Note: This page contains sample records for the topic mental acuity tests from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety.

Turnage, J. J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Smith, M. G.; Baltzley, D. R.; Lane, N. E.

1992-01-01

2

Visual acuity test  

MedlinePLUS

The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest letters you can read on a standardized chart (Snellen ... The visual acuity test is a routine part of an eye examination or general physical examination, particularly if there ...

3

Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests for repeated-measures studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to detail the development of the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), a computer battery of mental acuity tests that can be used to assess human performance in the presence of toxic elements and environmental stressors. There were four objectives in the development of APTS. First, the technical requirements for developing APTS followed the tenets of the classical theory of mental tests which requires that tests meet set criteria like stability and reliability (the lack of which constitutes insensitivity). To be employed in the study of the exotic conditions of protracted space flight, a battery with multiple parallel forms is required. The second criteria was for the battery to have factorial multidimensionality and the third was for the battery to be sensitive to factors known to compromise performance. A fourth objective was for the tests to converge on the abilities entailed in mission specialist tasks. A series of studies is reported in which candidate APTS tests were subjected to an examination of their psychometric properties for repeated-measures testing. From this work, tests were selected that possessed the requisite metric properties of stability, reliability, and factor richness. In addition, studies are reported which demonstrate the predictive validity of the tests to holistic measures of intelligence.

Kennedy, R. S.; Wilkes, R. L.; Baltzley, D. R.; Fowlkes, J. E.

1990-01-01

4

Acuity of mental representations of pitch.  

PubMed

Singing in one's mind or forming expectations about upcoming notes both require that mental images of one or more pitches will be generated. As with other musical abilities, the acuity with which such images are formed might be expected to vary across individuals and may depend on musical training. Results from several behavioral tasks involving intonation judgments indicate that multiple memory systems contribute to the formation of accurate mental images for pitch, and that the functionality of each is affected by musical training. Electrophysiological measures indicate that the ability to form accurate mental images is associated with greater engagement of auditory areas and associated error-detection circuitry when listeners imagine ascending scales and make intonation judgments about target notes. A view of auditory mental images is espoused in which unified mental image representations are distributed across multiple brain areas. Each brain area helps shape the acuity of the unified representation based on current behavioral demands and past experience. PMID:22524362

Janata, Petr

2012-04-01

5

Practical contrast sensitivity acuity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A 2.0 neutral density (1% transmission) filter allows an easy, consistent and natural way of checking visual acuity on a low contrast Snellen test chart, and is particularly useful in documenting poor visual function in patients with certain types of cataract.

R. C. Drews

1989-01-01

6

A Novel Computerized Visual Acuity Test for Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the efficacy of a computerized visual acuity test, the SNU visual acuity test for children. Methods Fifty-six children, ranging from 1 to 5 years of age, were included. In a dark room, children gazed at and followed a circular dot with 50% contrast moving at a fixed velocity of 10 pixels/sec on a computer monitor. Eye movement was captured using a charge coupled device camera and was expressed as coordinates on a graph. Movements of the eye and dot were superimposed on a graph and analyzed. Minimum visualized dot diameters were compared to the Teller visual acuity. Results Ten eyes (8.9%) of six children failed to perform the Teller visual acuity test, and two eyes (1.8%) of one patient failed to perform the SNU visual acuity test. The observed Teller visual acuity and SNU visual acuity were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Visual angle degrees converted from the Teller visual acuity and SNU visual acuity were also significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Conclusion The SNU visual acuity using moving targets correlated well with Teller visual acuity and was more applicable than the Teller acuity test. Therefore, the SNU visual acuity test has potential clinical applications for children.

Shin, Young Joo; Lee, In Bum; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

2013-01-01

7

Spatial frequency content of the Cardiff and related acuity tests.  

PubMed

In the Cardiff acuity test, simple pictures on an otherwise neutral grey card are defined by borders consisting of a relatively broad white band flanked by black bands each half the width of the white band. Higher levels of acuity correspond to the ability to detect figures defined by narrower borders, the figure size remaining constant. It is sometimes implied that the acuity limit corresponding to each card can be equated with different levels of grating resolution, the total width of the border corresponding to the overall grating period. It is shown that although the spatial frequency spectra of the Cardiff figures, like those of other vanishing optotypes, lack very low-frequency components, they have a complex two-dimensional form. The figures have wide spatial bandwidth and no well-defined discrete frequency components. As a result, the relationship between measured Cardiff and grating acuity will vary somewhat, depending upon the particular optical, neural or other deficits of the individual being tested. PMID:16390476

Charman, W N

2006-01-01

8

Visual Acuity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests for visual acuity; Factors influencing visual acuity: retinal position; orientation of test objects: luminance; state of adaptation; contrast; refractive state; wavelength; observation time; observation distance and eye position; binocular effects; ...

G. Westheimer

1965-01-01

9

Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments  

PubMed Central

Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients’ scores were significantly worse than normals’ scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients.

Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2013-01-01

10

Mental status testing  

MedlinePLUS

... used is called the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test. The following may be tested: ... The MMSE test is scored from 0 to 30. The test is also divided into sections, each with its ...

11

Visual Vestibular Interaction in the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test during Voluntary Head Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although intact vestibular function is essential in maintaining spatial orientation, no good screening tests of vestibular function are available to the aviation community. High frequency voluntary head rotation was selected as a vestibular stimulus to isolate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from visual influence. A dynamic visual acuity test that incorporates voluntary head rotation was evaluated as a potential vestibular function screening tool. Twenty-seven normal subjects performed voluntary sinusoidal head rotation at frequencies from 0.7-4.0 Hz under three different visual conditions: visually-enhanced VOR, normal VOR, and visually suppressed VOR. Standardized Baily-Lovie chart letters were presented on a computer monitor in front of the subject, who then was asked to read the letters while rotating his head horizontally. The electro-oculogram and dynamic visual acuity score were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in gain or phase shift among three visual conditions in the frequency range of 2.8 to 4.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity score shifted less than 0.3 logMAR at frequencies under 2.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity test at frequencies a round 2.0 Hz can be recommended for evaluating vestibular function.

Lee, Moo Hoon; Durnford, Simon; Crowley, John; Rupert, Angus

1996-01-01

12

Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools  

PubMed Central

Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ‘Unable to test’ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes (P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or “matching” approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities.

Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong

2014-01-01

13

COMPARISON OF CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, VISUAL ACUITY, AND HUMPHREY VISUAL FIELD TESTING IN PATIENTS WITH GLAUCOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between large-letter contrast sensitivity, high-contrast visual acuity, and visual field defects in patients with glaucoma. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or ocular hypertension whose visual acuity was 20\\/40 (logMAR = 0.3) or better were included in the study. Visual acuity was measured using the Lighthouse visual acuity charts. Contrast sensitivity was

Jacob T. Wilensky; Anjali Hawkins

2001-01-01

14

The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The performance of some subjects nicely parallels the stereotypical recovery curve observed in the group mean data. Others show dramatic changes in DVA from one test day to another. These changes may be indicative of a re-adaptation process that is not characterized by a steady improvement with the passage of time, but is instead a dynamic search for appropriate coordinative strategy to achieve the desired gaze stabilization goal. Ground-based data have been collected in our lab using DVA with one of the goals being to improve the DVA test itself. In one of these studies, the DVA test was repeated using a visual target viewing distance of 0.5 meters. While walking, the relative contributions of the otoliths and semi-circular canals that are required to stabilize gaze are affected by visual target viewing distance. It may be possible to exploit this using the current treadmill DVA test to differentially assess changes in these vestibular subsystems. The postflight DVA evaluations currently used have been augmented to include the near target version of the test. Preliminary results from these assessments, as well as the results from the ground-based tests will also be reported. DVA provides a direct measure of a subject's ability to see clearly in the presence of self-motion. The use of the current tests for providing a functionally relevant metric is evident. However, it is possible to expand the scope of DVA testing to include scenarios other than walking. A facility for measuring DVA in the presence of passive movements is being created. Using a mechanized platform to provide the perturbation, it should be possible to simulate aircraft and automobile vibration profiles. Used in conjunction with the far and near visual displays this facility should be able to assess a subject s ability to clearly see distant objects as well as those that appear on the dashboard or instrument control panel during functionally relevant situations.

Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2006-01-01

15

Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure  

PubMed Central

Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity.

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

2013-01-01

16

Adaptive Mental Testing: The State of the Art.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper defines adaptive mental testing in relation to conventional mental testing, outlines the major research issues in adaptive mental testing, and reviews the state of the art for each of the research issues. The research issues are: (1) psychometr...

J. R. McBride

1979-01-01

17

Methods for Equating Mental Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technology for test equating has arisen from the need to make new tests comparable to old ones. The equating of military tests has two objectives: (a) to make scores on different tests forms and on different composites of test forms comparable, and at...

K. A. Gialluca L. I. Crichton C. D. Vale

1984-01-01

18

One Eye or Two: A Comparison of Binocular and Monocular Low-Contrast Acuity Testing in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To determine the magnitudes of binocular summation for low- and high-contrast letter acuity in a multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort, and to characterize the roles that MS disease, age, interocular difference in acuity, and a history of optic neuritis have on binocular summation. The relation between binocular summation and monocular acuities and vision-specific quality of life (QoL) was also examined. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS Low-contrast acuity (2.5% and 1.25% contrast) and high-contrast visual acuity (VA) were assessed binocularly and monocularly in patients and disease-free controls at 3 academic centers. Binocular summation was calculated as the difference between the binocular and better eye scores. QoL was measured using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and the 10-item neuro-ophthalmic supplement. The relation of the degree of binocular summation to monocular acuity, clinical history of acute optic neuritis, age, interocular acuity difference, and QoL was determined. RESULTS Binocular summation was demonstrated at all contrast levels, and was greatest at the lowest level (1.25%). Increasing age (P < .0001), greater interocular differences in acuity (P < .0001), and prior history of optic neuritis (P = .015) were associated with lower magnitudes of binocular summation; binocular inhibition was seen in some of these patients. Higher magnitudes of summation for 2.5% low-contrast acuity were associated with better scores for the NEI VFQ-25 (P = .02) and neuro-ophthalmic supplement (P = .03). CONCLUSION Binocular summation of acuity occurs in MS but is reduced by optic neuritis, which may lead to binocular inhibition. Binocular summation and inhibition are important factors in the QoL and visual experience of MS patients, and may explain why some prefer to patch or close 1 eye in the absence of diplopia or ocular misalignment.

PINELES, STACY L.; BIRCH, EILEEN E.; TALMAN, LAUREN S.; SACKEL, DAVID J.; FROHMAN, ELLIOT M.; CALABRESI, PETER A.; GALETTA, STEVEN L.; MAGUIRE, MAUREEN G.; BALCER, LAURA J.

2013-01-01

19

Creation and testing of a practical visual function assessment for use in Africa: correlation with visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and near vision in Malawian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo develop and test a practical visual function assessment for use in developing countries.METHODSUsing focus group discussions and interviews with eyecare workers and low vision specialists in Malawi, 13 questions related to visual characteristics of activities of daily living were designed. Patients presenting to an eye clinic were recruited and interviewed. Visual acuity, near vision, and contrast sensitivity were measured.

Karin van Dijk; Susan Lewallen; Moses Chirambo; Jane Gardiner; Brian Hoar; Janette Lindley; N Kevin Wade; Paul Courtright

1999-01-01

20

Age related changes in visual acuity.  

PubMed

Longitudinal visual acuity assessments of men, and cross-sectional assessments of men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging are presented. The longitudinal data relate presenting far, uncorrected far, presenting near and uncorrected near visual acuities to age. The cross-sectional data relate presenting far acuity to age. The prevalence of cataract, glaucoma and retinal pathologies are reported for the longitudinal sample at the time of their last vision test. The effect of visual pathologies in general, and cataract in particular, upon presenting far visual acuity was examined. The longitudinal data are consistent with cross-sectional data from previously published reports. Older persons who were free from specific visual pathologies exhibited an age-related decline in presenting far acuity as did those with documented visual pathologies. Despite the demonstrated loss in acuity with age, the majority of persons maintain at least fair acuity (20/40 or better) into their 80's. PMID:3493168

Gittings, N S; Fozard, J L

1986-01-01

21

Auditory Acuity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (8th activity on the page) tests learners' ability to identify things using only the sense of hearing. A blindfolded learner listens as another learner approaches him holding a ticking watch from different angles. Learners will record the distance it takes for the learner to hear the ticking sound. Learners will also examine how covering one or both of the ears affects their ability to hear. This activity page includes a link to background information about the ear and hearing.

Chudler, Eric H.

2009-01-01

22

The effects of lubricant eye drops on visual function as measured by the Inter-blink interval Visual Acuity Decay test  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two marketed ocular lubricants on the visual decay in dry eye patients using the Inter-blink interval Visual Acuity Decay (IVAD) test. Methods: This controlled, randomized, double-masked crossover study compared the effects of a polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol-based (PEG/PG) tear and a carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC)/glycerin tear on the visual acuity decay between blinks of dry eye patients. At visit 1 (Day 0), baseline IVAD measurements were recorded prior to instillation of a single drop of randomized study medication. IVAD testing was repeated at 15-, 45-, and 90-minutes post-instillation. Reading rate and functional blink rate were also evaluated. At the second visit (Day 7 ± 3), study procedures were repeated using crossover treatment. Results: Forty-eight (48) subjects with dry eye (61.1 ± 14.8 years old, 79.2% female, 95.8% white) completed the study. Treatment with the PEG/PG-based tear demonstrated statistically significantly longer time to one-line loss of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as determined by the IVAD test at 90 minutes post-instillation compared to the CMC/glycerin tear (P = 0.0365). Measurements of median time at BCVA, reading rate, and functional blink rate were similar for both treatments. Both formulations were well tolerated in the population studied. Conclusions: Treatment with the PEG/PG-based tear demonstrated statistically significant improved maintenance of visual acuity between blinks at 90 minutes post-instillation compared to the CMC/glycerin tear. This is the first study to demonstrate the ability of an artificial tear to extend visual acuity maintenance between blinks, as measured by the IVAD test.

Torkildsen, Gail

2009-01-01

23

Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

24

Visual acuity screening of preterm infants.  

PubMed

Visual acuity was screened in 36 healthy infants born 4 or more weeks prior to term. Preterm infants tested at 8 and 12 weeks of postnatal age showed significantly poorer performances than those shown by 8- and 12-week-old full-term infants. However, no differences in performance were found when the scores of preterm infants tested at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of postterm age (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 weeks from due date) were compared with scores of 4-, 8-, and 12-week-old full-term infants. The results suggest that visual acuity is more closely correlated with age from conception than with age from birth and that visual acuity screening in preterm infants should be carried out with acuity gratings appropriate for the infant's postterm age rather than with acuity gratings appropriate for the infant's postnatal age. PMID:7440104

Dobson, V; Mayer, D L; Lee, C P

1980-12-01

25

Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast  

PubMed Central

Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from ?2.5% to ?99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding.

Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.

2013-01-01

26

The Teller Acuity Cards Are Effective in Detecting Amblyopia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Detection of amblyopia in infants and toddlers is difficult because the current clinical standard for this age group, fixation preference, is inaccurate. Although grating acuity represents an alternative, studies of preschoolers and schoolchildren report that it is not equivalent to the gold standard optotype acuity. Here, we examine whether the Teller Acuity Cards (TAC) can detect amblyopia effectively by testing children old enough (7.8 ± 3.6 years) to complete optotype acuity testing. Methods Grating acuity was assessed monocularly in 45 patients with unilateral amblyopia, 44 patients at risk for amblyopia, and 37 children with no known vision disorders. Each child’s grating acuity was classified as normal/abnormal based on age-appropriate norms. These classifications were compared with formal amblyopia diagnoses. Results Grating acuity was finer than optotype acuity among amblyopic eyes (medians: 0.28 vs. 0.40 logMAR, respectively, p < 0.0001) but not among fellow eyes (medians: 0.03 vs. 0.10 logMAR, respectively, p = 0.36). The optotype acuity-grating acuity discrepancy among amblyopic eyes was larger for cases of severe amblyopia than for moderate amblyopia (means: 0.64 vs. 0.18 logMAR, respectively, p = 0.0001). Nevertheless, most cases of amblyopia were detected successfully by the TAC, yielding a sensitivity of 80%. Furthermore, grating acuity was relatively sensitive to all amblyopia subtypes (69 to 89%) and levels of severity (79 to 83%). Conclusions Although grating acuity is finer than optotype acuity in amblyopic eyes, most children with amblyopia were identified correctly suggesting that grating acuity is an effective clinical alternative for detecting amblyopia.

Drover, James R.; Wyatt, Lauren M.; Stager, David R.; Birch, Eileen E.

2010-01-01

27

Screening for ophthalmic disease in older subjects using visual acuity and contrast sensitivity 1 1 The authors have no financial interest in any of the tests used in this study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDespite early interest in contrast sensitivity as a screening test for ophthalmic disease, most published opinion suggests that there is no benefit over conventional measurement of visual acuity. Taking a primary care perspective of screening, the authors evaluated the ability to discriminate those with any diagnosed ophthalmic disease in a large sample representative of the general population.

Russell L Woods; Stephen J Tregear; Reginald A Mitchell

1998-01-01

28

High-acuity spatial stream segregation.  

PubMed

In a complex auditory scene, location in space is one of several acoustic features that permit listeners to segregate competing sequences of sounds into discrete perceptual streams. Nevertheless, the spatial acuity of stream segregation is unknown. Moreover, it is not clear whether this is really a spatial effect or whether it reflects a binaural process that only indirectly involves space. We employed "rhythmic masking release" as an objective measure of spatial stream segregation. That task revealed spatial acuity nearly as fine as listeners' discriminations of static locations (i.e., their minimum audible angles). Tests using low-pass, high-pass, and varying-level conditions in the horizontal dimension demonstrated that binaural difference cues provide finer acuity than does any monaural cue and that low-frequency interaural delay cues give finer acuity than do high-frequency interaural level differences. Surprisingly, stream segregation in the vertical dimension, where binaural difference cues are negligible, could be nearly as acute as that in the horizontal dimension. The results show a common spatial underpinning to performance. Nevertheless, a dissociation across conditions between localization acuity and masking-release thresholds suggests that spatial stream segregation is accomplished by brain systems discrete from those responsible for sound-localization judgments. PMID:23716256

Middlebrooks, John C

2013-01-01

29

Visual Acuity of Children: United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National estimates based on the findings from the Health Examination Survey in 1963 to 1965 of uncorrected monocular and binocular visual-acuity levels of children were studied. A nationwide sample of 7,417 children was selected to represent the approximately 24 million noninstitutionalized American children between ages 6 and 11 years. Testing

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

30

Human Gaze Following Response Is Affected by Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated how gaze following eye movements are affected by stimulus contrast and spatial frequency and by aberrations in central visual acuity due to refractive errors. We measured 30 healthy subjects with a range of visual acuities but without any refractive correction. Visual acuity was tested using a Landolt-C chart. Subjects were divided into three groups with low, intermediate, or good visual acuity. Gaze following responses (GFR) to moving Gabor patches were recorded by video-oculography. In each trial, the subjects were presented with a single Gabor patch with a specific spatial frequency and luminance contrast that moved sinusoidally in the horizontal plane. We observed that GFR gain decreased with increasing spatial frequency and decreasing contrast and was correlated with visual acuity. GFR gain was lower and decreased more for subjects with lower visual acuity; this was especially so for lower stimulus contrasts that are not tested in standard acuity tests. The largest differences between the groups were observed at spatial frequencies around 4 cpd and at contrasts up to 10%. Aberrations in central visual acuity due to refractive errors affect the GFR response depending on the contrast and spatial frequency of the moving stimulus. Measuring this effect may contribute to a better estimate of changes in visual function as a result of aging, disease, or treatments meant to improve vision.

Spoor, Marcella; van Alphen, Bart; Frens, Maarten A.; van der Geest, Jos N.

2014-01-01

31

Human gaze following response is affected by visual acuity.  

PubMed

The present study investigated how gaze following eye movements are affected by stimulus contrast and spatial frequency and by aberrations in central visual acuity due to refractive errors. We measured 30 healthy subjects with a range of visual acuities but without any refractive correction. Visual acuity was tested using a Landolt-C chart. Subjects were divided into three groups with low, intermediate, or good visual acuity. Gaze following responses (GFR) to moving Gabor patches were recorded by video-oculography. In each trial, the subjects were presented with a single Gabor patch with a specific spatial frequency and luminance contrast that moved sinusoidally in the horizontal plane. We observed that GFR gain decreased with increasing spatial frequency and decreasing contrast and was correlated with visual acuity. GFR gain was lower and decreased more for subjects with lower visual acuity; this was especially so for lower stimulus contrasts that are not tested in standard acuity tests. The largest differences between the groups were observed at spatial frequencies around 4 cpd and at contrasts up to 10%. Aberrations in central visual acuity due to refractive errors affect the GFR response depending on the contrast and spatial frequency of the moving stimulus. Measuring this effect may contribute to a better estimate of changes in visual function as a result of aging, disease, or treatments meant to improve vision. PMID:24804079

Spoor, Marcella; Hosseini, Behdokht; van Alphen, Bart; Frens, Maarten A; van der Geest, Jos N

2014-01-01

32

Separating "Rotators" from "Nonrotators" in the Mental Rotations Test: A Multigroup Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Items of mental rotation tests can not only be solved by mental rotation but also by other solution strategies. A multigroup latent class analysis of 24 items of the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) was conducted in a sample of 1,695 German pupils and students to find out how many solution strategies can be identified for the items of this test. The…

Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

2006-01-01

33

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense § 4.76 Visual acuity. (a) Examination of visual acuity . Examination of visual acuity must...

2010-07-01

34

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense § 4.76 Visual acuity. (a) Examination of visual acuity . Examination of visual acuity must...

2009-07-01

35

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense § 4.76 Visual acuity. (a) Examination of visual acuity . Examination of visual acuity must...

2013-07-01

36

Influence of loupes and age on the near visual acuity of practicing dentists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the near visual acuity of 40 dentists and its improvement by using different magnification devices. The acuity was tested with miniaturized E-optotype tests on a negatoscope under the following conditions: 1. natural visual acuity, 300 mm; 2. single lens loupe, 2×, 250 mm; 3. Galilean loupe, 2.5×, 380 mm; and 4. Keplerian loupe, 4.3×, 400 mm. In part 1, the influence of the magnification devices was investigated for all dentists. The Keplerian loupe obtained the highest visual acuity (4.64), followed by the Galilean loupe (2.43), the single lens loupe (1.42), and natural visual acuity (1.19). For part 2, the dentists were classified according to their age (=40 years). The younger dentists' group achieved a significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices (p<0.001). For part 3, the dentists were grouped according to their natural visual acuity. The group with the higher natural visual acuity achieved significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices than did the group of dentists with the lower natural visual acuity (p<0.01). It can be concluded that near visual acuity varies highly between individuals and decreases during the lifetime. Independent of age or natural vision, visual acuity can be significantly improved by using magnification devices.

Eichenberger, Martina; Perrin, Philippe; Neuhaus, Klaus W.; Bringolf, Ueli; Lussi, Adrian

2011-03-01

37

Visual Handicaps of Mentally Handicapped People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent literature concerning visual handicaps of mentally handicapped people is reviewed. Topic areas considered are etiology and epidemiology, visual acuity, color vision, and educational techniques. (Author)

Ellis, David

1979-01-01

38

Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

2013-01-01

39

Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor  

SciTech Connect

A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

40

Performance of brain-injured and familial mental defectives on the Bender Gestalt Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 2 groups: 161 brain-injured mental defectives and a like number of mental defectives having a familial or hereditary etiology. The familial group was more accurate in its reproductions. Correlations for accuracy and mental age ranged from .64 to .80. Reversals, parts repeated, and the use of lines instead of dots occurred more frequently

Gerard J. Bensberg

1952-01-01

41

The Mental Cutting Test "Schnitte" and the Picture Rotation Test--Two New Measures to Assess Spatial Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new measures to assess spatial ability are presented: the mental cutting test "Schnitte" (Fay & Quaiser-Pohl, 1999; English version: Fay, Quaiser-Pohl, & Ronicke, 2003), a test for selecting people with extraordinary spatial abilities, and the Picture Rotation Test (Hinze, 2002; Hinze & Quaiser-Pohl, 2003), a mental rotation test for preschool…

Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia

2003-01-01

42

Visual acuity vs letter contrast sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the quantitative relationship between foveal visual acuity and contrast sensitivity for large-letter optotypes in a group of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), in order to asses more completely the extent of foveal vision loss in this group of hereditary retinal dystrophies. High-contrast visual acuity and large-letter contrast sensitivity were measured with a computer-based testing system and with

Kenneth R. Alexander; Deborah J. Derlacki; Gerald A. Fishman

1995-01-01

43

Visual Acuity and the Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

Beynon, J.

1985-01-01

44

Mid-level Providers Working in a Low-acuity Area are More Productive than in a High-acuity Area  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Mid-level providers (MLP) are extensively used in staffing emergency departments (ED). We sought to compare the productivity of MLPs staffing a low-acuity and high-acuity area of a community ED. Methods: This is a retrospective review of MLP productivity at a single center 42,000-volume community ED from July 2009 to September 2010. MLPs staffed day shifts (8AM–6PM or 10AM–10PM) in high- and low-acuity sections of the ED. We used two-tailed T-test to compare patients/hour, relative value units (RVUs)/hour, and RVUs/patient between the 2 MLP groups. Results: We included 49 low-acuity and 55 high-acuity shifts in this study. During the study period, MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts treated a mean of 2.7 patients/hour (confidence interval [CI] +/? 0.23), while those staffing high-acuity shifts treated a mean of 1.56 patients/hour (CI +/? 0.14, p<0.0001). MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts generated a mean of 4.45 RVUs/hour (CI +/? 0.34) compared to 3.19 RVUs/hour (CI +/? 0.29) for those staffing high-acuity shifts (p<0.0001). MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts generated a mean of 1.68 RVUs/patient (CI +/? 0.06) while those staffing high-acuity shifts generated a mean RVUs/patient of 2.05 (CI +/? 0.09, p<0.0001). Conclusion: MLPs staffing a low-acuity area treated more patients/hour and generated more RVUs/hour than when staffing a high-acuity area.

Silberman, Michael; Jeanmonod, Donald; Hamden, Khalief; Reiter, Mark; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

2013-01-01

45

Predicting WAIS scores from Quick Test scores for mentally retarded psychiatric patients.  

PubMed

Investigated Quick Test prediction of WAIS Full Scale IQs for a psychiatric population (N = 19) who were also mentally retarded. One- and two-variable regression equations produced nonsignificant results and accounted for only 11% and 15% of the variance. Caution is advised when the Quick Test is used as an estimate of IQ for mentally retarded psychiatric individuals. PMID:7263891

Peteroy, E T; Pirrello, P E; Adams, N

1981-07-01

46

Dynamic visual acuity using "far" and "near" targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CONCLUSIONS: DVA may be useful for assessing the functional consequences of an impaired gaze stabilization mechanism or for testing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation paradigm. Because target distance influences the relative contributions of canal and otolith inputs, the ability to measure DVA at near and far viewing distances may also lead to tests that will independently assess canal and otolith function. OBJECTIVE: To present and test a methodology that uses dynamic visual acuity (DVA) to assess the efficacy of compensatory gaze mechanisms during a functionally relevant activity that differentially measures canal and otolith function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of treadmill walking at a velocity of 1.79 m/s on subjects' visual acuity was assessed at each of two viewing distances. A custom-written threshold determination program was used to display Landolt C optotypes on a laptop computer screen during a "far" (4 m) target condition and on a micro-display for a "near" (50 cm) target condition. The walking acuity scores for each target distance were normalized by subtracting a corresponding acuity measure obtained while standing still on the treadmill belt. RESULTS: As predicted by subjective reports of relative target motion, the decrease in visual acuity was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) for the near compared to the far condition.

Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2005-01-01

47

Mental Status Testing in the Elderly Nursing Home Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utility of selected brief cognitive screening instruments in detecting dementia in an elderly nursing home population was examined. One hundred twenty nursing home residents (mean age 87.9) were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS). The majority of the subjects (75%) were also administered the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Both clinically diagnosed

Jodi D. Nadler; Norman R. Relkin; Melanie S. Cohen; Richard A. Hodder; Jacob Reingold; Fred Plum

1995-01-01

48

The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

2003-01-01

49

Role of Concentration in Simple Mental Tasks: An Experimental Test of Some Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To explain response time (RT) fluctuations in continuous performance on routine mental tasks such as concentration and mental speed tests, Pieters and Van der Ven (1982) proposed the Poisson-Erlang model. The model assumes that RT fluctuations on such tas...

G. J. P. van Breukelen R. W. T. L. Jansen

1987-01-01

50

Contrast sensitivity versus visual acuity in retinal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large group of individuals with retinal disease were tested prospectively for contrast sensitivity by means of Arden gratings. A subgroup of 19 were also tested with the Nicolet automated television system. Individuals with macular or peripheral dystrophy showed a general reduction in contrast sensitivity as visual acuity decreased. The loss of contrast sensitivity was more prominent for high spatial

M F Marmor

1986-01-01

51

Performance of a five-item mental health screening test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the screening accuracy of a short, five-item version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) with that of the 18-item MHI, the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and a 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI-28). Subjects were newly enrolled members of a health maintenance organization (HMO), and the criterion diagnoses were those found through use of the

Donald M. Berwick; Jane M. Murphy; Paula A. Goldman; Ware John E. Jr; Arthur J. Barsky; Milton C. Weinstein

1991-01-01

52

Visual acuity and the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sighted individuals take the eye and its processes very much for granted. Within this set of individuals there are many physics students who have little awareness of the optics of the eye. They are usually able to describe its basic structure and resemblance to a camera, and name some of its defects, but they seem to be unaware of the role of the various elements of the eye in the perception of spatial detail, i.e. visual acuity. To give a greater appreciation of human vision the author makes a comparison with other vertebrates and insects. Inevitably, in an article of this kind the picture must be incomplete, but the objective is to whet the appetite of the serious student and encourage him/her to research the subject more clearly.

Beynon, J.

1985-09-01

53

Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

2010-01-01

54

SYSTEMS: School-Years Screening Test for the Evaluation of Mental Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the School-Years Screening Test for Evaluation of Mental Status (SYSTEMS). It was designed to be used by neurologists, pediatricians, and other health professionals assessing children with suspected cognitive problems or changes. SYSTEMS was initially based on the adult Mini-Mental State Examination developed by Folstein, Folstein, and McHugh in 1975. SYSTEMS is a 7- to 12-minute, one-on-one interview

Robert Ouvrier; Julie Hendy; Laurel Bornholt; Fiona H. Black

1999-01-01

55

Degraded time-frequency acuity to time-reversed notes.  

PubMed

Time-reversal symmetry breaking is a key feature of many classes of natural sounds, originating in the physics of sound production. While attention has been paid to the response of the auditory system to "natural stimuli," very few psychophysical tests have been performed. We conduct psychophysical measurements of time-frequency acuity for stylized representations of "natural"-like notes (sharp attack, long decay) and the time-reversed versions of these notes (long attack, sharp decay). Our results demonstrate significantly greater precision, arising from enhanced temporal acuity, for such sounds over their time-reversed versions, without a corresponding decrease in frequency acuity. These data inveigh against models of auditory processing that include tradeoffs between temporal and frequency acuity, at least in the range of notes tested and suggest the existence of statistical priors for notes with a sharp-attack and a long-decay. We are additionally able to calculate a minimal theoretical bound on the sophistication of the nonlinearities in auditory processing. We find that among the best studied classes of nonlinear time-frequency representations, only matching pursuit, spectral derivatives, and reassigned spectrograms are able to satisfy this criterion. PMID:23799012

Oppenheim, Jacob N; Isakov, Pavel; Magnasco, Marcelo O

2013-01-01

56

Degraded Time-Frequency Acuity to Time-Reversed Notes  

PubMed Central

Time-reversal symmetry breaking is a key feature of many classes of natural sounds, originating in the physics of sound production. While attention has been paid to the response of the auditory system to “natural stimuli,” very few psychophysical tests have been performed. We conduct psychophysical measurements of time-frequency acuity for stylized representations of “natural”-like notes (sharp attack, long decay) and the time-reversed versions of these notes (long attack, sharp decay). Our results demonstrate significantly greater precision, arising from enhanced temporal acuity, for such sounds over their time-reversed versions, without a corresponding decrease in frequency acuity. These data inveigh against models of auditory processing that include tradeoffs between temporal and frequency acuity, at least in the range of notes tested and suggest the existence of statistical priors for notes with a sharp-attack and a long-decay. We are additionally able to calculate a minimal theoretical bound on the sophistication of the nonlinearities in auditory processing. We find that among the best studied classes of nonlinear time-frequency representations, only matching pursuit, spectral derivatives, and reassigned spectrograms are able to satisfy this criterion.

Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Isakov, Pavel; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

2013-01-01

57

Stimulus Determinants of Dynamic Visual Acuity. III. Effects of Proximal Borders and Limited Surround.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) appear to offer unique potential for assessing practical visual capabilities. These tests have not been standardized with respect to variations in the target surround, nor are the effects of such variations understood....

J. E. Goodson T. R. Morrison

1981-01-01

58

The Performance of Individuals with Mental Retardation on Cognitive Tests Assessing Effort and Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine which tests of effort and motivation would be appropriate for use with patients with mental retardation when feigning of cognitive deficits is suspected. The seven measures evaluated included the WMS-III Rarely Missed Index Test, forced-choice recognition portion of the California Verbal Learning Test-II, Reliable Digit Span test, Rey 15-Item Test, Rey Dot

Paul Marshall; Maggie Happe

2007-01-01

59

Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

60

Teaching Test-Taking Strategies to Improve the Academic Achievement of Students with Mild Mental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of teaching a test-taking strategy to 4 fourth- and fifth-grade students with mild mental disabilities on reading and math achievement. The intervention consisted of a direct and explicit instructional method using a mnemonic strategy. The participants' acquisition and application of the test-taking strategy on…

Kretlow, Allison G.; Lo, Ya-yu; White, Richard B.; Jordan, LuAnn

2008-01-01

61

A COMPARISON OF THE EMPIRICAL VALIDITY OF SIX TESTS OF ABILITY WITH EDUCABLE MENTAL RETARDATES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE VALIDITY OF INTELLIGENCE AND OTHER TESTS USED IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF RETARDED CHILDREN WAS PERFORMED. EXPERIMENTAL SAMPLES CONSISTED OF 101 CHILDREN SELECTED FROM SPECIAL CLASSES FOR EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED (EMR) WHOSE AGES RANGED FROM 6.9 TO 10 YEARS AND WHOSE IQ SCORES RANGED FROM 50 TO 80. THE TESTS EVALUATED WERE (1)…

MUELLER, MAX W.

62

Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of adult zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual acuity of adult zebrafish by assessing the optokinetic reflex. Using a modified commercially available optomotor device (OptoMotry®), virtual three-dimensional gratings of variable spatial frequency or contrast were presented to adult zebrafish. In a first experiment, visual acuity was evaluated by changing the spatial frequency at different angular velocities. Thereafter, contrast sensitivity was evaluated by changing the contrast level at different spatial frequencies. Results At the different tested angular velocities (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 d/s) and a contrast of 100%, visual acuity values ranged from 0.56 to 0.58 c/d. Contrast sensitivity measured at different spatial frequencies (0.011, 0.025, 0.5, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.55 c/d) with an angular velocity of 10 d/s and 25 d/s revealed an inverted U-shaped contrast sensitivity curve. The highest mean contrast sensitivity (±SD) values of 20.49?±?4.13 and 25.24?±?8.89 were found for a spatial frequency of 0.05 c/d (angular velocity 10 d/s) and 0.1 c/d (angular velocity 25 d/s), respectively. Conclusions Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements in adult zebrafish with the OptoMotry® device are feasible and reveal a remarkably higher VA compared to larval zebrafish and mice.

2012-01-01

63

Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying.  

PubMed

Hydrogel contact lens surfaces partially desiccate during extended interblink intervals, producing a microscopically rough and irregular surface that scatters light. Such light scattering could reduce retinal image contrast, elevating thresholds for target perception. To test this idea, we measured low (7%)-contrast visual acuity of subjects who wore: (1) hydrogel contact lenses, (2) rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, and (3) no contact lenses when the subjects blinked normally and when they suppressed blinking. Acuity thresholds were determined using computer-generated acuity stimuli and a staircase psychophysical procedure. Cessation of blinking resulted in small reductions in low-contrast acuity for subjects wearing RGP lenses (mean loss: 0.1 line) or no lenses (mean loss: 0.3 lines). Subjects wearing hydrogel lenses, however, generally exhibited substantial reduction of acuity (mean loss: 4.1 lines) when blinking was suppressed. PMID:1436995

Timberlake, G T; Doane, M G; Bertera, J H

1992-10-01

64

A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening  

PubMed Central

Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions—anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia—each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding.

Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M.; Pelli, Denis G.

2014-01-01

65

A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening.  

PubMed

Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions-anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia-each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding. PMID:24799622

Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M; Pelli, Denis G

2014-01-01

66

Motor Fitness Testing Manual for the Moderately Mentally Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual provides instructions for adapting the Special Fitness Test and the Special Fitness Test Award System for moderately retarded children. It is noted that major purposes of the test and award system are to motivate youngsters to participate actively in physical education and recreation activities and give them feelings of accomplishment…

Johnson, Leon; Londeree, Ben

67

Spatial-Bisection Acuity in Infantile Nystagmus  

PubMed Central

This study measured spatial bisection acuity for horizontally and vertically separated line targets in 5 observers with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) and no obvious associated sensory abnormalities, and in two normal observers during comparable horizontal retinal image motion. For small spatial separations between the line targets, bisection acuity for both horizontally and vertically separated lines is worse in the observers with IN than normal observers. In four of the five observers with IN, bisection acuity for small target separations is poorer for horizontally compared to vertically separated lines. Because the motion smear generated by the retinal image motion during IN would be expected influence horizontally separated targets, the degradation of bisection acuity for both vertical and horizontally separated lines indicates that a sensory neural deficit contributes to impaired visual functioning in observers with idiopathic IN.

Ukwade, Michael T.; Bedell, Harold E.

2012-01-01

68

Stimulus Determinants of Dynamic Visual Acuity. I. Background and Exploratory Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The measurement approach represented by tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) appears to offer unique potential for assessing visual capabilities which are required in the performance of naval aviation missions, and for investigating the nature of these vi...

J. E. Goodson T. R. Morrison

1980-01-01

69

Use of Preschool Preposition Test for Mentally Retarded and Other Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usefulness of the Preschool Preposition Test (PPT) as a cognitive screening and diagnostic tool for handicapped children is demonstrated through results of eight independent studies. The subjects were 354 children and youths, aged two to 20 years, with various handicaps: mentally retarded, autistic-like, moderately emotionally disturbed,…

Aaronson, May; And Others

70

A report of the use of mental tests in school administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews A Study of the Mental, Pedagogical and Physical Development of the Pupils of the Junior Division of the University High School, Eugene, Oregon by G. M. Ruch. The aim of this study is stated very simply: to show how the results of certain educational and psychological tests may be used as aids in problems of school administration. The results

G. L. Coy

1921-01-01

71

Mental abilities and school achievement: A test of a mediation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities – reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory – and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N=1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states that the complex cognitive abilities of reasoning and

Miriam Vock; Franzis Preckel; Heinz Holling

2011-01-01

72

The MISTRA Data: Forty-Two Mental Ability Tests in Three Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) was initiated in 1979 and continued until 2000. It consisted of 139 pairs of twins who had been separated in early childhood and not re-united until adulthood, and members of their families. As part of a broader assessment, these participants completed 42 mental ability tests from three well-known…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

2011-01-01

73

The Peabody Mathematics Readiness Test: Rational and Philosophy, Historical Development and Utility with Mentally Retarded Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the rationale, development and utility with mentally retarded children of the Peabody Mathematics Readiness Test (PMRT), an instrument designed to assess mathematical readiness of normal first graders and identify children who would experience difficulty with first grade mathematics. It is explained that the PMRT was intended to…

Thurman, Richard L.; And Others

74

The Peabody Mathematics Readiness Test: Investigations with Mentally Retarded Children. (B) PMRT and Teacher Ratings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated with 737 first grade students and 175 educable mentally retarded children (CA=6 to 18, MA=6 to 7 years) in special classrooms were the differences found in teacher's ratings of their students' mathematical abilities with regard to expectancy bias. Scores on the Peabody Mathematics Readiness Test were compared with ratings given by 34…

Thurman, Richard L.

75

Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

2011-01-01

76

Race Differences in Tested Intelligence: Important Socially, Obscure Causally. A Review ... of "Bias in Mental Testing", by Arthur R. Jensen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a book review of "Bias in Mental Testing" by Arthur R. Jensen. Jensen discusses intelligence as a phenotypic construct. The problem of ethnic differences in phenotypic intelligence is emotionally charged, which makes rational consideration of the issues difficult. The reviewer disagrees with the author's predisposition to propose…

Humphreys, Lloyd G.

1981-01-01

77

Distance and Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, and Visual Fields of 10YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure monocular distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and vi- sual field extent in full-term, 10-year-old children tested according to the protocol used to test 10-year-old preterm children in the Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were 106 healthy, full-term children, 9.8 to 10.9 years of age, who had no ocular abnormalities

Victoria S. Myers; Nicole Gidlewski; Graham E. Quinn; Dennis Miller; Velma Dobson

1999-01-01

78

Stereo-acuity in patients implanted with multifocal intraocular lenses: is the choice of stereotest relevant?  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: A randomized and double-blinded study design was implemented to assess the stereo-acuity in patients symmetrically implanted with four types of multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOLs), compared to a monofocal lens (control group). In addition, the influence of the type of test employed for the evaluation of stereo-acuity was explored. Materials and Methods: Six months after cataract intervention, stereo-acuity was measured with the Titmus and TNO stereotests in 143 patients implanted with one of the following MIOL lens types: hybrid spherical SN60D3, hybrid aspheric SN6AD1, diffractive aspheric ZMA00 and refractive spherical NXG1. A control group implanted with the monofocal aspheric ZA9003 (in which stereo-acuity was measured with a near addition) was also included in the study. Results: Statistically significant better stereo-acuity was found in the monofocal group with both stereotests (except for the SN60D3 group with the Titmus test) (all p?acuity between MIOLs were found using the Titmus test. However, with the TNO, patients implanted with hybrid diffractive MIOLs exhibited statistically significant worse stereo-acuity than those with the refractive design (SN60D3, p?acuity than those implanted with monofocal IOLs due to the decrease in retinal image contrast originating in the simultaneous presence of two images. A wavelength-based stereotest such as the TNO induces large differences in image contrast between fellow eyes implanted with diffractive-based MIOLs, which may result in an underestimation of the real stereo-acuity of the patient. PMID:24400719

Varón, Consuelo; Gil, Miguel A; Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Cardona, Genís; Vega, Fidel; Millán, María S; Buil, José A

2014-07-01

79

Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

2012-01-01

80

Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses Regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that can test rival hypotheses regarding causal genetic and environmental influences. A two-part strategy is proposed for the next phase of epidemiologic research. First, to facilitate the most informed tests of causal hypotheses, it is necessary to develop and test models of the structure of hypothesized genetic and environmental influences on mental health phenotypes. This will involve testing the related hypotheses that there are both (a) dimensions of psychopathology that are distinct in the sense of having at least some unique genetic and/or environmental influences, and (b) higher-order domains of correlated dimensions that are all apparently influenced in part by the same genetic and/or environmental factors. The resulting causal taxonomy would organize tests of causal hypotheses regarding both factors that may broadly increase risk for multiple dimensions of psychopathology and factors that may specifically increase risk for each individual dimension. Second, it is necessary to make greater use of a number of powerful epidemiologic designs that allow rigorous tests of rival hypotheses regarding genetic and environmental causes.

Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

2010-01-01

81

Understanding and Testing Risk Mechanisms for Mental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 50 years there has been a virtual revolution in thinking about risk mechanisms. The key areas of challenge and opportunity include: identification of environmental causes; use of natural experiments; gene-environment interaction; testing for mediation; developmental moderation; biological programming; and developmental perturbations.

Rutter, Michael

2009-01-01

82

Nonamblyopic eye visual acuity through Bangerter filters  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the amount of visual acuity degradation induced by Bangerter filters in the better-seeing eye and to evaluate its stability over time in children with moderate amblyopia. Methods Visual acuity with and without a Bangerter filter was measured in the nonamblyopic eye of 186 children with moderate amblyopia who were then treated with either patching or with the Bangerter filters. A 0.2 filter was used for amblyopia of 20/80 and a 0.3 filter for amblyopia from 20/40 to 20/63. For the 89 children randomized to Bangerter filters, visual acuity was also measured in the nonamblyopic eye with and without the filters at both 6 weeks and 12 weeks after initiating treatment. Results Mean degradation in visual acuity of the nonamblyopic eye at baseline was 5.1 logMAR lines with the 0.2 filter and 4.8 logMAR lines with the 0.3 filter. The degradation with each filter did not always agree with the manufacturer’s specifications. Over time, the amount of degradation with the filters decreased. Conclusions The 0.2 and 0.3 Bangerter filters degrade nonamblyopic eye visual acuity sufficiently in amblyopic children. Because the amount of degradation decreases over time, it is recommended to periodically apply a new filter when using this type of amblyopia treatment.

Rutstein, Robert P.; Foster, Nicole C.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Lee, Dave H.; Melia, Michele; Quinn, Graham E.; Tamkins, Susanna M.; Wallace, David K.

2011-01-01

83

Potential acuity meter for predicting visual acuity after Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy  

SciTech Connect

We studied 30 patients with opacifications of the posterior capsule to determine if the potential acuity meter (PAM) could accurately predict final visual outcome after Nd:YAG discussion. The final visual acuity was within one line of the PAM prediction in 22 of 30 patients (73%), better by two or more lines in seven patients (23%), and worse in one patient (4%) by two lines. Although in thicker capsules the final acuity was occasionally better than the PAM prediction, the rates of false negative and false positive predictions were very low. Mild cystoid macular edema (3 patients), age-related macular degeneration (3 patients), intraocular lens status, and level of initial acuity did not diminish PAM accuracy. The PAM effectively predicts final visual acuity after YAG posterior capsulotomy, when used in a patient, unhurried manner.

Smiddy, W.E.; Radulovic, D.; Yeo, J.H.; Stark, W.J.; Maumenee, A.E.

1986-03-01

84

The Nursing Home Minimum Data Set for Vision and Its Association with Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the association between the Minimum Data Set's (MDS) Vision Patterns section and near and distance visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in nursing home residents. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Seventeen nursing homes in the Birmingham, Alabama area. Participants 371 nursing home residents ? 55 years old with Mini-mental State Exams of ? 13. Measurements The MDS 2.0 assessment for vision from the date closest to acuity and contrast sensitivity assessment was obtained from the resident's medical record. Acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured by the ETDRS chart and Pelli-Robson chart, respectively. Results The MDS rating of visual status was associated with both distance and near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The MDS performed poorly in distinguishing residents with mild versus moderate visual impairment. For residents who were rated on the MDS as having adequate vision, 45.9% had distance acuity worse than 20/40 in the better eye, 72.8% had near acuity worse than 20/40 in the better eye, and 85.8% had contrast sensitivity < 1.50. Conclusion The MDS 2.0 assessment for vision in nursing home residents is positively associated with visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, but does not adequately distinguish between individuals with mild versus moderate visual impairment and classifies many as having adequate vision who have visual impairment. The validity of the MDS 2.0 as a mechanism for triggering comprehensive eye care for nursing home residents is questionable.

Swanson, Mark W.; McGwin, Gerald; Elliott, Amanda F.; Owsley, Cynthia

2009-01-01

85

'Visual' Acuity of the Congenitally Blind Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution  

PubMed Central

Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) convey visual information through sounds or touch, thus theoretically enabling a form of visual rehabilitation in the blind. However, for clinical use, these devices must provide fine-detailed visual information which was not yet shown for this or other means of visual restoration. To test the possible functional acuity conveyed by such devices, we used the Snellen acuity test conveyed through a high-resolution visual-to-auditory SSD (The vOICe). We show that congenitally fully blind adults can exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) blindness acuity threshold using SSDs, reaching the highest acuity reported yet with any visual rehabilitation approach. This demonstrates the potential capacity of SSDs as inexpensive, non-invasive visual rehabilitation aids, alone or when supplementing visual prostheses.

Striem-Amit, Ella; Guendelman, Miriam; Amedi, Amir

2012-01-01

86

Community Mental Health Services for Ethnic Minority Groups: A Test of the Cultural Responsiveness Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated services received, length of treatment, and outcomes of thousands of Asian-American, African-American, Mexican-American, and White clients using outpatient services in the Los Angeles County mental health system. It tested the hypothesis that therapist–client matches in ethnicity and language are beneficial to clients. Results indicate that Asian Americans and Mexican Americans underutilized, whereas African Americans overutilized, services. African

Stanley Sue; Diane C. Fujino; Li-tze Hu; David T. Takeuchi; Nolan W. S. Zane

1991-01-01

87

Sex Differences on the Mental Rotation Test: An Analysis of Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating a finding now common in the literature, the present study revealed a significant difference between the performance of men (M = 19.66; SD = 5.34; SK = 0.52) and the performance of women (M = 14.85; SD = 6.06; SK = -0.38, Cohen's d = 0.90) on the Mental Rotation Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978). In an attempt to identify determinants of…

Bors, Douglas A.; Vigneau, Francois

2011-01-01

88

Auditory acuity in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between diabetes and hearing loss has been debated for many years. Hyperglycemia appears to have an effect on hearing loss and the proposed mechanisms are microangiopathy, neuropathy or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to evaluate a cross section of hyperglycemic subjects with age- and sex-matched normoglycemic controls with pure tone audiometry and compare the differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects and 41 age- and sex-matched normoglycemic controls were subjected to a pure tone audiometric assessment followed by evaluation of their glycemic status and degree of glycemic control. The resulting data was statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The auditory thresholds in hyperglycemic subjects were higher in all age groups in all the frequencies suggestive of sensorineural hearing loss. The hyperglycemic subjects with poor control of their blood sugar levels (HbA1C > 8%) had elevated auditory thresholds in all the test frequencies. The fasting blood sugar level in hyperglycemic subjects showed a trend towards significant difference at higher frequencies, the postprandial blood sugar levels showed significant differences at higher frequencies. There was no effect of duration of diabetes mellitus on the hearing thresholds in hyperglycemic subjects. CONCLUSION: Subjects with hyperglycemia have a sensorineural hearing loss when evaluated with a pure tone audiometer in all frequencies than a normoglycemic control group. The study showed that post prandial blood sugar levels and HbA1C levels had a direct bearing on the auditory acuity of the hyperglycemic subjects.

Panchu, Pallavi

2008-01-01

89

Infant Auditory Temporal Acuity: Gap Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed auditory temporal acuity among infants of 3, 6, and 12 months of age and adults. Gap detection thresholds were quite poor in infants. Effects of restricting the range of frequencies available for detecting gaps were qualitatively similar for infants and adults. (GLR)

Werner, Lynne A.; And Others

1992-01-01

90

Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System \\/VARVS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS) is described. The system does not necessitate a large bandwidth in order to generate a large field of view at eye-limited resolution. A remote viewing link with a field of view of 160 degrees at a 4-MHz bandwidth is supported by an extreme aspheric foveal sensor and projection lens. A demonstration model has

G. Licis

1977-01-01

91

Dynamic Visual Acuity in Fatigued Pilots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six rotary wing aviators were subjects in a continuous operation regimen involving some 12 hours of flying and 3.5 hours sleep daily for five days. Estimates of performance on a dynamic visual acuity (DVA) task were obtained several times each day during ...

I. Behar K. A. Kimball D. A. Anderson

1976-01-01

92

Implementing an obstetric triage acuity scale: interrater reliability and patient flow analysis.  

PubMed

A 5-category Obstetric Triage Acuity Scale (OTAS) was developed with a comprehensive set of obstetrical determinants. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to test the interrater reliability of OTAS and (2) to determine the distribution of patient acuity and flow by OTAS level. To test the interrater reliability, 110 triage charts were used to generate vignettes and the consistency of the OTAS level assigned by 8 triage nurses was measured. OTAS performed with substantial (Kappa, 0.61 - 0.77, OTAS 1-4) and near perfect correlation (0.87, OTAS 5). To assess patient flow, the times to primary and secondary health care provider assessments and lengths of stay stratified by acuity were abstracted from the patient management system. Two-thirds of triage visits were low acuity (OTAS 4, 5). There was a decrease in length of stay (median [interquartile range], minutes) as acuity decreased from OTAS 1 (120.0 [156.0] minutes) to OTAS 3 (75.0 [120.8]). The major contributor to length of stay was time to secondary health care provider assessment and this did not change with acuity. The percentage of patients admitted to the antenatal or birthing unit decreased from 80% (OTAS 1) to 12% (OTAS 5). OTAS provides a reliable assessment of acuity and its implementation has allowed for triaging of obstetric patients based on acuity, and a more in-depth assessment of the patient flow. By standardizing assessment, OTAS allows for opportunities to improve performance and make comparisons of patient care and flow across organizations. PMID:23535239

Smithson, David S; Twohey, Rachel; Rice, Tim; Watts, Nancy; Fernandes, Christopher M; Gratton, Robert J

2013-10-01

93

Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness  

PubMed Central

Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI) and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9%) of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.

2011-01-01

94

Identifying student mental models from their response pattern to a physics multiple-choice test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has shown that students present different misconceptions across different but similar physical situations, but the cause of these differences is still not clear. In this study, a novel analysis method was introduced to help to gain a better understanding of how different physical situations affect students' responses and learning. This novel analysis groups students into mental model groups (MMG) by similarities in their responses to multiple-choice test items, under the assumption that they have similar mental models. The Mass and Energy Conservation test was developed to probe the common misconception that objects with greater mass fall faster than objects with lesser mass across four physical situations and four knowledge sub-domains: information, dynamics, work, and energy. The test was applied before and after energy instruction to 144 college students in a large Midwestern university attending a calculus-based introductory physics course. Test time along with instruction and physical situation were the two factors. It was found that physical situation did not have a significant effect on mental models: The number of MMGs identified and the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG were not significantly different (p > .05) across physical situations. However, there was a significant effect of test time on mental models (p < .05): the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG changed from the pretest to the posttest, in that the MMG representing higher performance became predominant than the MMG with lower performance for the posttest results. A MANOVA for the average scores for each sub-domain and physical situation combination was applied to validate the previous results. It was found that a significant effect (p < .01) by physical situation resulted due to a lower average dynamics sub-domain score for the friction physical-situation attribute when compared to the no-friction physical-situation attribute. A significant effect (p < .01) was found for test time. This was due to an increase of the average energy sub-domain score from the pretest to the posttest. No significant interaction effect ( p > .05) was found. The MANOVA results obtained can be explained through the change in proportion of the MMGs present in the sample.

Montenegro Maggio, Maximiliano Jose

95

Spatial acuity and prey detection in weakly electric fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known that weakly electric fish can exhibit extreme temporal acuity at the behavioral level, discriminating time intervals in the submicrosecond range. However, relatively little is known about the spatial acuity of the electrosense. Here we use a recently developed model of the electric field generated by Apteronotus leptorhynchus to study spatial acuity and small signal extraction. We show

David Babineau; John E. Lewis; André Longtin

2007-01-01

96

T-CAT: a new thermal camera acuity tester  

Microsoft Academic Search

T-CAT (Thermal Camera Acuity Tester) is a thermal `eye chart' for measuring the spatial resolution (`sensor acuity') of thermal imaging systems. It is a small, portable system,, that is used in a similar way as the optometrists' visual acuity charts. The design is an implementation of the TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) method for Electro-Optic sensor characterization that has recently been

J. Mathieu Valeton; Piet Bijl; Evert Agterhuis; Sjaak Kriekaard

2000-01-01

97

Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

Fisher, R. W.

1983-01-01

98

Acuity perimetry: Estimation of neural channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of peripheral visual acuity allow quantitative estimations of retino-cortical neural channels. Analysis of results from high-pass resolution perimetry revealed that about 2\\/3 of all channels are contained within 30 degrees of visual field eccentricity and that loss of 1\\/3 raises the average threshold level about 1 decibel. The analytical procedure can be applied to any type of visual field

L. Frisén

1988-01-01

99

Binocular training reduces amblyopic visual acuity impairment.  

PubMed

Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual impairment. Patching, which is modestly effective, is the current treatment of amblyopia in children. There is no clinically approved treatment for adults. The present study is a clinical trial (non-sham controlled and non-randomized) that assessed the efficacy of binocular training for improvement of the visual acuity in children and adults with amblyopia. Twenty-two amblyopic subjects ranging in age from 5 to 73 (mean: 36.2) years for whom patching and/or surgical treatments did not correct their visual impairment completed an average of 14.5 sessions of binocular training over a period of 4 to 6 weeks. Random dot kinematograms were presented dichoptically to the two eyes and the participants' task was to identify the direction of motion of the targets. Mean visual acuity improvement was 0.34 LogMAR (range: 0.1-0.58 LogMAR) and was shown to persist 6 months following the cessation of binocular training. Our study provides results in a large number of patients that confirm the clinical effectiveness of binocular training as a treatment for amblyopia in improving visual acuity in both children and adults. Moreover, this study is the first to demonstrate that the improvements in visual function were maintained for 6 months in the absence of any additional treatment. PMID:24564723

Mansouri, B; Singh, P; Globa, A; Pearson, P

2014-03-01

100

Lessons from the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey pilot study.  

PubMed Central

The Visual Acuity Impairment Survey (VAIS) pilot study was carried out in three large metropolitan areas of the United States to determine whether it would be feasible to conduct a large two-stage survey of the prevalence of visual acuity impairment and its causes. The study was conducted in conjunction with the Health Interview Survey (HIS), performed by the National Center for Health Statistics and the Census Bureau. In the first stage, a simple vision screening test was administered to 1,868 adults in their homes by specially trained Census Bureau interviewers. All those who failed the test, and a sample of those who passed it, were invited to a local clinic for a check on the accuracy of the screen and a detailed eye examination to establish the cause of the impairment. About 89 per cent of the HIS interviewees took the vision screening test in the home and agreed to have the results released, making it possible for the clinic to invite them for an examination. The principal obstacle to the success of the feasibility study was a low rate (less than 50 per cent) of participation in the clinic examination by the target population. Such low participation would leave the survey open to a serious question about its representativeness. The methods and findings of the pilot study are presented because the lessons may be of value to those attempting similar studies in the future. Suggestions are made for methodological modifications that may enhance the chances for success.

Ederer, F; Krueger, D E; Mowery, R L; Connett, J; Wentworth, D

1986-01-01

101

Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.  

PubMed

Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups. PMID:21427270

Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

2011-03-01

102

10-minute delayed recall from the modified mini-mental state test predicts Alzheimer's disease pathology.  

PubMed

We compared the sensitivity and specificity of two delayed recall scores from the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) test with consensus clinical diagnosis to differentiate cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus non-AD pathologies. At a memory disorders clinic, 117 cognitively impaired patients were administered a baseline 3MS test and received a contemporaneous consensus clinical diagnosis. Their brains were examined after death about 5 years later. Using logistic regression with forward selection to predict pathologically defined AD versus non-AD, 10-min delayed recall entered first (p = 0.001), followed by clinical diagnosis (p = 0.02); 1-min delayed recall did not enter. 10-min delayed recall scores ?4 (score range = 0-9) were 87% sensitive and 47% specific in predicting AD pathology; consensus clinical diagnosis was 82% sensitive and 45% specific. For the 57 patients whose initial Mini-Mental State Examination scores were ?19 (the median), 3MS 10-min delayed recall scores ?4 showed some loss of sensitivity (80%) but a substantial gain in specificity (77%). In conclusion, 10-min delayed recall score on the brief 3MS test distinguished between AD versus non-AD pathology about 5 years before death at least as well as consensus clinical diagnosis that requires much more comprehensive information and complex deliberation. PMID:24240637

Lyness, Scott A; Lee, Ae Young; Zarow, Chris; Teng, Evelyn L; Chui, Helena C

2014-01-01

103

Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about

Kaja K Aas; Kristian Tambs; Marit S Kise; Per Magnus; Kjersti S Rønningen

2010-01-01

104

The permanence of mental objects: testing magical thinking on perceived and imaginary realities.  

PubMed

This study tested participants' preparedness to acknowledge that an object could change as a result of magical intervention. Six- and 9-year-old children and adults treated perceived and imagined objects as being equally permanent. Adults treated a fantastic object as significantly less permanent than either perceived or imagined objects. Results were similar when a different type of mental-physical causality--a participant's own wish--was examined. Adults were also tested on the permanence of personally significant imagined objects (participants' images of their future lives). Although almost all participants claimed that they did not believe in magic, in test trials they were not prepared to rule out the possibility that their future lives could be affected by a magical curse. PMID:15769187

Subbotsky, Eugene

2005-03-01

105

Night driving (mesopic) visual acuity in sober male alcoholics with and without liver disease.  

PubMed

Night driving (mesopic) visual acuity and recovery after dazzle has been reported to be reduced in patients with liver disease. Mesopic visual acuity and dazzle recovery were evaluated in 32 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, 29 alcoholics without liver disease, and 27 age-matched normal controls. All subjects were sober for at least 7 days prior to visual testing, a mean sobriety period of 22 and 39 weeks in alcoholics and cirrhotics, respectively. Serum vitamin A levels and/or dark adaptation were normal in all. Mean best decimal acuities were not significantly different among the groups: alcoholic cirrhotics, 0.32 +/- 0.02; alcoholics, 0.32 +/- 0.02; and normals 0.33 +/- 0.03 at 2 min. Although cirrhotics had significantly higher SGOT and lower albumin levels than alcoholics, mesopic acuity did not relate to liver blood tests. Decimal acuity following a dazzle stimulus was not significantly worse in cirrhotics and alcoholics compared to normals. Sober patients with alcoholic cirrhosis or a history of alcoholism have no evidence of a static mesopic visual defect and therefore may not have impaired night driving vision. PMID:7013544

Campbell, T D; Sampliner, R E; Russell, R M; Garrett, M S

1981-01-01

106

Visual Acuity Using Head-fixed Displays During Passive Self and Surround Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to read head-fixed displays on various motion platforms requires the suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflexes. This study examined dynamic visual acuity while viewing a head-fixed display during different self and surround rotation conditions. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to report the orientation of Landolt C optotypes presented on a micro-display fixed to a rotating chair at 50 cm distance. Acuity thresholds were determined by the lowest size at which the subjects correctly identified 3 of 5 optotype orientations at peak velocity. Visual acuity was compared across four different conditions, each tested at 0.05 and 0.4 Hz (peak amplitude of 57 deg/s). The four conditions included: subject rotated in semi-darkness (i.e., limited to background illumination of the display), subject stationary while visual scene rotated, subject rotated around a stationary visual background, and both subject and visual scene rotated together. Visual acuity performance was greatest when the subject rotated around a stationary visual background; i.e., when both vestibular and visual inputs provided concordant information about the motion. Visual acuity performance was most reduced when the subject and visual scene rotated together; i.e., when the visual scene provided discordant information about the motion. Ranges of 4-5 logMAR step sizes across the conditions indicated the acuity task was sufficient to discriminate visual performance levels. The background visual scene can influence the ability to read head-fixed displays during passive motion disturbances. Dynamic visual acuity using head-fixed displays can provide an operationally relevant screening tool for visual performance during exposure to novel acceleration environments.

Wood, Scott J.; Black, F. Owen; Stallings, Valerie; Peters, Brian

2007-01-01

107

The Effects of Parvocellular Lateral Geniculate Lesions on the Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity of Macaque Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ablating the visual pathway that passes through the parvocellular (dorsal) LGN were tested in 2 macaque monkeys by measuring acuity and both luminance and chro- matic contrast sensitivity. Thresholds were tested monoc- ularly before and after ibotenic acid was used to lesion par- vocellular layers 4 and 6 of the contralateral geniculate. The injections were centered at

William H. Merigan; Laurence M. Katz; John H. Ft. MaunselF

1991-01-01

108

Ocular motility, visual acuity and dysfunction of neuropsychological impairment in children with shunted uncomplicated hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with shunted, uncomplicated, communicating hydrocephalus were tested to determine (1) the persistence of neuropsychological impairment and (2) the relationship between neuropsychological functioning, ocular motility, and acuity abnormalities. Eighteen hydrocephalic and 18 individually age- and sex-matched controls were given a neuropsychological battery, repeated after an interval of 1 year. Hydrocephalic children were also tested at the beginning of the second

Harriet K. Zeiner; George P. Prigatano; Michael Pollay; Charles B. Biscoe; Richard V. Smith

1985-01-01

109

Olfactory Acuity and Cognitive Function Converge in Older Adulthood: Support for the Common Cause Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual and auditory thresholds and cognitive variables have shown converging losses in old age, which might exist because standard cognitive tests rely on these modalities for assessment. The present study investigated the common cause hypothesis in another sensory modality. Structural equation modeling tested the fit of a model representing the common cause hypothesis for olfactory acuity and cognitive function data

Mario F. Dulay; Claire Murphy

2002-01-01

110

Metrics of Retinal Image Quality Predict Visual Performance in Eyes With 20/17 or Better Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of single-value metrics of retinal image quality of the eye to predict visual performance as measured by high (HC) and low (LC) -contrast acuity at photopic (P) and mesopic (M) light levels in eyes with 20/17 and better visual acuity. Methods. Forty-nine normal subjects in good health ranging in age from 21.8 to 62.6 with 20/17 or better monocular high-contrast logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) acuity served as subjects. Wavefront error through the 10th Zernike radial order over a 7-mm pupil was measured on each test eye using a custom-built Shack/Hartmann wavefront sensor. For each eye, 31 different single-value retinal image quality metrics were calculated. Visual acuity was measured using HC (95%) and LC (11%) logMAR at photopic (270 cd/m2) and mesopic (0.75 cd/m2) light levels. To determine the ability of each metric of retinal image quality to predict each type of logMAR acuity (P HC, P LC, M HC, and M LC), each acuity measure was regressed against each optical quality metric. Results. The ability of the metrics of retinal image quality to predict logMAR acuity improved as luminance and/or contrast is lowered. The best retinal image quality metric (logPFSc) accounted for 2.6%, 15.1%, 27.6%, and 40.0% of the variance in P HC, P LC, M HC, and M LC logMAR acuity, respectively. Conclusions. In eyes with 20/17 and better P HC acuity, P HC logMAR acuity is insensitive to variations in retinal image quality compared with M LC logMAR acuity. Retinal image quality becomes increasingly predictive of logMAR acuity as contrast and/or luminance is decreased. Everyday life requires individuals to function over a large range of contrast and luminance levels. Clinically, the impact of retinal image quality as a function of luminance and contrast is readily measurable in a time-efficient manner with M LC logMAR acuity charts.

APPLEGATE, RAYMOND A.; MARSACK, JASON D.; THIBOS, LARRY N.

2006-01-01

111

Constructive Replication of the Visual-Perceptual-Image Rotation Model in Thurstone's (1941) Battery of 60 Tests of Mental Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We recently evaluated the relative statistical performance of the Cattell-Horn fluid-crystallized model and the Vernon verbal-perceptual model of the structure of human intelligence in a sample of 436 adults heterogeneous for age, place of origin, and educational background who completed 42 separate tests of mental ability from three test

Johnson, W.; Bouchard, T.J.

2005-01-01

112

Mini mental Parkinson test: standardization and normative data on an Italian sample.  

PubMed

The mini mental Parkinson (MMP) is a test built to overcome the limits of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in the short-time screening of cognitive disorders in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In fact, in this scale, items tapping executive functioning are included to better capture PD-related cognitive changes. Some data sustain the sensitivity and validity of the MMP in the short neuropsychological screening of these individuals. Here, we report normative data on the MMP we collected on a sample of 307 Italian healthy subjects ranging from 40 to 91 years. The results document a detrimental effect of age and an ameliorative effect of education on the MMP total performance score. We provide for correction grids for age and literacy that derive from results of the regression analyses. Moreover, we also computed equivalent scores in order to allow a direct and fast comparison between the performance on the MMP and on other psychometric measures that can be administered to the subjects. PMID:23479031

Costa, Alberto; Bagoj, Eriola; Monaco, Marco; Zabberoni, Silvia; De Rosa, Salvatore; Mundi, Ciro; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

2013-10-01

113

Visual Acuity Development of Children with Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) can be idiopathic or associated with ocular or systemic disease. The ocular oscillation of INS directly contributes to loss of visual acuity. In this study, visual acuity development in patients with INS was examined. Methods. Children with INS were classified as having idiopathic INS (n = 84) or INS with an associated sensory deficit: INS and albinism (n = 71), bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH; n = 23), or congenital retinal disorder (n = 36). Visual acuity was assessed with Teller cards and/or optotypes, and the data were analyzed for three age groups (<24 months, 24–48 months, and >48 months). Results. Patients with idiopathic INS showed mildly reduced visual acuity early in life and gradual maturation with age that paralleled a normative curve. Patients with albinism also showed a mild visual deficit early in life but failed to keep pace with the normative curve, showing a gradual increase in visual acuity deficit. Patients with ONH and congenital retinal disorders exhibited more severe visual acuity deficits during infancy. The ONH group displayed slow improvement of visual acuity with a plateau at 24 months through >48 months, with a small increase in visual acuity deficit. The congenital retinal disorder group had no significant change in visual acuity across age and had a rapid increase in visual acuity deficit. Conclusions. The pattern of visual acuity development differs among children with INS, depending on the presence or absence of associated sensory system deficits. Careful characterization of visual system differences in patients with INS is important if visual acuity is an outcome in clinical trials.

Bilonick, Richard A.; Felius, Joost; Hertle, Richard W.; Birch, Eileen E.

2011-01-01

114

Flourishing in Life: An Empirical Test of the Dual Continua Model of Mental Health and Mental Illness among Canadian University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the conventional paradigm, mental health and illness exist on a single continuum where the emphasis is on the presence or absence of pathological outcomes. By contrast, a new theoretical framework recognizes and promotes a dual continua model where mental health is no longer the absence of mental illness. This new paradigm argues that mental health should be regarded as

Tracey Peter; Lance W Roberts; Jennifer Dengate

2011-01-01

115

Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and range performance with compressed motion video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video of visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) test charts in a complex background was recorded using a CCD color camera mounted on a computer-controlled tripod and was fed into real-time MPEG-2 compression\\/decompression equipment. The test charts were based on the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) test method and contained triangle test patterns of different sizes and contrasts in four

Piet Bijl; Sjoerd C. de Vries

2010-01-01

116

Building Mental Health Professionals' Decisional Models into Tests of Predictive Validity: The Accuracy of Contextualized Predictions of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To safely manage potentially violent patients in the community, mental health professionals (MHPs) must assess when and under what conditions a patient may be involved in a violent act. This study applies a more ecologically sensitive approach than past research by building the conditions that MHPs believe make patient violence more likely into tests of their predictive validity. In specific,

Jennifer L. Skeem; Edward P. Mulvey; Charles W. Lidz

2000-01-01

117

An Educational Test of the Learning Potential Hypothesis with Adolescent Mentally Retarded Special Class Children, Volume I. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the hypothesis that the amount learned from a manipulative, nonverbal oriented unit on electricity would be better predicted by a learning potential assessment procedure than from an IQ based classification (educable mentally retarded status), an EMR group and a regular class non EMR group were both exposed to the unit; untaught EMRs…

Budoff, M.

118

49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity...this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...corrective lenses and distant binocular acuity of at least 20/40...lenses; (2) A field of vision of at least 70 degrees in...

2012-10-01

119

Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnification factor (M) of the retina is the linear extent of visual striate cortex to which each degree of the retina projects. It has been suggested that magnification factor is directly proportional to visual acuity, but magnification factor measured in monkeys was compared with visual acuity in man. Here we first describe calculation of the magnification factor in man,

A. Cowey; E. T. Rolls

1974-01-01

120

The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity  

PubMed Central

Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity.

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

2014-01-01

121

Testing Social Cognitive Models of Mental Illness Stigma: The Prairie State Stigma Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social cognitive models of stigma define the relationship among: signals that suggest a person is mentally ill, stigmatizing attitudes about the person with mental illness, affective reactions to the stigmatizing attitude, and behavior responses to these attitudes and emotions. The Prairie State Stigma Studies were a set of investigations completed over the past five years examining stigma from the perspective

Patrick W. Corrigan

2002-01-01

122

A comparison of behavioural (Landolt C) and anatomical estimates of visual acuity in archerfish (Toxotes chatareus).  

PubMed

Archerfish forage by shooting jets of water at insects above the water's surface. The challenge of detecting small prey items against a complex background suggests that they have good visual acuity, but to date this has never been tested, despite archerfish becoming an increasingly important model species for vertebrate vision. We used a modified Landolt C test to measure visual acuity behaviourally, and compared the results to their predicted minimum separable angle based on both photoreceptor and ganglion cell spacing in the retina. Both measures yielded similar estimates of visual acuity; between 3.23 and 3.57 cycles per degree (0.155-0.140° of visual arc). Such a close match between behavioural and anatomical estimates of visual acuity in fishes is unusual and may be due to our use of an ecologically relevant task that measured the resolving power of the part of the retina that has the highest photoreceptor density and that is used in aligning their spitting angle with potential targets. PMID:23466473

Temple, S E; Manietta, D; Collin, S P

2013-05-01

123

Visual acuity in pelagic fishes and mollusks.  

PubMed

In the sea, visual scenes change dramatically with depth. At shallow and moderate depths (<1,000 m), there is enough light for animals to see the surfaces and shapes of prey, predators, and conspecifics. This changes below 1,000 m, where no downwelling daylight remains and the only source of light is bioluminescence. These different visual scenes require different visual adaptations and eye morphologies. In this study we investigate how the optical characteristics of animal lenses correlate with depth and ecology. We measured the radius, focal length, and optical quality of the lenses of pelagic fishes, cephalopods, and a gastropod using a custom-built apparatus. The hatchetfishes (Argyropelecus aculeatus and Sternoptyx diaphana) and the barrel-eye (Opisthoproctus soleatus) were found to have the best lenses, which may allow them to break the counterillumination camouflage of their prey. The heteropod lens had unidirectional aberrations that matched its ribbon-shaped retina. We also found that lens angular resolution increased with depth. Due to a similar trend in the angular separation between adjacent ganglion cells in the retinas of fishes, the perceived visual contrast at the retinal cutoff frequency was constant with depth. The increase in acuity with depth allows the predators to focus all the available light bioluminescent prey animals emit and detect their next meal. PMID:23998988

Gagnon, Yakir L; Sutton, Tracey T; Johnsen, Sönke

2013-11-01

124

Prevalence of refractive error in mentally retarded students of Kathmandu Valley.  

PubMed

Mental retardation also known as 'mentally handicap' means a delay or insufficient development of mental capacities. The prevalence of mental retardation in Nepal is 4.1%. Vision being the best sense for their education and daily activities, a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to find out the refractive error among the students in the schools for mentally retarded people. A total of 134 clinically diagnosed cases of mentally retarded students from three different schools of Kathmandu Valley were examined. Distance visual acuity was taken with the help of Cat Ford Vision Drum, SG chart and Kay Picture Test method but first preference was given to SG chart. Cyclo-retinoscopy and fundus examination under mydriasis were done in all the cases. Examination revealed that more than half of the examined had one or more ocular disorders with refractive error being the most common type of ocular morbidity followed by ocular motility disorders. Refractive errors were found in 34.4% in which the most common type of refractive error was simple hypermetropia. In conclusion refractive error was seen commonly among mentally retarded people of Kathmandu Valley. PMID:18298017

Ghising, R; Shakya, S; Rizyal, A; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S; Wang-Harris, S

2007-12-01

125

Developmental trajectory of number acuity reveals a severe impairment in developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyscalculia is a learning disability that affects the acquisition of knowledge about numbers and arithmetic. It is widely assumed that numeracy is rooted on the "number sense", a core ability to grasp numerical quantities that humans share with other animals and deploy spontaneously at birth. To probe the links between number sense and dyscalculia, we used a psychophysical test to measure the Weber fraction for the numerosity of sets of dots, hereafter called number acuity. We show that number acuity improves with age in typically developing children. In dyscalculics, numerical acuity is severely impaired, with 10-year-old dyscalculics scoring at the level of 5-year-old normally developing children. Moreover, the severity of the number acuity impairment predicts the defective performance on tasks involving the manipulation of symbolic numbers. These results establish for the first time a clear association between dyscalculia and impaired "number sense", and they may open up new horizons for the early diagnosis and rehabilitation of mathematical learning deficits. PMID:20381023

Piazza, Manuela; Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Berteletti, Ilaria; Conte, Stefano; Lucangeli, Daniela; Dehaene, Stanislas; Zorzi, Marco

2010-07-01

126

Malingering or simulation in ophthalmology-visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of OCT (optical coherence tomography), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology.

Incesu, Ali Ihsan; Sobac?, Gungor

2011-01-01

127

Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

PubMed Central

Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline) and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results). We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8), maternal self-esteem (RSES), and satisfaction with life (SWLS). The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166) with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224). The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9), self-esteem (p = 0.2), satisfaction with life (p = 0.2), or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48). Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased risk of maternal worry was found if the mother herself had type 1 diabetes (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.2-4.78). Conclusions This study did not find evidence supporting the notion that genetic risk information about newborns has a negative impact on the mental health of Norwegian mothers.

2010-01-01

128

Diagnosis and Administrative Interventions for Students with Mental Retardation in Australia, France, United States, and Zimbabwe 98 Years after Binet's First Intelligence Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes some prevailing policies and practices important to the assessment of mental retardation in Australia, France, the United States, and Zimbabwe. Discusses international standards for diagnosis and classification of mental disorders and cross-national similarities and differences. Also discusses implications for test development. (SLD)

Oakland, Thomas; Mpofu, Elias; Glasgow, Ken; Jumel, Bernard

2003-01-01

129

Development, item analysis, and initial reliability and validity of a multiple-choice knowledge of mental illnesses test for lay samples  

PubMed Central

The public’s level of mental health literacy remains low, despite growing access to information regarding mental illnesses. Because few measures exist to assess the level of knowledge of mental illnesses in lay samples, the Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illnesses Test (MC-KOMIT) was developed, initially for use in a study involving police officers, some of whom received 40 hours of training focused on recognizing mental illnesses, using verbal de-escalation techniques, and making mental health referrals when appropriate. This report details the initial development of the 100 questions in the item bank and the eventual selection of the final 33 items that were retained. For these 33 items, internal consistency was demonstrated, and test-retest reliability was examined among officers who completed the test on Monday morning and again on Friday afternoon. Construct validity was examined by three hypothesis tests: the MC-KOMIT was sensitive to change related to the educational intervention, scores were significantly correlated with years of educational attainment, and officers reporting past or current treatment for a mental health problem scored higher than those without such a history. This initial report suggests that the MC-KOMIT may be useful in quantifying knowledge of mental illnesses in police officers and other diverse lay samples.

Compton, Michael T.; Hankerson-Dyson, Dana; Broussard, Beth

2011-01-01

130

A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

2013-01-01

131

Motor Testing at 1 Year Improves the Prediction of Motor and Mental Outcome at 2 Years after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) in 32 surviving children (20 males, 12…

van Schie, Petra Em; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Barkhof, Frederik; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen

2010-01-01

132

Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers  

PubMed Central

Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children‘s food texture preferences.

Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

2012-01-01

133

Acuity of the approximate number system and preschoolers' quantitative development.  

PubMed

The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics achievement following one year of preschool, and predicted performance on measures of children's explicit knowledge of Arabic numerals, number words, and cardinal value, controlling for age, sex, parental education, intelligence, executive control, and preliteracy knowledge. The relation between ANS acuity, as measured by the Weber fraction and task accuracy, and mathematics achievement was fully mediated by children's performance on the symbolic quantitative tasks, with knowledge of cardinal value emerging as a particularly important mediator. The overall pattern suggests that ANS acuity facilitates the early learning of symbolic quantitative knowledge and indirectly influences mathematics achievement through this knowledge. PMID:24498980

van Marle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W; Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

2014-07-01

134

21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a Snellen chart with block letters or...Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...practice requirements of the quality system regulation in...

2013-04-01

135

Olfactory acuity in theropods: palaeobiological and evolutionary implications  

PubMed Central

This research presents the first quantitative evaluation of the olfactory acuity in extinct theropod dinosaurs. Olfactory ratios (i.e. the ratio of the greatest diameter of the olfactory bulb to the greatest diameter of the cerebral hemisphere) are analysed in order to infer the olfactory acuity and behavioural traits in theropods, as well as to identify phylogenetic trends in olfaction within Theropoda. A phylogenetically corrected regression of olfactory ratio to body mass reveals that, relative to predicted values, the olfactory bulbs of (i) tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids are significantly larger, (ii) ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids are significantly smaller, and (iii) ceratosaurians, allosauroids, basal tyrannosauroids, troodontids and basal birds are within the 95% CI. Relative to other theropods, olfactory acuity was high in tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids and therefore olfaction would have played an important role in their ecology, possibly for activities in low-light conditions, locating food, or for navigation within large home ranges. Olfactory acuity was the lowest in ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids, suggesting a reduced reliance on olfaction and perhaps an omnivorous diet in these theropods. Phylogenetic trends in olfaction among theropods reveal that olfactory acuity did not decrease in the ancestry of birds, as troodontids, dromaeosaurids and primitive birds possessed typical or high olfactory acuity. Thus, the sense of smell must have remained important in primitive birds and its presumed decrease associated with the increased importance of sight did not occur until later among more derived birds.

Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Therrien, Francois; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

2008-01-01

136

Olfactory acuity in theropods: palaeobiological and evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

This research presents the first quantitative evaluation of the olfactory acuity in extinct theropod dinosaurs. Olfactory ratios (i.e. the ratio of the greatest diameter of the olfactory bulb to the greatest diameter of the cerebral hemisphere) are analysed in order to infer the olfactory acuity and behavioural traits in theropods, as well as to identify phylogenetic trends in olfaction within Theropoda. A phylogenetically corrected regression of olfactory ratio to body mass reveals that, relative to predicted values, the olfactory bulbs of (i) tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids are significantly larger, (ii) ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids are significantly smaller, and (iii) ceratosaurians, allosauroids, basal tyrannosauroids, troodontids and basal birds are within the 95% CI. Relative to other theropods, olfactory acuity was high in tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids and therefore olfaction would have played an important role in their ecology, possibly for activities in low-light conditions, locating food, or for navigation within large home ranges. Olfactory acuity was the lowest in ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids, suggesting a reduced reliance on olfaction and perhaps an omnivorous diet in these theropods. Phylogenetic trends in olfaction among theropods reveal that olfactory acuity did not decrease in the ancestry of birds, as troodontids, dromaeosaurids and primitive birds possessed typical or high olfactory acuity. Thus, the sense of smell must have remained important in primitive birds and its presumed decrease associated with the increased importance of sight did not occur until later among more derived birds. PMID:18957367

Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

2009-02-22

137

Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in different types of posterior capsule opacification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity in 2 types of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in pseudophakic eyes before and after neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) capsulotomy and to evaluate vision test results after Nd:YAG capsulotomy.Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.Methods: Fourteen eyes with fibrosis-type PCO and 15 eyes with Elschnig-pearl-type PCO were

Ching-Yu Cheng; May-Yung Yen; Shih-Jen Chen; Shu-Ching Kao; Wen-Ming Hsu; Jorn-Hon Liu

2001-01-01

138

Mechanism of Dynamic Visual Acuity Recovery With Vestibular Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine why dynamic visual acuity (DVA) improves after vestibular rehabilitation in people with vestibular hypofunction. Design Combined descriptive and intervention study. Setting Outpatient department in an academic medical institution. Participants Five patients (age, 42–66y) and 4 age-matched controls (age, 39–67y) were studied. Patients had vestibular hypofunction (mean duration, 177 ± 188d) identified by clinical (positive head thrust test, abnormal DVA), physiologic (reduced angular vestibulo-ocular reflex [aVOR] gain during passive head thrust testing), and imaging examinations (absence of tumor in the internal auditory canals or cerebellopontine angle). Intervention Vestibular rehabilitation focused on gaze and gait stabilization (mean, 5.0 ± 1.4 visits; mean, 66 ± 24d). The control group did not receive any intervention. Main Outcome Measures aVOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity) during DVA testing (active head rotation) and horizontal head thrust testing (passive head rotation) to control for spontaneous recovery. Results For all patients, DVA improved (mean, 51% ± 25%; range, 21%–81%). aVOR gain during the active DVA test increased in each of the patients (mean range, 0.7 ± 0.2 to 0.9 ± 0.2 [35%]). aVOR gain during passive head thrust did not improve in 3 patients and improved only partially in the other 2. For control subjects, aVOR gain during DVA was near 1. Conclusions Our data suggest that vestibular rehabilitation increases aVOR gain during active head rotation independent of peripheral aVOR gain recovery.

Schubert, Michael C.; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Allak, Amir; Carey, John P.

2010-01-01

139

Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant

2011-01-01

140

Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant

2012-01-01

141

The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference in difficulty between modus ponens (if p then q; p; therefore q) and modus tollens (if p then q; not-q; therefore not-p) arguments has been traditionally explained by assuming that the mind contains a rule for modus ponens, but not for modus tollens. According to the mental model theory, modus tollens is a more difficult deduction than modus

Vittorio Girotto; Alberto Mazzocco; Alessandra Tasso

1997-01-01

142

Large State-Level Fluctuations in Mental Retardation Classifications Related to Introduction of Renormed Intelligence Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence…

Scullin, Matthew H.

2006-01-01

143

Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates

Bengt Svensson; Urban Markström; Ulrika Bejerholm; Tommy Björkman; David Brunt; Mona Eklund; Lars Hansson; Christel Leufstadius; Amanda Lundvik Gyllensten; Mikael Sandlund; Margareta Östman

2011-01-01

144

Measurement of night vision goggle (NVG) visual acuity with the NVG resolution chart.  

PubMed

Night vision goggles (NVG) operations are characterized as stressful with high task loading. Any reduction in goggle or visual performance which goes undetected can have a serious effect on flight safety and operational capability. The NVG Test Lane, with its resolution chart, provides an effective cost-efficient method for aircrew members to quickly evaluate the correct positioning and focusing of their NVG's prior to each mission. This evaluation validated the ability of the NVG resolution chart to produce the same performance results as a more detailed psychophysical procedure. NVG visual acuity was measured for five subjects (four pilots and one non-pilot) with two different night vision goggles. The results supported that there is no statistical difference between the results obtained with the individual target format and the 3 x 3 format. Additionally, the pilots with current NVG experience were able to obtain a significantly better acuity level than were those without current NVG experience. PMID:7818455

DeVilbiss, C A; Antonio, J C

1994-09-01

145

X inactivation testing for identifying a non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify a gene causing non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation in an extended family,\\u000a taking advantage of the X chromosome inactivation status of the females in order to determine their carrier state. X inactivation\\u000a in the females was determined with the androgen receptor methylation assay; thereafter, the X chromosome was screened with\\u000a evenly spaced polymorphic

Hagith Yonath; Dina Marek-Yagel; Haike Resnik-Wolf; Almogit Abu-Horvitz; Hagit N. Baris; Mordechai Shohat; Moshe Frydman; Elon Pras

146

Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping  

SciTech Connect

In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects.

Bosimini, E.; Galli, M.; Guagliumi, G.; Giubbini, R.; Tavazzi, L. (Centro Medico di Riabilitazione, Veruno (Italy))

1991-04-01

147

Human temporal auditory acuity as assessed by envelope following responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal auditory acuity, the ability to discriminate rapid changes in the envelope of a sound, is essential for speech comprehension. Human envelope following responses (EFRs) recorded from scalp electrodes were evaluated as an objective measurement of temporal processing in the auditory nervous system. The temporal auditory acuity of older and younger participants was measured behaviorally using both gap and modulation detection tasks. These findings were then related to EFRs evoked by white noise that was amplitude modulated (25% modulation depth) with a sweep of modulation frequencies from 20 to 600 Hz. The frequency at which the EFR was no longer detectable was significantly correlated with behavioral measurements of gap detection (r=-0.43), and with the maximum perceptible modulation frequency (r=0.72). The EFR techniques investigated here might be developed into a clinically useful objective estimate of temporal auditory acuity for subjects who cannot provide reliable behavioral responses. .

Purcell, David W.; John, Sasha M.; Schneider, Bruce A.; Picton, Terence W.

2004-12-01

148

Designing an acuity tool for an ambulatory oncology setting.  

PubMed

Staffing needs in an ambulatory oncology infusion setting can be challenging. The workload of nurses and time required to provide patient care are increasing. With the addition of new targeted therapies and complicated treatment regimens, increased patient acuity should be considered when determining daily staffing. This article describes the development of an acuity tool based on the complexity of patient treatments. The first part of the process focused on development of the tool and data collection during a two-month period to assess the complexity of patient treatments. The second part used the tool to determine daily staffing for infusion rooms. The tool provides a better representation of acuity in infusion rooms by connecting the complexity of patient treatments with staffing on a daily basis. In addition, the tool is easily adaptable to changing oncology treatment regimens because it provides a basis for assessing treatment complexity in the infusion room. PMID:19193548

DeLisle, Julie

2009-02-01

149

Performance on three-point vernier acuity targets as a function of age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With certain (but not all) vernier acuity (VeA) stimulus displays observers exhibit no or slight performance decrements with aging. Because three-point VeA test displays are much more easily applied experimentally and clinically, we examined visual performance on this task as a function of age. Ages of groups tested ranged from 20 to 70 + years (some individuals were 90 + years old). Eyes were examined monocularly. We tested three- and two-point sharply defined VeA arrays and a three-point ground-glass-degraded

Yebra-Pimentel Vilar, Eva; Giraldez-Fernandez, Maria Jesus; Enoch, Jay M.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Knowles, Richard; Srinivasan, Ranjani

1995-10-01

150

Spatial acuity and prey detection in weakly electric fish.  

PubMed

It is well-known that weakly electric fish can exhibit extreme temporal acuity at the behavioral level, discriminating time intervals in the submicrosecond range. However, relatively little is known about the spatial acuity of the electrosense. Here we use a recently developed model of the electric field generated by Apteronotus leptorhynchus to study spatial acuity and small signal extraction. We show that the quality of sensory information available on the lateral body surface is highest for objects close to the fish's midbody, suggesting that spatial acuity should be highest at this location. Overall, however, this information is relatively blurry and the electrosense exhibits relatively poor acuity. Despite this apparent limitation, weakly electric fish are able to extract the minute signals generated by small prey, even in the presence of large background signals. In fact, we show that the fish's poor spatial acuity may actually enhance prey detection under some conditions. This occurs because the electric image produced by a spatially dense background is relatively "blurred" or spatially uniform. Hence, the small spatially localized prey signal "pops out" when fish motion is simulated. This shows explicitly how the back-and-forth swimming, characteristic of these fish, can be used to generate motion cues that, as in other animals, assist in the extraction of sensory information when signal-to-noise ratios are low. Our study also reveals the importance of the structure of complex electrosensory backgrounds. Whereas large-object spacing is favorable for discriminating the individual elements of a scene, small spacing can increase the fish's ability to resolve a single target object against this background. PMID:17335346

Babineau, David; Lewis, John E; Longtin, André

2007-03-01

151

Spatial Acuity and Prey Detection in Weakly Electric Fish  

PubMed Central

It is well-known that weakly electric fish can exhibit extreme temporal acuity at the behavioral level, discriminating time intervals in the submicrosecond range. However, relatively little is known about the spatial acuity of the electrosense. Here we use a recently developed model of the electric field generated by Apteronotus leptorhynchus to study spatial acuity and small signal extraction. We show that the quality of sensory information available on the lateral body surface is highest for objects close to the fish's midbody, suggesting that spatial acuity should be highest at this location. Overall, however, this information is relatively blurry and the electrosense exhibits relatively poor acuity. Despite this apparent limitation, weakly electric fish are able to extract the minute signals generated by small prey, even in the presence of large background signals. In fact, we show that the fish's poor spatial acuity may actually enhance prey detection under some conditions. This occurs because the electric image produced by a spatially dense background is relatively “blurred” or spatially uniform. Hence, the small spatially localized prey signal “pops out” when fish motion is simulated. This shows explicitly how the back-and-forth swimming, characteristic of these fish, can be used to generate motion cues that, as in other animals, assist in the extraction of sensory information when signal-to-noise ratios are low. Our study also reveals the importance of the structure of complex electrosensory backgrounds. Whereas large-object spacing is favorable for discriminating the individual elements of a scene, small spacing can increase the fish's ability to resolve a single target object against this background.

Babineau, David; Lewis, John E; Longtin, Andre

2007-01-01

152

Visual acuity and pupillary reactions after peribulbar anaesthesia.  

PubMed Central

The effect of peribulbar anaesthesia on optic nerve function in 20 patients, before and after cataract surgery, was measured. All the patients had decreased visual acuity. Five (25%) had no perception of light. Seventeen (85%) developed a relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD). No patients saw the operating instruments. Seven (35%) had improved visual acuity immediately postoperatively. Patients should be warned that they may lose vision completely on being given a peribulbar anaesthetic; however their vision will improve, but not necessarily immediately, postoperatively. Examination for an RAPD is a good method of providing reassurance that the operating instruments will not be seen.

Talks, S J; Chong, N H; Gibson, J M; Francis, I R

1994-01-01

153

Human Time-Frequency Acuity Beats the Fourier Uncertainty Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-frequency uncertainty principle states that the product of the temporal and frequency extents of a signal cannot be smaller than 1/(4?). We study human ability to simultaneously judge the frequency and the timing of a sound. Our subjects often exceeded the uncertainty limit, sometimes by more than tenfold, mostly through remarkable timing acuity. Our results establish a lower bound for the nonlinearity and complexity of the algorithms employed by our brains in parsing transient sounds, rule out simple “linear filter” models of early auditory processing, and highlight timing acuity as a central feature in auditory object processing.

Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

2013-01-01

154

Diminutive Digits Discern Delicate Details: Fingertip Size and the Sex Difference in Tactile Spatial Acuity  

PubMed Central

We have observed that passive tactile spatial acuity, the ability to resolve the spatial structure of surfaces pressed upon the skin, differs subtly but consistently between the sexes, with women able to perceive finer surface detail than men. Eschewing complex central explanations, we hypothesized that this sex difference in somatosensory perception might result from simple physical differences between the fingers of women and men. To investigate, we tested 50 women and 50 men on a tactile grating orientation task and measured the surface area of the participants' index fingertips. In subsets of participants, we additionally measured finger skin compliance and optically imaged the fingerprint microstructure to count sweat pores. We show here that tactile perception improves with decreasing finger size, and that this correlation fully explains the better perception of women, who on average have smaller fingers than men. Indeed, when sex and finger size are both considered in statistical analyses, only finger size predicts tactile acuity. Thus, a man and a woman with fingers of equal size will, on average, enjoy equal tactile acuity. We further show that sweat pores, and presumably the Merkel receptors beneath them, are packed more densely in smaller fingers.

Peters, Ryan M.; Hackeman, Erik

2009-01-01

155

Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein ?3 (GNB3), also known as transducin ?3 or G?3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of G?3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells. (Ritchey et al. 2010)FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by G?3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and G?3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus.

Ritchey, Eric R.; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A.; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J.

2012-01-01

156

Monocular and binocular low-contrast visual acuity and optical coherence tomography in pediatric multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Low-contrast letter acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) capture visual dysfunction and axonal loss in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been proposed as secondary outcome metrics for therapeutic trials. Clinical trials will soon be launched in pediatric MS, but such outcome metrics have not been well-validated in this population. Objectives To determine whether MS onset during childhood and adolescence is associated with measurable loss of visual acuity and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), whether such features are noted only in the context of clinical optic nerve inflammation (optic neuritis, ON) or are a feature of MS even in the absence of optic nerve relapses, and to define the optimal methods for such detection. Study design Cross-sectional study Methods Monocular and binocular high- and low-contrast letter acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed in a cross-sectional cohort of children (ages 5 to 17 years) with MS (N=22 patients, 44 eyes; 8 patients with a history of ON) and disease-free controls (N=29 patients; 58 eyes) from three academic centers. Binocular summation was determined by calculating the number of letters correctly identified using the binocular score minus the better eye score for each visual test. RNFL thickness was measured using OCT (Stratus OCT-3). Results were analyzed in terms of “eyes” as: MS ON+, MS ON?, and control eyes. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to compare patients to controls. Results Traditional high-contrast visual acuity scores did not differ between MS ON+, MS ON?, and controls eyes. MS ON+ eyes had decreased monocular (p<0.001) and decreased binocular (p=0.007) low-contrast letter acuity (Sloan 1.25% contrast charts) scores. Monocular visual acuity did not differ when comparing MS ON? and control eyes. The magnitude of binocular summation using low-contrast charts was similar for pediatric MS participants and controls and was not diminished in children with a history of ON. While the mean RNFL thickness for all MS eyes (103±17 ?m) trended lower when compared to corresponding measures in control eyes (109±9 ?m, p=0.085), we confirmed a highly significant reduction in mean RNFL thickness in MS eyes with a history of ON (86±22 ?m, p<0.001). RNFL thickness of MS ON? eyes in pediatric MS patients (109±11 ?m) did not differ from controls (p=0.994). Conclusions Low-contrast letter acuity detects subtle visual loss in MS patients with prior ON, consistent with incomplete recovery, a finding further supported by RNFL loss in ON affected eyes. In MS patients with prior unilateral ON, binocular acuity is decreased; however, the magnitude of binocular summation is preserved, unlike adult-onset MS who exhibit a reduced capacity for visual compensation in the context of unilateral injury. Also unlike findings in adult-onset MS, we did not demonstrate RNFL thinning in ON? eyes of children and adolescents with MS. Further validation is required to confirm whether neurodegeneration of visual pathways occurs in the absence of relapse, and thus whether OCT will serve as a sensitive metric for such pathology in the pediatric and adolescent MS context.

Waldman, Amy T.; Hiremath, Girish; Avery, Robert A.; Conger, Amy; Pineles, Stacy L.; Loguidice, Michael J.; Talman, Lauren S.; Galetta, Kristin M.; Shumski, Michael J.; Wilson, James; Ford, E'tona; Lavery, Amy M.; Conger, Darrel; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Frohman, Elliot M.; Balcer, Laura J.; Calabresi, Peter A.

2014-01-01

157

Effects of distance and duration on vertical dynamic visual acuity in screening healthy adults and people with vestibular disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) testing may be a useful, indirect indicator of vestibulo-ocular reflex function. Previous evidence shows that acuity for 2 m targets differs little between patients and normals using a 75 ms display duration and that healthy subjects do not differ in acuity when standing and walking while viewing a far target but they do differ when viewing a near target. Objective Improve the protocol of a screening tool by testing the hypothesis that healthy control subjects and patients and with unilateral peripheral vestibular weakness differ on DVA when viewing far targets while seated. Methods Controls and patients were tested while they were seated in a chair that oscillated vertically at 2 Hz. They viewed a computer screen 4 m away, while stationary and while moving, with viewing times of either 75 ms or 500 ms. Results The amount of change between static and dynamic conditions did not differ significantly between patients and controls for the 75 ms condition but controls had lower difference scores than patients when using the 500 ms duration. The ROC value was low, 0.68. Compared to historical data using the 75 ms duration at a distance of 2 m, subjects in both diagnostic groups had better visual acuity at the 75 ms/ 4 m distance. Conclusions These results suggest that using the longer duration is better for differentiating patients from healthy controls and they support previous evidence showing that near target viewing is more challenging.

Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2013-01-01

158

Acuity systems dialogue and patient classification system essentials.  

PubMed

Obtaining resources for quality patient care is a major responsibility of nurse leaders and requires accurate information in the political world of budgeting. Patient classification systems (PCS) assist nurse managers in controlling cost and improving patient care while appropriately using financial resources. This paper communicates acuity systems development, background, flaws, and components while discussing a few tools currently available. It also disseminates the development of a new acuity tool, the Patient Classification System. The PCS tool, developed in a small rural hospital, uses 5 broad concepts: (1) medications, (2) complicated procedures, (3) education, (4) psychosocial issues, and (5) complicated intravenous medications. These concepts embrace a 4-tiered scale that differentiates significant patient characteristics and assists in staffing measures for equality in patient staffing and improving quality of care and performance. Data obtained through use of the PCS can be used by nurse leaders to effectively and objectively lobby for appropriate patient care resources. Two questionnaires distributed to registered nurses on a medical-surgical unit evaluated the nurses' opinion of the 5 concepts and the importance for establishing patient acuity for in-patient care. Interrater reliability among nurses was 87% with the author's acuity tool. PMID:17909428

Harper, Kelle; McCully, Crystal

2007-01-01

159

Effects of Intense Pure Tones on Auditory Temporal Acuity,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gap detection threshold (GDT) procedure was used to measure auditory temporal acuity in humans before and after exposure to a brief, intense low (0.4 kHz) or high (1.7 kHz) frequency tone. The maximal temporary threshold shift (TTS) produced by each exp...

C. A. Champlin

1987-01-01

160

Dynamic Visual Acuity of Varsity Women Volleyball and Basketball Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) scores of high-ability and low-ability female basketball players, and between these two groups and a group of female volleyball players, resulted in the conclusion that there were no differences in the mean DVA scores between any of the groups. (MB)

Morris, G. S. Don; Kreighbaum, Ellen

1977-01-01

161

Organizational justice and mental health: a multi-level test of justice interactions.  

PubMed

We examine main and interaction effects of organizational justice at the individual and the organizational levels on general health in a Kenyan sample. We theoretically differentiate between two different interaction patterns of justice effects: buffering mechanisms based on trust versus intensifying explanations of justice interactions that involve psychological contract violations. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model with responses from 427 employees in 29 organizations, only interpersonal justice at level 1 demonstrated a significant main effect. Interactions between distributive and interpersonal justice at both the individual and the collective levels were found. The intensifying hypothesis was supported: the relationship between distributive justice and mental health problems was strongest when interpersonal justice was high. This contrasts with buffering patterns described in Western samples. We argue that justice interaction patterns shift depending on the economic conditions and sociocultural characteristics of employees studied. PMID:24811881

Fischer, Ronald; Abubakar, Amina; Arasa, Josephine Nyaboke

2014-04-01

162

Visual acuity and visual skills in Malaysian children with learning disabilities  

PubMed Central

Background: There is limited data in the literature concerning the visual status and skills in children with learning disabilities, particularly within the Asian population. This study is aimed to determine visual acuity and visual skills in children with learning disabilities in primary schools within the suburban Kota Bharu district in Malaysia. Methods: We examined 1010 children with learning disabilities aged between 8–12 years from 40 primary schools in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia from January 2009 to March 2010. These children were identified based on their performance in a screening test known as the Early Intervention Class for Reading and Writing Screening Test conducted by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. Complete ocular examinations and visual skills assessment included near point of convergence, amplitude of accommodation, accommodative facility, convergence break and recovery, divergence break and recovery, and developmental eye movement tests for all subjects. Results: A total of 4.8% of students had visual acuity worse than 6/12 (20/40), 14.0% had convergence insufficiency, 28.3% displayed poor accommodative amplitude, and 26.0% showed signs of accommodative infacility. A total of 12.1% of the students had poor convergence break, 45.7% displayed poor convergence recovery, 37.4% showed poor divergence break, and 66.3% were noted to have poor divergence recovery. The mean horizontal developmental eye movement was significantly prolonged. Conclusion: Although their visual acuity was satisfactory, nearly 30% of the children displayed accommodation problems including convergence insufficiency, poor accommodation, and accommodative infacility. Convergence and divergence recovery are the most affected visual skills in children with learning disabilities in Malaysia.

Muzaliha, Mohd-Nor; Nurhamiza, Buang; Hussein, Adil; Norabibas, Abdul-Rani; Mohd-Hisham-Basrun, Jaafar; Sarimah, Abdullah; Leo, Seo-Wei; Shatriah, Ismail

2012-01-01

163

Infant Accommodation and Acuity Threshold as a Function of Viewing Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether the acuity threshold for distant targets is elevated for infants ranging in age from 24 to 63 days. Using square wave gratings and a modified staircase procedure, acuity thresholds for each of 331 infants were determined for one or more of the distances 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm and 150 cm. Acuity threshold was defined as…

Salapatek, Philip; And Others

164

Tactile acuity and lumbopelvic motor control in patients with back pain and healthy controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVoluntary lumbopelvic control is compromised in patients with back pain. Loss of proprioceptive acuity is one contributor to decreased control. Several reasons for decreased proprioceptive acuity have been proposed, but the integrity of cortical body maps has been overlooked. We investigated whether tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to lumbopelvic control in people with

H. Luomajoki; G. L. Moseley

2011-01-01

165

Do Age-Group Differences on Mental Tests Imitate Racial Differences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a battery of 17 diverse tests completed by 877 white and 855 black students in grades 3 through 8 support Spearman's hypothesis that the white-black difference in test performance is predominantly a general intelligence ("g") difference rather than a unitary developmental difference affecting all factors in test performance. (SLD)

Jensen, Arthur R.

2003-01-01

166

Ultrafine spatial acuity of blind expert human echolocators  

PubMed Central

Echolocating organisms represent their external environment using reflected auditory information from emitted vocalizations. This ability, long known in various non-human species, has also been documented in some blind humans as an aid to navigation, as well as object detection and coarse localization. Surprisingly, our understanding of the basic acuity attainable by practitioners—the most fundamental underpinning of echoic spatial perception—remains crude. We found that experts were able to discriminate horizontal offsets of stimuli as small as ~1.2° auditory angle in the frontomedial plane, a resolution approaching the maximum measured precision of human spatial hearing and comparable to that found in bats performing similar tasks. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between echolocation acuity and age of blindness onset. This first measure of functional spatial resolution in a population of expert echolocators demonstrates precision comparable to that found in the visual periphery of sighted individuals.

Puri, Amrita; Whitney, David

2013-01-01

167

Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

1994-01-01

168

Blindness enhances tactile acuity and haptic 3-D shape discrimination.  

PubMed

This study compared the sensory and perceptual abilities of the blind and sighted. The 32 participants were required to perform two tasks: tactile grating orientation discrimination (to determine tactile acuity) and haptic three-dimensional (3-D) shape discrimination. The results indicated that the blind outperformed their sighted counterparts (individually matched for both age and sex) on both tactile tasks. The improvements in tactile acuity that accompanied blindness occurred for all blind groups (congenital, early, and late). However, the improvements in haptic 3-D shape discrimination only occurred for the early-onset and late-onset blindness groups; the performance of the congenitally blind was no better than that of the sighted controls. The results of the present study demonstrate that blindness does lead to an enhancement of tactile abilities, but they also suggest that early visual experience may play a role in facilitating haptic 3-D shape discrimination. PMID:21671153

Norman, J Farley; Bartholomew, Ashley N

2011-10-01

169

Effect of age on visual acuity after cataract extraction.  

PubMed

The best Snellen visual acuity in the three months after cataract extraction was found to decline with the age of the patient. The relationship was identical in 111 patients who had extracapsular extraction and a Pearce tripod posterior chamber intraocular lens and in 50 patients who had intracapsular extraction with spectacle correction. Vision after operation varied from a mean value of 6/5 at 50 years to 6/12 at 90 years, a decline of 1 line per 13.4 years. In the intracapsular group, over a mean follow-up period of 14 years, the rate of fall in acuity with increasing age after operation was found to be statistically similar to that of the early postoperative acuity plotted against age for both types of operation. This suggests that the rate of decline with age is unchanged after a prolonged period of aphakia with presumed increased exposure to ultraviolet and blue light. The data were found to be similar to the decline in the neurosensory elements of vision with age measured experimentally in 20 phakic subjects by laser interferometry. This method of assessment of contrast sensitivity threshold effectively bypasses changes in the optical media. The findings indicate that the previously recognised drop in visual acuity with age is not related to changes in the aging crystalline lens and support the view that there is a decline in the neurosensory elements of vision. It is important to recognise this deterioration so that results of surgery or other treatment are adjusted to allow for the age of the patients. PMID:3828263

Jay, J L; Mammo, R B; Allan, D

1987-02-01

170

Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements after experimental triethylamine exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to define the dose-response for triethylamine (TEA) vapour-induced visual changes. Methods: Four core makers were exposed in a dynamically-controlled whole-body chamber to TEA for 4 h at the concentrations of 40.6, 6.5 and 3.0 mg\\/m3. Before and after the exposure binocular visual acuity and contrast sensitivity at 2.5% contrast were measured. The visual measurements were carried

P. Järvinen; V. Riihimäki

1999-01-01

171

Accommodation, Acuity, and their Relationship to Emmetropization in Infants  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the relationship between accommodation, visual acuity, and emmetropization in human infancy. Methods Defocus at distance and near (57cm) was assessed using Mohindra and dynamic retinoscopy, respectively, in 262 normal birthweight infants at 3, 9, and 18 months of age. Preferential looking provided acuity data at the same ages. The spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%). Results Univariate linear regression analyses showed no associations between the change in refractive error and defocus at distance or near. Change in refractive error was linearly related to the accommodative response at distance (R2 = 0.17, p<0.0001) and near (R2 = 0.13, p<0.0001). The ten subjects with the poorest emmetropization relative to the change predicted by the linear effects of their refractive error had higher average levels of hyperopic defocus at distance and near (p-values <0.043). Logistic regression showed a decrease in the odds of reaching +2.00D or less hyperopia by 18 months with increasing levels of hyperopia at 3 months, or if Mohindra retinoscopy was myopic combined with acuity better than the median level of 1.25 logMAR (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.68, 0.88)). Conclusions The level of cycloplegic refractive error was the best single factor for predicting emmetropization by 18 months of age, with smaller contributions from visual acuity and Mohindra retinoscopy. The lack of correlation between defocus and change in refractive error does not support a simple model of emmetropization in response to the level of hyperopic defocus. Infants were capable of maintaining accurate average levels of accommodation across a range of moderate hyperopic refractive errors at 3 months of age. The association between the change in refractive error and accommodative response suggests that the amount of accommodation is a plausible visual signal for emmetropization.

Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Jones, Lisa A.; Friedman, Nina E.; Frane, Sara L.; Lin, Wendy K.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Zadnik, Karla

2009-01-01

172

Spatial acuity of honeybee vision and its spectral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In a series of behavioural experiments designed to measure spatial acuity, freely-flying honeybees were trained to discriminate between a horizontal and a vertical grating in a Y-shaped, dual-tunnel apparatus (Fig. 1). Each grating was placed at the entrance to a tunnel, and one of the gratings carried a reward of sugar solution. After training, the spatial frequency of the two

M. V. Srinivasan; M. Lehrer

1988-01-01

173

Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus).  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries. PMID:23504134

Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William

2013-07-01

174

Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay  

PubMed Central

Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision.

Fernandez, Enrique J.; Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M.; Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

2013-01-01

175

Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay.  

PubMed

Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision. PMID:23761846

Fernández, Enrique J; Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M; Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

2013-06-01

176

Relationships of hardiness to physical and mental health status in military men: a test of mediated effects.  

PubMed

Evidence links the personality trait hardiness to both mental (MH) and physical health (PH) status, but few unifying models delineate interrelationships of these variables. The first purpose of this study was to examine the association of hardiness to MH and PH in military men. Second, we tested the hypothesis that MH would mediate the association of hardiness with PH. Identical measures were collected in two separate, demographically-similar samples (n = 65 and n = 55). All subjects completed a background questionnaire, the Dispositional Resilience Scale-15 and the Short Form 36 Medical Outcomes Survey. Associations between hardiness, PH and MH were examined using regression-based mediation analyses followed by the Sobel test of indirect effects. In the total sample, hardiness predicted PH in an initial regression model (? = 0.37, p < .001). When MH was added to the model, however, PH's influence was substantially attenuated and no longer significant (? = 0.06, p > .05). A Sobel test of significance confirmed a mediated effect (p < .001). Similar patterns were observed in each individual sample. Hardiness is associated with PH in military men, and this relationship is mediated by MH. PMID:22108762

Taylor, Marcus K; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Taverniers, John; Leon, Matthew R; Fern, Benedict J

2013-02-01

177

A new X linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome with short stature, small testes, muscle wasting, and tremor localises to Xq24-q25  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODSA large family is described in which mental retardation segregates as an X linked trait. Six affected males in three generations were studied by linkage and clinical examination.RESULTSCharacteristic clinical features include short stature, prominent lower lip, small testes, muscle wasting of the lower legs, kyphosis, joint hyperextensibility, abnormal gait, tremor, and decreased fine motor coordination. Affected subjects also had impaired

David A Cabezas; Rachel Slaugh; Fatima Abidi; J Fernando Arena; Roger E Stevenson; Charles E Schwartz; Herbert A Lubs

2000-01-01

178

Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement.  

PubMed

Human mathematical competence emerges from two representational systems. Competence in some domains of mathematics, such as calculus, relies on symbolic representations that are unique to humans who have undergone explicit teaching. More basic numerical intuitions are supported by an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system that is shared by adults, infants and non-human animals-these groups can all represent the approximate number of items in visual or auditory arrays without verbally counting, and use this capacity to guide everyday behaviour such as foraging. Despite the widespread nature of the approximate number system both across species and across development, it is not known whether some individuals have a more precise non-verbal 'number sense' than others. Furthermore, the extent to which this system interfaces with the formal, symbolic maths abilities that humans acquire by explicit instruction remains unknown. Here we show that there are large individual differences in the non-verbal approximation abilities of 14-year-old children, and that these individual differences in the present correlate with children's past scores on standardized maths achievement tests, extending all the way back to kindergarten. Moreover, this correlation remains significant when controlling for individual differences in other cognitive and performance factors. Our results show that individual differences in achievement in school mathematics are related to individual differences in the acuity of an evolutionarily ancient, unlearned approximate number sense. Further research will determine whether early differences in number sense acuity affect later maths learning, whether maths education enhances number sense acuity, and the extent to which tertiary factors can affect both. PMID:18776888

Halberda, Justin; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa

2008-10-01

179

Short-Term Visual Deprivation Does Not Enhance Passive Tactile Spatial Acuity  

PubMed Central

An important unresolved question in sensory neuroscience is whether, and if so with what time course, tactile perception is enhanced by visual deprivation. In three experiments involving 158 normally sighted human participants, we assessed whether tactile spatial acuity improves with short-term visual deprivation over periods ranging from under 10 to over 110 minutes. We used an automated, precisely controlled two-interval forced-choice grating orientation task to assess each participant's ability to discern the orientation of square-wave gratings pressed against the stationary index finger pad of the dominant hand. A two-down one-up staircase (Experiment 1) or a Bayesian adaptive procedure (Experiments 2 and 3) was used to determine the groove width of the grating whose orientation each participant could reliably discriminate. The experiments consistently showed that tactile grating orientation discrimination does not improve with short-term visual deprivation. In fact, we found that tactile performance degraded slightly but significantly upon a brief period of visual deprivation (Experiment 1) and did not improve over periods of up to 110 minutes of deprivation (Experiments 2 and 3). The results additionally showed that grating orientation discrimination tends to improve upon repeated testing, and confirmed that women significantly outperform men on the grating orientation task. We conclude that, contrary to two recent reports but consistent with an earlier literature, passive tactile spatial acuity is not enhanced by short-term visual deprivation. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. On the theoretical side, the findings set limits on the time course over which neural mechanisms such as crossmodal plasticity may operate to drive sensory changes; on the practical side, the findings suggest that researchers who compare tactile acuity of blind and sighted participants should not blindfold the sighted participants.

Wong, Michael; Hackeman, Erik; Hurd, Caitlin; Goldreich, Daniel

2011-01-01

180

Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

Elich, Matthew; And Others

1985-01-01

181

The Permanence of Mental Objects: Testing Magical Thinking on Perceived and Imaginary Realities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested participants' preparedness to acknowledge that an object could change as a result of magical intervention. Six- and 9-year-old children and adults treated perceived and imagined objects as being equally permanent. Adults treated a fantastic object as significantly less permanent than either perceived or imagined objects. Results…

Subbotsky, Eugene

2005-01-01

182

Evaluating a new logMAR chart designed to improve visual acuity assessment in population-based surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims This study aimed to evaluate a new chart designed to improve the collection of visual acuity data in population-based surveys. The Reduced logMAR E chart (RLME) employs three letters per line, ‘tumbling E’ optotypes, and conforms to accepted contemporary design principles.Methods The performance of the chart was assessed within a population-based glaucoma survey in Thailand. Performance indices were test–retest

R R A Bourne; D A Rosser; P Sukudom; B Dineen; D A H Laidlaw; G J Johnson; I E Murdoch; RRA Bourne

2003-01-01

183

Hear Today, Gone Tomorrow: An Assessment of Portable Entertainment Player Use and Hearing Acuity in a Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a common but preventable disability. The purpose of this study was to assess the understanding of NIHL in a community sample in the context of exposure to portable music players, including MP3 players, and personal hearing acuity as tested with the Welch Allyn Audioscope 3. Methods: A cross-sectional convenience sample of 94 adults (18

Samit Shah; Bharat Gopal; Janet Reis; Michael Novak

184

Contour interaction for foveal acuity targets at different luminances.  

PubMed

Single-letter visual acuity is impaired by nearby flanking stimuli, a phenomenon known as contour interaction. We showed previously that when foveal acuity is degraded by a reduction of letter contrast, both the magnitude and angular spatial extent of foveal contour interaction remain unchanged. In this study, we asked whether contour interaction also remains unchanged when foveal visual acuity is degraded by a reduction of the target's background luminance. Percent correct letter identification was measured for isolated, near-threshold black Sloan letters and for letters surrounded by 4 flanking bars in 10 normal observers, 5 at Anglia Ruskin University, UK (ARU) and 5 at Palacky University, Czech Republic (PU). A stepwise reduction in the background luminance over 3 log units resulted in an approximately threefold increase in the near-threshold letter size. At each background luminance, black flanking bars with a width equal to 1 letter stroke were presented at separations between approximately 0.45 and 4.5 min arc (ARU) or 0.32 and 3.2 min arc (PU). The results indicate that the angular extent of contour interaction remains unchanged at approximately 4 min arc at all background luminances. On the other hand, the magnitude of contour interaction decreases systematically as luminance is reduced, from approximately a 50% reduction to a 30% reduction in percent correct. The constant angular extent and decreasing magnitude of contour interaction with a reduction of background luminance suggest foveal contour interaction is mediated by luminance-dependent lateral inhibition within a fixed angular region. PMID:23880125

Bedell, Harold E; Siderov, John; Waugh, Sarah J; Zemanová, Romana; Pluhá?ek, František; Musilová, Lenka

2013-08-30

185

A PCR-based test suitable for screening for fragile X syndrome among mentally retarded males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the identification of the genetic cause of fragile X syndrome as the expansion of an unstable trinucleotide sequence,\\u000a several diagnostic strategies have evolved from molecular studies. However, we still lack a simple test suitable for population\\u000a screening. We have therefore developed a nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique for the identification\\u000a of fragile X full mutations among men,

Luciana A. Haddad; Regina C. Mingroni-Netto; Angela M. Vianna-Morgante; Sérgio D. J. Pena

1996-01-01

186

Hypnosis and Mental Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capability of deep absorption in mental images in highly hypnotizable people was tested. Signal detection data was analyzed for imagery and no-imagery blocks separately and combined. Signal detection sensitivity was significantly lower during imagery ...

G. W. Farthing

1980-01-01

187

Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

1989-01-01

188

Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

189

Tactile acuity in experienced Tai Chi practitioners: evidence for use dependent plasticity as an effect of sensory-attentional training  

PubMed Central

The scientific discovery of novel training paradigms has yielded better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity, learning and development. This study is a first step in evaluating Tai Chi (TC), the Chinese slow-motion meditative exercise, as a training paradigm that, while not engaging in direct tactile stimulus training, elicits enhanced tactile acuity in long-term practitioners, The rationale for this study comes from the fact that, unlike previously studied direct-touch tactile training paradigms, TC practitioners focus specific mental attention on the body’s extremities including the fingertips and hands as they perform their slow routine. To determine whether TC is associated with enhanced tactile acuity, experienced adult TC practitioners were recruited and compared to age-gender matched controls. A blinded assessor used a validated method (Van Boven, Hamilton, Kauffman, Keenan, & Pascual-Leone, 2000) to compare TC practitioners’ and controls’ ability to discriminate between two different orientations (parallel and horizontal) across different grating widths at the fingertip. Study results showed TC practitioners’ tactile spatial acuity was superior to that of the matched controls (p<.04). There was a trend showing TC may have an enhanced effect on older practitioners (p<.066), suggesting TC may slow age related decline in this measure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate a long-term attentional practice’s effects on a perceptual measure. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether TC initiates or is merely correlated with perceptual changes and whether it elicits long-term plasticity in primary sensory cortical maps. Further studies should also assess whether related somatosensory attentional practices (such as Yoga, mindfulness meditation and Qigong) achieve similar effects.

Kerr, Catherine E.; Shaw, Jessica R; Wasserman, Rachel H.; Chen, Vanessa W; Kanojia, Alok; Bayer, Thomas; Kelley, John M.

2008-01-01

190

A comparison of the clinical effectiveness and costs of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing and independent medical prescribing: a post-test control group study  

PubMed Central

Background Supplementary prescribing for mental health nurses was first introduced in the UK in 2003. Since then, a number of studies have reported stakeholders' perceptions of the success of the initiative. However, there has been little experimental research conducted into its effectiveness. This paper reports findings from the first known study to compare the cost and clinical impact of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing to independent medical prescribing. Methods A post-test control group experimental design was used to compare the treatment costs, clinical outcomes and satisfaction of patients in receipt of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing with a matched group of patients in receipt of independent prescribing from consultant psychiatrists. The sample comprised 45 patients in receipt of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing for a minimum of six months and a matched group (by age, gender, diagnosis, and chronicity) of patients prescribed for by psychiatrists. Results There were no significant differences between patients in the nurse supplementary prescribers' group and the independent prescribers' group in terms of medication adherence, health status, side effects, and satisfaction with overall care. Total costs per patient for service use were £803 higher for the nurse prescribers' group but this difference was not significant (95% confidence interval -£1341 to £3020). Conclusions No significant differences were found between the health and social outcomes of patients in the mental health nurse supplementary prescribers' group, and those prescribed for by the independent medical prescribers. The cost appraisal also showed that there was no significant difference in the costs of the two types of prescribing, although the pattern of resources used differed between patients in the two prescriber groups. The results suggest that mental health nurse supplementary prescribers can deliver similar health benefits to patients as consultant psychiatrists without any significant difference in patients' service utilisation costs.

2010-01-01

191

Visual acuity development and plasticity in the absence of sensory experience.  

PubMed

Visual circuits mature and are refined by sensory experience. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding how deprivation influences the development of visual acuity in mice. Here, we perform a longitudinal study assessing the effects of chronic deprivation on the development of the mouse subcortical and cortical visual circuits using a combination of behavioral optomotor testing, in vivo visual evoked responses (VEP) and single-unit cortical recordings. As previously reported, orientation tuning was degraded and onset of ocular dominance plasticity was delayed and remained open in chronically deprived mice. Surprisingly, we found that the development of optomotor threshold and VEP acuity can occur in an experience-independent manner, although at a significantly slower rate. Moreover, monocular deprivation elicited amblyopia only during a discrete period of development in the dark. The rate of recovery of optomotor threshold upon exposure of deprived mice to light confirmed a maturational transition regardless of visual input. Together our results revealed a dissociable developmental trajectory for visual receptive-field properties in dark-reared mice suggesting a differential role for spontaneous activity within thalamocortical and intracortical circuits. PMID:24198369

Kang, Erin; Durand, Severine; LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Hensch, Takao K; Chen, Chinfei; Fagiolini, Michela

2013-11-01

192

Linkages of biomarkers of zinc with cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

Abstract A cross-sectional study (n?=?403) was conducted to examine the relationship of plasma zinc (PZ) and erythrocyte zinc (EZ) levels with cognitive performance and taste acuity for salt in Indian adolescent girls. PZ, EZ and hemoglobin were estimated in schoolgirls (10-16 years). Cognitive performance was assessed by simple-reaction-time (SRT), recognition-reaction-time (RRT), visual-memory, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Taste acuity was determined by recognition-thresholds-for-salt (RTS) using 10 different salt concentrations. Low PZ (<0.7?mg/l) and EZ (<8?µg/g of packed cells) were observed in 72% and 23.6% of girls, respectively. PZ and EZ were negatively associated with SRT (r?=?-0.41, -0.34), RRT (r?=?-0.49, -0.4), and positively with Memory (r?=?0.43, 0.34) and RPM (r?=?0.39, 0.31; p?

Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Kawade, Rama

2014-06-01

193

Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

1982-07-01

194

Comparison of the performance of the CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION bleeding risk scores in STEMI undergoing primary PCI: insights from a cohort of 1391 patients  

PubMed Central

Aims: To compare the performance of the CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION risk models in the ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Methods: We studied all consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI at our institution between 2006 and 2010 (n=1391). The CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION risk scores were calculated based on the patients’ clinical characteristics. The occurrence of in-hospital major bleeding (defined as the composite of intracranial or intraocular bleeding, access site haemorrhage requiring intervention, reduction in haemoglobin ?4 g/dl without or ?3g/dl with overt bleeding source, reoperation for bleeding, or blood transfusion) reached 9.8%. Calibration and discrimination of the three risk models were evaluated by the Hosmer?Lemeshow test and the C-statistic, respectively. We compared the predictive accuracy of the risk scores by the DeLong non-parametric test. Results: Calibration of the three risk scores was adequate, given the non-significant results of Hosmer?Lemeshow test for the three risk models. Discrimination of CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION models was good (C-statistic 0.77, 0.70, and 0.78, respectively). The CRUSADE and ACTION risk scores had a greater predictive accuracy than the ACUITY-HORIZONS risk model (z=3.89, p-value=0.0001 and z=3.51, p-value=0.0004, respectively). There was no significant difference between the CRUSADE and ACTION models (z=0.63, p=0.531). Conclusions: The CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION scores are useful tools for the risk stratification of bleeding in STEMI treated by PPCI. Our findings favour the CRUSADE and ACTION risk models over the ACUITY-HORIZONS risk score.

Couto-Mallon, D; Rodriguez-Garrido, J; Garcia-Guimaraes, M; Gargallo-Fernandez, P; Pinon-Esteban, P; Aldama-Lopez, G; Salgado-Fernandez, J; Calvino-Santos, R; Vazquez-Gonzalez, N; Castro-Beiras, A

2013-01-01

195

Changes in brain morphology in albinism reflect reduced visual acuity.  

PubMed

Albinism, in humans and many animal species, has a major impact on the visual system, leading to reduced acuity, lack of binocular function and nystagmus. In addition to the lack of a foveal pit, there is a disruption to the routing of the nerve fibers crossing at the optic chiasm, resulting in excessive crossing of fibers to the contralateral hemisphere. However, very little is known about the effect of this misrouting on the structure of the post-chiasmatic visual pathway, and the occipital lobes in particular. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness in a large cohort of subjects with albinism showed an increase in cortical thickness, relative to control subjects, particularly in posterior V1, corresponding to the foveal representation. Furthermore, mean cortical thickness across entire V1 was significantly greater in these subjects compared to controls and negatively correlated with visual acuity in albinism. Additionally, the group with albinism showed decreased gyrification in the left ventral occipital lobe. While the increase in cortical thickness in V1, also found in congenitally blind subjects, has been interpreted to reflect a lack of pruning, the decreased gyrification in the ventral extrastriate cortex may reflect the reduced input to the foveal regions of the ventral visual stream. PMID:23039995

Bridge, Holly; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Davies, George; Chambers, Claire; Gouws, Andre; Hoffmann, Michael; Morland, Antony B

2014-07-01

196

Two-stage optics - High-acuity performance from low-acuity optical systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of two-stage optics, developed under a program to enhance the performance, lower the cost, and increase the reliability of the 20-m Large Deployable Telescope, is examined. The concept permits the large primary mirror to remain as deployed or as space-assembled, with phasing and subsequent control of the system done by a small fully assembled optical active element placed at an exit pupil. The technique is being applied to correction of the fabrication/testing error in the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror. The advantages offered by this concept for very large space telescopes are discussed.

Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

1992-01-01

197

The Relationship between OCT-measured Central Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal thickness and visual acuity in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) both before and after macular laser photocoagulation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Participants 210 subjects (251 eyes) with DME enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of laser techniques. Methods Retinal thickness was measured with OCT and visual acuity was measured with the electronic-ETDRS procedure. Main Outcome Measures OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity Results The correlation coefficients for visual acuity versus OCT center point thickness were 0.52 at baseline and 0.49, 0.36, and 0.38 at 3.5, 8, and 12 months post-laser photocoagulation. The slope of the best fit line to the baseline data was approximately 4.4 letters (95% C.I.: 3.5, 5.3) better visual acuity for every 100 microns decrease in center point thickness at baseline with no important difference at follow-up visits. Approximately one-third of the variation in visual acuity could be predicted by a linear regression model that incorporated OCT center point thickness, age, hemoglobin A1C, and severity of fluorescein leakage in the center and inner subfields. The correlation between change in visual acuity and change in OCT center point thickening 3.5 months after laser treatment was 0.44 with no important difference at the other follow-up times. A subset of eyes showed paradoxical improvements in visual acuity with increased center point thickening (7–17% at the three time points) or paradoxical worsening of visual acuity with a decrease in center point thickening (18%–26% at the three time points). Conclusions There is modest correlation between OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity, and modest correlation of changes in retinal thickening and visual acuity following focal laser treatment for DME. However, a wide range of visual acuity may be observed for a given degree of retinal edema and paradoxical increases in center point thickening with increases in visual acuity as well as paradoxical decreases in center point thickening with decreases in visual acuity were not uncommon. Thus, although OCT measurements of retinal thickness represent an important tool in clinical evaluation, they cannot reliably substitute as a surrogate for visual acuity at a given point in time. This study does not address whether short-term changes on OCT are predictive of long-term effects on visual acuity.

2008-01-01

198

A Gender Difference in Visual-Spatial Ability in 4-Year-Old Children: Effects on Performance of a Kinesthetic Acuity Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared male and female four-year-olds' performance on a kinesthetic acuity test (KAT) with or without extra visual-spatial cues and on a measure of visual-spatial ability. Found that all children performed better on the KAT with extra cues and that boys scored higher on visual-spatial ability and performed better on the KAT only with extra cues.…

Livesey, David J.; Intili, Daniela

1996-01-01

199

Comparison of 2 dementia screeners, the Test Your Memory Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination, in a primary care setting.  

PubMed

Dementia is an important cause of morbidity but is often neglected in primary care settings. This relates, in part, to perceived difficulties with diagnosis and the need to focus on more pressing physical complaints. Screening provides a potential first-step solution. Existing screening measures are regarded as either too time consuming or insufficiently sensitive and specific. The Test Your Memory (TYM) questionnaire was recently developed in response to this problem. Its utility as a cognitive screener has not been assessed in primary care settings. In this study, we measured and compared the performance of an adapted English as well as Afrikaans translation of the self-administered TYM to the Mini-Mental State Examination, the current accepted standard screening instrument for dementia, in 100 older primary care patients in South Africa. We found a strong positive correlation of total scores between the measures, with a higher internal consistency for the TYM. The TYM was also easily self-administered. Our results, in conjunction with previous validation findings and diagnostic accuracy for the TYM, suggest that it has clinical utility and potential as a cognitive screener in this context. PMID:22689700

van Schalkwyk, Gerrit; Botha, Hugo; Seedat, Soraya

2012-06-01

200

Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish  

PubMed Central

It has been known for more than a century that interacting people can generally achieve more accurate decisions than single individuals. Here we show that interacting guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) achieve a superior level of numerosity discrimination well beyond the average ability of the isolated individual fish. This enhancement of numerical acuity was observed in dyadic interactions when (Experiment 1) the dyad chose which larger shoal of guppies to join and when (Experiment 2) the dyad chose the higher or the lower numerosity among two decision options after having learned the task individually. Dyadic accuracy and that of the more competent member of each dyad matched closely, supporting the hypothesis that meritocratic leadership arises spontaneously between dyadically interacting fish, rather than the ‘many wrongs' principle that has been used to explain group superiority in many species.

Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian; Piffer, Laura; Bahrami, Bahador; Petrazzini, Maria Elena Miletto; Agrillo, Christian

2014-01-01

201

Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish.  

PubMed

It has been known for more than a century that interacting people can generally achieve more accurate decisions than single individuals. Here we show that interacting guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) achieve a superior level of numerosity discrimination well beyond the average ability of the isolated individual fish. This enhancement of numerical acuity was observed in dyadic interactions when (Experiment 1) the dyad chose which larger shoal of guppies to join and when (Experiment 2) the dyad chose the higher or the lower numerosity among two decision options after having learned the task individually. Dyadic accuracy and that of the more competent member of each dyad matched closely, supporting the hypothesis that meritocratic leadership arises spontaneously between dyadically interacting fish, rather than the 'many wrongs' principle that has been used to explain group superiority in many species. PMID:24691116

Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian; Piffer, Laura; Bahrami, Bahador; Petrazzini, Maria Elena Miletto; Agrillo, Christian

2014-01-01

202

Water-Induced Finger Wrinkles Do Not Affect Touch Acuity or Dexterity in Handling Wet Objects  

PubMed Central

Human non-hairy (glabrous) skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n?=?40) in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects.

Frenzel, Henning; Gross, Manfred; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

203

How olfactory acuity affects the sensory assessment of boar fat: A proposal for quantification.  

PubMed

Due to animal welfare concerns the production of entire male pigs is one viable alternative to surgical castration. Elevated levels of boar taint may, however, impair consumer acceptance. Due to the lack of technical methods, control of boar taint is currently done using sensory quality control. While the need for control measures with respect to boar taint has been clearly stated in EU legislation, no specific requirements for selecting assessors have yet been documented. This study proposes tests for the psychophysical evaluation of olfactory acuity to key volatiles contributing to boar taint. Odor detection thresholds for androstenone and skatole are assessed as well as the subject's ability to identify odorants at various levels through easy-to-use paper smell strips. Subsequently, fat samples are rated by the assessors, and the accuracy of boar taint evaluation is studied. Considerable variation of olfactory performance is observed demonstrating the need for objective criteria to select assessors. PMID:24976560

Trautmann, Johanna; Gertheiss, Jan; Wicke, Michael; Mörlein, Daniel

2014-10-01

204

The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences  

PubMed Central

Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way.

Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

2009-01-01

205

Decreased Visual Acuity and Diplopia in a Patient with Münchausen Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 20-year-old woman complained of decreased visual acuity in her left eye and diplopia. She had visited several hospitals previously. On examination, her left visual acuity varied, and her squint angle also changed. No organic disorders that could have caused the symptoms were noted. She complained of edema of her left arm. On admission to another hospital, her arm was

Konomi Numata-Watanabe; Seiji Hayasaka; Chiharu Kadoi; Nariko Ikeda

1998-01-01

206

An investigation of the relation between sibilant production and somatosensory and auditory acuity  

PubMed Central

The relation between auditory acuity, somatosensory acuity and the magnitude of produced sibilant contrast was investigated with data from 18 participants. To measure auditory acuity, stimuli from a synthetic sibilant continuum ([s]-[?]) were used in a four-interval, two-alternative forced choice adaptive-staircase discrimination task. To measure somatosensory acuity, small plastic domes with grooves of different spacing were pressed against each participant’s tongue tip and the participant was asked to identify one of four possible orientations of the grooves. Sibilant contrast magnitudes were estimated from productions of the words ‘said,’ ‘shed,’ ‘sid,’ and ‘shid’. Multiple linear regression revealed a significant relation indicating that a combination of somatosensory and auditory acuity measures predicts produced acoustic contrast. When the participants were divided into high- and low-acuity groups based on their median somatosensory and auditory acuity measures, separate ANOVA analyses with sibilant contrast as the dependent variable yielded a significant main effect for each acuity group. These results provide evidence that sibilant productions have auditory as well as somatosensory goals and are consistent with prior results and the theoretical framework underlying the DIVA model of speech production.

Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Matthies, Melanie L.; Maas, Edwin; Hanson, Alexandra; Tiede, Mark; Menard, Lucie; Guenther, Frank H.; Lane, Harlan; Perkell, Joseph S.

2010-01-01

207

Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

2011-01-01

208

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data...this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet...corrective lenses and distant binocular acuity of at least 20/40...lenses; (2) A field of vision of at least 70 degrees in...

2012-10-01

209

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data...this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet...corrective lenses and distant binocular acuity of at least 20/40...lenses; (2) A field of vision of at least 70 degrees in...

2011-10-01

210

Maintenance of genetic variation in personality through control of mental mechanisms: a test of trust, extraversion, and agreeableness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since natural selection produces genetically homogeneous populations with regard to adaptively important traits, the relatively high genetic variance associated with human personality is an enigma. In this article, we propose that humans adaptively control the activation of domain-specific mental mechanisms in accordance with personality. This process functions to reduce fitness differences among individuals with different genetic backgrounds associated with personality.

Kai Hiraishi; Shinji Yamagata; Chizuru Shikishima; Juko Ando

2008-01-01

211

HIV Risk Reduction for Substance Using Seriously Mentally Ill Adults: Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills (IMB) Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (Fisher & Fisher, 1992) was used as the theoretical framework for predicting unprotected sexual behavior among substance abusing men and women diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (n = 320; 150 men and 170 women, primarily of minority ethnicity). In a structural equation model, gender, HIV transmission knowledge, and motivational variables of pro-condom norms and attitudes,

Seth Kalichman; Robert Malow; Jessy Dévieux; Judith A. Stein; Fred Piedman

2005-01-01

212

[Corneal infection in wearers of contact lenses: causes, effect on visual acuity and prevention].  

PubMed

This is a 5-year retrospective survey of corneal infection in wearers of optical contact lenses (OCL). 23 of the 61 patients (38%; Hasharon Hospital) with positive cultures wore OCL. Visual acuity improved in 15 (65%), no change was noted in 4 (17.5%) and there was deterioration in 4 (17.5%), as compare with status on admission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common cause of infections among OCL wearers. The improvement in visual acuity expected due to wearing OCL was affected by infections. Those after Staphylococcus albus infections had the highest rate (100%) of improvement in visual acuity and after Ps. aeruginosa the lowest rate (57.2%) of improvement, as well as the highest rate of deterioration (42.8%) found following recovery. OCL wearers are at higher risk for damage to visual acuity following corneal infection, and highly virulent infections in OCL wearers are responsible for a high risk of damage to visual acuity. PMID:11062967

Domniz, Y; Avisar, R; Savir, H

2000-10-01

213

Mental Acceleration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of the term "acceleration" to describe interventions to enhance children's intellectual potential is inappropriate, as the term cannot by justified from the standpoint of mental measurement, mental growth, genetics, or education. Maximizing a child's potential through creation of stimulating environments is recommended rather than…

Elkind, David

1988-01-01

214

Effect of methylphenidate on neurocognitive test battery: an evaluation according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, subtypes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the neuropsychological characteristics of the restrictive (R) subtype according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined (CB) type and predominantly inattentive (PI) type subtypes and to evaluate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects neurocognitive test battery scores according to these subtypes. This study included 360 children and adolescents (277 boys, 83 girls) between 7 and 15 years of age who had been diagnosed with ADHD and compared the neuropsychological characteristics and MPH treatment responses of patients with the R subtype-which has been suggested for inclusion among the ADHD subtypes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-with those of patients with the PI and CB subtypes. They did not differ from the control subjects in the complex attention domain, which includes Continuous Performance Test, Stroop test, and Shifting Attention Test, which suggests that the R subtype displayed a lower level of deterioration in these domains compared with the PI and CB subtypes. The patients with the CB and PI subtypes did not differ from the control subjects in the Continuous Performance Test correct response domain, whereas those with the R subtype presented a poorer performance than the control subjects. The R subtype requires a more detailed evaluation because it presented similar results in the remaining neuropsychological evaluations and MPH responses. PMID:24875071

Durak, Sibel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Yuce, Deniz; Ercan, Elif; Ipci, Melis

2014-08-01

215

What Is Mental Health?  

MedlinePLUS

... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

216

Adolescent Mental Health Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Mental Health Adolescent Health Topics Mental Health States Adolescent Mental Health Facts Click a state below to ... Care Positive Mental Health: Resilience In the States Adolescent Health Topics Reproductive Health Mental Health Physical Health ...

217

Are there rapid feedback effects on Approximate Number System acuity?  

PubMed Central

Humans are believed to be equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitude. Correlations between individual measures of the precision of the ANS and mathematical ability have raised the question of whether the precision can be improved by feedback training. A study (DeWind and Brannon, 2012) reported improvement in discrimination precision occurring within 600–700 trials of feedback, suggesting ANS malleability with rapidly improving acuity in response to feedback. We tried to replicate the rapid improvement in a control group design, while controlling for the use of perceptual cues. The results indicate no learning effects, but a minor constant advantage for the feedback group. The measures of motivation suggest that feedback has a positive effect on motivation and that the difference in discrimination is due to the greater motivation of participants with feedback. These results suggest that at least for adults the number sense may not respond to feedback in the short-term.

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

2013-01-01

218

Effect of vestibular rehabilitation on passive dynamic visual acuity.  

PubMed

While active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been shown to improve with gaze stabilization exercises, we sought to determine whether DVA during passive head impulses (pDVA) would also improve following a rehabilitation course of vestibular physical therapy (VPT) in patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibular hypofunction. VPT consisted of gaze and gait stabilization exercises done as a home exercise program. Scleral search coil was used to characterize the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) during pDVA before and after VPT. Mean duration of VPT was 66 +/- 24 days, over a total of 5 +/- 1.4 outpatient visits. Two of three subjects showed improvements in pDVA with a mean reduction of 43% (LogMAR 0.58 to 0.398 and 0.92 to 0.40). Our data suggest improvements in pDVA may be due in part to improvements in aVOR velocity and acceleration gains or reduced latency of the aVOR. Each subject demonstrated a reduction in the ratio of compensatory saccades to head impulses after VPT. Preliminary data suggest that active gaze stability exercises may contribute to improvements in pDVA in some individuals. PMID:19126985

Scherer, Matthew; Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C

2008-01-01

219

Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity.  

PubMed

Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa. PMID:23382193

Böröczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby

2013-02-26

220

Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity  

PubMed Central

Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa.

Boroczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby

2013-01-01

221

Dynamic Visual Acuity Associated With Eye Movements And Pupillary Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectively was evaluate dynamic visual acuity (DVA), using moving optotypes, while monitoring eye movements and pupillary responses. Under controlled conditions of luminance and contrast the viewers were asked to look carefully at a moving alphabetic letter. The letter was moved in the horizontal plane at a determined speed by a sinusoidal frequency generator. The initial frequency was gradually incremented until the viewer reported was not able to distinguish the object. Objective measures of DVA were obtained using video-oculography (VOG) in which, pupillary images and eye movements were analyzed by image processing. We found that when a large dilatation of the pupil is presented coincided with a pause eye movement (0.1s). It was when the viewer leaves to see clearly the letter of Snellen. The changes of pupil diameter of the five viewers were found averages to nasal trajectory from 3.58 mm (0 Hz) to 3.85 mm (1Hz), and to temporal trajectory from 3.54 mm (0 Hz) to 3.96 mm (1 Hz). Also, the bandwidth since 0.6 to 1.2 Hz, of the viewers due to the response at the stimulus (letter of Snellen) with 20° of amplitude, was obtained.

Suaste, Ernesto; García, Nadia; Rodríguez, Dolores; Zúñiga, Arturo

2004-09-01

222

Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.  

PubMed

Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination. PMID:23346066

Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

2012-01-01

223

Metabolic studies in older mentally retarded patients: significance of metabolic testing and correlation with the clinical phenotype.  

PubMed

In 471 adult mentally retarded adult patients (mean age 46 years; 92.6% males) living in an institution for the mentally retarded, a clinical examination, cytogenetic and molecular studies were done. 306 patients were screened for metabolic disorders. In 7 additional patients a metabolic disorder (phenylketonuria (n = 5), mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome, type A) (n = 1) and mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (Sly syndrome) (n = 1)) was diagnosed in the past. The abnormal metabolic findings in this group of 313 patients were classified in three categories and the clinical findings are reported: 1. metabolic disorders as the cause of mental retardation (MR), 2. metabolic disorders not explaining the MR, and 3. metabolic abnormalities of unknown significance. The first two groups included 16 patients, i.e. 26.2% of the group of monogenic disorders and 3.4% of the total population: phenylketonuria (PKU) (n = 5), S-sulfocysteinuria (n = 3), mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome, type A) (n = 1) and Gm1-gangliosidosis type 3 (n = 1) (first group), and mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (Sly syndrome) (n = 1), Niemann-Pick syndrome, type B (n = 1), cystinuria (n = 1) and hyperprolinemia type 1 (n = 3) (second group). The third group included patients with citrullinemia (n = 2), methionine sulphoxide reductase deficiency (n = 1), ornithinemia (n = 1), glycinuria (n = 20), neuraminaciduria (n = 8), uraciluria (n = 6) and diabetes mellitus (n = 2). Screening for Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) in 144 patients and for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLO) in a selected group of 6 patients was normal. Of the total group of 306 patients screened for inborn errors of metabolism, only 5 (1.6%) were found with a true metabolic disorder. These 5 patients presented clinical symptoms, neurodegenerative or behavioural problems, indicating further metabolic screening. The present study illustrates that a selected group of patients with mental retardation of unknown origin are candidates for metabolic screening, especially if aberrant behaviour, neurodegenerative problems or dysmorphic features are present. PMID:11332972

Van Buggenhout, G J; Trijbels, J M; Wevers, R; Trommelen, J C; Hamel, B C; Brunner, H G; Fryns, J P

2001-01-01

224

Rapid immunoblot and kinase assay tests for a syndromal form of X linked mental retardation: Coffin-Lowry syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromal form of X linked mental retardation, in which some associated facial, hand, and skeletal abnormalities are diagnostic features. Accurate diagnosis, critical for genetic counselling, is often difficult, especially in early childhood. We have recently shown that Coffin-Lowry syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene encoding RSK2, a growth factor regulated protein kinase. RSK2

K Merienne; S Jacquot; E Trivier; S Pannetier; A Rossi; C Scott; A Schinzel; C Castellan; W Kress; A Hanauer

1998-01-01

225

Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals' experience of interacting with the healthcare system has significant impact on their overall health and well-being. To relate patients' experiences to a common set of standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of health system responsiveness. This study aimed to assess if the WHO responsiveness concept reflected the non-medical expectations of mental healthcare users in Teheran. Methods In this qualitative study, four mixed focus group discussions were formed, comprising 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Content analysis was performed for data analysis. Responses were examined in relation to the eight domains of the WHO's responsiveness model. Results There were many commonalities between the findings of this study and the eight domains of the WHO responsiveness model, although some variations were found. Effective care was a new domain generated from our findings. In addition, the domain of prompt attention was included in two new labelled domains: attention and access to care. Participants could not differentiate autonomy from choice of healthcare provider, believing that free choice is part of autonomy. Therefore these domains were unified under the name of autonomy. The domains of quality of basic amenities, access to social support, dignity and confidentiality were considered to be important for the responsiveness concept. Some differences regarding how these domains should be defined were observed, however. Conclusions The results showed that the concept of responsiveness developed by the WHO is applicable to mental health services in Iran. These findings might help policy-makers' better understanding of what is useful for the improvement of mental health services.

2011-01-01

226

Family, Environmental and Developmental Variables in Mental Retardation: A Multi-Dimensional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the mental abilities of mentally retarded children, 100 tests were tried out on more than 350 German Ss and the TBGB ("Test-batterie fur geistig behinderte Kinder"Test battery for mentally retarded children") was developed. (SW)

Eggert, Dietrich

1982-01-01

227

Mental Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ... Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a ...

228

Impact of sensory acuity on auditory working memory span in young and old adults  

PubMed Central

The role of sensory acuity, processing speed, and working memory capacity on auditory working memory span (L-span) performance at five presentation levels was examined in 80 young (18–30 y) and 26 older adults (60–82 y). Lowering the presentation level of the L-span task had a greater detrimental effect on older adults than in the young. Furthermore, the relationship between sensory acuity and L-span performance varied as a function of age and presentation level. These results suggest that declining acuity plays an important explanatory role in age-related declines in cognitive abilities.

Baldwin, Carryl L.; Ash, Ivan K.

2010-01-01

229

Physical Exertion and Mental Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of why people in a state of fatigue make wrong decisions prompted a series of laboratory experiments of which two are described. Subjects pedalled a bicycle ergometer for varying periods of time and were tested for mental performance after different amounts of physical exertion. The results showed that a sub-maximal amount of physical exertion improved mental performance on

C. P. DAVEY

1973-01-01

230

Olfactory Acuity in Selected Animals Conducted during the Period June 1972 - September 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the results of extensive experimentation designed to assess the olfactory acuity of various animal species for commonly encountered explosive odors in tactical situations such as C-4, Composition B, TNT, tetryl, PETN, and RDX. The ex...

1974-01-01

231

Visual Acuity Decrements Associated with Whole Body Plus or Minus Gz Vibration Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact that vibration has an adverse effect on visual acuity is well established but inadequately quantified. The operational acceleration environments of low altitude terrain avoidance flight, the increasing use of helicopters, and the potential vibrat...

C. R. O'Briant M. K. Ohlbaum

1970-01-01

232

Recovery of Upper Extremity Sensorimotor System Acuity in Baseball Athletes After a Throwing-Fatigue Protocol  

PubMed Central

Context: Research indicates that upper extremity fatigue hampers sensorimotor system acuity. However, no investigators have observed recovery of upper extremity acuity after fatigue. Objective: To observe recovery of active position reproduction acuity in overhead throwers after a throwing-fatigue protocol. Design: Single-session, repeated-measures design. Setting: University musculoskeletal laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen healthy collegiate baseball players (age = 21.0 ± 1.6 years, height = 175.8 ± 10.2 cm, mass = 82.8 ± 4.3 kg). Intervention(s): Subjects threw a baseball with maximum velocity (every 5 seconds) from a single knee. Every 20 throws, subjects rated their upper extremity exertion on a Borg scale until reporting a level of more than 14. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used an electromagnetic tracking system to measure active multijoint position reproduction acuity at 5 intervals: prefatigue; immediately postfatigue; and after 4, 7, and 10 minutes of recovery. Blindfolded subjects reproduced their arm-cocked and ball-release positions. Dependent variables were 3-dimensional variable errors of scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, elbow, and wrist joints; endpoint (ie, hand) position error represented overall upper extremity acuity. The independent variable was time (measured prefatigue and at 4 postfatigue intervals). Results: Fatigue significantly affected acuity of scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, and elbow joints and endpoint error for both positions (P < .001). Fatigue significantly affected wrist acuity only for ball release (P < .001). For arm-cocked reproduction, each measure of acuity, except that of the glenohumeral joint, recovered by 7 minutes; for ball release, each measure of acuity recovered within 4 minutes (P > .05). Conclusions: The sensorimotor system deficits that we observed after fatigue recovered within 7 minutes in most upper extremity joints. Glenohumeral arm-cocked position reproduction acuity failed to recover within 10 minutes. Research indicates that overhead throwers are vulnerable in this position to the capsulolabral injuries commonly observed in throwing athletes. Future researchers should explore this relationship and the effectiveness of exercises aimed at enhancing sensorimotor system acuity and endurance.

Tripp, Brady L; Yochem, Eric M; Uhl, Timothy L

2007-01-01

233

The Effect of State Medicaid Case-Mix Payment on Nursing Home Resident Acuity  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between Medicaid case-mix payment and nursing home resident acuity. Data Sources Longitudinal Minimum Data Set (MDS) resident assessments from 1999 to 2002 and Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data from 1996 to 2002, for all freestanding nursing homes in the 48 contiguous U.S. states. Study Design We used a facility fixed-effects model to examine the effect of introducing state case-mix payment on changes in nursing home case-mix acuity. Facility acuity was measured by aggregating the nursing case-mix index (NCMI) from the MDS using the Resource Utilization Group (Version III) resident classification system, separately for new admits and long-stay residents, and by an OSCAR-derived index combining a range of activity of daily living dependencies and special treatment measures. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We followed facilities over the study period to create a longitudinal data file based on the MDS and OSCAR, respectively, and linked facilities with longitudinal data on state case-mix payment policies for the same period. Principal Findings Across three acuity measures and two data sources, we found that states shifting to case-mix payment increased nursing home acuity levels over the study period. Specifically, we observed a 2.5 percent increase in the average acuity of new admits and a 1.3 to 1.4 percent increase in the acuity of long-stay residents, following the introduction of case-mix payment. Conclusions The adoption of case-mix payment increased access to care for higher acuity Medicaid residents.

Feng, Zhanlian; Grabowski, David C; Intrator, Orna; Mor, Vincent

2006-01-01

234

Visual Acuity, Environmental Complexity, and Social Organization in African Cichlid Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors studied the effects of habitat complexity and social organization on visual acuity in closely related cichlid fishes (the Ectodini clade). The authors quantified habitat complexity among sand, intermediate, and rock habitats using chromatic difference measures (intensity analysis). Visual acuity was measured behaviorally, using optomotor\\/optokinetic responses to rotating square-wave stimuli. The rock-dwelling Asprotilapia leptura exhibited the best visual ability,

Adam P. Dobberfuhl; Jeremy F. P. Ullmann; Caroly A. Shumway

2005-01-01

235

Mentality and school progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the conditions under which school grades can be taken as reliable indexes of intelligence. 1723 children of three schools were subjected to a series of group mental tests. The association coefficient was found for the following classes: (1) school retarded and below median in intelligence (2) school advanced and above median in intelligence (3) school retarded and above median,

Herbert A. Toops; Rudolf Pincer

1919-01-01

236

Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

2011-01-01

237

The mental status examination in emergency practice.  

PubMed

A systematic approach to assessing mental status in the emergency department is key to identifying alterations in mental status and to directing diagnostic testing and management. After initial stabilization of the patient, it is critical to assess a patient's alertness, attention, and cognition, and perform a brief psychiatric assessment to fully evaluate a patient with mental status changes. This article offers an approach to allow better management of a patient with altered mental status. PMID:20709237

Koita, Jasmine; Riggio, Sylvana; Jagoda, Andy

2010-08-01

238

Visual acuity in the pigeon II: effects of target distance and retinal lesions1  

PubMed Central

Visual acuity thresholds for grating targets were determined for three pigeons at target distances ranging from 13 to 73 cm. These measurements were made both while the birds were wearing goggles restricting vision to the frontal field of view and when vision was unrestricted. Using a slightly different method, performance was also compared for target distances of 6 and 13 cm while the goggles were in place. For a second group of three pigeons, acuity data were obtained before and after laser lesions of the retina's foveal region. The findings suggested that acuity was relatively poor for targets at the intermediate distances and that it improved as distance both increased and decreased from these intermediate values. The acuity improvement with increasing distance did not occur, however, when the birds were wearing frontal goggles. The data appear to be consistent with Catania's 1964 suggestion that the pigeon has separate frontal and lateral visual systems that differ in their refractive characteristics. Foveal lesions did not appear to affect acuity for distant targets, and it was concluded that, while the fovea serves the lateral field of view, its presence is not necessary to the static acuity characteristics of this system.

Blough, Patricia M.

1973-01-01

239

Good Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and mental health ... work to keep your mind healthy. Nutrition and mental health Visit choosemyplate.gov to help find personalized eating ...

240

Women and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... mail.nih.gov Share Science News About Women's Mental Health Bundling HIV Prevention with Prenatal Care Reduces Risky ...

241

Florida Mental Health Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida Mental Health Institute, dedicated to research, training and program development for improving psychological wellbeing, has four main divisions: Aging and Mental Health, Child and Family Studies, Community Mental Health, and Mental Health Law and Policy.

242

Mental models students hold of zoos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information Framework. Most important to this study is the development of the Information Framework, which described the information students knew about zoos.

Patrick, Patricia Gail

243

Visual Acuity Norms in Preschool Children: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To provide population-based normative data for monocular visual acuity (VA) and interocular differences in VA (IOD), in African-American and Hispanic children 30–72 months of age without visually significant refractive errors or ophthalmic abnormalities. Methods In a population-based cohort of children in the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study, monocular HOTV VA measurements using the Amblyopia Treatment Study protocol were analyzed using continuous and dichotomous outcomes for VA and IOD, after excluding subjects with ophthalmic abnormalities or refractive error. Results The analysis cohort consisted of 1722 African-American and Hispanic children aged 30 to 72 months. Mean logMAR VA improved with age (P<0.0001) and male gender (p=0.0008). The proportion of children achieving VA 20/40 or better was associated with age (p<0.0001), but not ethnicity or gender, and was 81%, 94%, 99% and virtually 100% in children aged 30–35, 36–47, 48–59, and 60–72 months of age, respectively. The most stringent VA threshold that excluded <5% of normal children was 20/63, 20/50, 20/32, and 20/32 for children aged 30–35, 36–47, 48–59, and 60–72 months, respectively. Children attending preschool or daycare achieved VA 20/32 more often than those not attending, after age adjustment (P=0.01), as did children from higher-income families (p=0.04). There was no association between mean absolute IOD and age (P=0.45), ethnicity (P=0.12), or gender (P=0.19). The proportion of children achieving an IOD of 0–1 lines was higher in males than females (P=0.02); it did not vary by age (P=0.06) or ethnicity (P=0.17). IOD of two or more lines occurred in 6% of normal children. Conclusions Visual acuity test performance in normal preschool children improves with age. We propose new age-specific thresholds for defining abnormal monocular VA using HOTV optotypes in children between 2 and 5 years of age, for use in screening, clinical practice and research.

Pan, Ying; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Susan A., Cotter; Wen, Ge; Borchert, Mark S.; Azen, Stanley P.; Varma, Rohit

2009-01-01

244

Origins of Superior Dynamic Visual Acuity in Baseball Players: Superior Eye Movements or Superior Image Processing  

PubMed Central

Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions), whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions). The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina.

Uchida, Yusuke; Kudoh, Daisuke; Murakami, Akira; Honda, Masaaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

2012-01-01

245

Effect of Target Location on Dynamic Visual Acuity During Passive Horizontal Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates eye rotation to compensate for potential retinal slip in the specific plane of head movement. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been utilized as a functional measure of the VOR. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in accuracy and reaction time when performing a DVA task with targets offset from the plane of rotation, e.g. offset vertically during horizontal rotation. Visual acuity was measured in 12 healthy subjects as they moved a hand-held joystick to indicate the orientation of a computer-generated Landolt C "as quickly and accurately as possible." Acuity thresholds were established with optotypes presented centrally on a wall-mounted LCD screen at 1.3 m distance, first without motion (static condition) and then while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (DVA, peak velocity 60 deg/s). The effect of target location was then measured during horizontal rotation with the optotypes randomly presented in one of nine different locations on the screen (offset up to 10 deg). The optotype size (logMar 0, 0.2 or 0.4, corresponding to Snellen range 20/20 to 20/50) and presentation duration (150, 300 and 450 ms) were counter-balanced across five trials, each utilizing horizontal rotation at 0.8 Hz. Dynamic acuity was reduced relative to static acuity in 7 of 12 subjects by one step size. During the random target trials, both accuracy and reaction time improved proportional to optotype size. Accuracy and reaction time also improved between 150 ms and 300 ms presentation durations. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements when acquiring vertical targets. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of motion. Both reaction time and accuracy are functionally relevant DVA parameters of VOR function.

Appelbaum, Meghan; DeDios, Yiri; Kulecz, Walter; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott

2010-01-01

246

A randomized controlled trial undertaken to test a nurse-led weight management and exercise intervention designed for people with serious mental illness who take second generation antipsychotics  

PubMed Central

Aim To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background Weight gain and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population with the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome reaching 20–25% of the global population. People with serious mental illness are at even higher risk, particularly those taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Design An experimental randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Method The control group received a 12-week healthy lifestyle booklet. In addition to the booklet, the intervention group received weekly nutrition and exercise education, exercise sessions, and nurse support. Participants (n = 101) were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Data were collected between March 2008–December 2010. Seven outcome measures were used: body measurements included girth (cm), weight (kg), height (cm), and body mass index (kg/m2); questionnaires included the medication compliance questionnaire, the Drug Attitude Inventory, the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36. Differences in primary outcome measures between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were compared between intervention and control groups using standard bi-variate statistical tests. The study was conducted between 2008–2010. Results The analysis of outcome measures for the control group (n = 50) and intervention group (n = 51) was not statistically significant. There was a mean weight change of ?0·74 kg at 12 weeks for the intervention group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 50) had a mean weight change of ?0·17 kg at 12 weeks. Conclusion The results were not statistically significant.

Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Foster, Kim; Buettner, Petra

2013-01-01

247

A pilot test of a peer navigator intervention for improving the health of individuals with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) are at considerably higher risk for morbidity and mortality than those in the general population. The current pilot trial is a preliminary examination of a peer health navigation intervention for improving health and healthcare utilization called the Bridge. Twenty-four individuals with SMI were randomly assigned to either peer navigation or treatment as usual (TAU). Navigators encouraged development of self-management of healthcare through a series of psychoeducation and behavioral strategies. Outcomes included a range of health consequences, as well as health utilization indices. After 6 months, compared to the TAU group, participants receiving the intervention experienced fewer pain and health symptoms. Participants changed their orientation about seeking care to a primary care provider (44.4 % vs. 83.3 %, ?(2) = 3.50, p < .05) rather than the emergency room (55.6 % vs. 0 %, ?(2) = 8.75, p < .01). Therefore, the Bridge intervention demonstrated considerable promise through positively impacting health and healthcare utilization. PMID:23744292

Kelly, Erin; Fulginiti, Anthony; Pahwa, Rohini; Tallen, Louise; Duan, Lei; Brekke, John S

2014-05-01

248

Diagnosing Students' Mental Models via the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental models play an important role in science education research. To extend the effectiveness of conceptual change research and to improve mental model identi?cation and diagnosis, the authors developed and tested the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis (WMMD) system. In this article, they describe their WMMD system, which goes beyond the…

Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Lin, Jing-Wen; Chou, Chin-Cheng

2013-01-01

249

Mental Retirement*  

PubMed Central

Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement.

Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.

2010-01-01

250

Five-year change in visual acuity following cataract surgery in an older community: the Blue Mountains Eye Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To assess the change in visual acuity following cataract surgery in the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) population. Change in visual acuity was assessed by age, sex, baseline cataract type, and baseline visual acuity.Methods A 5-year prospective follow-up of the population-based BMES cohort, who were initially examined in 1992. After 5 years, 2335 survivors of 3654 (75.1%) baseline BMES

J Panchapakesan; E Rochtchina; P Mitchell

2004-01-01

251

Socioeconomic composition of low-acuity emergency department users in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the associations between the socioeconomic status of emergency department (ED) users and age, sex, and acuity of medical conditions to better understand users’ common characteristics, and to better meet primary and ambulatory health care needs. Design A retrospective, observational, population-based analysis. A rigorous proxy of socioeconomic status was applied using census-based methods to calculate a relative deprivation index. Setting Ontario. Participants All Ontario ED visits for the fiscal year April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System data set. Main outcome measures Emergency department visits were ranked into deprivation quintiles, and associations between deprivation and age, sex, acuity at triage, and association with a primary care physician were investigated. Results More than 25% of ED visits in Ontario were from the most deprived population; almost half of those (12.3%) were for conditions of low acuity. Age profiles indicated that a large contribution to low-acuity ED visits was made by young adults (aged 20 to 30 years) from the most deprived population. For the highest-volume ED in Ontario, 94 of the 499 ED visits per day were for low-acuity patients from the most deprived population. Most of the highest volume EDs in Ontario (more than 200 ED visits per day) follow this trend. Conclusion Overall input into EDs might be reduced by providing accessible and appropriate primary health care resources in catchment areas of EDs with high rates of low-acuity ED visits, particularly for young adults from the most deprived segment of the population.

VanStone, Nancy A.; Belanger, Paul; Moore, Kieran; Caudle, Jaelyn M.

2014-01-01

252

Mental Status Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The mental status examination (MSE) is an interview screening evaluation of all the important areas of a patient’s current\\u000a emotional and cognitive functioning, often augmented with some simple cognitive tests. The MSE provides the data for formulating\\u000a a psychiatric diagnosis or developing a working hypothesis regarding psychiatric diagnosis. The MSE is to psychiatric diagnosis\\u000a what the physical examination is to

Michael Daniel; Jessica Gurczynski

253

UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a Newly Developed Organizational Skills Assessment Tool for Severely Mentally Ill Adults  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants’ organizational skills were measured using our newly developed UCSD Sorting Test (U-SORT); a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a “junk drawer” into “keep” vs. “trash” piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms), were acceptable (mean r = |.34|), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = |.06|). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable and valid measure of functioning for this population.

Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T.; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

254

Performance of mental defectives on the Revised Stanford-Binet and the Kent E-G-Y tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retarded patients with IQ's (S-B scale) of less than 80 were given the Kent E-G-Y and the Revised Stanford-Binet tests. When the mean difference between the tests was taken into consideration, approximately 50% of the Kent scores fell within 5 IQ points of the Binet score, and 84% within 10 points. A chi-square analysis of individual items of the E-G-Y

A. L. Rautman

1944-01-01

255

Mental Labels and Tattoos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

Hyatt, I. Ralph

1977-01-01

256

Teen Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

257

Mental Illness Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... included on mental health-related disability and on suicide. This resource is a continuing work in progress, ... button to return to the directory. Prevalence Disability Suicide Cost Global Serious Mental Illness (SMI) Serious Mental ...

258

Children's Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... development, and these problems can continue into adulthood. Public health includes mental health A new report from the ... impact of childhood mental disorders and developing a public health approach to address children’s mental health. Research on ...

259

A study of static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity in 102 Japanese professional baseball players  

PubMed Central

Background It seemed that visual functions might have some effects on the performance of baseball players. We measured static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity (SVA, KVA, and DVA, respectively) of Japanese professional baseball players to ascertain whether there would be any difference in SVA, KVA, and DVA among player groups stratified according to their performance level. Methods The subjects were 102 male professional baseball players with a mean age of 26 years who were members of a Japanese professional baseball club from 2000 to 2009. They were stratified into three groups according to their performance level: A (players who were on the roster of the top-level team all the time throughout the study period), B (players who were on the roster of the top-level team sometimes but not all the time), and C (players who were never on the roster of the top-level team). They were interviewed for the use of corrective visual aids, and examined for SVA, KVA, and DVA. The measurements of these parameters were compared among groups A, B, and C. We also investigated and analyzed the association of KVA or DVA with player position (pitchers or fielders) and with hand dominance for batting. KVA was compared between the pitchers and the fielders because they each require different playing skills. DVA was compared between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Results There was no statistically significant difference among groups A, B, and C. There was a statistically significant difference in KVA between the pitchers and the fielders (t-test; P < 0.05) There was no statistically significant difference in DVA between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Conclusions There was no significant difference in the examined visual functions among player groups with different performance levels.

Hoshina, Kohji; Tagami, Yuichi; Mimura, Osamu; Edagawa, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Masao; Nakayama, Teiichi

2013-01-01

260

Test-retest reliability of the Middlesex Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS): a preliminary investigation in people with probable dementia.  

PubMed

Relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the MEAMS was examined in 12 subjects with probable dementia and 12 matched controls. Relative reliability was good. Measures of absolute reliability showed scores changing by up to 3 points over an interval of a week. A version effect was found to be in evidence. PMID:8318942

Powell, T; Brooker, D J; Papadopolous, A

1993-05-01

261

"Culture-Fair" Mental Ability Testing with Schoolchildren: A Review of the Silent Raven; Adequate If Used with Caution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices Scale (CPM) IQ test which is considered by many to be "culture fair." The emphasis is on socioeconomic status but factors of sex and ethnicity are also considered. Two major studies from which socioeconomic status data can be extracted are examined. These and other studies found that…

Sigmon, Scott B.

262

[Optical coherence tomography in patients with foveal hypoplasia and high visual acuity].  

PubMed

Two clinical cases of children with foveal hypoplasia and high visual acuity examined using optical coherence tomography are presented. Genetic examination found oculocutaneous albinism type 1 in one patient. Potential causes and functional value of foveal hypoplasia are discussed. PMID:22994112

Shpak, A A; Aznaurian, I É; Balasanian, V O; Tavtilova, D A

2012-01-01

263

Severe decrease in visual acuity with choroidal hypoperfusion after photodynamic therapy  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered a selective method of treatment which works in areas of choroidal neovascularization (CNV); however, there are reports of choroidal hypoperfusion after PDT. This paper presents a clinical case of choroidal circulation disturbances caused by PDT, accompanied by CNV progression. Case Report The patient, a 75-year-old woman, was qualified for PDT in the right eye – first treatment due to progression of occult CNV. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the right eye at baseline was +0.3 logMAR. After PDT, a rapid decrease in visual acuity to +0.7 logMAR in the right eye was observed, central choroidal hypoperfusion in fluorescein angiography (FA) with subretinal fluid appeared and, as a consequence, progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). After stabilizing the local state through conservative therapy, a decision was made to treat the right eye with intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor. During a 12-month period of observation, 7 doses of ranibizumab were administered. A regression in activity of wet AMD was observed, with visual acuity of +0.6 logMAR. Conclusions Choroidal circulation disturbance after PDT is possible and has to be taken into account. Sporadically, it can lead to an acute decrease in visual acuity and local state. After stabilization of AF and optical coherence tomography imaging, further treatment of neovascular AMD with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents should be considered.

Figurska, Malgorzata; Wierzbowska, Joanna; Robaszkiewicz, Jacek

2011-01-01

264

A Close Eye on the Eagle-Eyed Visual Acuity Hypothesis of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP).…

Bolte, Sven; Schlitt, Sabine; Gapp, Volker; Hainz, Daniela; Schirman, Shella; Poustka, Fritz; Weber, Bernhard; Freitag, Christine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik

2012-01-01

265

Is Theta Burst Stimulation Applied to Visual Cortex Able to Modulate Peripheral Visual Acuity?  

PubMed Central

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is usually applied to visual cortex to explore the effects on cortical excitability. Most researchers therefore concentrate on changes of phosphene threshold, rarely on consequences for visual performance. Thus, we investigated peripheral visual acuity in the four quadrants of the visual field using Landolt C optotypes before and after repetitive stimulation of the visual cortex. We applied continuous and intermittend theta burst stimulation with various stimulation intensities (60%, 80%, 100%, 120% of individual phosphene threshold) as well as monophasic and biphasic 1 Hz stimulation, respectively. As an important result, no serious adverse effects were observed. In particular, no seizure was induced, even with theta burst stimulation applied with 120% of individual phosphene threshold. In only one case stimulation was ceased because the subject reported intolerable pain. Baseline visual acuity decreased over sessions, indicating a continuous training effect. Unexpectedly, none of the applied transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols had an effect on performance: no change in visual acuity was found in any of the four quadrants of the visual field. Binocular viewing as well as the use of peripheral instead of foveal presentation of the stimuli might have contributed to this result. Furthermore, intraindividual variability could have masked the TMS- induced effects on visual acuity.

Bruckner, Sabrina; Kammer, Thomas

2014-01-01

266

Lingual tactile acuity, taste perception, and the density and diameter of fungiform papillae in female subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals who differ in taste perception differ in lingual tactile perception. To address this issue, spatial resolution acuity was estimated for 83 young adult females (52 Asians and 31 Caucasians) by their ability to examine with the tongue and identify embossed letters of the alphabet. Ratings of the magnitude of the bitterness of

Greg K. Essick; Anita Chopra; Steve Guest; Francis McGlone

2003-01-01

267

The Effects of Drift and Displacement Motion on Dynamic Visual Acuity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) can be measured from two types of equivalently considered movement referred to as drifting-motion and displacement-motion. Displacement motion can be best described as the horizontal displacement of a stimulus, thus implying pursuit eye movements, and involves moving the stimulus from the fixation point of gaze towards…

Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio; Quevedo, Lluisa; Sinnett, Scott

2005-01-01

268

The Impact of Early Lens Opacity Progression on Visual Acuity and Refraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the change in visual acuity and refraction taking place in eyes with progressing early lens opacities. Four hundred and ten hypercholesterolemic men in Eastern Finland who participated in the Kuopio Atherosclerosis Prevention Study were followed up for 3 years. Lens opacities were graded using the lens opacity classification system II (LOCS

Päivi Rouhiainen; Harri Rouhiainen; Jukka T. Salonen

1997-01-01

269

VERBAL LEARNING AMONG CHILDREN WITH REDUCED HEARING ACUITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

COMBINED VISUAL-AUDITORY METHODS FOR TEACHING WERE TESTED, USING AURALLY HANDICAPPED AND NORMAL CHILDREN AS SUBJECTS, TO DEVELOP COMPARATIVE STATISTICS OF LEARNING ABILITY AND AUDITORY TRAINING BENEFITS OVER CONVENTIONAL UNISENSORY TEACHING TECHNIQUES. THE STUDY SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 2,500 CHILDREN. IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE, THE CHILDREN WERE…

GAETH, JOHN H.; AND OTHERS

270

Mental health nursing and stress: maintaining balance.  

PubMed

The recruitment and retention of mental health nurses within acute inpatient mental health facilities continues to be an ongoing issue. Literature and current research highlight an environment fraught with pressure and stress, identifying several key factors contributing to job dissatisfaction. These factors include greater patient acuity, unpredictable and challenging workspaces, violence, increased paperwork, and reduced managerial support. This qualitative, critical, feminist exploration investigated the lived experiences of 13 female mental health nurses working in inpatient services. They were asked about their practice and perceptions of workplace culture, and they shared their thoughts on stress management and professional well-being. Positive workplace practice was highlighted, and the participants revealed an environment they were proud to be a part of. Individual interviews, focus groups, and reflective practice were all used to collect data. The findings from the investigation unanimously support current literature that clearly confirms mental health nursing to be stressful. Interestingly, however, the findings also clearly identified that the way in which the nurse participants managed their stress was intrinsically linked to their job satisfaction. The major theme identified throughout the present study revealed that the female participants' ability to manage an at times complex workspace through the notions of teamwork, diversity, and creativity. All of the participants considered these elements as significant to providing a high standard in patient care. This research might provide an opportunity for others to view mental health nursing from a different perspective, and through the lived experiences of the participants, embrace the positive and rewarding aspects of the role. PMID:21371222

Ward, Louise

2011-04-01

271

Wavefront coherence area for predicting visual acuity of post-PRK and post-PARK refractive surgery patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many current corneal topography instruments (called videokeratographs) provide an `acuity index' based on corneal smoothness to analyze expected visual acuity. However, post-refractive surgery patients often exhibit better acuity than is predicted by such indices. One reason for this is that visual acuity may not necessarily be determined by overall corneal smoothness but rather by having some part of the cornea able to focus light coherently onto the fovea. We present a new method of representing visual acuity by measuring the wavefront aberration, using principles from both ray and wave optics. For each point P on the cornea, we measure the size of the associated coherence area whose optical path length (OPL), from a reference plane to P's focus, is within a certain tolerance of the OPL for P.

Garcia, Daniel D.; van de Pol, Corina; Barsky, Brian A.; Klein, Stanley A.

1999-06-01

272

Reduction in Dynamic Visual Acuity Reveals Gaze Control Changes Following Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to microgravity causes adaptive changes in eye-head coordination that can lead to altered gaze control. This could affect postflight visual acuity during head and body motion. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in dynamic visual acuity after long-duration spaceflight. METHODS: Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) data from 14 astro/cosmonauts were collected after long-duration (6 months) spaceflight. The difference in acuity between seated and walking conditions provided a metric of change in the subjects ability to maintain gaze fixation during self-motion. In each condition, a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm was used to display Landolt ring optotypes at a size that was near each subject s acuity threshold. Verbal responses regarding the orientation of the gap were recorded as the optotypes appeared sequentially on a computer display 4 meters away. During the walking trials, subjects walked at 6.4 km/h on a motorized treadmill. RESULTS: A decrement in mean postflight DVA was found, with mean values returning to baseline within 1 week. The population mean showed a consistent improvement in DVA performance, but it was accompanied by high variability. A closer examination of the individual subject s recovery curves revealed that many did not follow a pattern of continuous improvement with each passing day. When adjusted on the basis of previous long-duration flight experience, the population mean shows a "bounce" in the re-adaptation curve. CONCLUSION: Gaze control during self-motion is altered following long-duration spaceflight and changes in postflight DVA performance indicate that vestibular re-adaptation may be more complex than a gradual return to normal.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris; Lawrence, Emily L.; Mulavara Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

273

Test-performance after cognitive training in persons at risk mental state of schizophrenia and patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This exploratory study aims to examine the differential effects of a computer-based cognitive training in 'prodromal' patients (mean age 27.20 years, S.D. 5.31 years) compared with patients with full-blown schizophrenia (mean age 30.13 years, S.D. 7.77 years). Ten patients at risk for schizophrenia and 16 patients suffering from schizophrenia underwent a computerized cognitive training program (Cogpack). Cognitive functioning before and after a total of 10 training sessions was assessed by different tests controlling for memory, attention, and logical thinking. Prodromal patients turned out to be able to significantly improve their long-term memory functions and their attention after cognitive training with the Cogpack software package whereas in the group of patients with schizophrenia no improvement occurred (e.g. continuous performance test, identical pairs-subtest 'shapes': improvement from 0.73 to 0.88 in persons at risk of schizophrenia vs. no improvement in patients with schizophrenia (0.55 to 0.53). Cognitive training using Cogpack is helpful for the improvement of cognitive functioning in persons at risk of schizophrenia. Thus, the application of cognitive training should be provided as early as possible in the prodromal phases of schizophrenia in order to use the full rehabilitative potential of the patients. These results should be confirmed by further investigations including larger sample sizes. PMID:20493540

Rauchensteiner, Stephan; Kawohl, Wolfram; Ozgurdal, Seza; Littmann, Eckhard; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Witthaus, Henning; Heinz, Andreas; Juckel, Georg

2011-02-28

274

Visual stimulus parameters seriously compromise the measurement of approximate number system acuity and comparative effects between adults and children.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that a simple non-symbolic magnitude comparison task is sufficient to measure the acuity of a putative Approximate Number System (ANS). A proposed measure of the ANS, the so-called "internal Weber fraction" (w), would provide a clear measure of ANS acuity. However, ANS studies have never presented adequate evidence that visual stimulus parameters did not compromise measurements of w to such extent that w is actually driven by visual instead of numerical processes. We therefore investigated this question by testing non-symbolic magnitude discrimination in seven-year-old children and adults. We manipulated/controlled visual parameters in a more stringent manner than usual. As a consequence of these controls, in some trials numerical cues correlated positively with number while in others they correlated negatively with number. This congruency effect strongly correlated with w, which means that congruency effects were probably driving effects in w. Consequently, in both adults and children congruency had a major impact on the fit of the model underlying the computation of w. Furthermore, children showed larger congruency effects than adults. This suggests that ANS tasks are seriously compromised by the visual stimulus parameters, which cannot be controlled. Hence, they are not pure measures of the ANS and some putative w or ratio effect differences between children and adults in previous ANS studies may be due to the differential influence of the visual stimulus parameters in children and adults. In addition, because the resolution of congruency effects relies on inhibitory (interference suppression) function, some previous ANS findings were probably influenced by the developmental state of inhibitory processes especially when comparing children with developmental dyscalculia and typically developing children. PMID:23882245

Sz?cs, Dénes; Nobes, Alison; Devine, Amy; Gabriel, Florence C; Gebuis, Titia

2013-01-01

275

Visual stimulus parameters seriously compromise the measurement of approximate number system acuity and comparative effects between adults and children  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that a simple non-symbolic magnitude comparison task is sufficient to measure the acuity of a putative Approximate Number System (ANS). A proposed measure of the ANS, the so-called “internal Weber fraction” (w), would provide a clear measure of ANS acuity. However, ANS studies have never presented adequate evidence that visual stimulus parameters did not compromise measurements of w to such extent that w is actually driven by visual instead of numerical processes. We therefore investigated this question by testing non-symbolic magnitude discrimination in seven-year-old children and adults. We manipulated/controlled visual parameters in a more stringent manner than usual. As a consequence of these controls, in some trials numerical cues correlated positively with number while in others they correlated negatively with number. This congruency effect strongly correlated with w, which means that congruency effects were probably driving effects in w. Consequently, in both adults and children congruency had a major impact on the fit of the model underlying the computation of w. Furthermore, children showed larger congruency effects than adults. This suggests that ANS tasks are seriously compromised by the visual stimulus parameters, which cannot be controlled. Hence, they are not pure measures of the ANS and some putative w or ratio effect differences between children and adults in previous ANS studies may be due to the differential influence of the visual stimulus parameters in children and adults. In addition, because the resolution of congruency effects relies on inhibitory (interference suppression) function, some previous ANS findings were probably influenced by the developmental state of inhibitory processes especially when comparing children with developmental dyscalculia and typically developing children.

Szucs, Denes; Nobes, Alison; Devine, Amy; Gabriel, Florence C.; Gebuis, Titia

2013-01-01

276

The Measurement and Comparison of Variables Related to Driver and Highway Safety Between Educable Mentally Retarded and Normal High School Age Students in Pennsylvania. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was conducted to measure variables related to safe driving and to designate factors predictive of success in driving safety of educable mentally retarded (EMR) students as compared to normal students. Subjects were 349 EMR and 443 intellectually normal students (ages 16-20), who were evaluated in the following areas: visual acuity,…

Bologa, James F.; And Others

277

MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WEST VIRGINIA IS A RURAL STATE HAVING A LARGE POVERTY STRICKEN POPULATION. SINCE THIS GROUP HAD NO ACCESS TO MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH SPONSORED A VISTA PROGRAM IN MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL RETARDATION, AND ENCOURAGED THE VOLUNTEERS TO USE THEIR OWN CREATIVITY AND INGENUITY IN PROVIDING SUCH SERVICES AS--(1)…

CHAMBERLAIN, IDA

278

Correlation between Ocular Manifestations and Their Complications as Opposed to Visual Acuity and Treatment in Behcet's Disease  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze ocular manifestations, their complications, and treatment in a sample of 40 patients with confirmed Behcet's disease. Results. Serofibrinous iridocyclitis was the most common form of uveitis (60%). Retinal periphlebitis manifested in 92.5% of cases, and periphlebitis in conjunction with periarteritis was diagnosed in 72.5% of cases. Macular edema was the most frequent complication on the posterior segment (60%) and it correlated with periphlebitis (P = 0.45) and periphlebitis associated with periarteritis (P = 0.51). Cyclosporine A and corticosteroids were used in the majority of cases (67%). Following six months of therapy, a significant improvement of visual acuity occurred in patients with initial visual acuity >0.5 on both eyes. Level of visual acuity before and after treatment had a strong significant correlation coefficient with various ocular complications. Previously proven significant increase of visual acuity in patients with macular edema depicts effectiveness of treatment in these types of ocular manifestations of Behcet's disease. Conclusions. Significant improvement of visual acuity occurred in patients with initial visual acuity >0.5 on both eyes. The highest increase in visual acuity was achieved by laser photocoagulation in combination with triamcinolone acetonide P = 0.038 < 0.050.

Paovic, Predrag

2013-01-01

279

Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

Sarah Peters

2010-01-01

280

General Mental Ability: From Psychometrics to Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes empirical findings of research on a theory of general mental ability, based on laboratory studies of the relationship between measurements of individual differences on conventional psychometric tests and in speed and efficiency of information processes. The paper covers characteristics of "g" (general mental ability),…

Jensen, Arthur R.

1991-01-01

281

A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

1988-01-01

282

[Development of refraction and visual acuity of squinting children (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The refraction and visual acuity rates of 170 children from the age of 2 to the age of 7 suffering from squint were recorded and analysed. On the basis of our investigation we could not prove the process of emmetropisation during the growth of the eyes of squinting children in this age group. That means that the process of emmetropisation of squinting children takes place slower and later than with non-squinting children and is apparently stabilized at an age between 8 and 12 years. On the other hand--the increase of visual acuity of the normal eyes of squinting children is--as a rule-completed at the age of 5, like that of non squinting children. PMID:850359

Hentsch, R; Frank, E

1977-01-01

283

Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light.  

PubMed

Correction of spherical (SA) and longitudinal chromatic aberrations (LCA) significantly improves monocular visual acuity (VA). In this work, the visual effect of SA correction in polychromatic and monochromatic light on binocular visual performance is investigated. A liquid crystal based binocular adaptive optics visual analyzer capable of operating in polychromatic light is employed in this study. Binocular VA improves when SA is corrected and LCA effects are reduced separately and in combination, resulting in the highest value for SA correction in monochromatic light. However, the binocular summation ratio is highest for the baseline condition of uncorrected SA in polychromatic light. Although SA correction in monochromatic light has a greater impact monocularly than binocularly, bilateral correction of both SA and LCA may further improve binocular spatial visual acuity which may support the use of aspheric-achromatic ophthalmic devices, in particular, intraocular lenses (IOLs). PMID:24520150

Schwarz, Christina; Cánovas, Carmen; Manzanera, Silvestre; Weeber, Henk; Prieto, Pedro M; Piers, Patricia; Artal, Pablo

2014-01-01

284

Microactuator production via high aspect ratio, high edge acuity metal fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LIGA is a procession sequence which uses x-ray lithography on photoresist layers of several hundred micrometers to produce very high edge acuity photopolymer molds. These plastic molds can be converted to metal molds via electroplating of many different metals and alloys. The end results are high edge acuity metal parts with large structural heights. The LIGA process as originally described by W. Ehrfeld can be extended by adding a surface micromachining phase to produce precision metal parts which can be assembled to form three-dimensional micromechanisms. This process, SLIGA, has been used to fabricate a dynamometer on a chip. The instrument has been fully implemented and will be applied to tribology issues, speed-torque characterization of planar magnetic micromotors and a new family of sensors.

Guckel, H.; Christenson, T. R.

1993-01-01

285

Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and retinal magnification in a marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual acuity of the tammar wallaby was estimated using a behavioural discrimination task. The wallabies were trained\\u000a to discriminate a high-contrast (86%) square-wave grating from a grey field of equal luminance (1000–6000?cd?m?2). Visual-evoked cortical potentials were used to measure the complete contrast sensitivity function. The stimulus was a sinusoidal\\u000a phase reversal of a sinusoidally modulated grating of various spatial

J. M. Hemmi; R. F. Mark

1998-01-01

286

The Effect of Bilberry Nutritional Supplementation on Night Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bilberry on night visual acuity (VA) and night contrast sensitivity (CS). METHODS: This study utilized a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The subjects were young males with good vision; eight received placebo and seven received active capsules for three weeks. Active capsules contained 160 mg of bilberry extract (25-percent

Eric R. Muth; John M. Laurent; Purcell Jasper

287

Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suffer not only from impairment in central visual acuity (VA), but also from reduction in contrast sensitivity (CS). We examined VA and CS changes over time in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularizations (CNV) as well as the correlation between the two parameters.MethodsVA was determined according to a standardized protocol with the Early Treatment

Caren Bellmann; Kristina Unnebrink; Gary S. Rubin; Daniel Miller; Frank G. Holz

2003-01-01

288

Subnormal Visual Acuity (SVAS) and albinism in Mexican 12–13-year-old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In a previous study the vision of 1046 12–13-year-olds in Sweden was examined. Of those 67 had some kind of visual disturbances and in 20 no obvious cause was found. In this group, defined as children with subnormal visual acuity syndromes (SVAS), albinism was shown to be a major cause to the visual dysfunction giving a prevalence of about

A. Sjöström; M. Kræmer; J. Ohlsson; G. Garay-Cerro; M. Abrahamsson; G. Villarreal

2004-01-01

289

Depression, visual acuity, comorbidity, and disability associated with age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine (1) the prevalence of depressive disorders in community-dwelling adults with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and (2) the relationship in this population between depression, visual acuity, the number of comorbid medical conditions, disability caused by vision loss as measured by the National Eye Institute-Vision Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and the vision-specific Sickness Impact Profile (SIPV), and disability caused by

Barbara L Brody; Anthony C Gamst; Rebecca A Williams; Amanda R Smith; Philip W Lau; Douglas Dolnak; Mark H Rapaport; Robert M Kaplan; Stuart I Brown

2001-01-01

290

Effects of alcohol and marijuana on dynamic visual acuity: I. Threshold measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol and marijuana produce significant dose-related reductions in dynamic visual acuity. Ten subjects participated in a\\u000a double-blind experiment involving three dose levels of each drug (including placebo). The reduction of DVA produced by alcohol\\u000a (1.0 ml 95% ethanol\\/kg body weight) was greater than for marijuana (15 mg ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), and we suggest that this\\u000a difference was produced by differential oculomotor effects

Brian Brown; Anthony J. Adams; Gunilla Haegerstrom-Portnoy; Reese T. Jones; Merton C. Flom

1975-01-01

291

Temporal order and processing acuity of visual, auditory, and tactile perception in developmentally dyslexic young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the temporal acuity of 16 developmentally dyslexic young adults in three perceptual modalities. The control group\\u000a consisted of 16 age- and IQ-matched normal readers. Two methods were used. In the temporal order judgment (TOJ) method, the\\u000a stimuli were spatially separate fingertip indentations in the tactile system, tone bursts of different pitches in audition,\\u000a and light flashes in vision.

Marja Laasonen; Elisabet Service; Vei Jo Virsu

2001-01-01

292

Corneal scarring in keratoconus—Measurements and influence on visual acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We selected 10 keratoconus patients (20 eyes) with a wide range of disease severity. Cornea scar slide photographs were projected; the scars were manually traced and digitized to determine area and distance to the scar from the center of the pupil. LogMAR high-contrast visual acuity ranged from 0.4 to 0.0 (2050to2020 Snellen). Scarring ranged from no scar (eight eyes) to

Joseph T. Barr; Todd Yackels

1995-01-01

293

Habitual plate-waste of 6- to 9-year-olds may not be associated with lower nutritional needs or taste acuity, but undesirable dietary factors.  

PubMed

Efforts to reduce plate-waste (PW) are limited to those by a dietitian who serves the entire school rather than a better characterization of individuals who are served. We tested the hypothesis that children reporting habitual PW would have different physical or dietary characteristics compared with children without PW. Participants were 407 children aged 6 to 9 years in elementary schools in Kyeonggi, Korea. Information on eating behavior and food preference was collected using a questionnaire administered by parents. Among them, 91 students participated further in anthropometry, step counting, taste acuity tests, and nutrition intake from school lunches. Participants were divided into tertiles according to total frequency of leaving PW from each meal on a typical day: no PW, moderate PW, and habitual PW. Children with habitual PW showed several undesirable characteristics: consuming less of various vegetables, eating only what they like, poor table manners, and frequent consumption of street foods and cookies/beverages/fast foods. Whereas height, weight, and obesity index as well as taste acuity and daily steps in the habitual PW group were not significantly different, intakes of potassium, niacin, and folate were significantly lower compared with the other groups. Therefore, habitual PW did not seem to result from having a lower energy requirement or different taste acuity, or result in observed slowed growth, but it could place children at a risk for insufficient nutritional intake, consequently impairing growth and general health. The results emphasize the parental role in shaping children's diet and provide information for developing strategies to reduce PW of individual children. PMID:19963155

Baik, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Hongmie

2009-12-01

294

Auditory spatial acuity approximates the resolving power of space-specific neurons.  

PubMed

The relationship between neuronal acuity and behavioral performance was assessed in the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal raptor renowned for its ability to localize sounds and for the topographic representation of auditory space found in the midbrain. We measured discrimination of sound-source separation using a newly developed procedure involving the habituation and recovery of the pupillary dilation response. The smallest discriminable change of source location was found to be about two times finer in azimuth than in elevation. Recordings from neurons in its midbrain space map revealed that their spatial tuning, like the spatial discrimination behavior, was also better in azimuth than in elevation by a factor of about two. Because the PDR behavioral assay is mediated by the same circuitry whether discrimination is assessed in azimuth or in elevation, this difference in vertical and horizontal acuity is likely to reflect a true difference in sensory resolution, without additional confounding effects of differences in motor performance in the two dimensions. Our results, therefore, are consistent with the hypothesis that the acuity of the midbrain space map determines auditory spatial discrimination. PMID:17668055

Bala, Avinash D S; Spitzer, Matthew W; Takahashi, Terry T

2007-01-01

295

Acuity-independent effects of visual deprivation on human visual cortex.  

PubMed

Visual development depends on sensory input during an early developmental critical period. Deviation of the pointing direction of the two eyes (strabismus) or chronic optical blur (anisometropia) separately and together can disrupt the formation of normal binocular interactions and the development of spatial processing, leading to a loss of stereopsis and visual acuity known as amblyopia. To shed new light on how these two different forms of visual deprivation affect the development of visual cortex, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal evolution of visual responses in patients who had experienced either strabismus or anisometropia early in life. To make a specific statement about the locus of deprivation effects, we took advantage of a stimulation paradigm in which we could measure deprivation effects that arise either before or after a configuration-specific response to illusory contours (ICs). Extraction of ICs is known to first occur in extrastriate visual areas. Our ERP measurements indicate that deprivation via strabismus affects both the early part of the evoked response that occurs before ICs are formed as well as the later IC-selective response. Importantly, these effects are found in the normal-acuity nonamblyopic eyes of strabismic amblyopes and in both eyes of strabismic patients without amblyopia. The nonamblyopic eyes of anisometropic amblyopes, by contrast, are normal. Our results indicate that beyond the well-known effects of strabismus on the development of normal binocularity, it also affects the early stages of monocular feature processing in an acuity-independent fashion. PMID:25024230

Hou, Chuan; Pettet, Mark W; Norcia, Anthony M

2014-07-29

296

Integrating family nursing into a mental health urgent care practice framework: ladders for learning.  

PubMed

Integrating family nursing into a busy mental health urgent care setting is a challenge given the high acuity of patients and the demands of delivering service 7 days/week, 14 hours/day. In this article, the authors describe the development of a Mental Health Urgent Care Practice Framework that incorporates four elements: mental health/psychiatric assessment, physical health assessment, family nursing, and integrated behavioral health care. Sample family nursing skills and ladders for mental health urgent care practice are highlighted.The framework and ladders have implications for recruitment and hiring, orientation, peer mentoring, performance appraisals, and continuing education and supervision. A clinical vignette illustrates sample conceptual/ perceptual and executive skills used to apply the framework and ladders in practice. Family nursing is conceptualized as an integral component of nursing care provided to individual and families in this unique setting. PMID:20407001

Leahey, Maureen; Harper-Jaques, Sandy

2010-05-01

297

Sponsored long walk to raise awareness of mental health.  

PubMed

Mental health nurse consultant Phil Cooper is testing his state of mind and mental fitness with a walk from Land's End to John O'Groats to coincide with International Nurses' Day and Mental Health Awareness Week, May 12-18. PMID:24823588

Rae, Malcolm

2014-05-14

298

Disparities in appendicitis rupture rate among mentally ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many studies have been carried out that focus on mental patients' access to care for their mental illness, but very few pay attention on these same patients' access to care for their physical diseases. Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Our population-based study was to test for any possible association between mental illness and perforated appendicitis. We hypothesized

Jen-Huoy Tsay; Cheng-Hua Lee; Yea-Jen Hsu; Pen-Jen Wang; Ya-Mei Bai; Yiing-Jenq Chou; Nicole Huang

2007-01-01

299

DVA as a Diagnostic Test for Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.

Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan

2010-01-01

300

Transitions in Early Mental Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the developmental function and cross-age pattern of individual differences in mental test behavior during the first 5 years of life. Accompanying the study are brief commentaries by Ina C. Uzgiris and Earl S. Schaefer and a reply by the authors. (JMB)

McCall, Robert B.; And Others

1977-01-01

301

Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

Bowen, Peter

302

Mental health care in the community: An analysis of contemporary public attitudes towards, and public representations of, mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public tolerance of, and non-discrimination towards, people with mental health problems are key factors on which success in achieving the goal of community-based mental health care depends. This paper revisits Thomas Scheff' s (1966) sociological theory of mental illness, and tests elements of this thorough critical review of recent UK literature relating to public attitudes towards, and media representations, of

Ben Hannigan

1999-01-01

303

Postrotatory Nystagmus Responses of Preschoolers Enrolled in Mental Health Programs and Preschoolers Enrolled in Non-Mental Health Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study described and compared the postrotatory nystagmus response of 26 preschool children enrolled in mental health programs with 26 preschool children enrolled in Project Head Start, a non-mental health program. The Southern California Postrotatory Nystagmus Test was administered to all subjects. The children enrolled in mental health programs scored significantly lower than the children enrolled in Project Head Start.

Lois A. Kramer; Jean C Deitz; Terry K. Crowe

1991-01-01

304

The development of mental measurements in American colleges and universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author summarizes the history of the development of mental tests from Binet's time to the present and notes specifically, with brief evaluating comments, the tests now most widely used at the college level as measures of intelligence and mental ability. In the course of the test movement, the trends have been from verbal to nonverbal tests, from individual to

A. Leitch

1943-01-01

305

A catalase promoter variant rs1001179 is associated with visual acuity but not with primary angle closure glaucoma in Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Background To Investigate whether the g.4760C>T polymorphism in the promoter region of the catalase gene (CAT) is a risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in the Saudi population. Methods 138 unrelated PACG patients and 403 unrelated control subjects from Saudi Arabia were genotyped for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1001179; g.4760C>T) utilizing Taq-Man® assay. The association between different genotypes and various clinical indices important for PACG was also investigated. Results The distribution of different genotypes was comparable between both study groups. The genotype “C/C” was predominant among cafses; 94 (68.1%) and controls; 289 (71.7%). Heterozygous genotype “C/T”, was present in 41 (29.7%) of cases and 103 (25.6%) of controls, where the homozygous variant genotype was present in only 3 (2.2%) of cases and 11 (2.7%) of the controls. The distribution of variant allele was similar in both study groups (p= 0.568). Interestingly, there was a trend of association between the type of the variant (homozygous variant, heterozygous and wildtype genotype) and one important parameter for PACG, which is visual acuity. The visual acuity increase was; 0.62 (±0.74), 0.88 (±0.88) and 1.27 (±0.95) in patients carrying the “C/C”, “C/T” and “T/T” genotypes respectively, which was statistically significant in both ANOVA and pairwise individual T tests (p = 0.022, 0.031 and 0.039) when compared to controls. Conclusions This variant is possibly associated with visual acuity in PACG patients and thus had the potential to be used as a parameter for assessing PACG severity.

2013-01-01

306

Mental Health for Men  

MedlinePLUS

... If you are in crisis, call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline at 800-273-TALK (8255). You can ... National Mental Health Consumers' Self-Help Clearinghouse National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ...

307

Mental Health: Military  

MedlinePLUS

... service abroad can also play a role in mental health issues, including anxiety , posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse . In addition to these mental health issues, many soldiers have experienced traumatic brain injury ...

308

Mental Health 3: Mental Health Through Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, examines how mental illness has been portrayed in the arts while highlighting for students a more insightful way to further develop their ideas about human behavior. This lesson is the third of three lessons on mental health and human behavior.

Science Netlinks;

2002-07-27

309

Community Mental Health Journal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Psychiatric Practice is a special section within Community Mental Health Journal devoted to issues relating to psychiatrists who practice in community mental health centers and similar settings. The intent of the section is to stimulate interaction and involve community psychiatrists and other community mental health professionals in a dialogue analogous to the collaborative situation in the community men- tal

Robert E. Drake

2001-01-01

310

Mental Health 2: Bedlam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mental health and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mental health asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.

Science Netlinks;

2002-07-28

311

MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

312

Hegel and Mental llness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I wish to argue for a broad conception of the nature of mental illness as predominantly socially emergent phenomena, rather than a genetic or biological ailment. In this respect there is a risk of over-medicalization in the field of mental illness, or an attempt to treat mental illness as something which can be understood or absolved independently

Matthew Whittingham

2011-01-01

313

The mental health HMO: Capitation funding for the chronically mentally ill. Why an HMO?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excesses associated with deinstitutionalization during the 1970s provided a legacy of homelessness, revolving door rehospitalization, and gridlock in metropolitan hospital emergency rooms. To allow for the seriously and persistently mentally ill to move planfully into community life, caregivers must utilize new and improved care models. One option is the HMO capitation model being tested in the Monroe\\/Livingston County Mental Health

Phyllis E. Marshall

1992-01-01

314

Mental models of the bibliographic universe. Part 1: mental models of descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to present the results of the first two tasks of a user study looking into mental models of the bibliographic universe and especially their comparison to the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) conceptual model, which has not yet been user tested. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper employes a combination of techniques for eliciting mental models

Jan Pisanski; Maja Žumer

2010-01-01

315

Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA.

Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

2012-01-01

316

Symptoms of common mental disorder and cognitive associations with seropositivity among a cohort of people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of research on HIV/AIDS and mental health has been carried out among clinical populations: the time of onset of comorbid depression and the mechanisms for this are therefore unclear. Although there is evidence to suggest that asymptomatic people living with HIV/AIDS exhibit some cognitive deficits, the prevalence of poor cognitive functioning among people in low income settings at an early, pre-clinical stage has not yet been investigated. Methods We used a cross-sectional survey design to test the hypotheses that symptoms of Common Mental Disorder (CMD) and low scores on cognitive tests would be associated with seropositivity among participants coming for testing for HIV/AIDS. Participants were recruited at the time of coming for testing for HIV/AIDS; voluntary informed consent was sought for participation in research interviews and data linkage with HIV test results. Baseline questionnaires including sociodemographic variables and measures of mental health (PHQ-9, GAD-7, panic disorder questions, AUDIT and delayed word list learning and recall and animal naming test of verbal fluency) were administered by trained interviews. HIV status data was extracted from clinical records. Results CMD and scoring below the educational norm on the test of verbal fluency were associated with testing positive for HIV/AIDS in bivariate analysis (OR?=?2.26, 1.31-3.93; OR?=?1.77, 1.26-2.48, respectively). After controlling for the effects of confounders, the association between CMD and seropositivity was no longer statistically significant (AOR?=?1.56, 0.86-2.85). After adjusting for the effects of confounders, the association between low scores on the test of verbal fluency and seropositivity was retained (AOR?=?1.77, 1.27-2.48). Conclusions Our findings provide tentative evidence to suggest that low cognitive test scores (and possibly depressive symptoms) may be associated with HIV status among people who have yet to receive their HIV test results. Impaired cognitive functioning and depression-like symptoms may be the result of the same underlying neurological damage. CMD and cognitive impairment may overlap to a greater extent than previously assumed. If replicated, this may have implications for the way in which we measure and treat CMD and cognitive functioning among people living with HIV/AIDS.

2013-01-01

317

PERSPECTIVE: Is acuity enough? Other considerations in clinical investigations of visual prostheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual impairing eye diseases are the major frontier facing ophthalmic research today in light of our rapidly aging population. The visual skills necessary for improving the quality of daily function and life are inextricably linked to these impairing diseases. Both research and reimbursement programs are emphasizing outcome-based results. Is improvement in visual acuity alone enough to improve the function and quality of life of visually impaired persons? This perspective summarizes the types of effectiveness endpoints for clinical investigations of visual prostheses that go beyond visual acuity. The clinical investigation of visual prostheses should include visual function, functional vision and quality of life measures. Specifically, they encompass contrast sensitivity, orientation and mobility, activities of daily living and quality of life assessments. The perspective focuses on the design of clinical trials for visual prostheses and the methods of determining effectiveness above and beyond visual acuity that will yield outcomes that are measured by improved function in the visual world and quality of life. The visually impaired population is the primary consideration in this presentation with particular emphases on retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Clinical trials for visual prostheses cannot be isolated from the need for medical rehabilitation in order to obtain measurements of effectiveness that produce outcomes/evidence-based success. This approach will facilitate improvement in daily function and quality of life of patients with diseases that cause chronic vision impairment. The views and opinions are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the US Food and Drug Administration, the US Department of Health and Human Services or the Public Health Service.

Lepri, Bernard P.

2009-06-01

318

A pilot test of the HOPE Intervention to explore employment and mental health among African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS: results from a CBPR study.  

PubMed

The Helping Overcome Problems Effectively (HOPE) intervention was developed by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership to improve mental health and employment outcomes of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The intervention blended locally collected formative data, social cognitive theory, hope theory, and the lived experiences of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The HOPE intervention included 7 weekly 3-hour group sessions, with participant assessment at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. A total of 7 African American men, who self-identified as gay and unemployed, participated. Mean age was 46.1 (range = 37-57) years. Throughout the intervention, participants developed goal-setting skills, problem-solving skills, health-promoting behaviors, and employment seeking behaviors. The results suggest that the HOPE intervention may be promising in improving mental health and employment outcomes. PMID:24059878

Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Geishecker, Steve; Clark, Glenn; Rhodes, Scott D

2013-10-01

319

"If It's Not Working, Why Would They Be Testing It?": mental models of HIV vaccine trials and preventive misconception among men who have sex with men in India  

PubMed Central

Background Informed consent based on comprehension of potential risks and benefits is fundamental to the ethical conduct of clinical research. We explored mental models of candidate HIV vaccines and clinical trials that may impact on the feasibility and ethics of biomedical HIV prevention trials among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. Methods A community-based research project was designed and implemented in partnership with community-based organizations serving MSM in Chennai and Mumbai. We conducted 12 focus groups (n?=?68) with diverse MSM and 14 key informant interviews with MSM community leaders/service providers using a semi-structured interview guide to explore knowledge and beliefs about HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Focus groups (60–90 minutes) and interviews (45–60 minutes) were conducted in participants’ native language (Tamil in Chennai; Marathi or Hindi in Mumbai), audio-taped, transcribed and translated into English. We explored focus group and interview data using thematic analysis and a constant comparative method, with a focus on mental models of HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Results A mental model of HIV vaccine-induced seropositivity as “having HIV” resulted in fears of vaccine-induced infection and HIV stigma. Some participants feared inactivated vaccines might “drink blood” and “come alive”. Pervasive preventive misconception was based on a mental model of prevention trials as interventions, overestimation of likely efficacy of candidate vaccines and likelihood of being assigned to the experimental group, with expectations of protective benefits and decreased condom use. Widespread misunderstanding and lack of acceptance of placebo and random assignment supported perceptions of clinical trials as “cheating”. Key informants expressed concerns that volunteers from vulnerable Indian communities were being used as “experimental rats” to benefit high-income countries. Conclusions Evidence-informed interventions that engage with shared mental models among potential trial volunteers, along with policies and funding mechanisms that ensure local access to products that demonstrate efficacy in trials, may support the safe and ethical implementation of HIV vaccine trials in India.

2013-01-01

320

Magnitude Representations in Williams Syndrome: Differential Acuity in Time, Space and Number Processing  

PubMed Central

For some authors, the human sensitivity to numerosities would be grounded in our ability to process non-numerical magnitudes. In the present study, the developmental relationships between non numerical and numerical magnitude processing are examined in people with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder known to associate visuo-spatial and math learning disabilities. Twenty patients with WS and 40 typically developing children matched on verbal or non-verbal abilities were administered three comparison tasks in which they had to compare numerosities, lengths or durations. Participants with WS showed lower acuity (manifested by a higher Weber fraction) than their verbal matched peers when processing numerical and spatial but not temporal magnitudes, indicating that they do not present a domain-general dysfunction of all magnitude processing. Conversely, they do not differ from non-verbal matched participants in any of the three tasks. Finally, correlational analyses revealed that non-numerical and numerical acuity indexes were both related to the first mathematical acquisitions but not with later arithmetical skills.

Rousselle, Laurence; Dembour, Guy; Noel, Marie-Pascale

2013-01-01

321

Mechanistic modeling of vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity and acuity at low luminance.  

PubMed

The validity of the Barten theoretical model for describing the vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and acuity at scotopic light levels has been examined. Although this model (which has its basis in signal modulation transfer theory) can successfully describe vertebrate CSF, and its relation to underlying visual neurophysiology at photopic light levels, significant discrepancies between theory and experimental data have been found at scotopic levels. It is shown that in order to describe scotopic CSF, the theory must be modified to account for important mechanistic changes, which occur as cone vision switches to rod vision. These changes are divided into photon management factors [changes in optical performance (for a dilated pupil), quantum efficiency, receptor sampling] and neural factors (changes in spatial integration area, neural noise, and lateral inhibition in the retina). Predictions of both scotopic CSF and acuity obtained from the modified theory were found to be in good agreement with experimental values obtained from the human, macaque, cat, and owl monkey. The last two species have rod densities particularly suited for scotopic conditions. PMID:22569345

Jarvis, John R; Wathes, Christopher M

2012-05-01

322

Occupation-related long-term sensory training enhances roughness discrimination but not tactile acuity.  

PubMed

Extensive use of sensorimotor properties has been shown to lead to use-dependent plasticity in the human motor cortex as well as sensory areas. The sensory consequences of these cortical changes, however, remain widely unclear. We were interested whether job-related long-term haptic training is measurable in terms of changes in haptic perception (active touch exploration) in manual physiotherapists (PT). To that end, the haptic thresholds of PT (students and employed) and registered osteopathic manual therapists (OMT; PT with postgraduate specialization) were measured and compared to age- and sex-matched control groups. Additionally, tactile acuity (passive static touch) was assessed using grating domes. PT and OMT had superior mean haptic thresholds compared to the control group, suggesting an increase in sensitivity through use. An age-related decline in haptic perception capacity occurred only in the control group, suggesting that the job-related training of the manual therapist groups may have slowed their age-related decline. Contrary to our expectation, we found significantly poorer mean haptic threshold results in the PT student group than for the controls. No significant differences or changes in tactile acuity were found for any of the groups (students and professional). The present results demonstrate use-dependent plasticity in manual therapists. Furthermore, the results underline the known effect of a superior discrimination ability of haptic as opposed to tactile perception. PMID:24609417

Mueller, S; Winkelmann, C; Krause, F; Grunwald, M

2014-06-01

323

Visual acuity and pattern of visual field loss at presentation in pituitary adenoma.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to analyse the demographics, prevalence and pattern of visual field defects in patients with pituitary adenoma. We prospectively recruited 103 consecutive patients (206 eyes) presenting to a neurosurgical unit with pituitary adenoma. Ophthalmological examination and standard automated perimetry (Humphrey, 24-2 threshold) was performed. Severity of visual field defects was also assessed. The mean population age was 53.9 years (standard deviation=15). Visual loss was the most common reason for presentation (39%) followed by endocrine abnormality (21%) and headache (15%). Patients with endocrine abnormality on presentation were 10.9 years younger than those presenting with visual loss (p=0.001). Bitemporal defects were the most prevalent pattern (n=22, 41%) followed by homonymous defects (n=7, 13%). Of the patients with visual field loss, 33% had unilateral visual field defects. The mean visual acuity in those with bitemporal defects was 6/7.5 with half of these patients having 6/6 vision in both eyes. In conclusion, the majority of patients with pituitary adenoma have visual acuity better than 6/7.5 despite having visual field defects. While a bitemporal pattern of visual field loss is the most common, a significant proportion of patients had unilateral and altitudinal defects. Assessment of the visual field is essential to rule out chiasmal compression. PMID:24656736

Ogra, Siddharth; Nichols, Andrew D; Stylli, Stanley; Kaye, Andrew H; Savino, Peter J; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V

2014-05-01

324

Mental disturbed violent offenders in Sweden.  

PubMed

Among perpetrators of crimes of violence against persons submitted to psychiatric examination, 16 men with severe mental disorder have been examined by standardized psychologic tests and clinical interviews. Objective anamnestic data have been used to assess social background, individual development and onset of mental disorder. Psychotic as well as nonpsychotic men reacted with violence against threat to the offender's physical existence of his self image. In most instances ego weakness or depleted mental energy exaggerated the feeling of threat or stymied the ability to choose alternative solutions. Abuse of alcohol and narcotics and acute inebriation often weakened self-control and triggered of the act of violence. PMID:13326

Roslund, B; Larson, C A

1976-01-01

325

VISUAL ACUITY AND MULTIFOCAL ELECTRORETINOGRAPHIC CHANGES AFTER ARTERIOVENOUS CROSSING SHEATHOTOMY FOR MACULAR EDEMA ASSOCIATED WITH BRANCH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the influence of arteriovenous (AV) sheathotomy on retinal function with central multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods Fifteen patients (15 eyes) who underwent AV sheathotomy for macular edema secondary to BRVO were included in the study. Best-corrected visual acuity and mfERG responses from the most central seven hexagons were analyzed before and 6 months after the operation. Results The mean preoperative Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score ± SD was 34.1 ± 12.7 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/50) and significantly improved up to 40.5 ± 10.9 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/40) at 6 months after AV sheathotomy (P = 0.027, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The mean preoperative P1 amplitude ± SD of the most central 7 hexagons was 39.30 ± 10.86 nV/deg2 for the affected eye versus 47.72 ± 6.67 nV/deg2 for the normal fellow (control) eye (P = 0.013, Mann–Whitney U test) and significantly increased up to 50.71 ± 15.58 nV/deg2 at 6 months after the operation (P = 0.014, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Significant correlations between preoperative and postoperative ETDRS score and preoperative P1 amplitude were present (r = 0.929, P < 0.001; r = 0.768, P = 0.001; respectively [Spearman correlation]). Conclusions AV sheathotomy improved macular function and anatomical outcome as measured by ETDRS score and mfERG responses in patients with macular edema due to BRVO.

Chung, Eun Jee; Freeman, William R.; Koh, Hyoung Jun

2009-01-01

326

Mental retardation and inborn errors of metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In countries where clinical phenylketonuria is detected by newborn screening inborn errors of metabolism are rare causes of\\u000a isolated mental retardation. There is no international agreement about what type of metabolic tests must be applied in patients\\u000a with unspecific mental retardation. However, and although infrequent, there are a number of inborn errors of metabolism that\\u000a can present in this way.

A. García-Cazorla; N. I. Wolf; M. Serrano; U. Moog; B. Pérez-Dueñas; P. Póo; M. Pineda; J. Campistol; G. F. Hoffmann

2009-01-01

327

Knowledge and attitudes about personalized mental health genomics: narratives from individuals coping with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

The present qualitative study examined the personal accounts, elicited via semi-structured interview, of nine United States military veterans with serious mental illness to describe their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about psychiatric genetics, genetic testing and counseling for mental illness. The aim of the research was to elucidate issues from the perspective of adults with mental illness that may inform the education and training of mental health providers on basic genetic counseling. Findings suggest that participants had some basic knowledge about genetics, were interested in psychiatric genetic testing, and had an awareness of both positive and negative aspects of genetic test results. Participants tended to have overly optimistic ideas about current advances in psychiatric genetics and were motivated to undergo genetic testing for the good of their families and to benefit society. Implications of findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21394471

Potokar, Danielle N; Stein, Catherine H; Darrah, Olivia A; Taylor, Brent C; Sponheim, Scott R

2012-10-01

328

Mental patients in prisons  

PubMed Central

Mental conditions usually affect cognitive, emotional and volitional aspects and functions of the personality, which are also functions of interest in law, as they are essential at the time of adjudicating guilt, labeling the accused a criminal, and proffering a sentence. A relationship between mental illness and criminality has, thus, been described and given as one of the reasons for the large number of mental patients in prisons. Whether this relationship is one of causality or one that flows through many other variables is a matter of debate, but there is no debating that prisons have become a de facto part, and an important one, of mental health systems in many countries. This paper deals with the issue of the relationship and provides estimates of prevalence of mental patients in prisons culled from many studies in different countries. It also provides some direction for the management of mental patients as they crowd correctional systems.

ARBOLEDA-FLOREZ, JULIO

2009-01-01

329

Visual acuity measurements by swept spatial frequency visual-evoked-cortical potentials (VECPs): clinical application in children with various visual disorders.  

PubMed

Previous studies have indicated that visual acuities of normal infants can be estimated with good accuracy using swept spatial frequency visual-evoked-potentials (VECPs). In this report we describe acuity measurements obtained with this technique from 304 examinations performed on 135 children having various visual disorders. When possible, two or more different stimulation frequencies (8, 12, 15 or 24 contrast reversals/sec) were used in each patient, and three to eight sweep VECPs were obtained from each patient under each simulation and recording condition. High correlation coefficients (0.94 - 0.96) between the acuity estimated on each patient from either the single sweep giving the best visual acuity (BSS) or from vector averages (VeA) of the EEG data obtained from several sweeps confirmed previous findings in normal infants. We also found high correlation coefficients among BSS recorded at different temporal frequencies (0.79-0.97) and among comparisons of BSS or VeA acuity to optotype visual acuity (0.6-0.89). Children with clinically undetectable optokinetic responses showed lower visual acuity estimated by BSS than those who demonstrated optokinetic nystagmus. We conclude that the sweep VECP is a valid method, giving estimates of acuity which correlate well with optotype acuity and correspond well to other clinical findings, and that it can be useful in the clinical management of nonverbal patients. PMID:2324917

Gottlob, I; Fendick, M G; Guo, S; Zubcov, A A; Odom, J V; Reinecke, R D

1990-01-01

330

Mental Health of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random sample of college sophomores was studied regarding their mental health status, mental health service use, and attitudes toward mental health professionals. Data were collected through home interviews and a search of the students' service records at the university. Mental health status was measured by the 22-item Midtown Mental Health Scale.Religious affiliation and performance satisfaction were both found to

Jeffrey O. Whitley

1979-01-01

331

The Sociology of Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook describes the ways in which society shapes the mental health of its mem­ bers and further shapes the hves of those who have been identified as mentally ill. The terms mental health and mental illness encompass a broad collection of cognitive, emo­ tional, and behavioral phenomena. Mental illness includes, for example, the experiences of a person who speaks

Carol S. Aneshensel; Jo C. Phelan

332

Mental Health in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States federal government has a vested interest in the mental health of children and adolescents. It considers\\u000a the current state of mental health care for children a public crisis (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000). Approximately 21%\\u000a of children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 17 have a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder that causes at least

Trina Menden Anglin

333

A Survey of Toxoplasmosis Among Mentally Retarded Children  

PubMed Central

To determine what role, if any, toxoplasmosis plays in the mental retardation of children, sera from 345 mentally retarded children were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. The serological tests employed were the complement-fixation, the Sabin-Feldman dye test and the immunofluorescence test. The donors were also skin-tested with toxoplasmin. Of 345 mentally retarded donors nine gave a positive skin reaction, 15 possessed complement-fixing antibodies, 21 had immunofluorescent antibodies and 45 had dye test antibodies to T. gondii. The incidence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mentally retarded group was approximately the same as in the normal control group of the same age, and less than in the group suspected of having toxoplasmosis. It is concluded that in the children in this study toxoplasmosis played little or no role as a predisposing factor in the occurrence of congenital mental deficiency.

Labzoffsky, N. A.; Fish, N. A.; Gyulai, E.; Roughley, F.

1965-01-01

334

Religion and mental health  

PubMed Central

In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted.

Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

2013-01-01

335

Mental hospitals in India.  

PubMed

This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

2000-04-01

336

The Postoperative Visual Acuity in Fuchs' Dystrophy Patients Undergoing DSAEK Does Not Correlate With the Severity of Histologic Changes  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate a correlation between the severity of histologic changes of Descemet’s membrane in patients with Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy and the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity following Descemet’s membrane stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Methods In a retrospective study design, a histologic grading system was created based on common characteristics observed histologically among 92 DSAEK specimens sent to the UW Eye Pathology Laboratory with a clinical diagnosis of Fuchs’ dystrophy from three separate corneal surgeons. Cases were graded as mild, moderate, or severe based on four characteristics including guttae dispersion, presence of a laminated Descemet’s membrane, presence of embedded guttae, and density of guttae. Regression models were built to study the relationship between preoperative visual acuity, histological findings and best corrected visual acuity six months, 1 year, and 2 years after DSAEK surgery. Results No correlation was found between the severity of histologic changes of Descemet’s membrane and preoperative visual acuity. A correlation exists, however, between the preoperative visual acuity and final visual acuity. Cases with a laminated Descemet’s membrane but no embedded guttae (n=8) appear less responsive to DSAEK surgery. Otherwise, the severity of histologic changes of Descemet’s membrane observed in patients with Fuchs’ corneal dystrophy following DSAEK did not show a statistically significant correlation with final visual acuity. Conclusions Our analysis fails to show an inverse relationship between the severity of histologic changes of Descemet’s membrane and the best-corrected visual acuity of ? 20/40 following DSAEK for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy. However, in a subset of Fuchs’ dystrophy patients, those who develop a laminated Descemet’s membrane without embedded guttae, the visual recovery following DSAEK is less than expected. The laminated architecture of Descemet’s membrane without embedded guttae may facilitate the separation between the layers of Descemet’s and, thus, incomplete removal of the recipient’s Descemet’s membrane during DSAEK, which may then limit the postoperative visual outcome.

Happ, Dorrie M.; Lewis, David A.; Eng, Kevin H.; Potter, Heather A.D.; Neekhra, Aneesh; Croasdale, Christopher R.; Hardten, David R.; Nehls, Sarah; Eide, Michael; Rowe, Jocelyn; Khedr, Sherif; Albert, Daniel M.

2013-01-01

337

The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the influence of juggling training on mental rotation performance in children. Material and methods: Two groups of girls aged 6-14 years were studied: experimental (EG; n = 26) and control (CG; n = 24). All girls solved a mental rotation task with 3-D block figures on computer screen (pre-test). After the initial test, EG…

Jansen, Petra; Lange, Leonie F.; Heil, Martin

2011-01-01

338

Impaired acuity of the approximate number system underlies mathematical learning disability (dyscalculia).  

PubMed

Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD, or dyscalculia) despite adequate schooling. The current study hypothesizes that MLD partly results from a deficiency in the Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports nonverbal numerical representations across species and throughout development. In this study of 71 ninth graders, it is shown that students with MLD have significantly poorer ANS precision than students in all other mathematics achievement groups (low, typically, and high achieving), as measured by psychophysical assessments of ANS acuity (w) and of the mappings between ANS representations and number words (cv). This relation persists even when controlling for domain-general abilities. Furthermore, this ANS precision does not differentiate low-achieving from typically achieving students, suggesting an ANS deficit that is specific to MLD. PMID:21679173

Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

2011-01-01

339

Absolute Pitch--Functional Evidence of Speech-Relevant Auditory Acuity  

PubMed Central

Absolute pitch (AP) has been shown to be associated with morphological changes and neurophysiological adaptations in the planum temporale, a cortical area involved in higher-order auditory and speech perception processes. The direct link between speech processing and AP has hitherto not been addressed. We provide first evidence that AP compared with relative pitch (RP) ability is associated with significantly different hemodynamic responses to complex speech sounds. By systematically varying the lexical and/or prosodic information of speech stimuli, we demonstrated consistent activation differences in AP musicians compared with RP musicians and nonmusicians. These differences relate to stronger activations in the posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus and weaker activations in the anterior mid-part of the superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, this pattern is considerably modulated by the auditory acuity of AP. Our results suggest that the neural underpinnings of pitch processing expertise exercise a strong influence on propositional speech perception (sentence meaning).

Oechslin, Mathias S.; Meyer, Martin

2010-01-01

340

Visual acuity after Ruthenium{sup 106} brachytherapy of choroidal melanomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on conservation of visual acuity after Ruthenium{sup 106} (Ru-106) brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. Methods and materials: This study was a noncomparative interventional case series of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma treated at a single center between January 1993 and December 2001. The intervention consisted of Ru-106 brachytherapy delivering minimum scleral and apex doses of 300 Gy and 80 Gy, respectively, using a 15-mm or 20-mm plaque. For discrete, posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin. To ensure correct plaque positioning, any overlying extraocular muscles were dis-inserted, and the locations of both tumor and plaque edges were confirmed by transillumination and indentation. The main outcome measures were conservation of vision of 20/40 or better, 20/200 or better, and Counting Fingers or better, according to baseline variables. Results: The actuarial rate of conservation of 20/40 or better was 55% at 9 years, loss of such vision correlating with posterior tumor extension (p < 0.001), temporal tumor location (p = 0.001), increased tumor height (p = 0.01), and older age (p < 0.01) (Cox multivariate analysis). Similar analyses showed conservation of 20/200 or better in 57% of eyes at 9 years, loss correlating with reduced initial visual acuity (p < 0.001), posterior tumor extension (p < 0.001), and temporal tumor location (p = 0.006). Counting Fingers or better vision was conserved in 83% of patients at 9 years, loss correlating with increased tumor height (p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence occurred in 9 patients (actuarial rate, 3% at 9 years). Conclusion: Ruthenium{sup 106} brachytherapy of posterior choroidal melanoma achieves good conservation of vision if the tumor does not extend close to the optic nerve or fovea.

Damato, Bertil [Ocular Oncology Service, St. Paul's Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Bertil@damato.co.uk; Patel, Imran M. [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Campbell, Ian R. [IC Statistical Services, Wirral (United Kingdom); Mayles, Helen M. [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Errington, R. Douglas [Radiotherapy Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom)

2005-10-01

341

Child and Adolescent Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... About Us Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Child and Adolescent Mental Health Publications Anxiety Disorders in Children and ... of development. More What Goes on in the Adolescent Brain? In recognition of National Children’s Mental Health ...

342

Myths & Facts about Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... ignity and S ocial Inclusion Associated with Mental Health (ADS Center) Home >> Publications Myths & Facts About Mental Health ... attention, and mental health services. By Post: SAMHSA ADS Center 4350 East West Highway, Suite 1100 Bethesda, ...

343

Computer-guided mental practice in neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Motor imagery is the mental simulation of a movement without motor output. In recent years, there has been growing interest towards the application of motor imagery-based training, or "mental practice", in stroke rehabilitation. We have developed a virtual reality prototype (the VR Mirror) to support patients in performing mental practice. The VR Mirror displays a three-dimensional simulation of the movement to be imagined, using data acquired from the healthy arm. We tested the system with nine post-stroke patients with chronic motor impairment of the upper limb. After eight weeks of training with the VR Mirror, remarkable improvement was noted in three cases, slight improvement in two cases, and no improvement in four cases. All patients showed a good acceptance of the procedure, suggesting that virtual reality technology can be successfully integrated in mental practice interventions. PMID:19592795

Gaggioli, Andrea; Morganti, Francesca; Meneghini, Andrea; Pozzato, Ilaria; Greggio, Giovanni; Pigatto, Maurizia; Riva, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

344

Vision Test in Seconds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acuity Systems, Inc. developed an electro-optical instrument under a grant from NASA to measure the visual performance of pilots. Transferred from Ames Research Center, this instrument now allows you to have your eyes tested in seconds by relatively unskilled operators. The device automatically measures refractive error of eye and prints out proper prescription for glasses. The unit also detects cataracts and glaucoma.

1976-01-01

345

Children's Mental Health Surveillance  

MedlinePLUS

... Act Early." Campaign CDC’s Mental Health CDC’s Positive Parenting Tips CDC’s Youth Tobacco Prevention CDC’s Suicide Prevention ... Disorders Tourette Syndrome Association The Triple P – Positive Parenting Program Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mental ...

346

MENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORY, 1966.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE DIRECTORY IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GUIDE TO MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. IT IS ORGANIZED INTO A FEDERAL SECTION AND A STATE AND COMMUNITY SECTION, EACH OF WHICH IS PRECEDED BY AN INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT CONCERNING THE LISTINGS IN THAT SECTION. ADDRESSES AND SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAJOR MENTAL HEALTH…

YOLLES, STANLEY F.; AND OTHERS

347

Teens and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... the teen gets help: • The teen’s parents • A mental health professional at school or in the community • A health professional (doctor, ... old, approximately 4 million people, have a major mental health disorder that ... at home, school or with peers. (Surgeon General, 2000) Suicide is ...

348

Prison mental health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution describes current and future prison mental health service provision in England and Wales. There is a need for the development of multidisciplinary prison health care services, including greater coordination of care, continuity of care between the community and prison, improved information-sharing between agencies and developed care planning for prisoners with mental health problems. Recently, a formal partnership between

Jenny Shaw; Naomi Humber

2004-01-01

349

Mental Rotation Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most popular tasks used in measuring individual differences in spatial ability is a mental rotation task introduced by Shepard and Metzler (1971). This page provides information about use of a spatial ability task to illustrate the prinicple of mental rotation.

350

1972 Revision of the Stanford-Binet: A Farewell to the Mental Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspection of the 1972 revised norms for the Stanford-Binet demonstrate that the average mental age for a particular chronological age (CA) no longer numerically corresponds to that CA. Thus, mental ages derived from the test cannot any longer be interpreted as mental ages. A table of test ages based on the 1972 norms is provided. (Author)

Salvia, John; And Others

1975-01-01

351

Patient with Macular Disease, Good Visual Acuity, and Central Visual Field Disruption and Significant Difficulties with Activities of Daily Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally appreciated that patients with macular disease frequently experience reduced visual acuity. It is not as widely appreciated that they often have significant central visual field disruption, which, by itself, can cause significant problems with activities of daily living, such as reading and driving, even when they maintain good…

Fletcher, Donald C.; Schuchard, Ronald A.; Walker, Joseph P.; Raskauskas, Paul A.

2008-01-01

352

Association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity and hand symptoms reported by operators of power tools.  

PubMed

An association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and symptoms of reduced manipulative function, as established by responses to a questionnaire, was demonstrated in a population of 81 manual workers from the mining industry (62 power-tool operators and 19 nonusers). Mechanoreceptor-specific vibrotactile thresholds were determined for the slowly adapting type I (SAI) and fast-adapting types I and II (FAI and FAII) receptors at the fingertip of the third digit of each hand. Statistically significant threshold shifts in SAI and/or FAII acuity were found in persons responding affirmatively to questions concerning finger/hand numbness, blanching, and difficulty buttoning clothing. The best predictors of a quantitative change in tactile acuity were questions relating to difficulty manipulating small objects and buttoning clothing, yielding positive predictive values of from 90% to 100% and false positive rates of from 0% to 2.8%. The demonstration of an association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and some symptom reports, obtained by means of a questionnaire, provides the basis for the development of a screening procedure for persons at risk of such disturbances in hand function. PMID:9330148

Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Brammer, A J; Piercy, J E

1997-09-01

353

A comparison of static near stereo acuity in youth baseball\\/softball players and non–ball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough many aspects of vision have been investigated in professional baseball players, few studies have been performed in developing athletes. The issue of whether youth baseball players have superior stereopsis to nonplayers has not been addressed specifically. The purpose of this study was to determine if youth baseball\\/softball players have better stereo acuity than non–ball players.

Lauren M. Boden; Kenneth J. Rosengren; Daniel F. Martin; Scott D. Boden

2009-01-01

354

Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy in a 15-Year-Old Boy: Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Acuity Findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) in a 15-year-old boy. Methods Images were obtained with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results The patient complained of blurred vision and a small central scotoma in the left eye. Left visual acuity was 0.3. Fundus photographs revealed a small dark area in the fovea of the left eye. OCT showed attenuation of the photoreceptor inner segment (IS)/outer segment (OS) line and the OS/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) line in the left eye. One week after the initial visit, left visual acuity had improved to 0.6, and there was partial recovery of the IS/OS line with focal thinning of the OS/RPE line. One month later, left visual acuity had improved to 0.8, and OCT showed complete restoration of the IS/OS line and the OS/RPE line. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a diagnosis of AMN. Changes in microstructural findings and visual acuity were analogous during recovery of AMN in our patient.

Makino, Shinji; Tampo, Hironobu

2014-01-01

355

Topography of the retina and striate cortex and its relationship to visual acuity in rhesus monkeys and squirrel monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density of cones and ganglion cells was studied in horizontal sections of retina in the rhesus monkey (Macaca, mulatta) and the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The lower angular density of cones in the fovea of Saimiri correlates with its visual acuity, which is poorer than that of Macaca (0.74 and 0.65 min of arc respectively). Cone density falls more steeply

E. T. Rolls; A. Cowey

1970-01-01

356

Hierarchical Structure of Abilities: Factorial Validation of Higher Order Constructs in Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thurstone's primary mental abilities (1938/1968) involving 57 tests were factor analyzed to produce a comprehensive hierarchical model. Kaiser's varimax solution for primary mental abilities served as the raw data for this study. (Author/GK)

Paden, Patricia

1981-01-01

357

Breaking new ground in the mind: an initial study of mental brittle transformation and mental rigid rotation in science experts.  

PubMed

The current study examines the spatial skills employed in different spatial reasoning tasks, by asking how science experts who are practiced in different types of visualizations perform on different spatial tasks. Specifically, the current study examines the varieties of mental transformations. We hypothesize that there may be two broad classes of mental transformations: rigid body mental transformations and non-rigid mental transformations. We focus on the disciplines of geology and organic chemistry because different types of transformations are central to the two disciplines: While geologists and organic chemists may both confront rotation in the practice of their profession, only geologists confront brittle transformations. A new instrument was developed to measure mental brittle transformation (visualizing breaking). Geologists and organic chemists performed similarly on a measure of mental rotation, while geologists outperformed organic chemists on the mental brittle transformation test. The differential pattern of skill on the two tests for the two groups of experts suggests that mental brittle transformation and mental rotation are different spatial skills. The roles of domain general cognitive resources (attentional control, spatial working memory, and perceptual filling in) and strategy in completing mental brittle transformation are discussed. The current study illustrates how ecological and interdisciplinary approaches complement traditional cognitive science to offer a comprehensive approach to understanding the nature of spatial thinking. PMID:23440527

Resnick, Ilyse; Shipley, Thomas F

2013-05-01

358

A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ? 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders.

Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

2014-01-01

359

Impaired mental rotation performance in overweight children.  

PubMed

Overweight children seem to have cognitive impairment. Since there is a relationship between motor and visual-spatial ability and because of the reduced motor abilities of overweight children we assumed that these children might show an impaired mental rotation performance. Sixteen overweight children (10 years of age) and 16 control children (10 years of age) were matched by age, gender, and socio-economic status. Each participant completed a general intelligence test, a motor test, and a chronometric mental rotation test. The results show differences in both motor ability and mental rotation accuracy. Overweight children made more errors when the rotation task was difficult compared to normal weight children. This study gives a clue to overweight children's problems in spatial cognitive tasks. PMID:21419816

Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea; Kasten, Laura; Heil, Martin

2011-06-01

360

A Contralateral Eye Study Comparing Apodized Diffrative and Full Diffrative Lenses: Wavefront Analysis and Distance and Near Uncorrected Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To evaluate intraindividual visual acuity, wavefront errors and modulation transfer functions in patients implanted with two diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. METHODS: This prospective study examined 40 eyes of 20 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a spherical multifocal ReSTOR intraocular lens in one eye and an aspheric Tecnis ZM900 multifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. The main outcome measures, over a 3-month follow-up period, were the uncorrected photopic distance and near visual acuity and the defocus curve. The visual acuity was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis and is presented in decimal scale. The wavefront error and modulation transfer function were also evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: At the 3-month postoperative visit, the mean photopic distance uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 0.74 ± 0.20 in the ReSTOR group and 0.76 ± 0.22 in the Tecnis group (p=0.286). The mean near UCVA was 0.96 ± 0.10 in the ReSTOR group and 0.93 ± 0.14 in the Tecnis group (p=0.963). The binocular defocus curve showed measurements between the peaks better than 0.2 logMAR. The total aberration, higher-order aberration and coma aberration were not significantly different between the groups. The spherical aberration was significantly lower in the Tecnis group than in the ReSTOR group. (p=0.004). Both groups performed similarly for the modulation transfer function. CONCLUSION: The ReSTOR SN60D3 and Tecnis ZM 900 intraocular lenses provided similar photopic visual acuity at distance and near. The diffractive intraocular lenses studied provided a low value of coma and spherical aberrations, with the Tecnis intraocular lens having a statistically lower spherical aberration compared to the ReSTOR intraocular lens. In the 5 mm pupil diameter analyses, both intraocular lens groups showed similar modulation transfer functions.

de Santhiago, Marcony Rodrigues; Netto, Marcelo Vieira; Barreto, Jackson; de Abreu Fiuza Gomes, Beatriz; Schaefer, Arthur; Kara-Junior, Newton

2009-01-01

361

A comparison of visual acuity, predictability, and visual function outcomes after intracorneal ring segments and laser in situ keratomileusis.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To compare correction of low myopia by intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) and by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with respect to early visual recovery and refractive outcomes. METHODS: Eighty-two eyes implanted with ICRS in a phase III study for US Food and Drug Administration review were matched with 133 eyes treated with LASIK by criteria of age (> 18 years, < 65 years), preoperative myopia (-1.00 to -3.50 diopters [D]), astigmatism (< or = 1.00 D), single treatment, and attempted full correction. Examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at days 1 and 7 and months 1 and 3. Visual acuity and manifest refraction data were collected retrospectively. Visual function scores were assigned, and summarized results were compared. RESULTS: Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 or better at day 1 in 24% of eyes (20/82) after ICRS and in 55% of eyes (73/133) after LASIK, and at month 3 in 75% of eyes (58/77) after ICRS and in 67% of eyes (84/126) after LASIK. Spherical equivalent refraction at month 3 was within +/- 1.00 D of intended correction in 99% of eyes (76/77) after ICRS and in 96% of eyes (121/126) after LASIK. Excellent visual function scores were noted at month 3 in 90% of eyes (69/77) after ICRS and in 78% of eyes (98/126) after LASIK. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with LASIK showed better uncorrected visual acuity immediately following surgery; however, beyond 1 month, patients treated with ICRS achieved better uncorrected visual acuity that continued to improve with time. Visual function scores indicate that ICRS eyes see at higher levels of uncorrected visual acuity than LASIK eyes do with the same refractive error. The ICRS and LASIK were comparable in the correction of mild myopia.

Suiter, B G; Twa, M D; Ruckhofer, J; Schanzlin, D J

2000-01-01

362

Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra

2008-01-01

363

Twisting space: are rigid and non-rigid mental transformations separate spatial skills?  

PubMed

Cognitive science has primarily studied the mental simulation of spatial transformations with tests that focus on rigid transformations (e.g., mental rotation). However, the events of our world are not limited to rigid body movements. Objects can undergo complex non-rigid discontinuous and continuous changes, such as bending and breaking. We developed a new task to assess mental visualization of non-rigid transformations. The Non-rigid Bending test required participants to visualize a continuous non-rigid transformation applied to an array of objects by asking simple spatial questions about the position of two forms on a bent transparent sheet of plastic. Participants were to judge the relative position of the forms when the sheet was unbent. To study the cognitive skills needed to visualize rigid and non-rigid events, we employed four tests of mental transformations--the Non-rigid Bending test (a test of continuous non-rigid mental transformation), the Paper Folding test and the Mental Brittle Transformation test (two tests of non-rigid mental transformation with local rigid transformations), and the Vandenberg and Kuse (Percept Motor Skills 47:599-604, 1978) Mental Rotation test (a test of rigid mental transformation). Performance on the Mental Brittle Transformation test and the Paper Folding test independently predicted performance on the Non-rigid Bending test and performance on the Mental Rotation test; however, mental rotation performance was not a unique predictor of mental bending performance. Results are consistent with separable skills for rigid and non-rigid mental simulation and illustrate the value of an ecological approach to the analysis of the structure of spatial thinking. PMID:23423639

Atit, Kinnari; Shipley, Thomas F; Tikoff, Basil

2013-05-01

364

Patient's Self-recognition of Reduced Visual Acuity Due to Recurrence of Macular Edema and Prompt Visitation to the Hospital in Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate patients' self-recognition of reduced visual acuity due to recurring macular edema in retinal vein occlusion. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of patients who were diagnosed with recurring macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion was performed. The proportion of patients who recognized reduced visual acuity due to the recurrence of macular edema and who visited the hospital before the scheduled follow-up date was determined. Parameters including age, sex, diagnosis, visual acuity before recurrence of macular edema, and extent of visual acuity reduction due to recurrence of macular edema were compared in patients who recognized a reduction in visual acuity and those who did not. The proportion of patients who visited the hospital promptly was also determined. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients were included in the analysis. Sixteen and 24 patients were diagnosed with central retinal vein occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion, respectively. Twenty-one patients (52.5%) recognized reduced visual acuity due to recurring macular edema. These patients were younger (59.2 ± 7.6 vs. 64.8 ± 9.4 years, p = 0.046), had better visual acuity before recurrence of macular edema (0.52 ± 0.48 vs. 1.02 ± 0.46, p = 0.002), and exhibited a greater reduction in visual acuity after recurrence of macular edema (0.34 ± 0.24 vs. 0.14 ± 0.13, p = 0.003). Only four patients visited the hospital before the scheduled follow-up date, and all of these patients lived relatively close to the hospital. Conclusions For prompt treatment of recurring macular edema, more intensive education about the self-estimation of visual acuity is necessary, particularly for elderly patients who have relatively poor visual acuity. In addition, a simple and easy way to identify the recurrence of macular edema at the local clinic should be established for patients who live relatively far from the hospital.

Jeong, Seong Hun; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Tae Gon; Kim, Chul Gu; Yoo, Su Jin; Choi, Mun Jung

2014-01-01

365

Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation  

SciTech Connect

Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

Miller, R.W.

1988-08-01

366

Mental Health Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mental Health Matters is a collection of various mental health articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.

2007-08-13

367

MentalHealth.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mental health topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mental health, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mental health field.

2007-08-23

368

Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma  

PubMed Central

Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, were assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives.

Rusch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

2009-01-01

369

Computerized Testing of Contrast Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this technical note was to describe a new very simple computerized contrast sensitivity test, its normal values, and to inspect the relationship between contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in a sample of observers of various ages. Methods: In the new contrast sensitivity test (FreeCST, distributed free of charge), the task of the subject was to indicate

RISTO NÄSÄNEN; JUHA PÄÄLLYSAHO

2007-01-01

370

The Cross-Cultural Stability of Mental Test Items. An Investigation of Response Patterns for Ten Socio-Cultural Groups. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national random sample of over 14,000 high school seniors was studied with respect to socio-cultural differences in responses to cognitive test items. Six different cognitive tests and ten different groups were analyzed. The tests were: vocabulary, picture-number, reading, letter-groups, mathematics, and mosaic comparisons. The groups were:…

Breland, Hunter; And Others

371

The Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

2008-01-01

372

Mental Health Economics and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As evidenced by the European Commission's recent Mental Health Pact, mental health has moved up the policy agenda in many countries. There is much more attention now on promoting general mental wellbeing in the population, and addressing the needs of people with mental health problems. Particular concerns are: human rights abuses; rebalancing community and institutional care; coordinating action across multiple

Martin Knapp; David McDaid; Jennifer Beecham; Derek King; Roshni Mangalore; A-La Park; Andres Roman; Monique Smith; Cicely Thomas; Fayaz Aziz

2009-01-01

373

Mental Rotation in Human Infants: A Sex Difference  

PubMed Central

A sex difference on mental-rotation tasks has been demonstrated repeatedly, but not in children less than 4 years of age. To demonstrate mental rotation in human infants, we habituated 5-month-old infants to an object revolving through a 240° angle. In successive test trials, infants saw the habituation object or its mirror image revolving through a previously unseen 120° angle. Only the male infants appeared to recognize the familiar object from the new perspective, a feat requiring mental rotation. These data provide evidence for a sex difference in mental rotation of an object through three-dimensional space, consistently seen in adult populations.

Moore, David S.; Johnson, Scott P.

2009-01-01

374

Proximity to Urban Parks and Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Background Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. Aims of the Study To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Results Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. Discussion and Limitations This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Implications for Health Policy Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted attention to modifiable environmental determinants, population mental health may benefit substantially from environmental interventions. Implications for Future Research Policy evaluations should incorporate mental health measures when assessing neighborhood improvement programs and physical environments. Many recent and ongoing studies have excluded mental health measure in the belief that they are too burdensome for respondents or irrelevant. If a causal relationship is confirmed, then ameliorating neighborhood conditions and physical environments could represent a scalable way to improve mental health issues for large populations.

Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah

2014-01-01

375

Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

2010-01-01

376

Mental Retardation in TSC  

MedlinePLUS

... benefit on cognition, improved seizure control or seizure freedom. Other Therapies Finally, many people with mental retardation ... Outreach Connect With Others Ways to Give Your Impact Volunteer Sign-Up Form Special Events TSC Connect ...

377

Children's Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... development of more effective treatment and prevention of mental health disorders in children, youth, and families, including programs targeting expectant mothers, children in school settings, and youth transitioning into adulthood and programs ...

378

Nutrition and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... you eat affects your body. Cutting back on junk food and choosing healthier options helps you maintain a ... Adolescent Mental Health 14.3 (2009): 148-155 ) Junk Food Blues: Are Depression and Diet Related? by Zeratsky, ...

379

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

380

Stigmatizing attitudes about mental illness and allocation of resources to mental health services.  

PubMed

This study tests a social psychological model (Skitka & Tetlock, 1992). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 491-522; [1993]. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 1205-1223 stating that policy maker decisions regarding the allocation of resources to mental health services are influenced by their attitudes towards people with mental illness and treatment efficacy. Fifty four individuals participated in a larger study of education about mental health stigma. Participants completed various measures of resource allocation preferences for mandated treatment and rehabilitation services, attributions about people with mental illness, and factors that influence allocation preferences including perceived treatment efficacy. Results showed significant attitudinal correlates with resource allocation preferences for mandated treatment, but no correlates to rehabilitation services. In particular, people who pity people with mental illness as well as those that endorse coercive and segregated treatments, were more likely to rate resource allocation to mandated care as important. Perceived treatment efficacy was also positively associated with resource allocation preferences for mandated treatment. A separate behavioral measure that involved donating money to NAMI was found to be inversely associated with blaming people for their mental illness and not being willing to help them. Implications of these findings on strategies that seek to increase resources for mental health programs are discussed. PMID:15453083

Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C; Warpinski, Amy C; Gracia, Gabriela

2004-08-01

381

Contrast sensitivity tests in predicting visual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing contrast sensitivity function is one of the most important tests available for evaluating functional visual impairment. The contrast level determines visual function more precisely than the visual acuity measurement. There are numerous contrast sensitivity function tests, but the two that are clinically practical are Pelli-Robson and MARS. Both tests use uniform letter size with a gradual decrement of contrast

Eleanor E. Faye

2005-01-01

382

A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE HISTORY OF SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN FARGO IS FOLLOWED BY A DEFINITION OF THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES COVERS SCREENING, EVALUATION, AND PLACEMENT PROCEDURES, TYPES OF TESTS USED, CLASS SIZE AND ORGANIZATION, AND AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM. SUBJECT…

STORDAHL, ELWOOD; AND OTHERS

383

Quantitative and Qualitative Change in Children's Mental Rotation Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated quantitative and qualitative changes in mental rotation performance and solution strategies with a focus on sex differences. German children (N = 519) completed the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in the 5th and 6th grades (interval: one year; age range at time 1: 10-11 years). Boys on average outperformed girls on both…

Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Corth, Martin; Eid, Michael

2008-01-01

384

Innervation of the mandibular incisors by the mental nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that some sensory innervation to the lower incisor teeth comes from reentry of the terminal branches of the mental nerve through the labial plate of the anterior mandible.Patients and Methods: Ten cadaveric heads (20 sides) were dissected and studied to determine whether the mental nerve crossed the midline or reentered the labial plate. Using

M. A Pogrel; R Smith; R Ahani

1997-01-01

385

Mental-Attentional Capacity: Does Cognitive Style Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used multigroup scaling models to separate the contributions of cognitive style from ability in school-age children's performance on Figural Intersection Test. Results showed that field-dependent children had greater odds of success than field-independent children when the task's mental-attentional demand was above the child's mental-attentional…

Baillargeon, Raymond; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Roncadin, Caroline

1998-01-01

386

How mental systems believe  

Microsoft Academic Search

tance. In this view, the mental representation of abstract ideas is quite similar to the mental representation of phys- ical objects: People believe in the ideas they comprehend, as quickly and automatically as they believe in the objects they see. Research in social and cognitive psychology sug- gests that Spinoza's model,may,be a more,accurate ac- count of human,belief than is that

Daniel T. Gilbert

1991-01-01

387

The Mental Status Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mental Status Exam represents a crucial part of the psychiatric interview in that it is devoted to a systematic elicitation\\u000a of psychopathologic signs and symptoms that are important in diagnosis and differential diagnosis. It is an essential tool\\u000a for all psychiatrists and mental health professionals, but, in abbreviated form, it is an important tool for all physicians.\\u000a This chapter

Hagop S. Akiskal

388

Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. Methods All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision. The relationship between VA and SRV and self-rated falls was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, chronic disease, medication use and grip strength. Results Of 8317 participants, 26.7% (95% CI 25.7% to 27.7%) had fallen in the past 12?months. Worse VA and poorer SRV were associated with one or more falls in multivariable analysis (OR for falls=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66 and OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.61, respectively). Poorer SRV was significantly associated with falls even after adjusting for VA (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57). Conclusions SRV was associated with falls independently of VA and could be used as a simple proxy measure for other aspects of visual function to detect people requiring vision-related falls interventions.

Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

2014-01-01

389

Adaptation of the Central Retina for High Acuity Vision: Cones, the Fovea and the Avascular Zone  

PubMed Central

Presence of a fovea centralis is directly linked to molecular specification of an avascular area in central retina, before the fovea (or `pit') begins to form. Modeling suggests that mechanical forces, generated within the eye, initiate formation of a pit within the avascular area, and its later remodeling in the postnatal period. Within the avascular area the retina is dominated by `midget' circuitry, in which signals are transferred from a single cone to a single bipolar cell, then a single ganglion cell. Thus in inner, central retina there are relatively few lateral connections between neurons. This renders the region adaptable to tangential forces, that translocate of ganglion cells laterally / centrifugally, to form the fovea. Optical coherence tomography enables live imaging of the retina, and shows that there is greater variation in the morphology of foveae in humans than previously thought. This variation is associated with differences in size of the avascular area and appears to be genetically based, but can be modified by environmental factors, including prematurity. Even when the fovea is absent (foveal hypoplasia), cones in central retina adopt an elongated and narrow morphology, enabling them to pack more densely to increase the sampling rate, and to act as more effective waveguides. Given these findings, what then is the adaptive advantage of a fovea? We suggest that the advantages of having a pit in central retina are relatively few, and minor, but together work to enhance acuity.

Provis, Jan M; Dubis, Adam M; Maddess, Ted; Carroll, Joseph

2013-01-01

390

Improvement of visual acuity in diabetic and nondiabetic patients after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the study reported here was to compare the improvement of visual acuity (VA) of diabetic and nondiabetic patients after neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 50 age- and sex-matched patients, comprising 25 nondiabetics and 25 diabetics (referred to as Group A and B, respectively), with posterior chamber poly(methyl methacrylate) non-foldable intraocular lens implants attending our clinic at Karachi for capsulotomy had pre- and postoperative measures of VA, posterior pole visibility, and grading of posterior capsular opacity as seen on slit-lamp examination. VA was recorded before and after performing standard capsulotomy. Results The postoperative (mean) VA in nondiabetics was 0.25, 0.23, and 0.21 logMAR as compared with 0.25, 0.25, and 0.24 logMAR in diabetics at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months, respectively. P-values of 0.47, 0.47, and 0.24, respectively, were determined, which were not significant. Preoperative VA improvement was recorded in 92% of diabetics in Group B and 96% of nondiabetics in Group A. Two (8%) diabetic patients developed glaucoma and did not participate in the study further. Conclusion Remarkable improvement in VA was achieved in both Group A and B, but the Group A nondiabetics showed more improvement in best-corrected VA after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy.

Awan, Muhammed Tayyab; Khan, Muhammed Anwar; Al-Khairy, Saba; Malik, Samina

2013-01-01

391

Use of Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate Visual Acuity and Visual Field Changes in Dengue Fever  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and affects humans. In rare cases, dengue fever can cause visual impairment, which usually occurs within 1 month after contracting dengue fever and ranges from mild blurring of vision to severe blindness. Visual impairment due to dengue fever can be detected through angiography, retinography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, electroretinography, event electroencephalography (visually evoked potentials), and visual field analysis. The purpose of this study is to report changes in the eye captured using fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green, and OCT in 3 cases of dengue fever visual impairment associated with consistent visual symptoms and similar retinochoroidopathic changes. The OCT results of the three patients with dengue fever showed thinning of the outer retinal layer and disruption of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction. While thinning of the retina outer layer is an irreversible process, disruption of IS/OS junction is reported to be reversible. Follow-up examination of individuals with dengue fever and associated visual impairment should involve the use of OCT to evaluate visual acuity and visual field changes in patients with acute choroidal ischemia.

Rhee, Taek Kwan

2014-01-01

392

Use of optical coherence tomography to evaluate visual acuity and visual field changes in dengue fever.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and affects humans. In rare cases, dengue fever can cause visual impairment, which usually occurs within 1 month after contracting dengue fever and ranges from mild blurring of vision to severe blindness. Visual impairment due to dengue fever can be detected through angiography, retinography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, electroretinography, event electroencephalography (visually evoked potentials), and visual field analysis. The purpose of this study is to report changes in the eye captured using fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green, and OCT in 3 cases of dengue fever visual impairment associated with consistent visual symptoms and similar retinochoroidopathic changes. The OCT results of the three patients with dengue fever showed thinning of the outer retinal layer and disruption of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction. While thinning of the retina outer layer is an irreversible process, disruption of IS/OS junction is reported to be reversible. Follow-up examination of individuals with dengue fever and associated visual impairment should involve the use of OCT to evaluate visual acuity and visual field changes in patients with acute choroidal ischemia. PMID:24505206

Rhee, Taek Kwan; Han, Jung Il

2014-02-01

393

Effect of Passive Horizontal Rotations and Vertical Oscillations on Dynamic Visual Acuity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances after long duration space flight. These crewmembers may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons in various sea state conditions following a water landing. Exposure to even low frequency motions induced by sea conditions surrounding a vessel can cause significant fine and gross motor control problems affecting critical functions. The objective of this study was to document human motor and visual performance during simulated wave motion in the 0.1 to 2.0 Hz range. We examined in 12 healthy subjects the changes in accuracy when performing a seated visual target acquisition task in which the location of target was offset vertically during horizontal full body rotation at an oscillating frequency of 0.8 Hz (peak velocity of 160 deg/s). The main finding was that the accuracy of performance degraded in 7 of 12 subjects when acquiring vertical targets at perturbing frequencies of 0.8 Hz in the horizontal plane by one step size. We also examined in a separate study on 12 healthy subjects seated dynamic visual acuity (DVA) task performance during vertical full body oscillations at perturbing frequencies of 2 Hz (peak to peak motion of 5 cm). The main finding was that DVA was significantly reduced when acquiring targets at perturbing oscillations at frequencies of 2 Hz in the vertical plane by approximately 1 chart line. Thus low frequencies of perturbations in the horizontal and vertical planes can cause decrement in visual performance.

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Kulecz, Walter B.; Miller, Chris; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

2010-01-01

394

Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.  

PubMed

Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N?=?52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only. PMID:24743576

Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

2014-01-01

395

Mental Representation and Mental Practice: Experimental Investigation on the Functional Links between Motor Memory and Motor Imagery  

PubMed Central

Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N?=?52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only.

Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

2014-01-01

396

Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

2012-07-01

397

[Perioperative disorders of mental functions].  

PubMed

Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and confusion, leading to a high prevalence of irreversible functional decline. An interdisciplinary approach to delirium should also include family or other caregivers. In the diagnosis of delirium, several tests are used to complement clinical assessment. Among the most commonly used are the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM-ICU) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) test. Depression is a common disorder among patients treated at ICU and occurs due to the impact of the disease on the body and the quality of life, independence, employment and other aspects of life. Depression can interfere with the speed of recovery, affects the postoperative quality of life, and in a certain number of patients may lead to suicidal thoughts and intentions. Phobias and generalized anxiety are the most common anxiety disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by strong, excessive anxiety and worry about everyday life events. PTSD is delayed and/or protracted response to a stressful event or situation, extremely threatening or catastrophic nature, which is outside the common experience of people and would hit or traumatize almost all people. Treatment of delirium and other disorders is causal. The causes of psychosis are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease symptoms. The primary objective of prevention is appropriate therapy and correction of potential imbalances possibly underlying disturbances, stabilization of vital functions as well as early return to daily activities. Doctors and other medical staff must be aware of the importance and consequences of behavioral and emotional disorders in critically ill patients. Additional research is needed to discover the ways to prevent and/ or reduce the frequency and severity of the consequences and treatment of cognitive and emotional disorders. PMID:23088091

Tonkovi?, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacevi?, Marko; Bogovi?, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

2012-03-01

398

Relationship Between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy\\u000a examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT)\\u000a and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered. Men were found to score\\u000a better than women on both GEFT and

Aymeric Guillot; Stéphane Champely; Christophe Batier; Patrice Thiriet; Christian Collet

2007-01-01

399

Color matches in diseased eyes with good acuity: detection of deficits in cone optical density and in chromatic discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced foveal cone optical density in diseased eyes with normal acuity can affect color matches. Using field diameters of 1 deg, 2 deg, 4 deg, and 8 deg, we measured mean color-match midpoints and match widths in patients who had good acuity and who hereditary macular degeneration ( n=12 ), retinitis pigmentosa ( n=19 ), and glaucoma ( n=18 ). Results were compared with those for normal observers of comparable ages. Mean color-match midpoints were abnormal only for the population with hereditary macular degeneration, indicating a reduction in cone optical density in the central 4 deg. Mean color-match widths were enlarged for both hereditary macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, a result consistent with a reduction in the number of foveal cones. chromatic discrimination, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma.

Swanson, William H.; Fish, Gary E.

1995-10-01

400

The capacity of people with a ‘mental disability’ to make a health care decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Based on the developing clinical and legal literature, and using the framework adopted in draft legislation, capacity to make a valid decision about a clinically required blood test was investigated in three groups of people with a 'mental disability' (i.e. mental illness (chronic schizophrenia), 'learning disability' ('mental retardation', or intellectual or developmental disability), or, dementia) and a fourth, comparison

J. G. WONG; I. C. H. CLARE; A. J. HOLLAND; P. C. WATSON; M. GUNN

2000-01-01

401

Evidence for the Role of Shape in Mental Representations of Similes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People mentally represent the shapes of objects. For instance, the mental representation of an eagle is different when one thinks about a flying or resting eagle. This study examined the role of shape in mental representations of "similes" (i.e., metaphoric comparisons). We tested the prediction that when people process a simile they…

Weelden, Lisanne; Schilperoord, Joost; Maes, Alfons

2014-01-01

402

The Nature of Relationships between Mental Rotation, Math, and Language in Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three mental rotation tasks, the Card Rotation Task (CRT), the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test (VMRT), and the Money Road-Map of Direction Sense (MRM), were administered to 60 deaf students from Gallaudet University to determine if mental rotation was predictive of scores on the ACT English or Math subtests. Other predictor variables, such as…

Halper, Elizabeth Blaisdell

2009-01-01

403

Mental stress increases glucose uptake during hyperinsulinemia: Associations with sympathetic and cardiovascular responsiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infusion of epinephrine and norepinephrine reduces insulin-mediated glucose disposal, ie, induces insulin resistance. Mental stress increases concentrations of both plasma catecholamines. However, the effect of acute mental stress on insulin-mediated glucose uptake has not been examined. We observed in pilot studies that a mental stress test (MST) during a euglycemic glucose clamp decreased blood glucose concentration. In a prospective study,

Andreas Moan; Aud Høieggen; Gudmund Nordby; Ingrid Os; Ivar Eide; Sverre E. Kjeldsen

1995-01-01

404

Correlation of pupil size with visual acuity and contrast sensitivity after implantation of an apodized diffractive intraocular lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

photopic (85 cd\\/m2) and mesopic (5 cd\\/m2) conditions were measured in 670 eyes of 335 consec- utive patients who had implantation of the AcrySof ReSTOR Natural IOL (SN60D3, Alcon). Pupil diameters in distance vision were measured using a pupillometer. RESULTS: The logMAR best corrected distance acuity was significantly better with larger pupils (r Z 0.297; P Z 1.36 108), whereas

Jose F. Alfonso; Luis Fernandez-Vega; M. Begona Baamonde; Robert Montes-Mico ´

2007-01-01

405

Influence of Type and Severity of Pure Forms of Age Related Cataract on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods. Analysis included patients followed in the ongoing Italian-American Study of the Natural History of Age-Related Cataract. Lens opacities were classified and graded according to the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II). Visual acuity was measured with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Chart. Contrast sensitivity was measured with the Pelli-Robson chart. Results. Data from 1,076 eyes were used

Giovanni Maraini; Francesco Rosmini; Paolo Graziosi; Maria Carla Tomba; Mirca Bonacini; Rodolfo Cotichini; Robert D. Sperduto

406

Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners. PMID:3776982

Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

1986-12-01

407

Prevalence and reporting of near-point binocular convergence and acuity vision deficits in potential research participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual abilities at near-point distances of 200 self-reported normal vision college students were assessed. Results show that\\u000a normal visual functioning with no deficits is the exception. The most common visual deficits observed involved binocular lateral\\u000a posture and fusion convergence deficits. Binocular and monocular acuity deficits also had high prevalence rates, although\\u000a not as prevalent as the binocular convergence deficits. In

Patrick A. Ament; Darcy K. Robbins; Callie J. Brockman; Raeanna Hawkins; Susan Lake; M. Beth Bazin

2008-01-01

408

Effects of intravitreal bevacizumab on reduced visual acuity and macular thickness secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in the treatment of macular thickness and reduced visual acuity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods In this retrospective study, we evaluated 15 eyes of 15 consecutive patients diagnosed with branch retinal vein occlusion between May 2008 and June 2011 at our institution. Detailed ophthalmologic examination, optical coherence tomography, and/or fundus fluorescein angiography was performed at diagnosis and during follow-up. A 1.25 mg intravitreal bevacizumab injection was administered to all patients on average 2.73 (1–7) times. Visual acuity and macular thickness were evaluated before and after treatment. Results Eleven patients were female (73.3%) and four were male (26.6%). The mean patient age was 62.6 years. The patients were followed for a mean of 11.4 (range 4–24) months. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.92 ± 0.52 logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) before treatment and 0.66 ± 0.42 logMAR at the last examination. The increase in visual acuity was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.031). Mean macular thickness was 395.46 ± 106.55 ?m before treatment and 302.26 ± 84.6 ?m after the final treatment. The decrease in macular thickness was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion Intravitreal bevacizumab injection was effective for treatment of retinal vein branch occlusion.

Eltutar, Kadir; Acar, Fahreddin; Dincer, Nurhan; Zirtiloglu, Sibel; Unsal, Erkan

2013-01-01

409

Retention of good visual acuity in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and chronic refractory subfoveal subretinal fluid  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics of a subset of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy which retain good visual acuity despite chronic, persistent subfoveal subretinal fluid (SRF). Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Study eyes were identified from a consecutive series of 186 patients treated with anti-VEGF therapy seen for regular follow-up over a 3-month period. The clinical histories of 10 eyes of 9 patients with NVAMD, chronic subfoveal SRF despite continuous anti-VEGF therapy, and good long-term visual acuity of 20/40 or greater were reviewed. Demographic factors, baseline and final visual acuity, neovascular lesion type, duration of persistent fluid, baseline and final subfoveal choroidal thickness, presence of geographic atrophy, and number of anti-VEGF injections were analyzed. Results The mean age of patients was 78 years (range 55–91). The mean duration of persistent fluid was 5.2 years (range 1.3–11.0). Long-term visual acuities remained stable at 20/40 or better in all eyes. All eyes had type 1 (sub-retinal pigment epithelial) neovascularization. Average baseline subfoveal choroidal thickness was 285.3 ?m and the average follow-up subfoveal choroidal thickness was 239.7 ?m. No eyes had the presence of geographic atrophy. The mean number of injections was 36.5 (range 17–66). Conclusion Some eyes with type 1 neovascularization associated with chronic persistent subfoveal subretinal fluid despite continuous intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy may maintain good long-term visual outcomes. We hypothesize that type 1 neovascularization and greater subfoveal choroidal thickness may exert a protective effect on photoreceptor integrity. Further studies are necessary to assess long-term visual prognosis and predictive factors in patients with type 1 neovascularization leading to persistent subretinal fluid that is recalcitrant to anti-VEGF treatment.

Bhavsar, Kavita V.; Freund, K. Bailey

2014-01-01

410

Computer order entry systems in the emergency department significantly reduce the time to medication delivery for high acuity patients  

PubMed Central

Background Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to increase safety and improve quality of care; however, their impact on efficiency in the ED has not yet been validated. This study examined the impact of CPOE on process times for medication delivery, laboratory utilization and diagnostic imaging in the early, late and control phases of a regional ED-CPOE implementation. Methods Setting: Three tertiary care hospitals serving a population in excess of 1 million inhabitants that initiated the same CPOE system during the same 3-week time window. Patients were stratified into three groupings: Control, Early CPOE and Late CPOE (n = 200 patients per group/hospital site). Eligible patients consisted of a stratified (40% CTAS 2 and 60% CTAS 3) random sample of all patients seen 30 days preceding CPOE implementation (Control), 30 days immediately after CPOE implementation (Early CPOE) and 5–6 months after CPOE implementation (Late CPOE). Primary outcomes were time to (TT) from physician assignment (MD-sign) up to MD-order completion. An ANOVA and t-test were employed for statistical analysis. Results In comparison with control, TT 1st MD-Ordered Medication decreased in both the Early and Late CPOE groups (102.6 min control, 62.8 Early and 65.7 late, p < 0.001). TT 1st MD-ordered laboratory results increased in both the Early and Late CPOE groups compared to Control (76.4, 85.3 and 73.8 min, respectively, p < 0.001). TT 1st X-Ray also significantly increased in both the Early and Late CPOE groups (80.4, 84.8 min, respectively, compared to 68.1, p < 0.001). Given that CT and ultrasound imaging inherently takes increased time, these imaging studies were not included, and only X-ray was examined. There was no statistical difference found between TT discharge and consult request. Conclusions Regional implementation of CPOE afforded important efficiencies in time to medication delivery for high acuity ED patients. Increased times observed for laboratory and radiology results may reflect system issues outside of the emergency department and as a result of potential confounding may not be a reflection of CPOE impact.

2013-01-01

411

Effects of filtering of harmonics from biosonar echoes on delay acuity by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

PubMed Central

Big brown bats emit FM biosonar sounds containing two principal harmonics (FM1?55–22 kHz;FM2?105–45 kHz). To examine the role of harmonics, they were selectively filtered from stimuli in electronic-echo delay discrimination experiments. Positive stimuli were delayed by 3.16 ms (55 cm simulated target range); negative stimuli were by delayed by 3.96 ms (68 cm). This large 800-?s delay difference (nearly 14 cm) was easily discriminated for echoes containing equal-strength FM1 and FM2. Performance gradually decreased as highpass filters removed progressively larger segments from FM1. For echoes with FM2 alone, performance collapsed to chance, but performance remained good for lowpass echoes containing FM1 alone. Attenuation of FM2 by 3 dB relative to FM1 also decreased performance, but shortening electronic delay of the attenuated FM2 by 48 ?s counteracted amplitude-latency trading and restored performance. Bats require the auditory representations of FM1 and FM2 to be in temporal register for high delay acuity. Misalignment of neuronal responses degrades acuity, but outright removal of FM2, leaving only FM1, causes little loss of acuity. Functional asymmetry of harmonics reflects lowpass effects from beaming and atmospheric propagation, which leave FM1 intact. It may cooperate with latency shifts to aid in suppression of clutter.

Bates, Mary E.; Simmons, James A.

2010-01-01

412

Effects of filtering of harmonics from biosonar echoes on delay acuity by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

Big brown bats emit FM biosonar sounds containing two principal harmonics (FM1 approximately 55-22 kHz;FM2 approximately 105-45 kHz). To examine the role of harmonics, they were selectively filtered from stimuli in electronic-echo delay discrimination experiments. Positive stimuli were delayed by 3.16 ms (55 cm simulated target range); negative stimuli were by delayed by 3.96 ms (68 cm). This large 800-micros delay difference (nearly 14 cm) was easily discriminated for echoes containing equal-strength FM1 and FM2. Performance gradually decreased as highpass filters removed progressively larger segments from FM1. For echoes with FM2 alone, performance collapsed to chance, but performance remained good for lowpass echoes containing FM1 alone. Attenuation of FM2 by 3 dB relative to FM1 also decreased performance, but shortening electronic delay of the attenuated FM2 by 48 micros counteracted amplitude-latency trading and restored performance. Bats require the auditory representations of FM1 and FM2 to be in temporal register for high delay acuity. Misalignment of neuronal responses degrades acuity, but outright removal of FM2, leaving only FM1, causes little loss of acuity. Functional asymmetry of harmonics reflects lowpass effects from beaming and atmospheric propagation, which leave FM1 intact. It may cooperate with latency shifts to aid in suppression of clutter. PMID:20707464

Bates, Mary E; Simmons, James A

2010-08-01

413

HIV Among People with Chronic Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of HIV infection, STDs, and sexual and drug-use risk behaviors are high among people with severe mental illness. Clinicians often are in the best position to connect psychiatric patients to the particular HIV-related services they need. These may include prevention interventions, risk assessment, antibody test counseling, and medical care. This review article describes the AIDS epidemic and its underpinnings

Karen McKinnon; Francine Cournos; Richard Herman

2002-01-01

414

Effects of smoking on visual acuity of central serous chorioretinopathy patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences, in terms of visual outcome and treatment needs, between smokers and non-smokers central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) patients. Methods: The files of 252 patients diagnosed with CSCR who had presented to the Retina Unit of the Ophthalmology Clinic at Dicle University Medical School in Turkey were retrospectively evaluated. Eighty-four smokers, with a known history of smoking of at least one pack-year, and 133 non-smokers were included, whereas 35 patients with additional pathologies were excluded from the study. Results: Of the patients, 192 (88.5%) were male and 25 (11.5%) were female. The mean patient age was 38.8?±?8.1 years (range: 20-68 years). Visual acuity (VA) of the smoker and non-smoker groups was measured as 0.45?±?0.35 and 0.24?±?0.28 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMar), respectively, at the first visit; 0.19?±?0.29 and 0.06?±?0.14 logMar at the sixth month; and 0.07?±?0.14 and 0.02?±?0.05 logMar at the ninth month. VA measurements at presentation and during all examinations (1th, 6th and 9th month) were significantly different for the two groups. VA was lower in the smoker group. In 27 patients (12.4%), an additional treatment modality was needed. Of the 27 patients, only 8 (6%) were non-smokers, whereas 19 (22.6%) were smokers. There was no difference between groups in the recurrence rate during follow-up (p?=?0.907); 14 (16.7%) smokers and 8 (19.0%) non-smokers experienced a recurrence. Conclusion: This study has shown that patients selected and who are current smokers have poorer vision and need longer treatment. PMID:23841829

Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Sahin, Alparslan; Cinar, Yasin; Cingü, Kür?at; Ar?, Seyhmus; Sahin, Muhammed; Alt?nda?, Suat; Caça, Ihsan

2014-06-01

415

Long-Term Visual Acuity Results of Treated and Untreated Radiation Retinopathy (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report ocular findings in eyes with radiation retinopathy and visual acuity (VA) results of photocoagulation for macular edema and proliferative retinopathy. Methods This retrospective case series compared VA after photocoagulation treatment and nontreatment of radiation macular edema. Visual outcomes were assessed with regression analyses. Results Eighty-seven eyes (78 [89.7%] treated with external beam irradiation and 9 treated with local plaques) were studied. Fifty-nine (67.8%) and 28 (32.2%) eyes had nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy, respectively; macular edema developed in 42 nonproliferative eyes (71.2%) and 24 proliferative eyes (85.7%). Initial VAs (median) were 20/40 and 20/65 for nonproliferative and proliferative eyes, respectively, and final VA was 20/80 and 20/400. Initial VA (median) in eyes with macular edema was 20/50 compared to 20/25 in eyes without edema; final VAs were 20/200 and 20/30. Comparing treated (19 [45.2%]) and untreated (23[54.8%]) macular edema in 42 eyes with nonproliferative retinopathy, initial median VA (20/40 and 20/50) and final VA (20/100 and 20/200) were better in treated eyes. Regression analysis showed significant treatment effect (P = .003) when initial VA (logMAR) and months of follow-up were kept constant; treated eyes had mean final VA (logMAR) 0.36 (95% CI, 0.12–0.60) better than untreated eyes. Conclusions The presence of macular edema and proliferation indicates more severe retinopathy and worse visual prognosis than for eyes without macular edema and proliferation. Although these VA results suggest macular photocoagulation is beneficial, eyes with macular edema continue to lose vision despite treatment. Better prevention and treatment methods are needed for radiation retinopathy.

Kinyoun, James L.

2008-01-01

416

Survey and analysis of visual acuity of Kazakhs in different lighting environments.  

PubMed

The effect of different lighting environments on the vision and refractive error were investigated in 427 Kazakhs (828 eyes) aged from 40 to 60 years old, of which 279 were pastoral (546 eyes) and 148 were urban (282 eyes). Pastoral Kazakhs use natural illumination, whereas city Kazakhs mainly use artificial illumination. Of all cases, 19.1% (54 cases) had a vision of 0.4 to 0.5, 20.9% (59 cases) had 0.6 to 0.8, and 17.7% (50 cases) had above 1.0. However, the visual acuity distribution of the pastoral Kazakhs had a more obvious characteristic, which was mainly concentrated above 0.6. The vision of 25.1% (137) of cases was 0.6 to 0.8, whereas 58.4% (319) of cases had vision above 1.0. There were more cases with vision above 1.0 in the pastoral Kazakhs compared to the city Kazakhs (P < 0.05). The diopter of the city Kazakhs was between 0 D and -4.0 D, whereas that of the pastoral Kazakhs was between +2.0 D and -2.0 D. Diopters between +2.0 D and 0 D or less than 3.0 D differed significantly between the two groups. Daylight lamps were the main illumination photosources of the city Kazakhs. Artificial light illuminated 70.9% (105 cases) of the city Kazakhs for more than 6 h. By contrast, natural light illuminated 75.3% (210 cases) of the pastoral Kazakhs for an outdoor activity time of more than 9 h. These results suggest that poor lighting environment is a very important factor contributing to refractive error. PMID:24781999

Zhang, C W; Xu, J H; Wang, Y L; Xu, W; Li, K

2014-01-01

417

Unemployment and mental disturbance.  

PubMed

Most of the investigations on unemployment and mental disorder tend to indicate that these two issues have a clear, but not very strong, association. The data from these studies seem further to indicate that this association is not a linear cause-effect relationship in either direction, but a circular or interactional relationship. Unemployment may affect mental health by acting as a precipitating factor. But, on the other hand, it is evident that the risk for the mentally disturbed to become unemployed is clearly greater than for other people. Many other factors besides unemployment and mental disorder act in this complex interaction network too. All unemployed are not similar, but such factors as age, education, domicile, family, other social ties, and personality have a great effect on the whole. Work is an important resource for mental health. Unemployment can be regarded as a risk factor because it means that the individual loses the positive and supporting elements which work has. The negative factors are (i) the lack of emotional and economic security, (ii) the perplexity of the time perspective, (iii) isolation, (iv) identity diffusion, and (v) a general sense of frustration. PMID:6535253

Lehtinen, V

1984-12-01

418

Correlates of Child Mental Health and Mental Health Services Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was designed to present a method of identifying children (ages less than 21) with mental health conditions in the United States and to use those definitions to understand the utilization and expenditure patterns of children with mental health...

M. L. Ganz

2004-01-01

419

The influence of juggling on mental rotation performance in children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all participants completed the mental rotation test again. Children of the EG showed a significant decrease in reaction time and an increase in mental rotation speed compared to the control group. This indicates that juggling improves the rotation in the mental rotation process in children with spina bifida. PMID:22929606

Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

2012-11-01

420

Accessory mental foramen: a rare anatomical finding  

PubMed Central

Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation with a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 10%. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more AMF during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Careful surgical dissection should be performed in the region so that the presence of AMF can be detected and the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or haemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an AMF may exist. Trigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed. On the basis of diagnostic test results, peripheral neurectomy of mental nerve was planned. Failure to do neurectomy of mental nerve branch in the reported case, coming out from AMF, would have resulted in recurrence of pain and eventually failure of the procedure.

Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Thayil, Sumeeth Cyriac; Nair, Preeti P

2011-01-01

421

FRAXE and mental retardation.  

PubMed Central

Mental impairment and instability of the CCG repeat at FRAXE is described in six kindreds. Cosegregation of FRAXA and FRAXE was found within one of these kindreds. Cytogenetic expression of FRAXE was shown to skip a generation when associated with a reduction in size of the CCG expansion when transmitted through a male; however, in general, transmission occurred through females and a copy number increased from one generation to the next. In these respects the behaviour of FRAXE paralleled that of FRAXA. A relationship between FRAXE and non-specific mental impairment is strongly suggested by the occurrence in these families of more mentally impaired male and female carriers, after removal of index cases, than could reasonably be expected by chance.

Mulley, J C; Yu, S; Loesch, D Z; Hay, D A; Donnelly, A; Gedeon, A K; Carbonell, P; Lopez, I; Glover, G; Gabarron, I

1995-01-01

422

Physiological response in healthy subjects and in patients after myocardial infarction, elicited by a new computerised version of the Raven Coloured PM 47 as a mental stress test.  

PubMed

The Raven Progressive Matrices Test, in its various versions, has frequently been used in research on stress related diseases. In this paper the preliminary data relating to the administration of this version of test performed by a personal computer are presented. The "Coloured" version of the PM 47 was used, with the addition of a series of visual and acoustic stress stimuli; a maximum 30-second matrix presentation time was also introduced. Two groups took part in the test modified in this way: the first was made up of 23 male subjects aged 30 to 65 who had had a myocardial infarction in the previous six months; the second, a control group of the first, was composed of an equal number of subjects, without present or past cardiovascular or psychiatric disorders or illness. Frontal EMG, skin conductance response, peripheral temperature, heart rate and respiration rate were recorded at rest and during the test administration. The results obtained from the psychophysiological profile carried out on the two groups demonstrated the effectiveness of the methodology used in eliciting constant and stable stress responses. PMID:8749046

Pruneti, C A; Boem, A

1995-01-01

423

School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2013-01-01

424

Latina Mothers' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latina mothers' perceptions of mental health and factors that promote/restore mental health were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mental health. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…

Vera, Elizabeth M.; Conner, Wendy

2007-01-01

425

49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Committed to a mental health facility. (b...adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if...court in a criminal case and a finding of...reason of lack of mental responsibility...committed to a mental health facility if he...

2013-10-01

426

X-linked mental retardation associated with macro-orchidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two families are described with an X-linked form of mental retardation in whom the affected males were found to have bilateral enlargement of the testes. No conclusive evidence of any endocrinological disturbance was found.

G Turner; C Eastman; J Casey; A McLeay; P Procopis; B Turner

1975-01-01

427

Assessing the Work Personalities of Mentally Retarded Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of studies was conducted to modify administration of the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) and the content of the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) for use with mentally retarded individuals. The revised MIQ was a useful tool in assessi...

L. H. Lofquist R. V. Dawis D. J. Weiss

1970-01-01

428

Musical Ability and Mental Subnormality: An Experimental Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research among mentally and educationally retarded children found that retardation in general ability was associated with retardation in musical ability. Factor analyses of musical tests identified a factor of musical ability, independent of intelligence, for this group. (Author/MJL)

McLeish, J.; Higgs, G.

1982-01-01

429

Associations among Visual Acuity and Vision- and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the associations between visual acuity and self-reported visual function; visual acuity and health-related quality of life (QoL) metrics; a summary measure of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL; and individual domains of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL in patients with uveitis. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity, vision-related functioning as assessed by the NEI VFQ-25, and health-related QoL as assessed by the SF-36 and EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaires were obtained at enrollment in a clinical trial of uveitis treatments. Multivariate regression and Spearman correlations were used to evaluate associations between visual acuity, vision-related function, and health-related QoL. Results. Among the 255 patients, median visual acuity in the better-seeing eyes was 20/25, the vision-related function score indicated impairment (median, 60), and health-related QoL scores were within the normal population range. Better visual acuity was predictive of higher visual function scores (P ? 0.001), a higher SF-36 physical component score, and a higher EQ-5D health utility score (P < 0.001). The vision-specific function score was predictive of all general health-related QoL (P < 0.001). The correlations between visual function score and general quality of life measures were moderate (? = 0.29–0.52). Conclusions. The vision-related function score correlated positively with visual acuity and moderately positively with general QoL measures. Cost–utility analyses relying on changes in generic healthy utility measures will be more likely to detect changes when there are clinically meaningful changes in vision-related function, rather than when there are only changes in visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00132691.)

Drye, Lea T.; Kempen, John H.; Dunn, James P.; Holland, Gary N.; Latkany, Paul; Rao, Narsing A.; Sen, H. Nida; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Wang, Robert C.; Holbrook, Janet T.

2012-01-01

430

Mental Health Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... of the scarcity of mental health care providers, primary care doctors, who may not be adequately prepared in ... integration of mental, or rather, behavioral health and primary care services, for rural areas. It is assumed that ...

431

Mental Health, United States, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data presented in the fifth edition of 'Mental Health, United States' derive principally from national surveys. For the first time, the volume includes a chapter that highlights the characteristics of seriously mentally ill persons in the household popula...

R. W. Manderscheid M. A. Sonnenschein

1992-01-01

432

Experimental Studies of Mental Suggestion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a survey of studies of mental (nonverbal) suggestion. It includes problems related to suggestion of motor acts, visual images and sensations, sleep and waking. Fundamentals of the electromagnetic theory of mental suggestion are examine...

L. L. Vasilev

1973-01-01

433

Disasters and Mental Health Research  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or natural disasters such as hurricanes, are at risk of developing mental health issues. Dr. Sandro Galea : But we also know that people who are isolated- socially isolated- are at great risk of mental illness after these events. We know ...

434

Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

435

Objective Assessment in Mental Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ways to improve the practices and effectiveness of residential treatment programs in public mental hospitals, mental health centers and community facilities were studied. Reliability, validity and normative data were established for the Time-Sample Behavi...

L. P. Gordon

1982-01-01

436

Age-related changes in visual acuity, learning and memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often tested for learning and memory deficits using visuo-spatial tasks such as the Morris water maze. Performance on these tasks is dependent on vision and the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model has amyloid beta plaques in their retinas which might influence their performance in these tasks. In a visual learning task, old (20-26 months) transgenic mice and their wildtype littermates of both sexes had poorer visual ability than young (5-8 months) mice and old transgenic mice had poorer visual acuity than old wildtype mice. Old transgenic mice also had deficits in visuo-spatial learning and memory on the Morris water maze. The transgenic mice had no deficits in the conditioned odour preference or conditioned taste aversion memory tests at any age. These results indicate that the old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice and their wildtype littermates both have a deficit in their visual ability and that visually dependent measures alone should not be used to assess learning and memory in this strain. PMID:22409975

Stover, Kurt R; Brown, Richard E

2012-05-16

437

Nutritional therapies for mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in

Shaheen E Lakhan; Karen F Vieira

2008-01-01

438

Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

2003-01-01

439

X-linked mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental

H.-Hilger Ropers; Pietro Chiurazzi

1980-01-01

440

The mental health of prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health problems are the most significant cause of morbidity in prisons. Over 90% of prisoners have a mental disorder. The prison environment and the rules and regimes governing daily life inside prison can be seriously detrimental to mental health. Prisoners have received very poor health care and, until recently, the National Health Service (NHS) had no obligations to service

Luke Birmingham

2003-01-01

First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9