8-year-old girl with human enterovirus and pneumococcal meningitis developed no sequelae. A 2-month-old girl with human enterovirus and malaria recovered quickly. A 7-month-old girl with human enterovirus was treated for presumed tuberculous meningitis and survived with severe sequelae. Mixed infections of the CNS with picornaviruses and bacteria are rare. Detection of an enterovirus does not affect the clinical picture and outcome of bacterial meningitis. PMID:22585725

Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Anjos, Elizabete; Kaijalainen, Svetlana; Roivainen, Merja; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

2012-07-01

16

Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in human coccidioidal meningitis.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole, a new oral azole, were evaluated in cerebrospinal fluid and sera of eight patients with coccidioidal meningitis. At a dose of 50 mg/day, peak concentrations of 2.5 to 3.5 and 2.0 to 2.3 micrograms/ml occurred at 2 to 6 and 4 to 8 h in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. At 100 mg/day, peak concentrations of 4.5 to 8.0 and 3.4 to 6.2 micrograms/ml occurred at 2 to 4 and 4 to 12 h, respectively. The mean ratios of the concentration in cerebrospinal fluid to that in serum were 73.8% at 50 mg/day and 88.7% at 100 mg/day. Results suggested that there was a prolonged half-life in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum and that it was slightly longer in the former. Minimal toxicity was noted in 34 patient months of therapy (12 months on 50 mg daily; 22 months on 100 mg daily). After a mean of 4.5 months of therapy, five patients responded to therapy and three were unevaluable. The penetration of fluconazole into cerebrospinal fluid was substantial, toxicity was minimal, and early clinical experience was encouraging. Fluconazole holds promise as the sole or adjunctive therapy for fungal meningitis.

Tucker, R M; Williams, P L; Arathoon, E G; Levine, B E; Hartstein, A I; Hanson, L H; Stevens, D A

1988-01-01

17

Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in human coccidioidal meningitis.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole, a new oral azole, were evaluated in cerebrospinal fluid and sera of eight patients with coccidioidal meningitis. At a dose of 50 mg/day, peak concentrations of 2.5 to 3.5 and 2.0 to 2.3 micrograms/ml occurred at 2 to 6 and 4 to 8 h in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. At 100 mg/day, peak concentrations of 4.5 to 8.0 and 3.4 to 6.2 micrograms/ml occurred at 2 to 4 and 4 to 12 h, respectively. The mean ratios of the concentration in cerebrospinal fluid to that in serum were 73.8% at 50 mg/day and 88.7% at 100 mg/day. Results suggested that there was a prolonged half-life in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum and that it was slightly longer in the former. Minimal toxicity was noted in 34 patient months of therapy (12 months on 50 mg daily; 22 months on 100 mg daily). After a mean of 4.5 months of therapy, five patients responded to therapy and three were unevaluable. The penetration of fluconazole into cerebrospinal fluid was substantial, toxicity was minimal, and early clinical experience was encouraging. Fluconazole holds promise as the sole or adjunctive therapy for fungal meningitis. PMID:2835002

Tucker, R M; Williams, P L; Arathoon, E G; Levine, B E; Hartstein, A I; Hanson, L H; Stevens, D A

1988-03-01

18

Cerebrospinal fluid lactate level as a diagnostic biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate is a potential biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children. To this end, we performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of children from Sao Paulo, Brazil, with CSF pleocytosis to evaluate the ability of CSF lactate to distinguish between children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. We determined the optimum cutoff point for CSF lactate using receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis. Findings We identified 451 children of whom 40 (9%) had bacterial meningitis. Children with bacterial meningitis had a higher median CSF lactate level [9.6 mmol/l, interquartile range (IQR) 3.2-38.5 mmol/l bacterial meningitis vs. 2.0 mmol/l, IQR 1.2-2.8 mmol/l aseptic meningitis]. A CSF lactate cutoff point of 3.0 mmol/l had a sensitivity of 95% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83-99%), specificity of 94% (95% CI 90-96%) and negative predictive value of 99.3% (95% CI 97.7-99.9%) for bacterial meningitis. Conclusions In combination with a validated meningitis clinical prediction rule, the CSF lactate level can be used to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in children with CSF pleocytosis.

2014-01-01

19

Vascular endothelial growth factor in bacterial meningitis: detection in cerebrospinal fluid and localization in postmortem brain.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent vascular permeability factor and a mediator of brain edema. To assess the role of VEGF during bacterial meningitis, VEGF was measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of 37 patients with bacterial meningitis and 51 control patients, including 16 patients with viral meningitis. Circulating VEGF levels were similar in bacterial meningitis patients and control patients. VEGF(CSF) was detected in 11 (30%) of 37 of bacterial meningitis patients (range, <25-633 pg/mL) but in none of the control patients. The median VEGF index was 6.2 (range, 0.6-42), indicating intrathecal production. Median CSF cell counts, protein levels, and CSF: serum albumin ratios were higher for patients with detectable VEGF(CSF), although the difference was not statistically significant. VEGF immunoreactivity in autopsy brain specimens was found in the inflammatory infiltrate of patients with bacterial meningitis. These results indicate that inflammatory cells secrete VEGF during bacterial meningitis and that VEGF may contribute to blood-brain barrier disruption. PMID:11106541

van der Flier, M; Stockhammer, G; Vonk, G J; Nikkels, P G; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, R A; van der Vlist, G J; Rupert, S W; Schmutzhard, E; Gunsilius, E; Gastl, G; Hoepelman, A I; Kimpen, J L; Geelen, S P

2001-01-01

20

Rifampin Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rifampin was administered orally in one dose of 25 mg per kg of body weight to 6 patients with tuberculous meningitis who had received no previous antituberculous chemotherapy and to 7 control subjects. There was no sigificant difference in rifampin absor...

J. E. Sippel I. A. Mikhail N. I. Girgis H. H. Youssef

1973-01-01

21

[Significance of the determination of lactic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid for the differential diagnosis of meningitis].  

PubMed

Measurement of cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid by an enzymatic test has been evaluated in 164 patients. The upper limit of normal CSF lactate was 300 mg/l. The CSF lactate level is useful for differential diagnosis between partially treated pyogenic meningitis and tuberculous meningitis. The increase of CSF lactate is not specific for meningitis and must be interpreted taking into account the clinical situation. PMID:3892450

el Mdaghri, N; Benbachir, M; Tazi-Lakhsassi, L; Himmich, H

1985-04-01

22

Two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in tuberculous meningitis patients.  

PubMed

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a serious complication of tuberculosis that affects the central nervous system. Present methods to diagnose TBM are not suitable for early diagnosis. Molecular markers and sensitive methods to identify them in the early stage of infection of TBM are critically needed for efficient management. We have done the proteomic analysis of TBM cerebrospinal fluid (n=20) with 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. We identified 11 human proteins and 8 mycobacterial proteins with changed expression levels in comparison to controls. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and glial fibrillary acidic protein, two of the identified proteins, were validated with western blot technique on a larger set of disease and control samples (n=40). These two proteins were also analyzed in fungal meningitis samples. We suggest that arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase can be considered for validation as a potential marker for diagnosis of TBM. PMID:21723968

Kataria, Jitender; Rukmangadachar, Lokesh A; Hariprasad, Gururao; O, Jithesh; Tripathi, Manjari; Srinivasan, Alagiri

2011-09-01

23

Hepatocyte growth factor levels in cerebrospinal fluid: a comparison between acute bacterial and nonbacterial meningitis.  

PubMed

The organotrophic functions of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have been the subject of several studies. In the more recent studies, this function has been reported in the brain. In the present study, we have measured the levels of HGF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera from 78 patients divided into 6 different groups according to central nervous system (CNS) infection and control. Quantitative measurements of HGF in the CSF and serum were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated values of CSF HGF were found in the patients with acute bacterial/probable bacterial meningitis (P<.001), compared with nonbacterial CNS infections and facial palsy, as well as with a control group without signs of CNS involvement. The values of CSF HGF were not correlated to blood-brain-barrier disruption in the groups. These observations might indicate an intrathecal production of HGF in acute bacterial/probable bacterial meningitis. PMID:10837201

Nayeri, F; Nilsson, I; Hagberg, L; Brudin, L; Roberg, M; Söderström, C; Forsberg, P

2000-06-01

24

Prospective Identification of Enteroviruses Involved in Meningitis in 2006 through Direct Genotyping in Cerebrospinal Fluid?  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus infections were investigated with special emphasis on performing rapid molecular identification of enterovirus serotypes responsible for aseptic meningitis directly in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Enterovirus genotyping was carried out directly with specimens tested for the diagnostic procedure, using two seminested PCR assays designed to amplify the complete and partial gene sequences encoding the VP1 and VP4/VP2 capsid proteins, respectively. The method was used for identifying the enterovirus serotypes involved in meningitis in 45 patients admitted in 2005. Enterovirus genotyping was achieved in 98% of the patients studied, and we obtained evidence of 10 of the most frequent serotypes identified earlier by genotyping of virus isolates. The method was applied for the prospective investigation of 54 patients with meningitis admitted consecutively in 2006. The enterovirus serotypes involved were identified with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 52 patients (96%) and comprised 13 serotypes within the human enterovirus B species and 1 within the human enterovirus A species. The three most common serotypes were echovirus 13 (E13; 24%), E6 (23%), and coxsackievirus B5 (11.5%), a pattern different from that observed in 2005. Genotyping of virus isolates was also performed in 35 patients in 2006 (meningitis, n = 31; other diseases, n = 4). By comparison, direct genotyping in CSF yielded a more complete pattern of enterovirus serotypes, thereby allowing the detection of rare serotypes: three less common serotypes (CB2, E21, and E27) were not detected by indirect genotyping alone. The study shows the feasibility of prospective enterovirus genotyping within 1 week in a laboratory setting.

Mirand, Audrey; Henquell, Cecile; Archimbaud, Christine; Chambon, Martine; Charbonne, Francoise; Peigue-Lafeuille, Helene; Bailly, Jean-Luc

2008-01-01

25

Cortisol levels in cerebrospinal fluid correlate with severity and bacterial origin of meningitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Outcomes following bacterial meningitis are significantly improved by adjunctive treatment with corticosteroids. However, little is known about the levels and significance of intrathecal endogenous cortisol. The aim of this study was to assess cortisol as a biological and diagnostic marker in patients with bacterial meningitis. Methods Forty-seven consecutive patients with bacterial meningitis and no prior treatment were evaluated. For comparison, a group of 37 patients with aseptic meningitis and a group of 13 healthy control individuals were included. Results The mean age of the bacterial meningitis patients was 42 years, and the mean Glasgow Coma Scale, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores on admission were 12, 13 and 4, respectively. Altogether, 40 patients (85%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, with a median (interquartile range) length of stay of 8 (4 to 15) days. A bacterial etiology was confirmed in 35 patients (74%). The median (interquartile range) cortisol concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was 133 (59 to 278) nmol/l. CSF cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with serum cortisol levels (r = 0.587, P < 0.001). Furthermore, CSF cortisol levels correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (r = 0.763, P < 0.001), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (r = 0.650, P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale score (r = -0.547, P < 0.001) and CSF lactate levels (r = 0.734, P < 0.001). CSF cortisol was only weakly associated with intrathecal levels of IL-6 (r = 0.331, P = 0.02) and IL-8 (r = 0.296, P < 0.05). CSF cortisol levels in bacterial and aseptic meningitis significantly differed (P < 0.001). The CSF cortisol concentration of 46.1 nmol/l was found to be the optimal cutoff value for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Conclusion CSF cortisol levels in patients with bacterial meningitis are highly elevated and correlate with disease severity. Moreover, our findings also suggest that intrathecal cortisol may serve as a valuable marker in discriminating between bacterial and aseptic meningitis.

Holub, Michal; Beran, Ondrej; Dzupova, Olga; Hnykova, Jarmila; Lacinova, Zdenka; Prihodova, Jana; Prochazka, Bohumir; Helcl, Miroslav

2007-01-01

26

High human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA load in the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with lymphocytic meningitis.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven matched cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples from 34 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients with suspected meningitis were analyzed for levels of HIV-1 RNA and markers of inflammation. Patients with tuberculous (n = 9) or cryptococcal (n = 6) meningitis had the highest CSF virus loads, which in many cases exceeded the levels in plasma, compared with patients with meningococcal meningitis (n = 3), aseptic meningitis (n = 8), tuberculoma (n = 2), or AIDS dementia complex (n = 4) or with normal lumbar punctures (n = 3). CSF virus load correlated significantly with the number of infiltrating lymphocytes (r = .60, P < .001) but not with plasma virus load, the levels of beta2-microglobulin in the CSF, or the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. These data suggest significant intrathecal HIV-1 replication in patients with lymphocytic meningeal infections such as tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis. PMID:9466541

Morris, L; Silber, E; Sonnenberg, P; Eintracht, S; Nyoka, S; Lyons, S F; Saffer, D; Koornhof, H; Martin, D J

1998-02-01

27

Genetic Variation and Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Mannose Binding Lectin in Pneumococcal Meningitis Patients  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that genetic variants in mannose binding lectin (MBL2) influence susceptibility and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease. We assessed the influence of genetic variation in MBL2 on susceptibility, outcome and causative serotype of pneumococcal meningitis in a prospective nationwide cohort study including 299 white patients and 216 controls. We assessed functionality of the genetic polymorphisms by measuring levels of MBL, C3a, iC3b, C5a and sC5b-9 in cerebrospinal fluid. We also performed a meta-analysis of studies on MBL2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease. The risk of contracting pneumococcal meningitis was substantially increased for white individuals homozygous with the defective MBL2 0/0 genotype (odds ratio [OR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–64.1; p?=?0.017). CSF MBL levels were significantly lower in patients with the A/0 and 0/0 genotype compared to homozygotes for the wild-type alleles (A/A; p<0.001). CSF MBL levels were positively correlated with C3a and iC3b levels, indicating complement activation by the lectin pathway. The effect of MBL2 genetic variants on susceptibility remained robust in a meta-analysis including 5 studies with 287 patients (OR 2.33, 99% CI 1.39–3.90). We conclude that MBL2 polymorphisms influence CSF MBL levels and substantially increase the risk of pneumococcal meningitis.

Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Baas, Frank; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

2013-01-01

28

Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful, rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of tuberculous meningitis in ex vivo cerebrospinal fluid samples.  

PubMed

In this letter, we propose a novel method for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis using Raman spectroscopy. The silicate Raman signature obtained from Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive cases enables specific and sensitive detection of tuberculous meningitis from acquired cerebrospinal fluid samples. The association of silicates with the tuberculosis mycobacterium is discussed. We envision that this new method will facilitate rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis without application of exogenous reagents or dyes and can be aptly used as a complementary screening tool to the existing gold standard methods. PMID:22887773

Sathyavathi, R; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Barman, Ishan; Prasad, P S R; Prabhakar, Subhashini; Narayana Rao, D; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Undamatla, Jayanthi

2013-08-01

29

Cerebrospinal fluid penetration of amikacin in children with community-acquired bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed Central

The penetration of amikacin into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied with 16 children (mean age, 1 year and 9 months; range, 4 months to 8 years) with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Amikacin was given intravenously at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg of body weight twice daily. CSF was collected on day 1, at the expected peak concentration of amikacin in CSF. The mean (standard deviation) concentration of amikacin in CSF was 1.65 (1.6) mg/liter. Concentrations of amikacin in CSF correlated significantly with CSF glucose levels on admission. The mean concentrations of amikacin in CSF were 2.9, 1.1, and 0.20 mg/liter in patients with CSF glucose levels of < 1, 1 to 2, and > 2 mmol/liter, respectively. Thus, amikacin penetrates the blood-brain barrier substantially in children with bacterial meningitis and achieves particularly high concentrations when CSF glucose level is < 1 mmol/liter on admission.

Gaillard, J L; Silly, C; Le Masne, A; Mahut, B; Lacaille, F; Cheron, G; Abadie, V; Hubert, P; Matha, V; Coustere, C

1995-01-01

30

Cerebrospinal fluid bactericidal activity against cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with meningitis treated with high-dosage cefotaxime.  

PubMed Central

We determined cefotaxime and desacetyl-cefotaxime concentrations in children with bacterial meningitis receiving high-dose cefotaxime (300 mg/kg of body weight/day) and concomitant dexamethasone therapy. The median peak cerebrospinal fluid cefotaxime and desacetyl-cefotaxime concentrations were 4.7 and 8.1 microg/ml, respectively. In vitro bactericidal activity (>99.9% killing in 6 h) was found in 17 (94%), 13 (72%), and 8 (44%) of 18 cerebrospinal fluid specimens against cefotaxime-susceptible, -intermediate (MIC, 1 microg/ml), and -resistant (MIC, 4 microg/ml) strains, respectively. High-dose cefotaxime, while safe, is not reliably sufficient therapy for cephalosporin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal meningitis, and combination therapy is recommended.

Friedland, I R; Klugman, K P

1997-01-01

31

Variables that influence HIV-1 cerebrospinal fluid viral load in cryptococcal meningitis: a linear regression analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The central nervous system is considered a sanctuary site for HIV-1 replication. Variables associated with HIV cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load in the context of opportunistic CNS infections are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate the relation between: (1) CSF HIV-1 viral load and CSF cytological and biochemical characteristics (leukocyte count, protein concentration, cryptococcal antigen titer); (2) CSF HIV-1 viral load and HIV-1 plasma viral load; and (3) CSF leukocyte count and the peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte count. Methods Our approach was to use a prospective collection and analysis of pre-treatment, paired CSF and plasma samples from antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive patients with cryptococcal meningitis and assisted at the Francisco J Muñiz Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina (period: 2004 to 2006). We measured HIV CSF and plasma levels by polymerase chain reaction using the Cobas Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test version 1.5 (Roche). Data were processed with Statistix 7.0 software (linear regression analysis). Results Samples from 34 patients were analyzed. CSF leukocyte count showed statistically significant correlation with CSF HIV-1 viral load (r = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.13-0.63, p = 0.01). No correlation was found with the plasma viral load, CSF protein concentration and cryptococcal antigen titer. A positive correlation was found between peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte count and the CSF leukocyte count (r = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.125-0.674, p = 0.0123). Conclusion Our study suggests that CSF leukocyte count influences CSF HIV-1 viral load in patients with meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans.

2009-01-01

32

Concentrations of ceftriaxone in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis receiving dexamethasone therapy.  

PubMed

The penetration of ceftriaxone into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied with 11 children (mean age: 2 years, 4 months; range: 4 months to 8 years) with meningitis, receiving dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg of body weight intravenously four times daily) as adjunctive therapy. Ceftriaxone was given intravenously at doses of 50 mg/kg twice daily to patients < 18 months old and 100 mg/kg once daily to patients > or = 18 months old. CSF was collected after 1 day of treatment at the expected peak concentration of ceftriaxone in CSF. Concentrations of ceftriaxone in CSF ranged from 0.7 to 9.2 mg/liter, with a mean value of 4.0 (standard deviation [SD], 2.9) mg/liter. Values were significantly higher for patients with CSF glucose levels of < 1 mmol/liter on admission to the hospital than for patients with CSF glucose levels of > or = 1 mmol/liter (mean values of 7.1 [SD, 2.2] mg/liter versus 2.2 [SD, 1.1] mg/liter; P < 0.001). After 1 day of treatment, ceftriaxone concentrations in the CSF of children receiving dexamethasone are similar to the mean values reported for children not treated with dexamethasone. PMID:8067769

Gaillard, J L; Abadie, V; Cheron, G; Lacaille, F; Mahut, B; Silly, C; Matha, V; Coustere, C; Lokiec, F

1994-05-01

33

Concentrations of ceftriaxone in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis receiving dexamethasone therapy.  

PubMed Central

The penetration of ceftriaxone into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied with 11 children (mean age: 2 years, 4 months; range: 4 months to 8 years) with meningitis, receiving dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg of body weight intravenously four times daily) as adjunctive therapy. Ceftriaxone was given intravenously at doses of 50 mg/kg twice daily to patients < 18 months old and 100 mg/kg once daily to patients > or = 18 months old. CSF was collected after 1 day of treatment at the expected peak concentration of ceftriaxone in CSF. Concentrations of ceftriaxone in CSF ranged from 0.7 to 9.2 mg/liter, with a mean value of 4.0 (standard deviation [SD], 2.9) mg/liter. Values were significantly higher for patients with CSF glucose levels of < 1 mmol/liter on admission to the hospital than for patients with CSF glucose levels of > or = 1 mmol/liter (mean values of 7.1 [SD, 2.2] mg/liter versus 2.2 [SD, 1.1] mg/liter; P < 0.001). After 1 day of treatment, ceftriaxone concentrations in the CSF of children receiving dexamethasone are similar to the mean values reported for children not treated with dexamethasone.

Gaillard, J L; Abadie, V; Cheron, G; Lacaille, F; Mahut, B; Silly, C; Matha, V; Coustere, C; Lokiec, F

1994-01-01

34

Cerebrospinal fluid B2-microglobulin levels in meningeal involvement by malignancy.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum B2-microglobulin (B2m) levels were measured prospectively in 63 patients with hematological malignancies and 14 patients with solid tumours to evaluate the correlation between elevated levels and malignant infiltration of meninges. Serial CSF B2-m levels were also measured in 18 patients who received prophylactic intrathecal cytotoxic treatment. CSF B2-m levels were significantly higher in patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement than in those without (p less than 0.001). A CSF B2-m level greater than 1.80 mg/L was closely associated with CNS disease (specificity 96%, sensitivity 76%) and CNS infiltration was also likely when the CSF B2-m level exceeded a simultaneously drawn serum level (specificity 98%, sensitivity 46%). Intrathecal methotrexate prophylaxis resulted in a consistent and significant rise in CSF B2-m levels with an average increase of 96% during a course of intrathecal injections. These results suggest that CSF B2-m levels may not be helpful for predicting early CNS relapse in these patients. However the CSF B2-m level and the corresponding serum B2-m level is a useful adjunct to the cytological diagnosis of CNS involvement by malignancy at presentation. Its value in predicting early CNS relapse and documenting response to CNS treatment requires further clarification. PMID:2194155

Jeffery, G M; Frampton, C M; Legge, H M; Hart, D N

1990-01-01

35

Epstein-Barr Virus Coinfection in Cerebrospinal Fluid Is Associated With Increased Mortality in Malawian Adults With Bacterial Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Mortality from adult bacterial meningitis exceeds 50% in sub-Saharan Africa. We postulated that—particularly in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contribute to poor outcome. CSF from 149 Malawian adults with bacterial meningitis and 39 controls were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. EBV was detected in 79 of 149 bacterial meningitis patients. Mortality (54%) was associated with higher CSF EBV load when adjusted for HIV (P = .01). CMV was detected in 11 of 115 HIV-infected patients, 8 of whom died. The mechanisms by which EBV and CMV contribute to poor outcome require further investigation.

Benjamin, Laura A.; Cartwright, Katharine; Ajdukiewicz, Katherine M. B.; Cohen, Danielle B.; Menyere, Mavis; Galbraith, Sareen; Guiver, Malcolm; Neuhann, Florian; Solomon, Tom; Lalloo, David G.; Heyderman, Robert S.

2012-01-01

36

The Causative Pathogen Determines the Inflammatory Profile in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Outcome in Patients with Bacterial Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background. The brain's inflammatory response to the infecting pathogen determines the outcome of bacterial meningitis (BM), for example, the associated mortality and the extent of brain injury. The inflammatory cascade is initiated by the presence of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) activating resident immune cells and leading to the influx of blood derived leukocytes. To elucidate the pathomechanisms behind the observed difference in outcome between different pathogens, we compared the inflammatory profile in the CSF of patients with BM caused by Streptococcus pneumonia (n = 14), Neisseria meningitidis (n = 22), and Haemophilus influenza (n = 9). Methods. CSF inflammatory parameters, including cytokines and chemokines, MMP-9, and nitric oxide synthase activity, were assessed in a cohort of patients with BM from Burkina Faso. Results. Pneumococcal meningitis was associated with significantly higher CSF concentrations of IFN-?, MCP-1, and the matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP-) 9. In patients with a fatal outcome, levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-1RA, IL-6, and TGF-? were significantly higher. Conclusion. The signature of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and the intensity of inflammatory processes in CSF are determined by the bacterial pathogen causing bacterial meningitis with pneumococcal meningitis being associated with a higher case fatality rate than meningitis caused by N. meningitidis or H. influenzae.

Grandgirard, Denis; Gaumann, Rahel; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Dangy, Jean-Pierre; Sie, Ali; Junghanss, Thomas; Schudel, Hans; Pluschke, Gerd; Leib, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

37

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid after meningitis induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with a significant mortality rate and persisting neurologic sequelae including sensory-motor deficits, seizures, and impairments of learning and memory. The presence of proliferating bacteria within the subarachnoid and ventricular space compartments triggers an intense inflammatory host response at killing the invading microorganism. Proinflammatory mediators released in the process include tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6. TNF-alpha have several effects, including cytotoxicity, antiviral activity, transcription factor activation, and immune response regulation. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the levels of the TNF-alpha after pneumococcal meningitis in male Wistar rats. The animals underwent a magna cistern tap receiving either 10 microL sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of a S. pneumoniae suspension at the concentration 5 x 10(9)cfu/mL. The animals were killed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after induction. The brain was removed and hippocampus, cortex, prefrontal and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were isolated and used for the determination of TNF-alpha levels. We found an increase in TNF-alpha levels at 6h after induction of the meningitis in the hippocampus (p<0.01), frontal cortex (p<0.05), and cerebrospinal fluid (p<0.001).There was no alteration in the cortex. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha is involved in the pathophysiology of the pneumococcal meningitis and could be investigated as a putative biomarker for brain damage in the first hours. PMID:19835931

Barichello, Tatiana; dos Santos, Ivonete; Savi, Geovana D; Florentino, Anelise F; Silvestre, Cintia; Comim, Clarissa M; Feier, Gustavo; Sachs, Daniela; Teixeira, Mauro M; Teixeira, Antonio L; Quevedo, João

2009-12-31

38

Demonstration of components of antigen 85 complex in cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients.  

PubMed

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of chronic infection of the central nervous system. Despite the magnitude of the problem, the general diagnostic outlook is discouraging. Specifically, there is no generally accepted early confirmative diagnosis protocol available for TBM. Various Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens are now recognized as potential markers for diagnosis of TBM. However, their presence remains questionable, and many of these antigens are reported in the blood but not in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study identifies a specific protein marker in CSF which will be useful in early diagnosis of TBM. We have demonstrated the presence of a 30-kDa protein band in CSF of 100% (n = 5) of confirmed and 90% (n = 138) of suspected TBM patients out of 153 TBM patients. The 30-kDa band was excised from the gel, destained extensively, and digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Partially purified proteins from CSF samples of TBM were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to confirm the presence of proteins in the 30-kDa protein band. The antigen 85 (Ag 85) complex was detected in CSF of TBM patients by indirect ELISA using antibodies against Ag 85 complex. The results of this study showed the 30-kDa protein band contained MTB proteins Rv3804c (Ag85A) and Rv1886c (Ag 85B), both members of the Ag85 complex. This was also confirmed by using immunotechniques such as indirect ELISA and the dot immunobinding assay. Detection of Ag85 complex was observed in CSF of 89% (71 out of 80) of suspected TBM patients that were 30-kDa protein positive. The observed 30-kDa protein in the CSF is comprised of the MTB Ag85 complex. This protein was earlier reported to be present in the blood of patients with extra-central nervous system tuberculosis. Therefore, this finding suggests that this protein can be used as a molecular marker for any type of tuberculous infection. It also provides a more sensitive immunoassay option for the early and confirmatory diagnosis of TBM. PMID:15939750

Kashyap, Rajpal S; Dobos, Karen M; Belisle, John T; Purohit, Hemant J; Chandak, Nitin H; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F

2005-06-01

39

Variables that influence HIV1 cerebrospinal fluid viral load in cryptococcal meningitis: a linear regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The central nervous system is considered a sanctuary site for HIV-1 replication. Variables associated with HIV cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load in the context of opportunistic CNS infections are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate the relation between: (1) CSF HIV-1 viral load and CSF cytological and biochemical characteristics (leukocyte count, protein concentration, cryptococcal antigen titer); (2) CSF

Diego M Cecchini; Ana M Cañizal; Haroldo Rojas; Alicia Arechavala; Ricardo Negroni; María B Bouzas; Jorge A Benetucci

2009-01-01

40

Sensitivity and specificity of cerebrospinal fluid flow cytometry for the diagnosis of leukemic meningitis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma.  

PubMed

Abstract The presence of leukemic blasts detected by light microscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) establishes the diagnosis of leukemic meningitis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL). Flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) is a very sensitive method that detects a minute number of aberrant cells, and is increasingly performed on CSF samples. We sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of CSF FCI for the diagnosis of leukemic meningitis in ALL. Between November 2007 and August 2011, 800 CSF samples from 80 patients with ALL were available from diagnostic lumbar punctures (LPs; n = 80), follow-up LPs (n = 687) and at the time of relapse (n = 33). FCI was performed on 267 samples, and only identified aberrant cells in cytologically confirmed cases of leukemic meningitis. A blinded review of all cases with detectable CSF nucleated cells confirmed these findings. We conclude that CSF FCI has a 100% sensitivity and specificity for the detection of lymphoblasts. However, additional studies are needed to define the role this procedure plays in the diagnosis of leukemic meningitis. PMID:24134778

Mitri, Zahi; Siddiqui, Momin T; El Rassi, Fuad; Holden, Jeannine T; Heffner, Leonard T; Langston, Amelia; Waller, Edmund K; Winton, Elliott; McLemore, Morgan; Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Jaye, David; Arellano, Martha; Khoury, Hanna Jean

2014-07-01

41

Cerebrospinal fluid lactate concentration to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis: a systemic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Making a differential diagnosis between bacterial meningitis and aseptic meningitis is a critical clinical problem. The utility of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate assay for this purpose has been debated and is not yet routinely clinically performed. To adequately evaluate this assay, a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the CSF lactate concentration as a marker for both bacterial meningitis and aseptic meningitis was performed. Methods Electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus, the MEDION database and the Cochrane Library were conducted to identify relevant articles published before March 2009. A manual search of reference lists from selected articles was also conducted. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and extracted data on study characteristics, quality and accuracy. Results Twenty-five articles were identified that met the eligibility criteria. Diagnostic odds ratios were considerably homogenous (Chi-square P = 0.1009, I2 = 27.6%), and the homogeneity was further confirmed by a Galbraith plot and meta-regression analysis using several covariates. The symmetrical summary receiver-operator characteristic curve (SROC), fitted using the Moses-Shapiro-Littenberg method, was positioned near the upper left corner of the SROC curve. The Q value and area under the curve were 0.9451 and 0.9840, respectively, indicating excellent accuracy. The diagnostic accuracy of the CSF lactate concentration was higher than those of other four conventional markers (CSF glucose, CSF/plasma glucose quotient, CSF protein, and CSF total number of leukocytes) using a head to head meta-analysis of the 25 included studies. Conclusions To distinguish bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis, CSF lactate is a good single indicator and a better marker compared to other conventional markers.

2010-01-01

42

Rapid Determination of Ciprofloxacin in Cerebrospinal Fluid by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Direct Sample Injection and its Application in Tuberculosis Meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with ultraviolet detection at 280 nm is described for analysis of ciprofloxacin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by direct injection without sample pretreatment. The proposed method was applied in one tuberculosis meningitis patient monitoring the concentration of ciprofloxacin in CSF after oral administration of 500 mg of ciprofloxacin after 12 hr. The separation of ciprofloxacin from the CSF

Ju-Yun Ko; Cheng-Ying Chang; Yuan-Han Yang; Su-Hwei Chen

2008-01-01

43

False-Positive PCR Detection of Tropheryma whipplei in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Biopsy Samples from a Child with Chronic Lymphocytic Meningitis ?  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a teenager with chronic lymphocytic meningitis for whom Tropheryma whipplei 16S rRNA PCR results were positive in two cerebrospinal fluid samples and one duodenal biopsy specimen. PCR targeting another specific sequence of Tropheryma whipplei and sequencing of the initially amplified 16S rRNA fragment did not confirm the results.

Goyo, Daniel; Camacho, Ana; Gomez, Carmen; de las Heras, Rogelio Simon; Otero, Joaquin R.; Chaves, Fernando

2009-01-01

44

Pharmacokinetics and cerebrospinal fluid bactericidal activity of ceftriaxone in the treatment of pediatric patients with bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were determined in 19 patients with proven bacterial meningitis. The dosage was 50 mg of ceftriaxone per kg. The plasma concentration time curve declined in a biexponential manner. The mean peak plasma concentration was 207 micrograms/ml, and the elimination half-life was 4 h. In 12 patients, multiple-dose pharmacokinetics were determined after a loading dose of 75 mg of ceftriaxone per kg, followed by 50-mg/kg doses every 8 h in 5 patients or every 12 h in 7 patients. The mean peak plasma concentration was 230 micrograms/ml after the first dose and 263 micrograms/ml after the last dose. Of 12 patients, 5 had trough values that were larger after multiple doses than after a single dose. Mean penetration of ceftriaxone into cerebrospinal fluid was 3.1%. The median cerebrospinal fluid bactericidal titer against the patients pathogens was greater than 1:1,024 and less than 1:2,048. The drug was well tolerated without adverse effects.

Del Rio, M; McCracken, G H; Nelson, J D; Chrane, D; Shelton, S

1982-01-01

45

An iTRAQ approach to quantitative proteome analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with tuberculous meningitis.  

PubMed

To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein profiles of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and discover potential biomarkers for TBM, differential expression of proteins in the CSF of patients with TBM, patients with cryptococcal meningitis, and a control group were compared using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labelling (iTRAQ) coupled with 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). As a result, a total of 208 unique proteins with a molecular weight ranging from 10 KD to 135 KD were identified and quantified in CSF samples from patients with TBM. Of the proteins, 9 were expressed at levels differing 2.0 fold, 6 were up-regulated, and 3 were down-regulated. These proteins appear to be involved in calcium ion binding, lipoprotein metabolism, immune response, and signal conduction. Two differentially expressed proteins were identified using ELISA. The present study represents the successful use of iTRAQ to examine CSF from patients with TBM. The differentially expressed proteins identified may be potential diagnostic biomarkers and provide valuable insight into the underlying mechanisms of TBM. This study also demonstrated that the differential protein profiles of diseases can be quickly determined using iTRAQ-LC-MS, a potential method for quantitative comparative proteomics. PMID:24056169

Ou, Qiang; Liu, Xiaohui; Cheng, Xunjia

2013-08-01

46

Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Rifampin in Meningeal Tuberculosis after Intravenous Administration,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rifampin given orally was found to cross the blood-brain barrier, and was comparable to ethamputol in the treatment of tuberculous meningitis. Due to the difficulty of administering oral therapy, as most of the patients are unable to swallow properly, int...

I. A. Mikhail N. I. Girgis A. L. Bourgeois C. R. Lissner

1987-01-01

47

Induction of cytokines and anti-cytokine autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during experimental bacterial meningitis  

PubMed Central

We have recently described the induction of anti-cytokine autoantibodies (Aabs) in the serum as a novel mechanism for cytokine regulation during bacterial infections. Here we use the infant rat-model of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis to examine the induction of five potentially important cytokines and their autoantibody responses in the CSF. Protein levels of the cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-?), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?), IL-4 and IL-10 were detected at day 3 post-inoculation (p.i.) with maximum induction at day 8. Thereafter, these levels of cytokines had become undetectable. Increased Aab titres to these cytokines, except IL-4, were registered with peak levels between days 7 and 9. Upon re-inoculation with Hib at day 30, regeneration of Aabs was recorded 7 days later (i.e. at day 37). To control the specificity of these Aabs, preincubation of the CSF with a cytokine inhibited the binding effects of that particular cytokine, but not those of any other cytokine. Aabs dose-dependently inhibited IFN-?-induced MHC expression by peritoneal macrophages and TNF-?-mediated L929 cytotoxicity. Our data demonstrate for the first time the existence of the anti-cytokine antibodies in the CSF of the meningitis Hib model. Furthermore, the data present a role for the Aabs in cytokine regulation, which is consistent with the previously demonstrated effects of the Aabs in the serum.

BAKHIET, M; MUSTAFA, M; ZHU, J; HARRIS, R; LINDQUIST, L; LINK, H; DIAB, A

1998-01-01

48

The passage of cloxacillin into cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of meningitis.  

PubMed Central

1. Eleven patients undergoing lumbar discectomy received cloxacillin by continuous i.v. infusion, starting before the operation. During the operation several blood samples and one CSF sample were taken. 2. Mean rate constants describing the passive transfer of drug from plasma to CSF (kp) and the largely active transfer in the opposite direction (kCSF) were estimated. 3. In some subjects the CSF albumin quotient, defined as the ratio between the albumin concentration in CSF and in plasma times 1000, was slightly elevated (up to 23) which caused a significant increase in the value of kp. 4. The estimate of mean kp for healthy individuals was 0.065 h-1, which corresponds to a half-life of 10 h. The estimate of mean kCSF was 2.10 h-1. This predicts a steady-state CSF drug concentration which is 3% of the unbound plasma drug concentration. 5. There was a significant lag between the time courses of plasma and CSF drug concentrations, presumably reflecting the time for drug to move from the choroid plexus to the lumbar sampling site. 6. Four other patients received cloxacillin for prophylactic or therapeutic reasons by continuous i.v. infusion. In three of those patients the albumin quotient was normal or slightly elevated and the steady-state CCSF/Cu ratio was similar to the predicted normal value. 7. These findings indicate that eradicating staphylococci from CSF in cases of meningitis with a low degree of inflammation may be difficult.

Schievink, H I; Mattie, H; Thomeer, R T; Van Strijen, E

1993-01-01

49

Prospective Study of Use of PCR Amplification and Sequencing of 16S Ribosomal DNA from Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis in a Clinical Setting  

PubMed Central

We have evaluated the use of a broad-range PCR aimed at the 16S rRNA gene in detecting bacterial meningitis in a clinical setting. To achieve a uniform DNA extraction procedure for both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, a combination of physical disruption (bead beating) and a silica-guanidiniumthiocyanate procedure was used for nucleic acid preparation. To diminish the risk of contamination as much as possible, we chose to amplify almost the entire 16S rRNA gene. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was approximately 1 × 102 to 2 × 102 CFU/ml of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. In a prospective study of 227 CSF samples, broad-range PCR proved to be superior to conventional methods in detecting bacterial meningitis when antimicrobial therapy had already started. Overall, our assay showed a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 97%, a positive predictive value of 80%, and a negative predictive value of 98% compared to culture. We are currently adapting the standard procedures in our laboratory for detecting bacterial meningitis; broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA PCR detection is indicated when antimicrobial therapy has already started at time of lumbar puncture or when cultures remain negative, although the suspicion of bacterial meningitis remains.

Schuurman, Tim; de Boer, Richard F.; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; van Zwet, Anton A.

2004-01-01

50

[Does the assay of acute phase protein concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and/or in serum in patient with viral meningitis have a diagnostic value? Part II. Lymphocytic meningitis caused by echo 30 virus].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate dynamics of selected acute phase proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children with viral meningitis and to assess diagnostic power of protein determination for detection and treatment monitoring. 51 children with viral meningitis caused by ECHO 30 virus were included in the study group. Concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha2-haptoglobin (HPT) and C3 complement fragment were determined in serum and CSF at entry and at day 14 after admittance to hospital. Control group for serum determination consisted in 30 healthy children (Group K1) and control group for CSF determination consisted in 19 hospitalized children in whom the diagnosis of meningitis was not confirmed (group K2). The greatest rise of acute phase proteins concentration was observed in children in case of HPT, AAG and C3 complement when determined in serum. Meningitis in children that was caused by ECHO 30 virus produces slight acute phase reaction that is more evident in serum than in CSF. It is confirmed by remarkable increase of AAG, HPT, C3 complement in serum and HPT in CSF either at entry or at the day 14. The determination of AAG, HPT and C3 complement in serum have diagnostic power that is strong enough to meningitis diagnostics and monitoring of treatment. PMID:15517816

Mame?ka, Beata; Lobos, Marek; Sass-Just, Maria; Dworniak, Daniela; Urbaniak, Anna; Terlecka, Monika; Paradowski, Marek

2004-01-01

51

Molecular diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) by polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing of cerebrospinal fluids of patients  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable Angiostrongylus canto-nensis-specific antibodies (n = 10), patients with clinically suspected cases that tested negative for A. cantonensis-an-tibodies (n = 5) and patients with cerebral gnathostomiasis (n = 2) and neurocysticercosis (n = 2) were examined by a single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the AC primers for the 66-kDa native protein gene. The PCR method detected A. cantonensis DNA in CSF samples from four of 10 serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases. The PCR results were negative for the remaining CSF samples. The nucleotide sequences of three positive CSF-PCR samples shared 98.8-99.2% similarity with the reference sequence of A. cantonensis. These results indicate the potential application of this PCR assay with clinical CSF samples for additional support in the confirmation of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis.

Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Dechkum, Naowarat; Parsartvit, Anchana; Yong, Hoi Sen

2013-01-01

52

Human Guanylate Binding Protein-1 Is a Secreted GTPase Present in Increased Concentrations in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Bacterial Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Interferon-?-induced GTPases are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens. As yet, the cell interior has been regarded as the exclusive residence of these proteins. Here we show that a member of this group, human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP-1), is secreted from cells. Secretion occurred in the absence of a leader peptide via a nonclassical, likely ABC transporter-dependent, pathway, was independent of hGBP-1 GTPase activity and isoprenylation, and did not require additional interferon-?-induced factors. Interestingly, hGBP-1 was only secreted from endothelial cells but not from any of the nine different cell types tested. Clinically most important was the detection of significantly (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test) increased hGBP-1 concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bacterial meningitis (n = 32) as compared to control patients (n = 74). In this first report of a secreted GTPase, we demonstrate that secreted hGBP-1 may be a useful surrogate marker for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lubeseder-Martellato, Clara; Meyer, Nadine; Gessner, Ruth; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Gessner, Andre; Sturzl, Michael

2006-01-01

53

Daptomycin Produces an Enhanced Bactericidal Activity Compared to Ceftriaxone, Measured by [3H]Choline Release in the Cerebrospinal Fluid, in Experimental Meningitis Due to a Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococcal Strain without Lysing Its Cell Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daptomycin monotherapy was superior to ceftriaxone monotherapy and was highly efficacious in experi- mental pneumococcal meningitis, sterilizing the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of three of three rabbits after 4 to 6 h. With daptomycin therapy only a negligible release of (3H)choline as marker of cell wall lysis was detectable in the CSF, peaking around 250 cpm\\/min after 4 h, compared to

A. Stucki; M. Cottagnoud; V. Winkelmann; T. Schaffner; P. Cottagnoud

2007-01-01

54

Climate Change and Cerebrospinal Meningitis in the Ghanaian Meningitis Belt  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) is one of the infectious diseases likely to be affected by climate change. Although there are a few studies on the climate change-CSM nexus, none has considered perceptions of community members. However, understanding public perception in relation to a phenomenon is very significant for the design of effective communication and mitigation strategies as well as coping and adaptation strategies. This paper uses focus group discussions (FGDs) to fill this knowledge lacuna. Results show that although a few elderly participants ascribed fatal causes (disobedience to gods, ancestors, and evil spirits) to CSM infections during FGDs, majority of participants rightly linked CSM infections to dry, very hot and dusty conditions experienced during the dry season. Finally, community members use a suite of adaptation options to curb future CSM epidemics.

Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Nabie, Vivian Adams

2014-01-01

55

Climate change and cerebrospinal meningitis in the ghanaian meningitis belt.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) is one of the infectious diseases likely to be affected by climate change. Although there are a few studies on the climate change-CSM nexus, none has considered perceptions of community members. However, understanding public perception in relation to a phenomenon is very significant for the design of effective communication and mitigation strategies as well as coping and adaptation strategies. This paper uses focus group discussions (FGDs) to fill this knowledge lacuna. Results show that although a few elderly participants ascribed fatal causes (disobedience to gods, ancestors, and evil spirits) to CSM infections during FGDs, majority of participants rightly linked CSM infections to dry, very hot and dusty conditions experienced during the dry season. Finally, community members use a suite of adaptation options to curb future CSM epidemics. PMID:25003550

Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Nabie, Vivian Adams

2014-01-01

56

Initial Antituberculous Regimen with Better Drug Penetration into Cerebrospinal Fluid Reduces Mortality in HIV Infected Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis: Data from an HIV Observational Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Tuberculous meningitis (TM) is the deadliest form of tuberculosis. Nearly two-thirds of HIV infected patients with TM die, and most deaths occur within one month. Current treatment of TM involves the use of drugs with poor penetration into the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). In this study, we present the mortality before and after implementing a new antituberculous regimen (ATR) with a higher drug penetration in CSF than the standard ATR during the initial treatment of TM in an HIV cohort study. The new ATR included levofloxacin, ethionamide, pyrazinamide, and a double dose of rifampicin and isoniazid and was given for a median of 7 days (interquartile range 6–9). The new ATR was associated with an absolute 21.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.3–35.7) reduction in mortality at 12 months. In multivariable analysis, independent factors associated with mortality were the use of the standard ATR versus the new ATR (hazard ratio 2.05; 95% CI, 1.2–3.5), not being on antiretroviral therapy, low CD4 lymphocyte counts, and low serum albumin levels. Our findings suggest that an intensified initial ATR, which likely results in higher concentrations of active drugs in CSF, has a beneficial effect on the survival of HIV-related TM.

Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyan; Naik, Praveen Kumar

2013-01-01

57

Survival Defects of Cryptococcus neoformans Mutants Exposed to Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Result in Attenuated Virulence in an Experimental Model of Meningitis? †  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that encounters various microenvironments during growth in the mammalian host, including intracellular vacuoles, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Because the CSF is isolated by the blood-brain barrier, we hypothesize that CSF presents unique stresses that C. neoformans must overcome to establish an infection. We assayed 1,201 mutants for survival defects in growth media, saline, and human CSF. We assessed CSF-specific mutants for (i) mutant survival in both human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and fetal bovine serum (FBS), (ii) survival in macrophages, and (iii) virulence using both Caenorhabditis elegans and rabbit models of cryptococcosis. Thirteen mutants exhibited significant survival defects unique to CSF. The mutations of three of these mutants were recreated in the clinical serotype A strain H99: deletions of the genes for a cation ATPase transporter (ena1?), a putative NEDD8 ubiquitin-like protein (rub1?), and a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (pik1?). Mutant survival rates in yeast media, saline, and BAL fluid were similar to those of the wild type; however, survival in FBS was reduced but not to the levels in CSF. These mutant strains also exhibited decreased intracellular survival in macrophages, various degrees of virulence in nematodes, and severe attenuation of survival in a rabbit meningitis model. We analyzed the CSF by mass spectrometry for candidate compounds responsible for the survival defect. Our findings indicate that the genes required for C. neoformans survival in CSF ex vivo are necessary for survival and infection in this unique host environment.

Lee, Anthony; Toffaletti, Dena L.; Tenor, Jennifer; Soderblom, Erik J.; Thompson, J. Will; Moseley, M. Arthur; Price, Michael; Perfect, John R.

2010-01-01

58

Cerebrospinal fluid zinc concentrations in febrile convulsions.  

PubMed Central

Zinc modulates the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Low cerebrospinal fluid GABA values have been reported in association with several seizure disorders, including febrile convulsions. It is also known that fever and/or infections may cause a reduction in serum zinc concentrations. In this study the hypothesis that febrile convulsions are related to low cerebrospinal fluid zinc was tested. Cerebrospinal fluid zinc concentrations were measured in 66 febrile children: 32 with febrile convulsions, 18 with fever but without convulsions, and 16 with aseptic (viral) meningitis. There was no statistically significant difference in the cerebrospinal fluid zinc between the three groups of children, and the mean concentration was 26.2 micrograms/l. No significant relationship was found between either age, gender, maximal temperature, type of infection, or time of performance of the lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid zinc concentration. These results do not support the hypothesis that febrile convulsions are related to reduced cerebrospinal fluid zinc concentrations.

Garty, B Z; Olomucki, R; Lerman-Sagie, T; Nitzan, M

1995-01-01

59

Apolipoproteins in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed Central

The presence of apolipoproteins A-I, E, C-II, and C-III and the absence of apolipoprotein B was demonstrated in human cerebrospinal fluid. The concentration of apolipoproteins was measured by electroimmunoassay. Apolipoproteins E, C-II, and C-III were present in cerebrospinal fluid at 3--5% of their concentration in plasma; the cerebrospinal fluid level of apolipoprotein A-I was 0.4%. Most of the cerebrospinal fluid apolipoproteins were present in the rho less than 1.21 g/ml lipoprotein fraction. The major apolipoporteins of cerebrospinal fluid are E and A-I. The possible mechanism of transfer and the physiological and pathophysiological role of apolipoproteins in cerebrospinal fluid are postulated. Images

Roheim, P S; Carey, M; Forte, T; Vega, G L

1979-01-01

60

Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt technology has undergone rapid advances in the past two decades. As a result, pediatricians and other primary care physicians are being asked with increasing frequency to provide care for persons with CSF shunts. Familiarity with the more common shunts is a prerequisite to intelligent management of shunt related problems. Physicians providing daily care must have carefully documented hospital records and operative notes available to them as well as information detailing the safe evaluation of shunt patency and function if they are to manage patients with CSF shunts properly. In addition, parents and guardians must be alerted to signs and symptoms related to shunt malfunction. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 7.Figure 8.

Sells, Clifford J.; Shurtleff, David B.

1977-01-01

61

Short Communication Usefulness of Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Diagnosis of Echovirus Aseptic Meningitis Using Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) was used to diagnose echovirus infection and the results were compared to those obtained with the viral culture rate. Cerebro- spinal fluid (CSF) from a total of 40 aseptic meningitis patients was used. Positive CSF samples, determined by viral culture (n = 29), contained significantly higher echovirus genome copy numbers (mean, 329

Tsuguto Fujimoto; Hiroyuki Izumi; Nobuhiko Okabe; Miki Enomoto; Masami Konagaya; Masatsugu Chikahira; Tetsuya Munemura; Kiyosu Taniguchi

62

Pseudoepiphora from cerebrospinal fluid leak: case report.  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old tearing child with obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct was treated with dacryocystorhinostomy three years after naso-orbital injury. However, what appeared to be tearing persisted, and meningitis developed. Coronal CT scans demonstrated traumatic encephalocele of the posterior superior orbital roof. A chronic orbital cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak was diagnosed. To our knowledge no case of chronic CSF leak has been reported that simulated tearing in an otherwise asymptomatic child. In the tearing patient who has a naso-orbital fracture the possibility of chronic CSF leak should be considered. Images

Dryden, R M; Wulc, A E

1986-01-01

63

Cerebrospinal fluid GABA levels in various neurological and psychiatric diseases.  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid gamma-aminobutyric acid (CSF-GABA) was analysed by radioreceptor assay in 16 normal controls and 84 patients with various neurological and psychiatric diseases. In patients with spinocerebellar degeneration, neuro-Behçet's syndrome and Parkinson's disease, CSF-GABA levels were decreased. On the other hand, increased CSF-GABA levels were detected in patients with meningitis.

Kuroda, H; Ogawa, N; Yamawaki, Y; Nukina, I; Ofuji, T; Yamamoto, M; Otsuki, S

1982-01-01

64

LDH isoenzymes in cerebrospinal fluid in various brain tumours.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the isoenzymatic pattern of LDH in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as the ratio between the five fractions of LDH among patients with various brain tumours, carcinomatous meningitis and control groups. LDH 1/LDH 2 less than 1 was found significant for carcinomatous meningitis (p less than 0.001) and brain metastases (p less than 0.001). LDH 1/LDH 2 ratio was found to be significantly lower in carcinomatous meningitis than in brain metastases (p less than 0.05). No LDH 1/LDH 2 ratios smaller than 1 were found in the other groups. The LDH 1/LDH 2 ratio smaller than 1 was found in the early stage of carcinomatous meningitis without other evidences of the involvement of the leptomeninges. Examination of LDH 1/LDH 2 can be found as an adjunctive method to identify brain metastases and carcinomatous meningitis at the initial stage.

Lampl, Y; Paniri, Y; Eshel, Y; Sarova-Pinhas, I

1990-01-01

65

Development of a Nested PCR for Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of a nested-PCR-based assay for the detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid. The specificity and sensitivity of the test were assessed. The technique was then applied to 40 cerebrospinal fluid samples. We obtained positive reactions for all 21 clinical samples from patients who had been previously diagnosed as having cryptococcal meningitis by conventional techniques and

PAOLA RAPPELLI; RICCARDO ARE; GIUSEPPE CASU; PIER LUIGI FIORI; PIERO CAPPUCCINELLI; ANTONIO ACETI

1998-01-01

66

Aetiological agents of cerebrospinal meningitis: a retrospective study from a teaching hospital in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Background Meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings. In sub-Saharan Africa, the meningitis belt has been characterized by particularly high and seasonal incidences of bacterial meningitis extending throughout life. Despite the progress being made in treating the condition, the mortality rates continue to be high, ranging between 2% and 30% globally. In Ghana, the mortality rate of meningitis has been estimated to range from 36% to 50%. However little information is available on the pathogens contributing to meningitis and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Updated information is essential to adjust the recommendations for empirical treatment or prevention of meningitis which could have immense implications for local and global health. Methods We retrospectively reviewed laboratory records of all patients suspected of bacterial meningitis who underwent a lumbar puncture from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Data were retrieved from laboratory record books and double entered into a Microsoft® excel spreadsheet. Results Records of 4,955 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed. Of these, 163 (3.3%, 95%CI: 2.8% to 3.8%) were confirmed meningitis and 106 (2.1%, 95%CI: 1.7% to 2.6%) were probable meningitis cases. Confirmed meningitis cases were made up of 117 (71.8%) culture positive bacteria, 19 (11.7%) culture positive Cryptococcus neoformans and 27(16.6%) Gram positive bacteria with negative culture. The most prevalent bacteria was Streptococcus pneumoniae 91 (77.7%), followed by E.coli 4 (3.4%), Salmonella species 4 (3.4%), Neisseria meningitidis 3 (2.5%), Pseudomonas species 3(2.5%) and others. Pneumococcal isolates susceptibility to penicillin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone were 98.9% (95%CI: 94.0% to 100.0%), 83.0% (95%CI: 73.4% to 90.1%) and 100.0% (95%CI: 95.8% to 100.0%) respectively. Conclusion Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of meningitis among all age groups and its susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone still remains very high. Ghanaians of all ages and possibly other developing countries in the meningitis belt could benefit from the use of the pneumococcal vaccine. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens should also be considered in the management of patients presenting with meningitis.

2012-01-01

67

Proteomics of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been performed for over 100 years. Since CSF is in direct contact with\\u000a the extracellular surface of the brain, the biochemical composition of this fluid is altered in disorders related to the central\\u000a nervous system. Hence, it is of great interest to investigate thoroughly the human CSF proteome, to identify proteins, and\\u000a to

Margareta Ramström; Jonas Bergquist

68

Human cytomegalovirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed Central

To determine the involvement of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in conditions of neurological impairment, detection of CMV DNA was attempted in cerebrospinal fluid obtained from 45 neurologically affected children aged from 1 month to 17 years by means of the polymerase chain reaction. Four patients (congenital CMV encephalopathy with West's syndrome, acute encephalitis, chronic epileptic encephalopathy, and lissencephaly) had CMV DNA in their cerebrospinal fluid. CMV DNA was absent in the cerebrospinal fluid of 11 neurologically unaffected controls aged from 1 month to 11 years. Three patients with acute CMV hepatitis had no CMV DNA in their cerebrospinal fluid. Among the four patients who had CMV DNA in their cerebrospinal fluid, two did not excrete CMV DNA or CMV antigen in the urine. The possible pathogenetic significance of CMV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid is discussed. By applying the polymerase chain reaction to cerebrospinal fluid, the mode of brain invasion by CMV can be clarified further. Images

Kohyama, J; Kajiwara, M; Shimohira, M; Iwakawa, Y; Okawa, H

1994-01-01

69

Infections in cerebrospinal fluid shunts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial colonization of cerebrospinal fluid shunts is a cause of significant morbidity, causing not only shunt malfunction\\u000a and chronic ill-health but has also been implicated in an immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Almost all shunt colonizations\\u000a involve Staphylococcus albus which gains access to the shunt during surgery and grows in microcolonies inside the shunt. The\\u000a most reliable means of diagnosis at present is

Prashant Upadhyaya

1985-01-01

70

Cerebrospinal fluid penetration of tigecycline.  

PubMed

We report, in a clinical setting, the tigecycline concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) - both in blood and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - of a patient with a ventriculo-atrial shunt infection. Tigecycline weakly penetrates CSF the CSF-to-serum concentration ratio was 0.079 and CSF-to-serum AUC(0-12) ratio was 0.067. PMID:24131423

Pallotto, Carlo; Fiorio, Maurizio; D'Avolio, Antonio; Sgrelli, Alessio; Baldelli, Franco; Di Perri, Giovanni; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio

2014-01-01

71

[Diagnosis of spinal diseases by cerebrospinal fluid examination].  

PubMed

In this work, changes in the cerebrospinal fluid in acute and chronic polyneuritis as well as in the Guillan-Barré-Strohl syndrome are discussed and and it is pointed out that a specific coordination of the inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid syndromes to certain pathogens or noxae cannot be made. For the differentiation of the Guillain-Barré-Strohl syndrome and existence of increased gamma-globulin bands with identical mobility in the serum is pointed out. In myelitic disease pictures, acute and chronic cerebrospinal fluid syndromes are distinguished also in the cerebrospinal fluid according to the clinical course; regular changes, however, cannot be derived. Syphilitic cerebrospinal-fluid syndromes can easily be differentiated by their immunoactive findings. In multiple sclerosis, we distinguish between typical and atypical changes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Above all, the oligoclonal bands, i. e. the discontinuous proceeding of the gamma-globulin zone and the existence of several bands in the agar gel electrophoresis, play an essential role. In 95 per cent of the cases, oligoclonal bands can be shown. There are no greater differences with respect to oligoclonal bands between intermittent and chronic-progressive courses. For the differential diagnosis of haemorrhagic syndromes, the cerebrospinal fluid cell picture can make a considerable contribution. Macrophages loaded with erythrocytes indicate that a haemorrhage occurred 12 to 18 hours before; macrophages loaded with haemosiderin indicate a haemorrhage that occurred 6 to 8 days before; and macrophages loaded with erythrocytes and haemosiderin indicate a seeping haemorrhage or an event that occurred several times. The Nonne-Froin syndrome indicates a massive protein increase often with a regular or only slightly increased number of cells. The importance of the Queckenstedt tests is pointed out. A particular role is played by meningitis carcinomatosa et sarcomatosa with the demonstration of a great number of tumour cells. PMID:532463

Schmidt, R M

1979-01-01

72

Cerebrospinal otorrhea and recurring meningitis: report of three cases.  

PubMed

Recurrent attacks of meningitis occurring independent of a systemic bacterial infection should be considered as a cerebrospinal leak either otorrhea or rhinorrhea. Three cases each with a different cause were diagnosed chiefly on the basis of the history and a bulging noninflammatory eardrum. Subsequent use of fluorescein intrathecally not only helped to confirm the diagnosis but was very useful at surgery in locating the leak in the dura of the oval window of the ear. Many materials have been used but autogenous temporal fascia or fascia lata seemed to be most effective in these cases. The sandwiching of the dura between two pieces of fascia is not only realistic but was found to be very effective. One piece of fascia between the arachnoid and dura and another between the dura and bone give a tight seal. PMID:703450

Harris, H H

1978-10-01

73

A Mobile Surveillance System for Cerebrospinal Meningitis Control in Remote Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective use of specific vaccines to control epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis requires early, precise etiologic diagnosis of cases. However, since the first cases often occur in areas remote from medical laboratories; etiologic diagnosis is seldom possi...

W. R. Sanborn M. Schlumberger Y. A. Alzouma R. Triau

1981-01-01

74

Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Infections in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections of cerebrospinal fluid shunts continue to be a substantial source of mortality and morbidity in children with hydrocephalus. Although several therapeutic modalities are currently used for the treatment of shunt infections, there are no clear guidelines for treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the common pathogens of cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections and evaluate the success of

M. Turgut; D. Alabaz; F. Erbey; E. Kocabas; T. Erman; E. Alhan; N. Aksaray

2005-01-01

75

Interferon in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Children with Central Nervous System Disorders  

PubMed Central

Interferon was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 26 of 51 children with aseptic meningitis, two of 44 with bacterial meningitis, and four of 118 with miscellaneous conditions including encephalitis, convulsive disorders and leukemia with neurological involvement. The geometric mean titre of interferon in mumps meningitis was seven to eight times higher than that in enteroviral meningitis; however, levels of interferon were not related to the concentration of leukocytes in CSF from these patients. Interferon titres were relatively greater at the height of the febrile response in children with mumps meningitis or enteroviral meningitis. There was no association between the presence of interferon in the CSF and the isolation of mumps virus or an enterovirus from the same specimen. Patients frequently developed homologous antibody one to three days after signs of aseptic meningitis, obscuring the relationship of interferon production to clinical improvement.

Larke, R. P. Bryce

1967-01-01

76

[Spontaneous nerve root cerebrospinal fluid leaks and intracranial hypotension: case report].  

PubMed

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a rare syndrome, characterized by pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid ranging between 50 and 70 mmH2O and postural headache. Its diagnosis is made through the clinical presentation, measurement of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure and neurorimage features. The clinical recognition of this pathology has been increasing and the differential diagnosis must be made with inflammatory meningeal processes and tumor. We report a case of spontaneous nerve root cerebrospinal fluid leaks in a 34 year-old man and intracranial hypotension. A literature review was performed evaluating the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unusual pathology. PMID:12715038

Falavigna, Asdrubal; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Boscato, Giovana; Shimokawa, Marcos

2003-03-01

77

Cerebrospinal meningitis with the presence of Acinetobacter spp.  

PubMed

The study was conducted on 16 strains of Acinetobacter sp. which were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. The diagnostic material was analysed with the use of automatic BacT/Alert system (Organon Teknika). The analysis was performed in the Department of Microbiology, Medical University in Bydgoszcz. API 20NE system (bioMérieux) enabled the identification of 14 strains (87.5%) as A. baumannii, 1 strain as A. haemolyticus and 1 strain as A. lwoffii. The micro-organisms were isolated from patients whose age ranged between 4 and 66 years. These patients were treated in the departments of Neurosurgery (75.0%), Neurology (18.8%) and Intensive Therapy (6.2%). The infection of cerebrospinal fluid was caused by injury and subsequent exposure to the bacteria present in external environment. Antibiotic-sensitivity of these micro-organisms was evaluated with the help of disc-diffusion method, observing standardisation conditions outlined by NCCLS. All the strains proved sensitive to carbapenems, 15 strains were sensitive to netilmicin, 7 strains--to tobramycin and 7 strains--to amikacin. All the strains displayed multiple resistance. The only exception was A. haemolyticus. The use of two-discs allowed for the detection of ESBLs in 7 A. baumannii strains. Positive results were most frequently obtained after the combination of sublactam and aztreonam. Due to microscopic resemblance between Acinetobacter spp., and bacteria of Neisseria, Moraxella and Haemophilus genus, microbiological diagnostics should not be restricted to microscopic assessment of cerebrospinal fluid and quick serological tests evaluating the antigens of the most frequent aetiological factors. Considering multiple resistance of Acinetobacter spp. to antibiotics, the treatment should be based on sensitivity tests and the ability of a given antibiotic to penetrate into cerebrospinal fluid. In our opinion, both reasonable antibiotic policy as well as observing the principles of hygiene and monitoring infections play equally important roles in the prevention of infections with Acinetobacter spp. Such combined measures may help to prevent the spreading of multiple resistant strains in hospital environment. PMID:11208283

Gospodarek, E; Kra?nicki, K; Zió?kowski, G; Kasprzak, H; Beuth, W

2000-01-01

78

The maze of the cerebrospinal fluid discovery.  

PubMed

The author analyzes a historical, long, and tortuous way to discover the cerebrospinal fluid. At least 35 physicians and anatomists described in the text have laid the fundamentals of recognition of this biological fluid's presence. On the basis of crucial anatomical, experimental, and clinical works there are four greatest physicians who should be considered as equal cerebrospinal fluid's discoverers: Egyptian Imhotep, Venetian Nicolo Massa, Italian Domenico Felice Cotugno, and French François Magendie. PMID:24396600

Herbowski, Leszek

2013-01-01

79

Cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Technological advances have made it possible to examine the human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a manner that was previously impossible. CSF provides a window into the changes that occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease. Through analysis of the CSF, we discern indirectly the state of health of the CNS, and correctly or incorrectly, draw conclusions regarding mechanisms of CNS injury and repair. Objective, Materials and Methods: To review the current state of knowledge of changes in the CSF in multiple sclerosis. Discussion: Establishing CSF markers that permit evaluation of the various biological processes in multiple sclerosis remains a challenge. Of all the biological processes, inflammatory markers are probably the best identified. Detection of oligoclonal immunoglobulin bands in the CSF is now established as the single most useful laboratory marker in the CSF to aid in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Markers of demyelination, remyelination, neuro-axonal loss, neural repair and regeneration, and astrogliosis are only now being recognized. A good surrogate for any of these pathophysiological processes has not been defined to date. Conclusion: The goal of future research is not only to define surrogate markers in the CSF for each of the above functions, but also to extend it to other more readily accessible body fluids like blood and urine. A synopsis of the current literature in most of these areas of CSF evaluation pertaining to multiple sclerosis is presented in this article.

Rammohan, Kottil W.

2009-01-01

80

Comparative Evaluation of Colorimetric Microtiter Plate Systems for Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, application of the PCR to the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with encephalitis and meningitis has become standard laboratory practice. However, from an operational perspective, the true diagnostic value of PCR in this setting is yet to be realized because most laboratories subject the amplification products

YI-WEI TANG; PAUL N. RYS; BARBARA J. RUTLEDGE; P. SHAWN MITCHELL; THOMAS F. SMITH; DAVID H. PERSING

1998-01-01

81

Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure and Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Eyes with normal-pressure glaucoma and those with high-pressure glaucoma can show a similar optic nerve head appearance, while eyes with vascular optic neuropathies show a markedly different optic disc appearance. Factors in addition to intraocular pressure (IOP) may thus play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Clinical and experimental studies showed that (1) physiologic associations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, systemic arterial blood pressure, IOP and body mass index exist; (2) a low CSF pressure was associated with the development of glaucomatous optic nerve damage in cats; (3) patients with normal (intraocular) pressure glaucoma had significantly lower CSF pressure and a higher trans lamina cribrosa pressure difference when compared to normal subjects; and (4) patients with normal- pressure glaucoma as compared with patients with high-pressure glaucoma have a significantly narrower orbital CSF space. A shallow orbital CSF space has been shown to be associated with a low CSF pressure. Due to anatomic reasons, the orbital CSF pressure and the optic nerve tissue pressure (and not the atmospheric pressure) form the retro-laminar counter-pressure against the IOP and are thus part of the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference and gradient. Assuming that an elevated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference and a steeper trans-lamina cribrosa pressure gradient are important for glaucomatous optic nerve damage, a low orbital CSF pressure would therefore play a role in the pathogenesis of normal-(intraocular) pressure glaucoma. Due to the association between CSF pressure and blood pressure, a low blood pressure could be indirectly involved.

Jonas, Jost B.; Wang, Ningli

2013-01-01

82

A simple kit system for rapid diagnosis of cerebrospinal meningitis in rural areas of developing countries  

PubMed Central

A simple, easily operated, portable diagnostic kit, employing coagglutination reagents, has been developed for the rapid, bedside diagnosis of cerebrospinal meningitis. Field trials using this kit were conducted in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa for identifying the etiological agents of meningitis outbreaks. West African village medical attendants were taught to use this kit and succeeded in making rapid specific diagnoses of meningitis cases. Other acute infections such as cholera and typhoid fever can also be rapidly diagnosed in a similar manner. This rapid diagnostic system offers appropriate technology in support of primary health care delivery in the rural areas of developing countries. ImagesFig. 1

Sanborn, Warren R.; Toure, Isak M.

1984-01-01

83

Clinical implications of acute cerebrospinal fluid changes following iophendylate myelography.  

PubMed

Clinical features and serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 50 patients who underwent myelography with iophendylate were studied. Forty two patients (84%) developed one or more features suggestive of meningism lasting for 2-4 days. There was significant rise in the average (mean) CSF counts from 9.81 in the premyelogram sample to 532.6 at the end of 24 hours (p less than 0.001). Both neutrophil and lymphocyte (p less than 000) count increased. At the end of one week, there was significant decrease of total cells in the CSF to 204 (p less than 0.001). Both, neutrophils and lymphocytes decreased. There was significant rise in total proteins in the 24 hours sample, but the fall at one week was not significant statistically. The sugar and chloride values did not change significantly. All CSF samples were negative for bacterial cultures. In conclusion, a significant proportion of the patients undergoing iophendylate myelography develop clinical features suggestive of meningeal irritation and change in the CSF fractions suggestive of meningitis: however these changes are transient and do not warrant institution of chemotherapy or steroids. PMID:1512716

Mehta, H J; Ramakantan, R; Piparia, D H; Hande, A M; Goel, A; Satoskar, A R; Dastur, F D

1992-01-01

84

Tegmental Defects and Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital tegmental defects that present as unsuspected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We reviewed 5 such patients to determine an optimal strategy for evaluation. Five patients presented with watery otorrhea, 4 of them after ventilation tube placement, and only 1 with rhinorrhea. The preoperative analysis of middle ear effusion for ?2-transferrin was positive in 2\\/4, equivocal

Hannu J. Valtonen; Carl A. Geyer; Edward C. Tarlov; Carl B. Heilman; Dennis S. Poe

2001-01-01

85

Extracranial repair of cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight patients with cerebrospinal fluid leaks comprise this retrospective study. There were 39 traumatic and 9 spontaneous leaks. Nine patients were initially managed with bed rest and spinal drainage, but 3 patients in this group ultimately required surgical intervention for repair of their persistent leaks. Thirty-nine patients had surgery as initial therapy, with 33 extracranial repairs, 2 intracranial repairs, and

Mark S. Persky; Stephen G. Rothstein; Stephen D. Breda; Noel L. Cohen; Paul Cooper; Joseph Ransohoff

1991-01-01

86

Beta2-Microglobulin as a Diagnostic Marker in Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Beta2-Microglobulin (?2-m) is a low molecular weight protein occurring in all body fluids. Its concentration increases in various pathologies. Increased values in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are ascribed to an activation of immune system. Using immunoturbidimetry, we examined concentrations of beta2-microglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid in a large group of 6274 patients with defined neurological diseases. Cell counts, total protein, albumin, glucose, lactic acid, immunoglobulins concentrations, and isofocusing (IEF) were also evaluated. We found substantial changes of CSF ?2-m concentrations in purulent meningitis, leptomeningeal metastasis, viral meningitis/encephalitis, and neuroborreliosis, while in multiple sclerosis these changes were not significant. Intrathecal synthesis and immune activation were present in these clinical entities. A new normative study enables better understanding of beta2-microglobulin behavior in CSF.

Svatonova, Jana; Borecka, Klara; Adam, Pavel; Lanska, Vera

2014-01-01

87

Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Colistin in Pediatric Patients?  

PubMed Central

Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of colistin were determined in patients aged 1 months to 14 years receiving intravenous colistimethate sodium (60,000 to 225,000 IU/kg of body weight/day). Only in one of five courses studied (a 14-year-old receiving 225,000 IU/kg/day) did serum concentrations exceed the 2 ?g/ml CLSI/EUCAST breakpoint defining susceptibility to colistin for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. CSF colistin concentrations were <0.2 ?g/ml but increased in the presence of meningitis (?0.5 ?g/ml or 34 to 67% of serum levels).

Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Karvanen, Matti; Iosifidis, Elias; Jansson, Britt; Plachouras, Diamantis; Cars, Otto; Roilides, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

88

Cerebrospinal fluid proteome of patients with acute Lyme disease  

PubMed Central

During acute Lyme disease, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of meningitis and other neurologic symptoms. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing a deep view into the proteome for patients diagnosed with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified differences in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. We identified 108 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease from controls. Comparison between infected patients and control subjects revealed differences in proteins in the CSF associated with cell death localized to brain synapses and others that likely originate from brain parenchyma.

Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Warren, H. Shaw

2012-01-01

89

Cerebrospinal fluid proteome of patients with acute Lyme disease.  

PubMed

During acute Lyme disease, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS), leading to the development of meningitis and other neurologic symptoms. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing a deep view into the proteome for patients diagnosed with early disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified differences in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based methods. We identified 108 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease from controls. Comparison between infected patients and control subjects revealed differences in proteins in the CSF associated with cell death localized to brain synapses and others that likely originate from brain parenchyma. PMID:22900834

Angel, Thomas E; Jacobs, Jon M; Smith, Robert P; Pasternack, Mark S; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A; Shukla, Anil; Gilmore, Edward C; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D; Warren, H Shaw

2012-10-01

90

Assessment of cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain and the spinal cord are contained in a cavity and are surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides physical\\u000a support for the brain and a cushion against external pressure. Hydrocephalus is a disease, associated with disturbances in\\u000a the CSF dynamics, which can be surgically treated by inserting a shunt or third ventriculostomy. This review describes the\\u000a physiological background,

Anders Eklund; Peter Smielewski; Iain Chambers; Noam Alperin; Jan Malm; Marek Czosnyka; Anthony Marmarou

2007-01-01

91

Cerebrospinal fluid secretion by the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus epithelium is a cuboidal cell monolayer, which produces the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid. The concerted action of a variety of integral membrane proteins mediates the transepithelial movement of solutes and water across the epithelium. Secretion by the choroid plexus is characterized by an extremely high rate and by the unusual cellular polarization of well-known epithelial transport proteins. This review focuses on the specific ion and water transport by the choroid plexus cells, and then attempts to integrate the action of specific transport proteins to formulate a model of cerebrospinal fluid secretion. Significant emphasis is placed on the concept of isotonic fluid transport across epithelia, as there is still surprisingly little consensus on the basic biophysics of this phenomenon. The role of the choroid plexus in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance in the central nervous system is discussed, and choroid plexus dysfunctions are described in a very diverse set of clinical conditions such as aging, Alzheimer's disease, brain edema, neoplasms, and hydrocephalus. Although the choroid plexus may only have an indirect influence on the pathogenesis of these conditions, the ability to modify epithelial function may be an important component of future therapies. PMID:24137023

Damkier, Helle H; Brown, Peter D; Praetorius, Jeppe

2013-10-01

92

A Case of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhoea: A Surgical Challenge  

PubMed Central

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID rhinorrhoea is defined as the leakage of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID through the nose due to communication between nasal cavity and Sub-arachnoid space. It occurs due to breach in 4 layers – mucosa of the nose and PNS, skull base, Duramater, Subarachnoid membrane. With the advent of nasal endoscope and advancement in technology, Endoscopic Endonasal closure of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID leak has reached tremendous heights due to exact localization and precise placement of graft. In this article, we are publishing a case report of Non-traumatic normal pressure CEREBROSPINAL FLUID leak of more than 1.5cm in size which was successfully closed Endoscopically by multilayered technique

R, Sumitha; Hari, P M; Kumar, S Ramya; Hariprasad, R

2013-01-01

93

Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from field cases of some common ovine neurological diseases.  

PubMed

Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from normal sheep and from cases of some common neurological diseases revealed a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in the group mean CSF protein concentration for meningitis, listeriosis and spinal abscess but not for scrapie, spinal injury, ovine pregnancy toxaemia or polioencephalomalacia. The CSF white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in the meningitis group and in those cases of listeriosis which failed to respond to antibiotic therapy. All cases of bacterial infection of the central nervous system (CNS) could be identified by the combined interpretation of the protein concentration and the differential WBC count. It is concluded that CSF analysis is useful clinically in differentiating traumatic from infective spinal lesions and toxic or metabolic lesions from bacterial meningitis in sheep. PMID:1551009

Scott, P R

1992-01-01

94

Management of meningitis in children with oral fluid restriction or intravenous fluid at maintenance volumes: a randomised trial.  

PubMed

A multi-centre randomised open trial was done to determine whether moderate oral fluid restriction or intravenous fluid at full maintenance volumes would result in a better outcome for children with bacterial meningitis in Papua New Guinea, and what clinical signs could guide fluid management. Children with clinical signs and cerebrospinal fluid suggestive of bacterial meningitis received either breast milk by nasogastric tube at 60% of normal maintenance volumes (n = 172) or intravenous half-normal saline and 5% dextrose at 100% of normal maintenance volumes (n = 174) for the 1st 48 hrs of treatment. An adverse outcome was death or severe neurological sequelae, and a good outcome was defined as intact survival or survival with at worst mild-to-moderate neurological sequelae. The probability of an adverse outcome was 24.7% in the intravenous group and 33.1% in the oral-restricted group, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR 0.75, 0.53-1.04, p = 0.08). Sunken eyes or reduced skin turgor at presentation were risk factors for an adverse outcome (OR 5.70, 95% CI 2.87-11.29) and were most strongly associated with adverse outcome in the fluid-restricted group. Eyelid oedema during treatment was also a risk factor for an adverse outcome (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.36-4.75) and eyelid oedema was much more common in the intravenous group (26%) than in the restricted group (5%). For many children with bacterial meningitis in less developed countries, moderate fluid restriction is unnecessary and will be harmful; a normal state of hydration should be achieved but over-hydration should be avoided. Giving 100% of normal maintenance fluids, especially with intravenous hypotonic fluid, will lead to oedema in up to one quarter of children with bacterial meningitis. If additional intravenous fluids are required for children with meningitis, an isotonic solution should be used. PMID:12070950

Duke, Trevor; Mokela, David; Frank, Dale; Michael, Audrey; Paulo, Theresa; Mgone, Joyce; Kurubi, Jonah

2002-06-01

95

[Management of cerebrospinal fluid fistulae: physiopathology, imaging and treatment].  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae can produce leakage through a defect in the bony skull and meninges into the contiguous air-filled cavities at the base of the skull. The major risk is central nervous system infection. When abundant clear rhinorrhea or otorrhea is present, the diagnosis is obvious and imaging is used to localize the fistula. Computed tomography (CT) with millimetric slices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most effective diagnostic tools. CT cisternography, an invasive procedure, should only be used when the diagnosis remains uncertain following CT scan and MRI. When CSF leakage is sparse or intermittent, the diagnosis can be made by measuring beta-2 transferrine in the escaping fluid. CT scan followed by MRI are also useful for making the diagnosis and locating the fistula when exterior leakage is absent. CT scan alone is effective for assessing isolated otorrhea. If the diagnosis remains uncertain after all these studies have been used, the patient should be closely followed clinically and isotopic study or surgery should be considered. PMID:15026731

Domengie, F; Cottier, J P; Lescanne, E; Aesch, B; Vinikoff-Sonier, C; Gallas, S; Herbreteau, D

2004-01-01

96

Novel Cyclovirus in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid, Malawi, 2010-2011  

PubMed Central

To identify unknown human viruses, we analyzed serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with unexplained paraplegia from Malawi by using viral metagenomics. A novel cyclovirus species was identified and subsequently found in 15% and 10% of serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively. These data expand our knowledge of cyclovirus diversity and tropism.

Zijlstra, Ed E; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Schapendonk, Claudia M.E.; Bodewes, Rogier; Schurch, Anita C.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.

2013-01-01

97

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates for Parkinsonian Disorders  

PubMed Central

The Parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression, and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha-synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in APD compared with PD and healthy controls. The new “omics” techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives.

Constantinescu, Radu; Mondello, Stefania

2013-01-01

98

A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation  

PubMed Central

According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this concept are novel insights utilizing molecular and cellular biology as well as neuroimaging, which indicate that CSF physiology may be much more complex than previously believed. The CSF circulation comprises not only a directed flow of CSF, but in addition a pulsatile to and fro movement throughout the entire brain with local fluid exchange between blood, interstitial fluid, and CSF. Astrocytes, aquaporins, and other membrane transporters are key elements in brain water and CSF homeostasis. A continuous bidirectional fluid exchange at the blood brain barrier produces flow rates, which exceed the choroidal CSF production rate by far. The CSF circulation around blood vessels penetrating from the subarachnoid space into the Virchow Robin spaces provides both a drainage pathway for the clearance of waste molecules from the brain and a site for the interaction of the systemic immune system with that of the brain. Important physiological functions, for example the regeneration of the brain during sleep, may depend on CSF circulation.

2014-01-01

99

Proteomic analysis of multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting were used to identify proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pooled from three patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in CSF pooled from three patients with non-MS inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Resolution of CSF proteins on three pH gradients (3-10, 4-7 and 6-11) enabled identification of a total of 430 spots in the MS CSF proteome that represented 61 distinct proteins. The gels containing MS CSF revealed 103 protein spots that were not seen on control gels. All but four of these 103 spots were proteins known to be present in normal human CSF. The four exceptions were: CRTAC-IB (cartilage acidic protein), tetranectin (a plasminogen-binding protein), SPARC-like protein (a calcium binding cell signalling glycoprotein), and autotaxin t (a phosphodiesterase). It remains unknown whether these four proteins are related to the cause and pathogenesis of MS. PMID:15222687

Hammack, B N; Fung, K Y C; Hunsucker, S W; Duncan, M W; Burgoon, M P; Owens, G P; Gilden, D H

2004-06-01

100

Cerebrospinal fluid leak of the fallopian canal.  

PubMed

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks from the fallopian canal are extremely rare, as only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. We describe a case of spontaneous CSF otorrhea through an enlarged geniculate fallopian canal. The patient was a 45-year-old woman who presented with a history of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea from the right ear. Myringotomy and tube insertion revealed CSF otorrhea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed that the geniculate fossa was smoothly enlarged (demonstrating remodeling of bone). A middle fossa craniotomy with temporal bone exploration was performed. Intraoperative inspection detected the presence of a fistula secondary to a lateral extension of the subarachnoid space through the labyrinthine segments of the fallopian canal. We discuss the management of this unusual finding, which involves sealing the fistula while preserving facial nerve function. PMID:23532657

Teufert, Karen B; Slattery, William H

2013-03-01

101

Imhotep and the discovery of cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. PMID:24744920

Blomstedt, Patric

2014-01-01

102

beta-Endorphin in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

beta-endorphin is a brain peptide with potent morphine-like activity structurally related to the anterior pituitary hormone beta-lipotrophin (beta-L.P.H.). We have developed a radioimmunoassay for human beta-endorphin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (C.S.F.). Since the antiserum also reacts with beta-L.P.H., beta-endorphin was distinguished by using a second antiserum which measures beta-L.P.H. alone. With these two immunoassay systems and gel chromatography, we found beta-endorphin in all 20 C.S.F. samples tested at a concentration always higher than, but with no other relationship to, that in plasma. beta-endorphin was found in C.S.F. of patients who had hypopituitarism and undetectable plasma-beta-endorphin, suggesting that it is synthesized in the brain rather in the pituitary. PMID:78323

Jeffcoate, W J; Rees, L H; McLoughlin, L; Ratter, S J; Hope, J; Lowry, P J; Besser, G M

1978-07-15

103

Case report. Isolation of Cladosporium cladosporioides from cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Cladosporium cladosporioides was isolated from three subsequent cerebrospinal fluid specimens and from a brain biopsy specimen of a human patient. Susceptibility testing of the isolate was performed against seven antifungal agents. PMID:12472729

Kantarcioglu, A S; Yücel, A; de Hoog, G S

2002-12-01

104

Fluids and Barriers of the CNS: a new journal encompassing Cerebrospinal Fluid Research  

PubMed Central

This article celebrates the re-launch of Cerebrospinal Fluid Research in its new format as Fluids and Barriers of the CNS. Editors-in Chief, Hazel Jones and Tetsuya Terasaki, anticipate that this expanded journal will provide a unique and specialist platform for the publication of research in cerebrospinal fluid and all brain barriers and fluid systems in both health and disease.

2011-01-01

105

Ouabain-like activity in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed Central

Human cerebrospinal fluid has been found to mimic the effect of ouabain on net Na+ efflux and 86Rb+ influx across erythrocyte membranes and on the in vitro activity of a purified Na+/K+-ATPase (ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3) derived from canine kidney. These results indicate the possible existence in human cerebrospinal fluid of an endogenous factor with ouabain-like activity, which might be linked to sodium metabolism.

Halperin, J; Schaeffer, R; Galvez, L; Malave, S

1983-01-01

106

Cerebrospinal Fluid Penetration and Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin Administered by Continuous Infusion to Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration and the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin were studied after contin- uous infusion (50 to 60 mg\\/kg of body weight\\/day after a loading dose of 15 mg\\/kg) in 13 mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Seven patients were treated for a sensitive bacterial meningitis and the other six patients, who had a severe concomitant neurologic

JACQUES ALBANESE; MARC LEONE; BERNARD BRUGUEROLLE; MARIE-LAURE AYEM; BRUNO LACARELLE; CLAUDE MARTIN

2000-01-01

107

Clinical Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Amplified Direct Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Organisms in Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from different children who presented with signs and symp- toms of meningitis were evaluated for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms by the Gen- Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD; Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.). All CSF samples had negative acid-fast smears by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. M. tuberculosis was recovered from five samples.

ANNE M. LANG; JESUS FERIS-IGLESIAS; CHABELA PENA; JACQUELINE F. SANCHEZ; LESLIE STOCKMAN; PAUL RYS; GLENN D. ROBERTS; NANCY K. HENRY; DAVID H. PERSING; FRANKLIN R. COCKERILL; Robert Reid

1998-01-01

108

Vitamin E (tocopherols) in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood were obtained at the time of myelographic examinations from 40 adult, male, human subjects with no neurologic or metabolic abnormalities. Vitamin E (tocopherols) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography. In subjects with normal concentrations of CSF protein (n = 22), the alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations were 29.2 +/- 9.5 (mean +/- SD) and 6.5 +/- 3.6 nmol/L, respectively, in CSF and 26.0 +/- 8.1 and 6.0 +/- 3.6 mumol/L, respectively, in serum. The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in CSF correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with both total protein and albumin concentrations, suggesting that tocopherol transport into CSF is linked with that of plasma proteins. In vitro oxidation of vitamin E in CSF by the free-radical generator 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride showed a measurable induction (lag) period. This is due to the presence of other antioxidants in human CSF. PMID:1984352

Vatassery, G T; Nelson, M J; Maletta, G J; Kuskowski, M A

1991-01-01

109

Molecular Mechanisms of Cerebrospinal Fluid Production  

PubMed Central

The epithelial cells of the choroid plexuses secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), by a process which involves the transport of Na+, Cl- and HCO3- from the blood to the ventricles of the brain. The unidirectional transport of ions is achieved due to the polarity of the epithelium, i.e. the ion transport proteins in the blood-facing (basolateral) membrane are different to those in the ventricular (apical) membrane. The movement of ions creates an osmotic gradient which drives the secretion of H2 O. A variety of methods (e.g. isotope flux studies, electrophysiological, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry) have been used to determine the expression of ion transporters and channels in the choroid plexus epithelium. Most of these transporters have now been localized to specific membranes. For example, Na+-K+ ATPase, K+ channels and Na+-2Cl--K+ cotransporters are expressed in the apical membrane. By contrast the basolateral membrane contains Cl--HCO3 exchangers, a variety of Na+ coupled HCO3- transporters and K+-Cl- cotransporters. Aquaporin 1 mediates water transport at the apical membrane, but the route across the basolateral membrane is unknown. A model of CSF secretion by the mammalian choroid plexus is proposed which accommodates these proteins. The model also explains the mechanisms by which K+ is transported from the CSF to the blood.

BROWN, P. D.; DAVIES, S. L.; SPEAKE, T.; MILLAR, I. D.

2006-01-01

110

Cerebrospinal fluid gusher in cochlear implantation.  

PubMed

Objectives To share our experience of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gusher in cochlear implantation. Methods Demographic, radiological, and surgical results of patients with CSF gusher in 523 consecutive cochlear implant recipients including children and adults as well as our management technique were evaluated and a review of the literature has been included. Results Fifteen (2.87%) cases had CSF gusher. Two patients (13.3%) were adults with post-lingual hearing loss and the rest 12 (86.7%) were children with congenital hearing loss. Twelve patients (80%) had various types of inner ear malformation. Three patients (20%) had no predictable risk of CSF gusher from history or pre-operative imaging. In all patients, CSF gushers were controlled with our technique of packing the electrode entrance site with no additional measures. Conclusion CSF gusher may occur with post-lingual hearing loss and in children with apparently unremarkable imaging and history. Thus, surgeons should always be ready to manage it. Management of CSF gusher can be mainly performed during the initial surgery by precise tight packing of the electrode entrance site. Furthermore, non-surgical or surgical measures are rarely required to stop a persistent leak. Our results show that our management technique may be recommended as well. PMID:24660749

Eftekharian, Ali; Amizadeh, Maryam

2014-05-01

111

Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid ?40 Is Decreased in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy  

PubMed Central

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is caused by deposition of the amyloid ? protein in the cerebral vasculature. In analogy to previous observations in Alzheimer disease, we hypothesized that analysis of amyloid ?40 and ?42 proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid might serve as a molecular biomarker. We observed strongly decreased cerebrospinal fluid amyloid ?40 (p < 0.01 vs controls or Alzheimer disease) and amyloid ?42 concentrations (p < 0.001 vs controls and p < 0.05 vs Alzheimer disease) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy patients. The combination of amyloid ?42 and total tau discriminated cerebral amyloid angiopathy from controls, with an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.98. Our data are consistent with neuropathological evidence that amyloid ?40 as well as amyloid ?42 protein are selectively trapped in the cerebral vasculature from interstitial fluid drainage pathways that otherwise transport amyloid ? proteins toward the cerebrospinal fluid.

Verbeek, Marcel M.; Kremer, Berry P. H.; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; van Domburg, Peter H. M. F.; Skehan, Maureen E.; Greenberg, Steven M.

2013-01-01

112

Counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid collected directly on membrane filters  

PubMed Central

Accurate enumeration of cells in the cerebrospinal fluid is not feasible with the current method of counting cells in the Fuchs Rosenthal or Neubauer chamber when the count is near normal since the volume of fluid examined is too small. A sample of adequate volume to permit such accurate assessment may be collected from the lumbar puncture needle into a syringe through a ruled membrane filter in a Swinney cartridge. A study of 291 samples shows that the upper limit of the normal cerebrospinal fluid count is 2000 cells/ml (2/cmm) and not 5000/ml (5/cmm) as is currently accepted. Images

Burechailo, F.; Cunningham, T. A.

1974-01-01

113

Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands in childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus.  

PubMed

Oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid reflect local B-cell responses associated with various neuroinflammatory disorders. In opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, cerebrospinal fluid B-cell expansion was demonstrated, but no studies of oligoclonal bands are available. In a prospective case-control study of 132 children (103 with opsoclonus-myoclonus, 29 neurologic control subjects), cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands, measured by isoelectric focusing with immunofixation, were observed in 35% with opsoclonus-myoclonus and none of the control subjects, with the highest frequency in severe cases (56%). In oligoclonal band-positive patients, the mean band number was 5 ± 3 S.D. (range, 2-10) and the total severity score was significantly higher than in band-negative patients, whereas the frequency of CD19(+) B cells, opsoclonus-myoclonus duration, neuroblastoma detection, and relapse history did not differ. The cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G synthesis rate, immunoglobulin index, and Q albumin were normal. In 17 untreated children receiving adrenocorticotropic hormone, intravenous immunoglobulins, and rituximab, the number of oligoclonal band-positive decreased by 75%, and the mean band count fell by 80%. Oligoclonal band detection adds useful information to neuroimmunologic "staging" in opsoclonus-myoclonus. However, flow cytometry provides a more sensitive measure of B-cell infiltration. Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands warrant monitoring in long-term follow-up studies of disease-modifying drugs for opsoclonus-myoclonus. PMID:21723456

Pranzatelli, Michael R; Slev, Patricia R; Tate, Elizabeth D; Travelstead, Anna L; Colliver, Jerry A; Joseph, Suja Anne

2011-07-01

114

Primary leptomeningeal melanocytosis presenting as chronic meningitis.  

PubMed

We report a patient with primary leptomeningeal melanocytosis presenting as chronic meningitis. A previously healthy 27-year-old man presented with 2 months of severe headaches and photophobia. A lumbar puncture was notable for a highly elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level without pleocytosis. Imaging at the time of admission suggested only meningitis without the presence of parenchymal lesions. On the basis of the CSF findings, early meningeal biopsy was performed, leading to the diagnosis of a meningeal melanocytic neoplasm. Early meningeal biopsy should be considered in patients with meningitis when the CSF profile suggests the possibility of a central nervous system neoplasm. PMID:24355206

Honigberg, Michael C; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Cohen, Yehuda Z

2014-06-01

115

Characterization of Transferrin Glycopeptide Structures in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Transferrin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exists as a mixture of silao and asialo glycoforms believed to originate from liver and brain respectively. We have previously shown that alteration in the asialo glycoform pattern could be an indication of certain anomalies in the central nervous system. Additionally, CSF asialo-transferrin has been shown to be a reliable marker to assess cerebrospinal leakage in head trauma. Therefore, the CSF transferrin glycoform pattern could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic tool. In this study we sought to characterize, in-depth, the transferrin glycovariants in cerebrospinal fluid using a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high precision mass spectrometry analysis. Cerebrospinal fluid transferrin was detected as multiple spots (seven major spots) with different isoelectric points and slight shift in apparent molecular mass. High resolution (>60,000) and high accuracy (< 3 ppm error) mass spectrometry analysis revealed that each spot had a unique glycopeptide signature. MSn analysis enabled characterization of the glycan structure directly from the in-gel digested spots. The multiple spots detected for cerebrospinal fluid transferrin were mainly due to heterogeneity of di-antennary and tri-antennary glycans harboring a varying number of terminal N-acetylneuraminic acids and the existence of a high mannose and high N-acetylhexosamine glycosylated species.

Brown, Kristy J.; Vanderver, Adeline; Hoffman, Eric P.; Schiffmann, Raphael; Hathout, Yetrib

2011-01-01

116

Characterization of Transferrin Glycopeptide Structures in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.  

PubMed

Transferrin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exists as a mixture of silao and asialo glycoforms believed to originate from liver and brain respectively. We have previously shown that alteration in the asialo glycoform pattern could be an indication of certain anomalies in the central nervous system. Additionally, CSF asialo-transferrin has been shown to be a reliable marker to assess cerebrospinal leakage in head trauma. Therefore, the CSF transferrin glycoform pattern could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic tool. In this study we sought to characterize, in-depth, the transferrin glycovariants in cerebrospinal fluid using a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high precision mass spectrometry analysis. Cerebrospinal fluid transferrin was detected as multiple spots (seven major spots) with different isoelectric points and slight shift in apparent molecular mass. High resolution (>60,000) and high accuracy (< 3 ppm error) mass spectrometry analysis revealed that each spot had a unique glycopeptide signature. MS(n) analysis enabled characterization of the glycan structure directly from the in-gel digested spots. The multiple spots detected for cerebrospinal fluid transferrin were mainly due to heterogeneity of di-antennary and tri-antennary glycans harboring a varying number of terminal N-acetylneuraminic acids and the existence of a high mannose and high N-acetylhexosamine glycosylated species. PMID:22408387

Brown, Kristy J; Vanderver, Adeline; Hoffman, Eric P; Schiffmann, Raphael; Hathout, Yetrib

2012-02-15

117

Traumatic Lumbar Punctures in Neonates: Test Performance of the Cerebrospinal Fluid White Blood Cell Count  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings are often used to diagnose meningitis in neonates given antibiotics before the lumbar puncture is performed. Traumatic lumbar punctures are common and complicate interpretation of CSF white blood cell counts. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of adjusting CSF white blood cell counts based on CSF and peripheral red blood cell counts. Methods Cohort study of lumbar punctures performed between 1997 and 2004 at 150 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical group. Traumatic lumbar punctures were defined as CSF specimens with ?500 red blood cells/mm3. CSF white blood cell counts were adjusted downward for traumatic lumbar punctures using several commonly used methods. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of unadjusted and adjusted CSF white blood cell counts for predicting meningitis in neonates with traumatic lumbar punctures. Results Of 6,374 lumbar punctures, 2,519 (39.5%) were traumatic. 114/6,374 (1.8%) were positive for meningitis; 50 neonates with traumatic lumbar punctures had meningitis. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for white blood cell count unadjusted and adjusted by all methods were similar. Conclusions Adjustment of CSF white blood cell counts to account for increased red cells does not improve diagnostic utility. Adjustment can result in loss of sensitivity with marginal gain in specificity. Adjustment of WBC counts in the setting of a traumatic lumbar puncture does not aid in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal meningitis in neonates.

Greenberg, Rachel G.; Smith, P. Brian; Cotton, C. Michael; Moody, M. Anthony; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.

2009-01-01

118

Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... One form of bacterial meningitis is related to Lyme disease . Lyme meningitis is generally less severe than other ... Hand Washing Why Should I Care About Germs? Lyme Disease Spinal Tap Contact Us Print Additional resources Send ...

119

Modified latex agglutination test for rapid detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae in cerebrospinal fluid and direct serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

A modified latex agglutination test was designed and evaluated for the rapid detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae type b capsular antigens, and for direct serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the cerebrospinal fluid. Reagents were prepared by sensitizing latex particles with Omniserum (against 83 capsular serotypes of pneumococci) and Haemophilus influenzae type b burro antiserum. For serotyping reagents, latex particles were similarly coated with nine pneumococcal pool (a to I) antisera and 46 individual pneumococcal serogroup/serotype specific antisera. The test was performed on cerebrospinal fluid from 298 patients with suspected meningitis. Serotyping was done directly on untreated cerebrospinal fluid samples showing positive reactions with the Omniserum reagent. Pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens were detected in 41 patients; in 32 of these the etiology was established by culture and in 2 by smear examination. Five of the remaining seven cases were judged clinically and by cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid to have partially treated bacterial meningitis. In two cases the test was false positive. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the latex agglutination test for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens was 100% and 96.8% respectively. The commonest pneumococcal serotypes were type 1 (30%), types 6 and 19 (10% each). The latex agglutination test is rapid and simple to perform, yielding serotype data directly by testing of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:8839641

Singhal, A; Lalitha, M K; John, T J; Thomas, K; Raghupathy, P; Jacob, S; Steinhoff, M C

1996-06-01

120

Transnasal endoscopic treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leak: 17 years' experience  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim of this report is to describe the long-term results of endoscopic endonasal repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak using a septal mucoperichondrial graft. A case series of 52 patients operated for cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea between 1990 and 2006 is presented. All patients underwent surgical treatment for endoscopic endonasal closure of a cerebrospinal fluid leak using a septal mucoperichondrial graft. No lumbar drain and fluorescein tests were used. The intra-operative localization of the fistula was aided by Valsalva’s manoeuvre by the anaesthetist. The success rate, after the first attempt, was 88.5% (46/52 patients); for the remaining 11.5% (6/52 patients), a second attempt was necessary which proved successful in 5 cases, raising the overall success rate to 98.1% (51/52 patients). Relapse occurred in only one case (1.9%), after the second attempt. In conclusion, a free mucoperichondrial graft offered good results for cerebrospinal fluid leak repair. In the Authors’ experience, a high success rate can be achieved without the use of intrathecal fluorescein and lumbar drain.

Presutti, L; Mattioli, F; Villari, D; Marchioni, D; Alicandri-Ciufelli, M

2009-01-01

121

Cerebrospinal fluid findings in Devic’s neuromyelitis optica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relapsing Devic’s neuromyelitis optica (DNO) may be clinically undistinguishable from multiple sclerosis (MS), thus the differential diagnosis relies mainly on neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings. We studied CSF samples from 44 patients with DNO submitted to at least one lumbar puncture. Pleocytosis, IgG synthesis and blood brain barrier damage were the most frequent abnormalities, pleocytosis being very suggestive of

M. Zaffaroni

2004-01-01

122

Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentrations of Linezolid in Neurosurgical Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linezolid is a new antimicrobial agent effective against drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens commonly responsible for central nervous system (CNS) infections in neurosurgical patients hospitalized in intensive care units. In order to study the penetration of this antimicrobial into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of such patients, the disposition of linezolid in serum and CSF was studied in 14 neurosurgical patients given linezolid

Pavlos Myrianthefs; Sophia L. Markantonis; Konstantinos Vlachos; Maria Anagnostaki; Eleni Boutzouka; Dimitris Panidis; Georgios Baltopoulos

2006-01-01

123

Cerebrospinal Fluid Nitrate Levels in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) could be implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently, two groups reported increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nitrate levels (oxidation product that provides an indirect estimation of NO) in MS patients. However, another group did not confirm these findings. We studied the CSF and plasma levels of nitrate with a kinetic

Fernando de Bustos; José Antonio Navarro; Clara de Andrés; José Antonio Molina; Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez; Miguel Ortí-Pareja; Teresa Gasalla; Antonio Tallón-Barranco; Antonio Martínez-Salio; Joaquín Arenas

1999-01-01

124

Repair of traumatic cerebrospinal fluid leaks using tissue adhesives.  

PubMed

14 cases of post-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid leaks, sealed with tissue adhesives and fascia, or galea, are reported. None of the patients had recurrence in a follow-up ranging from five months to three years. Tissue adhesives provided a tough adhesion of the patch and, as a consequence, an immediate and stable repair of the leak. PMID:1223246

Rocca, A; Turtas, S

1975-01-01

125

Ureaplasma urealyticum Meningitis in an Adult Patient?  

PubMed Central

A 38-year-old patient developed meningitis after a complicated kidney transplantation and organ rejection. Ureaplasma urealyticum was identified as the etiological agent by molecular and microbiological analyses of the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was successfully treated with doxycycline and chloramphenicol. This is the first report of Ureaplasma urealyticum meningitis in an adult.

Gei?dorfer, Walter; Sandner, Gunter; John, Stefan; Gessner, Andre; Schoerner, Christoph; Schroppel, Klaus

2008-01-01

126

Bacteroides fragilis meningitis.  

PubMed

Bacteroides fragilis is an obligate anaerobic bacillus residing in the normal intestinal flora of the colon. Anaerobic bacterial meningitis due to this pathogen is rarely diagnosed and if present, a predisposing source of infection should be actively sought for. Anaerobic cultures of cerebrospinal fluids should be done for patients with meningitis, especially those with concomitant pathologies that predispose to anaerobic infections. Two cases of anaerobic meningitis due to Bacteroides fragilis, one associated with cholesteotoma and the other with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, are reported. Both were successfully treated with metronidazole. PMID:7997905

Ngan, C C; Tan, A L

1994-06-01

127

Arachnoid cysts do not contain cerebrospinal fluid: A comparative chemical analysis of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid in adults  

PubMed Central

Background Arachnoid cyst (AC) fluid has not previously been compared with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the same patient. ACs are commonly referred to as containing "CSF-like fluid". The objective of this study was to characterize AC fluid by clinical chemistry and to compare AC fluid to CSF drawn from the same patient. Such comparative analysis can shed further light on the mechanisms for filling and sustaining of ACs. Methods Cyst fluid from 15 adult patients with unilateral temporal AC (9 female, 6 male, age 22-77y) was compared with CSF from the same patients by clinical chemical analysis. Results AC fluid and CSF had the same osmolarity. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium or glucose. We found significant elevated concentration of phosphate in AC fluid (0.39 versus 0.35 mmol/L in CSF; p = 0.02), and significantly reduced concentrations of total protein (0.30 versus 0.41 g/L; p = 0.004), of ferritin (7.8 versus 25.5 ug/L; p = 0.001) and of lactate dehydrogenase (17.9 versus 35.6 U/L; p = 0.002) in AC fluid relative to CSF. Conclusions AC fluid is not identical to CSF. The differential composition of AC fluid relative to CSF supports secretion or active transport as the mechanism underlying cyst filling. Oncotic pressure gradients or slit-valves as mechanisms for generating fluid in temporal ACs are not supported by these results.

2010-01-01

128

Leptomeningeal gliomatosis with high levels of adenosine deaminase in the cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old man developed disturbance of consciousness for 2 weeks. He showed neck stiffness and hyporeflexia. Analysis of his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed pleocytosis and markedly reduced glucose contents. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in the CSF were elevated (28.8 IU/l). Brain magnetic resonance imagings showed enhancement of the leptomeninges. Tuberculous meningitis was considered, but antituberculous drug was not effective. Repeated cytological analysis of the CSF demonstrated atypical cells with enlarged unevenly distributed nuclei and immunoreactive with glial fibrillary acidic protein. We diagnosed him as leptomeningeal gliomatosis. CSF ADA may be elevated in this rare disorder, and here we emphasize that repeated cytological analysis with immunohistochemical staining was useful for diagnosis. PMID:24807273

Nishihara, Hideaki; Omoto, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Jun-Ichi; Koga, Michiaki; Kawai, Motoharu; Kanda, Takashi

2014-01-01

129

Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak after septoplasty: A potential complication of occult anterior skull base encephalocele  

PubMed Central

Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea after septoplasty is a known entity resulting from errors in surgical technique and improper handling of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. When these occur, urgent management is necessary to prevent deleterious sequelae such as meningitis, intracranial abscess, and pneumocephalus. Encephaloceles are rare occurrences characterized by herniation of intracranial contents through a skull base defect that can predispose patients to CSF rhinorrhea. In this report, we present a case of CSF rhinorrhea occurring 2 weeks after septoplasty likely from manipulation of an occult anterior skull base encephalocele. To our knowledge, no previous similar case has been reported in the literature. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the possibility of occult encephaloceles while performing septoplasties because minimal manipulation of these entities may potentially result in postoperative CSF leakage.

Soni, Resha S.; Choudhry, Osamah J.; Liu, James K.

2013-01-01

130

Fluid restriction does not improve the outcome of acute meningitis.  

PubMed

The objective of this prospective study was to examine the effect of fluid restriction on body water and the outcome of children with acute meningitis. Fifty consecutively hospitalized children with acute meningitis, divided into two groups (A, without hyponatremia; and B, with hyponatremia), were randomly assigned to receive either normal maintenance (M) or restricted (R subgroup) (65 to 70% of M subgroup) fluids during the first 48 hours. Total body water, extracellular water (ECW), serum and urinary sodium and plasma and urinary osmolality were measured at admission and after 48 hours. In both groups children receiving restricted fluids showed a significant decrease in the mean total body water and ECW whereas body water remained unchanged in those on maintenance fluids. Children having an ECW reduction of 10 ml/kg or more in 48 hours had a significantly lower intact survival (10 of 28, 36%) than those with < 10 ml/kg or no reduction of ECW (15 of 22, 64%) (P < 0.05). The mortality was also higher in the former (7 of 28, 25%) than in the latter (2 of 22, 9%). On multiple stepwise regression analysis, ECW volume at admission (partial r2 0.20), ECW loss in 48 hours (partial r2 0.13) and plasma osmolality at admission (partial r2 0.22) were significantly related to outcome. We conclude that fluid restriction does not improve the outcome of acute meningitis. Indeed a decrease in ECW volume at 48 hours increases the likelihood of adverse outcome. PMID:7667054

Singhi, S C; Singhi, P D; Srinivas, B; Narakesri, H P; Ganguli, N K; Sialy, R; Walia, B N

1995-06-01

131

Chronic and recurrent meningitis.  

PubMed

Chronic meningitis is defined as the persistence of clinical symptoms and signs of meningitis, with or without abnormal cerebrospinal fluid, for more than four weeks. In as many as one third of cases, no cause is found. In the remainder, infective, neoplastic and so-called aseptic disorders may be identified. Important infective causes include partially treated bacterial (pyogenic), tuberculous, syphilitic, Lyme and fungal meningitis. Sarcoidosis, Behçet's disease, vasculitis and drugs are major non-infective, non-malignant causes. The definitive diagnosis of the cause of chronic meningitis may be made only after extensive investigation. This review describes the clinical features and causes of chronic and recurrent meningitis, and provides an algorithm for investigation and treatment. PMID:19015295

Ginsberg, L; Kidd, D

2008-12-01

132

A new look at cerebrospinal fluid movement  

PubMed Central

Brinker et al. extensively reviewed recent findings about CSF circulation in a recent article: “A new look at cerebrospinal circulation”, but did not analyze some important available data in sufficient detail. For example, our findings as well as some clinical data and experimental results obtained from different animal species, do not support unidirectional CSF circulation but strongly suggest that there are cardiac cycle-dependent systolic-diastolic to-and-fro cranio-spinal CSF movements. These are based on: a) physiological oscillations of arterial and venous blood during cranio-spinal blood circulation; b) respiratory activity, and c) body activity and posture. That kind of complex CSF movement could explain the observed distribution of many different substances in all directions along the CSF system and within central nervous system tissue. It seems that efflux transport systems at capillary endothelium may be more important for brain homeostasis than the removal of metabolites by CSF flow. Thus, when discussing the CSF dynamics we suggest that a more appropriate term would be CSF movement rather than CSF circulation.

2014-01-01

133

Upcoming candidate cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is estimated to reach epidemic proportions by the year 2030. Given the limited accuracy of current AD clinical diagnosis, biomarkers of AD pathologies are currently being sought. Reductions in cerebrospinal fluid levels of ?-amyloid 42 (a marker of amyloid plaques) and elevations in tau species (markers of neurofibrillary tangles and/or neurodegeneration) are well-established as biomarkers useful for AD diagnosis and prognosis. However, novel markers for other features of AD pathophysiology (e.g., ?-amyloid processing, neuroinflammation and neuronal stress/dysfunction) and for other non-AD dementias are required to improve the accuracy of AD disease diagnosis, prognosis, staging and therapeutic monitoring (theragnosis). This article discusses the potential of several promising novel cerebrospinal fluid analytes, highlights the next steps critical for advancement in the field, and provides a prediction on how the field may evolve in 5–10 years.

Fagan, Anne M; Perrin, Richard J

2012-01-01

134

Cerebrospinal fluid acetylcholinesterase and choline measurements in Huntington's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caudate nucleus has the highest acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and it has been shown that autopsied brain tissue of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) have reduced levels of acetylcholine. Because of these findings, the cholinergic function in HD was studied by measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) choline levels and AChE activity during a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical

B. V. Manyam; E. Giacobini; J. A. Colliver

1990-01-01

135

Liquid chromatographic assay of dityrosine in human cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micro-scale method for separation and measurement of dityrosine in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is described utilizing liquid-liquid extraction and ion-paired, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. A mobile phase containing 1-heptanesulfonic acid linearly increased in methanol from 0 to 100% over 30 min allows the resolution of dityrosine from other fluorescent compounds with excitation at 285 nm and

Maged Abdelrahim; Elena Morris; Jeannean Carver; Stephen Facchina; Alison White; Ajay Verma

1997-01-01

136

Identification and determination of succinyladenosine in human cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinyladenosine (S-Ado) is a biochemical marker of adenylosuccinase deficiency – the genetic defect of purine de novo synthesis. S-Ado has been previously reported as normally undetectable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children not suffering from this defect. In present study, we employed solid-phase extraction and thin-layer chromatography for isolation of a compound with spectral and chromatographic characteristics identical to S-Ado

Jakub Krijt; Stanislav Kmoch; Hana Hartmannová; Vladim??r Havl???ek; Ivan Šebesta

1999-01-01

137

Summary of cerebrospinal fluid routine parameters in neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) is predominantly performed to exclude inflammatory diseases\\u000a and to perform a risk assessment in dementive disorders by measurement of tau proteins and amyloid beta peptides. However,\\u000a large scale data on basic findings of CSF routine parameters are generally lacking. The objective of the study was to define\\u000a a normal reference spectrum of routine

Sarah Jesse; Johannes Brettschneider; Sigurd D. Süssmuth; Bernhard G. Landwehrmeyer; Christine A. F. von Arnim; Albert C. Ludolph; Hayrettin Tumani; Markus Otto

2011-01-01

138

HPLC method for measurementof purine nucleotidedegradationproductsin cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a convenient method for the separation and quantification of xanthine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid in 20 .tL of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with use of HPLC and ultraviolet detection. The analysis is performed on a Sepha- ron SGX C18 column and the elution system consists of potassium phosphate buffer, pH 5.1, with 20 mL\\/L metha- nol. The lower limit

LUBOMIR KURAKA; BRANISLAV LIA

139

Volume distribution of cerebrospinal fluid using multispectral MR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to design a reliable method to quantify and visualize the anatomical distribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) intracranially. The method should be clinically applicable and based on multispectral analysis of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance images. T1-weighted, T2-weighted and proton density-weighted fast 3D gradient pulse sequences were used to form high resolution multispectral 3D images of

Arvid Lundervold; Torfinn Taxt; Lars Ersland; Anne Marie Fenstad

2000-01-01

140

Regional specificity of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in first episode schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The timing and regional specificity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enlargements have not been well described in schizophrenia. High-resolution magnetic resonance images and computational image analysis methods were used to localize cross-sectional changes in lateral ventricle and sulcal and subarachnoid CSF in first episode schizophrenia patients (51 males\\/21 females) and healthy subjects (37 males\\/41 females). Volumes were obtained for each lateral

Katherine L. Narr; Robert M. Bilder; Roger P. Woods; Paul M. Thompson; Philip Szeszko; Delbert Robinson; Martina Ballmaier; Bradley Messenger; YungPing Wang; Arthur W. Toga

2006-01-01

141

Alzheimer's disease: paired helical filament immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high sensitivity has been developed for measuring ubiquitin reactivity of paired helical filaments (PHF). Using the assay, ubiquitin immunoreactivity was estimated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 44 patients who had been clinically diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of 38 control patients, including 20 neurological cases. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 5–25 to isolated

G. P. Wang; K. Iqbal; G. Bucht; B. Winblad; H. M. Wisniewski; I. Grundke-Iqbal

1991-01-01

142

Treatment of Meningitis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis with Linezolid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) can cause nosocomial meningitis in the presence of prosthetic devices. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice, but its penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid is poor, especially in cases without severe meningeal inflammation. We successfully used linezolid to treat a case of posttraumatic MRSE meningitis with a low-level inflammatory response. Therapeutic effectiveness was documented microbiologically and by

Wolfgang A. Krueger; Bernd Kottler; Bernd E. Will; Alexandra Heininger; Heinz Guggenberger; Klaus E. Unertl

143

The Polysaccharide Fucoidin Inhibits the Antibiotic-Induced Inflammatory Cascade in Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that the treatment of bacterial meningitis with antibiotics liberates harmful bacterial pro- ducts in the subarachnoid space (SAS). This enhances meningeal inflammation and in particular the recruit- ment of leukocytes into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which has been shown to be more harmful than bene- ficial in this disease. In this study, we used a rabbit meningitis

CARL GRANERT; JOHAN RAUD; LARS LINDQUIST

1998-01-01

144

Cisternal cerebrospinal fluid analysis in 24 sheep with chronic coenurosis.  

PubMed

Coenurosis, a neurological parasitic infection of ruminants caused by the larval stage of Taenia multiceps, is commonly reported in Sardinia, the most representative region for ovine population in Italy. Chronic form appears as a consequence of cyst development, frequently reported in the brain and spinal cord. Diagnostic suspect of coenurosis is based on physical and neurological examination. The aim of this article is to describe physical, biochemical and cytological aspects of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid of 24 sheep with chronic coenurosis and to evaluate whether these alterations are helpful in the diagnosis of coenurosis. Cerebrospinal fluid was altered in 20 animals (83.3%). Increase of total protein was revealed in 7 animals (29.2%); an increase of total nucleated cell count was observed in 18 samples (75%). Cytological examination revealed mononuclear pleocytosis in 17 animals (70.1%). Eosinophils were observed in 16 animals in various degree (66.7%). Our results show that cerebrospinal fluid confirms signs of Central Nervous System inflammation in 20 animals out of 24 (83.3%) and in particular it was useful to identify a parasitic inflammation in 66.7% of the animals in which eosinophils were observed. Considering the results of this study, the very absence of significant neutrophilic pleocytosis could be considered useful to diagnose chronic cerebral coenurosis. PMID:24715594

Zobba, Rosanna; Manunta, Maria Lucia; Evangelisti, Maria Antonietta; Alberti, Alberto; Visco, Stefanoa; Dimauro, Corrado; Pinna Parpaglia, Maria Luisa

2014-03-31

145

Metabolomics of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Identifies Signatures of Malignant Glioma*  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid is routinely collected for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with neurological malignancies. However, little is known as to how its constituents may change in a patient when presented with a malignant glioma. Here, we used a targeted mass-spectrometry based metabolomics platform using selected reaction monitoring with positive/negative switching and profiled the relative levels of over 124 polar metabolites present in patient cerebrospinal fluid. We analyzed the metabolic profiles from 10 patients presenting malignant gliomas and seven control patients that did not present malignancy to test whether a small sample size could provide statistically significant signatures. We carried out multiple unbiased forms of classification using a series of unsupervised techniques and identified metabolic signatures that distinguish malignant glioma patients from the control patients. One subtype identified contained metabolites enriched in citric acid cycle components. Newly diagnosed patients segregated into a different subtype and exhibited low levels of metabolites involved in tryptophan metabolism, which may indicate the absence of an inflammatory signature. Together our results provide the first global assessment of the polar metabolic composition in cerebrospinal fluid that accompanies malignancy, and demonstrate that data obtained from high throughput mass spectrometry technology may have suitable predictive capabilities for the identification of biomarkers and classification of neurological diseases.

Locasale, Jason W.; Melman, Tamar; Song, Susan; Yang, Xuemei; Swanson, Kenneth D.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Wong, Eric T.; Asara, John M.

2012-01-01

146

Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and the cerebrospinal fluid tap test.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, including soluble amyloid ?-42 (A?-42) and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau), reflect core pathophysiological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is frequently a concomitant pathology in older patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), and somewhat similar altered CSF dynamics exist in both AD and iNPH. We therefore investigated relationships between lumbar CSF biomarkers A?-42 and P-tau and clinical parameters in iNPH patients, along with differences in these biomarkers between CSF tap test (CSFTT) responders and non-responders. Thirty-one iNPH patients (14 CSFTT responders and 17 CSFTT non-responders) were included in the final analysis. We found lower CSF A?-42 correlated with poor cognitive performance (r=0.687, p<0.001 for Korean Mini Mental State Examination; r=0.568, p=0.001 for Frontal Assessment Battery; r=-0.439, p=0.014 for iNPH grading scale [iNPHGS] cognitive score; r=-0.588, p=0.001 for Clinical Dementia Rating Scale), and lower CSF P-tau correlated with gait dysfunction (r=-0.624, p<0.001 for Timed Up and Go Test; r=-0.652, p<0.001 for 10meter walking test; r=-0.578, p=0.001 for Gait Status Scale; r=-0.543, p=0.002 for iNPHGS gait score). In subgroup analysis, CSF P-tau/A?-42 ratios were significantly higher in CSFTT non-responders compared to responders (p=0.027). Two conjectures are suggested. One, CSF biomarkers may play different and characteristic roles in relation to different iNPH symptoms such as cognition and gait. Two, comorbid AD pathology in iNPH patients may affect the response to the CSFTT. Larger studies using combinations of other biomarkers associated with AD would be necessary to evaluate these hypotheses. PMID:24836892

Kang, Kyunghun; Ko, Pan-Woo; Jin, Myungwon; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Ho-Won

2014-08-01

147

Quantitative proteomics comparison of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid collected perioperatively from arachnoid cyst patients  

PubMed Central

Background There is little knowledge concerning the content and the mechanisms of filling of arachnoid cysts. The aim of this study was to compare the protein content of arachnoid cysts and cerebrospinal fluid by quantitative proteomics to increase the understanding of arachnoid cysts. Methods Arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid from five patients were analyzed by quantitative proteomics in two separate experiments. In a label-free experiment arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid samples from individual patients were trypsin digested and analyzed by Orbitrap mass spectrometry in a label-free manner followed by data analysis using the Progenesis software. In the second proteomics experiment, a patient sample pooling strategy was followed by MARS-14 immunodepletion of high abundant proteins, trypsin digestion, iTRAQ labelling, and peptide separation by mix-phase chromatography followed by Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. The results from these analyzes were compared to previously published mRNA microarray data obtained from arachnoid membranes. Results We quantified 348 proteins by the label-free individual patient approach and 1425 proteins in the iTRAQ experiment using a pool from five patients of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid. This is by far the largest number of arachnoid cyst fluid proteins ever identified, and the first large-scale quantitative comparison between the protein content of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid from the same patients at the same time. Consistently in both experiment, we found 22 proteins with significantly increased abundance in arachnoid cysts compared to cerebrospinal fluid and 24 proteins with significantly decreased abundance. We did not observe any molecular weight gradient over the arachnoid cyst membrane. Of the 46 proteins we identified as differentially abundant in our study, 45 were also detected from the mRNA expression level study. None of them were previously reported as differentially expressed. We did not quantify any of the proteins corresponding to gene products from the ten genes previously reported as differentially abundant between arachnoid cysts and control arachnoid membranes. Conclusions From our experiments, the protein content of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid appears to be similar. There were, however, proteins that were significantly differentially abundant between arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid. This could reflect the possibility that these proteins are affected by the filling mechanism of arachnoid cysts or are shed from the membranes into arachnoid cyst fluid. Our results do not support the proposed filling mechanisms of oncotic pressure or valves.

2013-01-01

148

Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... reviewed: 01/30/2011 5 eningitis. Although large epidemics of meningitis do not typically occur in the United States, some countries experience large epidemics. An epidemic is when the disease spreads significantly ...

149

Overton's rule helps to estimate the penetration of anti-infectives into patients' cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

In 1900, Ernst Overton found that the entry of anilin dyes through the cell membranes of living cells depended on the lipophilicity of the dyes. The brain is surrounded by barriers consisting of lipid layers that possess several inward and outward active transport systems. In the absence of meningeal inflammation, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of anti-infectives in humans estimated by the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in CSF (AUC(CSF)) to that in serum (AUC(CSF)/AUC(S)) correlated positively with the lipid-water partition coefficient at pH 7.0 (log D) (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r(S) = 0.40; P = 0.01) and negatively with the molecular mass (MM) (r(S) = -0.33; P = 0.04). The ratio of AUC(CSF) to the AUC of the fraction in serum that was not bound (AUC(CSF)/AUC(S,free)) strongly correlated with log D (r(S) = 0.67; P < 0.0001). In the presence of meningeal inflammation, AUC(CSF)/AUC(S) also correlated positively with log D (r(S) = 0.46; P = 0.002) and negatively with the MM (r(S) = -0.37; P = 0.01). The correlation of AUC(CSF)/AUC(S,free) with log D (r(S) = 0.66; P < 0.0001) was as strong as in the absence of meningeal inflammation. Despite these clear correlations, Overton's rule was able to explain only part of the differences in CSF penetration of the individual compounds. The site of CSF withdrawal (lumbar versus ventricular CSF), age of the patients, underlying diseases, active transport, and alterations in the pharmacokinetics by comedications also appeared to strongly influence the CSF penetration of the drugs studied. PMID:22106225

Djukic, Marija; Munz, Martin; Sörgel, Fritz; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Eiffert, Helmut; Nau, Roland

2012-02-01

150

Routine testing for anaerobic bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid cultures improves recovery of clinically significant pathogens.  

PubMed

In North America, the widespread use of vaccines targeting Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae have dramatically altered the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, while the methodology for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens has remained largely unchanged. The aims of this study were 2-fold: to document the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis at a tertiary care medical center and to assess the clinical utility of routinely querying for anaerobes in CSF cultures. To that end, we assessed CSF cultures submitted over a 2-year period. A brucella blood agar (BBA) plate, incubated anaerobically for 5 days, was included in the culture procedure for all CSF specimens during the second year of evaluation. In the pre- and postimplementation years, 2,353 and 2,302 CSF specimens were cultured, with 49 and 99 patients having positive culture results, respectively. The clinical and laboratory data for patients with positive cultures were reviewed. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the CSF samples from 33 patients post-BBA compared to two patients pre-BBA (P = 0.01). The anaerobic isolates included Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (n = 1), Propionibacterium species (n = 15), and Propionibacterium acnes (n = 19) isolates; all of these isolates were recovered on the BBA. Eight of the 35 patients from whom anaerobic organisms were isolated received antimicrobial therapy. Although six of these patients had central nervous system hardware, two patients did not have a history of a neurosurgical procedure and had community-acquired anaerobic bacterial meningitis. This study demonstrates that the simple addition of an anaerobically incubated BBA to the culture of CSF specimens enhances the recovery of clinically significant anaerobic pathogens. PMID:24622102

Pittman, Meredith E; Thomas, Benjamin S; Wallace, Meghan A; Weber, Carol J; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

2014-06-01

151

Acetylcholinesterase assay for cerebrospinal fluid using bupivacaine to inhibit butyrylcholinesterase  

PubMed Central

Background Most test systems for acetylcholinesterase activity (E.C.3.1.1.7.) are using toxic inhibitors (BW284c51 and iso-OMPA) to distinguish the enzyme from butyrylcholinesterase (E.C.3.1.1.8.) which occurs simultaneously in the cerebrospinal fluid. Applying Ellman's colorimetric method, we were looking for a non-toxic inhibitor to restrain butyrylcholinesterase activity. Based on results of previous in vitro studies bupivacaine emerged to be a suitable inhibitor. Results Pharmacokinetic investigations with purified cholinesterases have shown maximum inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase activity and minimal interference with acetylcholinesterase activity at bupivacaine final concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/l. Based on detailed analysis of pharmacokinetic data we developed three equations representing enzyme inhibition at bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mmol/l. These equations allow us to calculate the acetylcholinesterase activity in solutions containing both cholinesterases utilizing the extinction differences measured spectrophotometrically in samples with and without bupivacaine. The accuracy of the bupivacaine-inhibition test could be confirmed by investigations on solutions of both purified cholinesterases and on samples of human cerebrospinal fluid. If butyrylcholinesterase activity has to be assessed simultaneously an independent test using butyrylthiocholine iodide as substrate (final concentration 5 mmol/l) has to be conducted. Conclusions The bupivacaine-inhibition test is a reliable method using spectrophotometrical techniques to measure acetylcholinesterase activity in cerebrospinal fluid. It avoids the use of toxic inhibitors for differentiation of acetylcholinesterase from butyrylcholinesterase in fluids containing both enzymes. Our investigations suggest that bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 or 0.5 mmol/l can be applied with the same effect using 1 mmol/l acetylthiocholine iodide as substrate.

Kluge, Wolfram H; Kluge, Harald H; Bauer, Heike I; Pietsch, Stefan; Anders, Jens; Venbrocks, Rudolf A

2001-01-01

152

Cervical intradural disc herniation and cerebrospinal fluid leak.  

PubMed

Cervical intradural disc herniation (IDH) is a rare condition and only 25 cases of cervical have been reported. We report a 45-year-old male who presented with sudden onset right lower limb weakness after lifting heavy weight. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed C5/6 disc prolapse with intradural extension. The patient underwent C5/6 discectomy through anterior cervical approach. Postoperatively, the patient improved in stiffness but developed cerebrospinal fluid leak and the leak resolved with multiple lumbar punctures. PMID:21743181

Kansal, Ritesh; Mahore, Amit; Kukreja, Sanjay

2011-01-01

153

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker candidates of schizophrenia: where do we stand?  

PubMed

Here, we review the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) candidate markers with regard to their clinical relevance as potential surrogates for disease activity, prognosis assessment, and predictors of treatment response. We searched different online databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies on schizophrenia and CSF. Initial studies on cerebrospinal fluid in patients with schizophrenia revealed increased brain-blood barrier permeability with elevated total protein content, increased CSF-to-serum ratio for albumin, and intrathecal production of immunoglobulins in subgroups of patients. Analyses of metabolites in CSF suggest alterations within glutamatergic neurotransmission as well as monoamine and cannabinoid metabolism. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in CSF of first-episode patients with schizophrenia reported in recent studies point to a dysregulation of neuroprotective and neurodevelopmental processes. Still, these findings must be considered as non-specific. A more profound characterization of the particular psychopathological profiles, the investigation of patients in the prodromal phase or within the first episode of schizophrenia promoting longitudinal investigations, implementation of different approaches of proteomics, and rigorous adherence to standard procedures based on international CSF guidelines are necessary to improve the quality of CSF studies in schizophrenia, paving the way for identification of syndrome-specific biomarker candidates. PMID:22173848

Vasic, Nenad; Connemann, Bernhard J; Wolf, Robert C; Tumani, Hayrettin; Brettschneider, Johannes

2012-08-01

154

Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier Permeability in Alzheimer's Disease1  

PubMed Central

The role of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been addressed but not yet established. We evaluated the BCB integrity in 179 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) retrospectively collected from AD patients and control cases using both CSF/serum albumin ratio (QAlb) and CSF secretory Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity. These analyses were supplemented with the measurement of total tau, amyloid-?1–42 (A?1–42), and ubiquitin CSF levels. We found that due to its higher sensitivity, CSF sPLA2 activity could 1) discriminate AD from healthy controls and 2) showed BCB impairment in neurological control cases while QAlb could not. Moreover, the CSF sPLA2 activity measurement showed that around half of the AD patients were characterized by a BCB impairment. The BCB dysfunction observed in AD was independent from Mini-Mental State Examination score as well as CSF levels of total tau, A?1–42, and ubiquitin. Finally, the BCB dysfunction was not limited to any of the CSF biomarkers-based previously identified subgroups of AD. These results suggest that the BCB damage occurs independent of and probably precedes both A? and tau pathologies in a restricted subgroup of AD patients.

Chalbot, Sonia; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Fladby, Tormod; Andreasen, Niels; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

2011-01-01

155

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure in conscious head-down tilted rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acute effects of a 1-h -45 deg head-down tilt on continouously recorded cerebrospinal fluid pressure (PCSF) of conscious rats are studied in order to investigate the shift of blood volume into the thoracic cavity in microgravity. PCSF, evaluated in 15-min time blocks over a 3-h experiment, increased slightly (less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of a control hour at 0 deg. There was a transient increase for about 5 min immediately after tilt (-45 deg) that may have been due to head movement after the position change. PCSF was statistically unchanged (above 0.05) during the second (-45 deg) hour and the third (0 deg) recovery hour. It is shown that the dynamics of intracranial pressure regulation can accommodate the acute cephalad fluid shift after tilting.

Severs, Walter B.; Morrow, Bret A.; Keil, Lanny C.

1991-01-01

156

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure in conscious head-down tilted rats.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure (PCSF) was continuously measured in conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats gently restrained by a cotton towel. PCSF, evaluated in 15-min time blocks over a 3-h experiment, increased slightly (p less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of a control hour at 0 degree. There was a transient increase for about 5 min immediately after tilt (-45 degrees) that may have been due to head movement after the position change. However, PCSF was statistically unchanged (p greater than 0.05) during the 2nd (-45 degrees) hour and the 3rd (0 degree) recovery hour. The data show that the dynamics of intracranial pressure regulation can accommodate the acute cephalad fluid shift after tilting. PMID:1764005

Severs, W B; Morrow, B A; Keil, L C

1991-10-01

157

Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta(40) is decreased in cerebral amyloid angiopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is caused by deposition of the amyloid beta protein in the cerebral vasculature. In analogy to previous observations in Alzheimer disease, we hypothesized that analysis of amyloid beta(40) and beta(42) proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid might serve as a molecular biomarker. We observed strongly decreased cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta(40) (p < 0.01 vs controls or Alzheimer disease)

M. M. Verbeek; H. P. H. Kremer; M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; M. E. Skehan; S. M. Greenberg

2009-01-01

158

Glycolipid Analysis of Different Tissues and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Type II Gaucher Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid composition or the liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid of a Gaucher disease type II patient who died at the age of 5 months was examined. The glycolipid analysis demonstrated a marked increase of total amounts not only in the peripheral tissues but also in the brain cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid, with a prevalence of glucosylceramide. A

R. Gornati; B. Berra; G. Montorfano; C. Martini; G. Ciana; P. Ferrari; M. Romano; B. Bembi

2002-01-01

159

Bacteroides fragilis concealed in an infant with Escherichia coli meningitis.  

PubMed

Anaerobic meningitis in infants is rare, therefore a high index of clinical suspicion is essential as routine methods for processing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) do not detect anaerobes and specific antimicrobial therapy is required. We present an infant with Escherichia coli meningitis where treatment-resistance developed in association with culture negative purulent CSF. These features should have alerted us to the presence of anaerobes, prompting a search for the causes of polymicrobial meningitis in infants. PMID:24118618

Ganeshalingham, Anusha; Buckley, David; Shaw, Ian; Freeman, Joshua T; Wilson, Francessa; Best, Emma

2014-01-01

160

High blood pressure effects on the blood to cerebrospinal fluid barrier and cerebrospinal fluid protein composition: a two-dimensional electrophoresis study in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to analyze the cerebrospinal fluid proteomic profile, trying to find possible biomarkers of the effects of hypertension of the blood to CSF barrier disruption in the brain and their participation in the cholesterol and ?-amyloid metabolism and inflammatory processes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a system linked to the brain and its composition can be altered not only by encephalic disorder, but also by systemic diseases such as arterial hypertension, which produces alterations in the choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid protein composition. 2D gel electrophoresis in cerebrospinal fluid extracted from the cistern magna before sacrifice of hypertensive and control rats was performed. The results showed different proteomic profiles between SHR and WKY, that ?-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A1, albumin, immunoglobulin G, vitamin D binding protein, haptoglobin and ?-1-macroglobulin were found to be up-regulated in SHR, and apolipoprotein E, transthyretin, ?-2-HS-glycoprotein, transferrin, ?-1?-glycoprotein, kininogen and carbonic anhidrase II were down-regulated in SHR. The conclusion made here is that hypertension in SHR produces important variations in cerebrospinal fluid proteins that could be due to a choroid plexus dysfunction and this fact supports the close connection between hypertension and blood to cerebrospinal fluid barrier disruption. PMID:23401751

González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; González-Toledo, Juan M; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Agustín; de Paz-Carmona, Hector; Castro, Rafael; Hernandez-Fernaud, Juan R; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Carmona-Calero, Emilia M

2013-01-01

161

Evaluation of Microbial Bacterial and Fungal Diversity in Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection can be recalcitrant. Recurrence is common despite appropriate therapy for the pathogens identified by culture. Improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are required, and culture-independent molecular approaches to cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections have not been described. Objectives To identify the bacteria and fungi present in cerebrospinal fluid from children with cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection using a high-throughput sequencing approach, and to compare those results to those from negative controls and conventional culture. Methods This descriptive study included eight children ?18 years old undergoing treatment for culture-identified cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection. After routine aerobic culture of each cerebrospinal fluid sample, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction was followed by amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal ITS DNA region tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing and microbial phylogenetic analysis. Results The microbiota analyses for the initial cerebrospinal fluid samples from all eight infections identified a variety of bacteria and fungi, many of which did not grow in conventional culture. Detection by conventional culture did not predict the relative abundance of an organism by pyrosequencing, but in all cases, at least one bacterial taxon was detected by both conventional culture and pyrosequencing. Individual bacterial species fluctuated in relative abundance but remained above the limits of detection during infection treatment. Conclusions Numerous bacterial and fungal organisms were detected in these cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections, even during and after treatment, indicating diverse and recalcitrant shunt microbiota. In evaluating cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection, fungal and anaerobic bacterial cultures should be considered in addition to aerobic bacterial cultures, and culture-independent approaches offer a promising alternative diagnostic approach. More effective treatment of cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections is needed to reduce unacceptably high rates of reinfection, and this work suggests that one effective strategy may be reduction of the diverse microbiota present in infection.

Simon, Tamara D.; Pope, Christopher E.; Browd, Samuel R.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Zerr, Danielle M.; Hoffman, Lucas

2014-01-01

162

Pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacies of apalcillin and cefpiramide in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Rabbits with experimentally induced pneumococcal meningitis were given single 25-mg/kg doses of apalcillin or cefpiramide. Mean percentages of the drug concentration in cerebrospinal fluid versus that in blood serum were 7.6% with apalcillin and 3.9% with cefpiramide. Bactericidal activity in cerebrospinal fluid resulted in mean reductions of from 4 to 5 log10 CFU/ml, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures became sterile for four of six animals treated with each drug.

Sato, K; Shelton, S; Nelson, J D

1984-01-01

163

Salmonella enteritidis meningitis in a first time diagnosed AIDS patient: Case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a patient with salmonella enteritidis meningitis and unknown HIV infection. Setting: A 14-bed adult intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital. The patient was brought to the emergency department with fever, nuchal rigidity and confusion. A first cerebrospinal fluid examination was non diagnostic. After a short period of improvement the patient developed septic shock. A second cerebrospinal fluid

Chrisostomos Katsenos; Nectarios Anastasopoulos; Maria Patrani; Costas Mandragos

2008-01-01

164

Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis: cerebrospinal fluid, imaging, and electrophysiological studies.  

PubMed

We report the genetic, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging studies in a family with bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis (Fahr's disease). The intracerebral calcium deposits occurred before onset of the symptoms in the third decade of life. Progressive neurological deterioration occurred in the fifth decade of life in the proband. Cerebrospinal fluid homocarnosine, a central nervous system-specific peptide, was increased twofold in patients with autosomal dominant bilateral stripallidodentate calcinosis; in sporadic cases, there was no detectable homocarnosine and a decreased level of histidine. With advancing age, the amount of calcification increases, but it has not been determined if a critical amount must be reached before symptoms occur. Computerized tomography is superior to magnetic resonance imaging for radiological diagnosis. Despite diffuse striatal calcification, striatal 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa uptake did not reveal any difference between patients and control subjects, from which we infer persisting integrity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. PMID:1586138

Manyam, B V; Bhatt, M H; Moore, W D; Devleschoward, A B; Anderson, D R; Calne, D B

1992-04-01

165

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in healthy elderly.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology begins before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies are likely to be more effective if they are implemented early in the disease progression, it is necessary to identify reliable biomarkers to detect AD pathology in the early stages of the disease, ideally in presymptomatic individuals. Recent research has identified three candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that reflect AD pathology: amyloid beta, total tau protein (t-tau), and tau protein phosphorylated at AD-specific epitopes (p-tau). They are useful in supporting the AD diagnosis and have predictive value for AD when patients are in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, their predictive utility in cognitively healthy subjects is still being evaluated. We conducted a review of studies published between 1993 and 2011 and summarized their findings on the role of CSF biomarkers for AD in healthy elderly. PMID:23747874

Randall, Catherine; Mosconi, Lisa; de Leon, Mony; Glodzik, Lidia

2013-01-01

166

The cerebrospinal fluid: regulator of neurogenesis, behavior, and beyond  

PubMed Central

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has attracted renewed interest as an active signaling milieu that regulates brain development, homeostasis, and disease. Advances in proteomics research have enabled an improved characterization of the CSF from development through adulthood, and key neurogenic signaling pathways that are transmitted via the CSF are now being elucidated. Due to its immediate contact with neural stem cells in the developing and adult brain, the CSF's ability to swiftly distribute signals across vast distances in central nervous system is opening avenues to novel and exciting therapeutic approaches. In this review, we will discuss the development of the choroid plexus-CSF system, and review the current literature on how the CSF actively regulates mammalian brain development, behavior, and responses to traumatic brain injury.

Zappaterra, Mauro W.; Lehtinen, Maria K.

2013-01-01

167

Sleep deprivation increases oleoylethanolamide in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role of two fatty acid ethanolamides, the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and its structural analog oleoylethanolamide in sleep deprivation of human volunteers. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers before and after a night of sleep deprivation with an interval of about 12 months. We found increased levels of oleoylethanolamide in CSF (P = 0.011) but not in serum (P = 0.068) after 24 h of sleep deprivation. Oleoylethanolamide is an endogenous lipid messenger that is released after neural injury and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) with nanomolar potency. Exogenous PPAR-alpha agonists, such as hypolipidemic fibrates and oleoylethanolamide, exert both neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. Thus, our results suggest that oleoylethanolamide release may represent an endogenous neuroprotective signal during sleep deprivation. PMID:19137236

Koethe, Dagmar; Schreiber, Daniela; Giuffrida, Andrea; Mauss, Christian; Faulhaber, Johannes; Heydenreich, Bernd; Hellmich, Martin; Graf, Rudolf; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Piomelli, Daniele; Leweke, F Markus

2009-03-01

168

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in cognitively healthy elderly  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have shown that Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) pathology begins before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies are likely to be more effective if they are implemented early in the disease progression, it is necessary to identify reliable biomarkers to detect AD pathology in the early stages of the disease, ideally in presymptomatic individuals. Recent research has identified three candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that reflect AD pathology: amyloid beta (Aß42), total tau protein (t-tau), and tau protein phosphorylated at AD-specific epitopes (p-tau). They are useful in supporting the AD diagnosis and have predictive value for AD when patients are in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, their predictive utility in cognitively healthy subjects is still being evaluated. We conducted a review of studies published between 1993 and 2011 and summarized their findings on the role of CSF biomarkers for AD in healthy elderly.

Randall, Catherine; Mosconi, Lisa; de Leon, Mony; Glodzik, Lidia

2014-01-01

169

Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Due to an ever aging society and growing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the challenge to meet social and health care system needs will become increasingly difficult. Unfortunately, a definite ante mortem diagnosis is not possible. Thus, an early diagnosis and identification of AD patients is critical for promising, early pharmacological interventions as well as addressing health care needs. The most advanced and most reliable markers are ?-amyloid, total tau and phosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In blood, no single biomarker has been identified despite an intense search over the last decade. The most promising approaches consist of a combination of several blood-based markers increasing the reliability, sensitivity and specificity of the AD diagnosis. However, contradictory data make standardized testing methods in longitudinal and multi-center studies extremely difficult. In this review, we summarize a range of the most promising CSF and blood biomarkers for diagnosing AD.

Humpel, Christian; Hochstrasser, Tanja

2011-01-01

170

Continuous sampling for determination of pharmacokinetics in rat cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed Central

A method for determining drug concentration relationships between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats is described. Continuous CSF samples were collected directly from the third anterior ventricle with an indwelling cannula inserted through the bregma point, and drug concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay micromethods. Three antibiotics with different abilities to cross the blood-CSF barrier (chloramphenicol, piperacillin, and gentamicin) were tested. This method was found to be reproducible for each drug even if the antibiotic levels were low and the sample volumes very small. Peak CSF concentrations occurred between 0.75 and 1.25 h after injection for all three antibiotics. Percent penetration values at 1 h were 50, 1.2, and 5.4% for chloramphenicol, piperacillin, and gentamicin, respectively.

Meulemans, A; Vicart, P; Mohler, J; Vulpillat, M; Pocidalo, J J

1986-01-01

171

Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles: A comprehensive dataset.  

PubMed

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), yet little is known about their protein composition. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the proteome of CSF EVs by electron microscopy and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in conjunction with bioinformatics. We report an extensive catalog of 1315 proteins identified in EVs isolated from two different CSF pools by ultracentrifugation, including 230 novel EV proteins. Out of 1315 proteins, 760 were identified in both CSF pools and about 30% of those were also quantitatively enriched in the EV fraction versus the soluble CSF fraction. The proteome of CSF EVs was enriched in exosomal markers such as alix and syntenin-1, heat shock proteins and tetraspanins and contained a high proportion of brain-derived proteins (n=373). Interestingly, several known biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases such as the amyloid precursor protein, the prion protein and DJ-1 were identified in the EV fractions. Our dataset represents the first comprehensive inventory of the EV proteome in CSF, underscoring the biomarker potential of this organelle. Further comparative studies on CSF EVs isolated from patients diagnosed with neurological disorders are warranted. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000608. Biological significance In this study we analyzed the protein composition of extracellular vesicles isolated from pooled samples of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a colorless fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord, important for the physiology of the central nervous system, ensuing mechanical protection, regulation of brain blood flow and elimination of byproducts of the brain. Since brain (patho)physiology is reflected in CSF, this biological fluid represents an ideal source of soluble and vesicle-based biomarkers for neurological diseases. Here we confirm the presence of exosome-like extracellular vesicles in CSF, underscoring a potential role in the physiology of the brain. These extracellular vesicles provide a rich source of candidate biomarkers, representing a brain "fluid biopsy". Most interestingly, the involvement of extracellular vesicles in transferring toxic proteins such as ?-synuclein and ?-amyloid has been postulated as one of the mechanisms involved in the spreading of neurodegeneration to different brain areas. In line with this, we show that human CSF extracellular vesicles contain prionogenic proteins such as the amyloid precursor protein and the prion protein. Delineating the protein composition of extracellular vesicles in CSF is a first and crucial step to comprehend their origin and their function in the central nervous system and to establish their biomarker potential. PMID:24769233

Chiasserini, Davide; van Weering, Jan R T; Piersma, Sander R; Pham, Thang V; Malekzadeh, Arjan; Teunissen, Charlotte E; de Wit, Heidi; Jiménez, Connie R

2014-06-25

172

Cryptococcal meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcosis is a systemic fungal disease and meningitis is the most serious complication. The purpose of this study is to define problems related to its diagnosis and treatment. This is a retrospective analysis of 25 patients admitted from January 1978 to December 1981. All patients had cryptococcal neoformans meningitis proven by culture of cerebrospinal fluid. One patient had a predisposing illness, being on immunosuppressant therapy after a renal transplant 2 years ago. A progressively severe headache of recent onset was the most striking presentation. Fever was frequently absent as a symptom. Cranial nerve palsies were commonly seen. Impairment of consciousness and areflexia signified a poor prognosis as all four patients who died early in the course of treatment were comatose and two of them were areflexic on admission. In newly suspected cases at least 3 separate lumbar punctures are recommended as initial smears or cultures may be negative. Cerebral CT scans were abnormal in 12 patients and those with cerebral oedema or hydrocephalus had a poorer prognosis. Combined amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine therapy was the treatment of choice. If there is no relapse 3 years after completion of treatment, patients are considered as cured. Positive smears may remain for years after completion of treatment and retreatment is only indicated if the cultures are positive. Twenty patients are alive today and none of them have relapsed. One patient had vasculitis of both anterior cerebral arteries as a result of cryptococcal meningitis.

Tjia, T L; Yeow, Y K; Tan, C B

1985-01-01

173

Detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid: comparison of two molecular assays.  

PubMed

Enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) are a major cause of infection in childhood. A rapid diagnostic test may improve the management of patients with EV and HPeV infection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the GeneXpert enterovirus assay (GXEA) for detection of EV RNA compared to a user-developed reverse-transcriptase (RT) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in routine clinical practice. Also a RT-qPCR assay for detection of HPeV RNA in different clinical samples was developed and evaluated. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 232 patients suspected for meningitis was collected and tested for EV and HPeV using RT-qPCR assays. In parallel an aliquot of the samples was tested using the GXEA and viral culture. EV RNA was detected in 22 (19.0%) and 28 (24.1%) of 116 samples using the GXEA and RT-qPCR assay, respectively. EV was isolated from 10 of 116 (8.6%) samples by viral culture. GXEA had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 82.1%, 100%, 100% and 96.2%, respectively. In this study, molecular assays were superior to viral culture for detecting EV RNA in CSF. GXEA showed a high specificity but a lower sensitivity for the detection of EV RNA compared to the RT-qPCR assay. PMID:22024398

de Crom, S C M; Obihara, C C; van Loon, A M; Argilagos-Alvarez, A A; Peeters, M F; van Furth, A M; Rossen, J W A

2012-01-01

174

Early embryonic brain development in rats requires the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid has shown itself to be an essential brain component during development. This is particularly evident at the earliest stages of development where a lot of research, performed mainly in chick embryos, supports the evidence that cerebrospinal fluid is involved in different mechanisms controlling brain growth and morphogenesis, by exerting a trophic effect on neuroepithelial precursor cells (NPC) involved in controlling the behaviour of these cells. Despite it being known that cerebrospinal fluid in mammals is directly involved in corticogenesis at fetal stages, the influence of cerebrospinal fluid on the activity of NPC at the earliest stages of brain development has not been demonstrated. Here, using "in vitro" organotypic cultures of rat embryo brain neuroepithelium in order to expose NPC to or deprive them of cerebrospinal fluid, we show that the neuroepithelium needs the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid to undergo normal rates of cell survival, replication and neurogenesis, suggesting that NPC are not self-sufficient to induce their normal activity. This data shows that cerebrospinal fluid is an essential component in chick and rat early brain development, suggesting that its influence could be constant in higher vertebrates. PMID:19540909

Martin, C; Alonso, M I; Santiago, C; Moro, J A; De la Mano, A; Carretero, R; Gato, A

2009-11-01

175

Novel myelin penta- and hexa-acetyl-galactosyl-ceramides: structural characterization and immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid[S  

PubMed Central

Fast migrating cerebrosides (FMC) are derivatives of galactosylceramide (GalCer). The structures of the most hydrophobic FMC-5, FMC-6, and FMC-7 were determined by electrospray ionization linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy complementing previous NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine-GalCer derivatives with galactose O-acetyl modifications. FMC-5 and FMC-6 are 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-GalCer with nonhydroxy and hydroxy-N-fatty-acids, while FMC-7 has an additional O-acetylation of the 2-hydroxy-fatty acid. The immuno-reactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to these acetylated glycolipids was examined in central nervous system (CNS) infectious disease, noninflammatory disorders, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Screening for lipid binding in MS and other neurological disease groups revealed that the greatest anti-hydrophobic FMC reactivity was observed in the inflammatory CNS diseases (meningitis, meningo-encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Some MS patients had increased reactivity with the hydrophobic FMCs and with glycoglycerophospholipid MfGL-II from Mycoplasma fermentans. The cross-reactivity of highly acetylated GalCer with microbial acyl-glycolipid raises the possibility that myelin-O-acetyl-cerebrosides, bacterial infection, and neurological disease are linked.

Podbielska, Maria; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Levery, Steven B.; Tourtellotte, Wallace W.; Annuk, Heidi; Moran, Anthony P.; Hogan, Edward L.

2010-01-01

176

Cerebrospinal fluid and serum cytokine profiling to detect immune control of infectious and inflammatory neurological and psychiatric diseases.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at profiling inflammatory cytokines for neurological and psychiatric diseases. A total of 86 patients with meningitis, multiple sclerosis, tension-type headache, idiopathic facial nerve palsy (IFNP), affective and schizophrenic disorders were tested for both, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a multiplexed cytokine ELISA for IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-10, IL12p70, IL-13 and IL-17. Cases with viral and bacterial meningitis had unequivocally higher cytokine concentrations in the CSF when compared with serum. Bacterial meningitis was unique by extremely elevated IL-17, TNF-? and IL-1?, indicating a plethora of inflammatory pathways, selectively activated in the CSF. In relapsing multiple sclerosis, IFN-? and IL-10 were elevated in both, serum and CSF, but IL-12p70, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-? were more prominent in serum than in CSF. Qualitatively similar biomarker patterns were detected in patients with idiopathic facial nerve palsy and tension-type cephalgia. Affective and schizophrenic disorders clearly present with an inflammatory phenotype in the CSF and also serum, the cytokines determined were in general higher in schizophrenia. Except IFN-?, schizophrenic patients had higher IL-12p70 and a trend of higher IL-10 and IL-13 in serum suggesting a more prominent TH2-type counter regulatory immune response than in affective disorders. These differences were also mirrored in the CSF. Elevated IL-8 appears to be the most sensitive marker for inflammation in the CSF of all diseases studied, whereas TNF-? was restricted to peripheral blood. With the exception of IL-8, all but viral and bacterial meningitis, studied, displayed higher means of elevated lymphokine concentrations in the serum than in the CSF. This observation supports the concept of immunological crosstalk between periphery and intrathecal immunity in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25022963

Maxeiner, Horst-Guenter; Marion Schneider, E; Kurfiss, Sina-Tatjana; Brettschneider, Johannes; Tumani, Hayrettin; Bechter, Karl

2014-09-01

177

Cerebrospinal fluid ceramides from patients with multiple sclerosis impair neuronal bioenergetics.  

PubMed

Axonal damage is a prominent cause of disability and yet its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Using a xenogeneic system, here we define the bioenergetic changes induced in rat neurons by exposure to cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with multiple sclerosis compared to control subjects. A first discovery cohort of cerebrospinal fluid from 13 patients with multiple sclerosis and 10 control subjects showed that acute exposure to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis induced oxidative stress and decreased expression of neuroprotective genes, while increasing expression of genes involved in lipid signalling and in the response to oxidative stress. Protracted exposure of neurons to stress led to neurotoxicity and bioenergetics failure after cerebrospinal fluid exposure and positively correlated with the levels of neurofilament light chain. These findings were validated using a second independent cohort of cerebrospinal fluid samples (eight patients with multiple sclerosis and eight control subjects), collected at a different centre. The toxic effect of cerebrospinal fluid on neurons was not attributable to differences in IgG content, glucose, lactate or glutamate levels or differences in cytokine levels. A lipidomic profiling approach led to the identification of increased levels of ceramide C16:0 and C24:0 in the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis. Exposure of cultured neurons to micelles composed of these ceramide species was sufficient to recapitulate the bioenergetic dysfunction and oxidative damage induced by exposure to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with multiple sclerosis. Therefore, our data suggest that C16:0 and C24:0 ceramides are enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and are sufficient to induce neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and axonal damage. PMID:24893707

Vidaurre, Oscar G; Haines, Jeffery D; Katz Sand, Ilana; Adula, Kadidia P; Huynh, Jimmy L; McGraw, Corey A; Zhang, Fan; Varghese, Merina; Sotirchos, Elias; Bhargava, Pavan; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Pasinetti, Giulio; Zhang, Weijia; Inglese, Matilde; Calabresi, Peter A; Wu, Gang; Miller, Aaron E; Haughey, Norman J; Lublin, Fred D; Casaccia, Patrizia

2014-08-01

178

Meningitis-Retention Syndrome as a Presentation of West Nile Virus Meningitis  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old previously healthy man presented with fever, urinary retention, nuchal rigidity, and hyperreflexia but with a clear sensorium. His initial spinal fluid results were consistent with aseptic meningitis from West Nile virus infection, and this was confirmed by serological studies on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were unremarkable. He received supportive care and urinary catheterization to prevent bladder injury from overdistension. He was discharged home without recurrence of urinary retention after five days of hospitalization. Therefore, this case report describes the first case of West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with the meningitis-retention syndrome.

Laengvejkal, Pavis; Argueta, Erwin; Limsuwat, Chok; Nugent, Kenneth

2013-01-01

179

Cerebrospinal fluid flow in the normal and hydrocephalic human brain.  

PubMed

Advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques enable the accurate measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the human brain. In addition, image reconstruction tools facilitate the collection of patient-specific brain geometry data such as the exact dimensions of the ventricular and subarachnoidal spaces (SAS) as well as the computer-aided reconstruction of the CSF-filled spaces. The solution of the conservation of CSF mass and momentum balances over a finite computational mesh obtained from the MR images predict the patients' CSF flow and pressure field. Advanced image reconstruction tools used in conjunction with first principles of fluid mechanics allow an accurate verification of the CSF flow patters for individual patients. This paper presents a detailed analysis of pulsatile CSF flow and pressure dynamics in a normal and hydrocephalic patient. Experimental CSF flow measurements and computational results of flow and pressure fields in the ventricular system, the SAS and brain parenchyma are presented. The pulsating CSF motion is explored in normal and pathological conditions of communicating hydrocephalus. This paper predicts small transmantle pressure differences between lateral ventricles and SASs (approximately 10 Pa). The transmantle pressure between ventricles and SAS remains small even in the hydrocephalic patient (approximately 30 Pa), but the ICP pulsatility increases by a factor of four. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results of the predicted CSF flow velocities are in good agreement with Cine MRI measurements. Differences between the predicted and observed CSF flow velocities in the prepontine area point towards complex brain-CSF interactions. The paper presents the complete computational model to predict the pulsatile CSF flow in the cranial cavity. PMID:17278586

Linninger, Andreas A; Xenos, Michalis; Zhu, David C; Somayaji, MahadevaBharath R; Kondapalli, Srinivasa; Penn, Richard D

2007-02-01

180

Review of "Proteins of the Cerebrospinal Fluid" (2nd Edition) by Edward J. Thompson  

PubMed Central

This book on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins is primarily focused on immunoglobulins. The book was written as an extension of a meeting on multiple sclerosis to provide a more extensive consideration of the CSF.

Connor, James R

2007-01-01

181

Rickettsial meningitis.  

PubMed

Rickettsial infections are common in southern Europe and the most frequent and lethal type is Mediterranean spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia conorii. The disease is usually characterised by the classical triad of fever, eschar and rash, and is generally a mild disease in children. Complications including neurological involvement are rarely described. We report an unusual case of meningitis in an 18-year-old man, presenting during summer with fever and persistent headache. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed increased cellularity (107 cells/?L), hypoglycorrhachia (50% of glycaemia) and hyperproteinorrhachia (284 mg/dL). Rickettsial infection was confirmed by serology and the patient was treated with doxycycline, with a favourable outcome. The patient's pet squirrel and/or associated vectors might be involved in the transmission of Rickettsia spp. This case underlines the importance of a high clinical suspicion and the benefits of early empirical treatment when facing compatible epidemiological contexts. PMID:24614778

Salva, Inês; de Sousa, Rita; Gouveia, Catarina

2014-01-01

182

Thiamine deficiency and cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid: a preliminary study.  

PubMed Central

In three out of five patients with low cerebrospinal fluid thiamine concentrations, the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) values also were low. All patients received thiamine replacement therapy; they underwent a second lumbar puncture after 13, 6, 7, 5 and 45 days of treatment. In all patients blood and cerebrospinal fluid thiamine values rose after treatment. In those patients with initially low CSF 5HIAA, thiamine treatment increased 5HIAA markedly.

Botez, M I; Young, S N; Bachevalier, J; Gauthier, S

1982-01-01

183

Characterisation of the Pro Opiocortin Family of Peptides in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatography under acid dissociating conditions in conjunction with radioimmunoassay has been employed to investigate the nature of peptides related to opiocortin in human cerebrospinal fluid. Samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected for chromatography from 15 patients prior to air encephalography. 2 patients had pituitary dependent Cushing’s disease, 3 non-endocrine neurological disease and 10 non-ACTH related pituitary disease. The column

Lorraine McLoughlin; P. J. Lowry; Sally J. Ratter; J. Hope; G. M. Besser; Lesley H. Rees

1981-01-01

184

Bell's palsy: electrodiagnostics are not indicative of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities.  

PubMed

Electrodiagnostic testing (electromyography, electroneuronography, and blink reflex) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination (cell count, immunoglobulins, and antigen-specific intrathecal immunoglobulin G synthesis against herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) were performed in 56 patients with Bell's palsy. The CSF was normal in 45 patients and abnormal in 11 patients. Acute borreliosis was the most common specific pathological CSF finding (4 of 11). Electromyography revealed abolished volitional activity in 22% of patients with normal CSF and in 36% with pathological CSF. Electroneuronographic tests with an amplitude decrease of more than 90% on the affected side or abolished responses were found in 20% of patients with normal CSF and in 18% with pathological CSF. Abolished orbicularis oculi reflexes were seen in 67% of patients with normal CSF and in 82% with pathological CSF Concerning electrodiagnostic testing, no statistically significant difference between patients with normal and abnormal CSF was found, so we conclude that electrodiagnostic testing has no indicative value for abnormal CSF in Bell's palsy. PMID:11407851

Birkmann, C; Bamborschke, S; Halber, M; Haupt, W F

2001-06-01

185

Endoscopic management of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: the charing cross experience.  

PubMed

Objective?To describe our experience of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea management. Design?Retrospective. Setting?Charing Cross Hospital, London, a tertiary referral center. Participants?Fifty-four patients with CSF rhinorrhea managed from 2003 to 2011. Main outcome measures?Surgical technique; Recurrence. Results?Etiologically, 36 were spontaneous and 18 traumatic. Eight patients with spontaneous and two with traumatic leaks had previous failed repairs in other units. Success rates after first and second surgery were 93% and 100%, respectively. Mean follow-up was 21 months. Four patients, all of spontaneous etiology, had recurrences; three of these underwent successful second repair with three layered technique, and the fourth had complete cessation of the leak after gastric bypass surgery and subsequent weight reduction. Adaptation of anatomic three-layered repair since then averted any further failure in the following 7 years. Mean body mass index was 34.0 kg/m(2) in spontaneous and 27.8 kg/m(2) in traumatic cases (p?

Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Elmiyeh, Behrad; Saleh, Hesham A

2013-04-01

186

Blood-mediated scavenging of cerebrospinal fluid glutamate.  

PubMed

The maintenance of brain extracellular glutamate (Glu) at levels below its excitotoxic threshold is performed by Glu transporters present on glia and neurons as well as on brain capillary endothelial cells which remove brain Glu into blood. The feasibility of accelerating the naturally occurring brain-to-blood Glu efflux was studied using paradigms based on the fate of Glu present in the cerebrospinal fluid or infused into the brain ventricles and monitored before, during, and after decreasing blood Glu levels with pyruvate and oxaloacetate, the respective Glu co-substrates of the blood resident enzymes glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Results from cerebroventricular perfusions with [3H]Glu, intracerebroventricular injections of [3H]Glu, and measurements of the basal CSF Glu levels point out to the same conclusion that the intravenous administration of pyruvate and oxaloacetate which decreases blood Glu levels accelerates the brain-to-blood Glu efflux. We conclude that the brain extracellular Glu levels can be controlled in part by the blood Glu levels. The results may provide not only a rational explanation for the inhibition of Glu release and neuroprotective effects of parentally administered pyruvate in hemorrhagic shock and forebrain ischemia but could also outline a potential strategy for the removal of excess Glu in various neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:12969259

Gottlieb, Miroslav; Wang, Yin; Teichberg, Vivian I

2003-10-01

187

Cerebrospinal fluid acetylcholinesterase and choline measurements in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

The caudate nucleus has the highest acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and it has been shown that autopsied brain tissue of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) have reduced levels of acetylcholine. Because of these findings, the cholinergic function in HD was studied by measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) choline levels and AChE activity during a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial of isoniazid. While mean choline levels adjusted for age were lower compared with controls (P = 0.0007), AChE activity did not differ between HD patients and normal controls. Treatment with isoniazid had no significant effect on CSF choline levels or CSF AChE activity. CSF AChE activity showed a statistically significant increase with advancing age. The reduced level of choline in CSF of HD patients may reflect either a defect in choline transport into the brain or a decrease of choline-phospholipid output from the brain. PMID:2146369

Manyam, B V; Giacobini, E; Colliver, J A

1990-08-01

188

Cerebrospinal fluid choline levels are decreased in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We examined acetylcholinsterase (AChE) activity and choline levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 9 control subjects of corresponding age: 8 were untreated Parkinson's patients; 4 were treated with carbidopa-levodopa (100/1,000 mg/day) for 20 +/- 3 months; and 4 were treated with carbidopa-levodopa (110/1,100 mg/day) for 28 +/- 18 months plus amantadine (200 mg/day) for 16 +/- 8 months. CSF choline levels (nmol/ml) were 2.97 +/- 0.79 (control subjects); 1.31 +/- 0.29 (untreated patients); 1.00 +/- 0.29 (carbidopa-levodopa treated); and 1.26 +/- 0.19 (carbidopa-levodopa/amantadine treated). Choline levels were significantly lower in untreated and treated patients compared to control subjects (p = 0.0001). AChE activity did not differ in Parkinson's disease patients as compared to control subjects. The reduced level of choline in CSF may reflect a deficit in choline transport into the brain or a decrease of choline-phospholipid output from the brain. PMID:2360805

Manyam, B V; Giacobini, E; Colliver, J A

1990-06-01

189

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neuropathologically diagnosed Parkinson's disease subjects  

PubMed Central

1. Objectives Parkinson's disease (PD) afflicts approximately 1-2% of the population over 50 years of age. No cures or effective modifying treatments exist and clinical diagnosis is currently confounded by a lack of definitive biomarkers. We sought to discover potential biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neuropathologically confirmed PD cases. 2. Methods We compared postmortem ventricular CSF (V-CSF) from PD and normal control (NC) subjects using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Spots exhibiting a 1.5-fold or greater difference in volume between PD patients and controls were excised from the 2D gels, subjected to tryptic digestion and identification of peptides assigned using mass spectrometric/data bank correlation methods. 3. Results Employing this strategy six molecules: fibrinogen, transthyretin, apolipoprotein E, clusterin, apolipoprotein A-1 and glutathione-S-transferase-Pi were found to be different between PD and NC populations. 4: Discussion These molecules have been implicated in PD pathogenesis. Combining biomarker data from multiple laboratories may create a consensus panel of proteins that may serve as a diagnostic tool for this neurodegenerative disorder.

Maarouf, Chera L.; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Shill, Holly A.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Wu, Terence; Walker, Douglas G.; Kokjohn, Tyler A.; Roher, Alex E.

2013-01-01

190

Cerebrospinal Fluid Interleukin-6 in Central Nervous System Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Interleukin (IL)-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Objective To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS) from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND). Patients and Methods We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n?=?117), including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n?=?65), primary progressive MS (PPMS, n?=?11), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n?=?11), optic neuritis (ON, n?=?30); idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n?=?10); other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n?=?35); and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n?=?212). Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal?Wallis test and Mann?Whitney U-test. Results CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4%) of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9%) of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212). IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. Conclusion CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

Wullschleger, Alexandre; Kapina, Viktoria; Molnarfi, Nicolas; Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Seebach, Jorg D.; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Hochstrasser, Denis F.; Lalive, Patrice H.

2013-01-01

191

Cerebrospinal fluid apolipoprotein E levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.  

PubMed

Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been shown in 20% of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) cases. NFTs contain paired helical filaments formed by hyperphosphorylated tau. The intraneuronal tau metabolism and the rate of formation of paired helical filaments can be regulated by interactions between tau and isoforms of Apolipoprotein E (Apo E). Tau binds in vitro to Apo E3, interferes with the hyperphosphorylation of tau and may reduce the formation of NFTs. We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Apo E levels in SSPE (n=37) and age-matched control (n=38) groups. The median level of total Apo E and Apo E4 were lower in the SSPE than the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.002). On the other hand, median Apo E3 level (0.28±0.23 ?g/ml) was higher in the SSPE group (p<0.001). Such elevated levels of ApoE3 might play a role in controlling the formation of NFTs in SSPE. Because NFT-associated neurodegeneration is a slow process, comparison of the long-term clinical course of SSPE cases with high and low Apo E3 levels might provide further understanding or the role of these molecules in this disease, and help the planning of neuroprotective treatment. PMID:21788110

Yüksel, Deniz; Ichiyama, Takashi; Yilmaz, Deniz; Anlar, Banu

2012-04-01

192

Dynamic Oxygen-Enhanced MRI of Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci.

Mehemed, Taha M.; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kido, Aki; Fujimoto, Koji; Sakashita, Naotaka; Togashi, Kaori

2014-01-01

193

Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed Central

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a common and important complication in systemic lupus erythematosus. The mechanisms for CNS involvement are poorly understood and reliable diagnostic procedures are lacking. Pairs of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 17 patients with clinical and serological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus were analysed. All 11 patients with definite or suspect clinical CNS disorder revealed some kind of abnormality in the CSF, in contrast to three of seven systemic lupus erythematosus patients without CNS disorder. The most prominent findings in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with CNS disorder were immune aberrations with oligoclonal bands on agarose isoelectric focusing (AIF) and elevation of IgG and IgM index, probably reflecting intrathecal production of IgG and IgM respectively. Intrathecal production of antiviral antibodies was found in four of 12 patients by AIF followed by immunofixation and subsequent autoradiography. An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) could not detect autoantibodies against structural brain antigens. Images

Ernerudh, J; Olsson, T; Lindstrom, F; Skogh, T

1985-01-01

194

Dynamic oxygen-enhanced MRI of cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci. PMID:24956198

Mehemed, Taha M; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kido, Aki; Fujimoto, Koji; Sakashita, Naotaka; Togashi, Kaori

2014-01-01

195

Hepatic cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst: A rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt  

PubMed Central

Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are among the most frequently performed operations in the management of hydrocephalus. Hepatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst is a rare but important complication in patients with a VP shunt insertion. In addition to presenting our own case, we performed a PubMed search to comprehensively illustrate the predisposing factors, clinical picture, diagnostic methods, and surgical treatment. This article represents an update for this condition. Case Description: A 40-year-old male was admitted to a hospital complaining of fever, abdominal distention, and pain. He had undergone a VP shunt for communicating hydrocephalus caused by a head trauma one year earlier. Laboratory studies showed liver enzymes alterations, and imaging studies demonstrated a well-defined intraaxially hepatic cyst with the shunt catheter placed inside. Staphylococcus epidermis was cultured via CSF. After removing the VP shunt and an adequate antibiotic treatment, the complication of hepatic CSF pseudocyst was resolved. Conclusion: Hepatic CSF pseudocyst is a rare complication of a VP shunt. Once the diagnosis is verified and if the CSF is sterile, just simply remove the peritoneal catheter and reposition a new one in the abdomen. We believe that it is not necessary to remove or aspirate the hepatic intraaxial pseudocyst, because of the risk of bleeding. In case of CSF infection, the VP shunt can be removed and/or an external derivation can be made, and after treatment with antibiotics, a new VP shunt is placed in the opposite side of the peritoneum.

Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Fontoura, Emilio A.; Santos, Egmond A.; Romero, Paulo C.; Diniz, Cristiano A.

2013-01-01

196

Choroid plexus protects cerebrospinal fluid against toxic metals  

SciTech Connect

Although heavy metal ions are known to be toxic to the central nervous system (CNS), the mechanisms by which the CNS may protect itself from initial challenges of such toxic ions is unknown. The choroid plexus is the principal site of formation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which bathes the brain. We have determined in rats and rabbits that after intraperitoneal administration of lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic compounds, these toxic metal ions accumulated in the lateral choroid plexus at concentrations of Pb, Hg, and As that were 70-, 95-, and 40-fold higher, respectively, than those found in CSF. Cd was not detected in the CSF. In addition, concentrations of these heavy metal ions were found to be many fold greater in the choroid plexus than in the brain or blood. The accumulation of Pb in the choroid plexus was dose-dependent and time-related. When the choroid plexus was preincubated, in vitro, with ouabain (1.5 mM), the uptake of Cd from the CSF side of the choroid plexus was inhibited 57%. Cadmium metallothionein was not found in the choroid plexus. Whereas the concentration of reduced glutathione in the choroid plexus was less than that in the brain cortex, the concentration of cysteine was fourfold greater. The lateral choroid plexus sequesters Pb, Cd, As, and Hg. It appears to be one of the important mechanisms that protects the CSF and the brain from the fluxes of toxic heavy metals in the blood.

Wei, Zheng; Perry, D.F.; Nelson, D.L.; Aposhian, H.V. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1991-05-01

197

Primary spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks located at the clivus  

PubMed Central

Transclival meningoceles and primary spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks at the clivus are extremely rare lesions and only few of them have been reported in the literature. We report here six cases of transclival primary spontaneous CSF leaks through the clivus. A retrospective case study was performed. We reviewed six cases involving sinonasal CSF leaks located at the clivus treated between 1997 and 2009. Presenting symptoms, duration of symptoms, defect size, site of defect, surgical approach and technique of defect closure, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, and recurrences are discussed. All CSF leaks were located in the upper central part of the clivus. two of six patients showed signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) including arachnoid pits and/or empty sella. For three patients a purely transnasal approach was used with multilayer reconstruction using a nonvascularized graft, and three patients underwent a transnasal transseptal approach with a multilayer reconstruction, with nasoseptal flap. No recurrences of CSF leaks at clivus or other sites were observed to date with a mean follow-up of 10.3 years (range, 3–15 years). Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea located at the clivus is an extremely rare condition. To date, only eight cases have been described. Here, we report the largest group of six consecutive cases. Irrespective of the used reconstruction technique in all cases a 100% closure rate was achieved. However, identification of increased ICP is an essential aspect and this condition should be treated either medically or surgically.

Kitice, Adriano; Vellutini, Eduardo; Balsalobre, Leonardo; Stamm, Aldo

2013-01-01

198

Brain ventricular volume and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus suggests a possible link between ventricular dilation and AD. If enlarging ventricles serve as a marker of faulty cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance mechanisms, then a relationship may be demonstrable between increasing ventricular volume and decreasing levels of amyloid beta peptide (A?) in CSF in preclinical and early AD. CSF biomarker data (A?, tau, and phosphorylated tau) as well as direct measurements of whole brain and ventricular volumes were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset. The ratio of ventricular volume to whole brain volume was derived as a secondary independent measure. Baseline data were used for the group analyses of 288 subjects classified as being either normal (n=87), having the syndrome of mild cognitive impairment (n=136), or mild AD (n=65). Linear regression models were derived for each biomarker as the dependent variable, using the MRI volume measures and age as independent variables. For controls, ventricular volume was negatively associated with CSF A? in APOE ?4 positive subjects. A different pattern was seen in AD subjects, in whom ventricular volume was negatively associated with tau, but not A? in ?4 positive subjects. Increased ventricular volume may be associated with decreased levels of CSF A? in preclinical AD. The basis for the apparent effect of APOE ?4 genotype on the relationship of ventricular volume to A? and tau levels is unknown, but could involve altered CSF-blood-brain barrier function during the course of disease.

Ott, Brian R.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Gongvatana, Assawin; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Johanson, Conrad E.; Stopa, Edward G.; Donahue, John E.; Silverberg, Gerald D.

2010-01-01

199

Endoscopic Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: The Charing Cross Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective?To describe our experience of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea management. Design?Retrospective. Setting?Charing Cross Hospital, London, a tertiary referral center. Participants?Fifty-four patients with CSF rhinorrhea managed from 2003 to 2011. Main outcome measures?Surgical technique; Recurrence. Results?Etiologically, 36 were spontaneous and 18 traumatic. Eight patients with spontaneous and two with traumatic leaks had previous failed repairs in other units. Success rates after first and second surgery were 93% and 100%, respectively. Mean follow-up was 21 months. Four patients, all of spontaneous etiology, had recurrences; three of these underwent successful second repair with three layered technique, and the fourth had complete cessation of the leak after gastric bypass surgery and subsequent weight reduction. Adaptation of anatomic three-layered repair since then averted any further failure in the following 7 years. Mean body mass index was 34.0 kg/m2 in spontaneous and 27.8 kg/m2 in traumatic cases (p?

Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Elmiyeh, Behrad; Saleh, Hesham A.

2013-01-01

200

Pharmacodynamics and Bactericidal Activity of Moxifloxacin in Experimental Escherichia coli Meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moxifloxacin, an 8-methoxyquinolone with broad-spectrum activity in vitro, was studied in the rabbit model of Escherichia coli meningitis. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the bactericidal effectiveness and the pharmacodynamic profile of moxifloxacin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and to compare the bactericidal activity with that of ceftriaxone and meropenem therapy. After induction of meningitis, animals were given single

VIOLETA RODRIGUEZ-CERRATO; CYNTHIA C. MCCOIG; IAN C. MICHELOW; FARYAL GHAFFAR; HASAN S. JAFRI; ROBERT D. HARDY; CHETAN PATEL; KURT OLSEN; GEORGE H. MCCRACKEN

2001-01-01

201

Evaluation of PCR Using TRC4 and IS6110 Primers in Detection of Tuberculous Meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated a new set of primers (TRC4) in comparison with the IS6110 primers commonly used in PCR to detect tuberculous meningitis among children. The levels of concordance between the results of IS6110 PCR and TRC4 PCR with cerebrospinal fluid specimens from patients with clinically confirmed tuberculous meningitis were 80 and 86%, respectively. Results with the two primer sets

SUJATHA NARAYANAN; VIJAYALAKSHMI PARANDAMAN; P. R. Narayanan; P. Venkatesan; C. Girish; S. Mahadevan; SARALA RAJAJEE

2001-01-01

202

Free and bound propofol concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this study was to define the relationship between unbound propofol concentrations in plasma and total drug concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and to determine whether propofol exists in the CSF in bound form. Methods Forty-three patients (divided into three groups) scheduled for elective intracranial procedures and anaesthetized by propofol target control infusion (TCI) were studied. Blood and CSF samples (taken from the radial artery, and the intraventricular drainage, respectively) from group I (17 patients) were used to investigate the relationship between unbound propofol concentration in plasma and total concentration of the drug in CSF. CSF samples taken from group II (18 patients) were used to confirm the presence of the bound form of propofol in this fluid. The CSF and blood samples taken from group III (eight patients) were used to monitor the course of free and bound CSF propofol concentrations during anaesthesia. Results For group I patients the mean (and 95% confidence interval) total plasma propofol concentration was 6113 (4971, 7255) ng ml?1, the mean free propofol concentration in plasma was 63 (42, 84) ng ml?1, and the mean total propofol concentration in CSF was 96 (76, 116) ng ml?1 (P < 0.05 for the difference between the last two values). For group II patients the fraction of free propofol in CSF was 31 (26, 37)%. For group III patients the fraction of free propofol in CSF during TCI was almost constant (about 36%). Conclusions The unbound propofol concentration in plasma was not equal to its total concentration in CSF and cannot be directly related to the drug concentration in the brain. Binding of propofol to components of the CSF may be an additional mechanism regulating the transport of the drug from blood into CSF.

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Kalitynski, Rafal; Fijalkowska, Anna

2003-01-01

203

Naegleria meningitis: a rare survival.  

PubMed

Acute amebic meningoencephalitis caused by free-living amebae naegleria fowleri is extremely rare and uniformly fatal with only seven survivals reported till date. An interesting case of naegleria meningitis diagnosed by wet mount cytology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and treated with amphoterecin B, rifampicin and ornidazole with complete recovery is presented. In cases of suspected pyogenic meningitis, if CSF staining, antigen detection or culture is negative for bacteria, a wet mount cytology of CSF for naegleria is suggested. Early treatment with amphoterecin B and rifampicin may improve survival. PMID:12577098

Jain, R; Prabhakar, S; Modi, M; Bhatia, R; Sehgal, R

2002-12-01

204

[A case of colchicine-responsive Mollaret's meningitis with MEFV gene mutation].  

PubMed

A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with recurrent meningitis. She presented with 10 episodes of meningitis in 10 months. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated pleocytosis, with neutrophils dominant at the early stage, and lymphocytes dominant at the late stage. Mollaret cells were found and the level of IL-6 was increased in cerebrospinal fluid. Several antibiotics and antiviral agents failed to prevent relapse. However, colchicine therapy successfully prevented the recurrence of meningitis. Genetic testing for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) showed a mutation in the MEFV gene. It is difficult to diagnose the cause of Mollaret's meningitis in some patients. FMF, neuro-Behçet's disease, and neuro-Sweet disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent meningitis. In addition, colchicine therapy can prevent the relapse of meningitis in such cases. PMID:24583586

Kinohshita, Tomomi; Matsushima, Akira; Satoh, Shunichi; Hoshi, Kenichi; Kishida, Dai; Yahikozawa, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

205

Diagnostic accuracy of urinary reagent strip to determine cerebrospinal fluid chemistry and cellularity  

PubMed Central

Background: The gold standard for diagnosis of meningitis depends on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination by microscopy, biochemistry, and culture, which require an experienced microscopist and laboratory support. We conducted this study to determine if urinary reagent strip is useful to make a semi-quantitative assessment of protein, glucose, and presence of leukocyte esterase in CSF. Materials and Methods: All consecutive CSF samples were evaluated in a blinded fashion. CSF was tested using Combur-10 urinary reagent strip as an index test, and CSF microscopy and biochemistry as reference standards. Combur-10 (Boehringer Mannheim) is a urinary reagent strip used to estimate ten parameters including protein, glucose, and leukocytes. We estimated diagnostic accuracy of each index test using corresponding cut-off levels (glucose 1 + vs. CSF glucose >50 mg/dL; protein 1 + and 2 + vs. CSF protein >30 mg/dL and >100 mg/dL; leukocyte esterase positivity vs. >10 granulocytes in CSF sample). We constructed receiver operating curves (ROC) to evaluate overall performance of index tests and estimated area under the curve (AUC). Results: CSF samples of 75 patients were included in the study. All the three indicator tests (CSF cells, protein, and glucose) were normal in 17 (22.6%) samples. Of the three tests, diagnostic accuracy of protein estimation (1 + or more on reagent strip) was best for detection of CSF proteins greater than 30 mg/dL [sensitivity 98.1% (95% CI 90.1-100%); specificity 57.1% (95% CI 34-78.2%)], with AUC of 0.97. Sensitivity and specificity for 2 + on reagent strip and CSF protein > 100 mg/dL were 92.6% (95% CI 75.1-99.1) and 87.5% (95% CI 74.8-95.3), respectively, with AUC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-1.01). Leukocyte esterase positivity by test strip had a sensitivity of 85.2 (95% CI 66.3-95.8%) and specificity of 89.6 (95% CI 77.3-96.5%) for detection of CSF granulocytes of more than 10/mm3. Conclusion: Existing urinary reagent strips can be used to diagnose meningitis in low-resource settings.

Joshi, Deepti; Kundana, Keerthi; Puranik, Apurva; Joshi, Rajnish

2013-01-01

206

Cerebrospinal Fluid miRNA Profile in HIV-Encephalitis†  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression by translational repression. Because of their high stability in intracellular as well as extracellular environments, miRNAs have recently emerged as important biomarkers in several human diseases. However, they have not been tested in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1 positive individuals. Here, we present results of a study aimed at determining the feasibility of detecting miRNAs in the CSF of HIV-infected individuals with and without encephalitis (HIVE). We also evaluated similarities and differences between CSF and brain tissue miRNAs in the same clinical setting. We utilized a high throughput approach of miRNA detection arrays and identified differentially expressed miRNAs in the frontal cortex of three cases each of HIV+, HIVE, and HIV? controls, and CSF of ten HIV-positive and ten HIV-negative individuals. For the CSF samples, the group of HIV+ individuals contained nine cases of HIV-Associated Neurological Disorders (HAND) and, among those, four had HIVE. All the HIV-negative samples had non-viral acute disseminate encephalomyelitis. A total of 66 miRNAs were found differentially regulated in HIV+ compared to HIV? groups. The greatest difference in miRNA expression was observed when four cases of HIVE were compared to five non-HIVE cases, previously normalized with the HIV-negative group. After statistical analyses, eleven miRNAs were fund significantly up-regulated in HIVE. Although more clinical samples should be examined, this work represents the first report of CSF miRNAs in HIV-infection and offers the basis for future investigation.

Pacifici, Marco; Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale; Jeansonne, Duane; Kadri, Ferdous; Nelson, Steve; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Peruzzi, Francesca

2012-01-01

207

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates Associated with Human WNV Neuroinvasive Disease  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the epidemiology of WNV in humans has changed in the southern regions of Europe, with high incidence of West Nile fever (WNF) cases, but also of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). The lack of human vaccine or specific treatment against WNV infection imparts a pressing need to characterize indicators associated with neurological involvement. By its intimacy with central nervous system (CNS) structures, modifications in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition could accurately reflect CNS pathological process. Until now, few studies investigated the association between imbalance of CSF elements and severity of WNV infection. The aim of the present study was to apply the iTRAQ technology in order to identify the CSF proteins whose abundances are modified in patients with WNND. Forty-seven proteins were found modified in the CSF of WNND patients as compared to control groups, and most of them are reported for the first time in the context of WNND. On the basis of their known biological functions, several of these proteins were associated with inflammatory response. Among them, Defensin-1 alpha (DEFA1), a protein reported with anti-viral effects, presented the highest increasing fold-change (FC>12). The augmentation of DEFA1 abundance in patients with WNND was confirmed at the CSF, but also in serum, compared to the control individual groups. Furthermore, the DEFA1 serum level was significantly elevated in WNND patients compared to subjects diagnosed for WNF. The present study provided the first insight into the potential CSF biomarkers associated with WNV neuroinvasion. Further investigation in larger cohorts with kinetic sampling could determine the usefulness of measuring DEFA1 as diagnostic or prognostic biomarker of detrimental WNND evolution.

Fraisier, Christophe; Papa, Anna; Granjeaud, Samuel; Hintzen, Rogier; Martina, Byron; Camoin, Luc; Almeras, Lionel

2014-01-01

208

Cerebrospinal Fluid PKR Level Predicts Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the proapoptotic kinase R (PKR) and its phosphorylated PKR (pPKR) are increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but whether CSF PKR concentrations are associated with cognitive decline in AD patients remain unknown. In this study, 41 consecutive patients with AD and 11 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from our Memory Clinic were included. A lumbar puncture was performed during the following month of the clinical diagnosis and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) evaluations were repeated every 6 months during a mean follow-up of 2 years. In AD patients, linear mixed models adjusted for age and sex were used to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between MMSE scores and baseline CSF levels of A? peptide (A? 1-42), Tau, phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau 181), PKR and pPKR. The mean (SD) MMSE at baseline was 20.5 (6.1) and MMSE scores declined over the follow-up (-0.12 point/month, standard error [SE]?=?0.03). A lower MMSE at baseline was associated with lower levels of CSF A? 1–42 and p-Tau 181/Tau ratio. pPKR level was associated with longitudinal MMSE changes over the follow-up, higher pPKR levels being related with an exacerbated cognitive deterioration. Other CSF biomarkers were not associated with MMSE changes over time. In aMCI patients, mean CSF biomarker levels were not different in patients who converted to AD from those who did not convert.These results suggest that at the time of AD diagnosis, a higher level of CSF pPKR can predict a faster rate of cognitive decline.

Lapalus, Pauline; Prevot, Magali; Laplanche, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

209

The Streptococcus suis transcriptional landscape reveals adaptation mechanisms in pig blood and cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Streptococcus suis (SS) is an important pathogen of pigs, and it is also recognized as a zoonotic agent for humans. SS infection may result in septicemia or meningitis in the host. However, little is known about genes that contribute to the virulence process and survival within host blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Small RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as key regulators of virulence in several bacteria, but they have not been investigated in SS. Here, using a differential RNA-sequencing approach and RNAs from SS strain P1/7 grown in rich medium, pig blood, or CSF, we present the SS genome-wide map of 793 transcriptional start sites and 370 operons. In addition to identifying 29 sRNAs, we show that five sRNA deletion mutants attenuate SS virulence in a zebrafish infection model. Homology searches revealed that 10 sRNAs were predicted to be present in other pathogenic Streptococcus species. Compared with wild-type strain P1/7, sRNAs rss03, rss05, and rss06 deletion mutants were significantly more sensitive to killing by pig blood. It is possible that rss06 contributes to SS virulence by indirectly activating expression of SSU0308, a virulence gene encoding a zinc-binding lipoprotein. In blood, genes involved in the synthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and subversion of host defenses were up-regulated. In contrast, in CSF, genes for CPS synthesis were down-regulated. Our study is the first analysis of SS sRNAs involved in virulence and has both improved our understanding of SS pathogenesis and increased the number of sRNAs known to play definitive roles in bacterial virulence. PMID:24759092

Wu, Zongfu; Wu, Chunyan; Shao, Jing; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Weixue; Zhang, Wenwei; Tang, Min; Pei, Na; Fan, Hongjie; Li, Jiguang; Yao, Huochun; Gu, Hongwei; Xu, Xun; Lu, Chengping

2014-06-01

210

Salmonella typhimurium meningitis in infancy  

PubMed Central

We report a case of meningitis due to Salmonella typhimurium in a four-month-old female infant. The child was brought to the pediatric emergency department with complaints of fever, cold, and generalized convulsion. On examination, the child was febrile and was having seizures. The anterior fontanelle was not bulging. Lumbar puncture was done and Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Initially the infant improved clinically with appropriate management, but had a fatal outcome due to nosocomial pneumonia.

Adhikary, Ranjeeta; Joshi, Sangeeta; Ramakrishnan, Meera

2013-01-01

211

Salmonella typhimurium meningitis in infancy.  

PubMed

We report a case of meningitis due to Salmonella typhimurium in a four-month-old female infant. The child was brought to the pediatric emergency department with complaints of fever, cold, and generalized convulsion. On examination, the child was febrile and was having seizures. The anterior fontanelle was not bulging. Lumbar puncture was done and Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Initially the infant improved clinically with appropriate management, but had a fatal outcome due to nosocomial pneumonia. PMID:24501496

Adhikary, Ranjeeta; Joshi, Sangeeta; Ramakrishnan, Meera

2013-11-01

212

Tuberculous meningitis: treat upon suspicion.  

PubMed

A 58-year-old man from Surinam was referred because of nausea, vomiting, weight loss, ascites and an altered mental state. Tuberculous meningitis was suspected upon examination of the cerebrospinal fluid and antituberculous treatment was initiated. However, the patient did not recover but developed haemiplegia with recurrent aspiration pneumonias. This case illustrates that empiric antituberculous treatment is warranted upon clinical suspicion, since no fast, sensitive diagnostic tests are available to date. PMID:22907858

Sonneveld, Myrthe Elisabeth; Zinkstok, S M; Nellen, F J B; Holleboom, Adriaan G

2012-01-01

213

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies  

PubMed Central

Central catecholamine deficiency characterizes ?-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuronal metabolites of catecholamines provide neurochemical biomarkers of these disorders. To test this hypothesis we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols including dopamine, norepinephrine and their main respective neuronal metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol in Parkinson’s disease and two other synucleinopathies, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. Cerebrospinal fluid catechols were assayed in 146 subjects—108 synucleinopathy patients (34 Parkinson’s disease, 54 multiple system atrophy, 20 pure autonomic failure) and 38 controls. In 14 patients cerebrospinal fluid was obtained before or within 2 years after the onset of parkinsonism. The Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure groups all had lower cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [0.86?±?0.09 (SEM), 1.00?±?0.09, 1.32?±?0.12?nmol/l] than controls (2.15?±?0.18?nmol/l; P?cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical evidence for central dopamine and norepinephrine deficiency. Parkinson’s disease and pure autonomic failure involve differential dopaminergic versus noradrenergic lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid seems to provide a sensitive means to identify even early Parkinson’s disease.

Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan

2012-01-01

214

Abnormal protein patterns in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid detected by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary zone electrophoresis and high-resolution agarose gel electrophoresis were compared to detect protein components in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients. Both electrophoretic methods proved to be useful for detection of protein abnormalities (e.g., mono- and oligoclonal bands) in biological fluids, but capillary electrophoresis offered several important advantages, such as sample application without preliminary concentration, lack of staining procedures, and

Mariella Ivanova; Elena Tzvetanova; Veska Jetcheva; Ferenc Kilár

2002-01-01

215

Transmission of cerebrospinal fluid pressure changes to the inner ear and its effect on cochlear microphonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in inner ear fluid pressure and cochlear microphonics (CM) associated with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure were studied in the guinea pig. Hydrostatic pressure in the endolymph and perilymph of the cochlea were measured by use of a servo-controlled micropipet system. Endolymphatic and perilymphatic pressure increased in a linear manner with little or no time lag following pressure increases

M. Yoshida; T. Uemura

1991-01-01

216

Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase prevented cognitive impairment in adult Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of forms of bacterial meningitis that have a high mortality rate and cause long-term neurologic sequelae. We evaluated the effects of an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor on proinflammatory mediators and memory in Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. The animals were divided into 4 groups: sham, sham treated with IDO inhibitor, meningitis, and meningitis treated with IDO inhibitor. During the first experiment, the animals were killed 24 hours later, and the hippocampus was isolated for the analysis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1) levels. The survival rate was 56.296% in the meningitis group and 29.616% in the meningitis group with IDO inhibitor. In the control group, we found a mean of 14.29 white blood cells/mL cerebrospinal fluid, whereas the mean was 80.00 white blood cells/mL cerebrospinal fluid in the sham IDO inhibitor group, 1167.00 white blood cells/mL cerebrospinal fluid in the meningitis group, and 286.70 white blood cells/mL cerebrospinal fluid in the meningitis IDO inhibitor group. In the meningitis group with IDO inhibitor, the levels of TNF-? and CINC-1 were reduced. In the second experiment, animals were subjected to a behavioral task and cytokine analysis 10 days after meningitis induction. In the meningitis group, there was an impairment of aversive memory. However, in the meningitis group that received adjuvant treatment with the IDO inhibitor, animals demonstrated preservation of aversive memory. These findings showed dual effects of the IDO inhibitor on a pneumococcal meningitis animal model because the inhibitor impaired survival but also produced beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory activity and neuroprotection against the latter behavioral deficits. PMID:23994082

Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Elias, Samuel G; Tashiro, Michael H; Dominguini, Diogo; Comim, Clarissa M; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Quevedo, João

2013-12-01

217

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Meningitis following Recurrent Episodes of Bacteremia in a Child Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of meningitis due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a child undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Four episodes of bacteremia involving strains with pulsotypes identical to that of the cerebrospinal fluid isolate preceded meningitis. After several courses of clindamycin, no relapse occurred during the patient follow-up.

Robin, Frederic; Paillard, Catherine; Marchandin, Helene; Demeocq, Francois; Bonnet, Richard; Hennequin, Claire

2010-01-01

218

Cerebrospinal fluid ascites: a complication of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt  

PubMed Central

A 1 year old Caucasian male born with an omphalocoele, malrotation of the large bowel, and Ladd's bands developed an E. coli wound infection and subsequent meningitis-ventriculitis which responded to antibiotic therapy. Aqueductal stenosis and obstructive hydrocephalus initially was treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After a routine diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus immunization, the child developed a CSF ascites which resolved following a ventriculoatrial shunt. Images

Dean, David F.; Keller, Irvin B.

1972-01-01

219

Perfusion fluids used in neurosurgery affect cerebrospinal fluid and surrounding brain parenchyma in the rat ventriculocisternal perfusion model.  

PubMed

ARTCEREB, an irrigation and perfusion solution (Artcereb), is a preparation intended for the irrigation and perfusion of the cerebral ventricles, and it is therefore important to evaluate its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and on the surrounding cerebrospinal parenchyma. To confirm the kinetics of the perfusion fluid component, we performed whole body autoradiography and examined glucose balance during ventriculocisternal perfusion with (14)C-glucose labeled Artcereb in the rat model, which simulates ventricular irrigation or ventriculocisternal perfusion in clinical neurosurgery. We also performed ventriculocisternal perfusion with Artcereb, lactated Ringer's solution, or normal saline, and observed the effect of these solutions on animal condition and on brain tissue morphology. In the kinetic study, diffusion of (14)C-glucose from the perfused Artcereb to the cerebrospinal tissue was seen on whole body autoradiography, and almost 90% of the glucose in the perfusion fluid was distributed to the cerebrospinal tissue and the systemic circulation. These data indicated that the perfusion fluid interacted actively with the CSF, surrounding parenchyma and the systemic circulation, and suggested that the formation of perfusion fluid affected CSF composition and cerebrospinal tissue functions. Animals perfused with normal saline were associated with serious symptoms including tonic convulsions and death, and exhibited neuronal death in the cerebrum. However, these severe changes were not observed in animals perfused with Artcereb or lactated Ringer's solution. We therefore propose that during neurosurgery, it is extremely important to use a physiological solution like Artcereb which closely resembles normal human CSF, in order to maintain cerebrospinal function and to alleviate postoperative adverse events. PMID:19797859

Doi, Kazuhisa; Morioka, Yujiro; Nishimura, Masuhiro; Kawano, Takeshi; Harada, Daisuke; Naito, Shinsaku; Yamauchi, Aiko

2009-10-01

220

Comparative detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid: GeneXpert system vs. real-time RT-PCR assay.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (EVs) constitute the most common cause of aseptic meningitis in both children and adults. Molecular techniques have now been recognized as the reference standard for the diagnosis of EV infections, and the rapidity of the molecular diagnosis of EV meningitis has been shown to be a determining factor in the management of patients. The rapid documentation of EV RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is key to adapting patient management and the therapeutic regimen. To shorten the time needed for virological documentation, we implemented EV RNA detection in two point-of-care (POC) laboratories. Here, we present the results of the POC detection of EV RNA with the Xpert EV kit on the GeneXpert integrated system, and a comparison with the real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assay routinely used in the core virology laboratory. From January to September 2009, a total of 310 CSF samples were tested. The rtRT-PCR gave 81 positive, 225 negative and four 'indeterminate' results. POC results were concordant in 81.6% (253/310). Most of the discrepancies consisted of 'indeterminate' results at the POC level (16%). Calculated performances (excluding the indeterminate results) of the Xpert EV kit on the GeneXpert system in POC settings were 100%, 98.9%, 97.6% and 100% for Sensibility, Specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that the implementation of POC detection of EV RNA can provide robust results in <4 h, and may have a significant impact on patient management, therapeutic attitude, and hospitalization costs. PMID:21848972

Ninove, L; Nougairede, A; Gazin, C; Zandotti, C; Drancourt, M; de Lamballerie, X; Charrel, R N

2011-12-01

221

Cerebrospinal fluid leaks of temporal bone origin: selection of surgical approach.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid leaks of the temporal bone are rare, often occult, and sometimes challenging to localize and repair. This is a retrospective study of eight patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak and six patients with cerebrospinal fluid leak or encephalocele discovered during chronic ear surgery who were treated in a tertiary medical center over a 5-year period. All received preoperative temporal bone computed tomography, and six also underwent magnetic resonance imaging, one computed tomography cisternography, and one radionuclide cisternography. All patients initially underwent a transmastoid surgical approach. Additional exposure was necessary in three patients; two underwent middle fossa craniotomy and another required minicraniotomy. Primary surgical repair was successful in six of the eight patients with spontaneous leaks and in all six chronic ear patients. Both recurrences required intradural middle fossa repair. An individualized approach should be taken for repair of temporal bone cerebrospinal fluid leaks. In this series, most were successfully repaired in a single stage using a transmastoid or combined approach. The transmastoid approach provides information about the precise size and location of the dural defect. A primary transcranial approach is needed for defects that are multiple, located in the petrous apex, and in revision cases. PMID:21311618

Pelosi, Stanley; Bederson, Joshua B; Smouha, Eric E

2010-07-01

222

Cerebrospinal Fluid Adrenomedullin Concentration Correlates with Hyponatremia and Delayed Ischemic Neurological Deficits after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adrenomedullin (AM), a vasorelaxant peptide, is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the choroid plexus and can exert natriuretic effects in the kidney. CSF AM concentration is elevated 7–10 days after the onset of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of the present study was to determine whether CSF AM concentrations correlate with hyponatremia and delayed ischemic neurological

Yoshitaka Kubo; Kuniaki Ogasawara; Shunsuke Kakino; Hiroshi Kashimura; Kenji Yoshida; Akira Ogawa

2008-01-01

223

Epidermal growth factor in human cerebrospinal fluid: reduced levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a mitogenic peptide, is widely distributed within the brain and endocrine cells of the gastro-intestinal tract. Using EGF radioreceptor assay, the EGF level was measured in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid from five patients with amyotrophic lateral scerlosis (ALS) and seven patients with intervertebral disc disease as a control group. The patients with ALS showed reduced EGF levels

D. Cie?lak; J. Szulc-Kuberska; H. Stepiefi; A. Klimek

1986-01-01

224

Excitatory amino acids and taurine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent studies indicating the transiently enhanced expression of excitatory amino acid receptors in hypoxia vulnerable brain regions and the elevated concentration of aspartate and glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid of asphyxiated newborns strongly suggest the role of excitatory amino acids in hypoxic ischemic brain damage in the developing human brain. In this study, we compared the concentrations of glutamate, aspartate,

K?v?lc?m Gücüyener; Y?ld?z Atalay; Yusuf Ziya Aral; Alev Hasano?lu; Canan Türky?lmaz; Gürsel Bibero?lu

1999-01-01

225

Cerebrospinal fluid inositol monophosphatase: elevated activity in depression and neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is a key enzyme in the regulation of the activity of the phosphatidyl inositol (PI) signaling pathway. This enzyme is also found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where it may prove useful as a marker of dysfunctional PI signal transduction.Methods: IMPase activity was measured in lumbar CSF of depressed and neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients. In addition, and

John R Atack; Joseph Levine; Robert H Belmaker

1998-01-01

226

Higher cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid levels in depressed patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid, resulting in more impairment compared than with either diagnosis alone. Both major depression and PTSD are thought to be associated with monoamine transmitter abnormalities. This study compared clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites in drug-free depressed subjects with a current major depressive episode (MDE) without comorbid PTSD, subjects

Leo Sher; Maria A. Oquendo; Shuhua Li; Ainsley K. Burke; Michael F. Grunebaum; Gil Zalsman; Yung-yu Huang; J. John Mann

2005-01-01

227

alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid and Pyruvic Acid in Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid and Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DETERMINATIONS of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and pyruvic acid in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine have been carried out using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone method.1 The keto-acid hydrazones were separated, either by paper electrophoresis or by paper chromatography.

E. Zelnicek

1959-01-01

228

Lumbosacral Cerebrospinal Fluid Volume in Humans Using Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The clinical response to spinal anesthesia is influenced by lumbosa- cral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume, which is highly variable among patients. METHODS: Lumbosacral magnetic resonance images were obtained in 71 patients using a long echo time (TE 198 msec), fast spin echo sequence with fat suppression. Three-dimensional images were created and lumbosacral CSF volume was estimated using a threshold-based

John T. Sullivan; Sharon Grouper; Matthew T. Walker; Todd B. Parrish; Robert J. McCarthy; Cynthia A. Wong

2006-01-01

229

Factors influencing PCR detection of viruses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected CNS infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to detect viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurological disease. However, data to assist its use or interpretation are limited.Objective: We investigated factors possibly influencing viral detection in CSF by PCR, which will also help clinicians interpret positive and negative results.Methods: CSF from patients with was tested for human herpesviruses

N W S Davies; L J Brown; J Gonde; D Irish; R O Robinson; A V Swan; J Banatvala; R S Howard; M K Sharief; P Muir

2005-01-01

230

Molecular analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in viral diseases of the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of nucleic acid (NA) amplification techniques has transformed the diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Because of their enhanced sensitivity, these methods enable detection of even low amounts of viral genomes in cerebrospinal fluid. Following more than 10 years of experience, the polymerase chain reaction or other NA-based amplification techniques are nowadays performed in

Paola Cinque; Simona Bossolasco; Åke Lundkvist

2003-01-01

231

Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Waveforms with Gated Phase-Contrast MR Velocity Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To analyze the characteristics of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow waveforms and to relate them to the arterial input and venous output flow waveforms in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Cine phase-contrast MR was obtained in 17 volunteers. The temporal velocity infor- mation from the cervical pericord CSF spaces, basal cisterns, and aqueduct, as well as the internal carotid and vertebral

Rafeeque A. Bhadelia; Andrew R. Bogdan; Samuel M. Wolpert

1995-01-01

232

The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a constant feature of systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects,

Thomas E. Angel; Jon M. Jacobs; Serena S. Spudich; Marina A. Gritsenko; Dietmar Fuchs; Teri Liegler; Henrik Zetterberg; David G. Camp; Richard W. Price; Richard D. Smith

2012-01-01

233

Pharmacokinetics, cerebrospinal fluid penetration, and metabolism of piroxantrone in the Rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piroxantrone is an anthrapyrazole derivative with broad anti-tumor activityin vitro and less cardiac toxicity than the anthracyclines. The metabolic pathways and central nervous system penetration of piroxantrone have not been determined. In this study we examined the pharmacokinetic behavior of piroxantrone in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in a non-human primate model. In addition, a urinary metabolite of piroxantrone was isolated

Stacey L. Berg; Frank M. Balis; Karen S. Godwin; David G. Poplack

1993-01-01

234

The function, composition and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in companion animals: Part II – Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a wide range of information about the neurological health of the patient. CSF can be withdrawn from either of two cisterns in dogs and cats using relatively safe techniques. Once CSF has been collected it must be analysed immediately and methodically. Evaluation should consist of macroscopic, quantitative and microscopic analyses. As part of

Roberta Di Terlizzi; Simon R. Platt

2009-01-01

235

[Hexamidine content of the blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with epilepsy].  

PubMed

In 74 patients with different attack rates and patterns mean levels of hexamidine in the blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were 15.9 micrograms/ml and 7.86 micrograms/ml, respectively, the former almost twice as high as the latter. Both were found to correlate with the drug daily doses and other anticonvulsants administration. PMID:3188751

Gromov, S A; Fedotenkova, T N; Stabrovski?, E M

1988-01-01

236

MR phase imaging and cerebrospinal fluid flow in the head and spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in and around the brain and spinal cord was examined in healthy subjects and in a number of patients with abnormalities of the CSF circulation. The pulsatile motion of the CSF was determined by spin echo phase (velocity) imaging, sometimes in combination with gradient echo phase contrast cine. Differences in flow patterns across CSF

L. M. Levy; G. Di Chiro

1990-01-01

237

Retroviral RNA identified in the cerebrospinal fluids and brains of individuals with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is a serious brain disease of uncertain etiology. A role for retroviruses in the etiopathogenesis of some cases of schizophrenia has been postulated on the basis of clinical and epidemiological observations. We found sequences homologous to retroviral pol genes in the cell-free cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) of 10 of 35 (29%) individuals with recent-onset schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Retroviral sequences

Håkan Karlsson; Silke Bachmann; Johannes Schroder; Justin McArthur; E. Fuller Torrey; Robert H. Yolken

2001-01-01

238

High accuracy (stable isotope dilution) measurements of lead in serum and cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of lead in blood, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine was measured in patients with neurological disease and in control subjects including cases of plumbism. A plot of blood lead versus serum lead resembles the familiar curves of blood lead versus either free erythrocyte porphyrin or urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid in that serum lead is constant up to a blood

W I Manton; J D Cook

1984-01-01

239

High level of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid of adult celiac patients.  

PubMed

Adults with intestinal malabsorption due to celiac disease show reduced central serotonin metabolism, probably induced by a lack of essential dietary factors. Investigating a role proposed for vitamin B6 deficiency, a regular finding in untreated celiacs, the present study yields no support for the hypothesis that direct inhibition at the decarboxylation step by vitamin B6 deficiency accounts for low central serotonin turnover in adult celiacs: 11 untreated patients showing reduced 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid (71+/- 26.8 pmol/ml) had a significantly higher concentration of the metabolically active B6 vitamer pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (0.06 +/- 0.34 ng/ml) than controls (0.24 +/- 0.07 ng/ml) (p less than 0.01). Cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan, precursor of serotonin, was normal (2035 %/- 649 pmol/ml). Raised pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid in untreated celiac disease is an unexpected finding. Possibly it is secondary to the diminished central monamine metabolism in these patients, but further studies are needed bearing in mind that mental depression is a major cause for disability in adult celiac disease. PMID:6182788

Hallert, C; Allenmark, S; Larsson-Cohn, U; Sedvall, G

1982-11-01

240

Double ring formation in single radial immunodiffusion for kappa chains in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double ring formation in single radial immunodiffusion for light chains of type kappa and not for light chains of type lambda was observed in cerebrospinal fluid in 24 out of 42 patients with multiple sclerosis, 1 patient with cerebral cysticercosis, 1 of 3 patients with neurosyphilis and 1 patient with spastic paraparesis of unknown eitology. Double ring formation was not

H. Iwashita; F. Grunwald; H. Bauer

1974-01-01

241

Vasopressin enhances the clearance of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity from rat cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

The effect of intracerebroventricular (lateral ventricle) administration of arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) on the concentration of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in the cerebrospinal fluid obtained from the cisterna magna was studied in rats. A decrease was observed 5 min following injection of 0.9 fmol AVP. No statistically significant changes were found 5 min after intracerebroventricular treatment of rats with 0.09 or 9 fmol. The decrease induced by 0.9 fmol AVP was of short duration and was found 5 min after treatment but not 10 and 20 min. Desglycinamide9-AVP (0.97 fmol), [pGlu4, Cyt6]-AVP-(4-9) (1.44 fmol), N alpha-acetyl-AVP (0.88 fmol), lysine8-vasopressin (0.94 fmol) and oxytocin (1 fmol) when intracerebroventricularly injected did not affect the levels of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in the cerebrospinal fluid 5 min later. This suggests that the intact AVP-(1-9) molecule is required for this effect. Intracerebroventricular pretreatment of rats with the vasopressin V1-receptor antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (8.63 fmol) completely blocked the effect of AVP (0.9 fmol). In order to investigate further the underlying mechanism, the effect of AVP on the disappearance from the cerebrospinal fluid of exogenously applied beta-endorphin was determined. Following intracerebroventricular injection of 1.46 pmol camel beta-endorphin-(1-31), the beta-endorphin immunoreactivity levels in the cisternal cerebrospinal fluid increased rapidly, and reached peak values at 10 min. The disappearance of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity from the cerebrospinal fluid then followed a biphasic pattern with calculated half-lives of 28 and 131 min for the initial and the terminal phase, respectively. Treatment of rats with AVP (0.9 fmol; icv) during either phase (10, 30, 55 min following intracerebroventricular administration of 1.46 pmol beta-endorphin-(1-31)) significantly enhanced the disappearance of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity from the cerebrospinal fluid. The data suggest that vasopressin plays a role in the regulation of beta-endorphin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid by modulating clearance mechanisms via V1-receptors in the brain. PMID:2138399

Sweep, C G; Boomkamp, M D; Barna, I; Logtenberg, A W; Wiegant, V M

1990-02-01

242

Immunoglobulin G avidity testing in serum and cerebrospinal fluid for analysis of measles virus infection.  

PubMed Central

We studied a variety of patients with measles virus infection by using avidity testing for measles virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples. For the avidity testing, an Enzygnost measles IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used with an 8 M urea denaturing method. With this method, low-avidity IgG (acute primary infection, avidity of < 30% within 15 days of the onset of rash) and high-avidity IgG (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, avidity of > 75%) could be clearly distinguished by using serum samples. One patient, who developed a typical course of measles despite a previous vaccination, showed a positive IgM response with an initial low titer of measles virus-specific IgG of low avidity, but a later sample revealed a high titer of IgG of intermediate (40%) avidity, suggesting previous immunological priming. Two patients with breakthrough infection (secondary vaccine failure), both having central nervous system involvement, showed a positive IgM response with initial high titers of serum IgG of high avidity. In addition, one of the patients had a detectable level of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid. In this patient, the avidity of both serum and cerebrospinal fluid IgG decreased during the short follow-up period. This phenomenon has never before been reported. In subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients, the avidity of cerebrospinal fluid IgG was consistently lower than that of serum IgG. The difference in avidity between cerebrospinal fluid and serum IgG may be used as a direct indicator of intrathecal production of IgG. In conclusion, the avidity testing is simple to perform, reliable, and highly informative in the analysis of measles virus infection.

Narita, M; Yamada, S; Matsuzono, Y; Itakura, O; Togashi, T; Kikuta, H

1996-01-01

243

Skull base osteosarcoma presenting with cerebrospinal fluid leakage after CyberKnife® treatment: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction CyberKnife® radiation is an effective treatment for unresectable skull base tumors because it can deliver a highly conformational dose distribution to the complex shapes of tumor extensions. There have been few reports of severe complications with this treatment. This is the first published case report to our knowledge of cerebrospinal fluid leakage induced by CyberKnife® radiotherapy. Case presentation A skull base tumor was identified on magnetic resonance imaging in a 78-year-old Asian woman with a headache in her forehead. An endoscopic transnasal tumor resection was performed; however, the tumor, invading into the cavernous sinuses and optic canal, was not completely removed. During the subtotal resection of the tumor, no cerebrospinal fluid leakage was observed. Osteosarcoma was histologically diagnosed, and CyberKnife® radiation was performed to the residual tumor considering the aggressive feature of the tumor with a molecular immunology Borstel-1 index of 15%. Five months after the treatment, magnetic resonance imaging showed definite tumor shrinkage, and the patient had been living her daily life without any troubles. After another month, the patient was transferred to our clinic because of coma with high fever, and computed tomography demonstrated severe pneumocephalus. Rhinorrhea was definitely identified on admission; therefore, emergency repair of the cerebrospinal fluid leakage was performed using an endoscope. Dural defects at the bottom of the sella turcica were identified under careful endoscopic observation and fat tissue was patched to the dural defects. Follow-up computed tomography proved complete disappearance of air from the cisterns 2 weeks after the surgery, and the patient was discharged from our hospital without any neurological deficits. Conclusion CyberKnife® radiation is one of the effective treatments for skull base tumors; however, the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leakage should be considered when tumor invasion to the dura mater is suspected. Emergency surgical treatment is required when cerebrospinal fluid leakage is induced by the radiotherapy because the leakage is not expected to be healed by palliative treatments.

2013-01-01

244

Echographic correlation of optic nerve sheath size and cerebrospinal fluid pressure.  

PubMed

A 23-year-old obese woman presented with papilledema. Computed tomography showed no intracranial mass lesions and lumbar puncture revealed an increased opening pressure, confirming the diagnosis of pseudo-tumor cerebri. Standardized echography of the optic nerves was performed immediately before and after lumbar puncture. A marked reduction of cerebrospinal fluid pressure correlated with a decrease in the subarachnoid fluid of the optic nerve sheath. PMID:2526162

Galetta, S; Byrne, S F; Smith, J L

1989-06-01

245

A reusable adapter for collection of cerebrospinal fluid in chronically cannulated goats.  

PubMed

A lightweight, adjustable adapter has been designed for chronic cannulation of goats (Capra hircus) which provides an accurate, safe means of sampling cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This cisternal cannula has been used for continuous perfusion of synthetic CSF into the fourth ventricle in unanesthetized goats. This method also has been used for examining changes in ionic composition of the CSF and cerebral interstitial fluid (ISF) during physiologic adaptations to high altitude (2-5). PMID:2811283

Forte, V A; Devine, J A; Cymerman, A

1989-09-01

246

Enteroviral and Mumps Meningitis in Toronto, 1963  

PubMed Central

Virological investigations of 115 children with the aseptic meningitis syndrome during 1963 resulted in the isolation of enteroviruses from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or feces of 21 of 48 children who had no association with mumps. For the third successive year, Echo 9 was the dominant enterovirus in cases of aseptic meningitis in Toronto children, but no rashes were associated with Echo 9 meningitis during 1963, in contradistinction to previous years. Mumps virus was isolated from CSF of 25 patients by inoculation of rhesus monkey kidney cultures, and rising or elevated mumps antihemagglutinin titres in paired sera from a further 33 cases provided laboratory evidence of infection with mumps virus in 58 of 67 patients with mumps meningoencephalitis. No enlargement of salivary glands was noted in 20 laboratory-proved cases of mumps meningoencephalitis. Enteroviral meningitis occurred principally during summer, but the peak of mumps meningoencephalitis occurred during late winter.

McLean, D. M.; Quantz, E. Joan; Bach, Ruth D.; Pevzner, B. Mae; Larke, R. P. B.; McNaughton, G. A.

1964-01-01

247

Rapid Detection of Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Cerebrospinal Fluid by a Seminested-PCR Strategy  

PubMed Central

A seminested-PCR assay, based on the amplification of the pneumococcal penicillin-binding protein 2B gene (pbp2B), was developed for the detection of penicillin-resistant and -susceptible pneumococci in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Species-specific primers (P5 and P6) which amplified a 682-bp conserved region of the transpeptidase-encoding region of the pbp2B gene were used. Four “resistance” primers were designed to bind to altered areas of the pbp2B gene identified in penicillin-resistant South African wild-type strains. Together with the downstream primer P6, the upstream resistance primers amplified fragments which were used to detect the presence of penicillin resistance. This system identified all 35 of the S. pneumoniae isolates evaluated, including strains of 11 different serotypes and a range of penicillin-resistant and -susceptible strains. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by its inability to amplify DNA from other bacterial species which commonly cause meningitis. It was possible to detect pneumococcal DNA from culture-negative CSF inoculated with 2.5 pg of purified DNA or 18 CFU. Analysis of 285 CSF specimens showed that PCR detected the pneumococcus in 18 samples positive by culture, including the identification of four penicillin-resistant isolates. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value of the assay were each 100%.

du Plessis, Mignon; Smith, Anthony M.; Klugman, Keith P.

1998-01-01

248

Association between viral load of varicella zoster virus in cerebrospinal fluid and the clinical course of central nervous system infection.  

PubMed

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) like other alphaherpes viruses stays latent after its primary infection. During its reactivation, it can infect the central nervous system (CNS) causing a variety of clinical presentations. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of VZV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), it is now recognized in some series as the most common causative agent of viral CNS infection. We aimed to investigate in our study the correlation between VZV viral load in the CSF and the clinical course of its infection, using quantitative real-time PCR. For this purpose, we examined 56 specimens of consecutive patients with positive CSF for VZV DNA in a qualitative test, with a clinical picture of meningitis or encephalitis collected over 10years in Rambam medical center. We found a significant correlation between VZV viral load and the severity and duration of neurological disease. We believe that using quantitative measurement of VZV DNA in the CSF, could serve as a prognostic marker which would influence treatment decisions. PMID:24666705

Rottenstreich, Amihai; Oz, Zipi Kra; Oren, Ilana

2014-06-01

249

A Case of Presumably Rathke's Cleft Cyst Associated with Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage through Persisting Embryonal Infundibular Recess.  

PubMed

Persisting embryonal infundibular recess (PEIR) is a rare anomaly of the third ventricular floor. Only eight cases have been published. In this report, a case of presumably Rathke's cleft cyst associated with cerebrospinal fluid leakage caused by PEIR is described. An 81-year-old woman underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for the intra- and supra-sellar cystic lesion. Intraoperatively a hole was confirmed over the sella turcica connecting the sellar cyst and the infundibular recess. Liquorrhea did not occur throughout the procedure. A computed tomography (CT) scan obtained immediately after surgery disclosed accumulation of air in the third and lateral ventricles, in addition to the intra- and supra-sellar region. Air accumulation resolved spontaneously after bed rest for 11 days and she was discharged without neurological deficits. However, she required the second transsphenoidal surgery to repair the sellar floor because of bacterial meningitis caused by liquorrhea on the postoperative day 23. A postoperative 3-tesla magnetic resonance image revealed a deep infundibular recess connecting the sella turcica and the third ventricle, which was considered to be PEIR. To the best our knowledge, this is the first reported case describing the intraoperative findings of PEIR. PMID:24305020

Kuroiwa, Masafumi; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Takemae, Toshiki; Hongo, Kazuhiro

2014-07-15

250

PCR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Detection of Persistent Enterococcus faecalis in Cerebrospinal Fluid following Treatment of Postoperative Ventriculitis  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of PCR and electrospray ionization followed by mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to evaluate “culture-negative” cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a 67-year-old man who developed postoperative bacterial ventriculitis following a suboccipital craniotomy for resection of an ependymoma in the 4th ventricle. CSF samples were obtained on seven occasions, beginning in the operating room at the time of insertion of a right ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) and continuing until his death, 6 weeks later. During the course of the illness, two initial CSF specimens taken before the initiation of antimicrobial treatment were notable for growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Once antimicrobial treatment was initiated, all CSF cultures were negative. PCR/ESI-MS detected genetic evidence of E. faecalis in all CSF samples, but the level of detection (LOD) decreased once antimicrobial treatment was initiated. When our patient returned with symptoms of meningitis 3 days after the completion of antibiotic treatment, CSF cultures remained negative, but PCR/ESI-MS again found genetic evidence for E. faecalis at levels comparable to the pretreatment levels seen initially. This unique case and these findings suggest that determination of CSF LOD by PCR/ESI-MS may be a very sensitive indicator of persistent infection in patients on antibiotic therapy for complex CNS infections and may have relevance for treatment duration and assessment of persistent or recurrent infection at the completion of therapy.

Tsung, Andrew J.; Flier, Lisa; Martinez, Derek L.; Beam, Sarah B.; Chen, Clifford; Lowery, Kristin S.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A.

2013-01-01

251

Penetration of drugs through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid/blood-brain barrier for treatment of central nervous system infections.  

PubMed

The entry of anti-infectives into the central nervous system (CNS) depends on the compartment studied, molecular size, electric charge, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding, affinity to active transport systems at the blood-brain/blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, and host factors such as meningeal inflammation and CSF flow. Since concentrations in microdialysates and abscesses are not frequently available for humans, this review focuses on drug CSF concentrations. The ideal compound to treat CNS infections is of small molecular size, is moderately lipophilic, has a low level of plasma protein binding, has a volume of distribution of around 1 liter/kg, and is not a strong ligand of an efflux pump at the blood-brain or blood-CSF barrier. When several equally active compounds are available, a drug which comes close to these physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties should be preferred. Several anti-infectives (e.g., isoniazid, pyrazinamide, linezolid, metronidazole, fluconazole, and some fluoroquinolones) reach a CSF-to-serum ratio of the areas under the curves close to 1.0 and, therefore, are extremely valuable for the treatment of CNS infections. In many cases, however, pharmacokinetics have to be balanced against in vitro activity. Direct injection of drugs, which do not readily penetrate into the CNS, into the ventricular or lumbar CSF is indicated when other effective therapeutic options are unavailable. PMID:20930076

Nau, Roland; Sörgel, Fritz; Eiffert, Helmut

2010-10-01

252

Evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis in a tertiary care hospital.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the performance of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in comparison with Gram staining and culture of cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis in patients with suspected bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity for detection of Neisseria meningitidis in cerebrospinal fluid was 87% (20/23) for the PCR assay, 27% (6/22) for Gram staining, and 17% (4/23) for culture. The sensitivity for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid was 100% (14/14) for the PCR assay, 62% (8/13) for Gram staining, and 36% (5/14) for culture. Therefore, we recommend that real-time PCR of cerebrospinal fluid for detection of N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae become a part of the routine diagnostic procedure for patients with suspected bacterial meningitis. PMID:17610095

Van Gastel, E; Bruynseels, P; Verstrepen, W; Mertens, A

2007-09-01

253

Use of Quantitative Broad-based Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection and Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens in Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis based on microscopy followed by culture is time-consuming and has only moderate sensitivity. Objectives The objective was to define the limit of detection (LOD), analytic specificity, and performance characteristics of a broad-based quantitative multiprobe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for rapid bacterial detection and simultaneous pathogen-specific identification in patients with suspected meningitis. Methods A PCR algorithm consisting of initial broad-based detection of Eubacteriales by a universal probe, followed by pathogen identification using either pathogen-specific probes or Gram-typing probes, was employed to detect pathogens. The 16S rRNA gene, which contains both conserved and variable regions, was chosen as the target. Pathogen-specific probes were designed for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. Gram-positive and -negative typing probes were designed based on conserved regions across all eubacteria. The LOD and time to detection were assessed by dilutional mocked-up samples. A total of 108 convenience cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clinical samples obtained from the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) microbiology laboratory were tested, and results were compared with hospital microbiologic culture reports. Results The LOD of the assay ranged from 101 to 102 colony-forming units (CFU) / mL. Pathogen-specific probes showed no cross-reactivity with other organisms. Time to detection was 3 hours. In clinical specimens, the universal probe correctly detected 16 of 22 culture-positive clinical specimens (sensitivity = 72.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.8% to 89.3%), which were all correctly characterized by either pathogen-specific or Gram-typing probes. Adjusted sensitivity after removing probable microbiologic laboratory contaminants was 88.9% (95% CI = 65.3% to 98.6%). The universal probe was negative for 86 of 86 culture-negative specimens. Conclusions A broad-based multiprobe PCR assay demonstrated strong analytic performance characteristics. Findings from a pilot clinical study showed promise in translation to human subjects, supporting potential utility of the assay as an adjunct to traditional diagnostics for early identification of bacterial meningitis.

Rothman, Richard; Ramachandran, Padmini; Yang, Samuel; Hardick, Andrew; Won, Helen; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Quianzon, Celeste; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gaydos, Charlotte

2013-01-01

254

Salmonella enterica Serotype Arizonae Meningitis in a Neonate  

PubMed Central

Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone, she developed communicating hydrocephalus, frequent seizures, and coma that progressed to death after 2 weeks of hospitalization. Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae is a rare cause of human infection known to leading to meningitis symptoms similar to those caused by other salmonella species. This is the first report of it as a cause of meningitis in a child under one month of age. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in immunocompromised children, neonates, and those with contacts with reptiles.

Lakew, Wubishet; Girma, Abayneh; Triche, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

255

Postsurgical Pantoea calida meningitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pantoea calida, a recently described environmental Enterobacteriaceae organism, has not yet been associated with human infection. Case presentation We report a case of postoperative meningitis caused by P. calida. After pituitary adenoma resection, a 52-year-old Caucasian woman developed febrile meningitis confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis. P. calida was grown in pure culture from this fluid and was firmly identified with partial rpoB gene sequencing. She was cured by a 14-day course of meropenem. Conclusions P. calida must be added to the list of opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae pathogens responsible for postsurgical meningitis. It is easily identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

2014-01-01

256

Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial meningitis is relatively common, can progress rapidly, and can result in death or permanent debilitation. This infection justifiably elicits strong emotional reactions and, hopefully, immediate medical intervention. This review is a brief presentation of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis and a review of current knowledge, literature, and recommendations on the subject of laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Those who work in clinical microbiology laboratories should be familiar with the tests used in detecting bacteria and bacterial antigens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and should always have the utmost appreciation for the fact that results of such tests must always be reported immediately. Academic and practical aspects of the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis presented in this review include the following: anatomy of the meninges; pathogenesis; changes in the composition of CSF; etiological agents; processing CSF; microscopic examination of CSF; culturing CSF; methods of detecting bacterial antigens and bacterial components in CSF (counter-immunoelectrophoresis, coagglutination, latex agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and gas-liquid chromatography); use of the polymerase chain reaction; and practical considerations for testing CSF for bacterial antigens.

Gray, L D; Fedorko, D P

1992-01-01

257

Pregnancy and vaginal delivery in epidural analgesia in woman with cerebrospinal fluid shunt.  

PubMed

Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by enlargement of cerebral ventricles due to abnormal cerebrospinal fluid accumulation. Hydrocephalic women with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts are now surviving to reproductive age, but still there are doubts regarding the mode of delivery, analgesia and anesthesia. Postpartal complications are more frequently described in deliveries ended by cesarean section than in spontaneous vaginal deliveries. We present a case of labor in the 32-year old woman, with congenital hydrocephalus and a preexisting ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. After thorough review of current literature, we came to conclusion that without absolute neurosurgical indication or acute development of listed symptoms (headaches, irritability, light sensitivity, hyperesthesia nausea, vomiting, vertigo, migraines, seizures, weakness in the arms or legs, strabismus and double vision) the best way to finish the pregnancy of woman with VP shunt is spontaneous vaginal delivery with the use of epidural analgesia, mediolateral episiotomy and vacuum extraction. PMID:24611354

Bursac, Danijel; Kulas, Tomislav; Persec, Jasminka; Persec, Zoran; Dui?, Zeljko; Partl, Jasenka Zmijanac; Glavi?, Zeljko; Hrgovi?, Zlatko; Bojani?, Katarina

2013-12-01

258

Observation of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea to body mass index: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine whether there is a correlation among overweight, gender and the risk of development of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea. The clinical data of eight patients diagnosed with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea who had been treated at our tertiary referral centre between 1998 and 2007 were assessed. Demographically, seven patients were female and one male with ages ranging from 14 to 53 years with a mean age of 43.6 years. This observation revealed that all patients were overweight with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 32.5 kg/m2. This study suggests that there is a trend of increasing BMI to the risk of developing a spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea. PMID:18705467

Gendeh, B S; Salina, H

2007-12-01

259

Identification of neuropeptide FF-related peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid by mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several neuropeptide FF (NPFF)-related peptides, known as modulators of the opioid system, have been previously characterized in bovine and rodent brain. Reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractions of a human with normal pressure hydrocephalus cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), co-migrating with NPFF-related synthetic peptides, were characterized by capillary HPLC coupled on-line to nanospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Two peptides present

Odile Burlet-Schiltz; Honoré Mazarguil; Jean-Christophe Sol; Patrick Chaynes; Bernard Monsarrat; Jean-Marie Zajac; Anne Roussin

2002-01-01

260

Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Nitric Oxide and Nitrotyrosine in Neonates With Mild Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the role of cerebral nitric oxide and its powerful oxidant peroxynitrite following mild birth asphyxia. The cerebrospinal fluid levels of nitric oxide and 3-nitrotyrosine as a marker for peroxynitrite are measured in neonates with mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Based on the classification of Sarnat and Sarnat, term neonates with mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and

Kivicim Gücüyener; Ebru Ergenekon; Tuncay Demiryürek; Deniz Erbas; Güler Öztürk; Esin Koç; Yildiz Atalay

2002-01-01

261

Hydrocephalus communicans after traumatic upper cervical spine injury with a cerebrospinal fluid fistula: a rare complication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary hydrocephalus communicans after traumatic upper cervical spine injuries with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid is a rare and hardly described complication. A case of a 75-year-old woman sustained a type II dens axis without other injuries, especially without evidence of a hydrocephalus in the primary CT scan. Dorsal atlanto-axial fusion was performed. Postoperative drainage was prolonged and positive for ?2-transferrin.

Ladislav Mica; Valentin Neuhaus; Enrico Pöschmann; Dilek Könü-Leblebicioglu; Urs Schwarz; Guido A Wanner; Clément ML Werner; Hans-Peter Simmen

2010-01-01

262

Infection of Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Causative Pathogens, Clinical Features, and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This retrospective chart review describes the clinical features, pathogens, and outcomes of 46 patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infections collected over 16 years. The overall CSF shunt infection rate was 2.1%, broken down into 1.7 and 9.3% in adult and pediatric groups, respectively. Fever and progressive consciousness disturbance were the most prominent clinical features in the adult patient

Kuo-Wei Wang; Wen-Neng Chang; Teng-Yuan Shih; Chi-Ren Huang; Nai-Wen Tsai; Chen-Sheng Chang; Yao-Chung Chuang; Po-Chou Liliang; Thung-Ming Su; Cheng-Shyuan Rau; Yu-Duan Tsai; Ben-Chung Cheng; Pi-Lien Hung; Chin-Jung Chang; Cheng-Hsien Lu

263

Measurement of resiniferatoxin in cerebrospinal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for the quantification of resiniferatoxin (RTX) in canine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A reversed-phase C18 column and acetonitrile in 0.02 M NaH2PO4 as mobile phase provided satisfactory resolution for RTX analysis. Direct HPLC analysis of the CSF samples without sample extraction or preparation improves the accuracy and detection limits of

Andrew J Mannes; Dorothy Cimino Brown; Sandra Z Perkowski; Jason Keller; Robert M Caudle; Michael J Iadarola; Qing C Meng

2002-01-01

264

Specific and Surrogate Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers in Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Detection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers is a major challenge for laboratories involved in neurological disorder\\u000a diagnostics and the long list of putative markers now available reflects the enormous efforts and the relevance of CSF in\\u000a neurology. The result of these intensive studies on CSF is that specific biomarkers are included as supportive criteria for\\u000a neurodegenerative disorder diagnosis. The diagnostic

Gianluigi Zanusso; Michele Fiorini; Pier Giorgio Righetti; Salvatore Monaco

265

Quantitative analysis of amyloid-  peptides in cerebrospinal fluid using immunoprecipitation and MALDI-Tof mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoprecipitation (IP) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time of flight (Tof) mass spectrometry has been used to develop quantitative assays for amyloid-b (Ab) peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Inclusion of 15N labelled standard peptides allows for absolute quantification of multiple Ab isoforms in individual samples. Characterization of variability associated with all steps of the assay indicated that the

Valentina Gelfanova; Richard E. Higgs; Robert A. Dean; David M. Holtzman; Martin R. Farlow; Eric R. Siemers; Amechand Boodhoo; Yue-Wei Qian; Xiaohua He; Zhaoyan Jin; Deborah L. Fisher; Karen L. Cox; John E. Hale

2007-01-01

266

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of ritonavir in human plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir in human plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and saliva. Sample pretreatment consisted of precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile prior to high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 239 nm. The method has been validated over the range of 50 ng\\/ml

Richard M. W Hoetelmans; Marjolijn van Essenberg; Monique Profijt; Pieter L Meenhorst; Jan W Mulder; Jos H Beijnen

1998-01-01

267

Detection of cancer cells in the cerebrospinal fluid: current methods and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of cancer into the central nervous system is a serious problem leading to neurological symptoms and rapid mortality.\\u000a The current tools available for detecting the spread of cancer into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are cytology, neurologic\\u000a examination, and neuroimaging. All three of these methods can be applied in concert to reach a diagnosis, but they all suffer\\u000a from

Cody L Weston; Michael J Glantz; James R Connor

2011-01-01

268

Direct sample injection for capillary electrophoretic determination of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are potential diagnostic markers for neurological diseases and metabolic disorders.\\u000a A capillary electrophoretic (CE) method for the direct analysis, i.e., without any sample preparation, of six organic acids\\u000a in CSF was developed. A capillary coating consisting of a triple layer of charged polymers (polybrene-dextran sulfate-polybrene)\\u000a was used in combination with a negative separation voltage,

Rawi Ramautar; Govert W. Somsen; Gerhardus J. de Jong

2007-01-01

269

Proteomic Discovery of Biomarkers in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Brain Tumor Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases often induce changes in the protein composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as\\u000a this liquid bathes the brain and collects its secreted products. The detection and monitoring of such pathology-related changes\\u000a can be exploited for their relation to tumor growth in the brain. The potential of using differential proteomic profiling\\u000a in CNS malignancies to identify

Fatima W. Khwaja; Erwin G. Van Meir

270

Distinct Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomes Differentiate Post-Treatment Lyme Disease from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNeurologic Post Treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS) and Chronic Fatigue (CFS) are syndromes of unknown etiology. They share features of fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, making it difficult to differentiate them. Unresolved is whether nPTLS is a subset of CFS.Methods and Principal FindingsPooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from nPTLS patients, CFS patients, and healthy volunteers were comprehensively analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry

Steven E. Schutzer; Thomas E. Angel; Tao Liu; Athena A. Schepmoes; Therese R. Clauss; Joshua N. Adkins; David G. Camp; Bart K. Holland; Jonas Bergquist; Patricia K. Coyle; Richard D. Smith; Brian A. Fallon; Benjamin H. Natelson; Howard Gendelman

2011-01-01

271

Factors Influencing the Measurement of Lysosomal Enzymes Activity in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Measurements of the activities of lysosomal enzymes in cerebrospinal fluid have recently been proposed as putative biomarkers for Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. To define the operating procedures useful for ensuring the reliability of these measurements, we analyzed several pre-analytical factors that may influence the activity of ?-glucocerebrosidase, ?-mannosidase, ?-mannosidase, ?-galactosidase, ?-fucosidase, ?-hexosaminidase, cathepsin D and cathepsin E in cerebrospinal fluid. Lysosomal enzyme activities were measured by well-established fluorimetric assays in a consecutive series of patients (n?=?28) with different neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease. The precision, pre-storage and storage conditions, and freeze/thaw cycles were evaluated. All of the assays showed within- and between-run variabilities below 10%. At ?20°C, only cathepsin D was stable up to 40 weeks. At ?80°C, the cathepsin D, cathepsin E, and ?-mannosidase activities did not change significantly up to 40 weeks, while ?-glucocerebrosidase activity was stable up to 32 weeks. The ?-galactosidase and ?-fucosidase activities significantly increased (+54.9±38.08% after 4 weeks and +88.94±36.19% after 16 weeks, respectively). Up to four freeze/thaw cycles did not significantly affect the activities of cathepsins D and E. The ?-glucocerebrosidase activity showed a slight decrease (?14.6%) after two freeze/thaw cycles. The measurement of lysosomal enzyme activities in cerebrospinal fluid is reliable and reproducible if pre-analytical factors are accurately taken into consideration. Therefore, the analytical recommendations that ensue from this study may contribute to the establishment of actual values for the activities of cerebrospinal fluid lysosomal enzymes as putative biomarkers for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

Parnetti, Lucilla; Eusebi, Paolo; Paciotti, Silvia; De Carlo, Claudia; Codini, Michela; Tambasco, Nicola; Rossi, Aroldo; Agnaf, Omar M. El.; Calabresi, Paolo; Beccari, Tommaso

2014-01-01

272

Hypertonic Saline Reduces Intracranial Hypertension in the Presence of High Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Osmolalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Osmotherapy has been the cornerstone in the management of patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) following traumatic\\u000a brain injury (TBI). Several studies have demonstrated that hypertonic saline (HTS) is a safe and effective osmotherapy agent.\\u000a This study evaluated the effectiveness of HTS in reducing intracranial hypertension in the presence of a wide range of serum\\u000a and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osmolalities.

Eduardo Paredes-Andrade; Sarah B. Rockswold; Rick M. Odland; Gaylan L. Rockswold

273

Normal and Hydrocephalic Brain Dynamics: The Role of Reduced Cerebrospinal Fluid Reabsorption in Ventricular Enlargement  

Microsoft Academic Search

CINE phase-contrast MRI (CINE-MRI) was used to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) velocities and flow rates in the brain of\\u000a six normal subjects and five patients with communicating hydrocephalus. Mathematical brain models were created using the MRI\\u000a images of normal subjects and hydrocephalic patients. In our model, the effect of pulsatile vascular expansion is responsible\\u000a for pulsatile CSF flow between the

Andreas A. Linninger; Brian Sweetman; Richard Penn

2009-01-01

274

Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis Should Be Considered in Patients with Cognitive Problems  

PubMed Central

Hepatologists assay liver enzymes and cardiologists structural heart proteins in serum to diagnose and monitor their patients. This way of thinking has not quite made it into the memory clinics yet, in spite of the availability of validated cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for key pathological events in the brain in neurodegeneration. Here, we argue that a spinal tap should be considered in all patients who seek medical advice for memory problems and list the highly relevant clinical questions CSF analyses can address.

Zetterberg, Henrik; Mattsson, Niklas; Blennow, Kaj

2010-01-01

275

Evidence of Cellular Immune Activation in Children With Opsoclonus-Myoclonus: Cerebrospinal Fluid Neopterin  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate cellular immune activation in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, we measured the inflammatory marker neopterin in the cerebrospinal fluid of 16 children with opsoclonus-myoclonus and neuroblastoma, 24 children with opsoclonus-myoclonus but no tumor, and 19 age-matched controls. The mean concentration in opsoclonus-myoclonus was 2.3-fold higher than in controls (P = .008). Neopterin was greatly elevated in four of the most neurologically

Michael R. Pranzatelli; Keith Hyland; Elizabeth D. Tate; Lauren A. Arnold; Tyler J. Allison; Gamini S. Soori

2004-01-01

276

Access of HTB, main metabolite of triflusal, to cerebrospinal fluid in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Triflusal has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects by downregulating molecules considered responsible for the development of Alzhei- mer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to characterize plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics of the main active metabolite of triflusal—HTB (2-hy- droxy-4-trifluoro-methylbenzoic acid)—in healthy vol- unteers. Methods: Data from two studies

M. Valle; M. J. Barbanoj; A. Donner; I. Izquierdo; U. Herranz; N. Klein; H. G. Eichler; M. Müller; M. Brunner

2005-01-01

277

Central Nervous System Toxicity and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pharmacokinetics of Intraventricularly Administered Bleomycin in Beagles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotoxic effects and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharma- cokinetics of bleomycin were evaluated in beagles after chronic intraventricular administration twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Bleomycin was reasonably well tolerated at doses of 0.067 to 0.3 mg\\/week. Doses higher than 0.3 mg\\/week produced marked elevation of CSF protein levels and a necrotizing vas- culitis within the central nervous system.

Victor A. Levin; Deborah Byrd; Branimir I. Sikic; B. Bill Etiz; Julia Campbell; Janice K. Bereich; Richard L. Davis

278

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum S100B: release and wash-out pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

S100B is an important brain specific protein for monitoring damage and activation of astrocytes. Using a straight forward, non-resource demanding in-house ELISA technique we measured S100B in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) (serum), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (CSF, serum), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) (CSF, serum), normal controls (NC) (serum) and a reference population (CSF, N=409).

A. Petzold; G. Keir; D. Lim; M. Smith; E. J. Thompson

2003-01-01

279

Quantification of poly(ADP-ribose)-modified proteins in cerebrospinal fluid from infants and children after traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of proteins by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) occurs after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) and modulates neurologic outcome. Several promising pharmacological PARP inhibitors have been developed for use in humans, but there is currently no clinically relevant means of monitoring treatment effects. We therefore used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure PAR-modified proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Cerebrospinal fluid

Ericka L Fink; Yichen Lai; Xiaopeng Zhang; Keri Janesko-Feldman; P David Adelson; Csaba Szabó; Rachel P Berger; Ajit A Sarnaik; Patrick M Kochanek; Robert S B Clark; RSB Clark

2008-01-01

280

Circulating neuroactive peptides and the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers.  

PubMed

Interactions of radiolabelled circulating neuroactive peptides: enkephalin-leucine (Enk-Leu), delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and vasopressin-arginine (VP-Arg) with the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers were studied by mean of: 1. a vascular perfusion technique in the guinea-pig using multiple-time brain uptake analysis, 2. a vascular perfusion technique of the in situ isolated choroid plexus from sheep using single-circulation paired-tracer dilution or steady-state analysis. It has been demonstrated that Enk-Leu, DSIP and VP-Arg were taken up intact at the luminal side of the blood-brain barrier and blood-tissue interface of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier by a saturable mechanism. On the other hand, a non-saturable mechanism as well as possible enzymatic degradation were shown during TRH interactions with either the blood-brain or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. It is concluded that both, facilitated and simple diffusion, govern circulating neuroactive peptide uptake into the central nervous system. PMID:2193795

Zlokovic, B V; Segal, M B; Davson, H; Lipovac, M N; Hyman, S; McComb, J G

1990-03-01

281

Computational Fluid Dynamics for the Assessment of Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow and Its Coupling with Cerebral Blood Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid flow are directly linked to those of the ­cardiovascular system. The heart not only drives\\u000a blood flow, but is also at the origin of CSF pulsation through the expansion and contraction of cerebral blood vessels. As\\u000a was detailed in the preceding chapter, CSF dynamics can be altered by diseases and conditions such as hydrocephalus and,

Vartan Kurtcuoglu

282

Spinal meningeal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in meningeal seeding by malignant lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Definite diagnosis of meningeal seeding by systemic cancer relies on the presence of malignant cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the absence of such cells in the CSF, only two other tests strongly suggest the diagnosis - a CT scan and a myelogram. This paper reports a case in which the diagnosis was strongly suggested by an unusual uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate by the leptomeninges during a skeletal scan and later established by the presence of malignant cells in the CSF. The radionuclide scan may be an additional diagnostic test in some cases with meningeal seeding by systemic cancer.

Siegal, T.; Or, R.; Matzner, Y.; Samuels, L.D.

1980-12-01

283

Elevated BAFF levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuro-Behçet's disease: BAFF is correlated with progressive dementia and psychosis.  

PubMed

Neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD) is a serious complication of Behçet's disease. Generally, NBD patients with a chronic course are refractory to immunosuppressive treatment, resulting in the deterioration of personality. In this study, levels of B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 18 patients with NBD, 27 patients with epidemic aseptic meningitis (AM), 24 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 34 healthy controls. BAFF levels in patients with NBD were significantly elevated compared with healthy controls, but showed no statistically significant elevation compared with either of the disease controls. In contrast, CSF IL-6 levels were slightly elevated in patients with NBD and significantly elevated in patients with AM and MS compared with healthy controls. Patients with NBD were subdivided into two groups according to their clinical course (eight patients with a slowly progressive course presenting with psychosis and dementia and 10 patients with an acute course including aseptic meningitis, brainstem involvement and myelopathy). BAFF levels were significantly increased in those with a slowly progressive course compared with those with an acute course. CSF BAFF levels did not correlate with serum BAFF levels, CSF cell counts or CSF IL-6 levels in patients with NBD. These data suggested that BAFF was produced within the central nervous system and may be associated with the development of NBD, particularly with a progressive course. PMID:22340436

Sumita, Y; Murakawa, Y; Sugiura, T; Wada, Y; Nagai, A; Yamaguchi, S

2012-06-01

284

Elevated BAFF Levels in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neuro-Beh?et's Disease: BAFF is Correlated with Progressive Dementia and Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD) is a serious complication of Behçet's disease. Generally, NBD patients with a chronic course are refractory to immunosuppressive treatment, resulting in the deterioration of personality. In this study, levels of B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 18 patients with NBD, 27 patients with epidemic aseptic meningitis (AM), 24 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 34 healthy controls. BAFF levels in patients with NBD were significantly elevated compared with healthy controls, but showed no statistically significant elevation compared with either of the disease controls. In contrast, CSF IL-6 levels were slightly elevated in patients with NBD and significantly elevated in patients with AM and MS compared with healthy controls. Patients with NBD were subdivided into two groups according to their clinical course (eight patients with a slowly progressive course presenting with psychosis and dementia and 10 patients with an acute course including aseptic meningitis, brainstem involvement and myelopathy). BAFF levels were significantly increased in those with a slowly progressive course compared with those with an acute course. CSF BAFF levels did not correlate with serum BAFF levels, CSF cell counts or CSF IL-6 levels in patients with NBD. These data suggested that BAFF was produced within the central nervous system and may be associated with the development of NBD, particularly with a progressive course.

Sumita, Y; Murakawa, Y; Sugiura, T; Wada, Y; Nagai, A; Yamaguchi, S

2012-01-01

285

A case of systemic lupus erythematosus presenting transverse myelitis after an episode of meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 27-year-old woman suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus was admitted because she had motor and sensory palsy of the lower extremities, neck stiffness, and a fever. Cerebrospinal fluid study indicated meningitis, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed cord swelling and high signals at Th9–Th12 levels. Antibiotics treatment led to resolution of the meningeal signs. Intravenous cyclophosphamide and prednisolone resulted in a

Toru Yago; Mutsuto Tateishi; Naomi Ichikawa; Takefumi Furuya; Tadashi Sakurai; Hiroshi Nakajima; Masako Hara; Naoyuki Kamatani

2005-01-01

286

Prospective Validation of a Diagnosis Model as an Aid to Therapeutic Decision-Making in Acute Meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to validate a diagnosis model that provides pABM, the probability of bacterial versus viral meningitis,\\u000a based on four parameters collected at the time of first lumbar tap: cerebrospinal fluid protein level, cerebrospinal fluid\\u000a polymorphonuclear cell count, blood glucose level, and leucocyte count. The model was evaluated prospectively as an aid to\\u000a therapeutic decision-making in

V. Baty; J.-F. Viel; H. Schuhmacher; F. Jaeger; P. Canton; B. Hoen

2000-01-01

287

Relationship of neurologic status in macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus to cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid.  

PubMed

Increased concentrations of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) have been implicated in the neurologic deficits and brain atrophy that may accompany infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Key neuropathologic features of the AIDS encephalitis are replicated in some macaques following infection with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In the present studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) QUIN concentrations increased within 2 weeks following infection of 11 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a neurotropic sooty mangabey isolate of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) and were sustained to greater than 2 standard deviations above uninfected control macaques. Highest CSF QUIN concentrations (up to 400-fold above pre-inoculation levels) were observed in 6 SIVsm-infected macaques with motor and behavioral abnormalities during life, brain atrophy on MRI scan and inflammatory lesions within the brain and meninges. Four of the 6 neurologic macaques deteriorated rapidly within 12 weeks after inoculation and had substantially larger increases in CSF QUIN levels than 2 other neurologic macaques and 5 macaques without neurologic signs which survived for longer than 37 weeks. Increases in serum QUIN and CSF kynurenic acid also occurred but generally to a lesser degree than the increases in CSF QUIN. In some animals, increases in serum L-kynurenine concentrations and reductions in CSF and serum L-tryptophan occurred and were consistent with activation of indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase, the first enzyme of the kynurenine pathway in extrahepatic tissues. CSF QUIN exceeded serum QUIN in 8.8% of samples from macaques with neurologic signs, supporting increased QUIN synthesis within the central nervous system. Production of [13C6]QUIN was demonstrated in one SIVsm-infected macaque and one uninfected control macaque following an intracisternal injection of [13C6]L-tryptophan and suggests that L-tryptophan is a substrate for QUIN synthesis within the nervous system or meninges, although the cellular localization of QUIN synthesis remain to be determined. We conclude that increases in kynurenine pathway metabolism occur in SIV-infected macaques and are most prominent in macaques with neurologic signs. Macaques infected with SIV offer a model to investigate the relationship between the metabolism of neuroactive kynurenines and neurologic disturbances associated with retroviral infection. PMID:1535532

Heyes, M P; Jordan, E K; Lee, K; Saito, K; Frank, J A; Snoy, P J; Markey, S P; Gravell, M

1992-01-20

288

Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis: a phase contrast magnetic resonance study  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics, which supposedly have a strong relationship with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), might be expected to be affected in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In this study, CSF flow at the level of the cerebral aqueduct was evaluated quantitatively by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) to determine whether CSF flow dynamics are affected in MS patients. We studied 40 MS patients and 40 healthy controls using PC-MRI. We found significantly higher caudocranial (p=0.010) and craniocaudal CSF flow volumes (p=0.015) and stroke volume (p=0.010) in the MS patients compared with the controls. These findings may support the venous occlusion theory, but may also be explained by atrophy-dependent ventricular dilatation independent of the venous theory in MS patients.

Gorucu, Yasin; Albayram, Sait; Balci, Belgin; Hasiloglu, Zehra Isik; Yenigul, Kubilay; Yargic, Fatma; Keser, Zafer; Kantarci, Fatih; Kiris, Adem

289

Transmigration of polymorphnuclear neutrophils and monocytes through the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after bacterial infection in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial invasion through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) during bacterial meningitis causes secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines followed by the recruitment of leukocytes into the CNS. In this study, we analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte transepithelial transmigration (TM) across the BCSFB after bacterial infection. Methods Using an inverted transwell filter system of human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), we studied leukocyte TM rates, the migration route by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, the secretion of cytokines/chemokines by cytokine bead array and posttranslational modification of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) ? via western blot. Results PMNs showed a significantly increased TM across HIBCPP after infection with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis (MC58). In contrast, a significantly decreased monocyte transmigration rate after bacterial infection of HIBCPP could be observed. Interestingly, in co-culture experiments with PMNs and monocytes, TM of monocytes was significantly enhanced. Analysis of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance confirmed an intact barrier function during leukocyte TM. With the help of the different imaging techniques we could provide evidence for para- as well as for transcellular migrating leukocytes. Further analysis of secreted cytokines/chemokines showed a distinct pattern after stimulation and transmigration of PMNs and monocytes. Moreover, the transmembrane glycoprotein SIRP? was deglycosylated in monocytes, but not in PMNs, after bacterial infection. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that PMNs and monoctyes differentially migrate in a human BCSFB model after bacterial infection. Cytokines and chemokines as well as transmembrane proteins such as SIRP? may be involved in this process.

2013-01-01

290

A management algorithm for cerebrospinal fluid leak associated with anterior skull base fractures: detailed clinical and radiological follow-up.  

PubMed

Detailed outcome data for the management of anterior skull base fractures associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is lacking. We present detailed follow-up data of a single-center study using a predetermined algorithm for the management of CSF leakage secondary to traumatic fractures. A number of 138 consecutive patients were included in the analysis; all patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning at time of admission with ?(2)-transferrin testing used to confirm CSF leakage. Patients with acute surgical indications were operated as emergent; leaks were repaired at the time of initial surgery in patients with intracranial pressure?meningitis rate was low (1.9%). Postoperative CSF leak (1.9%) was managed by intradural or transnasal endoscopic operation. Comparable rates of anosmia and frontal lobe hypodensities were seen in the surgical and conservatively managed subgroups. The presented algorithm, utilizing prophylactic antibiotics, trial of LD, acute and/or delayed intradural microsurgery, yields favorable outcomes. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to better define the role of prophylactic antibiotics and to better characterize the optimal timing and approach of surgical repair. PMID:21947554

Sherif, Camillo; Di Ieva, Antonio; Gibson, Daniel; Pakrah-Bodingbauer, Bita; Widhalm, Georg; Krusche-Mandl, Irena; Erdoes, Jozsef; Gilloon, Benjamin; Matula, Christian

2012-04-01

291

Quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in HIV-1 infection: relationship to clinical and neurological status.  

PubMed

Quinolinic acid is an "excitotoxic" metabolite and an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who were neurologically normal or exhibited only equivocal and subclinical signs of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex, concentrations of quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were increased twofold in patients in the early stages of disease (Walter Reed stages 1 and 2) and averaged 3.8 times above normal in later-stage patients (Walter Reed stages 4 through 6). However, in patients with either clinically overt AIDS dementia complex, aseptic meningitis, opportunistic infections, or neoplasms, CSF levels were elevated over 20-fold and generally paralleled the severity of cognitive and motor dysfunction. CSF concentrations of quinolinic acid were significantly correlated to the severity of the neuropsychological deficits. After treatment of AIDS dementia complex with zidovudine and treatment of the opportunistic infections with specific antimicrobial therapies, CSF levels of quinolinic acid decreased in parallel with clinical neurological improvement. By analysis of the relationship between levels of quinolinic acid in the CSF and serum and integrity of the blood-brain barrier, as measured by the CSF:serum albumin ratio, it appears that CSF levels of quinolinic acid may be derived predominantly from intracerebral sources and perhaps from the serum. While quinolinic acid may be another "marker" of host- and virus-mediated events in the brain, the established excitotoxic effects of quinolinic acid and the magnitude of the increases in CSF levels of the acid raise the possibility that quinolinic acid plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of brain dysfunction associated with HIV-1 infection. PMID:1826418

Heyes, M P; Brew, B J; Martin, A; Price, R W; Salazar, A M; Sidtis, J J; Yergey, J A; Mouradian, M M; Sadler, A E; Keilp, J

1991-02-01

292

Isoelectric focusing in agarose gel for detection of oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal and other biological fluids.  

PubMed

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) coupled with immunodetection (immunofixation or immunoblotting) has become the leading technique for the detection and study of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and also is increasingly used in other body fluids such as the tear and serum. Limited commercial availability of precast agarose IEF gels for research and a need for customization prompted reporting a detailed general protocol for the preparation and casting of agarose IEF gel along with sample, control, and isoelectric point marker preparation and carrying out the focusing itself for CSF OCBs. However, the method is readily adaptable to the use of other body fluid specimens and, possibly, research specimens such as culture fluids as well. PMID:22585491

Csako, Gyorgy

2012-01-01

293

Surgical management of bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed Central

A variety of associated lesions may require the neurosurgeon's assistance in the management of bacterial meningitis. As treatment of this infection of the central nervous system proceeds, the surgeon will have to decide about the concurrent or subsequent operative treatment of congenital dysraphic states, paraneural infections, compound fractures or penetrating wounds of thecranium or spine, or infected bypass shunts for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In patients with intractable meningitic infections the surgeon may have to insert a ventricular drainage-irrigation system to permit adequate perfusion of the CSF pathways with antibiotic. Hydrocephalus or subdural effusions complicating meningitis may bring the patient to the surgeon long after the infection has been cured. This paper examines these problems and outlines the current principles of management. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2

Humphreys, R. P.

1975-01-01

294

Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst occurring 21 years after ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement is an established procedure for the treatment of hydrocephalus of diverse etiologies in children and adults. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst, which is potentially life threatening, is a rare complication and usually occurs during childhood. However, with increasing longevity following successful treatment, it can also occur in adults. Case presentation Here we describe a 22-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital because of diffuse abdominal distention. A VPS was placed 21 years earlier to treat hydrocephalus secondary to spina bifida. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a homogeneous low-density fluid collection adjacent to the VPS catheter tip, causing stomach obstruction. Thus a peritoneal pseudocyst around VPS was suspected and emergency laparotomy was performed. The large mass was localized in the left upper abdomen between the stomach and mesentery of the transverse colon, exactly at the omental bursa. The cystic mass was opened and 1500 ml of clear fluid was drained; the distal end of the VPS was repositioned outside the mass. Thus, an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst as a complication of VPS was diagnosed. Conclusion Gastroenterological surgeons should be aware of this possible complication, and this complication should be considered during differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen complaint.

2013-01-01

295

Fulminant Meningitis after Radiotherapy for Clival Chordoma  

PubMed Central

The best treatment for clival chordoma is obtained with total surgical excision, sometimes combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula is a fatal complication that may occur following extended transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) and adjuvant radiotherapy. We report a case of fulminant meningitis without a CSF fistula in a 57-year-old woman who underwent TSS and multiple radiotherapies for a clival chordoma. She presented to our emergency room with copious epistaxis and odor inside her nasal cavity and had an unexpected fatal outcome. She was diagnosed with meningitis based on CSF culture and blood culture. While treating clival chordomas with adjuvant radiotherapy, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of fulminant meningitis.

Park, Hyun Wook; Park, Moon Sun; Chung, Seung Young; Park, Ki Seok; Lee, Do Sung; Oh, Jung Tae

2013-01-01

296

Altered Concentrations of Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolites in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Progressive cognitive dysfunction such as impairments in executive function and verbal memory is common in euthymic bipolar patients. The cerebrospinal fluid has previously been used to study neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer's disease, from which changes in three core biomarkers have emerged as indicative of degeneration: amyloid ?, total tau, and hyperphosphorylated tau. Here, neurodegeneration in bipolar disorder was investigated by assessing the association between bipolar disorder and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neurodegenerative processes. Cerebrospinal fluid was obtained from 139 bipolar disorder patients and 71 healthy controls. Concentrations of total and phosphorylated tau, amyloid ?1-42, amyloid ?38/?40/?42, and the soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein were measured in patients vs controls. The concentrations of the soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein were significantly lower in bipolar patients compared with controls. The amyloid ?42/amyloid ?38 and the amyloid ?42/amyloid ?40 ratios were higher in bipolar patients than controls. There were no discernible differences in the concentrations of total/phosphorylated tau, amyloid ?1-42, or amyloid ?38/?40/?42. The concentrations of the biomarkers within the bipolar patient group were further associated with different ongoing medical treatments and diagnostic subgroups. The findings suggest that the amyloid precursor protein metabolism is altered in bipolar disorder. The results may have implications for the understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and for the development of treatment strategies. Importantly, there were no signs of an Alzheimer-like neurodegenerative process among bipolar patients.

Jakobsson, Joel; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Johan Ekman, Carl; Johansson, Anette G M; Landen, Mikael

2013-01-01

297

Cerebrospinal fluid and serum cytokine profiles in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide strong support that narcolepsy-cataplexy is an immune-mediated disease. Only few serum cytokine studies with controversial results were performed in narcolepsy and none in the cerebrospinal fluid. We measured a panel of 12 cytokines by a proteomic approach in the serum of 35 patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy compared to 156 healthy controls, and in the cerebrospinal fluid of 34 patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy compared to 17 non-narcoleptic patients; and analyzed the effect of age, duration and severity of disease on the cytokine levels. After multiple adjustments we reported lower serum IL-2, IL-8, TNF-?, MCP-1 and EGF levels, and a tendency for higher IL-4 level in narcolepsy compared to controls. Significant differences were only found for IL-4 in cerebrospinal fluid, being higher in narcolepsy. Positive correlations were found in serum between IL-4, daytime sleepiness, and cataplexy frequency. The expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, VEGF, EGF, IL2, IL-1?, IFN-?) in either serum or CSF was negatively correlated with disease severity and duration. No correlation was found for any specific cytokine in 18 of the patients with narcolepsy with peripheral and central samples collected the same day. Significant decreased pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles were found at peripheral and central levels in narcolepsy, together with a T helper 2/Th1 serum cytokine secretion imbalance. To conclude, we showed some evidence for alterations in the cytokine profile in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy compared to controls at peripheral and central levels, with the potential role of IL-4 and significant Th1/2 imbalance in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy. PMID:24394344

Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lecendreux, Michel; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Cristol, Jean Paul; Blain, Hubert; Dupuy, Anne-Marie

2014-03-01

298

Integration of the subarachnoid space and lymphatics: Is it time to embrace a new concept of cerebrospinal fluid absorption?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most tissues and organs, the lymphatic circulation is responsible for the removal of interstitial protein and fluid but the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord is devoid of lymphatic vessels. On the other hand, the literature is filled with qualitative and quantitative evidence supporting a lymphatic function in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption. The experimental data seems to warrant

Lena Koh; Andrei Zakharov; Miles Johnston

2005-01-01

299

Evaluation of apoptosis in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with severe head injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objective. To determine whether sFas, caspase-3, proteins which propagate apoptosis, and bcl-2, a protein which inhibits apoptosis, would be increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with severe traumatic brain\\u000a injury (TBI) and to examine the correlation of sFas, caspase-3, and bcl-2 with each other and with clinical variables.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. sFas, caspase-3, and bcl-2 were measured in CSF of

M. Uzan; H. Erman; T. Tanriverdi; G. Z. Sanus; A. Kafadar; H. Uzun

2006-01-01

300

Digital subtraction cisternography: a new approach to fistula localisation in cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea.  

PubMed Central

Positive contrast cisternography with digital subtraction of fluoroscopy images before computed tomography (CT) was employed in the investigation of eight patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea. Fistulae were visualised by preliminary digital subtraction cisternography (DSC) in six patients and in five patients the sites of leakage were confirmed at surgery. Fluoroscopy facilitated interpretation of CT in all the positive studies and in two patients provided information which could not be deduced from CT cisternography (CTC) alone. The combined technique is recommended for the investigation of patients with recurrent and post operative CSF rhinorrhoea and when CTC alone fails to identify the site of leakage. Images

Byrne, J V; Ingram, C E; MacVicar, D; Sullivan, F M; Uttley, D

1990-01-01

301

Identification of Sarcocystis capracanis in cerebrospinal fluid from sheep with neurological disease.  

PubMed

Protozoal merozoites were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of two sheep with neurological disease in the UK. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified the merozoites as Sarcocystis capracanis, a common protozoal pathogen of goats. This is the first report of this species infecting sheep and may represent an aberrant infection with sheep acting as dead end hosts, or alternatively could indicate that sheep are able to act as intermediate hosts for S. capracanis, widening the previously reported host range of this pathogen. It is possible that S. capracanis is a previously unrecognised cause of ovine protozoal meningoencephalitis (OPM) in the UK. PMID:23312871

Formisano, P; Aldridge, B; Alony, Y; Beekhuis, L; Davies, E; Del Pozo, J; Dunn, K; English, K; Morrison, L; Sargison, N; Seguino, A; Summers, B A; Wilson, D; Milne, E; Beard, P M

2013-03-31

302

Correlations between P300 components and neurotransmitters in the cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

P300 and cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter metabolites and amino acids were examined in 10 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 9 patients with vascular dementia and 10 healthy controls. A negative correlation between P300 amplitude and MHPG concentration, negative correlation between P200 and N200 latencies and norepinephrine concentration, positive correlation between N200 latency and lysine concentration and positive correlation between N100 amplitude and tyrosine concentration were statistically significant. These findings suggest that the noradrenergic system influences P300 amplitude, and that multiple systems may influence P300 components. PMID:9472419

Mochizuki, Y; Oishi, M; Takasu, T

1998-01-01

303

Extremely elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein levels in a child with neurologic symptoms: beware of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Neurologic symptoms can be the initial manifestation of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In this case study, we present a 3-year old boy with a clinical picture of encephalitis, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level up to 1165 mg/dl and diffuse cerebral MRI abnormalities. The diagnosis of HLH was established only 6 weeks after initial presentation. The boy recovered after HLH therapy with persisting mild cognitive defects. Genetic investigation demonstrated X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) as the underlying cause of HLH. The extremely elevated protein level in CSF in this case has not yet been reported in patients with HLH. PMID:24433830

Voeten, Michiel; Maes, Philip; Wojciechowski, Marek; Vandenbossche, Luc; Meyts, Isabelle; Ceulemans, Berten

2014-05-01

304

Hepatic cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst mimicking hydatid liver disease: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction An abdominal pseudocyst is a rare complication of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Etiological factors include infection, obstruction and dislodgement. This is the first report of a hepatic cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst mimicking hydatid liver disease. Case presentation We report the case of an 18-year-old Caucasian male patient who presented with a hepatic pseudocyst secondary to a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, misdiagnosed as hydatid disease of the liver. Conclusion Hepatic pseudocysts, a rare complication of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, have similar clinical and radiological characteristics to those of hydatid liver disease. The formation of a pseudocyst should always be considered in patients with ventriculo-peritoneal shunts in situ.

2011-01-01

305

A Case of Effective Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for Paraplegia Caused by Acute Aortic Dissection  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old man with sudden back pain was transferred to our hospital by ambulance, who also complained of sensory and motor disorder of bilateral legs on arrival. The neurological disorder was gradually aggravated and paraplegia below the level of Th10 was manifested. Computed tomography demonstrated DeBakey IIIb acute aortic dissection; therefore, the paraplegia was thought to be due to spinal cord ischemia caused by the acute aortic dissection. Emergent cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed, and it was very effective for the relief from paraplegia. The hospital course after the drainage was uneventful and he was discharged on the 39th day after the onset of symptoms.

Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Nagaya, Koichi; Sakuma, Kei; Nagamine, Susumu

2011-01-01

306

[Electrolyte composition of the cerebrospinal fluid and neuromuscular excitability in epilepsy].  

PubMed

Clinical (Chvostek symptom and Trousseau-Bonsdorf test) and electromyographical investigations of the neuromuscular excitability were performed in patients with different forms of epilepsy. Ionized Ca, Na, K, Cl, and total Mg were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Seventy-five percent of the patients showed clinical and electromyographic signs of the tetanic syndrome. In patients with general seizures the CSF ionized Ca content was decreased as related to that of normal subjects. Brain and neuromuscular excitability increase was related with the shifts in Ca metabolism. PMID:3188753

Ve?n, A M; Biniaurishvili, R G; Masteropulo, A P; Ba?dauletov, I O; Estrov, V G

1988-01-01

307

Meningitis and Endocarditis Caused by Campylobacter fetus after Raw-Liver Ingestion  

PubMed Central

We report Campylobacter fetus meningitis associated with endocarditis in a 75-year-old diabetic man after he consumed raw liver. C. fetus was isolated from blood samples and cerebrospinal fluid. Cure was obtained with combined intravenous imipenem-gentamicin for 4 weeks; no relapse occurred after 6 months of follow-up.

Le Du, Damien; Roux, Anne-Laure; Hanachi, Mouna; Dinh, Aurelien; Cremieux, Anne-Claude

2013-01-01

308

Aspergillus Meningitis: Diagnosis by Non-Culture-Based Microbiological Methods and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galacto- mannan was detected in the

PAUL E. VERWEIJ; KEES BRINKMAN; HERBERT P. H. KREMER; BART-JAN KULLBERG; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS

1999-01-01

309

Mumps-associated meningitis and encephalitis in patients with no suspected mumps infection.  

PubMed

Mumps virus (MuV) was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 6 of 158 patients with meningitis or encephalitis in absence of clinical mumps in the context of mumps epidemics. Our results suggest the need for the study of MuV RNA in the CSF of neurological patients in this context. PMID:24674094

Bárcena-Panero, Ana; de Ory, Fernando; Castellanos, Ana; Echevarría, Juan E

2014-06-01

310

Antibiotic treatment for bacterial meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a patient with multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma is a hematolymphoid malignancy, and patients with this disorder are frequently complicated by infection. An 80-year-old woman with multiple myeloma was complicated by bacterial meningitis, and was admitted to our hospital in August 2007. She initially received ceftriaxone, but culture of cerebrospinal fluid detected Listeria monocytogenes. Ampicillin was administered, but headache and pyrexia persisted for 2 weeks, and on cerebrospinal fluid examination, the proliferation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes had not resolved. After medication with meropenem was started, the clinical symptoms completely disappeared, and the abnormalities on cerebrospinal fluid examination resolved. The patient ultimately received meropenem for 27 days, resulting in a cure. In conclusion, meropenem is useful to treat bacterial meningitis caused by L. monocytogenes. This agent is indicated when ampicillin shows inadequate effect or if the patient has an allergy to ampicillin. PMID:20112040

Matano, Sadaya; Satoh, Shigehiko; Harada, Yukari; Nagata, Hajime; Sugimoto, Tatsuho

2010-04-01

311

Streptococcus pneumoniae Arginine Synthesis Genes Promote Growth and Virulence in Pneumococcal Meningitis.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Using a clinical phenotype based approach with bacterial whole-genome sequencing we identified pneumococcal arginine biosynthesis genes to be associated with outcome in patients with pneumococcal meningitis. Pneumococci harboring these genes show increased growth in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mouse models of meningitis and pneumonia showed that pneumococcal strains without arginine biosynthesis genes were attenuated in growth or cleared, from lung, blood and CSF. Thus, S. pneumoniae arginine synthesis genes promote growth and virulence in invasive pneumococcal disease. PMID:24338350

Piet, Jurgen R; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van Schaik, Barbera D C; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Valls Seron, Mercedes; Jakobs, Marja E; Schipper, Kim; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; van der Poll, Tom; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Baas, Frank; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

2014-06-01

312

Optimization of PIXE analysis for Cu and other trace elements in cerebrospinal fluid to improve the detection limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An external beam PIXE system was optimized for the determination of the extremely low trace element content of normal cerebrospinal fluid. In order to improve the detection limits of the elements of interest, the ultrafiltrated cerebrospinal fluid samples were deposited onto ultrathin Formvar foils and measured in a helium atmosphere. Since the main emphasis was on copper, the absorber used in the measurements was optimized to give a favourable peak/background ratio for this element. The resulting detection limits for Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were (6.3 ± 2.9), (4.1 ± 1.4), (8.5 ± 2.6) and (18.1 ± 1.1) ppb, respectively. This allowed sufficiently precise determination of the low elemental concentrations in 50 ?l of human cerebrospinal fluid.

Kupila-Rantala, T.; Hyvönen-Dabek, M.; Dabek, J. T.

1996-09-01

313

Age-associated changes of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-? and tau in cynomolgus monkeys.  

PubMed

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are useful for the study of age-associated changes in the brain as a model that is biologically closely related to humans. For example, with age, all NHPs analyzed to date, develop ?-amyloid (A?) plaques as seen in humans. Nevertheless, it is still unclear if NHPs have human-like age-associated changes in A? and tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid. The present study was an attempt to specifically address these issues. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of A? and phosphorylated tau were measured in 37 and 22 cynomolgus monkeys, respectively, with ages ranging from 4 to 22-year-old. The result from the present study revealed significant age-associated declines in A?42 levels but not in A?40 and phosphorylated tau levels. This finding appears to parallel changes seen with human aging, in which decreased levels of A?42 can be seen in normal older adults, and supporting that cynomolgus monkeys would be a useful model for studying age-related neurologic disorders associated with Alzheimer-like cerebral proteopathy. PMID:24581480

Yue, Feng; Lu, Chunling; Ai, Yi; Chan, Piu; Zhang, Zhiming

2014-07-01

314

Multicommutated flow analysis system for determination of total protein in cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

A fully mechanized, computer-controlled, multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system dedicated for total protein determination in cerebrospinal fluid samples has been developed. For the protein determination the Exton method has been applied. Dedicated turbidimetric and nephelometric flow-through detectors operating according to paired-emitter detector diode principle have been fabricated by integration of two or three respective light emitting diodes. The developed MCFA system is characterized by robust, compact design and low consumption of the sample (72?L). The limits of detection for turbidimetric and nephelometric detection mode are 65mgL(-1) and 9mgL(-1), respectively. For turbidimetric measurements the range of linear response offered by the MCFA system is 72-900mgL(-1), whereas in the case of nephelometric detection 18-500mgL(-1) linear range is obtained. The throughput of the MCFA system is over 30 injection per hour. The analytical system was optimized with bovine serum albumin standards and successfully validated with real samples of human cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25059127

Strzelak, Kamil; Wi?niewska, Agnieszka; Bobilewicz, Dagna; Koncki, Robert

2014-10-01

315

Noninvasive cerebrospinal fluid shunt flow measurement by Doppler ultrasound using ultrasonically excited bubbles: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Because normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has almost no natural Doppler scatterers, patency testing of ventriculoperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid shunts (small silastic tubing with lumen diameter of approximately 1 mm draining excessive CSF from the brain) cannot be performed by Doppler ultrasound. We have developed a low-frequency bubble excitation system that generates microbubble scatterers in both distilled water and CSF. Doppler ultrasound can then be used for flow measurement in a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. By using low duty-cycle (approximately 10%), low-frequency (approximately 30 kHz), and low-amplitude (approximately 30 kPa) ultrasound, a population of microbubbles can be maintained for sufficiently long times (>10 min) for Doppler ultrasound measurement, although bubble initiation is inconsistent. The minimum pressure needed for bubble maintenance was found to decrease with increasing burst length and duty cycle. It has been possible to detect the presence of CSF shunt flow down to a mean flow rate of 3 mL/h (mean velocity approximately 0.6 mm/s). The bubble maintenance scheme developed satisfies the safety parameters specified by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Results from both in vitro and in vivo (externalized shunts) experiments indicate the feasibility of this scheme for determining realistic CSF shunt flows, though some practical problems remain before the technique will be ready for clinical use. PMID:10374981

Lam, K W; Drake, J M; Cobbold, R S

1999-03-01

316

Evidence for Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid ERK1/2 Levels in Alzheimer Dementia  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 33 patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to AD during followup (MCI-AD), 25 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI-stable), and 16 nondemented subjects (ND) were analyzed with a chemiluminescence immunoassay to assess the levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2). The results were evaluated in relation to total Tau (tTau), phosphorylated Tau (pTau), and beta-amyloid 42 peptide (A?42). CSF-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in the AD group as compared to stable MCI patients and the ND group. Western blot analysis of a pooled cerebrospinal fluid sample revealed that both isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, and low amounts of doubly phosphorylated ERK2 were detectable. As a predictive diagnostic AD biomarker, CSF-ERK1/2 was inferior to tTau, pTau, and A?42.

Spitzer, Philipp; Schieb, Heinke; Kamrowski-Kruck, Heike; Otto, Markus; Chiasserini, Davide; Parnetti, Lucilla; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang

2011-01-01

317

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of opioid peptides in fibromyalgia and chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism(s) of nociceptive dysfunction and potential roles of opioid neurotransmitters are unresolved in the chronic pain syndromes of fibromyalgia and chronic low back pain. Methods History and physical examinations, tender point examinations, and questionnaires were used to identify 14 fibromyalgia, 10 chronic low back pain and 6 normal control subjects. Lumbar punctures were performed. Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 (MEAP) and nociceptin immunoreactive materials were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid by radioimmunoassays. Results Fibromyalgia (117.6 pg/ml; 85.9 to 149.4; mean, 95% C.I.; p = 0.009) and low back pain (92.3 pg/ml; 56.9 to 127.7; p = 0.049) groups had significantly higher MEAP than the normal control group (35.7 pg/ml; 15.0 to 56.5). MEAP was inversely correlated to systemic pain thresholds. Nociceptin was not different between groups. Systemic Complaints questionnaire responses were significantly ranked as fibromyalgia > back pain > normal. SF-36 domains demonstrated severe disability for the low back pain group, intermediate results in fibromyalgia, and high function in the normal group. Conclusions Fibromyalgia was distinguished by higher cerebrospinal fluid MEAP, systemic complaints, and manual tender points; intermediate SF-36 scores; and lower pain thresholds compared to the low back pain and normal groups. MEAP and systemic pain thresholds were inversely correlated in low back pain subjects. Central nervous system opioid dysfunction may contribute to pain in fibromyalgia.

Baraniuk, James N; Whalen, Gail; Cunningham, Jill; Clauw, Daniel J

2004-01-01

318

Cerebrospinal Fluid Pharmacology: An Improved Pharmacology Approach for Chinese Herbal Medicine Research  

PubMed Central

Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in the health maintenance of specific survival environment for neurons and glial cells, has been constructed and applied to CHM research for treating ND. In the present review, the concept and advantages of CSFP are briefly introduced. The approaches and key technologies of CSFP in CHM research are also collated and analyzed. Furthermore, the developing tendency of CSFP is summarized, and its framework in CHM research is also proposed. In summary, CSFP provides a new strategy not only to eliminate some barriers of CHM research for treating ND, but also to broaden the pharmacology research for bridging the gap between CHM and modern medicine. Moreover, the advancements in CSFP will bring about a conceptual move in active ingredients discovery of CHM and make a significant contribution to CHM modernization and globalization.

Wu, Yan-qing; Zhou, Ying-wu; Qin, Xiu-de; Hua, Sheng-yu; Zhang, Yu-lian; Kang, Li-yuan

2013-01-01

319

Characterisation of the pro opiocortin family of peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Chromatography under acid dissociating conditions in conjunction with radioimmunoassay has been employed to investigate the nature of peptides related to opiocortin in human cerebrospinal fluid. Samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected for chromatography from 15 patients prior to air encephalography. 2 patients had pituitary dependent Cushing's disease, 3 non-endocrine neurological disease and 10 non-ACTH related pituitary disease. The column fractions were assayed for N- and C-terminal beta-lipotropin, N-terminal ACTH and gamma-MSH immunoreactivity. Elution profiles obtained from chromatography on Sephadex G-50 demonstrated peaks of immunoreactivity corresponding to the elution positions of synthetic human beta-endorphin, highly purified beta-lipotropin and highly purified gamma-lipotropin in all CSF samples. A peak of a large molecular weight material with N and C terminal beta-lipotropin immunoreactivity was also detected. Chromatography of CSF on Sephadex G-75 showed this large molecular weight peak to be comprised of peptides eluting in the positions of a 31K molecular weight marker with beta-lipotropin and ACTH immunoreactivity and a 16K molecular weight marker with gamma-MSH immunoreactivity. This suggests the presence of the common precursor to ACTH and LPH in the CSF. PMID:7219672

McLoughlin, L; Lowry, P J; Ratter, S J; Hope, J; Besser, G M; Rees, L H

1981-04-01

320

The amyloid-? oligomer count in cerebrospinal fluid is a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that small amyloid-? peptide (A?) oligomers are the major toxic species responsible for development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, we suggest that the number of A? oligomers in body fluids is the most direct and relevant biomarker for AD. Determination of the A? oligomer content of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 14 AD patients and 12 age-matched controls revealed a clear distinction between both groups. All samples of the control group showed homogenously low numbers of A? oligomers, while the samples of the AD group exhibited significantly higher levels of A? oligomers. The A? oligomer numbers correlated with the patients' Mini-Mental State Examination scores. This indicates that the quantity of A? oligomers in CSF reflects the severity of the disease and that A? oligomers play a crucial role in AD pathology and in turn can be used as a diagnostic biomarker. PMID:23313925

Wang-Dietrich, Lei; Funke, Susanne Aileen; Kühbach, Katja; Wang, Kun; Besmehn, Astrid; Willbold, Sabine; Cinar, Yeliz; Bannach, Oliver; Birkmann, Eva; Willbold, Dieter

2013-01-01

321

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Profiling of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Epileptic Dogs  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with seizures, but diagnostic approaches in veterinary clinics remain limited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid used for diagnosis in veterinary medicine. In this study, we explored canine epilepsy diagnostic biomarkers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling of CSF and multivariate data analysis. Profiles for subjects with idiopathic epilepsy differed significantly from those of healthy controls and subjects with symptomatic epilepsy. Among 60 identified metabolites, the levels of 20 differed significantly among the three groups. Glutamic acid was significantly increased in idiopathic epilepsy, and some metabolites including ascorbic acid were changed in both forms of epilepsy. These findings show that metabolic profiles of CSF differ between idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy and that metabolites including glutamic acid and ascorbic acid in CSF may be useful for diagnosis of canine epilepsy.

HASEGAWA, Tetsuya; SUMITA, Maho; HORITANI, Yusuke; TAMAI, Reo; TANAKA, Katsuhiro; KOMORI, Masayuki; TAKENAKA, Shigeo

2013-01-01

322

Cerebrospinal fluid involvement in a case of visceral leishmaniasis associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) implies a benign generalized histiocytic proliferate with erythrophagocytosis and it includes familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and secondary hemophgocytosis. Spinal fluid changes like mild to moderate pleocytosis (most of the cells are lymphocytes and macrophages) and sometimes hemophagocytosis are seen in primary HLH but are not reported in secondary HLH. Here we report a case of a previously healthy 10 months old male infant who was diagnosed as familial HLH with evidence of CSF hemophagocytosis. He was started on the HLH 2004 treatment protocol with no improvement. A second bone marrow aspiration revealed leshmania donovani antibodies and he was started on anti-leishmania treatment with dramatic response.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of secondary HLH with evidence of hemophagocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:21748112

Fathalla, Mahmoud; Hashim, Javad; Alkindy, Hussein; Wali, Yasser

2007-12-01

323

Cerebrospinal Fluid Involvement in a Case of Visceral Leishmaniasis Associated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis  

PubMed Central

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) implies a benign generalized histiocytic proliferate with erythrophagocytosis and it includes familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and secondary hemophgocytosis. Spinal fluid changes like mild to moderate pleocytosis (most of the cells are lymphocytes and macrophages) and sometimes hemophagocytosis are seen in primary HLH but are not reported in secondary HLH. Here we report a case of a previously healthy 10 months old male infant who was diagnosed as familial HLH with evidence of CSF hemophagocytosis. He was started on the HLH 2004 treatment protocol with no improvement. A second bone marrow aspiration revealed leshmania donovani antibodies and he was started on anti-leishmania treatment with dramatic response.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of secondary HLH with evidence of hemophagocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid.

Fathalla, Mahmoud; Hashim, Javad; Alkindy, Hussein; Wali, Yasser

2007-01-01

324

Reassessing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics: a literature review presenting a novel hypothesis for CSF physiology.  

PubMed

The traditional model of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics is being increasingly challenged in view of recent scientific evidences. The established model presumes that CSF is primarily produced in the choroid plexuses (CP), then flows from the ventricles to the subarachnoid spaces, and is mainly reabsorbed into arachnoid villi (AV). This model is seemingly based on faulty research and misinterpretations. This literature review presents numerous evidence for a new hypothesis of CSF physiology, namely, CSF is produced and reabsorbed throughout the entire CSF-Interstitial fluid (IF) functional unit. IF and CSF are mainly formed and reabsorbed across the walls of CNS blood capillaries. CP, AV and lymphatics become minor sites for CSF hydrodynamics. The lymphatics may play a more significant role in CSF absorption when CSF-IF pressure increases. The consequences of this complete reformulation of CSF hydrodynamics may influence applications in research, publications, including osteopathic manual treatments. PMID:23768280

Chikly, Bruno; Quaghebeur, Jörgen

2013-07-01

325

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid from epileptic dogs.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with seizures, but diagnostic approaches in veterinary clinics remain limited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid used for diagnosis in veterinary medicine. In this study, we explored canine epilepsy diagnostic biomarkers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling of CSF and multivariate data analysis. Profiles for subjects with idiopathic epilepsy differed significantly from those of healthy controls and subjects with symptomatic epilepsy. Among 60 identified metabolites, the levels of 20 differed significantly among the three groups. Glutamic acid was significantly increased in idiopathic epilepsy, and some metabolites including ascorbic acid were changed in both forms of epilepsy. These findings show that metabolic profiles of CSF differ between idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy and that metabolites including glutamic acid and ascorbic acid in CSF may be useful for diagnosis of canine epilepsy. PMID:24334864

Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Sumita, Maho; Horitani, Yusuke; Tamai, Reo; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Komori, Masayuki; Takenaka, Shigeo

2014-04-01

326

The role of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in glaucoma and other ophthalmic diseases: A review  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness in the world. Well-known risk factors include age, race, a positive family history and elevated intraocular pressures. A newly proposed risk factor is decreased cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP). This concept is based on the notion that a pressure differential exists across the lamina cribrosa, which separates the intraocular space from the subarachnoid fluid space. In this construct, an increased translaminar pressure difference will occur with a relative increase in elevated intraocular pressure or a reduction in CSFP. This net change in pressure is proposed to act on the tissues within the optic nerve head, potentially contributing to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Similarly, patients with ocular hypertension who have elevated CSFPs, would enjoy a relatively protective effect from glaucomatous damage. This review will focus on the current literature pertaining to the role of CSFP in glaucoma. Additionally, the authors examine the relationship between glaucoma and other known CSFP-related ophthalmic disorders.

Fleischman, David; Allingham, R. Rand

2013-01-01

327

A semi-quantitative ELISA for detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-quantitative ELISA, using variable surface glycoprotein of T.b. gambiense as antigen, was developed for the detection of antibodies of different immunoglobulin isotypes in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients. Using the assay, the antibody profiles of paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of 28 patients have been studied. Total concentrations of various Ig isotypes were determined as

V Lejon; P Büscher; E Magnus; A Moons; I Wouters; N Van Meirvenne

1998-01-01

328

Leukocyte Attraction by CCL20 and Its Receptor CCR6 in Humans and Mice with Pneumococcal Meningitis  

PubMed Central

We previously identified CCL20 as an early chemokine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with pneumococcal meningitis but its functional relevance was unknown. Here we studied the role of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in pneumococcal meningitis. In a prospective nationwide study, CCL20 levels were significantly elevated in the CSF of patients with pneumococcal meningitis and correlated with CSF leukocyte counts. CCR6-deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis and WT mice with pneumococcal meningitis treated with anti-CCL20 antibodies both had reduced CSF white blood cell counts. The reduction in CSF pleocytosis was also accompanied by an increase in brain bacterial titers. Additional in vitro experiments showed direct chemoattractant activity of CCL20 for granulocytes. In summary, our results identify the CCL20-CCR6 axis as an essential component of the innate immune defense against pneumococcal meningitis, controlling granulocyte recruitment.

Angele, Barbara; Geldhoff, Madelijn; Marquez, Gabriel; Varona, Rosa; Hacker, Georg; Schmetzer, Helga; Hacker, Hans; Hammerschmidt, Sven; van der Ende, Arie; Pfister, Hans-Walter

2014-01-01

329

Physical characteristics in the new model of the cerebrospinal fluid system.  

PubMed

It is unknown which factors determine the changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure inside the craniospinal system during the changes of the body position. To test this, we have developed a new model of the CSF system, which by its biophysical characteristics and dimensions imitates the CSF system in cats. The results obtained on a model were compared to those in animals observed during changes of body position. A new model was constructed from two parts with different physical characteristics. The "cranial" part is developed from a plastic tube with unchangeable volume, while the "spinal" part is made of a rubber baloon, with modulus of elasticity similar to that of animal spinal dura. In upright position, in the "cranial" part of the model the negative pressure appears without any measurable changes in the fluid volume, while in "spinal" part the fluid pressure is positive. All of the observed changes are in accordance to the law of the fluid mechanics. Alterations of the CSF pressure in cats during the changes of the body position are not significantly different compared to those observed on our new model. This suggests that the CSF pressure changes are related to the fluid mechanics, and do not depend on CSF secretion and circulation. It seems that in all body positions the cranial volume of blood and CSF remains constant, which enables a good blood brain perfusion. PMID:21648311

Jurjevi?, Ivana; Rados, Milan; Oreskovi?, Janko; Priji?, Radovan; Tvrdei?, Ante; Klarica, Marijan

2011-01-01

330

Cerebrospinal fluid MicroRNA profiling using quantitative real time PCR.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a potent layer of gene regulation by guiding RISC to target sites located on mRNAs and, consequently, by modulating their translational repression. Changes in miRNA expression have been shown to be involved in the development of all major complex diseases. Furthermore, recent findings showed that miRNAs can be secreted to the extracellular environment and enter the bloodstream and other body fluids where they can circulate with high stability. The function of such circulating miRNAs remains largely elusive, but systematic high throughput approaches, such as miRNA profiling arrays, have lead to the identification of miRNA signatures in several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders and several types of cancers. In this context, the identification of miRNA expression profile in the cerebrospinal fluid, as reported in our recent study, makes miRNAs attractive candidates for biomarker analysis. There are several tools available for profiling microRNAs, such as microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and deep sequencing. Here, we describe a sensitive method to profile microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluids by quantitative real-time PCR. We used the Exiqon microRNA ready-to-use PCR human panels I and II V2.R, which allows detection of 742 unique human microRNAs. We performed the arrays in triplicate runs and we processed and analyzed data using the GenEx Professional 5 software. Using this protocol, we have successfully profiled microRNAs in various types of cell lines and primary cells, CSF, plasma, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:24514260

Pacifici, Marco; Delbue, Serena; Kadri, Ferdous; Peruzzi, Francesca

2014-01-01

331

Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier dysfunction in patients with bipolar disorder in relation to antipsychotic treatment.  

PubMed

Blood-cerebrospinal barrier (BCB) dysfunction has previously been shown in subjects with schizophrenia and depressed patients with attempted suicide. Bipolar disorder (BPD) shares clinical features with both these disorders, but it is unknown if the integrity of the BCB is altered also in BPD. To assess if BCB function in BPD we surveyed 134 mood-stabilized BPD patients and 86 healthy controls. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected and analyzed for albumin concentration by immunonephelometry. CSF/serum albumin ratio, an established measure of BCB function, was significantly elevated in BPD patients as compared to controls. After stratifying patients according to diagnostic subtype, BPD I patients had the highest CSF/serum albumin ratios. Moreover, BPD patients on antipsychotic treatment had higher CSF/serum albumin ratio than BPD patients on other treatments. When excluding BPD patients on antipsychotic treatment the difference in CSF/serum albumin ratio between the BPD and control groups disappeared. In conclusion, antipsychotic treatment in BPD is associated with elevated CSF/serum albumin ratio, tentatively as a sign of impaired BCB function. Whether this elevation is caused by antipsychotic treatment or is associated with a certain subtype of BPD, requiring antipsychotic treatment, remains to be determined. PMID:24745469

Zetterberg, Henrik; Jakobsson, Joel; Redsäter, Mikael; Andreasson, Ulf; Pålsson, Erik; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl; Johansson, Anette Gm; Blennow, Kaj; Landén, Mikael

2014-07-30

332

Detection of Measles Virus Genomic RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Children with Regressive Autism: a Report of Three Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of encephalopathy presenting as autistic regression (autistic encephalopathy, AE) closely following measles-mumps- rubella (MMR) vaccination, three children underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessments including studies for measles virus (MV). All three children had concomitant onset of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and had already had MV genomic RNA detected in biopsies of ileal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH). Presence of MV Fusion

J. J. Bradstreet; J. El Dahr; A. Anthony; J. J. Kartzinel; A. J. Wakefield

2004-01-01

333

Interleukin6 released in human cerebrospinal fluid following traumatic brain injury may trigger nerve growth factor production in astrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines are involved in nerve regeneration by modulating the synthesis of neurotrophic factors. The role played by interleukin-6 (IL-6) in promoting nerve growth factor (NGF) after brain injury was investigated by monitoring the release of IL-6 and NGF in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 22 patients with severe traumatic brain injuries. IL-6 was found in the CSF of all individuals

Thomas Kossmann; Volkmar Hans; Hans-Georg Imhof; Otmar Trentz; Maria Cristina Morganti-Kossmann

1996-01-01

334

Brain Metabolic Correlates of Cerebrospinal Fluid Beta-Amyloid 42 and Tau in Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins ?-amyloid 42 (A?42) and Tau are believed to indirectly reflect some core pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Their topographic origin and their association with synaptic dysfunction are still not well understood. Aim: The present study aimed to explore possible associations between cerebral glucose metabolism and CSF A?42 as well as Tau protein levels

Ruth Vukovich; Robert Perneczky; Alexander Drzezga; Hans Förstl; Alexander Kurz; Matthias Riemenschneider

2009-01-01

335

Increases in cerebrospinal fluid caffeine concentration are associated with favorable outcome after severe traumatic brain injury in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive drug and a weak adenosine receptor antagonist, can be neuroprotective or neurotoxic depending on the experimental model or neurologic disorder. However, its contribution to pathophysiology and outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans is undefined. We assessed serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites (theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline) by high-pressure

Kathleen T Sachse; Edwin K Jackson; Stephen R Wisniewski; Delbert G Gillespie; Ava M Puccio; Robert S B Clark; C Edward Dixon; Patrick M Kochanek

2008-01-01

336

Cathepsin B and H activities and cystatin C concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with leptomeningeal metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cysteine proteases are involved in the extension of cancer into the subarachnoid space. The presence of cathepsins B and H along with their potent inhibitor cystatin C in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis of cancer (LM). Materials and methods: CSF samples were obtained in 16 cases of LM (10 solid tumors and 6

Atsushi Nagai; Masaharu Terashima; Takayuki Harada; Koichi Shimode; Hiromi Takeuchi; Yohko Murakawa; Makoto Nagasaki; Akinobu Nakano; Shotai Kobayashi

2003-01-01

337

FACS analysis—a new and accurate tool in the diagnosis of lymphoma in the cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fluorescence activated cell scanning (FACS) is a useful tool for identifying malignant cell clones of lymphoma cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by immunological phenotype. Methods: We used FACS analysis for demonstrating it to be a quick and reliable technology that is available in most hematological laboratories. In this study, we demonstrate the clinical application of FACS analysis within a

Sabine Urbanits; Andrea Griesmacher; Georg Hopfinger; Günther Stockhammer; Alireza Karimi; Mathias M. Müller; Elisabeth Pittermann; Wolfgang Grisold

2002-01-01

338

Rapid determination of piracetam in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sample direct injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with UV detection at 200nm for analysis of piracetam in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by direct injection without any sample pretreatment is described. The separation of piracetam from biological matrix was performed at 25°C using a background electrolyte consisting of Tris buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the electrolyte solution.

Hsin-Hua Yeh; Yuan-Han Yang; Ju-Yun Ko; Su-Hwei Chen

2006-01-01

339

Evidence of connections between cerebrospinal fluid and nasal lymphatic vessels in humans, non-human primates and other mammalian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The parenchyma of the brain does not contain lymphatics. Consequently, it has been assumed that arachnoid projections into the cranial venous system are responsible for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption. However, recent quantitative and qualitative evidence in sheep suggest that nasal lymphatics have the major role in CSF transport. Nonetheless, the applicability of this concept to other species, especially to

Miles Johnston; Andrei Zakharov; Christina Papaiconomou; Giselle Salmasi; Dianna Armstrong

2004-01-01

340

Detection of Neisseria meningitidis from negative blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid with the FilmArray blood culture identification panel.  

PubMed

The FilmArray blood culture identification (BCID) panel is a rapid molecular diagnostic test approved for use with positive blood culture material. We describe a fatal case of meningococcemia with central nervous system (CNS) involvement detected using the BCID test with culture-negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:24740076

Pardo, Joe; Klinker, Kenneth P; Borgert, Samuel J; Butler, Brittany M; Rand, Kenneth H; Iovine, Nicole M

2014-06-01

341

Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure, Growth, and Hematology in Relation to Retinol Status of the Rat in Acute Vitamin A Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to produce a model with which to isolate the primary changes associated with vitamin A deficiency in the weanling rat, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, body weight gain, and hématologie responses were charac terized in two experiments. In experiment 1, 35 weanling male rats were fed graded intakes of vitamin A for a 5-week comparison method. It was predicted

JOYCE E. COREY; ANDK. C. HAYES

342

Herpes simplex virus specific antibody determined by immunoblotting in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with the Guillain-Barr? syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The Guillain-Barré syndrome is often preceded by a herpes virus infection. Herpes simplex virus, however, has rarely been observed as the causative agent. A patient is described with a herpes simplex virus infection followed by a Guillain-Barré syndrome. Immunoblotting was used to detect herpes simplex virus-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Images

Bernsen, H J; Van Loon, A M; Poels, R F; Verhagen, W I; Frenken, C W

1989-01-01

343

Cytological and immunoglobulin findings in cerebrospinal fluid of symptomatic and asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Immunostimulation in the central nervous system (CNS) measured as abnormal intrathecal immunoglobulin production or activated lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was found in 22 of 25 HIV seropositive patients. All of 11 patients with symptomatic HIV infection and nine of 14 asymptomatic patients had an increased IgG index or a Tourtellotte's production number indicating CNS infection. The amount

L. Hagberg; G. Norkrans; A. Forsman; E. Rybo; L. Svennerholm

1988-01-01

344

DETECTION OF LIGHT SUBUNIT NEUROFILAMENT AND GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OFTRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI GAMBIENSE-INFECTED PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light subunit neurofilament (NFL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) concentrations were de- termined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 34 patients with human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), five serologically positive but parasitologically unconfirmed individuals, and four healthy controls without evidence of HAT. In patients with second stage HAT (n 5 30), NFL levels were abnormally elevated in 10 cases and GFAP

V. LEJON; L. E. ROSENGREN; P. BUSCHER; J.-E. KARLSSON; H. N. SEMA

1999-01-01

345

Blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier and intrathecal immunoglobulins compared to field diagnosis of central nervous system involvement in sleeping sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in sleeping sickness is crucial in order to give an appropriate treatment regimen. Neurological symptoms occur late, therefore field diagnosis is based on white blood cell count, total protein concentration and presence of trypanosomes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). More sensitive and specific parameters are now available. Blood–CSF barrier (B-CSFB) dysfunction, intrathecal total and

P. M Preux; A Stanghellini; M. O Jauberteau; P Büscher; M Dumas

2002-01-01

346

An Age-Related Correlation between Levels of ?-Amyloid Precursor Protein and ?-Amyloid in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and ?-amyloid peptide (A?) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 110 individuals ranging in age from newborn to 82-years old to analyze their regulation with age. These samples were segregated into two groups; one group contained CSF samples from patients with diagnosed CNS abnormalities and the second group contained CSF samples

R. T. Carroll; M. R. Lust; K. S. Kim; P. D. Doyle; M. R. Emmerling

1995-01-01

347

Progression to Neuropsychological Impairment in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Predicted by Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: If cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human im- munodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA levels are elevated be- fore the development of neuropsychological (NP) im- pairment, such an observation would support prospective monitoring of CSF HIV RNA levels as well as therapeu- tic interventions designed to lower CSF HIV levels. Objective: To determine whether increased CSF HIV RNA levels at an earlier time

Ronald J. Ellis; David J. Moore; Meredith E. Childers; Scott Letendre; J. Allen McCutchan; Tanya Wolfson; Stephen A. Spector; Karen Hsia; Robert K. Heaton; Igor Grant

2002-01-01

348

Bone marrow elements in cerebrospinal fluid: Review of literature with a case study  

PubMed Central

Presence of bone marrow elements in cerebrospinal fluid is rare. Journal publications on this topic are few and majority of them were written over a decade ago mostly as case reports in young children or the elderly. The increased cellularity and presence of myeloid precursors can be a pitfall and may be misdiagnosed as leukemia or lymphoma or central nervous system infection, when the specimen is actually not representative. With the intention to create awareness of potential pitfalls and avoid erroneous diagnoses, as well as adding on to the current photo archive of bone marrow elements in CSF, we present a recent case of bone marrow contaminants in the CSF of a 16-year-old girl.

Thomas, Anitha Ann; Goh, Felicia Tze Yee

2013-01-01

349

Cerebrospinal fluid as a reflector of central cholinergic and amino acid neurotransmitter activity in cerebellar ataxia.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino acid neurotransmitters, related compounds, and their precursors, choline levels, and acetylcholinesterase activity were measured in the CSF of patients with cerebellar ataxia during a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial of physostigmine salicylate. The CSF gamma-aminobutyric acid, methionine, and choline levels, adjusted for age, were significantly lower in patients with cerebellar ataxia compared with controls. Physostigmine selectively reduced the level of CSF isoleucine and elevated the levels of phosphoethanolamine. No change occurred in CSF acetylcholinesterase activity and in the levels of plasma amino compounds in patients with cerebellar ataxia when compared with controls. Median ataxia scores did not statistically differ between placebo and physostigmine nor did functional improvement occur in any of the patients. PMID:1978660

Manyam, B V; Giacobini, E; Ferraro, T N; Hare, T A

1990-11-01

350

Trace element studies on whole human cerebrospinal fluid with external beam PIXE.  

PubMed

External beam PIXE analysis with a 2.4 MeV proton beam was used to determine the concentrations of K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in cerebrospinal fluid from patients having various disorders. The obtained total concentration ranges K 34,000-1,079,000, Ca 5300-81,300, Fe 40-1030, Cu 20-1650, Zn 15-1250 and Br 400-43,000 micrograms/kg are compared with the values given in the literature. In certain patients there were very high CSF bromine levels, but this was shown to be the result of taking medications presented as bromide salts. The possibility of using the method in clinical practice for CSF analysis is considered. The new method of preparing self-supporting films of the samples was used. This method was further optimized by investigating in detail the use of EDTA as a homogenizer. PMID:2980812

Lapatto, R; Hyvönen-Dabek, M; Dabek, J T; Räisänen, J

1988-09-01

351

Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with idiopathic temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and controls was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Five protein spots showed significant differential expression (p<0.05): vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) was elevated in the CSF of TLE patients whereas cathepsin D, apolipoprotein J, Fam3c, and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were decreased in the CSF of TLE patients. Additional six protein spots presented only in the CSF of epilepsy patients were identified as tetranectin (TN), talin-2, apolipoprotein E, immunoglobulin lambda light chain (IGL@), immunoglobulin kappa variable light chain 1-5 (IGKV1-5), and procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 1 (PCOLCE). Expression of DBP, SOD1 and talin-2 was validated by western blot. Our results may provide better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and possible epilepsy biomarkers. PMID:19109932

Xiao, Fei; Chen, Dan; Lu, Yang; Xiao, Zheng; Guan, Li-feng; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Liang; Xi, Zhi-qin; Wang, Xue-feng

2009-02-19

352

Do genes and environment meet to regulate cerebrospinal fluid dynamics? Relevance for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopment disorder in which the interplay of genes and environment contributes to disease onset and establishment. The most consistent pathological feature in schizophrenic patients is an enlargement of the brain ventricles. Yet, so far, no study has related this finding with dysfunction of the choroid plexus (CP), the epithelial cell monolayer located within the brain ventricles that is responsible for the production of most of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Enlarged brain ventricles are already present at the time of disease onset (young adulthood) and, of notice, isolated mild ventriculomegaly detected in utero is associated with subsequent mild neurodevelopmental abnormalities similar to those observed in children at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Here we propose that altered CP/CSF dynamics during neurodevelopment may be considered a risk, causative and/or participating factor for development of schizophrenia.

Palha, Joana A.; Santos, Nadine C.; Marques, Fernanda; Sousa, Joao; Bessa, Joao; Miguelote, Rui; Sousa, Nuno; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo

2012-01-01

353

Oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid detected by PhastSystem isoelectric focusing.  

PubMed

Pharmacia's "PhastSystem" for semi-automated isoelectric focusing (IEF) in thin precast polyacrylamide gels (PAGE) was found to be as sensitive as high-resolution protein electrophoresis (HRPE) in agarose gels and conventional PAGE-IEF for detection of oligoclonal banding (OB) in concentrated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Both PhastSystem IEF and HRPE revealed OB in CSF from eight of nine multiple sclerosis patients and four of 10 patients with various types of infection of the central nervous system as opposed to only two of 70 patients with miscellaneous neuropsychiatric disorders. The PhastSystem also frequently detected OB in silver-stained, unconcentrated CSF from patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:1688744

Wybo, I; Van Blerk, M; Malfait, R; Goubert, P; Gorus, F

1990-01-01

354

Higher cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid levels in depressed patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid, resulting in more impairment compared than with either diagnosis alone. Both major depression and PTSD are thought to be associated with monoamine transmitter abnormalities. This study compared clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites in drug-free depressed subjects with a current major depressive episode (MDE) without comorbid PTSD, subjects with a current MDE and comorbid PTSD, and healthy volunteers. Depressed subjects with comorbid PTSD had higher CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) levels compared with depressed subjects without comorbid PTSD or healthy volunteers. Higher HVA was present after adjustment for sex, lifetime aggression severity and depression scores, alcoholism, tobacco smoking, comorbid cluster B personality disorder, reported childhood abuse, and psychosis. We found no group difference in CSF 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels. Higher dopaminergic activity may contribute to alterations in memory and other cognitive functions, anhedonia, and hypervigilance observed in PTSD. PMID:15695066

Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Li, Shuhua; Burke, Ainsley K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Zalsman, Gil; Huang, Yung-yu; Mann, J John

2005-03-01

355

Detection and genotyping of enteroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid in patients in Victoria, Australia, 2007-2013.  

PubMed

Genotyping by VP1 fragment polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequencing to detect enterovirus (EV) genotypes was performed directly on 729 EV PCR positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between 2007 and 2012 from Victorian hospital inpatients. The overall genotype identification rate from CSF-positive material was 43%. The four most common genotypes identified were Echovirus 6 (24%), Echovirus 30 (17%), Echovirus 25 (10%), and Coxsackievirus A9 (10%), together comprising 61% of all EVs typed. The seasonal distribution of all EVs identified followed the recognized pattern of mainly summer epidemics. Three of the four predominant genotypes were present in each of the 6 years in which the study was conducted, with 20 other EV genotypes also detected, often in only a single year. Genotyping of EVs directly in CSF is faster, simpler and more sensitive than traditional virus neutralization assays performed on EV positive samples. J. Med. Virol. 86:1609-1613, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24474149

Papadakis, Georgina; Chibo, Doris; Druce, Julian; Catton, Michael; Birch, Chris

2014-09-01

356

Characterization of clinically significant isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis from patients with cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections.  

PubMed Central

Biotyping, slime production, antibiograms, extrachromosomal DNA banding and total DNA restriction analysis were used to characterize Staphylococcus epidermidis strains causing cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections in 11 patients. Infections considered to be community acquired and those acquired in the first 2 weeks of hospital admission were due to oxacillin-susceptible isolates. Multiply resistant strains were isolated from patients who were in hospital for more than 1 month before tube implantation. Slime was detected in staphylococci for 54% of cases, but its expression varied. Strains from different patients could be differentiated from one another by the extrachromosomal DNA bandings and total DNA restriction patterns, but isolates from the same patient were usually similar. During the period of external drainage, epidemiological markers were useful in differentiating persistence of infection from contamination or re-infection by a new strain. Images Fig. 1

Etienne, J.; Charpin, B.; Grando, J.; Brun, Y.; Bes, M.; Fleurette, J.

1991-01-01

357

Brain, skull, and cerebrospinal fluid volumes in adult posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Children and adolescents with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit smaller intracranial tissue volume than controls. Linear relationships have also been observed between intracranial tissue volume and the age of maltreatment onset. The authors explored associations among adult PTSD, early trauma, and cerebral volumes in 99 combat veterans. A bone-based estimate of cranial volume was developed to adjust for variation in body size. Posttraumatic stress disorder was not associated with smaller cerebral tissue volume, but rather with smaller cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cranial volumes. These findings co-occurred with expected effects of alcoholism and aging on cerebral tissue and CSF volumes. The results point to early developmental divergences between groups with and without PTSD following adult trauma. PMID:17955544

Woodward, Steven H; Kaloupek, Danny G; Streeter, Chris C; Kimble, Matthew O; Reiss, Allan L; Eliez, Stephan; Wald, Lawrence L; Renshaw, Perry F; Frederick, Blaise B; Lane, Barton; Sheikh, Javaid I; Stegman, Wendy K; Kutter, Catherine J; Stewart, Lorraine P; Prestel, Rebecca S; Arsenault, Ned J

2007-10-01

358

Low Raltegravir Concentration in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Patients With ABCG2 Genetic Variants.  

PubMed

: Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is expressed on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) side of choroid plexus epithelial cells, which form the blood-CSF barrier. Raltegravir was recently identified as a substrate of ABCG2. In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes and raltegravir concentrations in 31 plasma and 14 CSF samples of HIV-infected patients treated with raltegravir-containing regimens. The mean CSF raltegravir concentration was significantly lower in CA (25.5 ng/mL) and AA (<10 ng/mL) genotypes at position 421 in ABCG2 gene compared with CC (103.6 ng/mL) genotype holders (P = 0.016). PMID:24872134

Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Hamada, Akinobu; Kato, Shingo; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

2014-08-15

359

Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an established indicator of astrogliosis. Therefore, variable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of this protein might reflect disease-specific pathologic profiles. In patients with narcolepsy, a loss of hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) neurons in the brain and low concentrations of hcrt-1 in CSF have been reported. We performed a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate if GFAP also is altered in the CSF of these patients. Here we detected significantly higher CSF levels of GFAP in patients with low hcrt-1 levels, of which the majority had a diagnosis of narcolepsy and cataplexy (NC); however, this finding was not observed in patients with hcrt-1 levels that were within reference range. In conclusion, GFAP may be useful as an additional disease biomarker in patients with narcolepsy, and this hypothesis should be investigated in larger studies. PMID:23746601

Feneberg, Emily; Steinacker, Petra; Lehnert, Stefan; Böhm, Bernhard; Mayer, Geert; Otto, Markus

2013-07-01

360

Biomarkers for Severity of Spinal Cord Injury in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rats  

PubMed Central

One of the major challenges in management of spinal cord injury (SCI) is that the assessment of injury severity is often imprecise. Identification of reliable, easily quantifiable biomarkers that delineate the severity of the initial injury and that have prognostic value for the degree of functional recovery would significantly aid the clinician in the choice of potential treatments. To find such biomarkers we performed quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from rats 24 h after either a moderate or severe SCI. We identified a panel of 42 putative biomarkers of SCI, 10 of which represent potential biomarkers of SCI severity. Three of the candidate biomarkers, Ywhaz, Itih4, and Gpx3 were also validated by Western blot in a biological replicate of the injury. The putative biomarkers identified in this study may potentially be a valuable tool in the assessment of the extent of spinal cord damage.

Lubieniecka, Joanna M.; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H. T.; Stoynov, Nikolay; Liu, Jie; Mottus, Randy; Pfeifer, Tom; Kwon, Brian K.; Coorssen, Jens R.; Foster, Leonard J.; Grigliatti, Thomas A.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2011-01-01

361

Use of acetazolamide to decrease cerebrospinal fluid production in chronically ventilated patients with ventriculopleural shunts.  

PubMed

Acetazolamide (ACTZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, has been shown to decrease cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production in both in vivo and in vitro animal models. We report two children with hydrocephalus who experienced multiple shunt failures, and who had externalised ventriculostomy drains (EVD) prior to ventriculopleural shunt placement. The effects of increasing doses of ACTZ on CSF production and subsequent tolerance to ventriculopleural shunts were evaluated. The patients had a 48% and a 39% decrease in their EVD CSF output when compared to baseline with maximum ACTZ dose of 75 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg/day, respectively (p < 0.05). This is the first report of change in CSF volume in children after extended treatment with ACTZ. ACTZ treatment in mechanically ventilated paediatric patients with hydrocephalus may improve tolerance of ventriculopleural shunts and minimise respiratory compromise. Potassium and bicarbonate supplements are required to correct metabolic disturbances. PMID:11124792

Carrion, E; Hertzog, J H; Medlock, M D; Hauser, G J; Dalton, H J

2001-01-01

362

Repair of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea from defect of middle cranial fossa.  

PubMed

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is defined as CSF otorrhea where there are no identifiable causes including previous trauma, surgery, infection, neoplasm or congenital anomaly. The condition is rare. The origin of CSF leak is commonly a defect in the tegmen of the middle cranial fossa. The pathophysiology of spontaneous CSF otorrhea is unclear. Two theories of the etiology of bony defects of the temporal bone are the congenital bony defect theory and arachnoid granulation theory. The authors experienced a case of a 49-year-old female patient admitted with the complaint of persistent right ear fullness. Computed tomography revealed a large defect of the middle fossa and suspicious CSF otorrhea through the defect of tegmen tympani. Repair was successful with multiple bone chips using the transmastoid approach. The postoperative course was good and there has been no recurrence of the CSF leakage. PMID:24653924

Boo, Sung Hyun; Goh, Young Bum; Han, Chi-Sung

2013-12-01

363

The Choroid Plexus and Cerebrospinal Fluid: Emerging Roles in Development, Disease, and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Although universally recognized as the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (ChP) has been one of the most understudied tissues in neuroscience. The reasons for this are multiple and varied, including historical perceptions about passive and permissive roles for the ChP, experimental issues, and lack of clinical salience. However, recent work on the ChP and instructive signals in the CSF have sparked new hypotheses about how the ChP and CSF provide unexpected means for regulating nervous system structure and function in health and disease, as well as new ChP-based therapeutic approaches using pluripotent stem cell technology. This minisymposium combines new and established investigators to capture some of the newfound excitement surrounding the ChP-CSF system.

Bjornsson, Christopher S.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Holtzman, David M.

2013-01-01

364

Gold nanoparticle-based immuno-PCR for detection of tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an important biomarker of Alzheimer's disease and some other brain diseases. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been mostly used for quantification of tau and other biomarkers in CSF. However, these assays do not have sufficient sensitivity and dynamic range. In this study we tested the suitability of gold nanoparticles functionalized with tau-specific monoclonal antibody and oligonucleotide template for immuno-polymerase chain reaction (Nano-iPCR) quantification of tau protein in human CSF samples and compared it with ELISA, either commercial or newly developed with tyramide signal amplification. Our data indicate that Nano-iPCR is superior in sensitivity and detection range to ELISA in tau protein detection. PMID:24642424

Stegurová, Lucie; Dráberová, Eduarda; Bartos, Ales; Dráber, Pavel; Rípová, Daniela; Dráber, Petr

2014-04-01

365

Resistance to outflow of cerebrospinal fluid after central infusions of angiotensin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the cerebroventricles of conscious rats can raise CSF pressure (CSFp). This response can be modified by some neuropeptides. One of these, angiotensin, facilitates the rise in CSFp. We measured CSFp in conscious rats with a computerized system and evaluated resistance to CSF outflow during infusion of artificial CSF, with or without angiotensin, from the decay kinetics of superimposed bolus injections. Angiotensin (10 ng/min) raised CSFp (P less than 0.05) compared with solvent, but the resistance to CSF outflow of the two groups was similar (P greater than 0.05). Because CSFp was increased by angiotensin without an increase in the outflow resistance, a change in some volume compartment is likely. Angiotensin may raise CSFp by increasing CSF synthesis; this possibility is supported, since the choroid plexuses contain an intrinsic isorenin-angiotensin system. Alternatively, angiotensin may dilate pial arteries, leading to an increased intracranial blood volume.

Morrow, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

1992-01-01

366

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and glaucoma: regulation of trans-lamina cribrosa pressure.  

PubMed

Increased trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD), the difference of intraocular pressure (IOP) and orbital cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSF-P), has been investigated as a possible risk factor in glaucoma pathogenesis. In fact, lower CSF-P in the setting of normal IOP has been implicated as a potential risk factor for normal tension glaucoma. Increased TLCPD has been associated with decreased neuroretinal rim area and increased visual field defects. Furthermore, dysregulation of systemic blood pressure has been associated with changes in IOP. Recent studies have also suggested that increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with decreased prevalence of glaucoma, which may be due to an increased CSF-P with increased BMI found in many studies. Given the interaction of various pressures, their role in glaucoma pathophysiology has come under investigation and warrants further study in order to better understand the aetiology and progression of glaucoma. PMID:24307714

Marek, Brian; Harris, Alon; Kanakamedala, Priyanka; Lee, Eric; Amireskandari, Annahita; Carichino, Lucia; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Tobe, Leslie Abrams; Siesky, Brent

2014-06-01

367

A case of effective cerebrospinal fluid drainage for paraplegia caused by acute aortic dissection.  

PubMed

A 65-year-old man with sudden back pain was transferred to our hospital by ambulance, who also complained of sensory and motor disorder of bilateral legs on arrival. The neurological disorder was gradually aggravated and paraplegia below the level of Th10 was manifested. Computed tomography demonstrated DeBakey IIIb acute aortic dissection; therefore, the paraplegia was thought to be due to spinal cord ischemia caused by the acute aortic dissection. Emergent cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed, and it was very effective for the relief from paraplegia. The hospital course after the drainage was uneventful and he was discharged on the 39th day after the onset of symptoms. PMID:23555433

Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Nagaya, Koichi; Sakuma, Kei; Nagamine, Susumu

2011-01-01

368

Identification of a New Cyclovirus in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Acute Central Nervous System Infections  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Acute central nervous system (CNS) infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, but the etiology remains unknown in a large proportion of cases. We identified and characterized the full genome of a novel cyclovirus (tentatively named cyclovirus-Vietnam [CyCV-VN]) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens of two Vietnamese patients with CNS infections of unknown etiology. CyCV-VN was subsequently detected in 4% of 642 CSF specimens from Vietnamese patients with suspected CNS infections and none of 122 CSFs from patients with noninfectious neurological disorders. Detection rates were similar in patients with CNS infections of unknown etiology and those in whom other pathogens were detected. A similar detection rate in feces from healthy children suggested food-borne or orofecal transmission routes, while high detection rates in feces from pigs and poultry (average, 58%) suggested the existence of animal reservoirs for such transmission. Further research is needed to address the epidemiology and pathogenicity of this novel, potentially zoonotic virus.

Tan, Le Van; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; de Vries, Michel; Canuti, Marta; Deijs, Martin; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Baker, Stephen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Tham, Nguyen Thi; BKrong, Nguyen Thi Thuy Chinh; Boni, Maciej F.; Loi, Tran Quoc; Phuong, Le Thi; Verhoeven, Joost T. P.; Crusat, Martin; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Schultsz, Constance; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hien, Tran Tinh; van der Hoek, Lia; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.

2013-01-01

369

[Importance of urgent cerebrospinal fluid examination for early diagnosis of central nervous system infections].  

PubMed

To a certain extent, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition reflects the current status of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, studying changes in even the most essential CSF parameters provides enormous scope for obtaining valuable information about processes in the CNS in relation to its disorders. The article aims at presenting our current conception of urgent CSF examination with special emphasis on early diagnosis of central nervous infections. In particular, the focus is on evaluating energy conditions in the CSF compartment and permeability of the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers, CSF cytology, detecting CNS tissue destruction and bleeding into CNS pathways and monitoring the levels of systemic inflammatory activity. PMID:17417750

Kelbich, Petr; Koudelková, Martina; Machová, Hana; Tomaskovic, Miloslav; Vachata, Petr; Kotalíková, Patricie; Chmelíková, Vlasta; Hanuljaková, Eva

2007-02-01

370

Plasma oxytocin and vasopressin do not predict neuropeptide concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

The involvement of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) in human socio-emotional behaviours is attracting increasing attention. There is ample evidence for elevated plasma levels upon a wide variety of social and emotional stimuli and scenarios, ranging from romantic love via marital distress up to psychopathology, with cause versus consequence being largely unclear. The present study examined whether plasma levels of both OXT and AVP are reflective of central neuropeptide levels, as assumed to impact upon socio-emotional behaviours. Concomitant plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were taken from 41 non-neurological and nonpsychiatric patients under basal conditions. Although OXT and AVP levels in the CSF exceeded those in plasma, there was no correlation between both compartments, clearly suggesting that plasma OXT and AVP do not predict central neuropeptide concentrations. Thus, the validity of plasma OXT and AVP as potential biomarkers of human behaviour needs further clarification. PMID:23574490

Kagerbauer, S M; Martin, J; Schuster, T; Blobner, M; Kochs, E F; Landgraf, R

2013-07-01

371

Cerebrospinal fluid constituents of cat vary with susceptibility to motion sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the fourth ventricles of the brains of cats during and after the development of motion sickness was studied to determine what neurotransmitters may be involved in the development of the sickness. The analytical procedure, which uses HPLC coupled with n-electrode coulometric electrochemical detection to measure many compounds with picogram sensitivity, is described. Baseline levels of DOPAC, MHPGSO4, uric acid, DA, 5-HIAA, and HVA were lower on motion and control days in cats which became motion sick when compared with cats which did not. None of the total of 36 identified compounds identified in the samples varied as a function of either exposure to motion or provocation of emesis. It is concluded that susceptibility to motion sickness is a manifestation of individual differences related to fundamental neurochemical composition.

Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.; Matson, Wayne R.; Gamache, Paul H.

1989-01-01

372

Cerebrospinal Fluid from Alzheimer's disease patients promotes amyloid beta-protein oligomerization.  

PubMed

Oligomers of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) play an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that AD patients have a central nervous system environment that promotes Abeta oligomerization. We investigated the effect of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 33 patients with AD and 33 age-matched, non-demented controls on oligomerization of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 using the technique of photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins. CSF inhibited oligomerization of both Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42. This inhibitory effect was significantly weaker in AD patients than in non-demented controls. Our results indicate that AD patients have a CSF environment favorable for Abeta oligomerization. PMID:20413863

Ikeda, Tokuhei; Ono, Kenjiro; Elashoff, David; Condron, Margaret M; Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Teplow, David B; Yamada, Masahito

2010-01-01

373

Technique for repeated collection of cerebrospinal fluid from cisterna magna of anesthetized strain 13 guinea pigs.  

PubMed

To study biochemical changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we developed a reliable technique for repeated collection of CSF in anesthetized strain 13 guinea pigs. The animal's head was mounted in a stereotaxic instrument with ventral tilt at 30 degrees, and cisternal puncture was made with an L-shaped, 23-gauge needle through the shaved skin. Clear CSF was collected in a 1-ml syringe surrounded by crushed ice. Each collection procedure lasted for 3 min, and three consecutive collections produced about 0.2 ml of CSF. Sampling was repeated at 3-hr intervals. With intravenous saline infusion (10 ml/kg.hr), a total volume of 0.6-1.0 ml of CSF was collected over 6 to 12 hr. Animals maintained a mean blood pressure, heart rate, and minute volume, with few changes during CSF sampling for the entire collection. PMID:1871150

Liu, C T; Guo, Z M

1991-09-01

374

The cerebrospinal fluid provides a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Cortical development depends on the active integration of cell autonomous and extrinsic cues, but the coordination of these processes is poorly understood. Here, we show that the apical complex protein Pals1 and Pten have opposing roles in localizing the Igf1R to the apical, ventricular domain of cerebral cortical progenitor cells. We found that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which contacts this apical domain, has an age-dependent effect on proliferation, much of which is attributable to Igf2, but that CSF contains other signaling activities as well. CSF samples from patients with glioblastoma multiforme show elevated Igf2 and stimulate stem cell proliferation in an Igf2-dependent manner. Together, our findings demonstrate that the apical complex couples intrinsic and extrinsic signaling, enabling progenitors to sense and respond appropriately to diffusible CSF-borne signals distributed widely throughout the brain. The temporal control of CSF composition may have critical relevance to normal development and neuropathological conditions.

Lehtinen, Maria K.; Zappaterra, Mauro W.; Chen, Xi; Yang, Yawei J.; Hill, Anthony; Lun, Melody; Maynard, Thomas; Gonzalez, Dilenny; Kim, Seonhee; Ye, Ping; D'Ercole, A. Joseph; Wong, Eric T.; LaMantia, Anthony S.; Walsh, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

375

Viral etiology of aseptic meningitis among children in southern Iran.  

PubMed

Aseptic meningitis refers to a clinical syndrome of meningeal inflammation in which bacteria cannot be identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The viral etiology and the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of aseptic meningitis among children aged 2 months to 15 years in Shiraz, southern Iran were determined. From May 2007 to April 2008, 65 patients were admitted to the hospital with aseptic meningitis. Seven viruses, non-polio human enteroviruses, mumps virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Viruses were detected in 30 (46.2%) patients in whom non-polio human enterovirus and mumps virus were detected in 13 (43.3%) and 11 (36.7%), respectively. The remaining 6 (20%) of the cases were caused by HSV, VZV, HCMV, and HHV-6. Haemophilus influenzae and non-polio human enterovirus were detected in one patient simultaneously. Viral meningitis was found to be more frequent during spring and summer. The majority (66.6%) of the patients were treated in the hospital for 10 days and had received antibiotics in the case of bacterial meningitis. Rapid diagnosis of viral meningitis using PCR testing of CSF can help shorten hospitalization, and avoid the unnecessary use of antibiotics. PMID:21412795

Hosseininasab, Ali; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Moeini, Mahsa; Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Abbasian, Amin; Kadivar, Mohamad Rahim

2011-05-01

376

Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypocretin 1 Deficiency, Overweight, and Metabolic Dysregulation in Patients with Narcolepsy  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The possible relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin and leptin levels, overweight, and association to risk factors for diabetes 2 in narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared to patients with idiopathic hypersomnia and controls. Patients: 26 patients with narcolepsy, cataplexy, and hypocretin deficiency; 23 patients with narcolepsy, cataplexy, and normal hypocretin values; 11 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia; and 43 controls. Measurements and Results: Body mass index (BMI), serum leptin, and HbA1C were measured in patients and controls; and CSF hypocretin 1 and leptin measured in all patients. Female and male patients with narcolepsy and hypocretin deficiency had the highest mean BMI (27.8 and 26.2, respectively), not statistically different from patients with narcolepsy and normal hypocretin or controls, but statistically higher than the patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (p < 0.001 and 0.011, respectively). The number of obese patients (BMI > 30) was increased in both narcolepsy groups. Serum and CSF leptin levels correlated positively to BMI in patients and controls, but not to CSF hypocretin concentrations. HbA1C was within normal levels and similar in all groups. Conclusions: The study confirms a moderate tendency to obesity (BMI > 30) and overweight in patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Obesity was not correlated to hypocretin deficiency or reduced serum or CSF leptin concentrations. We suggest that overweight and possible metabolic changes previously reported in narcolepsy, may be caused by other mechanisms. Citation: Heier MS; Jansson TS; Gautvik KM. Cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin 1 deficiency, overweight, and metabolic dysregulation in patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):653-658.

Heier, Mona S.; Jansson, Tine S.; Gautvik, Kaare M.

2011-01-01

377

On the significance of monoamines and their metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of the sheep.  

PubMed Central

Assays capable of concurrently measuring small quantities of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, and several of their metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) were developed by the use of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. For comparison, cortical subarachnoid, ventricular, cisternal and lumbar c.s.f. were obtained by puncture under barbiturate anaesthesia in sheep. Basal concentrations related to the adrenergic system, including methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), were similar in ventricular, cisternal and lumbar c.s.f., and those of the serotoninergic metabolites, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetylacetic acid (5-HIAA), were similar in ventricular and cisternal c.s.f. High concentrations of the dopamine metabolites, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), were found only in ventricular c.s.f. Monoamine metabolites in ventricular c.s.f. under basal conditions and after various experimental manipulations were then determined over periods of 3 months in two different breeds of sheep fitted chronically with cannulae in lateral ventricles. A dose-related accumulation of all the acidic monoamine metabolites was recorded during treatment with probenecid. The increase in 5-HIAA was linear after administration of increased doses of tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan. The concentrations of dopamine, DOPAC and HVA in the ventricular c.s.f. reflected the response of the dopaminergic system to agents capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. It is concluded that cerebral metabolism in conscious sheep could be indirectly approached by recording the concentration of end-products of dopamine metabolism in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, obtained under conditions of minimal stress.

Ruckebusch, M; Sutra, J F

1984-01-01

378

Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of rabbits: validation of an animal model used to measure drug concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed Central

Complete concentration-time data describing the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following a single dose are not available for humans or animals. We studied the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole with an indwelling intracisternal needle as described by R.G. Dacey and M.A. Sande (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 6:437-441, 1974). To determine whether the presence of an intracisternal needle alters pharmacokinetics in the CSF, we validated this model with uninfected rabbits by measuring pharmacokinetic constants following direct intracisternal and intravenous administration of fluconazole. Following direct injection, there was no alteration of elimination rates in the CSF with increasing sample number or time. Following intravenous administration, the penetration and kinetic constants were the same in individual animals from which multiple CSF samples were obtained as in a composite subject constructed by pooling virgin samples from different animals. The presence of the intracisternal needle did not alter CSF chemistry or leukocyte counts, and erythrocyte contamination was < 0.001%. While drug concentrations were measured by a microbiological assay, we also compared the sensitivity and reproducibility of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay with those of the microbiological assay. Following a single intravenous dose, the maximum concentration of the drug in serum, the time to maximum concentration of the drug in serum, the terminal elimination half-life in the CSF, and the percent penetration by fluconazole were 6.12 micrograms/ml, 1 h, 9.0 h, and 84.3%, respectively. We conclude that the sampling of CSF via an indwelling needle does not alter fluconazole pharmacokinetics, cause inflammation, or alter chemical parameters; that the microbiological assay is at least equivalent in sensitivity and reproducibility to the HPLC assay; and that robust parameters describing the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole are possible with this model.

Madu, A; Cioffe, C; Mian, U; Burroughs, M; Tuomanen, E; Mayers, M; Schwartz, E; Miller, M

1994-01-01

379

Alterations in Protein Regulators of Neurodevelopment in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Infants with Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus of Prematurity*  

PubMed Central

Neurological outcomes of preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are among the worst in newborn medicine. There remains no consensus regarding the diagnosis or treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and the pathological pathways leading to the adverse neurological sequelae are poorly understood. In the current study, we developed an innovative approach to simultaneously identify potential diagnostic markers of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and investigate novel pathways of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus-related neurological disability. Tandem multi-affinity fractionation for specific removal of plasma proteins from the hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid samples was combined with high resolution label-free quantitative proteomics. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus demonstrated marked differences in the levels of 438 proteins when compared with cerebrospinal fluid from age-matched control infants. Amyloid precursor protein, neural cell adhesion molecule-L1, neural cell adhesion molecule-1, brevican and other proteins with important roles in neurodevelopment showed profound elevations in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus cerebrospinal fluid compared with control. Initiation of neurosurgical treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus resulted in resolution of these elevations. The results from this foundational study demonstrate the significant promise of tandem multi-affinity fractionation-proteomics in the identification and quantitation of protein mediators of neurodevelopment and neurological injury. More specifically, our results suggest that cerebrospinal fluid levels of proteins such as amyloid precursor protein or neural cell adhesion molecule-L1 should be investigated as potential diagnostic markers of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Notably, dysregulation of the levels these and other proteins may directly affect ongoing neurodevelopmental processes in these preterm infants, providing an entirely new hypothesis for the developmental disability associated with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

Morales, Diego M.; Townsend, R. Reid; Malone, James P.; Ewersmann, Carissa A.; Macy, Elizabeth M.; Inder, Terrie E.; Limbrick, David D.

2012-01-01

380

A novel, quantitative assay for homocarnosine in cerebrospinal fluid using stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of homocarnosine in physiological fluids, with particular emphasis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Homocarnosine was quantified as the butyl derivative, with 2H2-l-homocarnosine as internal standard. Following deproteinization of CSF samples, supernatants were evaporated to dryness and derivatized with 10% 6M HCl in butanol. Samples were chromatographed on a C18 column and

Erwin E. W. Jansen; K. Michael Gibson; Yosuke Shigematsu; Cornelis Jakobs; Nanda M. Verhoeven

2006-01-01

381

An 11-year-old girl with recurrent bacterial meningitis due to liquorrhea caused by bone malformation of the skull base.  

PubMed

The patient is a healthy 11-year-old girl with no history of trauma or hearing impairment. She developed pneumococcal meningitis three times, at ages 7, 10, and 11. Intracranial examination revealed, pore expansion and cerebrospinal fluid leakage in the right internal acoustic foramen, which were attributed to a bone malformation of the base of the skull. A procedure was performed to close the cerebrospinal fluid leakage; no relapse has been observed thus far. Previous case reports indicate that repetitive bacterial meningitis is often caused by internal ear malformation, trauma, tumors, or surgical operation. This case suggests the possibility that underlying disorders may not be apparent in cases of repetitive bacterial meningitis and, more proactive investigations are required to prevent further recurrence of meningitis. PMID:24084029

Kajimoto, Madoka; Hasegawa, Shunji; Nomura, Sadahiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Ichiyama, Takashi

2014-08-01

382

Effect of 20% in vitro haemodilution with warmed buffered salt solution and cerebrospinal fluid on coagulation.  

PubMed

We have conducted an in vitro coagulation study consisting of two separate groups of 20 subjects using the thrombelastograph. In the first group, haemodilution was performed with a physiological balanced salt solution similar to plasma, with the exception of calcium, and buffered to a normal pH (Plasmalyte B) at 37 degrees C on blood obtained from consenting volunteers. In the second group, a protein-poor body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) obtained from parturient patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section was used as the diluent. There were statistically significant differences between the warmed Plasmalyte B treated samples and their untreated controls for all variables measured by the thrombelastograph, except for maximum amplitude, and between the CSF treated samples and their untreated controls for all variables. We conclude that electrolyte and acid-base composition of the diluent fluid had no effect on the observation that crystalloid haemodilution produces hypercoagulability. The marked increase in coagulability produced by addition of CSF cannot be explained on a simple haemodilution basis and confirms previous suggestions of the presence of a procoagulant factor in CSF. PMID:10325846

Ruttmann, T G; James, M F; Wells, K F

1999-01-01

383

Rapid diagnosis of gram-negative bacterial meningitis by the Limulus endotoxin assay.  

PubMed Central

The Limulus amoebocyte lysate endotoxin assay was evaluated as a method for rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in a series of 305 patients. The results of Limulus assays on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from these patients were compared with the results for each patient of routine bacterial cultures and Gram stains. Positive Limulus tests were obtained on initial CSF specimens from 84% of patients with culture-proven bacterial meningitis, including all patients with meningitis due to gram-negative organisms. Initial Gram-stained smears revealed the presence of organisms in 68% of the patients. One patient with pneumococcal meningitis had a weakly positive Limulus assay, whereas patients with meningitis due to other gram-positive organisms, those with aseptic meningitis, or patients without meningitis had negative CSF Limulus tests. The Limulus assay also demonstrated the persistence of endotoxin in the CSF of certain patients during antibiotic therapy, especially patients with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. The Limulus test proved to be a rapid, reliable indicator of the presence of gram-negative organisms in the CSF of patients suspected of acute bacterial meningitis.

Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C

1978-01-01

384

MicroRNAs in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid as potential markers for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers remains an unmet challenge, and new approaches that can improve current AD biomarker strategies are needed. Recent reports suggested that microRNA (miRNA) profiling of biological fluids has emerged as a diagnostic tool for several pathologic conditions. In this study, we measured six candidate miRNAs (miR-9, miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-34a, miR-125b, and miR-146a) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD and normal subjects by using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to evaluate their potential usability as AD biomarkers. The qRT-PCR results showed that plasma miR-34a and miR-146a levels, and CSF miR-34a, miR-125b, and miR-146a levels in AD patients were significantly lower than in control subjects. On the other hand, CSF miR-29a and miR-29b levels were significantly higher than in control subjects. Our results provide a possibility that miRNAs detected in plasma and CSF can serve as biomarkers for AD. PMID:24157723

Kiko, Takehiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo

2014-01-01

385

Quantification of the cerebrospinal fluid from a new whole body MRI sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our work aims to develop a biomechanical model of hydrocephalus both intended to perform clinical research and to assist the neurosurgeon in diagnosis decisions. Recently, we have defined a new MR imaging sequence based on SPACE (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution). On these images, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appears as a homogeneous hypersignal. Therefore such images are suitable for segmentation and for volume assessment of the CSF. In this paper we present a fully automatic 3D segmentation of such SPACE MRI sequences. We choose a topological approach considering that CSF can be modeled as a simply connected object (i.e. a filled sphere). First an initial object which must be strictly included in the CSF and homotopic to a filled sphere, is determined by using a moment-preserving thresholding. Then a priority function based on an Euclidean distance map is computed in order to control the thickening process that adds "simple points" to the initial thresholded object. A point is called simple if its addition or its suppression does not result in change of topology neither for the object, nor for the background. The method is validated by measuring fluid volume of brain phantoms and by comparing our volume assessments on clinical data to those derived from a segmentation controlled by expert physicians. Then we show that a distinction between pathological cases and healthy adult people can be achieved by a linear discriminant analysis on volumes of the ventricular and intracranial subarachnoid spaces.

Lebret, Alain; Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno; Hodel, Jérôme; Rahmouni, Alain; Decq, Philippe

2012-02-01

386

Production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid with respect to the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve.  

PubMed

The function of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is to protect the brain and optic nerve from mechanical damage, provide nutrition for axons/neurons, and remove of toxic metabilites. CSF is produced mainly by the choroid plexus epithelium and ependymal cells of the ventricles and flows into interconnecting chambers; namely, the cisterns and the subarachnoid spaces. Based on studies of CSF circulation and direction of flow using radioisotopes and other tracers injected into the CSF, it is thought that there is a bulk circulation of fluid from the sites of production in the third, fourth, and lateral ventricles to the arachnoid villi and probably to the lymphatic capillaries in the cranial dura mater. The mechanism by which CSF is propelled is incompletely understood, but probably is influenced by the release of newly produced CSF, ventricular pulsations, and the pulse pressure of the vascular choroid plexus. This mechanism would account for the steady CSF pressure. In addition to the steady CSF pressure, overlapping pressure spikes occur during trunk inclination, coughing and other valsalva. PMID:23733131

Killer, Hanspeter E

2013-01-01

387

Removal of albumin and immunoglobulins from canine cerebrospinal fluid using depletion kits: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background Highly abundant proteins in biological fluids such as serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can hinder the detection of proteins in lower abundance, e.g., potential biomarkers. Commercial products are available for the depletion of albumin and immunoglobulins (Igs), although most of these kits have not been validated for dog samples. The present study therefore examines the use of different types of depletion kits for dog CSF. Findings Three kits, with different mechanisms for the depletion of albumin and Igs, were tested with dog CSF specimens. One product significantly decreased the amount of albumin; with all kits, IgG was less efficiently removed than albumin. Mass spectrometry of the fractions eluted from the depletion columns revealed considerable co-depletion of other CSF proteins. Conclusions A commercially available depletion kit was identified which depletes albumin and (to a lower extent) immunoglobulins from dog CSF. However, the limited efficacy and the concomitant loss of other proteins from the sample should be taken into account when using this product.

2014-01-01

388

Confirmed viral meningitis with normal CSF findings.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patient's clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy. PMID:25035443

Dawood, Naghum; Desjobert, Edouard; Lumley, Janine; Webster, Daniel; Jacobs, Michael

2014-01-01

389

Reibergram of Intrathecal Synthesis of C4 in Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis produces eosinophilic meningitis in humans and is endemic in Thailand, Taiwan, China, and the Caribbean region. During infection with this parasite, it is important to know if the complement system may be activated by the classical or lectin pathway. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 20 patients with meningitic angiostrongyliasis were used to quantify C4 levels and albumin. Results were plotted on a C4 CSF/serum quotient diagram or Reibergram. Twelve patients showed intrathecal synthesis of C4. Antibody-dependent complement cytotoxicity should be considered as a possible mechanism that destroys third-stage larvae of this helminth in cerebrospinal fluid of affected patients.

Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto Juan; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Rodriguez-Rey, Alexis; Gutierrez-Hernandez, Juan Carlos; de Paula-Almeida, Susana Olga

2010-01-01

390

Vitamin D-binding protein in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with multiple sclerosis progression.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder that presents with symptoms including inflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) manifests with serious physical disability. To quantitatively analyze differential protein expression in patients with SPMS, we performed two-dimensional fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometry on the cerebrospinal fluid of these patients and patients with other neurological diseases. Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), gelsolin, albumin, etc. showed more than a 1.5-fold difference between the two groups. Based on these results, an experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis in Lewis rats was used to investigate DBP's role in the disease. Protein levels, mRNA transcripts, and ligands of DBP in different regions of the CNS were evaluated under various vitamin D intake levels. Here, DBP levels increased in the experimental rat groups compared to the control groups regardless of vitamin D intake. Moreover, DBP mRNA levels varied in different parts of the CNS including spinal cords in the experimental groups. The observed differences between DBP protein and mRNA levels in the experimental groups' spinal cords could be derived from the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, an interaction between DBP and actin was confirmed using coimmunoprecipitation and western blot. These results indicate a role for DBP in the actin scavenge system. Moreover, in the experimental group that received oral vitamin D3 supplement, we observed both delayed onset and diminished severity of the disease. When DBP was upregulated, however, the benefits from the vitamin D3 supplements were lost. Thus, we inferred that high levels of DBP were adverse to recovery. In conclusion, here we observed upregulated DBP in the cerebrospinal fluid could serve as a specific diagnostic biomarker for the progression of multiple sclerosis. Next, we demonstrate the vital function of increased levels of free vitamin D metabolites for multiple sclerosis treatment. Finally, vitamin D supplements may be particularly beneficial for SPMS patients. PMID:23339019

Yang, Mingchong; Qin, Zhaoyu; Zhu, Yanyan; Li, Yun; Qin, Yanjiang; Jing, Yongsheng; Liu, Shilian

2013-06-01

391

Body Height, Estimated Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure and Open-Angle Glaucoma. The Beijing Eye Study 2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine potential associations between body height, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a population-based setting. Methods The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range:50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP[mmHg]?=?0.44×Body Mass Index[kg/m2]+0.16×Diastolic Blood Pressure[mmHg]-0.18×Age[Years]-1.91 Results Data of IOP and CSFP were available for 3353 (96.7%) subjects. Taller body height was associated with higher CSFP (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta:0.13; regression coefficient B:0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.25,0.33) after adjusting for male gender, urban region of habitation, higher educational level, and pulse rate. If TLCPD instead of CSFP was added, taller body height was associated with lower TLCPD (P<0.001;beta:?0.10;B:?0.20;95%CI:?0.25,?0.15). Correspondingly, higher CSFP was associated with taller body height (P?=?0.003;beta:0.02;B:0.01;95%CI:0.00,0.02), after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and blood concentration of cholesterol. If IOP was added to the model, higher CSFP was associated with higher IOP (P<0.001;beta:0.02;B:0.02;95%CI:0.01,0.03). TLCPD was associated with lower body height (P?=?0.003;beta:?0.04;B ?0.02,95%CI:?0.04,?0.01) after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse, blood concentrations of triglycerides, axial length, central corneal thickness, corneal curvature radius, and anterior chamber depth. Adding the prevalence of OAG to the multivariate analysis revealed, that taller body height was associated with a lower OAG prevalence (P?=?0.03;beta:?0.03;B:?1.20;95%CI:?2.28,?0.12) after adjusting for educational level and gender. Conclusions Taller body height was associated with higher CSFP and lower TLCPD (and vice versa), after adjusting for systemic and ocular parameters. Parallel to the associations between a higher prevalence of glaucoma with a lower CSFP or higher TLCPD, taller body height was associated with a lower prevalence of OAG.

Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Xie, Xiaobin; Yang, Diya; Xu, Liang

2014-01-01

392

Circulating extracellular proteasome in the cerebrospinal fluid: a study on concentration and proteolytic activity.  

PubMed

Alterations of the intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are found in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system, as well as in its malignancies. Inhibitory substrates of the proteasomes represent promising approaches to control autoimmune inflammations and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Extracellular circulating proteasomes are positively correlated to outcome prognosis in hematogenic neoplasias and the outcome in critically ill patients. Previously, we reported raised levels of proteolytic active 20S proteasomes in the extracellular alveolar space in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For the cerebrospinal fluid, we assumed that extracellular circulating proteasomes with enzymatic activity can be found, too. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of twenty-six patients (14 females, 12 males), who underwent diagnostic spinal myelography, were analyzed for leukocyte cell count, total protein content, lactate and interleukine-6 (Il-6) concentrations. CSF samples were analyzed for concentration and enzymatic activity of extracellular 20S proteasomes (fluorescenic substrate cleavage; femtokatal). Blood samples were analyzed with respect to concentration of extracellular circulating proteasomes. Choroidal plexus was harvested at autopsies and examined with immunoelectron microscopy (EM) for identification of possible transportation mechanisms. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (18.0.3). In all patients, extracellular proteasome was found in the CSF. The mean concentration was 24.6 ng/ml. Enzymatic activity of the 20S subunits of proteasomes was positively identified by the fluorescenic subtrate cleavage at a mean of 8.5 fkat/ml. Concentrations of extracellular proteasomes in the CSF, total protein content and Il-6 were uncorrelated. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed merging vesicles of proteasomes with the outer cell membrane suggestive of an exozytic transport mechanism. For the first time, extracellular circulating 20S proteasome in the CSF of healthy individuals is identified and its enzymatic activity detected. A possible exozytic vesicle-bond transportation mechanism is suggested by immunoelectron microscopy. The present study raises more questions on the function of extracellular proteasome in the CSF and encourages further studies on the role of extracellular protesomes in pathological conditions of the central nervous system (tumor lesions and inflammatory processes). PMID:21881828

Mueller, Oliver; Anlasik, Timur; Wiedemann, Jonas; Thomassen, Jan; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Hagel, Vincent; Keyvani, Kathy; Schwieger, Isabel; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Sure, Ulrich; Sixt, Stephan Urs

2012-03-01

393

Cerebrospinal fluid alkalosis during high-altitude sojourn in unanesthetized ponies.  

PubMed

Unanesthetized adult female ponies were studied near sea level (250 m) and during sojourns to 3400 m (N=6) and 4300 m (N=7) altitude. The pH, PCO2, and PO2 of arterial blood and pH and PCO2 of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured under conditions of acute (1 hr) and chronic (1-45 days) hypoxia. Cerebrospinal fluid was sampled from the cisterna magna of the awake pony and arterial blood withdrawn from an indwelling arterial catheter. In both groups of animals, PaCO2 decreased slightly after 1 hr of hypoxia (delta PaCO2= - 0.6 mm Hg at 3400 m; - 3.9 mm Hg at 4300 m), decreased further after 1-5 days at high altitude (delta PaCO2= - 7.2 mm Hg at 3400 m; - 12.3 mm Hg at 4300 m) and then increased significantly after 6 days of chronic hypoxia (delta PaCO2= + 4.1 mm Hg at 3400 m; + 4.7 mm Hg at 4300 m). Although PaO2 decreased markedly during acute hypoxia, subsequent changes in PaCO2 at high altitude did not alter PaO2 from that observed during acute hypoxia (PaO2=52 mm Hg at 3400 m; 41 mm Hg at 4300 m). The pH of CSF increased during acute hypoxia (delta pH= + 0.013 unit at 3400 m; + 0.033 unit at 4300 m) and became more alkaline after 1-2 days at high altitude (delta pH= + 0.031 unit at 3400 m; + 0.064 unit at 4300 m). At 4300 m, CSF pH remained alkaline to control values throughout sojourn. Under these conditions of chronic hypocapnic hypoxia, CSF pH was imperfectly regulated and regulated in a magnitude equal to (3400 m) or less than (4300 m) arterial blood. Furthermore, the similarity of relative changes in CSF [HCO3-] and arterial [HCO3-] during chronic hypoxia may indicate a passive regulation of CSF [HCO3-] rather than local 'CSF-specific' mechanisms as previously proposed. PMID:241107

Orr, J A; Bisgard, G E; Forster, H V; Buss, D D; Dempsey, J A; Will, J A

1975-10-01

394

Cerebrospinal fluid mitochondrial DNA: a novel DAMP in pediatric traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins that are released from the injured tissues and activate the innate immune system. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a novel DAMP that is released into the extracellular milieu subsequent to cell death and injury. We hypothesized that cell death within the central nervous system in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) would lead to the release of mtDNA into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and has the potential to predict the outcome after trauma. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from children with severe TBI who required intracranial pressure monitoring with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 8 or less via an externalized ventricular drain. Control CSF was obtained in children without TBI or meningoencephalitis who demonstrated no leukocytes in the diagnostic lumbar puncture. The median age for patients with TBI was 6.3 years, and 62% were male. The common mechanisms of injury included motor vehicle collision (35.8%), followed by falls (21.5%) and inflicted TBI (19%); six children (14.2%) died during their intensive care unit course. The mean CSF mtDNA concentration was 1.10E+05 ± 2.07E+05 and 1.63E+03 ± 1.80E+03 copies/?L in the pediatric TBI and control populations, respectively. Furthermore, the mean CSF mtDNA concentration in pediatric patients who later died or had severe disability was significantly higher than that of the survivors (1.63E+05 ± 2.77E+05 vs. 5.05E+04 ± 6.21E+04 copies/?L) (P < 0.0001). We found a significant correlation between CSF mtDNA and high mobility group box 1, another prototypical DAMP, concentrations (? = 0.574, P < 0.05), supporting the notion that both DAMPs are increased in the CSF after TBI. Our data suggest that CSF mtDNA is a novel DAMP in TBI and appears to be a useful biomarker that correlates with neurological outcome after TBI. Further inquiry into the components of mtDNA that modulate the innate immune response will be helpful in understanding the mechanism of local and systemic inflammation after TBI. PMID:24667615

Walko, Thomas D; Bola, R Aaron; Hong, John D; Au, Alicia K; Bell, Michael J; Kochanek, Patrick M; Clark, Robert S B; Aneja, Rajesh K

2014-06-01

395

Treatment of indolent, nonencapsulated cryptococcal meningitis associated with hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Infection with cryptococcal meningitis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. The major virulence factor is the polysaccharide capsule, while nonencapsulated mutants are generally considered nonpathogenic. The authors present a case of hydrocephalus caused by meningitis from an indolent, nonencapsulated Cryptococcus sp. requiring placement and multiple revisions of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). The patient presented with progressively worsening occipital headaches. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hydrocephalus with no apparent cause. Her symptoms initially resolved after placement of a VPS, but returned four months later. Cultures of the shunt tubing and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed no bacterial infection. When the symptoms failed to resolve, CSF fungal culture revealed Cryptococcus-like yeast, although the organisms were nonencapsulated, and the cryptococcal antigen was negative. After antibiotic therapy, the symptoms resolved. The unusual clinical presentation delayed the diagnosis, highlighting the importance of understanding the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of meningeal infections caused by C. neoformans.

Garber, Sarah T.; Penar, Paul L.

2012-01-01

396

Changes in cerebrospinal fluid nerve growth factor levels during chick embryonic development.  

PubMed

In the early stages of brain development, cells within the ependymal lining of the neural tube are thought to secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the so-called neural tube fluid (NTF), whereas before fusion of the neural folds, the neuroepithelium that lines the inside of the neural tube is in contact with amniotic fluid. As the neural tube closes, a membrane formed from these cells invaginates to form the specialized choroid plexus. The choroid plexus is a highly vascularized epithelial cell structure that secretes proteins, including growth factors, into the CSF. Embryonic CSF (e-CSF) contains high concentrations of proteins compared to adult CSF. CSF has been reported to contain nerve growth factor (NGF) and other neurotrophic factors. In this study, total protein concentration and NGF level in e-CSF samples from chick embryos were measured using a dye-based protein assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The total protein concentration and NGF levels in the CSF decreased from days E10 to E16. There was a rapid increase in total protein content on days E17 and E18, and thereafter the levels decreased from day E19 to day E21. Days E17 and E18 coincide with the onset of neuron migration, proliferation and organization of the cytoarchitecture of the developing cerebral cortex. After that time the total protein concentration and NGF levels decrease until hatching. Since CSF is in contact with the cerebral cortical germinal epithelium, changes in the protein concentration in the CSF could affect neuroepithelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. It is concluded that NGF is not only a constant component of CSF during chick embryogenesis but it might also be involved in cerebral cortical development. PMID:19581095

Mashayekhi, Farhad; Azari, Majid; Moghadam, Lotfali Masomi; Yazdankhah, Meysam; Naji, Mohammad; Salehi, Zivar

2009-10-01

397

A case of anti-GA1 antibody-positive Fisher syndrome with elevated tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

We describe a boy with Fisher syndrome. He presented the typical symptoms of Fisher syndrome, including external ophthalmoplegia, abnormality of convergence, and areflexia, after an episode of Campylobacter enterocolitis. Atypically, however, anti-GA1 antibody was detected in his serum, though anti-GQ1b and anti-GT1a antibodies were not. In addition, the tau protein level in his cerebrospinal fluid was elevated. Generally, Fisher syndrome is a self-limiting disease and has a good prognosis. In our patient, however, mild diplopia and areflexia persisted 6 months after their onset. Here, we report on the first Fisher syndrome patient with anti-GA1 antibody in the serum and elevated tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:21742448

Oyazato, Yoshinobu; Shiihara, Takashi; Kusunoki, Susumu; Adachi, Masao; Ohnishi, Noriko; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Watanabe, Aika; Kobayashi, Mitsuro; Kamioka, Ichiro

2012-04-01

398

Ventriculocisternal Perfusion Studies in the Monkey. I. Comparison of Radioiodinated (125I) Serum Albumin and Blue Dextran as Indicators to Measure Rate of Formation of Cerebrospinal Fluid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of two nondiffusible indicators, 125I labeled albumin (RISA-125) and blue dextran, were compared by using them simultaneously to measure rate of formation of cerebrospinal fluid (Vf) in in vitro experiments and in a series of ventricul...

A. N. Martins A. Ramirez A. I. Kobrine T. F. Doyle

1975-01-01

399

Technique for Repeated Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Cisterna Magna of Anesthetized Strain 13 Guinea Pigs. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To study biochemical changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we developed a reliable technique for repeated collection of CSF in anesthetized strain 13 guinea pigs. The animal's head was mounted in a stereotaxic instrument with ventral tilt at 30, and ciste...

C. T. Liu Z. M. Guo

1991-01-01

400

Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid Monoamine Metabolites, Tryptophan, and ?-Aminobutyric Acid during the 1st Year of Life in Normal Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, homovanillic acid, tryptophan, and ?-aminobutyric acid were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography in 102 infants during the 1st year of life (preterm and term neonates included). CSF levels are expressed versus corrected age (postnatal days – preterm days) which reflects the stage of maturity of the central nervous system. These results are

C. Cann-Moisan; E. Girin; J. D. Giroux; P. Le Bras; J. Caroff

1999-01-01

401

Cerebrospinal fluid and serum concentrations of the N-methyl- d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memantine is a uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with therapeutic potential in dementia, spasticity and Parkinson's disease. The Ki-value of memantine at the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site of the NMDA receptor is 0.5 ?M in human frontal cortex. We investigated whether concentrations of mementine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples under therapeutic conditions are in the range of its

J. Kornhuber; G. Quack

1995-01-01

402

Biochemical Characterization of Alzheimer's Soluble Amyloid Beta Protein in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid: Association with High Density Lipoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid ? protein (sA?) is associated with high density lipoproteins (HDL) in normal human plasma (BBRC,1994,205,1164–1171). Since sA? is also present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the lipoprotein pattern of CSF is different from that of plasma, it was of interest to ascertain whether the interaction of sA? with HDL also occurs in CSF. Normal

Alexei R. Koudinov; Natalia V. Koudinova; Asok Kumar; Ronald C. Beavis; Jorge Ghiso

1996-01-01

403

Decreased Levels of Soluble Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Live Alzheimer Disease Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amyloid beta-protein is deposited in senile plaques and the cerebrovasculature in Alzheimer disease (AD). Since it is derived from proteolytic processing of its parent protein, the amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP), we investigated whether levels of the secreted forms of APP are altered in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients. Quantitative immunoblotting studies with the anti-APP monoclonal antibody P2-1 revealed

William E. van Nostrand; Steven L. Wagner; W. Rodman Shankle; Jeffrey S. Farrow; Malcolm Dick; Johanna M. Rozemuller; Michael A. Kuiper; Erik C. Wolters; James Zimmerman; Carl W. Cotman; Dennis D. Cunningham

1992-01-01

404

Alterations in Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cerebrospinal Fluid Related with Severity of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The antioxidant status of the tissue affected by ischemia-reperfusion is of great importance for the primary endogenous defense against the free-radical-induced injury. Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD)[, ]glutathione peroxidase (GPX)[, ]and catalase (CAT)] in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns.

Hande Gulcan; I. Cetin Ozturk; Selda Arslan

2005-01-01

405

Effect of ligustrazine on activity changes of angiotensin II in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in Patients with vascular dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the relationship between the activity changes of angiotensin II (Ang II) in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and\\u000a the pathophysiology of vascular dementia (VD) on the one hand and the therapeutic effects of ligustrazine (LIG) on VD and\\u000a its mechanisms on the other hand.Methods: Case grouping: VD group with 50 cases (26 VD patients treated with LIG and

Li Qiang; Wang Jing-zhou; Zhang Li-li; Gao Chang; Zhou Hong-jie; Gao Dong

2003-01-01

406

Soluble amyloid precursor proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid as novel potential biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: a multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we present the results of a multicenter study to test analytic and diagnostic performance of soluble forms of amyloid precursor proteins ? and ? (sAPP? and sAPP?) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with different forms of dementing conditions. CSF samples were collected from 188 patients with early dementia (mini-mental state examination?20 in majority of cases)

P Lewczuk; H Kamrowski-Kruck; O Peters; I Heuser; F Jessen; J Popp; K Bürger; H Hampel; L Frölich; S Wolf; B Prinz; H Jahn; Ch Luckhaus; R Perneczky; M Hüll; J Schröder; H Kessler; J Pantel; H-J Gertz; H-W Klafki; H Kölsch; U Reulbach; H Esselmann; J M Maler; M Bibl; J Kornhuber; J Wiltfang

2010-01-01

407

Tau Protein, A?42 and S-100B Protein in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intra vitam diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is still based on clinical grounds. So far no technical investigations have been available to support this diagnosis. As for tau protein and ?-amyloid(1–42) (A?42), promising results for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been reported; we evaluated these markers and S-100B protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), using a

Brit Mollenhauer; Lukas Cepek; Mirko Bibl; Jens Wiltfang; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Barbara Ciesielczyk; Manuela Neumann; Petra Steinacker; Hans A. Kretzschmar; Sigrid Poser; Claudia Trenkwalder; Markus Otto

2005-01-01

408

Cerebrospinal fluid and serum prealbumin (transthyretin) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS): Comparison of particular subgroups of MS patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of prealbumin (PAB, transthyretin) were determined and evaluated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in\\u000a various subgroups of the multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In severely disabled patients, serum PAB was elevated more frequently.\\u000a CSF and serum PAB concentrations were higher in treated than in nontreated patients; the values above the upper reference\\u000a limits were also more frequently

M. Hybe?ová; J. Svato?ová; O. Sobek; P. Adam; D. Doležil; D. Adam

2009-01-01

409

Protein concentration of cerebrospinal fluid by precipitation with Pyrogallol Red prior to sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pyrogallol Red Molybdate (PRM) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) protein dye-binding assays have been applied to samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to investigate protein concentration by dye precipitation prior to sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein concentration values of the CSF samples (N=62) showed good agreement between the PRM and CBB assays as indicated by linear regression

Katherine M Williams; Thomas Marshall

2001-01-01

410

Nano-HPLC–MS analysis of phospholipids in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer’s disease patients—a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is emerging evidence that lipids play an important role in many neurodegenerative processes, for example in Alzheimer’s\\u000a disease (AD). Although different lipid alterations in the AD brain have been reported, there have only been very few investigations\\u000a of lipid changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent developments in mass spectrometry (MS) have enabled fast and sensitive\\u000a detection of lipid

M. Kosicek; S. Kirsch; R. Bene; Z. Trkanjec; M. Titlic; L. Bindila; J. Peter-Katalinic; S. Hecimovic

2010-01-01

411

Sensitive liquid chromatographic assay for amprenavir, a human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor, in human plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive bio-analytical assay for amprenavir, a human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor, based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection, is reported. The analyte is extracted from the matrix, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or semen, with chloroform using propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate as an internal standard. After centrifugation, evaporation of the organic phase and reconstitution in the eluent, the sample is injected into

Rolf W Sparidans; Richard M. W Hoetelmans; Jos H Beijnen

2000-01-01

412

UPLC–MS–MS Analysis of Baicalin in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rabbits: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric method has been developed for\\u000a analysis of baicalin in the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits. Samples were separated on a C18 column with a gradient prepared from acetonitrile and 0.3% aqueous formic acid solution as mobile phase. The target compounds\\u000a were quantified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using electrospray ionization (ESI). Intra-and

Shao Liu; Xin-Zhong Li; Li-Min Xu; Peng Lei; Yi-Zeng Liang

2008-01-01

413

Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pulse wave rising from pulsations of both the spinal cord and the brain in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two theories regarding the origin of the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pulse wave (L-CSFPW): that it arises from the arteries supplying the spinal cord, and that it is due to the pulsations of the brain transmitted through the subarachnoid space of the spine.We investigated L-CSFPW of 11 myelopathic patients with a complete (five patients, CB-group) or an incomplete spinal

Kozo Nakamura; Koki Urayama; Yuichi Hoshino

1997-01-01

414

Cerebrospinal Fluid Tau, p-Tau 181 and Amyloid-?38\\/40\\/42 in Frontotemporal Dementias and Primary Progressive Aphasias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: We determined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-? (A?)1–38, A?1–40, A?1–42, total tau and phospho-tau (p-tau) in order to study their differential expression in frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n = 25) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA, n = 12) as compared to Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, n = 25) and nondemented controls (n = 20). Methods: Commercially available ELISA and electrochemiluminescence

Mirko Bibl; Brit Mollenhauer; Piotr Lewczuk; Hermann Esselmann; Stefanie Wolf; Markus Otto; Johannes Kornhuber; Eckart Rüther; Jens Wiltfang

2011-01-01

415

High-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of 2-difluoromethyl- dl-ornithine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive, selective and reproducible method based on anion-exchange liquid chromatography with post-column derivatisation was developed for the determination of eflornithine (2-difluoromethyl-dl-ornithine; DFMO) in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The 1-alkylthio-2-alkyl-isoindoles fluorescent derivative of the drug was separated from the internal standard (MDL 77246A) on an anion-exchange column (PRP-X300, 250×2.1 mm, 7-?m particle size: Hamilton, USA), with retention times

W Hanpitakpong; B Kamanikom; V Banmairuroi; K Na-Bangchang

2003-01-01

416

Clinical applications of new cerebrospinal fluid analytic techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in molecular biology and immunology provide new, highly sensitive and specific techniques that can be applied to\\u000a analysis of cerebrospinal fluid to enhance the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) infections. In addition\\u000a to improved accuracy and speed of diagnosis, these modalities may offer improved means of monitoring treatment efficacy, establishing\\u000a prognosis, detecting organism resistance, and tracking

Bruce A. Cohen

2001-01-01

417

A new method for determination of varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin G avidity in serum and cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Avidity determination of antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies is an established serological method to differentiate acute from past infections. In order to compare the avidity of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IgG in pairs of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, we developed a new technique of avidity testing, the results of which are not influenced by the concentration of specific

Ralf-Herbert Kneitz; Jörg Schubert; Franz Tollmann; Wolfgang Zens; Klaus Hedman; Benedikt Weissbrich

2004-01-01

418

A high-recovery extraction procedure for quantitative analysis of substance P and opioid peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports an improved approach for the determination of neuropeptide levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The method is based on sample acidification followed by liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) combined with radioimmunoassay. It was applied to study the recovery and level of some opioid peptides (Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and Leu-enkephalin-Arg6), substance P and the substance P1–7 fragment, which are all compounds known

Zhurong Liu; Magnus Welin; Björn Bragee; Fred Nyberg

2000-01-01

419

Comparison of Immunosorbent Assays for the Quantification of Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in early stages may be substantiated by the quantification of the biomarkers Abeta42, Abeta40 and total-Tau (t-Tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Different commercially available immunosorbent assays yield reliable results, yet the absolute values obtained may differ in between tests. Methods: We used CSF samples from patients that reported to our memory clinic. Enzyme-linked

C. G. Schipke; S. Prokop; F. L. Heppner; I. Heuser; O. Peters

2011-01-01

420

Healthcare Savings Associated with Reduced Infection Rates Using Antimicrobial Suture Wound Closure for Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims\\/Methods: This is a follow-up study from a recent randomized controlled trial conducted at the Women and Children’s Hospital of Buffalo that investigated the use of antimicrobial sutures (AMS) for wound closure during cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures. Our purpose was to determine the average cost of shunt infections at our institution and estimate the healthcare savings associated with reduced infection

Jonathan Stone; Thomas J. Gruber; Curtis J. Rozzelle

2010-01-01