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1

Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests.  

PubMed

Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety. PMID:1516578

Turnage, J J; Kennedy, R S; Smith, M G; Baltzley, D R; Lane, N E

1992-10-01

2

Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety.

Turnage, J. J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Smith, M. G.; Baltzley, D. R.; Lane, N. E.

1992-01-01

3

Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests for repeated-measures studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to detail the development of the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), a computer battery of mental acuity tests that can be used to assess human performance in the presence of toxic elements and environmental stressors. There were four objectives in the development of APTS. First, the technical requirements for developing APTS followed the tenets of the classical theory of mental tests which requires that tests meet set criteria like stability and reliability (the lack of which constitutes insensitivity). To be employed in the study of the exotic conditions of protracted space flight, a battery with multiple parallel forms is required. The second criteria was for the battery to have factorial multidimensionality and the third was for the battery to be sensitive to factors known to compromise performance. A fourth objective was for the tests to converge on the abilities entailed in mission specialist tasks. A series of studies is reported in which candidate APTS tests were subjected to an examination of their psychometric properties for repeated-measures testing. From this work, tests were selected that possessed the requisite metric properties of stability, reliability, and factor richness. In addition, studies are reported which demonstrate the predictive validity of the tests to holistic measures of intelligence.

Kennedy, R. S.; Wilkes, R. L.; Baltzley, D. R.; Fowlkes, J. E.

1990-01-01

4

Automated variable contrast acuity testing.  

PubMed

The results of clinical trials with a simple system for automating visual acuity measurements are presented. An inexpensive microcomputer: (1) presents acuity targets on a television screen, (2) uses patients' responses entered through a remote response box to control a staircase testing procedure, and (3) prepares a printed record of a patient's mean visual acuity and its standard deviation. The automated method: (1) offers a stable measure of visual performance, (2) provides an immediate analysis of the statistical significance of changes measured in visual acuity from one office visit to the next, and (3) gives results that are in general agreement with conventional chart testing methods when high contrast targets are used on the television screen. In addition, when medium and low contrast targets are used, the automated method provides a variable contrast acuity profile (VCAP), which describes visual performance at contrast levels that are vital to a patient's performance in daily life but not examined in conventional chart testing. VCAPs are measured clinically, and it is shown that the extent that a patient's acuity declines with decreasing contrast cannot be predicted from the patient's high contrast acuity. Automated variable contrast acuity testing is found to provide a simple, reproducible, clinically practicable method of documenting and quantitating the extent of a patient's visual difficulties at medium and low contrasts. PMID:7335308

Mainster, M A; Timberlake, G T; Schepens, C L

1981-10-01

5

Visual acuity test  

MedlinePLUS

... time. If needed, it is repeated while you wear your glasses or contacts. You may also be asked to read letters or numbers from a card held 14 inches from your face. This will test your near vision.

6

Astronaut Frank Borman performing visual acuity tests in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Frank Borman is seen performing visual acuity tests in space. Views include Borman looking at the camera as light shines through the capsule window (63712); Borman is using the visual acuity device and a portable mouth thermometer during his experiment (63713).

1965-01-01

7

Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments  

PubMed Central

Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients’ scores were significantly worse than normals’ scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients. PMID:23000614

Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2013-01-01

8

Mental status testing  

MedlinePLUS

Mental status exam; Neurocognitive testing ... A nurse, doctor, physician assistant, or mental health worker will ask a number of questions. The test can be done in the home, in an office, nursing home, or ...

9

Sensitivity of The Dynamic Visual Acuity Test To Sensorimotor Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post-flight astronauts, acutely post-vestibular nerve section patients, and patients with severe chronic bilateral vestibular deficits have oscillopsia caused by reduced vestibulocular reflex gains and decreased postural stability. Therefore, as previous work has shown, a test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA), in which the subject must read numbers from a computer screen while standing still or walking in place provides a composite measure of sensorimotor integration. This measure may be useful for determining the level of recovery, post-flight, post-operatively, or after vestibular rehabilitation. To determine the sensitivity of DVA to change in impaired populations we have tested patients with acoustic neuromas before and during the first post-operative week after resection of the tumors, and with bilaterally labyrinthine deficient subjects before and after six weeks of balance rehabilitation therapy.

Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob; Elizalde, Elizabeth; Fregia, Melody

1999-01-01

10

Astronauts Cooper and Conrad prepare cameras during visual acuity tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini 5 space flight, prepare their cameras while aboard a C-130 aircraft flying near Laredo. The two astronauts are taking part in a series of visual acuity experiments to aid them in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

1965-01-01

11

Visual Vestibular Interaction in the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test during Voluntary Head Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although intact vestibular function is essential in maintaining spatial orientation, no good screening tests of vestibular function are available to the aviation community. High frequency voluntary head rotation was selected as a vestibular stimulus to isolate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from visual influence. A dynamic visual acuity test that incorporates voluntary head rotation was evaluated as a potential vestibular function screening tool. Twenty-seven normal subjects performed voluntary sinusoidal head rotation at frequencies from 0.7-4.0 Hz under three different visual conditions: visually-enhanced VOR, normal VOR, and visually suppressed VOR. Standardized Baily-Lovie chart letters were presented on a computer monitor in front of the subject, who then was asked to read the letters while rotating his head horizontally. The electro-oculogram and dynamic visual acuity score were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in gain or phase shift among three visual conditions in the frequency range of 2.8 to 4.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity score shifted less than 0.3 logMAR at frequencies under 2.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity test at frequencies a round 2.0 Hz can be recommended for evaluating vestibular function.

Lee, Moo Hoon; Durnford, Simon; Crowley, John; Rupert, Angus

1996-01-01

12

Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools  

PubMed Central

Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ‘Unable to test’ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes (P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or “matching” approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities. PMID:24008790

Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong

2014-01-01

13

The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The performance of some subjects nicely parallels the stereotypical recovery curve observed in the group mean data. Others show dramatic changes in DVA from one test day to another. These changes may be indicative of a re-adaptation process that is not characterized by a steady improvement with the passage of time, but is instead a dynamic search for appropriate coordinative strategy to achieve the desired gaze stabilization goal. Ground-based data have been collected in our lab using DVA with one of the goals being to improve the DVA test itself. In one of these studies, the DVA test was repeated using a visual target viewing distance of 0.5 meters. While walking, the relative contributions of the otoliths and semi-circular canals that are required to stabilize gaze are affected by visual target viewing distance. It may be possible to exploit this using the current treadmill DVA test to differentially assess changes in these vestibular subsystems. The postflight DVA evaluations currently used have been augmented to include the near target version of the test. Preliminary results from these assessments, as well as the results from the ground-based tests will also be reported. DVA provides a direct measure of a subject's ability to see clearly in the presence of self-motion. The use of the current tests for providing a functionally relevant metric is evident. However, it is possible to expand the scope of DVA testing to include scenarios other than walking. A facility for measuring DVA in the presence of passive movements is being created. Using a mechanized platform to provide the perturbation, it should be possible to simulate aircraft and automobile vibration profiles. Used in conjunction with the far and near visual displays this facility should be able to assess a subject s ability to clearly see distant objects as well as those that appear on the dashboard or instrument control panel during functionally relevant situations.

Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2006-01-01

14

Ethanol consumption impairs vestibulo-ocular reflex function measured by the video head impulse test and dynamic visual acuity.  

PubMed

Ethanol affects many parts of the nervous system, from the periphery to higher cognitive functions. Due to the established effects of ethanol on vestibular and oculomotor function, we wished to examine its effect on two new tests of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): the video head impulse test (vHIT) and dynamic visual acuity (DVA). We tested eight healthy subjects with no history of vestibular disease after consumption of standardized drinks of 40% ethanol. We used a repeated measures design to track vestibular function over multiple rounds of ethanol consumption up to a maximum breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 1.38 per mil. All tests were normal at baseline. VOR gain measured by vHIT decreased by 25% at the highest BrAC level tested in each subject. Catch-up saccades were negligible at baseline and increased in number and size with increasing ethanol consumption (from 0.13° to 1.43° cumulative amplitude per trial). DVA scores increased by 86% indicating a deterioration of acuity, while static visual acuity (SVA) remained unchanged. Ethanol consumption systematically impaired the VOR evoked by high-acceleration head impulses and led to a functional loss of visual acuity during head movement. PMID:25095773

Roth, Thomas N; Weber, Konrad P; Wettstein, Vincent G; Marks, Guy B; Rosengren, Sally M; Hegemann, Stefan C A

2014-01-01

15

Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure  

PubMed Central

Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

2013-01-01

16

Low contrast visual acuity testing is associated with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive impairment and visual deterioration are two key clinical symptoms in MS and affect 50 to 80% of patients. Little is known about the influence of cognitive impairment on visual tests recommended for MS such as low contrast sensitivity testing. Our objective was to investigate whether low contrast sensitivity testing is influenced by cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Cross-sectional study including 89 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. All patients received cognitive evaluation using Rao’s Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Testing (BRB-N). Visual assessments included low contrast sensitivity (CS) by functional acuity contrast testing and high contrast visual acuity (VA) using ETDRS charts. Retinal morphology as visual impairment correlate was measured using retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography. Results In combined analyses using generalized estimating equation models, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and RNFL as well as and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and RNFL predicted CS. To further control for a potential influence of the anterior visual system we performed partial correlation analyses between visual function and cognitive function test results but controlling for RNFL. Even when controlling for RNFL, CS was associated with PASAT performance and SDMT performance. Conclusion Our data show that: a) cognitive impairment and performance in visual function tests such as low contrast sensitivity testing are associated; b) the main cognitive domains correlating with visual test performance are information processing speed and, to a lesser degree, memory; This preliminary data needs to be substantiated in further studies investigating patients with a higher cognitive burden, healthy controls and in longitudinal settings. PMID:24206900

2013-01-01

17

Grating visual acuity testing as a means of psychophysical assessment of progressive addition lenses.  

PubMed

Progressive addition lenses (PAL's) are subject to objectionable astigmatism due to the aspheric nature of their anterior surfaces. Optico-physical assessment of PAL's is commonly undertaken but these measures should be related to the psychophysical responses of patients whilst wearing PAL's. A technique previously used for the psychophysical assessment of contact lenses and spectacle lenses is adapted and demonstrated for the measurement of grating visual acuity (VA) through the aspheric portion of PAL's. The apparatus encompasses an astronomical telescope with magnifying power of unity designed to stabilize accommodation. This paper considers the astigmatism present with three different PAL designs along a horizontal section cutting orthogonally through the umbilical line of each lens. VA was measured, using high contrast vertical and horizontal gratings, along the same horizontal sections of the PAL's studied. A reduction in VA was noted with an increase in the angle of eccentricity from the umbilical line. PMID:2797709

Sullivan, C M; Fowler, C W

1989-09-01

18

21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart...other symbols in graduated sizes, intended to test visual acuity. (b)...

2010-04-01

19

Development of a test of suprathreshold acuity in noise in Brazilian Portuguese: a new method for hearing screening and surveillance.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: "a hearing check is recommended" (red light), "a hearing check would be advisable" (yellow light), and "no hearing difficulties" (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention. PMID:25247181

Vaez, Nara; Desgualdo-Pereira, Liliane; Paglialonga, Alessia

2014-01-01

20

Development of a Test of Suprathreshold Acuity in Noise in Brazilian Portuguese: A New Method for Hearing Screening and Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: “a hearing check is recommended” (red light), “a hearing check would be advisable” (yellow light), and “no hearing difficulties” (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention. PMID:25247181

Vaez, Nara; Desgualdo-Pereira, Liliane; Paglialonga, Alessia

2014-01-01

21

Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

22

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2013-07-01

23

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2014-07-01

24

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2012-07-01

25

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2011-07-01

26

Mental testing in the early twentieth century: internationalizing the mental testing story.  

PubMed

This article suggests a possible approach to analyzing the global history of intelligence testing in light of some recent work in the history of science and science studies. In particular, it uses work in metrology and subaltern studies to develop possible models for the dissemination, appropriation, and transformation of mental testing in the early 20th century. It draws on the accounts presented in the other articles in this collection to substantiate its claims. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150810

Carson, John

2014-08-01

27

Color improves “visual” acuity via sound  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution devices (SSDs) convey visual information via sound, with the primary goal of making visual information accessible to blind and visually impaired individuals. We developed the EyeMusic SSD, which transforms shape, location, and color information into musical notes. We tested the “visual” acuity of 23 individuals (13 blind and 10 blindfolded sighted) on the Snellen tumbling-E test, with the EyeMusic. Participants were asked to determine the orientation of the letter “E.” The test was repeated twice: in one test, the letter “E” was drawn with a single color (white), and in the other test, with two colors (red and white). In the latter case, the vertical line in the letter, when upright, was drawn in red, with the three horizontal lines drawn in white. We found no significant differences in performance between the blind and the sighted groups. We found a significant effect of the added color on the “visual” acuity. The highest acuity participants reached in the monochromatic test was 20/800, whereas with the added color, acuity doubled to 20/400. We conclude that color improves “visual” acuity via sound. PMID:25426015

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Riemer, Dar; Amedi, Amir

2014-01-01

28

The importance of measuring dynamic visual acuity.  

PubMed

In their everyday life, people interact with different objects, static as well as those in motion. However, dynamic acuity is rarely checked in medical examinations, even those preceding the issue of driving license. In order for driving to be safe, good eyesight or good correction with visual aids is imperative. Beside good eyesight, drivers also have to have good reflexes and short reaction span. The aim of this study was to compare dynamic and static visual acuity in order to observe how they vary among individuals. Twenty female and male participants, 65 years of age, took part in the study and the comparison was made with the results provided by 20 20-year old participants. Dynamic acuity was tested using the Landolt-ring optotype which was simulating movement velocity of 72 km/h. T-test demonstrated the presence of a statistically significant difference between dynamic and static acuity among the participants from 62 to 68 years of age (t = 15.852; df = 39; p < 0.01). Within the same group, dynamic acuity (mean = 0.887; std. deviation = 0.297) proved to be significantly worse than static acuity (mean = 1.40; std. deviation = 0.317). By comparing the results measured within the older group of participants with those measured in the younger group, it was shown that there exists a statistically significant difference (t = 0.275; df = 58; p < 0,05) between the older and younger group in their dynamic binocular acuity with correction. Younger participants had better dynamic binocular acuity with correction (mean = 1.063; std. deviation = 0.259) than the older participants (mean = 0.884; std. deviation = 0.298). The differences between dynamic and static acuity and its degradation in the older age groups have to be taken into account when issuing driving licenses. The future of research lies within the study of correlation between the age and acuity in order that the results can be applied in practice. PMID:23837257

Muzdalo, Natasa Vujko

2013-04-01

29

Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

2010-01-01

30

Enhancing visual acuity.  

PubMed

The Enhancing Visual Acuity (EVA) System (Dutch Ophthalmic Research Centre International B.V.) features a unique fluid control system - VacuFlow Valve Timing Intelligence (VTi®) - and represents the next-generation evolution of pump machines. VacuFlow VTi® overcomes the limitations of existing Venturi and peristaltic pumps and provides the potential to enable safer, faster, and more precise techniques. Alongside many other innovative and functional features, such as a light-emitting diode light source, integrated laser, high cutting speed with twin duty cycle cutting, automated infusion compensation, wireless foot pedal, phaco module with thresholding, and viscous fluid module, EVA could make a major contribution to advancing ophthalmology. PMID:25196748

Stalmans, Peter

2014-01-01

31

Neural fine tuning during Vernier acuity training?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superposition masking and summation to threshold paradigm was employed before and after unmasked Vernier acuity training to measure sensory changes of offset analysing mechanisms. Masking functions show a uniformdownward translation after training and detection data reveal higher sensitivities to com - pound Gabor gratings in the post-test. These findings confirmthe existence of learning related changes at early levels of

Kristian Folta

2003-01-01

32

[Calculating the mean visual acuity and the change in visual acuity with a decimal acuity chart].  

PubMed

The decimal visual acuity chart is not easy to use for statistical analysis and requires a transformation into LogMAR units (decimal logarithm of the Minimum Angle Resolution). In contrast to the decimal chart, the logarithmic chart has an arithmetic progression and a constant interval between lines. The LogMAR chart makes statistical analysis of visual acuity easy. Change in visual acuity is calculated directly by subtracting LogMAR data, while the average visual acuity is obtained with the arithmetic mean value of the LogMAR data. The mean acuity expressed in LogMAR units can be transformed into a decimal chart for a more comprehensive result. To calculate the average visual acuity directly from the decimal data, the geometric mean value must be used instead of the arithmetic mean value. PMID:12910197

Touzeau, O

2003-06-01

33

A test for mental capacity to request assisted suicide.  

PubMed

The mental competence of people requesting aid-in-dying is a key issue for the how the law responds to cases of assisted suicide. A number of cases from around the common law world have highlighted the importance of competence in determining whether assistants should be prosecuted, and what they will be prosecuted for. Nevertheless, the law remains uncertain about how competence should be tested in these cases. This article proposes a test of competence that is based on the existing common law but which is tailored to cases of assisted suicide. The test will help doctors, other health professionals and lawyers determine whether the suicidal person was able to competently request assistance. Such knowledge will help to reduce some of the current uncertainty about criminal liability in cases of assisted suicide. PMID:21097939

Stewart, Cameron; Peisah, Carmelle; Draper, Brian

2011-01-01

34

Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

2013-01-01

35

Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor  

DOEpatents

A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

36

The Mental Cutting Test "Schnitte" and the Picture Rotation Test--Two New Measures to Assess Spatial Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new measures to assess spatial ability are presented: the mental cutting test "Schnitte" (Fay & Quaiser-Pohl, 1999; English version: Fay, Quaiser-Pohl, & Ronicke, 2003), a test for selecting people with extraordinary spatial abilities, and the Picture Rotation Test (Hinze, 2002; Hinze & Quaiser-Pohl, 2003), a mental rotation test for preschool…

Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia

2003-01-01

37

Visual Acuity and the Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

Beynon, J.

1985-01-01

38

Whole-Body Mapping of Spatial Acuity for Pain and Touch  

PubMed Central

Objective Tactile spatial acuity is routinely tested in neurology to assess the state of the dorsal column system. In contrast, spatial acuity for pain is not assessed, having never been systematically characterized. More than a century after the initial description of tactile acuity across the body, we provide the first systematic whole-body mapping of spatial acuity for pain. Methods We evaluated the 2-point discrimination thresholds for both nociceptive-selective and tactile stimuli across several skin regions. Thresholds were estimated using pairs of simultaneous stimuli, and also using successive stimuli. Results and interpretation These two approaches produced convergent results. The fingertip was the area of highest spatial acuity, for both pain and touch. On the glabrous skin of the hand, the gradient of spatial acuity for pain followed that observed for touch. On the hairy skin of the upper limb, spatial acuity for pain and touch followed opposite proximal–distal gradients, consistent with the known innervation density of this body territory. Finally, by testing spatial acuity for pain in a rare participant completely lacking A? fibers, we demonstrate that spatial acuity for pain does not rely on a functioning system of tactile primary afferents. This study represents the first systematic characterization of spatial acuity for pain across multiple regions of the body surface. Ann Neurol 2014;75:917–924 PMID:24816757

Mancini, Flavia; Bauleo, Armando; Cole, Jonathan; Lui, Fausta; Porro, Carlo A; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

2014-01-01

39

Dynamic visual acuity using "far" and "near" targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CONCLUSIONS: DVA may be useful for assessing the functional consequences of an impaired gaze stabilization mechanism or for testing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation paradigm. Because target distance influences the relative contributions of canal and otolith inputs, the ability to measure DVA at near and far viewing distances may also lead to tests that will independently assess canal and otolith function. OBJECTIVE: To present and test a methodology that uses dynamic visual acuity (DVA) to assess the efficacy of compensatory gaze mechanisms during a functionally relevant activity that differentially measures canal and otolith function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of treadmill walking at a velocity of 1.79 m/s on subjects' visual acuity was assessed at each of two viewing distances. A custom-written threshold determination program was used to display Landolt C optotypes on a laptop computer screen during a "far" (4 m) target condition and on a micro-display for a "near" (50 cm) target condition. The walking acuity scores for each target distance were normalized by subtracting a corresponding acuity measure obtained while standing still on the treadmill belt. RESULTS: As predicted by subjective reports of relative target motion, the decrease in visual acuity was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) for the near compared to the far condition.

Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2005-01-01

40

Driver mental workload requirements on horizontal curves based on occluded vision test measurements  

E-print Network

This thesis documents an evaluation of driver mental workload requirements on horizontal curves based on occluded vision test measurements. Driver workload is an important concept in the design of highway systems. A successful highway design...

Shafer, Mark Anthony

2012-06-07

41

Performance of a five-item mental health screening test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the screening accuracy of a short, five-item version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) with that of the 18-item MHI, the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and a 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI-28). Subjects were newly enrolled members of a health maintenance organization (HMO), and the criterion diagnoses were those found through use of the

Donald M. Berwick; Jane M. Murphy; Paula A. Goldman; Ware John E. Jr; Arthur J. Barsky; Milton C. Weinstein

1991-01-01

42

The Concept of Visual Acuity Ratio to the Maximum Level of Individual Visual Acuity—The Evaluation Method of Background Luminance and Visual Distance on Visibility Taking into Account of Individual Visual Acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the maximum level of individual visual acuity (MVA) as an index for the individual visual ability. Also, we define the concept of the ratio of visual acuity under various environmental conditions for the MVA as Visual Acuity Ratio (VAR), in order to describe differences between individual visibilities. An experiment was carried out using various levels of background luminance and visual distance. The visual acuity of subjects in two age groups (Young and Aged) was measured by using Landolt’s eye chart (luminance contrast: 0.93). The Aged subjects’ vision was corrected by two kinds of spectacles: ones for myopia / presbyopia. Under conditions providing sufficient visual acuity, the subjects’ order of individual visual acuity was unchanged. Therefore, MVA can be used as an index for the visual ability of the individual. Regardless of corrected conditions, the individual visual acuity reaches the maximum level under 800cd/m2 and the corrected position. The results of the eyesight test can be used as a substitution for MVA. Visual acuity is changing under environmental conditions, and a degree of the changes varies with age, corrected conditions, and differences in visual acuity. Under the corrected position, the relationship between background luminance and VAR is constant regardless of age group, corrected conditions and differences of visual acuity. The relationship between visual distance and VAR differs by age and corrected conditions. However, in the neighborhood of the corrected position, the relationship between visual distance and VAR is constant regardless of differences between individual visibilities. The concept of VAR is applicable to past studies.

Akizuki, Yuki; Inoue, Youko

43

Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first\\u000a grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher-\\u000a and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist\\u000a (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about

Maria Paz Guzman; Michael Jellinek; Myriam George; Marcela Hartley; Ana Maria Squicciarini; Katia M. Canenguez; Karen A. Kuhlthau; Recai Yucel; Gwyne W. White; Javier Guzman; J. Michael Murphy

44

Correlation between visual acuity and cognitive functions  

PubMed Central

A possible association between visual acuity (VA) and dementia was investigated in 2716 subjects who were aged between 53 and 102 at first visit and had varying degrees of dementia. Better VA was found to be significantly correlated with a lower dementia level (person coefficient range 0.146–0.261 over 10 years of follow-up, all correlations are significant, p<0.0001) as well as with a higher global cognitive score (person coefficient range ?0.254 to ?0.318 over 10 years of follow-up, all correlations are significant, p<0.0001), a grade encompassing 19 different cognitive tests. This correlation remained significant after adjustment for age, years of education, gender, use of ophthalmic drugs and years of follow-up. PMID:24169658

Elyashiv, Sivan M; Shabtai, Esther L; Belkin, Michael

2014-01-01

45

A critical analysis of the Otis self-administering test of mental ability––higher form  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a 30 min. period is allowed for taking the Otis self-administering test of mental ability nearly 40% of the subjects complete the test. When only 20 min. are allowed, this figure is reduced to 10%. The items are not properly arranged in order of difficulty for adult subjects, and an excessive number of them are inadequate in their discriminative

C. I. Hovland; E. F. Wonderlic

1939-01-01

46

Figure connection test: a universal test for assessment of mental state.  

PubMed

The number connection test (NCT), which assesses the extent of organic brain damage, has been used extensively to evaluate mental state in portasystemic encephalopathy, but has certain inherent limitations. It cannot be performed by illiterates and those unfamiliar with Roman alphanumeric notations. We, therefore, devised a figure connection test (FCT) based on the subject's identification of figures rather than alphabets or numerals. Four variations each of FCT-A (A1-A4) and FCT-B (B1-B4) employing different motifs were developed and compared with four variations each of NCT-A (A1-A4) and NCT-B (B1-B4) in groups of healthy volunteers with differing educational status. These volunteer groups were as follows: postgraduates 64; graduates 66; subgraduates 75; and illiterates 45. Significant differences in mean scores of various tests were observed between these normal groups. Control values of the tests for these groups have been standardized and can serve as nomograms. The effect of educational attainments on performance of FCT and other psychometric tests was analysed and trail-making tests were validated for serial use. The FCT was then prospectively validated on 70 patients (classified for comparison with controls according to educational status as follows: postgraduates 7; graduates 21; subgraduates 32; and illiterates 10) with cirrhosis of liver without over encephalopathy, to detect subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. NCT-A was abnormal in 31.7%, NCT-B in 38.3%, FCT-A in 42.9% and FCT-B in 28.6% of patients. Taken together these tests diagnosed subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in 34 (48.5%) patients. We conclude that FCT is as useful as NCT in detecting psychomotor performance defects in cirrhotic patients without overt encephalopathy. PMID:7620102

Dhiman, R K; Saraswat, V A; Verma, M; Naik, S R

1995-01-01

47

Degraded Time-Frequency Acuity to Time-Reversed Notes  

PubMed Central

Time-reversal symmetry breaking is a key feature of many classes of natural sounds, originating in the physics of sound production. While attention has been paid to the response of the auditory system to “natural stimuli,” very few psychophysical tests have been performed. We conduct psychophysical measurements of time-frequency acuity for stylized representations of “natural”-like notes (sharp attack, long decay) and the time-reversed versions of these notes (long attack, sharp decay). Our results demonstrate significantly greater precision, arising from enhanced temporal acuity, for such sounds over their time-reversed versions, without a corresponding decrease in frequency acuity. These data inveigh against models of auditory processing that include tradeoffs between temporal and frequency acuity, at least in the range of notes tested and suggest the existence of statistical priors for notes with a sharp-attack and a long-decay. We are additionally able to calculate a minimal theoretical bound on the sophistication of the nonlinearities in auditory processing. We find that among the best studied classes of nonlinear time-frequency representations, only matching pursuit, spectral derivatives, and reassigned spectrograms are able to satisfy this criterion. PMID:23799012

Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Isakov, Pavel; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

2013-01-01

48

Visual Acuity Assessment in Persons with Dementia. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies of vision in persons with Alzheimer's disease either exclude those with advanced dementia or are unable to assess their vision adequately, and therefore, improperly report these persons' visual acuity status. In this study, visual acuity was assessed using the ETDRS Snellen-type acuity chart and Teller Acuity Cards. The Teller Acuity

Morse, Alan R.; Teresi, Jeanne; Rosenthal, Bruce; Holmes, Douglas; Yatzkan, Elaine S.

2004-01-01

49

Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

50

Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.  

PubMed

Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores. PMID:16060458

Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

2005-06-01

51

Age and strength influences on lingual tactile acuity  

PubMed Central

Sensory function during the oral processing of liquids is thought to play a key role in informing the tailoring of swallowing motor behaviours to the flow characteristics of the bolus. In addition to taste receptors, the mouth and tongue house trigeminal nerve receptors that support the sensory detection of bolus size, shape (stereognosis), mass, temperature and movement. Recent studies suggest that healthy adults lose tongue strength with advancing age. However, little is known about changes in the sensory function of the tongue attributable to age, or associated with reductions in strength. In this study, we explored lingual tactile acuity in healthy young and older adults, and measured the relationship between tactile acuity and measures of tongue strength. The results showed an age-related reduction in lingual tactile acuity that was not explained by variations in tongue strength. Practical Applications Sensory motor interactions are a topic of interest in understanding the processing activities that take place in the mouth during eating and swallowing. In this paper, we explore a test of sensory acuity in the mouth, in which the tongue is used to “read” embossed letters on Teflon strips. Our questions were to determine whether sensory acuity for this task declines with age, or with age-related reductions in tongue strength. We determined that older people perform this task with less accuracy, suggesting some changes in oral sensory function with age. However, these changes were not related to tongue strength. The findings suggest that strength does not play a major role in the kind of sensory discrimination task tested in this study.

Steele, Catriona M.; Hill, Lisa; Stokely, Shauna; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie

2015-01-01

52

THE RELATION BETWEEN VISUAL ACUITY AND BRIGHTNESS DISCRIMINATION  

PubMed Central

1. Visual acuity depends on the brightness contrast between test object and background; and conversely, brightness discrimination depends on the target size. Both functions vary with the brightness of the background. Measurements with rectangular targets of length-width ratio 2 were made over a range of sizes, contrasts, and brightnesses sufficient to determine the relations among these three variables. The rectangles were from 2' to 50' wide; the contrast fraction, ?I/I, ranged from 0.01 to 40; the background brightness varied from 0.0001 to 2500 millilamberts. 2. When ?I/I or visual acuity is plotted as a function of brightness the data do, in general, follow Hecht's equation. The departure from a simple photochemical theory which the larger targets show is probably due to changes in the functional retinal mosaic with changing brightness. 3. In general also, the relation between visual acuity and brightness, at selected contrasts, fits Hecht's derivation. At low contrasts, as the brightness is reduced a point is reached at which the test object becomes invisible at any size. 4. No simple relation emerges from the data relating visual acuity to contrast, at set levels of illumination. Over only a very short range are visual acuity and contrast directly related. At high contrasts, visual acuity reaches a maximum, whereas at low visual acuity, ?I/I reaches a minimum which cannot be passed regardless of size. 5. The shape of the curves relating ?I/I to brightness is not significantly altered by changing the exposure time. There is some evidence to show that a 3 second exposure of the target is equivalent to two looks of 0.2 second each. 6. In all these studies the thresholds were determined by a frequency of seeing method, and the data have been considered in terms of a quantum theory of threshold seeing. It was found that a threshold response involves between four and eight independent critical events, which are largely independent of size, brightness, and criterion of seeing. PMID:18917026

Hendley, Charles D.

1948-01-01

53

Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

2011-01-01

54

The MISTRA Data: Forty-Two Mental Ability Tests in Three Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) was initiated in 1979 and continued until 2000. It consisted of 139 pairs of twins who had been separated in early childhood and not re-united until adulthood, and members of their families. As part of a broader assessment, these participants completed 42 mental ability tests from three well-known…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

2011-01-01

55

Use of Preschool Preposition Test for Mentally Retarded and Other Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usefulness of the Preschool Preposition Test (PPT) as a cognitive screening and diagnostic tool for handicapped children is demonstrated through results of eight independent studies. The subjects were 354 children and youths, aged two to 20 years, with various handicaps: mentally retarded, autistic-like, moderately emotionally disturbed,…

Aaronson, May; And Others

56

Blocks and bodies: Sex differences in a novel version of the Mental Rotations Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel version of the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) that alternated the standard block figures with three-dimensional human figures was administered to 99 men and 129 women. Women and men differed predictably in their retrospective reports of childhood play and digit ratios, a putative measure of prenatal androgen action. Compared to the block figure items, human figure items on the

Gerianne M. Alexander; Milagros Evardone

2008-01-01

57

Exploring the Flynn Effect in Mentally Retarded Adults by Using a Nonverbal Intelligence Test for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…

Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.

2010-01-01

58

Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

2012-01-01

59

Socioeconomic status and mental illness: tests of the social causation and selection hypotheses.  

PubMed

This study tests several hypotheses about the underlying causal structure of the inverse correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and mental illness. It does this through the analysis of a longitudinal statewide database on acute psychiatric hospitalization in Massachusetts for the fiscal years 1994-2000 as well as supplemental census data. The modeling strategy used techniques of structural equation modeling and found that SES impacted directly on rates of mental illness as well as indirectly through the impact of economic hardship on low and middle income groups. PMID:15709846

Hudson, Christopher G

2005-01-01

60

A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening  

PubMed Central

Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions—anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia—each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding. PMID:24799622

Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M.; Pelli, Denis G.

2014-01-01

61

Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura

62

Understanding and Testing Risk Mechanisms for Mental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 50 years there has been a virtual revolution in thinking about risk mechanisms. The key areas of challenge and opportunity include: identification of environmental causes; use of natural experiments; gene-environment interaction; testing for mediation; developmental moderation; biological programming; and developmental perturbations.

Rutter, Michael

2009-01-01

63

Development of Pocket Vision Screener and its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim was to construct a visual acuity chart and find its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits. Materials and Methods: Two phases were involved in this study. Construction of the screener: Ten Sloan letters (C, D, H, K, N, O, R, S, V, and Z) were selected and the letters were constructed and reduced to 0.2 logMAR acuity size (6.92 mm) for viewing at 3 m. The screener contains three lines with seven letters in each. Few combinations of the seven letter sequences were chosen based on the row legibility scores. Three seven letter combinations close to the median of all combinations were selected, such that maximum difficulty score difference between the lines are <1%. Finding the effectiveness of the screener: 100 literate subjects with unaided visual acuity better than or equal to 6/60 were recruited for the study. Unaided visual acuity was tested using both the newly constructed Pocket Vision Screener and a logMAR visual acuity chart and the time taken to measure the visual acuity using both the charts was noted. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 43 ± 17 years. Subjects were classified as normal or deficient based on the logMAR visual acuity measurement. The screener was found to have 81% sensitivity, 94% specificity. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 91% and 87%, respectively. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found in the time taken to record visual acuity using both the charts. Conclusion: The Pocket Vision Screener can be used as a quick and accurate tool to screen subjects for visual acuity deficits, being highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective. PMID:25579360

Raja, Monica; Ramamurthy, Dharani; Srinivasan, Krithica; Varadharajan, L. Srinivasa

2014-01-01

64

Visual acuity in a species of coral reef fish: Rhinecanthus aculeatus.  

PubMed

Coral reef fish present the human observer with an array of bold and contrasting patterns; however, the ability of such fish to perceive these patterns is largely unexamined. To understand this, the visual acuity of these animals - the degree to which they can resolve fine detail - must be ascertained. Behavioural studies are few in number and anatomical analysis has largely focused on estimates of ganglion cell density to predict the visual acuity in coral reef fish. Here, we report visual acuity measures for the triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus. Acuity was first assessed using a series of behavioural paradigms and the figures were then contrasted with those obtained anatomically, based on photoreceptor and ganglion cell counts. Behavioural testing indicated an upper behavioural acuity of 1.75 cycles·degree(-1), which is approximately the same level of acuity as that of the goldfish (Carassiusauratus). Anatomical estimates were then calculated from wholemount analysis of the photoreceptor layer and Nissl staining of cells within the ganglion cell layer. Both of these anatomical measures gave estimates that were substantially larger (7.75 and 3.4 cycles·degree(-1) for the photoreceptor cells and ganglion cells, respectively) than the level of acuity indicated by the behavioural tests. This indicates that in this teleost species spatial resolution is poor compared to humans (30-70 cycles·degree(-1)) and it is also not well indicated by anatomical estimates. PMID:24401772

Champ, Connor; Wallis, Guy; Vorobyev, Misha; Siebeck, Ulrike; Marshall, Justin

2014-01-01

65

Coeliac disease does not affect visual acuity: a study of young men in the Swedish national conscripts register.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with neurological disease, but there are little data on visual acuity in CD. The objective of this study was to examine visual acuity in undiagnosed and diagnosed CD. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Visual acuity was evaluated in Swedish male conscripts: 69 with undiagnosed CD (diagnosed after the conscription), 996 with diagnosed CD (diagnosed before the conscription) and 6850 without a diagnosis of CD. Information on CD was obtained from the Swedish Inpatient Registry 1964-2003. Visual acuity was measured at conscription, and analyses were based on visual acuity test scores from 1983 to 2000 when conscription attendance rates were close to 100% among Swedish males. We defined the highest test score (9/9) as normal, and 0-8/9 as decreased visual acuity. RESULTS. The mean (+/-SD) visual acuity score was similar in all three groups: reference individuals, 8.03+/-1.46; undiagnosed CD, 8.04+/-1.37; diagnosed CD, 8.02+/-1.50 (median test score in all three groups was 8/9). The prevalence of decreased visual acuity (0-8/9) did not differ according to CD status (reference individuals: 35.3%; undiagnosed CD: 36.2%; diagnosed CD: 36.0%) (p=0.890). CONCLUSION. In young men, CD does not affect visual acuity. PMID:19891580

Mollazadegan, Kaziwe; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

2009-01-01

66

‘Visual’ Acuity of the Congenitally Blind Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution  

PubMed Central

Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) convey visual information through sounds or touch, thus theoretically enabling a form of visual rehabilitation in the blind. However, for clinical use, these devices must provide fine-detailed visual information which was not yet shown for this or other means of visual restoration. To test the possible functional acuity conveyed by such devices, we used the Snellen acuity test conveyed through a high-resolution visual-to-auditory SSD (The vOICe). We show that congenitally fully blind adults can exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) blindness acuity threshold using SSDs, reaching the highest acuity reported yet with any visual rehabilitation approach. This demonstrates the potential capacity of SSDs as inexpensive, non-invasive visual rehabilitation aids, alone or when supplementing visual prostheses. PMID:22438894

Striem-Amit, Ella; Guendelman, Miriam; Amedi, Amir

2012-01-01

67

A new paradigm to induce mental stress: the Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST)  

PubMed Central

We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages on a screen, interleaved with 1-min time intervals. The final message is that the participant should sing a song aloud after the interval has elapsed. Participants sit still during the whole procedure. We found that heart rate and skin conductance during the 1-min intervals following the sing-a-song stress message are substantially higher than during intervals following neutral messages. The order of magnitude of the rise is comparable to that achieved by the Trier Social Stress Test. Skin conductance increase correlates positively with experienced stress level as reported by participants. We also simulated stress detection in real time. When using both skin conductance and heart rate, stress is detected for 18 out of 20 participants, approximately 10 s after onset of the sing-a-song message. In conclusion, the Sing-a-Song Stress Test provides a quick, easy, controlled and potent way to induce mental stress and could be helpful in studies ranging from examining physiological effects of mental stress to evaluating interventions to reduce stress. PMID:25120425

Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

2014-01-01

68

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(2) Provided that he or she customarily wears contact lenses, evaluate the visual acuity of any individual affected by a corneal disorder that results in severe irregular astigmatism that can be improved more by contact lenses than by eyeglass lenses, as corrected by contact...

2010-07-01

69

A pilot test of the CM-GAF among offenders with mental disorders.  

PubMed

A pilot test of clinician-rated validity of scores on a Correction Modified-Global Assessment of Functioning (CM-GAF) scale was performed by assessing a random sample of 60 adult male and female offenders at two correctional facilities. Pairs of trained clinicians assessed the offenders with the CM-GAF and GAF instruments. Regression analyses were conducted. Variables included in the analysis were demographic characteristics (age, gender, and race), criminal history (number of incarcerations, violent/non-violent offense, year of current incarceration), number of disciplinary reports (tickets), and Connecticut Department of Corrections (CDOC) risk scores. The model for the CM-GAF yielded one significant predictor variable, Presence of Pending Charges Risk Score (B = -7.25, p = .003), predicting 44.4% of the variance. This finding suggests that higher functioning offenders tend not to have pending charges, which may be a proxy for length of incarceration. Newly admitted offenders are more likely to have pending charges and more likely to exhibit disruptive and disorganized behaviors. Management of mentally ill persons who are incarcerated is facilitated when inter-professional frontline staff can communicate using a common language. Frequent assessment with an instrument that is understandable across disciplines has the potential to improve care, and as few standardized mental health instruments are modified and tested for use in the prison environment. Additional studies, refining scoring across subsamples by age, race, gender, diagnosis, and levels of security, are still needed. PMID:25517126

Shelton, Deborah; Wakai, Sara

2015-01-01

70

The neural correlates of learned motor acuity.  

PubMed

We recently defined a component of motor skill learning as "motor acuity," quantified as a shift in the speed-accuracy trade-off function for a task. These shifts are primarily driven by reductions in movement variability. To determine the neural correlates of improvement in motor acuity, we devised a motor task compatible with magnetic resonance brain imaging that required subjects to make finely controlled wrist movements under visual guidance. Subjects were imaged on day 1 and day 5 while they performed this task and were trained outside the scanner on intervening days 2, 3, and 4. The potential confound of performance changes between days 1 and 5 was avoided by constraining movement time to a fixed duration. After training, subjects showed a marked increase in success rate and a reduction in trial-by-trial variability for the trained task but not for an untrained control task, without changes in mean trajectory. The decrease in variability for the trained task was associated with increased activation in contralateral primary motor and premotor cortical areas and in ipsilateral cerebellum. A global nonlocalizing multivariate analysis confirmed that learning was associated with increased overall brain activation. We suggest that motor acuity is acquired through increases in the number of neurons recruited in contralateral motor cortical areas and in ipsilateral cerebellum, which could reflect increased signal-to-noise ratio in motor output and improved state estimation for feedback corrections, respectively. PMID:24848466

Shmuelof, Lior; Yang, Juemin; Caffo, Brian; Mazzoni, Pietro; Krakauer, John W

2014-08-15

71

Genetic testing and Alzheimer's disease: implications for psychiatric-mental health nursing.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of irreversible dementia, continues to grow in prevalence as well as public health impact. Extensive research into the genetic etiology of AD has yielded knowledge of some genetic factors that are causative and other genetic factors that increase risk for disease. Consequently, the possibility of genetic testing in individuals with or at risk for AD is a question that nurses may be asked. Psychiatric-mental health (PMH) professionals are in key positions to influence the care of individuals who are considering the effect of genetic information on their health care decisions. Whether by working within interdisciplinary genetic counseling teams to provide direct specialty services or by developing skills to identify and refer individuals at risk for or concerned about their risk for AD, PMH nurses can play an important role in the health care of individuals and families experiencing AD. PMID:24124693

Schutte, Debra L

2013-11-01

72

Evaluation of vernier acuity near healed retinal laser lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven Cynomolgus fasciculata who had graded laser lesions placed in own eye 6 years previously were evaluated for their vernier acuity by electrophysiologic recording techniques. In these experiments, 95 percent contrast vernier acuity targets were presented at high luminance levels to anesthetized primates. Visual evoked potentials were recorded by conventional means form scalp electrodes through hospital grade amplifiers. All animal testing was performed under IACUC approved protocols. The single q-switched pulses form a neodymium-YAG laser had produced lesions of 4 types: no visible change, minimal visible lesions, 'white dot' lesions and 'red dot' lesions in the eye at the time of placement. Single exposures had been made in four locations: 5 degrees superior, inferior and temporal to the fovea, and one foveally. Vernier recording proved somewhat successful in smaller animals with less than contained retinal hemorrhage lesions in the fovea. Initial analyses demonstrated a significant decrease of the pattern response signal/noise in the experimental eye overall, and an apparent relative loss of vernier signal in some lesioned eyes. Animals with the more severe lesions have somewhat degraded small patten responses and no recordable vernier response. Apparent lesser losses produced less effect.

Schmeisser, Elmar T.

1997-05-01

73

Glare sensitivity and visual acuity after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), an increase in glare sensitivity and a reduction in contrast sensitivity can occur owing to changes in the cornea (structure and topography). In this study, an attempt was made to quantify and document objectively a change in those subjective perceptual factors.?METHODS—Snellen visual acuity and disability glare were measured with the Berkeley glare test preoperatively as well as 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively, after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on 32 myopic patients (46 eyes). During the postoperative progress checks, haze was graded and contrast sensitivity was measured with the Vistech chart. All the data were statistically analysed by multiple regression.?RESULTS—One year after PRK, a reduction in visual acuity (VA) measured with the low acuity contrast chart (10%) with and without glare could still be found, despite the fact that acuity measurements with a high contrast Snellen chart showed the same VA 6 months postoperatively as well as before the treatment. The lowest VA could be measured 1 month postoperatively; thereafter, the acuity increased despite the increase in haze that occurred during the first 3 months.?CONCLUSION—Disability glare and a reduction in contrast sensitivity could be observed in most patients after PRK treatment with the Meditec laser system with its scanning slit. The future will show if new technology and a broader flattening area of 6 to 7 mm can minimise these postoperative complications.?? PMID:9059248

Niesen, U.; Businger, U.; Hartmann, P.; Senn, P.; Schipper, I.

1997-01-01

74

Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Yourself : Mental Health Translate Text Size Print Mental Health What is Mental Health? â??Mental healthâ?ť refers to your emotional, psychological, ... people living with HIV. Why is Positive Mental Health Important for People Living with HIV? Your mental ...

75

Building Mental Health Professionals' Decisional Models into Tests of Predictive Validity: The Accuracy of Contextualized Predictions of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To safely manage potentially violent patients in the community, mental health professionals (MHPs) must assess when and under what conditions a patient may be involved in a violent act. This study applies a more ecologically sensitive approach than past research by building the conditions that MHPs believe make patient violence more likely into tests of their predictive validity. In specific,

Jennifer L. Skeem; Edward P. Mulvey; Charles W. Lidz

2000-01-01

76

On the Myth and the Reality of the Temporal Validity Degradation of General Mental Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims of changes in the validity coefficients associated with general mental ability (GMA) tests due to the passage of time (i.e., temporal validity degradation) have been the focus of an on-going debate in applied psychology. To evaluate whether and, if so, under what conditions this degradation may occur, we integrate evidence from multiple…

Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

2011-01-01

77

The Impact of Visual Acuity on Age-Related Differences in Neural Markers of Early Visual Processing  

PubMed Central

The extent to which age-related differences in neural markers of visual processing are influenced by changes in visual acuity has not been systematically investigated. Studies often indicate that their subjects had normal or corrected-to-normal vision, but the assessment of visual acuity seems to most frequently be based only on self-report. Consistent with prior research, to be included in the current study, subjects had to report normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Additionally, visual acuity was formally tested using a Snellen eye chart. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were studied in young adults (18–32 years old), young-old adults (65–79 years old), and old-old adults (80+ years old) while they performed a visual processing task involving selective attention to color. Age-related differences in the latency and amplitude of ERP markers of early visual processing, the posterior P1 and N1 components, were examined. All results were then re-analyzed after controlling for visual acuity. We found that visual acuity declined as a function of age. Accounting for visual acuity had an impact on whether older and younger adults differed significantly in the size and latency of the posterior P1 and N1 components. After controlling for visual acuity, age-related increases in P1 and N1 latency did not remain significant, and older adults were found to have a larger P1 amplitude than young adults. Our results suggest that until the relationship between age-associated differences in visual acuity and early ERPs is clearly established, investigators should be cautious when interpreting the meaning of their findings. Self-reports about visual acuity may be inaccurate, necessitating formal measures. Additional investigation is needed to help establish guidelines for future research, especially of very old adults. PMID:23153966

Daffner, Kirk R.; Haring, Anna E.; Alperin, Brittany R.; Zhuravleva, Tatyana Y.; Mott, Katherine K.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

2012-01-01

78

Developing a reliable and valid scale to measure psychosocial acuity.  

PubMed

This tool is a unique comprehensive scale and methodology to measure the psychosocial acuity of patients and families across a health care continuum. Coupled with other measures, psychosocial acuity can tell a complete and compelling story of social work contributions and aid in resource alignment. Accurately conveying the full scope of social work value to anyone, especially health system leadership, requires that the psychosocial acuity of the patient and family be measured and factored into the equation, along with productivity, time spent, and services provided. The development and utilization of the Psychosocial Acuity Tool is the focus of this publication. PMID:24835092

Klett, Stacey; Firn, Janice; Abney, Nina; Battles, Alethia; Harrington, Jack; Vantine, Aimee

2014-01-01

79

Method for identifying amblyopes whose reduced line acuity is caused by defective selection and/or control of gaze.  

PubMed

Three visual tests were administered to a group of 15 amblyopic children, 15 adult amblyopes and two age-matched control groups, each of 20 subjects. Test results comprised visual acuity for recognizing high contrast letters presented in line (i.e. Snellen) format, isolated-letter format and repeat-letter format. The classical Snellen format confounds the effects of gaze control defects with the effects of adjacent contours on a patient's ability to recognize a foveated letter. We designed a repeat-letter format intended to unconfound these effects. The repeat letter format is much less sensitive to gaze control defects, and somewhat more sensitive to adjacent contour interactions than is the Snellen format. We report that amblyopic eyes can be subdivided empirically into three repeat-letter categories: repeat-letter acuity significantly better than Snellen acuity; repeat letter acuity not significantly different from Snellen acuity; and repeat letter acuity significantly worse than Snellen acuity. We report that this subdivision cuts across the clinical subclassification of amblyopia and also across the crowding/no crowding subclassification. We suggest that, rather than abnormal lateral interactions, defective selection and/or control of gaze is an important factor in depressed visual acuity in amblyopic eyes of the first repeat-letter category but not for the third type, in which abnormal lateral interactions may be important. To test the hypothesis that the response to patching and refractive therapy may be less satisfactory in our first category of amblyopic eyes, we are carrying out a prospective study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1293529

Regan, D; Giaschi, D E; Kraft, S P; Kothe, A C

1992-10-01

80

A Cross-Sectional Test of the Similar-Trajectory Hypothesis among Adults with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The similar-sequence and the similar-structure hypotheses are the two mainstays of the developmental approach to mental retardation. In the present study, a third way, the similar-trajectory hypothesis, is described and illustrated using the WAIS-R results of adults with and without mental retardation aged from 20 to 54 years. The whole sample (N…

Facon, Bruno

2008-01-01

81

Two types of foveation strategy in 'latent' nystagmus: fixation, visual acuity and stability.  

PubMed

The authors studied the foveation dynamics of two individuals with latent/manifest latent nystagmus (LMLN) to test the hypothesis that oscillopsia suppression and good visual acuity require periods of accurate target foveation at low slip velocities. Congenital nystagmus (CN) waveforms contain post-saccadic foveation periods; the LMLN waveform does not and yet allows for both oscillopsia suppression and good acuity. During fixation with both eyes open, there were intervals when the eyes were still and correctly aligned; at other times, there was esotropia and nystagmus with slow-phase velocities less than +/- 4 deg/sec and each fast phase pointed the fovea of the fixating eye at the target. However, cover of either eye produced LN and a different strategy was employed: the fast phases carried the fixating eye past the target and the fovea subsequently reacquired it during the slowest parts of the slow phases. The authors confirmed this in both subjects, whose high acuities were made possible by foveation occuring during the low-velocity portions of their slow phases. A nystagmus foveation function (NFF), originally developed for CN, was calculated for both LN and MLN intervals of fixation and it was found to track visual acuity less accurately for individuals with high acuity. Individuals with LMLN exhibit two different foveation strategies: during low-amplitude LMLN, the target is foveated immediately after the fast phases; and during high-amplitude LMLN, target foveation occurs towards the end of the slow phases. Therefore, the saccadic system can be used to create retinal error rather than eliminate it if this strategy is beneficial. Individuals with LMLN foveated targets with the same eye-position and -velocity accuracy as those with CN and the NFF provides a rough estimate of acuity in both. Current calibration methods for both infrared and search-coil techniques need to be altered for subjects with LMLN. PMID:11542501

Dell'Osso, L F; Leigh, R J; Sheth, N V; Daroff, R B

1995-08-01

82

A new specialized visual acuity chart for amblyopic children aged 3-5 years old: development and its clinical applications  

PubMed Central

AIM To introduce a new specialized visual acuity chart for amblyopic children aged 3-5 years old and its clinical applications. METHODS The new visual acuity chart and notations were designed based on Weber-Fechner law. The optotypes were red against a white background and were specially shaped four basic geometric symbols: circle, square, triangle, and cross. A regular geometric progression of the optotype sizes and distribution was employed to arrange in 14 lines. The progression rate of the optotype size between two lines was 1.2589 and the testing distance was 3m. Visual acuity score could be recorded as logMAR notation or decimal notation. Age-stratified diagnostic criteria for amblyopia established by consensus statement on diagnosis of amblyopia (2011) among members of the Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology Group, Ophthalmology Society, Chinese Medical Association (SPOGOSCMA) were illustrated in the new visual acuity chart. RESULTS When assessing visual acuity in children aged 3-5 years old, this new visual acuity chart that consists of four symmetrical shapes (triangle, square, cross, and circle) overcame an inability to recognize the letters of the alphabet and difficulties in designating the direction of black abstract symbols such as the tumbling ‘E’ or Landolt ‘C’, which the subjects were prone to lose interest in. The visual acuity score may be recorded in different notations: decimal acuity and logMAR. These two notations can be easily converted each other in the new eye chart. The measurements of this new chart not only showed a significant correlation and a good consistency with the international standard logarithmic visual acuity chart (r=0.932, P<0.01), but also indicated a high test-retest reliability (89% of retest scores were within 0.1logMAR units of the initial test score). CONCLUSION The results of this study support the validity and reliability of distance visual acuity measurements using the new eye chart in children aged 3 to 5 years over a wide range of visual acuities, and the new eye chart is great for early detection of amblyopia. It can be applied in various clinical settings. PMID:24392335

Huang, Yang-Qing; Huang, He; Huang, Rong-Zhi

2013-01-01

83

49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section...Eligibility Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each...paragraph (j) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed...

2012-10-01

84

49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section...Eligibility Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each...paragraph (j) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed...

2013-10-01

85

A Comparison of Patched HOTV Visual Acuity and Photoscreening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early detection of significant vision problems in children is a high priority for pediatricians and school nurses. Routine vision screening is a necessary part of that detection and has traditionally involved acuity charts. However, photoscreening in which "red eye" is elicited to show whether each eye is focusing may outperform routine acuity

Leman, Rachel; Clausen, Michelle M.; Bates, Janice; Stark, Lee; Arnold, Koni K.; Arnold, Robert W.

2006-01-01

86

Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

Albrecht, Matthew A.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Falkmer, Marita; Ordqvist, Anna; Leung, Denise; Foster, Jonathan K.; Falkmer, Torbjorn

2014-01-01

87

A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

2013-01-01

88

The MOS 36Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional data from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) were analyzed to test the validity of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scales as measures of physical and mental health constructs. Results from traditional psychometric and clinical tests of validity were compared. Principal components analysis was used to test for hypothesized physical and mental health dimensions. For purposes of clinical

Colleen A. McHorney; Ware John E. Jr; Anastasia E. Raczek

1993-01-01

89

Visual acuity in pelagic fishes and mollusks.  

PubMed

In the sea, visual scenes change dramatically with depth. At shallow and moderate depths (<1,000 m), there is enough light for animals to see the surfaces and shapes of prey, predators, and conspecifics. This changes below 1,000 m, where no downwelling daylight remains and the only source of light is bioluminescence. These different visual scenes require different visual adaptations and eye morphologies. In this study we investigate how the optical characteristics of animal lenses correlate with depth and ecology. We measured the radius, focal length, and optical quality of the lenses of pelagic fishes, cephalopods, and a gastropod using a custom-built apparatus. The hatchetfishes (Argyropelecus aculeatus and Sternoptyx diaphana) and the barrel-eye (Opisthoproctus soleatus) were found to have the best lenses, which may allow them to break the counterillumination camouflage of their prey. The heteropod lens had unidirectional aberrations that matched its ribbon-shaped retina. We also found that lens angular resolution increased with depth. Due to a similar trend in the angular separation between adjacent ganglion cells in the retinas of fishes, the perceived visual contrast at the retinal cutoff frequency was constant with depth. The increase in acuity with depth allows the predators to focus all the available light bioluminescent prey animals emit and detect their next meal. PMID:23998988

Gagnon, Yakir L; Sutton, Tracey T; Johnsen, Sönke

2013-11-01

90

Nursing Acuity Sensitive Decision Support System  

PubMed Central

It has been widely accepted that there is a need to sensitize hospital planning and budgeting to the changing staffing requirements caused by reimbursement, regulation, and demographic shifts. Direct patient care providers, primarily nurses, are typically one-quarter to one-third of a hospital's personnel pool and comprise an even quarter share of a hospital's budget. In most instances, their services are neither directly charged for, nor are they directly reimbursed. We have created a modeling tool that incorporates nursing acuity scores into a clinical cost accounting-decision support system. We have used this tool successfully for decision support management reporting and analysis. The resultant examination is far more sensitive to shifts in nursing hours of care and therefore permits managers to plan and implement staffing changes that more accurately reflect nursing needs. We feel this type of tool will help in the recruitment and retention of a valued and shrinking portion of our personnel pool by providing for more rational and realistic decision making.

Weitzman, Leslie J.; Clapham, Kathleen T.

1989-01-01

91

Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers  

PubMed Central

Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children‘s food texture preferences. PMID:22711981

Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

2012-01-01

92

Large State-Level Fluctuations in Mental Retardation Classifications Related to Introduction of Renormed Intelligence Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence…

Scullin, Matthew H.

2006-01-01

93

Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates

Bengt Svensson; Urban Markström; Ulrika Bejerholm; Tommy Björkman; David Brunt; Mona Eklund; Lars Hansson; Christel Leufstadius; Amanda Lundvik Gyllensten; Mikael Sandlund; Margareta Östman

2011-01-01

94

Submitted for publication The Sex Difference on Mental Rotation Tests Is Not  

E-print Network

a Difference in Mental Rotation Ability Carole K. Hooven* Department of Anthropology, Harvard University Christopher F. Chabris* Department of Psychology, Union College Peter T. Ellison Department of Anthropology rotation per se, but rather in other aspects of task performance. Our results show that males decide more

Chabris, Christopher F.

95

Acuity of the approximate number system and preschoolers' quantitative development.  

PubMed

The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics achievement following one year of preschool, and predicted performance on measures of children's explicit knowledge of Arabic numerals, number words, and cardinal value, controlling for age, sex, parental education, intelligence, executive control, and preliteracy knowledge. The relation between ANS acuity, as measured by the Weber fraction and task accuracy, and mathematics achievement was fully mediated by children's performance on the symbolic quantitative tasks, with knowledge of cardinal value emerging as a particularly important mediator. The overall pattern suggests that ANS acuity facilitates the early learning of symbolic quantitative knowledge and indirectly influences mathematics achievement through this knowledge. PMID:24498980

van Marle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W; Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

2014-07-01

96

Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

2009-08-01

97

Olfactory acuity in theropods: palaeobiological and evolutionary implications  

PubMed Central

This research presents the first quantitative evaluation of the olfactory acuity in extinct theropod dinosaurs. Olfactory ratios (i.e. the ratio of the greatest diameter of the olfactory bulb to the greatest diameter of the cerebral hemisphere) are analysed in order to infer the olfactory acuity and behavioural traits in theropods, as well as to identify phylogenetic trends in olfaction within Theropoda. A phylogenetically corrected regression of olfactory ratio to body mass reveals that, relative to predicted values, the olfactory bulbs of (i) tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids are significantly larger, (ii) ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids are significantly smaller, and (iii) ceratosaurians, allosauroids, basal tyrannosauroids, troodontids and basal birds are within the 95% CI. Relative to other theropods, olfactory acuity was high in tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids and therefore olfaction would have played an important role in their ecology, possibly for activities in low-light conditions, locating food, or for navigation within large home ranges. Olfactory acuity was the lowest in ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids, suggesting a reduced reliance on olfaction and perhaps an omnivorous diet in these theropods. Phylogenetic trends in olfaction among theropods reveal that olfactory acuity did not decrease in the ancestry of birds, as troodontids, dromaeosaurids and primitive birds possessed typical or high olfactory acuity. Thus, the sense of smell must have remained important in primitive birds and its presumed decrease associated with the increased importance of sight did not occur until later among more derived birds. PMID:18957367

Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Therrien, François; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

2008-01-01

98

Test Response Patterns which Differentiate between Two Levels of Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interrelations between mental age (MA), IQ, and mediation were studied in 72 retardates in special classes. Subjects were selected to fall into sexually balanced groups of six in 12 MA-IQ categories (IQ 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80-89; MA 4-0 to 5-11, 6-0 to 7-11, and 8-0 to 9-11). The apparatus alternately displayed two pairs of stimuli, and…

Boswell, James D.

99

The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel ( Falco sparverius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was used to measure the visual acuity and refractive state of nine American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Visual acuity was determined from psychometric functions of PERG amplitude vs. spatial frequency. Refractive state was measured by finding the trial lens that resulted in the highest acuity. All nine kestrels were found to be emmetropic. Their median visual acuity

Matthew F. Gaffney; William Hodos

2003-01-01

100

The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).  

PubMed

The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was used to measure the visual acuity and refractive state of nine American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Visual acuity was determined from psychometric functions of PERG amplitude vs. spatial frequency. Refractive state was measured by finding the trial lens that resulted in the highest acuity. All nine kestrels were found to be emmetropic. Their median visual acuity was 29 c/deg. The PERG, however, underestimates behaviorally determined visual acuity by approximately 37%. When adjusted for this underestimation, the median kestrel acuity was 46 c/deg. The visual acuity of American kestrels is compared to reports in the literature of 17 other species of birds. PMID:12842158

Gaffney, Matthew F; Hodos, William

2003-09-01

101

The Influence of Auditory Acuity on Acoustic Variability and the Use of Motor Equivalence during Adaptation to a Perturbation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to relate speakers' auditory acuity for the sibilant contrast, their use of motor equivalent trading relationships in producing the sibilant /[esh]/, and their produced acoustic distance between the sibilants /s/ and /[esh]/. Specifically, the study tested the hypotheses that during adaptation to a perturbation…

Brunner, Jana; Ghosh, Satrajit; Hoole, Philip; Matthies, Melanie; Tiede, Mark; Perkell, Joseph

2011-01-01

102

Education enhances the acuity of the nonverbal approximate number system.  

PubMed

All humans share a universal, evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) that estimates and combines the numbers of objects in sets with ratio-limited precision. Interindividual variability in the acuity of the ANS correlates with mathematical achievement, but the causes of this correlation have never been established. We acquired psychophysical measures of ANS acuity in child and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucú, who have a very restricted numerical lexicon and highly variable access to mathematics education. By comparing Mundurucú subjects with and without access to schooling, we found that education significantly enhances the acuity with which sets of concrete objects are estimated. These results indicate that culture and education have an important effect on basic number perception. We hypothesize that symbolic and nonsymbolic numerical thinking mutually enhance one another over the course of mathematics instruction. PMID:23625879

Piazza, Manuela; Pica, Pierre; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dehaene, Stanislas

2013-06-01

103

The effect of chromatic aberration on visual acuity  

PubMed Central

1. Differences of threshold contrast are predicted from optical theory for a grating acuity target in monochromatic and white light. The greatest differences, up to 65%, are predicted for gratings of lower contrast and pitch than those normally used in measurements of visual acuity. 2. Using three subjects, we measured contrast thresholds with 1·5 and 2·5 mm diameter artificial pupils for natural and paralysed accommodation, using a tungsten lamp and wave-lengths of 546 and 578 mm. 3. Excellent agreement is obtained between predicted and measured differences. 4. Results confirm that observed acuity and sensitivity differences between white and monochromatic lights are largely optical in origin, but involve at least two independent colour mechanisms as spectral weighting functions. Stiles's ?4 and ?5 sensitivities afford a much better fit to observed differences than the C.I.E. visibility curve. PMID:6050153

Campbell, F. W.; Gubisch, R. W.

1967-01-01

104

Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein ?3 (GNB3), also known as transducin ?3 or G?3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of G?3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells. (Ritchey et al. 2010)FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by G?3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and G?3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus. PMID:22824538

Ritchey, Eric R.; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A.; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J.

2012-01-01

105

Fresnel prisms and their effects on visual acuity and binocularity.  

PubMed Central

1. The visual acuity with the Fresnel membrane prism is significantly less than that with the conventional prism of the same power for all prism powers from 12 delta through 30 delata at distance and from 15 delta through 30 delta at near. 2. The difference in the visual acuity between base up and base down, and between base in and base out, is not significantly different for either the Fresnel membrane prism or for the conventional prism. 3. For both Fresnel membrane prism and the conventional prism, the visual acuity when looking straight ahead. 4. Using Fresnel membrane prisms of the same power from different lots, the visual acuity varied significantly. The 30 delta prism caused the widest range in visual acuity. 5. When normal subjects are fitted with the higher powers of the Fresnel membrane prism, fusion and stereopsis are disrupted to such an extent that the use of this device to restore or to improve binocular vision in cases with large-angle deviations is seriously questioned. 6. Moreover, the disruption of fusion and stereopsis is abrupt and severe and does not parallel the decrease in visual acuity. The severely reduced ability to maintain fusion may be related to the optical aberrations, which, in turn, may be due to the molding process and the polyvinyl chloride molding material. 7. Through the flexibility of the membrane prism is a definite advantage, because of its proclivity to reduce visual acuity and increase aberrations its prescription for adults often must be limited to only one eye. 8. For the same reasons in the young child with binocular vision problems, the membrane prism presently available should be prescribed over both eyes only in powers less than 20 delta. When the membrane prism is to be used as a partial occluder (over one eye only), any power can be used. 9. The new Fresnel "hard" prism reduces visual acuity minimally and rarely disrupts binocularity, thus increasing the potential for prismotherapy to establish binocularity. This prism is currently available only for use as a trial set. Since the cosmetic appearance of the Fresnel "hard" prism is similar to that of the Fresnel membrane prism and it is easier to maintain, it would be the prism of choice (over all other types) for bilateral prescriptions in the young patient with emmetropia. The manufacturer is urged to make these prisms available to fit a special round adjustable frame, such as that developed in Europe for use with the wafer prism. Images FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 12 PMID:754384

Véronneau-Troutman, S

1978-01-01

106

Effects of distance and duration on vertical dynamic visual acuity in screening healthy adults and people with vestibular disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) testing may be a useful, indirect indicator of vestibulo-ocular reflex function. Previous evidence shows that acuity for 2 m targets differs little between patients and normals using a 75 ms display duration and that healthy subjects do not differ in acuity when standing and walking while viewing a far target but they do differ when viewing a near target. Objective Improve the protocol of a screening tool by testing the hypothesis that healthy control subjects and patients and with unilateral peripheral vestibular weakness differ on DVA when viewing far targets while seated. Methods Controls and patients were tested while they were seated in a chair that oscillated vertically at 2 Hz. They viewed a computer screen 4 m away, while stationary and while moving, with viewing times of either 75 ms or 500 ms. Results The amount of change between static and dynamic conditions did not differ significantly between patients and controls for the 75 ms condition but controls had lower difference scores than patients when using the 500 ms duration. The ROC value was low, 0.68. Compared to historical data using the 75 ms duration at a distance of 2 m, subjects in both diagnostic groups had better visual acuity at the 75 ms/ 4 m distance. Conclusions These results suggest that using the longer duration is better for differentiating patients from healthy controls and they support previous evidence showing that near target viewing is more challenging. PMID:24447968

Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2013-01-01

107

How well do you see what you hear? The acuity of visual-to-auditory sensory substitution  

PubMed Central

Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) aim to compensate for the loss of a sensory modality, typically vision, by converting information from the lost modality into stimuli in a remaining modality. “The vOICe” is a visual-to-auditory SSD which encodes images taken by a camera worn by the user into “soundscapes” such that experienced users can extract information about their surroundings. Here we investigated how much detail was resolvable during the early induction stages by testing the acuity of blindfolded sighted, naďve vOICe users. Initial performance was well above chance. Participants who took the test twice as a form of minimal training showed a marked improvement on the second test. Acuity was slightly but not significantly impaired when participants wore a camera and judged letter orientations “live”. A positive correlation was found between participants' musical training and their acuity. The relationship between auditory expertise via musical training and the lack of a relationship with visual imagery, suggests that early use of a SSD draws primarily on the mechanisms of the sensory modality being used rather than the one being substituted. If vision is lost, audition represents the sensory channel of highest bandwidth of those remaining. The level of acuity found here, and the fact it was achieved with very little experience in sensory substitution by naďve users is promising. PMID:23785345

Haigh, Alastair; Brown, David J.; Meijer, Peter; Proulx, Michael J.

2013-01-01

108

Monocular and binocular low-contrast visual acuity and optical coherence tomography in pediatric multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Low-contrast letter acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) capture visual dysfunction and axonal loss in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been proposed as secondary outcome metrics for therapeutic trials. Clinical trials will soon be launched in pediatric MS, but such outcome metrics have not been well-validated in this population. Objectives To determine whether MS onset during childhood and adolescence is associated with measurable loss of visual acuity and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), whether such features are noted only in the context of clinical optic nerve inflammation (optic neuritis, ON) or are a feature of MS even in the absence of optic nerve relapses, and to define the optimal methods for such detection. Study design Cross-sectional study Methods Monocular and binocular high- and low-contrast letter acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed in a cross-sectional cohort of children (ages 5 to 17 years) with MS (N=22 patients, 44 eyes; 8 patients with a history of ON) and disease-free controls (N=29 patients; 58 eyes) from three academic centers. Binocular summation was determined by calculating the number of letters correctly identified using the binocular score minus the better eye score for each visual test. RNFL thickness was measured using OCT (Stratus OCT-3). Results were analyzed in terms of “eyes” as: MS ON+, MS ON?, and control eyes. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to compare patients to controls. Results Traditional high-contrast visual acuity scores did not differ between MS ON+, MS ON?, and controls eyes. MS ON+ eyes had decreased monocular (p<0.001) and decreased binocular (p=0.007) low-contrast letter acuity (Sloan 1.25% contrast charts) scores. Monocular visual acuity did not differ when comparing MS ON? and control eyes. The magnitude of binocular summation using low-contrast charts was similar for pediatric MS participants and controls and was not diminished in children with a history of ON. While the mean RNFL thickness for all MS eyes (103±17 ?m) trended lower when compared to corresponding measures in control eyes (109±9 ?m, p=0.085), we confirmed a highly significant reduction in mean RNFL thickness in MS eyes with a history of ON (86±22 ?m, p<0.001). RNFL thickness of MS ON? eyes in pediatric MS patients (109±11 ?m) did not differ from controls (p=0.994). Conclusions Low-contrast letter acuity detects subtle visual loss in MS patients with prior ON, consistent with incomplete recovery, a finding further supported by RNFL loss in ON affected eyes. In MS patients with prior unilateral ON, binocular acuity is decreased; however, the magnitude of binocular summation is preserved, unlike adult-onset MS who exhibit a reduced capacity for visual compensation in the context of unilateral injury. Also unlike findings in adult-onset MS, we did not demonstrate RNFL thinning in ON? eyes of children and adolescents with MS. Further validation is required to confirm whether neurodegeneration of visual pathways occurs in the absence of relapse, and thus whether OCT will serve as a sensitive metric for such pathology in the pediatric and adolescent MS context. PMID:24683535

Waldman, Amy T.; Hiremath, Girish; Avery, Robert A.; Conger, Amy; Pineles, Stacy L.; Loguidice, Michael J.; Talman, Lauren S.; Galetta, Kristin M.; Shumski, Michael J.; Wilson, James; Ford, E'tona; Lavery, Amy M.; Conger, Darrel; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Frohman, Elliot M.; Balcer, Laura J.; Calabresi, Peter A.

2014-01-01

109

Dynamic Visual Acuity of Varsity Women Volleyball and Basketball Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) scores of high-ability and low-ability female basketball players, and between these two groups and a group of female volleyball players, resulted in the conclusion that there were no differences in the mean DVA scores between any of the groups. (MB)

Morris, G. S. Don; Kreighbaum, Ellen

1977-01-01

110

Fundamental Causes of Housing Loss among Persons Diagnosed with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: A Theoretically Guided Test  

PubMed Central

Previous research on housing loss among severely mentally ill persons who have been placed in housing after being homeless has been largely atheoretical and has yielded inconsistent results. We develop a theory of housing loss based on identifying fundamental causes—problems in motives, means and social situation—and test these influences in a longitudinal, randomized comparison of housing alternatives. As hypothesized, individuals were more likely to lose housing if they had a history of alcohol or drug abuse, desired strongly to live independently contrary to clinician recommendations, or were African Americans placed in independent housing. Deficits in daily functioning did not explain these influences, but contributed to risk of housing loss. Our results demonstrate the importance of substance abuse, the value of distinguishing support preferences from support needs, and the necessity of explaining effects of race within a social context and thus should help to improve comparative research. PMID:20161654

Schutt, Russell K.; Goldfinger, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

111

Cognitive mediation of rape's mental, physical, and social health impact: tests of four models in cross-sectional data.  

PubMed

Four nested, theoretically specified, increasingly complex models were tested representing cognitive mediation of rape's effects on mental, physical, and social health. Data were cross-sectional (N = 253 rape survivors). Outcomes were standardized assessments of social maladjustment, physical, and psychological symptoms, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The best-fitting model was not fully cognitively mediated. Personological and rape characteristics influenced the level of self-blame experienced and the intensity of maladaptive beliefs about self and others. Self-blame and maladaptive beliefs predicted psychological distress, which strongly influenced all health outcomes. Self-ratings of rape memory characteristics contributed little to predicting postrape distress. The model accounted for 56% of the variance in general distress, including 91% of psychological symptom severity; 54% of PTSD symptoms; 65% of social maladjustment; and 17% of physical symptoms. Longitudinal replication is planned. PMID:12182276

Koss, Mary P; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Prince, Ronald J

2002-08-01

112

Psychiatrists’ views of the genetic bases of mental disorders and behavioral traits and their utilization of genetic tests  

PubMed Central

We examined how 372 psychiatrists view genetic aspects of mental disorders and behaviors, and use genetic tests (GTs). Most thought the genetic contribution was moderate/high for several disorders (e.g. bipolar, schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer’s, intelligence, creativity, anxiety, suicidality). In the past 6 months, 14.1% ordered GTs, 18.3% discussed prenatal testing with patients, 36.0% initiated discussions about other GTs, 41.6% had patients ask about GTs, and 5.3% excluded GT results from patient records. Many thought that GTs were available for schizophrenia (24.3%) and major depression (19.6%). Women were more likely to report that patients asked about GTs; and were less certain about the degree of genetic contribution to several disorders. Psychiatrists perceive strong genetic bases for numerous disorders and traits; and many have discussed and ordered tests for GTs; but have relatively little knowledge about available tests. These data suggest possible gender differences in psychiatrist’s beliefs about genetic contributions to disorders; and have implications for future research, education, policy, and care. PMID:24933415

Abbate, Kristopher J.; Chung, Wendy; Marder, Karen; Ottman, Ruth; Taber, Katherine Johansen; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Appelbaum, Paul S.

2014-01-01

113

Visual acuity in larval zebrafish: behavior and histology  

PubMed Central

Background Visual acuity, the ability of the visual system to distinguish two separate objects at a given angular distance, is influenced by the optical and neuronal properties of the visual system. Although many factors may contribute, the ultimate limit is photoreceptor spacing. In general, at least one unstimulated photoreceptor flanked by two stimulated ones is needed to perceive two objects as separate. This critical interval is also referred to as the Nyquist frequency and is according to the Shannon sampling theorem the highest spatial frequency where a pattern can be faithfully transmitted. We measured visual acuity in a behavioral experiment and compared the data to the physical limit given by photoreceptor spacing in zebrafish larvae. Results We determined visual acuity by using the optokinetic response (OKR), reflexive eye movements in response to whole field movements of the visual scene. By altering the spatial frequency we determined the visual acuity at approximately 0.16 cycles/degree (cpd) (minimum separable angle = 3.1°). On histological sections we measured the retinal magnification factor and the distance between double cones, that are thought to mediate motion perception. These measurements set the physical limit at 0.24 cpd (2.1°). Conclusion The maximal spatial information as limited by photoreceptor spacing can not be fully utilized in a motion dependent visual behavior, arguing that the larval zebrafish visual system has not matured enough to optimally translate visual information into behavior. Nevertheless behavioral acuity is remarkable close to its maximal value, given the immature state of young zebrafish larvae. PMID:20193078

2010-01-01

114

The Measurement of Mental Retardation by a Culture-Specific Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determines whether Black students who have been placed in an EMR program on the basis of WISC full scale IQ scores as the primary criterion measure would be ruled out when tested on the BITCH. Results indicate that students obtain similar scores on both tests. (Author)

Long, Peggie A.; Anthony, John J.

1974-01-01

115

Prospective Evaluation of Visual Acuity Assessment: A Comparison of Snellen Versus ETDRS Charts in Clinical Practice (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to prospectively compare visual acuity (VA) scores obtained with Snellen charts versus Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts in a “real world” retinal practice, and second, to see if there was a difference in visual acuity measurements obtained with ETDRS charts starting at 4 or 2 meters. Methods: Prospective, consecutive evaluation of patients who underwent best-corrected visual acuity testing of their right eye performed at a single seating by the same experienced, certified vision examiner in the same room with standardized low light conditions using a projected Snellen chart at 20 feet, and two different back-illuminated ETDRS charts placed 4 and 2 meters from the patient. Results: One hundred sixty-three eyes were included in the study. The mean Snellen VA was 0.67 logMAR (20/94), ETDRS VA at 4 meters was 0.54 logMAR (~20/69), and ETDRS VA at 2 meters was 0.51 logMAR (~20/65). The mean difference was 6.5 letters better on the ETDRS chart (P=.000000001). As the VA worsened, there was increased variability between the charts and the mean discrepancy between charts also increased. Subgroup analysis revealed the greatest difference between charts was in the poor vision subgroup (<20/200) with a difference of 0.2 logMAR (10 letters; P=.0000002). Patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) had the greatest disparity on vision testing, but patients with dry AMD and diabetic retinopathy also exhibited significant differences. Conclusions: Visual acuity scores were significantly better on ETDRS charts compared to Snellen charts. The difference was greatest with poor visual acuity (<20/200) and in patients with exudative AMD. Thus, caution should be exercised when comparing data using the different charts. PMID:20126505

Kaiser, Peter K.

2009-01-01

116

Halftoning-Inspired Methods for Foveation in Variable-Acuity Superpixel Imager* Cameras  

E-print Network

Halftoning-Inspired Methods for Foveation in Variable-Acuity Superpixel Imager* Cameras Thayne R acuity superpixel imager (VASITM) cameras. We foveate a set of images using control signals generated the binary control signals used by Variable Acuity Superpixel Imager (VASITM) foveating cameras

Evans, Brian L.

117

The Relationship of Visual Acuity, Refractive Error, and Pupil Size After Radial Keratotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\s=b\\\\ To better define the relationship be- tween residual refractive error, uncor- rected visual acuity, and pupil diameter, we compared 42 eyes that had an eight- incision radial keratotomy according to the Prospective Evaluation of Radial Ker- atotomy Study protocol with 42 matched control eyes. The parameters measured were best corrected visual acuity, uncor- rected visual acuity, and the change

Jack T. Holladay; Michael J. Lynn; George O. Waring III; Mary Gemmill; Gordon C. Keehn; Brooke Fielding

118

Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

1994-01-01

119

Spatial acuity of honeybee vision and its spectral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In a series of behavioural experiments designed to measure spatial acuity, freely-flying honeybees were trained to discriminate between a horizontal and a vertical grating in a Y-shaped, dual-tunnel apparatus (Fig. 1). Each grating was placed at the entrance to a tunnel, and one of the gratings carried a reward of sugar solution. After training, the spatial frequency of the two

M. V. Srinivasan; M. Lehrer

1988-01-01

120

Good Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Mental Health > Good mental health Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en espańol ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and mental health Sleep and mental health Stress ...

121

Accommodation and acuity under night-driving illumination levels.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments are described in which the monocular changes in the refractive error and acuity of six young, normal, adult subjects were measured as the field luminance was reduced from approximately 100 to 10(-3) cd/m2. It was found that, at luminance levels equal to those recommended for road lighting (about 1 cd/m2), acuity fell from its photopic value of > or = 6/6 to about 6/9, with little change in the measured refraction. Marked changes in refraction, i.e. night myopia, only started to become manifest when the luminance was further reduced to below about 0.03 cd/m2, much less than that applying under normal night-driving conditions. Direct experiments under street-lighting conditions confirmed the absence of any significant night myopia. It is concluded, therefore, that neural changes, rather than night myopia, normally are responsible for the acuity loss suffered by drivers at night. PMID:9390373

Arumi, P; Chauhan, K; Charman, W N

1997-07-01

122

Effects of Horizontal Acceleration on Human Visual Acuity and Stereopsis  

PubMed Central

The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

2015-01-01

123

Visual acuity and spatial contrast sensitivity in tree squirrels.  

PubMed

The visual sensitivity of tree squirrels from three different species (two western gray squirrels, Sciurus griseus; three fox squirrels, Sciurus niger; and an eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) was measured for spatial patterns defined by luminance differences. Spatial contrast sensitivity functions were determined in behavioral discrimination experiments in which the stimuli were sinusoidally-modulated gratings. At an average luminance level of 3.4 cd/m(2) these squirrels were maximally sensitive to spatial frequencies of about 0.5 cycles/degree (c/d). These experiments, in conjunction with additional measurements involving discrimination of square-wave grating patterns, also indicate that the finest gratings these squirrels can discriminate average 2.2 c/d (SD = 0.42 c/d). There are no obvious differences in resolution acuity among the three species. Grating acuity also was measured at a much higher luminance level (340 cd/m(2)). The results of this experiment indicate that the spatial acuity of the tree squirrel increases with luminance level, reaching a maximum of 3.9 c/d at 340 cd/m(2). PMID:24923501

Jacobs, G H; Birch, D G; Blakeslee, B

1982-12-01

124

Effects of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis.  

PubMed

The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

2015-01-01

125

Eye size and visual acuity influence vestibular anatomy in mammals.  

PubMed

The semicircular canals of the inner ear detect head rotations and trigger compensatory movements that stabilize gaze and help maintain visual fixation. Mammals with large eyes and high visual acuity require precise gaze stabilization mechanisms because they experience diminished visual functionality at low thresholds of uncompensated motion. Because semicircular canal radius of curvature is a primary determinant of canal sensitivity, species with large canal radii are expected to be capable of more precise gaze stabilization than species with small canal radii. Here, we examine the relationship between mean semicircular canal radius of curvature, eye size, and visual acuity in a large sample of mammals. Our results demonstrate that eye size and visual acuity both explain a significant proportion of the variance in mean canal radius of curvature after statistically controlling for the effects of body mass and phylogeny. These findings suggest that variation in mean semicircular canal radius of curvature among mammals is partly the result of selection for improved gaze stabilization in species with large eyes and acute vision. Our results also provide a possible functional explanation for the small semicircular canal radii of fossorial mammals and plesiadapiforms. PMID:24591307

Kemp, Addison D; Christopher Kirk, E

2014-04-01

126

Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

127

Lumbar tactile acuity is near identical between sides in healthy pain-free participants.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature suggests that alterations in brain structure and function are a feature of chronic back pain. Tactile acuity is considered a clinical signature of primary somatosensory representation and offers a simple measure of cortical reorganisation. Clinical interpretation of test scores from an individual patient is hampered by variance in published normative values and less than ideal inter-rater reliability. These problems might be mitigated in people with unilateral back pain by using the patient as their own control and comparing tactile acuity at the painful site to performance at the corresponding position on the non-painful side. The first step in exploring this approach is to quantify the normal side-to-side difference in healthy populations. We pooled data from three previous studies that measured lumbar tactile acuity bilaterally in healthy controls using similar protocols. We calculated the mean and variance of the absolute error between sides, the standard error of measurement and the reliable change index (RCI). The mean difference between sides was 3.2 mm (±5.2) when assessed vertically and 1.9 mm (±3.2) when assessed horizontally. The standard error of measurement was 4.2 mm when assessed vertically and 2.7 mm when assessed horizontally. The RCI suggests that differences of greater than 13 mm when assessed horizontally and 17 mm when assessed vertically equate to 95% confidence that a difference truly exists. Several assumptions related to the application of this approach need to be investigated further. PMID:24484671

Wand, Benedict Martin; Catley, Mark Jon; Luomajoki, Hannu Antero; O'Sullivan, Kieran James; Di Pietro, Flavia; O'Connell, Neil Edward; Moseley, G Lorimer

2014-10-01

128

Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

1989-01-01

129

Determination of myopes' visual acuity using stimuli with different contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of different contrast stimuli on the myopes’ visual acuity (VA) was studied using positive (35.7), negative (-0.97) and low contrast (-0.11) Landolt optotypes. Test subjects were 13 myopes with corrected eyesight and 8 emmetropes, all of them being 20-22 years old. For VA determination the FrACT computer program was employed. In the tests it was found that for emmetropes the positive and negative contrast VA values do not differ significantly, while for myopes the respective values are better with positive than with negative contrast stimuli. These differences were the same in the measurements taken with spectacles or contact lenses. Our results also show that the retinal straylight created by clean spectacles or soft contact lenses is similar in both cases. Dažu autoru p?t?jumi r?da, ka miopijas gad?jum? redzes asums ir lab?ks ar pozit?va V?bera kontrasta stimuliem (balts stimuls uz melna fona) nek? negat?va kontrasta stimuliem (melns stimuls uz balta fona). Šis fenomens tiek saist?tas ar neir?l?m izmai??m ON un OFF ce?os un miopisk?s ac?s. Citi p?t?jumi r?da, ka ar? ac? izklied?t?s gaismas ietekm? lab?ks redzes asums ir ar pozit?viem kontrasta stimuliem nek? negat?va. Miopijas gad?jum? papildus gaismas izkliedi rada bri??u l?cas vai kontaktl?cas. M?s sav? p?t?jum? v?l?j?mies noskaidrot, cik liel? m?r? lab?ks redzes asums ar pozit?va kontrasta stimuliem miopisk?s ac?s ir saist?ms ar optisk?s korekcijas rad?to gaismas izkliedi. P?t?jum? piedal?j?s 21 dal?bnieks - 8 emetropi un 13 miopi ar sf?risko refrakcijas lielumu no -1.25 l?dz -6,25 D. Dal?bnieku vecums bija no 20 l?dz 22 gadi. Izmantojot FrACT datorprogrammu, tika noteiks monokul?rais redzes asums VA ar Landolta gredzeniem pie pozit?va, negat?va un zema kontrasta fotopiskos apst?k?os. V?bera kontrasti stimuliem attiec?gi bija 35.7, -0.97 un -0.11. Miopiem m?r?jumi tika veikti gan ar brill?m, gan kontaktl?c?m. Emetropiem redzes asums pie pozit?va un negat?va kontrasta nav b?tiski atš?ir?gs, savuk?rt kori??tiem miopiem redzes asums bija lab?ks ar pozit?va nek? ar negat?va kontrasta stimuliem. Starp?ba m?r?jumos, veiktos ar kontaktl?c?m, gan brill?m, nebija b?tiski atš?ir?ga. No ieg?tajiem rezult?tiem var secin?t, ka bri??u l?cas un kontaktl?cas rada l?dz?gu ac? 'nokl?duš?s” gaismas daudzumu.

Ikaunieks, G.; Caure, E.; Kassaliete, E.; Meskovska, Z.

2012-10-01

130

Time limits and gender differences on paper-and-pencil tests of mental rotation: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to summarize research relevant to the influence of time limits on gender differences in paper-and-pencil\\u000a tasks of mental rotation by means of a meta-analysis. Thirty-six effect sizes from published and unpublished studies examining\\u000a the influence of time constraints were retrieved. Results showed that gender differences in mental rotation are significantly\\u000a larger when the task

Daniel Voyer

2011-01-01

131

Is the Male Advantage in Mental-Rotation Performance Task Independent? On the Usability of Chronometric Tests and Paper-and-Pencil Tests in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a reanalysis of the data of 862 second and fourth graders collected in two previous studies, focusing on the influence of method (psychometric vs. chronometric) and stimulus type on the gender difference in mental-rotation accuracy. The children had to solve mental-rotation tasks with animal pictures, letters, or cube…

Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea

2014-01-01

132

Reduced Grating Acuity Associated with Retinal Toxicity in Children with Infantile Spasms on Vigabatrin Therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether visual functions are decreased in children with infantile spasms and vigabatrin-attributed retinal toxicity. Methods Contrast sensitivity and grating acuity were measured by using sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) testing in 42 children with infantile spasms (mean age, 29.23 ± 18.31 months). All children had been exposed to vigabatrin (VGB) for a minimum of 1 month. These children were divided into retinal toxicity and no toxicity groupings based on 30-Hz flicker amplitude reductions on the full-field electroretinogram. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) compared visual functions between children with and without retinal toxicity. Results The MANOVA showed that visual function was significantly affected by VGB retinal toxicity. Further univariate analysis revealed that grating acuity was significantly reduced in children with toxicity. No differences in contrast sensitivity were found between children with toxicity and those without. Conclusions Reduced visual functions from VGB-attributed retinal toxicity can be detected in children with infantile spasms with the sweep VEP. PMID:19279311

Durbin, Sivan; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Westall, Carol A.

2013-01-01

133

Factors Influencing the Visual Acuity of Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate correlated factors on final visual acuity in conjunction with fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods Twenty-four patients (36 eyes) with typical findings of chronic CSCR based on medical records, FA and OCT results were enrolled in this study. We investigated demographic findings, initial and final visual acuity (VA), and some typical findings of FA including the type of leakage pattern, the existence of a gravitational tract and an abnormal hyperfluorescent area centered on the fovea. We also investigated OCT findings to examine serous retinal detachment, outer photoreceptor layer (OPRL) preservation, continuity of the inner segment (IS) and the outer segment (OS) of the photoreceptor layer in case of macular attachment, and other typical findings. The converted logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution VA was used to investigate the statistical correlation with these FA and OCT findings. Results An abnormal hyperfluorescent area within 1 macular photocoagulation study disc area on FA and cystoid degeneration on OCT were correlated with poor final VA of less than 20 / 40. However, the preserved OPRL and the continuity of IS / OS junction were correlated with a good final VA of 0.5 or more. Conclusions These specific findings could be associated with recurrent or persistent subretinal fluid and could be important parameters of decision for treatment. PMID:21461220

Flaxel, Christina J

2011-01-01

134

Mental Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ...

135

Media Coverage of Youth Suicides and Its Impact on Paediatric Mental Health Emergency Department Presentations  

PubMed Central

Background: To examine mental health (MH) presentations to the emergency department (ED) of a paediatric hospital following two highly publicized local teen suicides. Methods: Youths aged 12–18 years with a MH chief complaint and/or diagnosis were included. Differences in frequencies were analyzed using chi-square tests, and relative risks were evaluated using generalized linear modelling. Results: Significant increases in the number of ED presentations were found within the months of the publicized suicides compared to the same months of previous years. No differences were found in symptom acuity, suicidal status and psychiatric hospitalization rates. Significant increases were found in relative risk of presenting to the ED 28 and 90 days post both publicized suicides. Conclusions: Results suggest there was an association between highly publicized suicides and an increase in the number of MH presentations to the local paediatric ED. Considerations of media's potentially positive role in MH awareness are needed. PMID:25410699

Leon, Stephanie L.; Cloutier, Paula; BéLair, Marc-André; Cappelli, Mario

2014-01-01

136

The Relationship between OCT-measured Central Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal thickness and visual acuity in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) both before and after macular laser photocoagulation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Participants 210 subjects (251 eyes) with DME enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of laser techniques. Methods Retinal thickness was measured with OCT and visual acuity was measured with the electronic-ETDRS procedure. Main Outcome Measures OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity Results The correlation coefficients for visual acuity versus OCT center point thickness were 0.52 at baseline and 0.49, 0.36, and 0.38 at 3.5, 8, and 12 months post-laser photocoagulation. The slope of the best fit line to the baseline data was approximately 4.4 letters (95% C.I.: 3.5, 5.3) better visual acuity for every 100 microns decrease in center point thickness at baseline with no important difference at follow-up visits. Approximately one-third of the variation in visual acuity could be predicted by a linear regression model that incorporated OCT center point thickness, age, hemoglobin A1C, and severity of fluorescein leakage in the center and inner subfields. The correlation between change in visual acuity and change in OCT center point thickening 3.5 months after laser treatment was 0.44 with no important difference at the other follow-up times. A subset of eyes showed paradoxical improvements in visual acuity with increased center point thickening (7–17% at the three time points) or paradoxical worsening of visual acuity with a decrease in center point thickening (18%–26% at the three time points). Conclusions There is modest correlation between OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity, and modest correlation of changes in retinal thickening and visual acuity following focal laser treatment for DME. However, a wide range of visual acuity may be observed for a given degree of retinal edema and paradoxical increases in center point thickening with increases in visual acuity as well as paradoxical decreases in center point thickening with decreases in visual acuity were not uncommon. Thus, although OCT measurements of retinal thickness represent an important tool in clinical evaluation, they cannot reliably substitute as a surrogate for visual acuity at a given point in time. This study does not address whether short-term changes on OCT are predictive of long-term effects on visual acuity. PMID:17123615

2008-01-01

137

Rhythms of Mental Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions to…

Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

2008-01-01

138

Water-Induced Finger Wrinkles Do Not Affect Touch Acuity or Dexterity in Handling Wet Objects  

PubMed Central

Human non-hairy (glabrous) skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n?=?40) in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects. PMID:24416318

Frenzel, Henning; Gross, Manfred; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

139

The amelioration of olfactory acuity upon sexual maturation might affect food preferences.  

PubMed

Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L; Cannella, Carlo

2009-01-01

140

The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences  

PubMed Central

Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

2009-01-01

141

Increasing acuity, increasing technology, and the changing demands on nurses.  

PubMed

As the work environment for nurses continues to evolve, the demands on nurses increase along with the potential for nurses to become more distant from their patients. Among the key changes in the environment are the increasing acuity of patients in all settings, the introduction and evolution of the electronic health record, the expansion of telemetry and smart bed technology, increased use of video monitoring and telemedicine, and changes in payment that will focus attention on specific aspects of care. Nurses and nursing departments will need to aggressively manage the changing environment so that patient care is enhanced. How these demands and new technologies can be harnessed to enhance the patient experience and the quality of the nurse-patient interaction is a central question that will shape the future of nursing. PMID:24069722

Needleman, Jack

2013-01-01

142

Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish  

PubMed Central

It has been known for more than a century that interacting people can generally achieve more accurate decisions than single individuals. Here we show that interacting guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) achieve a superior level of numerosity discrimination well beyond the average ability of the isolated individual fish. This enhancement of numerical acuity was observed in dyadic interactions when (Experiment 1) the dyad chose which larger shoal of guppies to join and when (Experiment 2) the dyad chose the higher or the lower numerosity among two decision options after having learned the task individually. Dyadic accuracy and that of the more competent member of each dyad matched closely, supporting the hypothesis that meritocratic leadership arises spontaneously between dyadically interacting fish, rather than the ‘many wrongs' principle that has been used to explain group superiority in many species. PMID:24691116

Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian; Piffer, Laura; Bahrami, Bahador; Petrazzini, Maria Elena Miletto; Agrillo, Christian

2014-01-01

143

What Is Mental Health?  

MedlinePLUS

... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

144

Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

2011-01-01

145

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

2010-10-01

146

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

2013-10-01

147

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

2012-10-01

148

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

2010-10-01

149

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

2011-10-01

150

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

2011-10-01

151

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

2012-10-01

152

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

2013-10-01

153

Vernier Acuity and the Magnocellular System Revisited: Response to Skottun and Skoyles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skottun and Skoyles (2009) recently presented a comment on Vernier acuity and magnocellular dysfunctions in fragile X premutation carriers (Keri & Benedek, 2009). The authors concluded that our finding that the magnocellular deficit, as revealed by luminance-contrast sensitivity measurements, is associated with impaired Vernier acuity for…

Keri, Szabolcs; Benedek, Gyorgy

2010-01-01

154

Relationship between visual acuity and eye position variability during foveations in congenital nystagmus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual acuity in congenital nystagmus has proven to be primarily related to the duration of foveation periods, during which the image of a target falls onto the fovea and eye velocity slows down. It was found that the longer the foveation time the higher the visual acuity. However, the cycle-to-cycle variability of the eye position and velocity during foveation periods

Mario Cesarelli; Paolo Bifulco; Luciano Loffredo; Marcello Bracale

2000-01-01

155

Acuity of the Approximate Number System and Preschoolers' Quantitative Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics…

van Marle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W.; Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

2014-01-01

156

Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals' experience of interacting with the healthcare system has significant impact on their overall health and well-being. To relate patients' experiences to a common set of standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of health system responsiveness. This study aimed to assess if the WHO responsiveness concept reflected the non-medical expectations of mental healthcare users in Teheran. Methods In this qualitative study, four mixed focus group discussions were formed, comprising 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Content analysis was performed for data analysis. Responses were examined in relation to the eight domains of the WHO's responsiveness model. Results There were many commonalities between the findings of this study and the eight domains of the WHO responsiveness model, although some variations were found. Effective care was a new domain generated from our findings. In addition, the domain of prompt attention was included in two new labelled domains: attention and access to care. Participants could not differentiate autonomy from choice of healthcare provider, believing that free choice is part of autonomy. Therefore these domains were unified under the name of autonomy. The domains of quality of basic amenities, access to social support, dignity and confidentiality were considered to be important for the responsiveness concept. Some differences regarding how these domains should be defined were observed, however. Conclusions The results showed that the concept of responsiveness developed by the WHO is applicable to mental health services in Iran. These findings might help policy-makers' better understanding of what is useful for the improvement of mental health services. PMID:22115499

2011-01-01

157

Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?  

PubMed Central

Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

2014-01-01

158

Dynamic Visual Acuity Associated With Eye Movements And Pupillary Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectively was evaluate dynamic visual acuity (DVA), using moving optotypes, while monitoring eye movements and pupillary responses. Under controlled conditions of luminance and contrast the viewers were asked to look carefully at a moving alphabetic letter. The letter was moved in the horizontal plane at a determined speed by a sinusoidal frequency generator. The initial frequency was gradually incremented until the viewer reported was not able to distinguish the object. Objective measures of DVA were obtained using video-oculography (VOG) in which, pupillary images and eye movements were analyzed by image processing. We found that when a large dilatation of the pupil is presented coincided with a pause eye movement (0.1s). It was when the viewer leaves to see clearly the letter of Snellen. The changes of pupil diameter of the five viewers were found averages to nasal trajectory from 3.58 mm (0 Hz) to 3.85 mm (1Hz), and to temporal trajectory from 3.54 mm (0 Hz) to 3.96 mm (1 Hz). Also, the bandwidth since 0.6 to 1.2 Hz, of the viewers due to the response at the stimulus (letter of Snellen) with 20° of amplitude, was obtained.

Suaste, Ernesto; García, Nadia; Rodríguez, Dolores; Zúńiga, Arturo

2004-09-01

159

Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

2011-01-01

160

Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is mental health? Mental health is a goal for all people, including those with mental retardation, not just those having difficulties. Mental health is an essential ingredient in the quality of life. The two main aspects of mental health are emotional well-being and rewarding social and interpersonal relationships. Emotional well-being is an important part of the gift of human

Steven Reiss; Ruth Ryan

161

HIV Risk Reduction for Substance Using Seriously Mentally Ill Adults: Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills (IMB) Model  

PubMed Central

The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (Fisher & Fisher, 1992) was used as the theoretical framework for predicting unprotected sexual behavior among substance abusing men and women diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (n = 320; 150 men and 170 women, primarily of minority ethnicity). In a structural equation model, gender, HIV transmission knowledge, and motivational variables of pro-condom norms and attitudes, and perceived susceptibility predicted behavioral skills markers: condom use skills and condom use self-efficacy. Along with the other variables in the model, condom skills and condom self-efficacy were hypothesized to predict condom use over a six-month period. Results showed that greater condom skills were predicted by female gender, positive condom attitudes, and transmission knowledge. Engaging in lower rates of unprotected sex was predicted by pro-condom norms, less perceived susceptibility, and greater condom self-efficacy. Positive attitudes toward condoms had a significant indirect effect on rates of unprotected sex, exerting its influence through condom use self-efficacy. Results suggest that changing personal attitudes about condoms and reinforcing pro-condom attitudes among significant others will encourage condom use among seriously mentally ill (SMI) adults who are at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). PMID:16131007

Kalichman, Seth; Malow, Robert; Dévieux, Jessy; Stein, Judith A.; Piedman, Fred

2007-01-01

162

Comparison of Visual Acuity in Reduced Lumination and Facility of Ocular Accommodation in Table Tennis Champions and Non- Players  

PubMed Central

A table tennis player should fixate at different distances; track the objects with different speed, and in different visual environment. Their visual skills must be well developed for these capabilities. Therefore, visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation those are two criteria for visual skills have been compared in table tennis players and normal non-players. Twenty-nine young table tennis champions and 29 normal matched non-players (did not take part in any racket sports game) were evaluated. Basic visual and eye examinations were done for both of them. Normal results in basic examination were fundamental requirement for all the subjects. +/-2.00 sphere lenses for accommodation facility are used. An electrical current regulator changed the output light intensity of a conventional chart projector (Topcon). Light intensity decreased to 10 cd·m-2 and visual acuity tested. In comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non-players there are significant differences (p < 0.001). In the preliminary visual tests there was not any significant different in the two groups but the results in the top level table tennis player was very uniform and in every test and the standard deviation was lesser in tennis player group than non-players. These results show that motor and sensorial functions of expert players are well developed. That is consistent with other researchers. This result was interpreted as reflecting a better perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents. However some visual and perceptual training that usually used in orthoptics can be used for novice table tennis player to improve their abilities. Key Points That the ability of a champion depends on many sensory, motor and perceptual factors. Visual factors such as facility of accommodation and visual acuity in reduced lumination should be considered in table tennis players. Visual training may be useful for novice and also for experts. PMID:24497820

Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yarigholi, Mohammad R.

2004-01-01

163

Neural Constraints on Visual Acuity in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Visual acuity (VA) in normally-sighted individuals is highly correlated with equivalent intrinsic blur, a measure of the amount of blur within the visual system that is generated by optical and neural sources. This study assessed the extent to which VA, equivalent intrinsic blur, optical blur, and neural blur are abnormal in subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and characterized the relationships among these parameters. Methods Best-corrected VA of 10 subjects with PDR (ages 25 to 68) and 10 normally-sighted individuals (ages 46 to 63) was measured for tumbling E optotypes. The Es were either unblurred or blurred through convolution with Gaussian functions of different widths. Values of equivalent intrinsic blur (?int) and unblurred VA (MAR0) were derived using a standard model. Optical blur (?opt), a measure of blur generated by higher-order aberrations, was quantified using Shack-Hartmann aberrometry. An index of neural blur (?) was defined as 1-?opt/?int, which represents the remaining blur once the contributions of ?opt to ?int have been accounted for. Results Log MAR0 and log ?int were correlated significantly (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) for the PDR subjects and the values of these parameters ranged from normal to more than a factor of 2 above the upper limit of normal. In comparison, log MAR measured for the most blurred E was elevated by a relatively small amount for all PDR subjects and was not correlated significantly with log ?int (r = 0.40, p = 0.25). MAR0, ?int, and ? differed significantly between the PDR subjects and the controls (all p < 0.05) but ?opt did not (p = 0.50). Conclusions Subjects with PDR and VA loss had higher than normal equivalent intrinsic blur that was due primarily to neural blur elevations, suggesting that neural blur is an important factor that limits VA in these patients. PMID:24317136

McAnany, J. Jason; Wanek, Justin; Zelkha, Ruth; Lim, Jennifer I.; Chau, Felix; Shahidi, Mahnaz

2014-01-01

164

Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: Localization Acuity Measured with Minimum Audible Angle  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate sound localization acuity in a group of children who received bilateral (BI) cochlear implants in sequential procedures and to determine the extent to which BI auditory experience affects sound localization acuity. In addition, to investigate the extent to which a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear can also provide benefits on this task. Design Two groups of children participated, 13 with BI cochlear implants (cochlear implant + cochlear implant), ranging in age from 3 to 16 yrs, and six with a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear (cochlear implant + hearing aid), ages 4 to 14 yrs. Testing was conducted in large sound-treated booths with loudspeakers positioned on a horizontal arc with a radius of 1.5 m. Stimuli were spondaic words recorded with a male voice. Stimulus levels typically averaged 60 dB SPL and were randomly roved between 56 and 64 dB SPL (±4 dB rove); in a few instances, levels were held fixed (60 dB SPL). Testing was conducted by using a “listening game” platform via computerized interactive software, and the ability of each child to discriminate sounds presented to the right or left was measured for loudspeakers subtending various angular separations. Minimum audible angle thresholds were measured in the BI (cochlear implant + cochlear implant or cochlear implant + hearing aid) listening mode and under monaural conditions. Results Approximately 70% (9/13) of children in the cochlear implant + cochlear implant group discriminated left/right for source separations of ?20° and, of those, 77% (7/9) performed better when listening bilaterally than with either cochlear implant alone. Several children were also able to perform the task when using a single cochlear implant, under some conditions. Minimum audible angle thresholds were better in the first cochlear implant than the second cochlear implant listening mode for nearly all (8/9) subjects. Repeated testing of a few individual subjects over a 2-yr period suggests that robust improvements in performance occurred with increased auditory experience. Children who wore hearing aids in the nonimplanted ear were at times also able to perform the task. Average group performance was worse than that of the children with BI cochlear implants when both ears were activated (cochlear implant + hearing aid versus cochlear implant + cochlear implant) but not significantly different when listening with a single cochlear implant. Conclusions Children with sequential BI cochlear implants represent a unique population of individuals who have undergone variable amounts of auditory deprivation in each ear. Our findings suggest that many but not all of these children perform better on measures of localization acuity with two cochlear implants compared with one and are better at the task than children using the cochlear implant + hearing aid. These results must be interpreted with caution, because benefits on other tasks as well as the long-term benefits of BI cochlear implants are yet to be fully understood. The factors that might contribute to such benefits must be carefully evaluated in large populations of children using a variety of measures. PMID:16446564

Litovsky, Ruth Y.; Johnstone, Patti M.; Godar, Shelly; Agrawal, Smita; Parkinson, Aaron; Peters, Robert; Lake, Jennifer

2009-01-01

165

Florida Mental Health Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida Mental Health Institute, dedicated to research, training and program development for improving psychological wellbeing, has four main divisions: Aging and Mental Health, Child and Family Studies, Community Mental Health, and Mental Health Law and Policy.

166

Mental Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biographies of great achievers, in science as well as other disciplines, suggest that those of genius caliber possess, in addition to their intellectual gift or gifts, an extraordinary abundance of mental energy. They can focus their attention on some task for long periods without tiring or becoming distracted from the problem at hand. It is…

Lykken, D.T.

2005-01-01

167

EN FACE SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OUTER RETINAL ANALYSIS AND RELATION TO VISUAL ACUITY  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe a method of en face visualization and quantification of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction area, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and association with visual acuity. Methods Case series of 74 eyes in 53 patients. Central 1-mm and 400-mm en face areas were analyzed with a computer algorithm. Results The presence or absence of inner segment/outer segment junction was visible on both spectral-domain optical coherence tomography en face and retinal cross sections. Thirty eyes (40.6%) had no retinal pathology and an average logMAR visual acuity of 0.116. Twenty-five eyes (33.8%) had intraretinal edema, with visual acuity of 0.494. Nineteen eyes had nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration (dry age-related macular degeneration, 25.6%), with visual acuity of 0.392. In all eyes, central 1-mm and 400-µm en face areas were 58.3 ± 25.0% and 56.4 ± 26.0%, which showed significant correlation with visual acuity (Pearson correlation, r = ?0.66 and ?0.56, both P < 0.001). This correlation was greater than correlation of visual acuity with central subfield thickness (r = 0.39, P < 0.001), macular volume (r = 0.36, P = 0.002), and average macular thickness (r = 0.37, P = 0.001). However, no variables were significantly correlated with dry age-related macular degeneration eyes. Conclusion Central en face inner segment/outer segment junction areas are significantly correlated with visual acuity in most eyes. This may correlate better with visual acuity than other spectral-domain optical coherence tomography values, as a reflection of photoreceptor integrity. Dry age-related macular degeneration may disrupt the plane used to formulate the en face display. Advancements in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography may provide routine en face visualization analysis. PMID:22466459

Kiernan, Daniel F.; Zelkha, Ruth; Hariprasad, Seenu M.; Lim, Jennifer I.; Blair, Michael P.; Mieler, William F.

2013-01-01

168

Mental Rotation: Cross-Task Training and Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that performance on standard mental rotation tasks improves with training (Peters et al., 1995), but thus far there is little consensus regarding the degree of transfer to other tasks which also involve mental rotation. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of mental rotation training on participants' Mental Rotation Test

Stransky, Debi; Wilcox, Laurie M.; Dubrowski, Adam

2010-01-01

169

Early Quick Acuity Score Provides More Complete Data on Emergency Department Walkouts  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many prior studies have compared the acuity of Emergency Department (ED) patients who have Left Without Being Seen (LWBS) against non-LWBS patients. A weakness in these studies is that patients may walk out prior to the assignment of a triage score, biasing comparisons. We report an operational change whereby acuity was assessed immediately upon patient arrival. We hypothesized more patients would receive acuity scores with EQAS. We also sought to compare LWBS and non-LWBS patient characteristics with reduced bias. Methods Setting: urban, academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study, electronic chart review, collecting data on all ED patients presenting between 4/1/2010 and 10/31/2011 (“Traditional Acuity Score” period, TAS) and from 11/1/2011 to 3/31/2012 (“Early Quick Acuity Score” period, EQAS). We recorded disposition (LWBS versus non-LWBS), acuity and demographics. For each subject during the EQAS period, we calculated how many prior ED visits and how many prior walkouts the subject had had during the TAS period. Results Acuity was recorded in 92,275 of 94,526 patients (97.6%) for TAS period, and 25,577 of 25,760 patients (99.3%) for EQAS period, a difference of 1.7% (1.5%, 1.8%). LWBS patients had acuity scores recorded in 5,180 of 7,040 cases (73.6%) during TAS period, compared with 897 of 1,010 cases (88.8%) during the EQAS period, a difference of 15.2% (14.8%, 15.7%). LWBS were more likely than non-LWBS to be male, were younger and had lower acuity scores. LWBS averaged 5.3 prior ED visits compared with 2.8 by non-LWBS, a difference of 2.5 (1.5, 3.5). LWBS averaged 1.3 prior ED walkouts compared with 0.2 among non-LWBS, a difference of 1.1 (0.8, 1.3). Conclusions EQAS resulted in a higher proportion of patients receiving acuity scores, particularly among LWBS. This offers more complete data when comparing LWBS and non-LWBS patient characteristics. The comparison reinforced findings from prior studies. PMID:24465699

Lovett, Paris B.; Kahn, J. Akiva; Greene, Stuart E.; Bloch, Matthew A.; Brandt, Daniel R.; Minckler, Michael R.

2014-01-01

170

Diagnosing Students' Mental Models via the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental models play an important role in science education research. To extend the effectiveness of conceptual change research and to improve mental model identi?cation and diagnosis, the authors developed and tested the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis (WMMD) system. In this article, they describe their WMMD system, which goes beyond the…

Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Lin, Jing-Wen; Chou, Chin-Cheng

2013-01-01

171

Changes in Near Visual Acuity of Over Time in the Astronaut Corps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We hypothesized that visual impairment due to intracranial pressure (VIIP) would increase the rate of which presbyopia would occur in the astronaut population, with long durations flyers at an especially high risk. Presbyopia is characterized as the gradual loss of near visual acuity overtime due to a loss in ability to accommodate. It generally develops in the mid-40s and progresses until about age 65. This analysis considered annual vision exams conducted on active NASA astronauts with spaceflight experience currently between the ages of 40 to 60 years of age. Onset of presbyopia was characterized as a shift of at least 20 units on the standard Snellen test from one annual exam to the next. There were 236 short duration and 48 long duration flyers, the majority of whom did experience onset of presbyopia between age 40 and 60. This shift however, did not necessarily come after spaceflight. In comparing the short and long duration flyers the mean age of onset was 47 years old (SD+/-3.7). The mean of onset within the general population is 45 to 47 years old [1, 2]. The mean age of the onset of presbyopia as compared to the general population indicates that space flight does not induce early development of presbyopia.

Taiym, Wafa; Wear, Mary L.; Locke, James; Mason, Sara; VanBaalen, Mary

2014-01-01

172

Effect of Target Location on Dynamic Visual Acuity During Passive Horizontal Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates eye rotation to compensate for potential retinal slip in the specific plane of head movement. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been utilized as a functional measure of the VOR. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in accuracy and reaction time when performing a DVA task with targets offset from the plane of rotation, e.g. offset vertically during horizontal rotation. Visual acuity was measured in 12 healthy subjects as they moved a hand-held joystick to indicate the orientation of a computer-generated Landolt C "as quickly and accurately as possible." Acuity thresholds were established with optotypes presented centrally on a wall-mounted LCD screen at 1.3 m distance, first without motion (static condition) and then while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (DVA, peak velocity 60 deg/s). The effect of target location was then measured during horizontal rotation with the optotypes randomly presented in one of nine different locations on the screen (offset up to 10 deg). The optotype size (logMar 0, 0.2 or 0.4, corresponding to Snellen range 20/20 to 20/50) and presentation duration (150, 300 and 450 ms) were counter-balanced across five trials, each utilizing horizontal rotation at 0.8 Hz. Dynamic acuity was reduced relative to static acuity in 7 of 12 subjects by one step size. During the random target trials, both accuracy and reaction time improved proportional to optotype size. Accuracy and reaction time also improved between 150 ms and 300 ms presentation durations. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements when acquiring vertical targets. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of motion. Both reaction time and accuracy are functionally relevant DVA parameters of VOR function.

Appelbaum, Meghan; DeDios, Yiri; Kulecz, Walter; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott

2010-01-01

173

Specifying and Testing a Multi-Dimensional Model of Publicness: An Analysis of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities  

E-print Network

This study specifies and tests a multi-dimensional model of publicness, building upon extant literature in this area. Publicness represents the degree to which an organization has "public" ties. An organization's degree ...

Merritt, Cullen

2014-05-31

174

Sustained Visual Acuity Loss in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Although anti–vascular endothelial growth factor treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) results in improved vision overall, loss of substantial vision can occur. Understanding the processes that lead to loss of vision may lead to preventive strategies. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence, characteristics, causes, and baseline predictors of sustained visual acuity loss after 2 years of treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab for neovascular AMD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cohort study within a randomized clinical trial of participants in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to 2 years of monthly or as needed injections or monthly injections for 1 year and as needed injections the following year. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sustained visual acuity loss, defined as loss of 15 or more letters from baseline at weeks 88 and 104. RESULTS Among 1030 participants, 61 eyes (5.9%) developed sustained visual acuity loss in 2 years. Within this group, visual acuity decreased gradually over time, with a mean decrease of 2, 19, and 33 letters from baseline at 4 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively. At 2 years, eyes with sustained visual acuity loss had more scarring (60.0% vs 41.4%, P = .007), more geographic atrophy (GA) (31.6% vs 20.7%, P = .004), larger lesions (16 vs 8 mm2, P < .001), and higher proportions of intraretinal fluid (82.5% vs 51.0%, P < .001), subretinal hyperreflective material (84.5% vs 44.2%, P < .001), retinal thinning (43.3% vs 23.0%, P < .001), and thickening (20.0% vs 12.1%, P < .001). Likely causes of sustained visual acuity loss included foveal scarring (44.3%), pigmentary abnormalities (27.9%), and foveal GA (11.5%). Baseline factors independently associated with a higher incidence of sustained visual acuity loss were the presence of nonfoveal GA (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; 95% CI, 1.35–6.08; P = .006), larger area of choroidal neovascularization (OR for a >4-disc area vs ?1-disc area, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.70–9.03; P = .007), and bevacizumab treatment (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.07–3.14; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sustained visual acuity loss was relatively rare in CATT. The development of foveal scar, pigmentary abnormalities, or GA contributed to most of the sustained visual acuity loss. Risk was 3% higher among eyes treated with bevacizumab. Treatment that targeted the prevention of scarring or GA may improve vision outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00593450 PMID:24875610

Ying, Gui-shuang; Kim, Benjamin J.; Maguire, Maureen G.; Huang, Jiayan; Daniel, Ebenezer; Jaffe, Glenn J.; Grunwald, Juan E.; Blinder, Kevin J.; Flaxel, Christina J.; Rahhal, Firas; Regillo, Carl; Martin, Daniel F.

2014-01-01

175

Visual Acuity is Related to Parafoveal Retinal Thickness in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa and Macular Cysts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To quantify the prevalence and effect on visual acuity of macular cysts in a large cohort of patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods In 316 patients with typical forms of retinitis pigmentosa, we measured visual acuities with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts, detected macular cysts with optical coherence tomography (OCT), and quantified retinal thicknesses by OCT. We used the FREQ, LOGISTIC, and GENMOD procedures of SAS to evaluate possible risk factors for cyst prevalence and the MIXED procedure to quantify the relationships of visual acuity to retinal thickness measured at different locations within the macula. Results We found macular cysts in 28% of the patients, 40% of whom had cysts in only one eye. Macular cysts were seen most often in patients with dominant disease and not at all in patients with X-linked disease (p = 0.006). In eyes with macular cysts, multiple regression analysis revealed that visual acuity was inversely and independently related to retinal thickness at the foveal center (p = 0.038) and within a ring spanning an eccentricity of 5° to 10° from the foveal center (p = 0.004). Conclusions Macular cysts are a common occurrence in retinitis pigmentosa, especially among patients with dominantly-inherited disease. Visual acuity is influenced by edema in the parafovea, as well as in the fovea. PMID:18552390

Brockhurst, Robert J.; Gaudio, Alexander R.; Berson, Eliot L.

2008-01-01

176

Bevacizumab injection in patients with age-related macular degeneration associated with poor initial visual acuity.  

PubMed

Purpose. To evaluate functional and anatomic effects of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with neovascular AMD and initial low visual acuity. Methods. Retrospective case series of 38 eyes with neovascular AMD and initial visual acuity of 20/200 or less, treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Results. Mean followup was 14.1 months ±??7.1 (range: 5 to 24 months). Mean logMAR vision at baseline was 1.38 logMAR ±??0.33, at 6 months was 1.14 logMAR ±??0.37 (P = 0.001) and at 12 months was 1.22 logMar ±??0.33 (P = 0.004). Mean baseline central retinal thickness was 431??m ±??159.7 at 6 months was 293.43??m??±??122.79 (P = 10(-4)) and at 12 months was 293.1??m??±??130 (P = 0.004). Visual acuity improved in both patients with or without prior PDT treatment. Conclusions. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection may increase the chance of visual acuity gain in neovascular AMD even in cases with initial low visual acuity. PMID:22174999

El Matri, Leila; Bouraoui, Rym; Chebil, Ahmed; Kort, Fedra; Bouladi, Mejda; Limaiem, Rym; Landoulsi, Hana

2012-01-01

177

Bevacizumab Injection in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Associated with Poor Initial Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate functional and anatomic effects of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with neovascular AMD and initial low visual acuity. Methods. Retrospective case series of 38 eyes with neovascular AMD and initial visual acuity of 20/200 or less, treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Results. Mean followup was 14.1 months ±??7.1 (range: 5 to 24 months). Mean logMAR vision at baseline was 1.38 logMAR ±??0.33, at 6 months was 1.14 logMAR ±??0.37 (P = 0.001) and at 12 months was 1.22 logMar ±??0.33 (P = 0.004). Mean baseline central retinal thickness was 431??m ±??159.7 at 6 months was 293.43??m??±??122.79 (P = 10?4) and at 12 months was 293.1??m??±??130 (P = 0.004). Visual acuity improved in both patients with or without prior PDT treatment. Conclusions. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection may increase the chance of visual acuity gain in neovascular AMD even in cases with initial low visual acuity. PMID:22174999

El Matri, Leila; Bouraoui, Rym; Chebil, Ahmed; Kort, Fedra; Bouladi, Mejda; Limaiem, Rym; Landoulsi, Hana

2012-01-01

178

Determine the effect of neck muscle fatigue on dynamic visual acuity in healthy young adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether neck muscle fatigue affects dynamic visual acuity in healthy young participants. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a double-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty healthy young subjects (ages 21 to 30?years) participated in the study. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed an exercise designed to induce neck muscle fatigue and the control group preformed non-fatiguing sham exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in mean dynamic visual acuity between the two groups (0.26±0.11 LogMar versus 0.003±0.02 LogMar). Subjects in the experimental group showed a significant decline in their dynamic visual acuity compared with the control group. Dynamic visual acuity strongly correlated with neck muscle fatigue (r = 0.79). No significant differences in joint position error were observed between the two groups and no significant correlations between joint position error and neck muscle fatigue were observed (r = 0.23). [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that neck muscle fatigue negatively impacts dynamic visual acuity. Although not statistically significant, cervical spine proprioception as measured by the joint position error in the experimental group was diminished after fatigue.

Al Saif, Amer A.; Al Senany, Samira

2015-01-01

179

Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

2009-01-01

180

Compared optical performances of multifocal and monofocal intraocular lenses (contrast sensitivity and dynamic visual acuity)  

PubMed Central

The functional results (contrast sensitivity and dynamic visual acuity) of 19 multifocal (3M design) and 14 all polymethylmethacrylate biconvex monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs), 6 mm in optical diameter were compared. Best corrected visual acuity was > or = 8/10 (Monoyer chart) Parinaud 2 in all cases. Major differences of functional performance in favour of monofocal IOLs were found outside standard conditions of vision (low contrast and illumination levels). A significant difference in contrast sensitivity was found for each spatial frequency in favour of multifocal IOLs (0.0016 < p < 0.05). Mesopic vision was statistically higher in the monofocal IOL group (p = 0.0015). Moreover, dynamic visual acuity allowed accurate evaluation of the difference in performance between these two models of implant. In view of these results multifocal IOLs should be reserved for patients with normal psychosensitive adaptation; an ocular pathology that could alter contrast sensitivity or mesopic vision is a contraindication for multifocal IOLs. PMID:8199107

Williamson, W; Poirier, L; Coulon, P; Verin, P

1994-01-01

181

Children's Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

Children's Mental Health For parents, the key to handling mental disorders of children is to recognize the problem and seek ... and treatments, and a complete evaluation by a mental health provider can determine whether a child needs help. ...

182

Teen Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

183

The use of wide-scale mental agility testing to identify people at risk of dementia: crucial or harmful?  

PubMed

The prevalence of dementia in the UK is rising rapidly and is predicted to double over the next 30 years. The NHS in England has been told to push for a rapid rise in dementia diagnosis rates, so that by 2015, two out of three cases are identified. The Prime Minister has raised the 'dementia challenge' as a priority for the NHS. While there is agreement on the need for action, debate arises over the nature of that intervention. Some, including Professor Alessi, argue that tools exist to support the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and they should be used because the disease is amenable to interventions. He believes that we need a shift in knowledge and attitude from thresholds to a continuum of cognitive impairment, from late to early stages and from effects to causes. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa) should become part of the routine NHS Health Check after people reach age 40. Dr Fox argues on the other hand that widespread testing could lead to unnecessary anxiety and panic among those at risk and that funding should be focused on learning more about the early stages of dementia. While the concept of early testing is appealing, there is a large knowledge gap; instruments in use have not been tested in pre-dementia patients and have limited validity. While there is debate over the approach, we can agree that the economic and social impacts of this condition need to be addressed sooner rather than later. PMID:24995445

Fox, C; Alessi, C; Ahluwalia, S; Hachinski, V

2014-01-01

184

Expectation and Entropy in Spoken Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Hearing Acuity  

PubMed Central

Background/Study Context Older adults, especially those with reduced hearing acuity, can make good use of linguistic context in word recognition. Less is known about the effects of the weighted distribution of probable target and non-target words that fit the sentence context (response entropy). The present study examined the effects of age, hearing acuity, linguistic context, and response entropy on spoken word recognition. Methods Participants were 18 older adults with good hearing acuity (M age = 74.3 years), 18 older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (M age = 76.1 years) and 18 young adults with age-normal hearing (M age = 19.6 years). Participants heard sentence-final words using a word-onset gating paradigm, in which words were heard with increasing amounts of onset information until they could be correctly identified. Degrees of context varied from a neutral context to a high context condition. Results Older adults with poor hearing acuity required a greater amount of word onset information for recognition of words when heard in a neutral context compared to older adults with good hearing acuity and young adults. This difference progressively decreased with an increase in words’ contextual probability. Unlike the young adults, both older adult groups’ word recognition thresholds were sensitive to response entropy. Response entropy was not affected by hearing acuity. Conclusions Increasing linguistic context mitigates the negative effect of age and hearing loss on word recognition. The effect of response entropy on older adults’ word recognition is discussed in terms of an age-related inhibition deficit. PMID:23607396

Lash, Amanda; Rogers, Chad S.; Zoller, Amy; Wingfield, Arthur

2013-01-01

185

Socioeconomic composition of low-acuity emergency department users in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the associations between the socioeconomic status of emergency department (ED) users and age, sex, and acuity of medical conditions to better understand users’ common characteristics, and to better meet primary and ambulatory health care needs. Design A retrospective, observational, population-based analysis. A rigorous proxy of socioeconomic status was applied using census-based methods to calculate a relative deprivation index. Setting Ontario. Participants All Ontario ED visits for the fiscal year April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System data set. Main outcome measures Emergency department visits were ranked into deprivation quintiles, and associations between deprivation and age, sex, acuity at triage, and association with a primary care physician were investigated. Results More than 25% of ED visits in Ontario were from the most deprived population; almost half of those (12.3%) were for conditions of low acuity. Age profiles indicated that a large contribution to low-acuity ED visits was made by young adults (aged 20 to 30 years) from the most deprived population. For the highest-volume ED in Ontario, 94 of the 499 ED visits per day were for low-acuity patients from the most deprived population. Most of the highest volume EDs in Ontario (more than 200 ED visits per day) follow this trend. Conclusion Overall input into EDs might be reduced by providing accessible and appropriate primary health care resources in catchment areas of EDs with high rates of low-acuity ED visits, particularly for young adults from the most deprived segment of the population. PMID:24733328

VanStone, Nancy A.; Belanger, Paul; Moore, Kieran; Caudle, Jaelyn M.

2014-01-01

186

Rapid Recovery of Visual Acuity after Lumboperitoneal Shunt Operation in Malignant Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension can cause rapid deterioration of visual acuity in some severe cases, and these cases are usually thought to have “malignant” form of this disease. Case. In this paper, we report on a 16-year-old girl who is a typical example for malignant idiopathic intracranial hypertension with a rapid recovery of visual acuity after lumboperitoneal shunt operation. Observations and Conclusions. Malignant form of idiopathic intracranial hypertension must be kept in mind in selected patients to avoid irreversible visual loss. PMID:22606459

Bir, Levent Sinan; Degirmenci, Eylem; Erdogan, Cagdas; Bilgin, Selma; Co?kun, Erdal

2011-01-01

187

Tactile acuity training for patients with chronic low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain can disrupt the cortical representation of a painful body part. This disruption may play a role in maintaining the individual’s pain. Tactile acuity training has been used to normalise cortical representation and reduce pain in certain pain conditions. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of this intervention for chronic low back pain (CLBP). The primary aim of this study was to inform the development of a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) by providing preliminary data on the effect of tactile acuity training on pain and function in individuals with CLBP. The secondary aim was to obtain qualitative feedback about the intervention. Methods In this mixed-methods pilot RCT 15 individuals were randomised to either an intervention (tactile acuity training) or a placebo group (sham tactile acuity training). All participants received 3 sessions of acuity training (intervention or sham) from a physiotherapist and were requested to undertake daily acuity home training facilitated by an informal carer (friend/relative). All participants also received usual care physiotherapy. The primary outcome measures were pain (0-100visual analogue scale (VAS)) and function (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ)). Participants and their informal carers were invited to a focus group to provide feedback on the intervention. Results The placebo group improved by the greatest magnitude for both outcome measures, but there was no statistically significant difference (Mean difference (95%CI), p-value) between groups for change in pain (25.6 (-0.7 to 51.9), p?=?0.056) or function (2.2 (-1.6 to 6.0), p?=?0.237). Comparing the number of individuals achieving a minimally clinically significant improvement, the placebo group had better outcomes for pain with all participants achieving ?30% improvement compared to only a third of the intervention group (6/6 vs. 3/9, p?=?0.036). Qualitatively, participants reported that needing an informal carer was a considerable barrier to the home training component of the study. Conclusions This pilot RCT found tactile acuity training to be no more effective than sham tactile acuity training for function and less effective for pain in individuals with CLBP. That the intervention could not be self-applied was a considerable barrier to its use. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN98118082 PMID:24571855

2014-01-01

188

Comparison of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity between deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate postoperative visual acuity and contrast sensitivity results following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with keratoconus (KC). METHODS All the patients' records with KC who had PK or DALK surgery between May 2010 and May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty patients who underwent successful corneal transplantation for KC: 30 eyes underwent DALK and 30 eyes underwent PK were included in this study. Preoperative and postoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), logMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Contrast sensitivity tests (CS) were done preoperative and 2 months after all sutures had removed. All surgeries were performed under regional anesthesia (retrobulbar anesthesia) by 1 surgeon (B.K.) who was experienced in penetrating and lamellar keratoplasty techniques. RESULTS The mean age of the DALK group was 29.67±4.95 (range 18-40) years and the PK group was 28.7±3.53 (range 18-39) years. Preoperatively there was no significant difference in the logMAR UCVA, logMAR BSCVA and IOP between the DALK (1.281±0.56; 0.97±0.85; 12.07±2.12mmHg) and PK (1.34±0.21; 0.98±0.21; 13±2.12mmHg) groups. One-year after surgery there was no significant difference in the mean logMAR UCVA and IOP between the DALK (0.46±0.37; 11.73±2.1mmHg) and PK (0.38±0.21; 12±2.12mmHg) groups. The mean contrast sensitivity was evaluated by CC-100 Topcon LCD at 1.5, 2.52, 4.23, 7.10 and 11.91 cycles per degree (cs/deg) spatial frequencies before and 2 months after the all sutures had removed. CONCLUSION All patients with keratoconus in both DALK and PK groups performed good visual function postoperatively. The mean contrast sensitivity increased considerably at all spatial frequencies compared with preoperative levels in the DALK and PK groups. The mean post-operative evaluation of contrast sensitivity measurements was not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:23275910

Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Kandemir, Baran; Sayman, Isil Bahar; Selvi, Cem; Kamil Dogan, Omer

2012-01-01

189

VERBAL LEARNING AMONG CHILDREN WITH REDUCED HEARING ACUITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

COMBINED VISUAL-AUDITORY METHODS FOR TEACHING WERE TESTED, USING AURALLY HANDICAPPED AND NORMAL CHILDREN AS SUBJECTS, TO DEVELOP COMPARATIVE STATISTICS OF LEARNING ABILITY AND AUDITORY TRAINING BENEFITS OVER CONVENTIONAL UNISENSORY TEACHING TECHNIQUES. THE STUDY SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 2,500 CHILDREN. IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE, THE CHILDREN WERE…

GAETH, JOHN H.; AND OTHERS

190

A Survey of Display Device Properties and Visual Acuity for Visualization  

E-print Network

A Survey of Display Device Properties and Visual Acuity for Visualization Technical Report TR-2005 for ways to explore and analyze large, multidimen- sional information spaces. Visualization lends itself well to this challenge by enabling users to visually explore, analyze, and discover patterns within

Healey, Christopher G.

191

Ophthalmological follow up of preterm infants: a population based, prospective study of visual acuity and strabismus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND\\/AIMSPrematurely born infants are known to have an increased rate of ophthalmological morbidity. The aim of the present study was to investigate visual acuity and ocular alignment in a population of preterm infants in a geographical area, in infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).METHODSA prospective population based study of ophthalmological status of preterm infants with a birth weight

G Holmström; M el Azazi; U Kugelberg

1999-01-01

192

Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement  

E-print Network

enhances number sense acuity, and the extent to which tertiary factors can affect both. Behavioural, neuropsychological and brain imaging techniques show that a signature of the approximate number system (ANS) is its increasingly imprecise as a lin- ear function of the target array, with larger quantities represented less

Cai, Long

193

Macular vasculature, visual acuity, and irreversibly sickled cells in homozygous sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of visual acuity and the conjunctival, macular, and perimacular vascularity have been assessed in patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease. There were 17 matched pairs, each consisting of one patient with a high count (greater than or equal to 15%) and one with a low count (less than or equal to 5%) of irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs). The

R J Marsh; S M Ford; M F Rabb; R J Hayes; G R Serjeant

1982-01-01

194

Expectation and Entropy in Spoken Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Hearing Acuity  

E-print Network

and hearing loss on word recognition. The effect of response entropy on older adults' word recognitionExpectation and Entropy in Spoken Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Hearing Acuity Amanda Lash-to-moderate hearing loss (M age = 76.1 years) and 18 young adults with age-normal hearing (M age = 19.6 years

Allen, Jont

195

A Close Eye on the Eagle-Eyed Visual Acuity Hypothesis of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP).…

Bolte, Sven; Schlitt, Sabine; Gapp, Volker; Hainz, Daniela; Schirman, Shella; Poustka, Fritz; Weber, Bernhard; Freitag, Christine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik

2012-01-01

196

Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amblyopic vision is thought to be limited by abnormal long-range spatial interactions, but their exact mode of action and rela- tionship to the main amblyopic deficit in visual acuity is largely unknown. We studied this relationship in a group (N = 59) of anisometropic (N = 21) and strabismic (or combined, N = 38) subjects, using (1) a single and

Yoram S. Bonneh; Dov Sagi; Uri Polat

2004-01-01

197

STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY  

E-print Network

1 STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY Revised January 2013 #12;2 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Context Widening with a notable increase in the numbers of students with significant mental health difficulties entering HE the continuum from promoting positive mental well-being to working with students with severe mental health

Martin, Ralph R.

198

Reduction in Dynamic Visual Acuity Reveals Gaze Control Changes Following Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to microgravity causes adaptive changes in eye-head coordination that can lead to altered gaze control. This could affect postflight visual acuity during head and body motion. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in dynamic visual acuity after long-duration spaceflight. METHODS: Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) data from 14 astro/cosmonauts were collected after long-duration (6 months) spaceflight. The difference in acuity between seated and walking conditions provided a metric of change in the subjects ability to maintain gaze fixation during self-motion. In each condition, a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm was used to display Landolt ring optotypes at a size that was near each subject s acuity threshold. Verbal responses regarding the orientation of the gap were recorded as the optotypes appeared sequentially on a computer display 4 meters away. During the walking trials, subjects walked at 6.4 km/h on a motorized treadmill. RESULTS: A decrement in mean postflight DVA was found, with mean values returning to baseline within 1 week. The population mean showed a consistent improvement in DVA performance, but it was accompanied by high variability. A closer examination of the individual subject s recovery curves revealed that many did not follow a pattern of continuous improvement with each passing day. When adjusted on the basis of previous long-duration flight experience, the population mean shows a "bounce" in the re-adaptation curve. CONCLUSION: Gaze control during self-motion is altered following long-duration spaceflight and changes in postflight DVA performance indicate that vestibular re-adaptation may be more complex than a gradual return to normal.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris; Lawrence, Emily L.; Mulavara Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

199

Visual acuity and retinal function in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a genetic, multisystem disorder that causes severe visual impairment. This condition is characterized by retinal dystrophy, obesity, digit anomalies, renal disease, and hypogonadism. The purpose of this study was to analyze visual acuity and full-field electroretinogram findings in patients with the Bardet-Biedl syndrome phenotype. METHODS: The visual acuity of a group of 23 patients (15 males) with ages ranging from 6-36 years (mean?=?15.8±6.4; median?=?14.7) was assessed. Retinal function was evaluated by full-field electroretinography, and dark-adapted thresholds were assessed. RESULTS: Visual acuity in the better-seeing eye was 20/40 or better in 5 patients (21.7%), 20/50-20/150 in 13 (56.5%) patients, 20/200-20/400 in 2 (8.7%) patients and worse than 20/400 in one (4.3%) patient. The mean acuity in the better-seeing eye was 0.7±0.6 logMAR (20/100, Snellen equivalent). Scotopic rod and maximal responses were non-detectable in 21 (91.3%) patients, and cone responses were non-detectable in 15 (65.2%) patients. Elevated dark-adapted visual thresholds were observed in all 19 patients who were able to be assessed, with 10 (52.6%) patients having thresholds greater than 30 dB. CONCLUSIONS: In a relatively young cohort of patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, only 21% had 20/40 or better vision. ERG scotopic responses were absent in the majority of cases, with cone responses being observed in less than half of cases. These findings showed the early deleterious effects in retinal function and visual acuity caused by this condition. PMID:22358239

Berezovsky, Adriana; Rocha, Daniel Martins; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Watanabe, Sung Song; Cavascan, Nívea Nunes; Salomăo, Solange Rios

2012-01-01

200

Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

Sarah Peters

2010-01-01

201

Visual stimulus parameters seriously compromise the measurement of approximate number system acuity and comparative effects between adults and children  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that a simple non-symbolic magnitude comparison task is sufficient to measure the acuity of a putative Approximate Number System (ANS). A proposed measure of the ANS, the so-called “internal Weber fraction” (w), would provide a clear measure of ANS acuity. However, ANS studies have never presented adequate evidence that visual stimulus parameters did not compromise measurements of w to such extent that w is actually driven by visual instead of numerical processes. We therefore investigated this question by testing non-symbolic magnitude discrimination in seven-year-old children and adults. We manipulated/controlled visual parameters in a more stringent manner than usual. As a consequence of these controls, in some trials numerical cues correlated positively with number while in others they correlated negatively with number. This congruency effect strongly correlated with w, which means that congruency effects were probably driving effects in w. Consequently, in both adults and children congruency had a major impact on the fit of the model underlying the computation of w. Furthermore, children showed larger congruency effects than adults. This suggests that ANS tasks are seriously compromised by the visual stimulus parameters, which cannot be controlled. Hence, they are not pure measures of the ANS and some putative w or ratio effect differences between children and adults in previous ANS studies may be due to the differential influence of the visual stimulus parameters in children and adults. In addition, because the resolution of congruency effects relies on inhibitory (interference suppression) function, some previous ANS findings were probably influenced by the developmental state of inhibitory processes especially when comparing children with developmental dyscalculia and typically developing children. PMID:23882245

Sz?cs, Dénes; Nobes, Alison; Devine, Amy; Gabriel, Florence C.; Gebuis, Titia

2013-01-01

202

A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

1988-01-01

203

Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

Bowen, Peter

204

Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

2010-01-01

205

Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

Palmer, Glen A.

2006-01-01

206

Significant Improvement in Dynamic Visual Acuity after Cataract Surgery: A Promising Potential Parameter for Functional Vision  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is a relatively independent parameter for evaluating the ability to distinguish details of a moving target. The present study has been designed to discuss the extent to which age-related cataract impacts DVA in elderly individuals and to determine whether it could be restored after bilateral phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery. Methods Twenty-six elderly cataract patients scheduled for binocular cataract surgery and 30 elderly volunteers without cataract were enrolled in the study. DVA at 15, 30, 60 and 90 degree per second (dps) was assessed, and velocity-dependent visual acuity decreases between consecutive speed levels were calculated. Results Compared with the control group, the patient group exhibited significantly worse DVA performance at all speed levels (p<0.001), and the decreases in velocity-dependent visual acuity were more serious in the patient group at the intervals of 0–15 dps (p<0.001), 15–30 dps (p?=?0.007) and 30–60 dps (p?=?0.008). Postoperatively, DVA performance at every speed level in the patient group clearly improved (p<0.001) and recovered to levels compatible to the control group. The decrease in visual acuity with increasing speed was less pronounced than during the preoperative phase (p0–15 dps?=?0.001, p15–30 dps<0.001 and p30–60 dps?=?0.001) and became similar to that of the control group. The postoperative visual benefit regarding DVA was more pronounced than the improvement in static visual acuity (p15 dps?=?0.001 and p<0.001 at 30 dps, 60 dps and 90 dps). Conclusions The impact of age-related cataract on DVA was more severe than its effects on static visual acuity. After cataract surgery, not only static vision of the patients was restored markedly, but also the dynamic vision. DVA could be an important adjunct to the current evaluation system of functional vision, thereby meriting additional attention in clinical assessment. PMID:25541959

Ao, Mingxin; Li, Xuemin; Huang, Chen; Hou, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Weiqiang; Wang, Wei

2014-01-01

207

Myths & Facts about Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... anyone. Myth: Mental illness is the same as mental retardation. Fact: The two are distinct disorders. A mental retardation diagnosis is characterized by limitations in intellectual functioning ...

208

Progressive improvement of impaired visual acuity during the first year after transsphenoidal surgery for non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma  

PubMed Central

Objective Improvement of visual field defects continues even years after the initial surgical treatment. Because this process of continuing improvement has not been documented for visual acuity, we audited our data to explore the pattern of recovery of visual acuity until 1 year after transsphenoidal surgery for non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma. Design Retrospective follow-up study. Patients Forty-three patients (mean age 56 ± 14 years), treated by transsphenoidal surgery for non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma, were included in this analysis. Results Visual acuity improved significantly within 3 months after transsphenoidal surgery. The mean visual acuity increased from 0.65 ± 0.37 to 0.75 ± 0.36 (P < 0.01) (right eye), and from 0.60 ± 0.32 to 0.82 ± 0.30 (P < 0.01) (left eye). Visual acuity was improved 1 year after transsphenoidal surgery compared to the 3 months postoperative values. The mean visual acuity increased from 0.75 ± 0.36 to 0.82 ± 0.34 (P < 0.05) (right eye), and from 0.82 ± 0.30 to 0.88 ± 0.27 (P < 0.05) (left eye). Conclusion Visual acuity improves progressively after surgical treatment for non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas, at least within the first year after transsphenoidal surgery. PMID:17318437

de Keizer, R. J. W.; Roelfsema, F.; vd Klaauw, A. A.; Honkoop, P. J.; van Dulken, H.; Smit, J. W. A.; Romijn, J. A.; Pereira, A. M.

2007-01-01

209

Habitual plate-waste of 6- to 9-year-olds may not be associated with lower nutritional needs or taste acuity, but undesirable dietary factors.  

PubMed

Efforts to reduce plate-waste (PW) are limited to those by a dietitian who serves the entire school rather than a better characterization of individuals who are served. We tested the hypothesis that children reporting habitual PW would have different physical or dietary characteristics compared with children without PW. Participants were 407 children aged 6 to 9 years in elementary schools in Kyeonggi, Korea. Information on eating behavior and food preference was collected using a questionnaire administered by parents. Among them, 91 students participated further in anthropometry, step counting, taste acuity tests, and nutrition intake from school lunches. Participants were divided into tertiles according to total frequency of leaving PW from each meal on a typical day: no PW, moderate PW, and habitual PW. Children with habitual PW showed several undesirable characteristics: consuming less of various vegetables, eating only what they like, poor table manners, and frequent consumption of street foods and cookies/beverages/fast foods. Whereas height, weight, and obesity index as well as taste acuity and daily steps in the habitual PW group were not significantly different, intakes of potassium, niacin, and folate were significantly lower compared with the other groups. Therefore, habitual PW did not seem to result from having a lower energy requirement or different taste acuity, or result in observed slowed growth, but it could place children at a risk for insufficient nutritional intake, consequently impairing growth and general health. The results emphasize the parental role in shaping children's diet and provide information for developing strategies to reduce PW of individual children. PMID:19963155

Baik, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Hongmie

2009-12-01

210

Microactuator production via high aspect ratio, high edge acuity metal fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LIGA is a procession sequence which uses x-ray lithography on photoresist layers of several hundred micrometers to produce very high edge acuity photopolymer molds. These plastic molds can be converted to metal molds via electroplating of many different metals and alloys. The end results are high edge acuity metal parts with large structural heights. The LIGA process as originally described by W. Ehrfeld can be extended by adding a surface micromachining phase to produce precision metal parts which can be assembled to form three-dimensional micromechanisms. This process, SLIGA, has been used to fabricate a dynamometer on a chip. The instrument has been fully implemented and will be applied to tribology issues, speed-torque characterization of planar magnetic micromotors and a new family of sensors.

Guckel, H.; Christenson, T. R.

1993-01-01

211

Visual acuity versus field of view and light level for night vision goggles (NVGs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual acuity (resolution) and field of view are two significant parameters used to characterize night vision goggles (NVGs). It is well established that these two parameters are coupled together in an inverse relationship: an increase in field of view results in a reduction in visual acuity and vice versa. An experiment was conducted to determine how visual acuity through NVGs changes as a function of NVG field of view and ambient scene illumination level. A total of three trained observers were used for this study who ranged in age from 33 to 42 years of age. The NVGs used in the study had fields of view of 40, 47, and 52 degrees, respectively. Five levels of ambient scene illumination (corresponding to NVG output luminance levels of 0.01, 0.03, 0.08, 0.26, and 1.9 fL) were provided by a 2856k light source which ranged from overcast starlight to quarter moon. The targets used in the study were approximately 95+% contrast square wave targets ranging in size from 45 cycles/degree to 5 cycles per degree. The method of adjustment was employed by having the trained observer start at a distance of 30 feet and determine the highest spatial frequency target which was clearly discernable. The subject was then directed to walk back slowly from the target until it was just out of focus, and then walk forward until the target was barely discernable. The distance from the target was recorded and used to calculate the angular spatial frequency (and equivalent Snellen acuity). The results indicate that the simple geometric model of the inverse relationship between resolution and field of view is adequate for characterizing this design trade-off for the quality of image intensifier tubes currently available.

Donohue-Perry, Mary M.; Task, H. Lee; Dixon, Sharon A.

1994-06-01

212

Visual acuity and the ability of the visually impaired to read medication instructions  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Although medical information is often communicated in writing, little attention is given as to whether patients can read it—for example, the miniscule writing on the side of the medication bottles (equivalent to 6/6 reduced Snellen). The authors wished to determine a distance visual acuity threshold, using routine assessments of visual acuity (VA), beyond which patients are unable to read their instructions. Methods: 180 patients, subgrouped according to the best line of Snellen acuity (from 6/9 to 6/60) achieved in either eye were recruited. Subjects were asked to read the printed manufacturer’s instructions on the side of the drops box without magnification. Results: Those subjects with best corrected VA of lower than or equal to 6/24 showed a significantly diminished ability to read the instructions on their eye drops bottles (p<0.001 for each comparison). When this group selected a font size of their choosing, the mode for preferred Arial font sizes were 16 for the 6/24 group, 18 for 6/36, and 22 for 6/60. Conclusion: This study documents the inability of patients with visual impairment to read the instructions on their bottle of eye drops. There is evidence of a distance VA threshold effect such that, although the majority of patients with 6/18 VA are able to read their instructions, patients whose VA is worse cannot. This latter group would benefit from a larger font size, a size of Arial 22 being sufficient. We recommend that all printed information for patients with visual acuities between 6/24 and 6/60 be printed in font Arial 22 or equivalent. PMID:15548808

Drummond, S R; Drummond, R S; Dutton, G N

2004-01-01

213

The Relationship of Age-Related Maculopathy, Cataract, and Glaucoma to Visual Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To investigate the relationship of age-related maculopathy, cataract, and glaucoma to visual acuity in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed in people 43 through 86 years of age residing in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, who were identified between 1987 and 1988 and examined (n = 4926) between 1988 and 1990. Of those who

Ronald Klein; Qin Wang; Barbara E. K. Klein; Scot E. Moss; Stacy M. Meuer

1995-01-01

214

Contrast visual acuity after multifocal intraocular lens implantation: aspheric versus spherical design  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate contrast visual acuity (CVA) after implantation of an aspheric apodized diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) or a spherical apodized diffractive IOL in cataract surgery. METHOD This prospective randomized controlled study with a 12-month follow-up compared the results of cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3 IOL (30 eyes) and a spherical AcrySof ReSTOR SN60D3 IOL (30 eyes). CVA with best distance correction was measured at 4 contrast levels (100%, 25%, 10% and 5%) under 3 levels of chart luminance [250, 85 and 25 candelas per square meter (cd/m2)] using a multi-functional visual acuity tester (MFVA-100) RESULTS At 12 months after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences in 100% CVA and 25% CVA under 250cd/m2 (P100%=0.875 and P25%=0.057) and 85cd/m2 (P100%=0.198 and P25%=0.193) between the aspheric group and the spherical group. However, the 10% CVA and 5% CVA were significant better in aspheric group than spherical group under 250cd/m2 (P10%=0.042 and P5%=0.007) and 85cd/m2 (P10%=0.002 and P5%=0.039). Under the luminance level of 25cd/m2, no significant differences was found in the 100% CVA between the 2 group (P100%=0.245), while aspheric group had better visual acuity in the remaining 3 contracts (P25%=0.023, P10%=0.026 and P5%=0.002, respectively). CONCULSION The aspheric AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3 IOL provided patients with better low-contrast visual acuity than the spherical AcrySof ReSTOR SN60D3 IOL. PMID:24634872

Li, Jun-Hua; Feng, Yi-Fan; Zhao, Yun-E; Zhao, Yin-Ying; Lin, Lei

2014-01-01

215

Impaired Visual Acuity as a Risk Factor for Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathophysiology of hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease is poorly understood. This study investigated relationships between visual hallucinations and visual acuity. Twenty-six consecutive patients with Parkinson’s disease participated in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with visual hallucinations (VH group) and those without visual hallucinations (no-VH group). Unaided and corrected eyesight was evaluated in all patients, and if frequent

Hideaki Matsui; Fukashi Udaka; Akiko Tamura; Masaya Oda; Tamotsu Kubori; Kazuto Nishinaka; Masakuni Kameyama

2006-01-01

216

Effect of an Eyesight Recovering Stereoscopic Movie System on Visual Acuity and Asthenopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relaxing the contracted muscles involved in focus-adjustment around the eyeball, such as the ciliary body and extraocular\\u000a muscles, is expected to improve pseudomyopia. This hypothesis has led to the development of Dr.REX—an apparatus for recovering\\u000a eyesight by using a stereoscopic video. In this study, we verified the effects of this apparatus on visual acuity and asthenopia\\u000a in the short and

Akihiro Sugiura; Tetsuya Yamamoto; Hiroki Takada; Masaru Miyao

2009-01-01

217

THE RELATION BETWEEN FOVEAL VISUAL ACUITY AND ILLUMINATION UNDER REDUCED OXYGEN TENSION  

PubMed Central

1. The foveal visual acuity of eleven subjects was studied in relation to illumination under normal atmospheric conditions and at simulated altitudes of 10,000 feet (14.3 per cent O2) and 18,000 feet (10.3 per cent O2). A mask was used to administer the desired mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen. At the end of each experiment, measurements were made while inhaling 100 per cent oxygen from a cylinder. A red filter (No. 70 Wratten) was used so as to study only the behavior of the cones of the retina. 2. The logarithm of illumination was plotted horizontally (abscissa) and the logarithm of visual acuity vertically (ordinate). The reduced oxygen tensions resulted in a shift of the curve to the right, along the intensity axis, the extent of the change being 0.24 of a log unit at 14.3 per cent O2 and 0.47 of a log unit at 10.3 per cent O2. These effects were completely counteracted within a few minutes by inhaling oxygen. 3. As a consequence of the shape of the curve, such a shift to the right resulted in a relatively large decrease of visual acuity at low illuminations. At increasing light intensities anoxia produced less and less change, until at very high illuminations the decrease was negligible. Thus with 10.34 per cent O2 the visual acuity at 0.144 photons decreased an average of 0.344 of a log unit, to 45 per cent of its normal value. At 1320 photons, however, it decreased only 0.026 of a log unit, to 94 per cent of its normal value for that intensity. PMID:19873178

McFarland, R. A.; Halperin, M. H.

1940-01-01

218

Acuity-independent effects of visual deprivation on human visual cortex.  

PubMed

Visual development depends on sensory input during an early developmental critical period. Deviation of the pointing direction of the two eyes (strabismus) or chronic optical blur (anisometropia) separately and together can disrupt the formation of normal binocular interactions and the development of spatial processing, leading to a loss of stereopsis and visual acuity known as amblyopia. To shed new light on how these two different forms of visual deprivation affect the development of visual cortex, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal evolution of visual responses in patients who had experienced either strabismus or anisometropia early in life. To make a specific statement about the locus of deprivation effects, we took advantage of a stimulation paradigm in which we could measure deprivation effects that arise either before or after a configuration-specific response to illusory contours (ICs). Extraction of ICs is known to first occur in extrastriate visual areas. Our ERP measurements indicate that deprivation via strabismus affects both the early part of the evoked response that occurs before ICs are formed as well as the later IC-selective response. Importantly, these effects are found in the normal-acuity nonamblyopic eyes of strabismic amblyopes and in both eyes of strabismic patients without amblyopia. The nonamblyopic eyes of anisometropic amblyopes, by contrast, are normal. Our results indicate that beyond the well-known effects of strabismus on the development of normal binocularity, it also affects the early stages of monocular feature processing in an acuity-independent fashion. PMID:25024230

Hou, Chuan; Pettet, Mark W; Norcia, Anthony M

2014-07-29

219

Acuity-independent effects of visual deprivation on human visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Visual development depends on sensory input during an early developmental critical period. Deviation of the pointing direction of the two eyes (strabismus) or chronic optical blur (anisometropia) separately and together can disrupt the formation of normal binocular interactions and the development of spatial processing, leading to a loss of stereopsis and visual acuity known as amblyopia. To shed new light on how these two different forms of visual deprivation affect the development of visual cortex, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal evolution of visual responses in patients who had experienced either strabismus or anisometropia early in life. To make a specific statement about the locus of deprivation effects, we took advantage of a stimulation paradigm in which we could measure deprivation effects that arise either before or after a configuration-specific response to illusory contours (ICs). Extraction of ICs is known to first occur in extrastriate visual areas. Our ERP measurements indicate that deprivation via strabismus affects both the early part of the evoked response that occurs before ICs are formed as well as the later IC-selective response. Importantly, these effects are found in the normal-acuity nonamblyopic eyes of strabismic amblyopes and in both eyes of strabismic patients without amblyopia. The nonamblyopic eyes of anisometropic amblyopes, by contrast, are normal. Our results indicate that beyond the well-known effects of strabismus on the development of normal binocularity, it also affects the early stages of monocular feature processing in an acuity-independent fashion. PMID:25024230

Hou, Chuan; Pettet, Mark W.; Norcia, Anthony M.

2014-01-01

220

Mental Ray : kohti fotorealismia.  

E-print Network

??Tässä opinnäytetyössä on pyritty lähestymään fotorealistista renderöintiä käyttäen apuna MentalImages-yhtiön valmistamaa Mental Ray -renderöintimoottoria ja materiaaleja. Mallinnusohjelmistona tässä työssä on käytetty Autodeskin 3DS Max -ohjelmistoa,… (more)

Kymäläinen, Hannu

2012-01-01

221

Mental Health: Military  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Mental Health > People > Military Let's Talk Facts Brochures Healthy Minds, Healthy Lives Blog Key Topics Finding help Caregivers Suicide ... Parity Healthy Minds TV What is a psychiatrist Mental Health Check-up Coping with Disasters Links for more ...

222

Teens and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... community for teens and young adults struggling with mental health problems and encourage them to talk about what ... just the typical “growing pains” or a real mental health problem. While adolescence is a difficult time for ...

223

Children's Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Makers  National Center Homepage Children's Mental Health Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Share Compartir Children’s Mental Disorders: A ... Developmental Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers  Language: English Espańol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

224

Child Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor or mental health specialist looks at your child's signs and symptoms, medical history, and family history. Treatments include medicines and talk therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

225

G OO D MENTAL H HG OO D MENTAL H  

E-print Network

55 G OO D MENTAL H E ALT HG OO D MENTAL H E ALT H The university student's guide to Good mental Organization. It states that "Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well to the physical realm, and the contribution of mental health is often overlooked. Good mental health is vital

Doedel, Eusebius

226

Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.  

PubMed

People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

2014-09-01

227

Mental Health 2: Bedlam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mental health and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mental health asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.

Science Netlinks;

2002-07-28

228

Department. Mental Health  

E-print Network

Student Services Department. Helping Students With Mental Health Difficulties. #12;#12;This document has been produced to assist staff in their dealings with students with mental health difficulties.1 It aims to: If a student is experiencing mental health difficulties there will often be warning

Li, Yi

229

Mental accounting matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental accounting is the set of cognitive operations used by individuals and households to organize, evaluate, and keep track of financial activities. Making use of research on this topic over the past decade, this paper summarizes the current state of our knowledge about how people engage in mental accounting activities. Three components of mental accounting receive the most attention. This

Richard H. Thaler

1999-01-01

230

Introduction to Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

Arc of the United States, 2004

2004-01-01

231

Stigmatizing Attitudes About Mental Illness and Allocation of Resources to Mental Health Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a social psychological model (Skitka & Tetlock, 1992). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 491–522; [1993]. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 1205–1223 stating that policy maker decisions regarding the allocation of resources to mental health services are influenced by their attitudes towards people with mental illness and treatment efficacy. Fifty four individuals participated in a

Patrick W. Corrigan; Amy C. Watson; Amy C. Warpinski; Gabriela Gracia

2004-01-01

232

Simple Mental Addition in Children with and without Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speeded performance on simple mental addition problems of 6- and 7-year-olds with and without mild mental retardation was modeled from a person perspective and an item perspective, both inferred from Siegler's work. Models from item response theory were used to test hypotheses. Found that all children follow same developmental path in acquiring…

Janssen, Rianne; De Boeck, Paul; Viaene, Mieke; Vallaeys, Lies

1999-01-01

233

Correlation Between the Findings of Optical Coherent Retinal Tomography (OCT), Stereo Biomicroscopic Images from Fundus of an Eye and Values from Visual Acuity of Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Diabetic maculopathy is the major cause of reduced visual acuity in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and occurs on average in 29% of patients who have diabetes for 20 or more years. Aim: The aim of this study is to re examine the correlation between the findings of optical coherence retinal tomography, stereo bio-microscopic images from fundus of an eye and values from visual acuity of diabetic macular edema. In addition, the aim is to show the importance of various ophthalmic tests for establishing diagnosis in time. Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 90 subjects-patients from Cabinet for photographic documentation, fluorescein angiography and laser photocoagulation in Department of Ophthalmology at the University Clinical Centre in Sarajevo. The study was a one-year long, prospective, clinical study. Results: Research has shown a positive correlation between the various tests that are applied for the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema. Accurate and early diagnosis is of great importance for the treatment in time of this disease by applying laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injections of Anti-VEGF drugs or surgical treatment by Pars Plana Vitrectomy. PMID:25395723

Nisic, Faruk; Turkovic, Samir; Mavija, Milka; Jovanovic, Nina; Alimanovic, Emina Halilovic-

2014-01-01

234

Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

2007-01-01

235

Pediatric Primary Care Providers' Relationships with Mental Health Care Providers: Survey Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As many as 20 % of children have diagnosable mental health conditions and nearly all of them receive pediatric primary health care. However, most children with serious mental health concerns do not receive mental health services. This study tested hypotheses that pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) in relationships with mental

Pidano, Anne E.; Honigfeld, Lisa; Bar-Halpern, Miri; Vivian, James E.

2014-01-01

236

Students' mental models of the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are students' mental models of the environment? In what ways, if any, do students' mental models vary by grade level or community setting? These two questions guided the research reported in this article. The Environments Task was administered to students from 25 different teacher-classrooms. The student responses were first inductively analyzed in order to identify students' mental models of the environment. The second phase of analysis involved the statistical testing of the identified mental models. From this analysis four mental models emerged: Model 1, the environment as a place where animals/plants live - a natural place; Model 2, the environment as a place that supports life; Model 3, the environment as a place impacted or modified by human activity; and Model 4, the environment as a place where animals, plants, and humans live. The dominant mental model was Mental Model 1. Yet, a greater frequency of urban students than suburban and rural students held Mental Model 3. The implications to environmental science education are explored.

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Wee, Bryan; Priddy, Michelle; Harbor, Jon

2007-02-01

237

A pilot test of the HOPE Intervention to explore employment and mental health among African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS: results from a CBPR study.  

PubMed

The Helping Overcome Problems Effectively (HOPE) intervention was developed by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership to improve mental health and employment outcomes of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The intervention blended locally collected formative data, social cognitive theory, hope theory, and the lived experiences of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The HOPE intervention included 7 weekly 3-hour group sessions, with participant assessment at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. A total of 7 African American men, who self-identified as gay and unemployed, participated. Mean age was 46.1 (range = 37-57) years. Throughout the intervention, participants developed goal-setting skills, problem-solving skills, health-promoting behaviors, and employment seeking behaviors. The results suggest that the HOPE intervention may be promising in improving mental health and employment outcomes. PMID:24059878

Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Geishecker, Steve; Clark, Glenn; Rhodes, Scott D

2013-10-01

238

Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

2012-01-01

239

Psychomotor Performance, Mental Disability and Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A battery of four psychomotor tests was developed and evaluated as a measure of the potential of mental patients of varying diagnoses for rehabilitation training. The tests were to be suitable for administration and interpretation by non-professional level technicians. The relationship between performance on the 5 days of tests and patient outcome…

Brooks, George W.; Weaver, Lelon A., Jr.

240

Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal.  

PubMed

Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°-within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20?kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5?kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60??s. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

2015-01-01

241

Piecewise Mental Rotation 1 Running Head: PIECEWISE MENTAL ROTATION  

E-print Network

Piecewise Mental Rotation 1 Running Head: PIECEWISE MENTAL ROTATION Piecewise Mental Rotation Heri entries Figures: 2 (1 panel and 6 panels) Tables: 1 (2 panels) #12;Piecewise Mental Rotation 2 Abstract In mental rotation tasks, participants have to decide whether two images show the same object or scene

Pomplun, Marc

242

Imitation and mental adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses various definitions of imitation, in relation to learning theory and mental adjustment. The concept is considered from the perspectives of abnormal psychology and social psychology.

Joseph Peterson

1922-01-01

243

Religion and mental health  

PubMed Central

In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

2013-01-01

244

MENTAL HOSPITALS IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.

2000-01-01

245

Economic indicators of mental health service utilization in rural Appalachia.  

PubMed

This exploratory study examined the relative predictive strengths of selected economic factors (welfare cases, banking activity, unemployment, retail sales, motor vehicle sales) for utilization of mental health services (hotline calls, intake at community mental health centers and admissions at mental hospitals) over a 78-month period in rural Appalachia. Monthly data were tested for autocorrelation and adjusted for seasonality and inflation. Regression analyses indicated that (a) economic factors did account for a considerable portion of variance in mental health factors; (b) these factors predicted mental hospital admissions and hotline calls; (c) strengths of these relationships were quite consistent across the areas sampled, but the directions sometimes were different; (d) welfare factors were the best predictors of utilization; (e) Aid to Families with Dependent Children was generally the best single predictor of utilization, especially when mental health factors were lagged by 3 months. A causative model describing the decision-making process involved in the utilization of mental health services was presented. PMID:7165014

Banziger, G; Smith, R K; Foos, D

1982-12-01

246

Simulation of thalamic prosthetic vision: reading accuracy, speed, and acuity in sighted humans  

PubMed Central

The psychophysics of reading with artificial sight has received increasing attention as visual prostheses are becoming a real possibility to restore useful function to the blind through the coarse, pseudo-pixelized vision they generate. Studies to date have focused on simulating retinal and cortical prostheses; here we extend that work to report on thalamic designs. This study examined the reading performance of normally sighted human subjects using a simulation of three thalamic visual prostheses that varied in phosphene count, to help understand the level of functional ability afforded by thalamic designs in a task of daily living. Reading accuracy, reading speed, and reading acuity of 20 subjects were measured as a function of letter size, using a task based on the MNREAD chart. Results showed that fluid reading was feasible with appropriate combinations of letter size and phosphene count, and performance degraded smoothly as font size was decreased, with an approximate doubling of phosphene count resulting in an increase of 0.2 logMAR in acuity. Results here were consistent with previous results from our laboratory. Results were also consistent with those from the literature, despite using naive subjects who were not trained on the simulator, in contrast to other reports. PMID:25408641

Vurro, Milena; Crowell, Anne Marie; Pezaris, John S.

2014-01-01

247

The Effect of Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity following LASIK  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate visual outcome and the changes of contrast sensitivity (CS) after diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK). Methods Using retrospective chart review, 48 eyes of 25 patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with Visx S4 (VISX Inc., Santa Clara, CA) and M2 (Moria, France) and who were followed for at least six months were included. They were divided into two groups: DLK and non-DLK, by diagnosis of DLK or its absence after LASIK. Postoperative logMAR visual acuities and logCS measured using the VCTS® 6500 (Vistech Consultants, Inc., Dayton, OH) were compared with preoperative values in the DLK and non-DLK groups at three and six months after LASIK. Results There was no difference in logMAR visual acuity between the DLK and non-DLK groups until the sixth postoperative month. However, CS was significantly decreased at 12 and 18 cycle/degree compared with preoperative values (p=0.043 and p=0.045, respectively) in the DLK group, whereas CS was significantly increased at 12 cycle/degree in the non-DLK group (p=0.042) at six months. Conclusions DLK seemed to be strongly associated with a postoperative decrease of CS. PMID:17460425

Han, Eui Seok; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

2007-01-01

248

Monocular deprivation in adult mice alters visual acuity and single-unit activity  

PubMed Central

It has been discovered recently that monocular deprivation in young adult mice induces ocular dominance plasticity (ODP). This contradicts the traditional belief that ODP is restricted to a juvenile critical period. However, questions remain. ODP of young adults has been observed only using methods that are indirectly related to vision, and the plasticity of young adults appears diminished in comparison with juveniles. Therefore, we asked whether the newly discovered adult ODP broadly reflects plasticity of visual cortical function and whether it persists into full maturity. Single-unit activity is the standard physiological marker of visual cortical function. Using a more optimized protocol for recording single-units, we find evidence of adult ODP of single-units and show that it is most pronounced in deep cortical layers. Furthermore, using visual evoked potentials (VEP), we find that ODP is equally robust in young adults and mature adults and is observable after just one day of monocular deprivation. Finally, we find that monocular deprivation in adults changes spatial frequency thresholds of the VEP, decreasing the acuity of the deprived pathway and improving the acuity of the non-deprived pathway. Thus, in mice, the primary visual cortex is capable of remarkable adaptation throughout life. PMID:17522016

Fischer, Quentin S.; Graves, Aundrea; Evans, Scott; Lickey, Marvin E.; Pham, Tony A.

2007-01-01

249

Use of Formal and Informal Mental Health Resources by Cancer Survivors: Differences Between Rural and Nonrural Survivors and a Preliminary Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective Previous research has identified rural residence as a risk factor for poorer mental health (MH) outcomes in cancer survivors. This may be due to less use of various MH resources due to poorer access and less favorable attitudes and social norms related to MH resource utilization. The present study sought to examine use of MH resources in rural and nonrural survivors and identify factors associated with MH resource use. Methods Cancer survivors (n=113, 1 to 5 years post-diagnosis) completed a questionnaire packet and telephone interview. Accessibility and post-diagnosis use of various formal and informal MH resources was assessed along with constructs potentially linked to use of MH resources by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; personal attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control). Results Results indicated no widespread differences between rural and nonrural cancer survivors in MH resource use although some evidence suggested poorer accessibility and less use of mental health professionals and cancer support groups among rural survivors. In general, rural survivors reported less favorable personal attitudes and social norms regarding MH resource use. TPB constructs accounted for a significant portion of variance in use of most MH resources with personal attitudes generally being the strongest predictor of MH resource use. Conclusions Additional research is needed to expand the search for factors, particularly modifiable factors, which might account for disparities in MH outcomes between rural and nonrural survivors. PMID:20017114

Andrykowski, Michael A.; Burris, Jessica L.

2009-01-01

250

Mental Health Care: Who's Who  

MedlinePLUS

... Mental Health Care: Who's Who Healthy Living Listen Mental Health Care: Who's Who Article Body Psychiatrist: An M. ... degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: Master’s degree and several years of supervised ...

251

Mental contamination: the perpetrator effect.  

PubMed

In order to test the proposition that imagining carrying out an unacceptable non-consensual act can evoke contamination-related feelings in the perpetrator, 4 connected experiments were carried out involving male students. The effects of the experimental procedure were enhanced by the introduction of a theme of betrayal which boosted the feelings of contamination and urges to wash. The non-consensual scenarios were followed by substantial increases in negative emotions, notably shame, disgust and guilt, and these increases were boosted over successive enhancements of the procedure. Overall the results show that perpetrators of (imagined) unacceptable acts report a range of negative emotions and feelings of dirtiness. The main conclusion of this research is that imagining an unacceptable, non-consensual act can produce feelings of contamination. It is an experimental illustration of mental contamination, that is, contamination which is evoked by a mental event without any contact with a tangible contaminant. PMID:21888871

Rachman, S; Radomsky, Adam S; Elliott, Corinna M; Zysk, Eva

2012-03-01

252

Rethinking Mental Health Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…

Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.

253

Mentally Ill Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

254

Mental Rotation Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most popular tasks used in measuring individual differences in spatial ability is a mental rotation task introduced by Shepard and Metzler (1971). This page provides information about use of a spatial ability task to illustrate the prinicple of mental rotation.

255

Mental Health Diagnoses and Utilization of VA Non-Mental Health Medical Services Among Returning Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Over 35% of returned Iraq and Afghanistan veterans in VA care have received mental health diagnoses; the most prevalent is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about these patients’ use of non-mental health medical services and the impact of mental disorders on utilization. OBJECTIVE To compare utilization across three groups of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: those without mental disorders, those with mental disorders other than PTSD, and those with PTSD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS National, descriptive study of 249,440 veterans newly utilizing VA healthcare between October 7, 2001 and March 31, 2007, followed until March 31, 2008. MEASUREMENTS We used ICD9-CM diagnostic codes to classify mental health status. We compared utilization of outpatient non-mental health services, primary care, medical subspecialty, ancillary services, laboratory tests/diagnostic procedures, emergency services, and hospitalizations during veterans’ first year in VA care. Results were adjusted for demographics and military service and VA facility characteristics. MAIN RESULTS Veterans with mental disorders had 42–146% greater utilization than those without mental disorders, depending on the service category (all P?mental disorders (all P?mental disorders, those with mental disorders other than PTSD had 55% higher utilization of all non-mental health outpatient services; those with PTSD had 91% higher utilization. Female sex and lower rank were also independently associated with greater utilization. CONCLUSIONS Veterans with mental health diagnoses, particularly PTSD, utilize significantly more VA non-mental health medical services. As more veterans return home, we must ensure resources are allocated to meet their outpatient, inpatient, and emergency needs. PMID:19787409

Gima, Kris; Bertenthal, Daniel; Kim, Sue; Marmar, Charles R.; Seal, Karen H.

2009-01-01

256

Motion Controllers for Learners to Manipulate and Interact with 3D Objects for Mental Rotation Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental rotation is an important spatial processing ability and an important element in intelligence tests. However, the majority of past attempts at training mental rotation have used paper-and-pencil tests or digital images. This study proposes an innovative mental rotation training approach using magnetic motion controllers to allow learners to…

Yeh, Shih-Ching; Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lin, Po-Han; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Rizzo, Albert

2014-01-01

257

The role of visual acuity and segmentation cues in compound word identification.  

PubMed

Studies are reviewed that demonstrate how the identification of compound words during reading is constrained by the foveal area of the eye. When compound words are short, their letters can be identified during a single fixation, leading to the whole-word route dominating word recognition from early on. Hence, marking morpheme boundaries visually by means of hyphens slows down the processing of short words by encouraging morphological decomposition when holistic processing is a feasible option. In contrast, the decomposition route dominates the early stages of identifying long compound words. Thus, visual marking of morpheme boundaries facilitates processing of long compound words, unless the initial fixation made on the word lands very close to the morpheme boundary. The reviewed pattern of results is explained by the visual acuity principle (Bertram and Hyönä, 2003) and the dual-route framework of morphological processing. PMID:22701444

Hyönä, Jukka

2012-01-01

258

Visual Acuity Changes during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran  

PubMed Central

In this research, we represent the changes in visual acuity during pregnancy and after delivery. Changes as myopic shift start during second trimester and will be stopped after delivery; however it is obtained that women will have the same refractive error as what they had in the first trimester, after postpartum. So, any change in their spectacle prescription during this period is forbidden. As a result, not only changing in hormones can cause myopic shift in vision, but also overweight has its retributive role. What we are trying to do is to notify gynecologists and optometrists to be aware of these changes, so as to leave spectacle prescription writing to the session after postpartum period. PMID:25328705

Chaichian, Shahla; Mehdizadehkashi, Abolfazl; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Moazzami, Bahram; Pishgahroudsari, Mohaddeseh

2014-01-01

259

The Role of Visual Acuity and Segmentation Cues in Compound Word Identification  

PubMed Central

Studies are reviewed that demonstrate how the identification of compound words during reading is constrained by the foveal area of the eye. When compound words are short, their letters can be identified during a single fixation, leading to the whole-word route dominating word recognition from early on. Hence, marking morpheme boundaries visually by means of hyphens slows down the processing of short words by encouraging morphological decomposition when holistic processing is a feasible option. In contrast, the decomposition route dominates the early stages of identifying long compound words. Thus, visual marking of morpheme boundaries facilitates processing of long compound words, unless the initial fixation made on the word lands very close to the morpheme boundary. The reviewed pattern of results is explained by the visual acuity principle (Bertram and Hyönä, 2003) and the dual-route framework of morphological processing. PMID:22701444

Hyönä, Jukka

2012-01-01

260

Slanted joint axes of the stick insect antenna: an adaptation to tactile acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many flightless, obligatory walking insects, the stick insect Carausius morosus makes intensive use of active antennal movements for tactile near range exploration and orientation. The antennal joints of C. morosus have a peculiar oblique and non-orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Moreover, this arrangement is known to differ from that in crickets (Ensifera), locusts (Caelifera) and cockroaches (Blattodea), all of which have an orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Our hypothesis was that the situation found in C. morosus represents an important evolutionary trait of the order of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea). If this was true, it should be common to other species of the Phasmatodea. The objective of this comparative study was to resolve this question. We have measured the joint axis orientation of the head scape and scape pedicel joints along with other parameters that affect the tactile efficiency of the antenna. The obtained result was a complete kinematic description of the antenna. This was used to determine the size and location of kinematic out-of-reach zones, which are indicators of tactile acuity. We show that the oblique and non-orthogonal arrangement is common to eight species from six sub-families indicating that it is a synapomorphic character of the Euphasmatodea. This character can improve tactile acuity compared to the situation in crickets, locusts and cockroaches. Finally, because molecular data of a recent study indicate that the Phasmatodea may have evolved as flightless, obligatory walkers, we argue that the antennal joint axis arrangement of the Euphasmatodea reflects an evolutionary adaptation to tactile near range exploration during terrestrial locomotion.

Mujagic, Samir; Krause, André F.; Dürr, Volker

2007-04-01

261

Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients  

PubMed Central

Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

2015-01-01

262

Contrast visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa assessed by a contrast sensitivity tester  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess contrast visual acuity (CVA) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and compare the result with standard visual acuity (VA), retinal thickness, status of inner segment/outer segment junction, and central visual field. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients with RP and 39 eyes of 39 healthy individuals were studied. To see the difference in CVA between RP patients and normal controls, only subjects with standard VA of 1.0 (20/20) or better were included. This was a cross-sectional study. CVA in various light conditions was measured with CAT-2000 and was compared between patients and controls. CVA of patients was further analyzed for association with other parameters including foveal retinal thickness, outer nuclear layer thickness, the status of inner segment/outer segment junction measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT), and visual field mean deviation (MD) measured with Humphrey field analyzer 10-2 program. Results: CVA impairment was evident in RP patients compared to controls (P < 0.01, in all measurement conditions). Multivariate analysis showed association of logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) with CVAs in several conditions. None of the OCT measurements was associated with CVA. When patients were divided into three groups based on MD, the most advanced group (MD worse than or equal to –20 dB) showed impairment of mesopic CVA (P < 0.05, under mesopic condition of 100% without glare, with glare, and 25% without glare). Conclusion: CVA impairment was confirmed in RP patients, especially in advanced cases. CVA measured with CAT-2000 may be a useful tool for assessing foveal function in RP patients. PMID:23202395

Oishi, Maho; Nakamura, Hajime; Hangai, Masanori; Oishi, Akio; Otani, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

2012-01-01

263

Slanted joint axes of the stick insect antenna: an adaptation to tactile acuity.  

PubMed

Like many flightless, obligatory walking insects, the stick insect Carausius morosus makes intensive use of active antennal movements for tactile near range exploration and orientation. The antennal joints of C. morosus have a peculiar oblique and non-orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Moreover, this arrangement is known to differ from that in crickets (Ensifera), locusts (Caelifera) and cockroaches (Blattodea), all of which have an orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Our hypothesis was that the situation found in C. morosus represents an important evolutionary trait of the order of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea). If this was true, it should be common to other species of the Phasmatodea. The objective of this comparative study was to resolve this question. We have measured the joint axis orientation of the head-scape and scape-pedicel joints along with other parameters that affect the tactile efficiency of the antenna. The obtained result was a complete kinematic description of the antenna. This was used to determine the size and location of kinematic out-of-reach zones, which are indicators of tactile acuity. We show that the oblique and non-orthogonal arrangement is common to eight species from six sub-families indicating that it is a synapomorphic character of the Euphasmatodea. This character can improve tactile acuity compared to the situation in crickets, locusts and cockroaches. Finally, because molecular data of a recent study indicate that the Phasmatodea may have evolved as flightless, obligatory walkers, we argue that the antennal joint axis arrangement of the Euphasmatodea reflects an evolutionary adaptation to tactile near range exploration during terrestrial locomotion. PMID:17180615

Mujagic, Samir; Krause, André F; Dürr, Volker

2007-04-01

264

MENTAL ROTATION 1 Running Head: Neuroimaging Studies of Mental Rotation  

E-print Network

MENTAL ROTATION 1 Running Head: Neuroimaging Studies of Mental Rotation Neuroimaging Studies of Mental Rotation: A Meta-analysis and Review Jeffrey M. Zacks1 1 Departments of Psychology and Radiology, Washington University in Saint Louis IN PRESS, JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE #12;MENTAL ROTATION 2

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

265

Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra

2008-01-01

266

Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation  

SciTech Connect

Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

Miller, R.W.

1988-08-01

267

Mental Health Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mental Health Matters is a collection of various mental health articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.

268

MentalHealth.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mental health topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mental health, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mental health field.

269

Students & Mental Health Resource Pack  

E-print Network

Students & Mental Health Resource Pack Produced by - www.rethink.org/at-ease/ SHEFFIELD EARLY is severe mental illness? 1.4 Treatment and prognosis What is mental health awareness? 2.1 Introduction 2 for students with experience of mental health problems 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Pre-entry guidance for students 5

Stevenson, Mark

270

Student Mental Health Final Report  

E-print Network

1 Student Mental Health Committee Final Report University of California Office of the President: Report of the University of California Student Mental Health Committee On behalf of the Student Mental in December 2005, and was given a charge to assess 1) trends in student mental health, 2) how these trends

O'Toole, Alice J.

271

Mental Health and Mass Violence  

E-print Network

Mental Health and Mass Violence Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims Institute of Mental Health (2002). Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological are available through: The National Institute of Mental Health Office of Communications and Public Liaison 6001

Baker, Chris I.

272

Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

273

Mental Health, United States 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains statistics on mental illness and organized mental health service delivery systems. Data sources cited include the National Institute of Mental Health, state mental health agencies, universities in the Epidemiological Catchment Area program, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Association of State…

Taube, Carl A., Ed.; Barrett, Sally A., Ed.

274

The Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

2008-01-01

275

Mental Mapping: A Classroom Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines potential uses of mental maps in the classroom by reviewing research efforts, providing an example of the differences between mental maps of two student groups, and suggesting how to use mental maps in the geography curriculum. Mental mapping (or cognitive mapping) refers to individuals' processes of collecting, storing, and retrieving…

Solomon, Les

1978-01-01

276

Mental health nurse as sheriff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed changes to the Mental Health legislation in England and Wales have been identified as having significant impact upon both mental health service delivery and professional roles. The authors explore how changes to mental health law translate to clinical practice. Additionally, this presentation aims to inform not only clinicians but also health organizations and educational institutes providing mental health law

John Hurley; Paul Linsley

2007-01-01

277

'Correctable undetected visual acuity deficit' in patients aged 65 and over attending an accident and emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of occurrence of correctable undetected visual acuity deficit (CUVAD) in a population of patients aged 65 and over was investigated, using a pinhole screening method, to compare the sociodemographic and optical eye care habits of patients with or without a functionally significant CUVAD. Of 136 patients 46 (34%) were found to have a functionally significant CUVAD in one

D Z Reinstein; N L Dorward; R P Wormald; A Graham; I OConnor; R M Charlton; M Yeatman; R Dodenhoff; R Touquet; T Challoner

1993-01-01

278

Optimization of neural retinal visual motor strategies in recovery of visual acuity following acute laser-induced macula injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced damage to the retina may produce immediate and serious loss in visual acuity as well as subsequent recovery of visual acuity over a 1 to 6 month post exposure period. While acuity may recover, full utilization of the foveal region may not return. In one patient, a superior/temporal preferred retinal location (PRL) was apparent, while a second patient demonstrated significant foveal involvement and contrast sensitivity more reflective of foveal than parafoveal involvement. These conditions of injury wee simulated by using an artificial scotoma technique which optically stabilized a 5 degree opacity in the center of the visual field. The transmission of spatially degraded target information in the scotoma was 0 percent, 5 percent and 95 percent. Contrast sensitivity for the 0 percent and 5 percent transmission scotoma showed broad spatial frequency suppression as opposed to a bipartite contrast sensitivity function with a narrow sensitivity loss at 3 cycles/degree for the 95 percent transmission scotoma. A PRL shift to superior temporal retina with a concomitant change in accommodation was noted as target resolution became more demanding. These findings suggest that restoration of visual acuity in human laser accidents may depend upon the functionality of complex retinal and cortical adaptive mechanisms.

Zwick, Harry; Ness, James W.; Loveday, J.; Molchany, Jerome W.; Stuck, Bruce E.

1997-05-01

279

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

280

[Mental illness and pregnancy].  

PubMed

Pregnancy was once thought a period of bliss devoid of mental illness. We now know this is not so. It is well documented that pregnancy and the peripartum are not only a time when preexisting mental illness will persist but that it is also a high-risk period for renewed episodes of mental illness, whether de novo or relapse. In this paper, we will describe the three main axis of management of maternal mental illness during the peripartum: maternal psychiatric illness, fetal, neonatal and infant development and future mother-infant relationship. We will give an overview of how to organize care for mothers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Good practice management of psychotropic medication during this period will be described. Finally the importance of networking and multidisciplinary management of these situations will be underlined. PMID:23236865

Apter, Gisčle; Garez, Valérie; Medjkane, François

2012-09-01

281

Mental workload and driving  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

2014-01-01

282

Mental workload and driving.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers' training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

2014-01-01

283

Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publisher proposes to supplement the Mental Measurements Yearbook by publishing periodic surveys to tests not available commercially. Based on the 1970 issues of 29 journals, its orientation is predominantly educational, but includes material related to psychology, sociology, and personnel work. Mental measures are organized under 22…

Goldman, Bert A.; Saunders, John L.

284

Improvement of Mental Rotation in Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of spatial capacities poses a challenge to science and education. Mental rotation is an important component of this intellectual potential. In this study, we examined the effect of an intervention program on the performance of a mental-rotation task and the transfer of learning to a visualization test. As gender differences in spatial abilities are decreasing, we expected that

M. L. Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga; J. M. García Ganuza

2003-01-01

285

Mental-Attentional Capacity: Does Cognitive Style Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used multigroup scaling models to separate the contributions of cognitive style from ability in school-age children's performance on Figural Intersection Test. Results showed that field-dependent children had greater odds of success than field-independent children when the task's mental-attentional demand was above the child's mental-attentional…

Baillargeon, Raymond; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Roncadin, Caroline

1998-01-01

286

Training Preprofessional Mental Health Workers: Report of a Pilot Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide a new source of manpower for Pennsylvania mental health facilities, a pilot associate degree program for the training of middle-level mental health workers was instituted at the Community College of Philadelphia. Specific objectives were: (1) to test the program's feasibility, (2) to identify skills and attributes required of an…

Brawley, Edward Allan

287

Spatial acuity in two-to-three-year-old children with normal acoustic hearing, unilateral cochlear implants and bilateral cochlear implants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To measure spatial acuity on a right-left discrimination task in 2-to-3-year-old children who use a unilateral cochlear implant (UCI) or bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs); to test the hypothesis that BICI users perform significantly better when they use two CIs than when using a single CI, and that they perform better than the children in the UCI group; to determine how well children with CIs perform compared with children who have normal acoustic hearing; to determine the effect of intensity roving on spatial acuity. Design Three groups of children between 26-to-36 months of age participated in this study: 8 children with normal acoustic hearing (mean age: 30.9 months), 12 children who use a UCI (mean age: 31.9 months), and 27 children who use BICIs (mean age: 30.7 months). Testing was conducted in a large sound-treated booth with loudspeakers positioned on a horizontal arc with a radius of 1.2 m. The observer-based psychophysical procedure was used to measure the children’s ability to identify the hemifield containing the sound source (right vs. left). Two methods were used for quantifying spatial acuity, an adaptive-tracking method and a fixed-angle method. In Experiment 1 an adaptive tracking algorithm was used to vary source angle, and the minimum audible angle (MAA; smallest angle at which right-left discrimination performance is better than chance) was estimated. All three groups participated in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 source angles were fixed at ±50°, and performance was evaluated by computing the number of standard deviations above chance. Children in the UCI and BICI groups participated in Experiment 2. Results In Experiment 1, when stimulus intensity was roved by 8 dB, MAA thresholds were 3.3ş to 30.2ş (mean = 14.5ş) and 5.7ş to 69.6ş (mean = 30.9ş) in children who have normal acoustic hearing and the BICI group, respectively. When the intensity level was fixed for the BICI group, performance did not improve. Within the BICI group, 5/27 children obtained MAA thresholds within one standard deviation of their peers who have normal acoustic hearing; all 5 had greater than 12 months of bilateral listening experience. In Experiment 2, BICIs provided some advantages when the intensity level was fixed. First, the BICI group outperformed the UCI group. Second, children in the BICI group who repeated the task with their first CI alone had statistically significantly better performance when using both devices. In addition, when intensity roving was introduced, a larger percentage of children who had 12 or more months of BICI experience continued to perform above chance than children who had less than 12 months of BICI experience. Taken together, the results suggest that children with BICIs have spatial acuity that is better than when using their first CI alone as well as better than their peers who use UCI. In addition, longer durations of BICI use tend to result in better performance, although this cannot be generalized to all participants. Conclusion This report is consistent with a growing body of evidence that spatial hearing skills can emerge in young children who use BICIs. The observation that these skills are not concomitantly emerging in age- and experience-matched children who use UCIs suggests that BICIs provide cues that are necessary for these spatial hearing skills which UCIs do not provide. PMID:22517185

Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

2012-01-01

288

Cognition and mental health.  

PubMed

Many theories of mental health agree on the important role played by cognition. They differ however in how and by what process cognition influences mental health. Research in cognitive neuroscience directs our attention to 4 major points as relevant to theories of mental health: (1) monism as a framework, (2) issue of neural plasticity, (3) connection between mental operation and action system (i.e., the control of cognitive and motor activity is shared by the same neural connection.), (4) the issue of the unconscious. On the other hand, research in cross-cultural psychology indicates that cognitive process is strongly influenced by cultural values and norms. Thus, a valid mental health theory should account for all these components. The paper discusses cross-cultural differences in information processing, particularly contrasting East Asian and Western cultural contexts, which may have implications for understanding of mental health and suggests the doctrine of Morita Therapy as a possible integrated theory. It also critiques some therapy techniques on the grounds of both cultural psychology and cognitive science. PMID:12875224

Matsuda, Yoshimi

2003-01-01

289

Mental health in Egypt.  

PubMed

The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances. PMID:16342608

Okasha, Ahmed

2005-01-01

290

Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

2010-01-01

291

Mental Representation and Mental Practice: Experimental Investigation on the Functional Links between Motor Memory and Motor Imagery  

PubMed Central

Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N?=?52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only. PMID:24743576

Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

2014-01-01

292

Phonological Abstraction in the Mental Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A perceptual learning experiment provides evidence that the mental lexicon cannot consist solely of detailed acoustic traces of recognition episodes. In a training lexical decision phase, listeners heard an ambiguous [f-s] fricative sound, replacing either [f] or [s] in words. In a test phase, listeners then made lexical decisions to visual…

McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne; Norris, Dennis

2006-01-01

293

Brief article Mental representations of social status  

E-print Network

; Social status; Semantic distance latency test 1. Introduction A crucial skill used in daily social lifeBrief article Mental representations of social status Joan Y. Chiaoa,*, Andrew R. Bordeauxa March 2003; accepted 22 July 2003 Abstract How do people think about social status? We investigated

Chiao, Joan Y.

294

Brain Activation During Mental Transformation of Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual comparison between different-sized objects with respect to shape can be done by encoding one of the objects as a mental image, transforming the image to the size format of the other object, and then testing for a match (Bundesen, C., & Larsen, A. [1975]. Visual transformation of size. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 214-220). To

Axel Larsen; Claus Bundesen; Sřren Kyllingsbćk; Olaf B. Paulson; Ian Law

2000-01-01

295

Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

Crissey, Marie Skodak

1975-01-01

296

Evidence for the Role of Shape in Mental Representations of Similes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People mentally represent the shapes of objects. For instance, the mental representation of an eagle is different when one thinks about a flying or resting eagle. This study examined the role of shape in mental representations of "similes" (i.e., metaphoric comparisons). We tested the prediction that when people process a simile they…

Weelden, Lisanne; Schilperoord, Joost; Maes, Alfons

2014-01-01

297

Similarities and Differences in Addition Strategies of Children with and without Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This microgenetic study investigated similarities and differences in use and discovery of addition strategies in children with and without mild mental retardation across 24 sessions. Nine children with mild mental retardation in third through fifth grade classrooms and 14 children without mental retardation in kindergarten classrooms were tested

Huffman, Lisa F.; Fletcher, Kathryn, L.; Bray, Norman W.; Grupe, Lisa A.

2004-01-01

298

Mental Imagery of Faces and Places Activates Corresponding Stimulus-Specific Brain  

E-print Network

Mental Imagery of Faces and Places Activates Corresponding Stimulus-Specific Brain Regions K. M. O happens in the brain when you conjure up a mental image in your mind's eye? We tested whether the particular regions of extrastriate cortex activated during mental imagery depend on the content of the image

Kanwisher, Nancy

299

Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean…

Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

2008-01-01

300

Activity of daily living and its associated factors in war survivors with no visual acuity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: War is a known cause of tremendous physical injuries to different body organs, and eyes are not exceptions. War-related no visual acuity (NVA) affects both the victim and the family. Activity of daily living (ADL) can display personal life independency and is considered as a morbidity index. This study was designed to investigate the ADL profile of war survivors with NVA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Iran. In this study, 500 Iranian people with war related NVA were invited to take part in a camp in Mashhad city. ADL was evaluated using Barthel Index and demographic data were collected using a data sheet. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the associates of ADL. RESULTS: The overall response rate to the invitation was 50%. From the total 250 participants 96.5% were male with a mean age of 43 ± 8 years. Only 8.3% had no dependency in ADL and other 91.7% had some ranges of dependency in at least one of the daily living activities. ADL score was higher in highly educated participants, those younger than 50 years old, those with less co-morbid physical problems (hearing loss) and those with regular physical exercises. According to regression analysis, age and duration of war related NVA were significant predictors of ADL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, both age and the time passed from war related NVA increase the dependency of people with war related NVA. PMID:21526082

Amini, Reza; Haghani, Hamid; Masoomi, Mehdi; Assari, Shervin

2010-01-01

301

Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Good Baseline Visual Acuity.  

PubMed

Purpose: To report the 1-year results of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in patients with good baseline visual acuity (VA). Methods: Thirty-six eyes of 36 patients with nAMD with best-corrected VAs (BCVAs) >0.6 (equal to 0.22 in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution unit) were enrolled. IVR was the primary treatment; additional treatment was administered as needed. BCVAs and central retinal thickness (CRT) were measured periodically. Results: The mean number of injections at month 12 was 3.3. The mean BCVAs were 0.11 ± 0.02 at baseline and 0.12 ± 0.03 at month 12, which did not significantly differ. The mean CRT significantly improved from 320 ± 15 to 254 ± 12 ?m at month 12 (p < 0.01). Photodynamic therapy was applied in 2 cases because of frequent recurrences. Conclusions: IVR maintained VA and improved morphological changes in wet AMD with good baseline VA. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25412682

Kato, Aki; Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Suga, Keiji; Hirano, Yoshio; Nozaki, Miho; Yoshida, Munenori; Ogura, Yuichiro

2014-11-19

302

Vesicular glutamate transport at a central synapse limits the acuity of visual perception in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Visual acuity is constrained by the function and distribution of synapses in the visual pathway, but the limiting factors have not been experimentally identified. We show here that zebrafish blumenkohl (blu) mutants are impaired in resolving rapid movements and fine spatial detail in their visual environment. The blu gene encodes a vesicular glutamate transporter expressed by retinal ganglion cells. Mutant retinotectal synapses release less glutamate, per vesicle and per terminal, and are depressed more quickly in response to high-frequency stimulation. The kinetics of this synaptic fatigue match the observed reduction in temporal sensitivity. In addition, mutant axons arborize more extensively, thus increasing the number of synaptic terminals and effectively normalizing the combined input to postsynaptic cells in the tectum. This presumably homeostatic response results in larger receptive fields of tectal cells and a degradation of the retinotopic map. As predicted, mutants have a selective deficit in the capture of small prey objects, a behavior dependent on the tectum. Our studies have linked the disruption of a synaptic protein to complex changes in neural circuitry and behavior. PMID:17196531

Smear, Matthew C.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Staub, Wendy; Orger, Michael B.; Gosse, Nathan J.; Liu, Yan; Takahshi, Koji; Poo, Mu-ming; Baier, Herwig

2007-01-01

303

Change in visual acuity is highly correlated with change in six image quality metrics independent of wavefront error and/or pupil diameter  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the wavefront error (WFE) of the eye varies from individual to individual with pupil diameter (PD) and age. Numerous studies have been proposed evaluating the relationship between visual acuity and WFE, but all these studies were performed with either a fixed or natural PD. It is still not clear if metrics of image quality correlate well with visual acuity independent of PD. Here we investigate the correlation between the change in visual acuity and the change in 30 image quality metrics for a range of optical quality typically established in normal eyes that varies both with age and PD. Visual acuity was recorded for 4 normal subjects using simulated blurred logMAR acuity charts generated from the point spread functions of different scaled WFEs for 6 different PDs (2–7 mm in 1 mm steps). Six image quality metrics (log neural sharpness, log visual Strehl [spatial domain], log visual Strehl [MTF method], log pupil fraction [tessellated], log pupil fraction [concentric area], and log root mean square of WFE slope) accounted for over 80% of variance in change in acuity across all WFEs and all PDs. Multiple regression analysis did not significantly increase the R2. Simple metrics derived from WFE could potentially act as an objective surrogate to visual acuity without the need for complex models. PMID:22984224

Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Sarver, Edwin J.; Applegate, Raymond A.

2012-01-01

304

No Myocardial Vulnerability to Mental Stress in Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Due to the frequent use of coronary angiography the awareness of Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSC) has increased although the exact pathophysiology of TSC is still largely unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of mental stress on myocardial function, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol (SC) in TSC patients. Design This study is a case-control study and a sub-study of the Stockholm Myocardial Infarction with Normal Coronaries (SMINC) study. Setting Mental stress test was performed more than 6 months after the acute event in TSC patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) - derived time-phases of cardiac cycle were recorded to calculate myocardial performance index (MPI) to assess ventricular function before and during mental stress. Holter-ECG recording was made to estimate HRV before, during and after mental stress. SC was measured at baseline, before and 20 minutes after mental stress. Subjects Twenty-two TSC patients and 22 sex-and age-matched controls were recruited from the SMINC-study and investigated with a mental stress test. All TSC patients had a previous normal cardiovascular magnetic resonance investigation. Results There were no significant differences at rest or during mental stress for left and right ventricular MPI or other standard diastolic variables between TSC patients and controls. HRV did not differ between TSC patients and controls. There was a trend towards less increase in SC after mental stress in TSC patients compared to controls. Conclusion Mental stress did not induce a significant difference in myocardial function or HRV response between TSC and controls. Moreover, no significant difference could be seen in SC response at baseline, during or after mental stress. This study indicates that myocardial vulnerability to mental stress does not persist in TSC patients. PMID:24695370

Collste, Olov; Tornvall, Per; Sundin, Örjan; Alam, Mahbubul; Frick, Mats

2014-01-01

305

X-linked mental retardation associated with macro-orchidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two families are described with an X-linked form of mental retardation in whom the affected males were found to have bilateral enlargement of the testes. No conclusive evidence of any endocrinological disturbance was found.

G Turner; C Eastman; J Casey; A McLeay; P Procopis; B Turner

1975-01-01

306

Musical Ability and Mental Subnormality: An Experimental Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research among mentally and educationally retarded children found that retardation in general ability was associated with retardation in musical ability. Factor analyses of musical tests identified a factor of musical ability, independent of intelligence, for this group. (Author/MJL)

McLeish, J.; Higgs, G.

1982-01-01

307

A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.  

PubMed

We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25133916

Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

2015-02-01

308

School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2013-01-01

309

Attitudes Toward Mental Illness Among Mental Health Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research efforts have demonstrated relationships between the experience of mental health volunteers and their attitudes toward mental illness. Questionnaire surveys were completed by adult volunteers in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric programs in order to assess general attitudes toward mental patients and to control for the potential effects…

Wahl, Otto F.; And Others

310

Males Have Greater "g": Sex Differences in General Mental Ability from 100,000 17- to 18-Year-Olds on the Scholastic Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we found that 17- to 18-year old males averaged 3.63 IQ points higher than did their female counterparts on the 1991 Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT). We analysed 145 item responses from 46,509 males and 56,007 females (total N = 102,516) using a principal components procedure. We found (1) the "g" factor underlies both the SAT…

Jackson, Douglas N.; Rushton, J. Philippe

2006-01-01

311

The Effect of Holy Quran Voice on Mental Health.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the effect of Quran listening without its musical tone (Tartil) on the mental health of personnel in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast of Iran. The results showed significant differences between the test and control groups in their mean mental health scores after Quran listening (P = 0.037). No significant gender differences in the test group before and after intervention were found (P = 0.806). These results suggest that Quran listening could be recommended by psychologists for improving mental health and achieving greater calm. PMID:24421119

Mahjoob, Monireh; Nejati, Jalil; Hosseini, Alireaza; Bakhshani, Noor Mohammad

2014-01-14

312

Mental Health Treatment Program Locator  

MedlinePLUS

... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Mental Health Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health treatment programs nearest you, find your State on ...

313

Disasters and Mental Health Research  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or natural disasters such as hurricanes, are at risk of developing mental health issues. Dr. Sandro Galea : But we also know that people who are isolated- socially isolated- are at great risk of mental illness after these events. We know ...

314

Mental Health Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... the prevalence of mental illness is similar between rural and urban residents, the services available are very different. Mental healthcare needs are not met in many rural communities across the country because adequate services are ...

315

Is 20/20 vision good enough? Visual acuity differences within the normal range predict contour element detection and integration.  

PubMed

Contour integration (CI) combines appropriately aligned and oriented elements into continuous boundaries. Collinear facilitation (CF) occurs when a low-contrast oriented element becomes more visible when flanked by collinear high-contrast elements. Both processes rely at least partly on long-range horizontal connections in early visual cortex, and thus both have been extensively studied to understand visual cortical functioning in aging, development, and clinical disorders. Here, we ask: Can acuity differences within the normal range predict CI or CF? To consider this question, we measured binocular visual acuity and compared subjects with 20/20 vision to those with better-than-20/20 vision (SharpPerceivers) on two tasks. In the CI task, subjects located an integrated shape embedded in varying amounts of noise; in the CF task, subjects detected a low-contrast element flanked by collinear or orthogonal high-contrast elements. In each case, displays were scaled in size to modulate element visibility and spatial frequency (4-12 cycles/deg). SharpPerceivers could integrate contours under noisier conditions than the 20/20 group (p = .0002), especially for high spatial frequency displays. Moreover, although the two groups exhibited similar collinear facilitation, SharpPerceivers could detect the central target with lower contrast at high spatial frequencies (p <. 05). These results suggest that small acuity differences within the normal range-corresponding to about a one line difference on a vision chart-strongly predict element detection and integration. Furthermore, simply ensuring that subjects have normal or corrected-to-normal vision is not sufficient when comparing groups on contour tasks; visual acuity confounds also need to be ruled out. PMID:24845876

Keane, Brian P; Kastner, Sabine; Paterno, Danielle; Silverstein, Steven M

2015-02-01

316

Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners. PMID:3776982

Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

1986-12-01

317

Retention of good visual acuity in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and chronic refractory subfoveal subretinal fluid  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics of a subset of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy which retain good visual acuity despite chronic, persistent subfoveal subretinal fluid (SRF). Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Study eyes were identified from a consecutive series of 186 patients treated with anti-VEGF therapy seen for regular follow-up over a 3-month period. The clinical histories of 10 eyes of 9 patients with NVAMD, chronic subfoveal SRF despite continuous anti-VEGF therapy, and good long-term visual acuity of 20/40 or greater were reviewed. Demographic factors, baseline and final visual acuity, neovascular lesion type, duration of persistent fluid, baseline and final subfoveal choroidal thickness, presence of geographic atrophy, and number of anti-VEGF injections were analyzed. Results The mean age of patients was 78 years (range 55–91). The mean duration of persistent fluid was 5.2 years (range 1.3–11.0). Long-term visual acuities remained stable at 20/40 or better in all eyes. All eyes had type 1 (sub-retinal pigment epithelial) neovascularization. Average baseline subfoveal choroidal thickness was 285.3 ?m and the average follow-up subfoveal choroidal thickness was 239.7 ?m. No eyes had the presence of geographic atrophy. The mean number of injections was 36.5 (range 17–66). Conclusion Some eyes with type 1 neovascularization associated with chronic persistent subfoveal subretinal fluid despite continuous intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy may maintain good long-term visual outcomes. We hypothesize that type 1 neovascularization and greater subfoveal choroidal thickness may exert a protective effect on photoreceptor integrity. Further studies are necessary to assess long-term visual prognosis and predictive factors in patients with type 1 neovascularization leading to persistent subretinal fluid that is recalcitrant to anti-VEGF treatment. PMID:24843306

Bhavsar, Kavita V.; Freund, K. Bailey

2014-01-01

318

What are Mental Disorders? What is Addiction?  

E-print Network

What are Mental Disorders? What is Addiction? Depression Bipolar Disorder Postpartum AlternativeTreatments for Mental Disorders Treatments for Addictions Recovery from Mental Disorders Addictions and Relapse Prevention Harm Reduction Preventing Addictions Achieving Positive Mental Health

319

Mom, Let Me Play More Computer Games: They Improve My Mental Rotation Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how 3-D and 2-D computer game practice and delivery as well as individual differences affect performance\\u000a on two tests of mental rotation (Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test and Card Rotation Test). Sixty-one US undergraduates from\\u000a the Midwest completed 4 h of either massed or distributed practice. While computer game practice improved mental rotation\\u000a scores in general, women’s gains were

Isabelle D. Cherney

2008-01-01

320

MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM  

E-print Network

Health: http://bit.ly/187rK7m · Children's Mental Health Ontario: http://bit.ly/futUt5 · Teen Mental a general population sample: http://1.usa.gov/17d9ZDE 4 Teen Mental Health ­ Educators training programs: http://bit.ly/1b9gJF3 5 Teen Mental Health ­ For educators: http://bit.ly/1cRRg4i 6 Cross

321

Effects of filtering of harmonics from biosonar echoes on delay acuity by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

Big brown bats emit FM biosonar sounds containing two principal harmonics (FM1 approximately 55-22 kHz;FM2 approximately 105-45 kHz). To examine the role of harmonics, they were selectively filtered from stimuli in electronic-echo delay discrimination experiments. Positive stimuli were delayed by 3.16 ms (55 cm simulated target range); negative stimuli were by delayed by 3.96 ms (68 cm). This large 800-micros delay difference (nearly 14 cm) was easily discriminated for echoes containing equal-strength FM1 and FM2. Performance gradually decreased as highpass filters removed progressively larger segments from FM1. For echoes with FM2 alone, performance collapsed to chance, but performance remained good for lowpass echoes containing FM1 alone. Attenuation of FM2 by 3 dB relative to FM1 also decreased performance, but shortening electronic delay of the attenuated FM2 by 48 micros counteracted amplitude-latency trading and restored performance. Bats require the auditory representations of FM1 and FM2 to be in temporal register for high delay acuity. Misalignment of neuronal responses degrades acuity, but outright removal of FM2, leaving only FM1, causes little loss of acuity. Functional asymmetry of harmonics reflects lowpass effects from beaming and atmospheric propagation, which leave FM1 intact. It may cooperate with latency shifts to aid in suppression of clutter. PMID:20707464

Bates, Mary E; Simmons, James A

2010-08-01

322

Effect of hemodialysis on visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular thickness in patients with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD) on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and central foveal thickness (CFT) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods Forty-nine eyes from 49 chronic kidney-disease patients were analyzed. Causes of chronic kidney disease included diabetes mellitus (n=9 patients), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n=15 patients), and other causes (n=25 patients). All patients underwent HD in the Dialysis Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital. Best-corrected visual acuity, CFT, and IOP were evaluated before and after HD. CFT was measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Results Neither decimal best-corrected visual acuity (pre-HD 0.71±0.32, post-HD 0.72±0.31; P=0.877) nor CFT (pre-HD 251.39±39.29, post-HD 253.09±39.26; P=0.272) significantly changed after HD. However, mean IOP significantly decreased from 13.99±2.48 before HD to 12.65±2.41 mmHg after HD (P=0.001). IOP change was significantly correlated with serum albumin levels (P=0.008) and weight changes (P=0.047). Conclusion HD can affect various ocular parameters. This is particularly true of IOP, which decreases significantly following HD. PMID:25657575

Chelala, Elias; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Slim, Elise; Abdelmassih, Youssef; Fakhoury, Henry; Baz, Patrick; Bejjani, Riad

2015-01-01

323

[Effect of contact lenses and visual acuity on the registration of saccadic eye movements using an infrared reflection method].  

PubMed

In order to examine the influence of contact lenses and visual acuity on recordings of saccadic eye movements with the infrared reflection method, horizontal 20 and 30 degrees saccades were recorded with and without contact lenses in 16 subjects (32 eyes) usually wearing contact lenses. As far as the main parameters of the saccades (accuracy, peak velocity and duration) were concerned, the reliability of the measurements (recognizable through the mean values) was not essentially influenced by the contact lenses. The precision of the measurements (recognizable through the standard deviation) was with the contact lenses significantly but, for clinical use, not essentially worse. The velocity waveforms of the saccades, however, were considerably changed by contact lenses in some cases. This is why examinations, in which saccadic velocity waveforms are used for diagnosis, should be performed without contact lenses. Visual acuity had no measurable influence on the main parameters of the saccades. However, considerably more corrective saccades were observed with contact lenses than without. There were reasons to believe that not the contact lenses themselves, but better visual acuity was responsible for the larger number of corrective saccades. PMID:3100273

Baeriswyl, M; Meienberg, O

1986-12-01

324

Visual acuity's association with levels of leisure-time physical activity in community-dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effect of reduced vision on physical activity in older adults. This study evaluates the association of visual acuity level, self-reported vision, and ocular disease conditions with leisure-time physical activity and calculated caloric expenditure. A cross-sectional study of 911 subjects 65 yr and older from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging (SOA) cohort was conducted evaluating the association of vision-related variables to weekly kilocalorie expenditure calculated from the 17-item Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate possible associations while controlling for potential confounders. In multivariate analyses, each lower step in visual acuity below 20/50 was significantly associated with reduced odds of having a higher level of physical activity, OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67, 0.97. Reduced visual acuity appears to be independently associated with lower levels of physical activity among community-dwelling adults. PMID:21945888

Swanson, Mark W; Bodner, Eric; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M

2012-01-01

325

Strengthening Children's Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the physical and mental growth of children are influenced by many environmental and familial factors, this paper explores improving the well being of children. The first part of the paper discusses child rearing, emphasizing three fundamental themes: creating an environment where children are born healthy and wanted; helping children…

Albee, George W.

326

Rural Mental Health Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing affordable and comprehensive metal health services for those who need these services is a tremendous challenge for the helping professions. The demand for services across the nation exceeds the ability of the mental health community to provide them. This is especially true for rural communities. DeLeon (2000) reported that even though 25% of the citizens of the United States

DAVID L. FENELL; ALAN J. HOVESTADT

327

Children's Mental Health Surveillance  

MedlinePLUS

... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. ? Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...

328

Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

Towns, Kathryn; And Others

329

Inferences about mental states  

PubMed Central

Human social cognition relies on an ability to predict what others will think, feel or do in novel situations. Research in social neuroscience has consistently observed several brain regions that contribute ubiquitously to these abilities, including medial prefrontal cortex and aspects of lateral and medial parietal cortex. Interestingly, parallel work has suggested that this same network of regions subserves several seemingly distinct phenomena—notably, the abilities to remember the past, imagine the future and visualize spatial layouts—suggesting the existence of a common set of cognitive processes devoted to projecting oneself into worlds that differ mentally, temporally or physically from one's current experience. This use of self-projection to understand others' minds requires perceivers to solve three distinct cognitive challenges: (i) generating a simulated facsimile of one's own hypothetical mental states in a given situation, (ii) suppressing one's own current mental states, and (iii) deciding on the appropriateness of simulated states for understanding a particular other person. The present paper reviews recent psychology and neuroscience research aimed at understanding the underlying mechanisms that allow humans to solve each of these cognitive challenges to use self-projection to predict and understand the mental states of others. PMID:19528012

Mitchell, Jason P.

2009-01-01

330

Lifestyle and Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

Walsh, Roger

2011-01-01

331

MENTAL HEALTH and INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS  

E-print Network

MENTAL HEALTH and INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: What Educators Need to Know Ingle International cares about you and your students www.studyinsured.com #12;www.studyinsured.comMental Health and International Students: What Educators Need to Know Mental Health and International Students: What Educators Need to Know

332

Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation  

E-print Network

Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation in Florida Final Summary of Survey, with the Program Office of Substance Abuse and Mental Health in Florida's Department of Children and Families (DCF). Background Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) is an effective prevention and early

McQuade, D. Tyler

333

What Is Infant Mental Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

2012-01-01

334

Mental Health, United States, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

335

Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…

Vail, David J.

336

The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

Grunewald, Karl

337

The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness  

E-print Network

The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness Edited by Stephen J. Wood Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre The neuropsychology of mental illness / edited by Stephen J. Wood, Nicholas B. Allen, Christos Pantelis. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-521-86289-9 (hardback) 1. Mental illness

Kuperberg, Gina

338

Improving Mental Health in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

2015-01-01

339

X-linked mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental

H.-Hilger Ropers; Pietro Chiurazzi

1980-01-01

340

Mental Health Screening in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional\\/behavioral problems. METHODS: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and adolescents. Strategies for systematic planning for mental health screening in schools are presented.

Mark D. Weist; Marcia Rubin; Elizabeth Moore; Steven Adelsheim; Gordon Wrobel

2007-01-01

341

Nutritional therapies for mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in

Shaheen E Lakhan; Karen F Vieira

2008-01-01

342

Mental Health Program Reports - 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…

Segal, Julius, Ed.

343

Oscillatory activity in neocortical networks during tactile discrimination near the limit of spatial acuity.  

PubMed

Oscillatory interactions within functionally specialized but distributed brain regions are believed to be central to perceptual and cognitive functions. Here, using human scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recordings combined with source reconstruction techniques, we study how oscillatory activity functionally organizes different neocortical regions during a tactile discrimination task near the limit of spatial acuity. While undergoing EEG recordings, blindfolded participants felt a linear three-dot array presented electromechanically, under computer control, and reported whether the central dot was offset to the left or right. The average brain response differed significantly for trials with correct and incorrect perceptual responses in the timeframe approximately between 130 and 175ms. During trials with correct responses, source-level peak activity appeared in the left primary somatosensory cortex (SI) at around 45ms, in the right lateral occipital complex (LOC) at 130ms, in the right posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS) at 160ms, and finally in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) at 175ms. Spectral interdependency analysis of activity in these nodes showed two distinct distributed networks, a dominantly feedforward network in the beta band (12-30Hz) that included all four nodes and a recurrent network in the gamma band (30-100Hz) that linked SI, pIPS and dlPFC. Measures of network activity in both bands were correlated with the accuracy of task performance. These findings suggest that beta and gamma band oscillatory networks coordinate activity between neocortical regions mediating sensory and cognitive processing to arrive at tactile perceptual decisions. PMID:24434679

Adhikari, Bhim M; Sathian, K; Epstein, Charles M; Lamichhane, Bidhan; Dhamala, Mukesh

2014-05-01

344

Modelling postoperative visual acuity with and without proliferative vitreoretinopathy associated with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To find models that will explain the variability in postoperative visual acuity (VA) (logarithmic: logMAR) associated with unilateral primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). Methods This was a prospective clinical cohort study of 33 patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR: PVR

Roldán-Pallarés, M; Bravo-Llatas, C; Musa, A-S; Hernandez-Montero, J; Fernández-Durango, R

2012-01-01

345

Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification  

PubMed Central

Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

2014-01-01

346

Process evaluation of a mental health fair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health and mental illness are mounting concerns in the United States. It is estimated that by 2020, mental illness will be the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. These rising rates have been attributed to a lack of access to mental health care, lack of knowledge regarding mental health treatment options, and stigma concerning mental health

Elvin Thomaseo Burton

2009-01-01

347

CULTURE AND MENTAL HEALTH FALL TERM, 2009  

E-print Network

in the definition and maintenance of mental health and "mental illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different

Lockery, Shawn

348

A computerized multidimensional measurement of mental workload via handwriting analysis.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to test the effect of mental workload on handwriting behavior and to identify characteristics of low versus high mental workload in handwriting. We hypothesized differences between handwriting under three different load conditions and tried to establish a profile that integrated these indicators. Fifty-six participants wrote three numerical progressions of varying difficulty on a digitizer attached to a computer so that we could evaluate their handwriting behavior. Differences were found in temporal, spatial, and angular velocity handwriting measures, but no significant differences were found for pressure measures. Using data reduction, we identified three clusters of handwriting, two of which differentiated well according to the three mental workload conditions. We concluded that handwriting behavior is affected by mental workload and that each measure provides distinct information, so that they present a comprehensive indicator of mental workload. PMID:21994184

Luria, Gil; Rosenblum, Sara

2012-06-01

349

Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... curesma.org > learn about sma > causes & diagnoses > testing Testing An SMA diagnosis must be confirmed through genetic ... and must be identified through further testing. Prenatal Testing Prenatal testing is used to determine if a ...

350

Intravitreal Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for Typical Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration in Eyes with Good Baseline Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate 12-month treatment outcomes of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in eyes with typical exudative age-related macular degeneration with good baseline visual acuity. Methods This retrospective observational case series included 18 eyes (18 patients) with typical exudative age-related macular degeneration with a baseline best-corrected visual acuity of 20 / 25 or better. Patients were treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monotherapy during the 12-month follow-up period. Baseline visual acuity and central foveal thickness were compared to the values at 12 months. Results Patients received an average of 4.4 ± 1.3 intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections. The mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was 0.08 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.07, 0.12 ± 0.09, and 0.16 ± 0.11 at baseline, three months, six months, and 12 months, respectively. Visual acuity at 12 months was significantly worse than the baseline value at diagnosis (p = 0.017), and the mean central foveal thickness at the defined time points was 270.2 ± 55.6, 204.4 ± 25.4, 230.1 ± 56.3, and 216.8 ± 48.7 µm, respectively. The central foveal thickness at 12 months was significantly less than the baseline value at diagnosis (p = 0.042). Conclusions Deterioration in visual acuity was noted in eyes with typical exudative age-related macular degeneration with good baseline visual acuity, suggesting the need for close patient monitoring and prompt treatment even in patients with good baseline visual acuity. PMID:25435749

Chang, Young Suk; Han, Jung Il; Yoo, Su Jin; Lew, Young Ju

2014-01-01

351

The Mental Health Act and the Mental Capacity Act: untangling the relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mental Health Act (1983) and the Mental Capacity Act (2005) (both amended by the Mental Health Act (2007)) together provide a comprehensive framework for the care and treatment of people with a mental disorder in England and Wales. The Mental Health Act relates solely to the treatment of mental disorders whilst the Mental Capacity Act has much wider applicability

Daniel P. Herlihy; Frank Holloway

2009-01-01

352

The mental health treatment study.  

PubMed

Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries with primary psychiatric impairments comprise the largest, fastest growing, and most costly population in the SSDI program. The Mental Health Treatment Study provides a comprehensive test of the hypothesis that access to evidence-based employment services and behavioral health treatments, along with insurance coverage, can enable SSDI beneficiaries with psychiatric impairments to return to competitive employment. It will also examine which beneficiaries choose to enter an employment study under such conditions. Currently in the field in 22 cities across the U.S., the MHTS aims to recruit 3,000 SSDI beneficiaries with psychiatric impairments into a randomized controlled trial. This paper describes the MHTS, its background, and its process and outcome assessments. PMID:18407880

Frey, William D; Azrin, Susan T; Goldman, Howard H; Kalasunas, Susan; Salkever, David S; Miller, Alexander L; Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E

2008-01-01

353

Classification of mental disorders*  

PubMed Central

One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

Stengel, E.

1959-01-01

354

The genocidal mentality  

SciTech Connect

Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future.

Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.

1990-01-01

355

Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston  

PubMed Central

In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

Szasz, T

2001-01-01

356

Mental models of electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mental models people use to think about the nature of electric current were investigated. Interviews, based on sequences of prediction-observation-explanation, were conducted with Brazilian secondary students, technical school students, teachers, engineers and practitioners who deal with electricity as part of their daily activities. Four models are reported, showing a possible pattern of progression which may be related to individual's acquisition of conceptual knowledge about electricity.

Borges, A. T.

2005-11-03

357

Mental Health and Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. ...

Falconer, Mrs.

2007-03-18

358

Outcomes of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy: Analysis of dose-volume histograms and prognostic factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the tolerance dose for retention of visual acuity in patients with head-and-neck tumors treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: From June 1994 to March 2000, 163 patients with tumors in the head and neck or skull base region were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Analysis was performed on 54 optic nerves (ONs) corresponding to 30 patients whose ONs had been included in the irradiated volume. These patients showed no evidence of visual impairment due to other factors and had a follow-up period of >4 years. All patients had been informed of the possibility of visual impairment before treatment. We evaluated the dose-complication probability and the prognostic factors for the retention of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy, using dose-volume histograms and multivariate analysis. Results: The median age of 30 patients (14 men, 16 women) was 57.2 years. Median prescribed total dose was 56.0 gray equivalents (GyE) at 3.0-4.0 GyE per fraction per day (range, 48-64 GyE; 16-18 fractions; 4-6 weeks). Of 54 ONs that were analyzed, 35 had been irradiated with <57 GyE (maximum dose [D{sub max}]) resulting in no visual loss. Conversely, 11 of the 19 ONs (58%) irradiated with >57 GyE (D{sub max}) suffered a decrease of visual acuity. In all of these cases, the ONs had been involved in the tumor before carbon ion radiotherapy. In the multivariate analysis, a dose of 20% of the volume of the ON (D{sub 2}) was significantly associated with visual loss. Conclusions: The occurrence of visual loss seems to be correlated with a delivery of >60 GyE to 20% of the volume of the ON.

Hasegawa, Azusa [Hospital, Charged Particle Research Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)]. E-mail: azusa@nirs.go.jp; Mizoe, Jun-etsu [Hospital, Charged Particle Research Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mizota, Atsushi [Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [Hospital, Charged Particle Research Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2006-02-01

359

Custody and Access Evaluations: Issues for Mental Health Professionals Conducting Assessments withMentally Disordered or Mentally Retarded Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health professionals are increasingly beingcalled upon by the courts to offer their expertise inchild custody and access disputes. This paperaddresses the specialized role mental healthprofessionals have in custody and access hearings,particularly in cases wherein one or both parents havereceived a mental diagnosis (i.e., of mental disorderor mental retardation). The focus upon thispopulation of parents is warranted, as there is

Joti Samra-Grewal

1999-01-01

360

"Far" and "Near" Visual Acuity While Walking and the Collective Contributions of Non-Ocular Mechanisms to Gaze Stabilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gaze stabilization was quantified in subjects (n=11) as they walked on a motorized treadmill (1.8 m/s) and viewed visual targets at two viewing distances. A "far" target was positioned at 4 m (FAR) in front of the subject and the "near" target was placed at a distance of 0.5 m (NEAR). A direct measure of visual acuity was used to assess the overall effectiveness of the gaze stabilization system. The contributions of nonocular mechanisms to the gaze goal were also quantified using a measure of the distance between the subject and point in space where fixation of the visual target would require the least eye movement amplitude (i.e. the head fixation distance (HFD)). Kinematic variables mirrored those of previous investigations with the vertical trunk translation and head pitch signals, and the lateral translation and head yaw signals maintaining what appear as antiphase relationships. However, an investigation of the temporal relationships between the maxima and minima of the vertical translation and head pitch signals show that while the maximum in vertical translation occurs at the point of the minimum head pitch signal, the inverse is not true. The maximum in the head pitch signal lags the vertical translation minimum by an average of greater than 12 percent of the step cycle time. Three HFD measures, one each for data in the sagittal and transverse planes, and one that combined the movements from both planes, all revealed changes between the FAR and NEAR target viewing conditions. This reorganization of the nonocular degrees of freedom while walking was consistent with a strategy to reduce the magnitude of the eye movements required when viewing the NEAR target. Despite this reorganization, acuity measures show that image stabilization is not occurring while walking and viewing the NEAR target. Group means indicate that visual acuity is not affected while walking in the FAR condition, but a decrement of 0.15 logMAR (i.e. 1.5 eye chart lines) exists between the standing and walking acuity measures when viewing the NEAR target.

Peters, Brian T.; vanEmmerik, Richard E. A.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2006-01-01

361

Mental health in complex emergencies.  

PubMed

Mental health is becoming a central issue for public health complex emergencies. In this review we present a culturally valid mental health action plan based on scientific evidence that is capable of addressing the mental health effects of complex emergencies. A mental health system of primary care providers, traditional healers, and relief workers, if properly trained and supported, can provide cost-effective, good mental health care. This plan emphasises the need for standardised approaches to the assessment, monitoring, and outcome of all related activities. Crucial to the improvement of outcomes during crises and the availability to future emergencies of lessons learned from earlier crises is the regular dissemination of the results achieved with the action plan. A research agenda is included that should, in time, fill knowledge gaps and reduce the negative mental health effects of complex emergencies. PMID:15582064

Mollica, R F; Cardozo, B Lopes; Osofsky, H J; Raphael, B; Ager, A; Salama, P

362

Light Therapy in Mental Hospitals  

PubMed Central

The position of actinotherapy in Mental Hospitals in this country is reviewed. An investigation of the results of ultra-violet irradiation in mental disorders at Parkside Mental Hospital is described and it is shown that certain types of the psychoses appear to benefit. The physiological action of actinic rays in relation to mental disorders is discussed and their mode of action on the nervous system suggested. Reference is made to substances which sensitize the body tissues to sunlight and ultra-violet radiation. An allusion is made to glass, penetrable by a portion of the actinic rays, and its uses. The need for ultra-violet ray apparatus in every mental hospital is urged both for treatment of mental and physical conditions and for the study of its action. PMID:19986837

Cormac, H. Dove

1929-01-01

363

42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

2013-10-01

364

42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

2010-10-01

365

42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

2012-10-01

366

42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.  

... 2014-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

2014-10-01

367

42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

2011-10-01

368

Surgical stress and transient postoperative psychiatric disturbances in aged patients studied using the Yamaguchi University Mental Disorder Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric disturbances often occur in aged patients after surgery, but there is no easy or precise method of predicting their occurrence. We devised an easy mental test, the Yamaguchi University Mental Disorder Scale (YDS), based on the surgical perspective. Using both this new method and the Hasegawa mental disorder scale (HDS), we examined 106 patients who had undergone general anesthesia.

Hiroto Hayashi; Yoshitaka Maeda; Hiroshi Morichika; Toshimune Miyama; Takashi Suzuki

1996-01-01

369

Brazil's mental health adventure.  

PubMed

This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1997, I've spent my vacations traveling and working in Brazil as an Outside Consultant on mental health projects with colleagues in Rio and Sao Paulo. In my travels I've been befriended and supported by adherents of a social movement, not unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, that has struggled for many years to close Brazil's long-term psychiatric hospitals, create community-based services and expand the rights of mental patients. Now I see my Brazilian connection as part of my ongoing recovery. I see myself as having the opportunity to be a link between the mental health worlds of the U.S. and Brazil. I believe the two countries have much to offer each other when it comes to mental health. PMID:12653451

Weingarten, Richard

2003-01-01

370

Recovery From Serious Mental Illness: Trajectories, Characteristics,  

E-print Network

Recovery From Serious Mental Illness: Trajectories, Characteristics, and the Role of Mental Health trajectories of recovery from serious mental illnesses. Methods: A total of 177 members (92 women; 85 men with mental health clinicians, resources and strains, satisfaction with medications, and mental health service

Squire, Larry R.

371

Indices of Community Mental Health. A Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental

Chen, Martin K.

372

Perspectives: A Mental Health Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perspectives, provided by Mental Health Net, is a quarterly online magazine devoted to mental health. It features short (usually less than 2,000 word) articles about all aspects of its topic. The Vol. 1, No. 4 issue contains articles on Prozac, loneliness, and managed care, among others. It also includes a regular column on "Being Human." Archives are available at the site, as are submission guidelines. Mental Health Net is a well known "comprehensive guide to mental health online," with pointers to resources in the field, arranged by topic and resource type.

1996-01-01

373

On the Relationship between Solution Strategies in Two Mental Rotation Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in solution strategies have frequently been reported for different measures of mental rotation (MR) ability. In the present study (N=346 German students), we investigated the relationship between solution strategies on two tests commonly used to identify different patterns of strategies: the Mental Rotations Test (MRT;…

Janssen, Anne B.; Geiser, Christian

2010-01-01

374

Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…

Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

2008-01-01

375

Components of Implicit Stigma against Mental Illness among Chinese Students  

PubMed Central

Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

2012-01-01

376

Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.  

PubMed

Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

2012-01-01

377

Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3?min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (? = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ?MAP was comparable between groups (? = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %?FVC (?2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %?CVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ?HR and %?CVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ?HR and %?FVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress. PMID:24744859

Heffernan, Matthew J.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Muller, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

378

Farming and Mental Health Problems and Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Farmers experience one of the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. This article provides an overview of the literature examining mental health issues experienced by farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States and

C. E. Fraser; K. B. Smith; F. Judd; J. S. Humphreys; L. J. Fragar; A. Henderson

2005-01-01

379

Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

380

Teaching Mental Abacus Calculation to Students with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abacus is a calculating tool that has been used in Asia for thousands of years. Mental abacus calculation is a skill in which an abacus image in the mind is used without the actual physical manipulation of the abacus. Using this method, people can perform extremely rapid and accurate mental calculations. Research indicates that abacus training…

Shen, Hong

2006-01-01

381

Why Is It Important? What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health?  

E-print Network

What Is Why Is It Important? ? #12;What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health? What is infant mental health? Does the term "infant mental health" make you think of a baby on a couch telling his problems to a psychiatrist? So what is infant mental health? Infant mental health reflects

McQuade, D. Tyler

382

Quantification of the outer retinal layers: correlation to visual acuity in healthy subjects and patients with central serous chorioretinopathy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: Quantification of outer retinal layers in humans. Method: 11 eyes in healthy subjects and 3 eyes in patients after resolution of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Multiple line scans were obtained using OCT Stratus and scans were registered and averaged to enhance contrast. The distance from the inner-outer segment junction to the posterior part of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE-OS complex) was calculated. In addition, the reflectance of the outer photoreceptor layer in the foveal center was compared to that peripheral to the fovea. Results: Mean thickness of the RPE-OS complex in healthy subjects was 77.3 ?m, in CSCR 52.9 ?m. The thickness of the RPE-OS complex was significantly correlated to visual acuity (r=0.95, p<0.01). The ratio of reflectance (fovea/parafovea) was 1.06 in healthy subjects, 1.18 in CSCR eyes. Conclusion: The RPE-OS complex thickness was markedly reduced in eyes after resolution of CSCR and highly correlated to the visual acuity, the correlation to total foveal thickness was less. An increased backscatter was seen in CSCR, probably due to photoreceptor disorganization and atrophy.

Sander, Birgit; Christensen, Ulrik; Larsen, Michael; Jřrgensen, Thomas M.

2007-07-01

383

POEMS Syndrome in a 20-year-old Patient Diagnosed Following a Complaint of Reduced Visual Acuity.  

PubMed

We report a case of POEMS syndrome in a 20-year-old patient diagnosed after visiting an eye clinic with a chief complaint of reduced visual acuity. A male university student aged 20 years was referred to our department complaining of blurred vision in both eyes that had persisted for 1 month. He also noted headache, nausea, and paresthesia in the lower extremities around the same time. The visual acuity of his right and left eye was 20/40 and 20/20, respectively. Optic disc edema and serous retinal detachment were present. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no intracranial abnormalities, while elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure, reduced nerve conduction velocity in both lower extremities, hepatosplenomegaly, M proteinemia, high blood VEGF levels, osteoblastic and osteolytic changes in the spine, and atypical plasma cells in bone lesions were noted. From the above findings, the patient was diagnosed with POEMS syndrome. He received high-dose dexamethasone, thalidomide, and radiotherapy on the sacral mass, followed by high-dose melphalan with autologous stem-cell support, and showed subsequent systemic and ophthalmologic improvement. Here, we report the youngest case ever of POEMS syndrome with ocular manifestation. If patients have optic disc edema in both eyes with no intracranial space-occupying lesion, POEMS syndrome should be considered in differential diagnosis, regardless of age. PMID:25519033

Doi, Shinichiro; Kimura, Shuhei; Morizane, Yuki; Hosogi, Mika; Hosokawa, Mio; Shiode, Yusuke; Kawata, Tetsuhiro; Kondo, Eisei; Shiraga, Fumio

2014-12-01

384

Notch1 signaling in pyramidal neurons regulates synaptic connectivity and experience-dependent modifications of acuity in the visual cortex.  

PubMed

How the visual cortex responds to specific stimuli is strongly influenced by visual experience during development. Monocular deprivation, for example, changes the likelihood of neurons in the visual cortex to respond to input from the deprived eye and reduces its visual acuity. Because these functional changes are accompanied by extensive reorganization of neurite morphology and dendritic spine turnover, genes regulating neuronal morphology are likely to be involved in visual plasticity. In recent years, Notch1 has been shown to mediate contact inhibition of neurite outgrowth in postmitotic neurons and implicated in the pathogenesis of various degenerative diseases of the CNS. Here, we provide the first evidence for the involvement of neuronal Notch1 signaling in synaptic morphology and plasticity in the visual cortex. By making use of the Cre/Lox system, we expressed an active form of Notch1 in cortical pyramidal neurons several weeks after birth. We show that neuronal Notch1 signals reduce dendritic spine and filopodia densities in a cell-autonomous manner and limit long-term potentiation in the visual cortex. After monocular deprivation, these effects of Notch1 activity predominantly affect responses to visual stimuli with higher spatial frequencies. This results in an enhanced effect of monocular deprivation on visual acuity. PMID:18945887

Dahlhaus, Martijn; Hermans, Josephine M; Van Woerden, Leonard H; Saiepour, M Hadi; Nakazawa, Kazu; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Heimel, J Alexander; Levelt, Christiaan N

2008-10-22

385

Sound localization acuity and its relation to vision in large and small fruit-eating bats: II. Non-echolocating species, Eidolon helvum and Cynopterus brachyotis.  

PubMed

Passive sound-localization acuity for 100-msec noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of non-echolocating bats: the Straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a large frugivore, and the Dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a small frugivore. The mean minimum audible angle for two E. helvum was 11.7 degrees, and for two C. brachyotis was 10.5 degrees. This places their passive sound-localization acuity near the middle of the range for echolocating bats as well as the middle of the range for other mammals. Sound-localization acuity varies widely among mammals, and the best predictor of this auditory function remains the width of the field of best vision (r=.89, p<.0001). Among echolocating and non-echolocating bats, as well as among other mammals, the use of hearing to direct the eyes to the source of a sound still appears to serve as an important selective factor for sound localization. Absolute visual acuity and the magnitude of the binaural locus cues available to a species remain unreliable predictors of sound-localization acuity. PMID:18571883

Heffner, R S; Koay, G; Heffner, H E

2008-07-01

386

Change in visual acuity is well correlated with change in image-quality metrics for both normal and keratoconic wavefront errors  

PubMed Central

We determined the degree to which change in visual acuity (VA) correlates with change in optical quality using image-quality (IQ) metrics for both normal and keratoconic wavefront errors (WFEs). VA was recorded for five normal subjects reading simulated, logMAR acuity charts generated from the scaled WFEs of 15 normal and seven keratoconic eyes. We examined the correlations over a large range of acuity loss (up to 11 lines) and a smaller, more clinically relevant range (up to four lines). Nine IQ metrics were well correlated for both ranges. Over the smaller range of primary interest, eight were also accurate and precise in estimating the variations in logMAR acuity in both normal and keratoconic WFEs. The accuracy for these eight best metrics in estimating the mean change in logMAR acuity ranged between ±0.0065 to ±0.017 logMAR (all less than one letter), and the precision ranged between ±0.10 to ±0.14 logMAR (all less than seven letters). PMID:24281244

Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Marsack, Jason D.; Bedell, Harold E.; Shi, Yue; Applegate, Raymond A.

2013-01-01

387

49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

2012-10-01

388

49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

2010-10-01

389

49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

2011-10-01

390

49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.  

...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

2014-10-01

391

49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

2013-10-01

392

Mental Health in the Hispanic / Latino Community  

MedlinePLUS

... A Guide for Latinos and their families. Latino Mental Health Video - English View the Video in Spanish Cultural ... Latinos with mental illness often go without professional mental health treatment. At-Risk Groups Studies have shown that ...

393

Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health  

MedlinePLUS

... emotional health can sometimes have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause, such as a ... with family, work or school can sometimes trigger mental illness or make it worse. However, people who are ...

394

Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... can worsen the course of both. Is Drug Addiction a Mental Illness? Yes. Addiction changes the brain ... other mental illnesses. How Common Are Comorbid Drug Addiction and Other Mental Illnesses? Many people who are ...

395

November, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events  

E-print Network

Cognition November, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://www.intranet2.capitalhealth.ca/regional%2. #12;Cognition November, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation

MacMillan, Andrew

396

Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Teens > Mind > Mental Health > Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care Print A A A Text Size What's in ... if you're concerned about paying for mental health care. Lots of people need help and worry that ...

397

Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia. PMID:22954173

2012-01-01

398

Mental Health, United States, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

399

Sensory Integration in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and

Barbara W. Posthuma

1983-01-01

400

Mentally Adding and Subtracting Tens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn strategies to mentally add and subtract 10 from a given number. The lesson begins concretely using base-ten blocks, then to the representational using a hundred chart. Ultimately, the lesson moves to the abstract level where students mentally add or subtract ten from a given number.

Format Edit

2012-04-20

401

The Nevada mental health courts.  

PubMed

The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. PMID:20655596

Palermo, George B

2010-01-01

402

What Do Mental Terms Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

Moore, Jay

2010-01-01

403

UPDATES IN HIV: Mental health  

E-print Network

by high-risk behavior8 . Mental illness is associated with both risky sexual behavior and substance abuse behavior. This is particularly concerning since the overall contribution of mental illness to the global sexual partners over a 12-month period.8 Tlaleletso UPDATES IN HIV: Diagnosing & managing ILLNESS

Sharp, Kim

404

Mental Models: A Robust Definition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

Rook, Laura

2013-01-01

405

Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret

2008-01-01

406

Psychopathology and primitive mental states.  

PubMed

The author discusses the psychoanalytic concept of primitive mental states, arguing that normal primitive mental states contain omnipotent fantasies that in an adult would be classified as delusions and hallucinations, but also contain sufficient reality sense to allow the infant to learn through experience that its omnipotent unconscious fantasies are not real, but only ordinary unconscious fantasies. Psychopathology of the type requiring psychoanalytic treatment is connected to persistent unconscious omnipotent fantasies (delusions). It is not the result of a regression to a normal primitive mental state, since in a normal primitive mental state, such delusions and their resultant inhibitions, symptoms and anxieties are gradually and spontaneously overcome through learning from experience. The unconscious delusions related to psychopathology persist because they are insulated from the effects of the learning from experience that would ordinarily convert them into unconscious fantasies by the use of transformations in hallucinosis, reversal of perspective and realistic projective identification by the psychotic part of the personality. Together, these mechanisms distort experience in such a way that reality appears to confirm, not challenge, the delusions, making learning impossible. The theory that psychopathology is due to a regression or fixation to a normal primitive mental state acts as a defence against the awareness that the mental states associated with current psychopathology are not like normal primitive ones, and that they differ from normal primitive mental states by containing forces that are sufficiently destructive of learning from experience to have prevented the patient's mental state from evolving in a normal fashion. PMID:9717101

Caper, R

1998-06-01

407

Does gender matter? Exploring mental health recovery court legal and health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Based upon therapeutic justice principles, mental health courts use legal leverage to improve access and compliance to treatment for defendants who are mentally ill. Justice-involved women have a higher prevalence of mental illness than men, and it plays a greater role in their criminal behavior. Despite this, studies examining whether women respond differently than men to mental health courts are lacking. Study goals were to examine gender-related differences in mental health court participation, and in criminal justice, psychiatric and health-related outcomes. Methods This study utilized a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design without a control group. The data were abstracted from administrative records of Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse agency, the county jail and both county hospitals, 2008 through 2011. Generalized estimating equation regression was used to assess gender-differences in pre-post program outcomes (jail days, psychiatric and medical hospitalization days, emergency department visits) for the 30 women and 63 men with a final mental health court disposition. Results Program-eligible females were more likely than males to become enrolled in mental health court. Otherwise they were similar on all measured program-participation characteristics: treatment compliance, WRAP participation and graduation rate. All participants showed significant reductions in emergency department visits, but women-completers had significantly steeper drops than males: from 6.7 emergency department visits to 1.3 for women, and from 4.1 to 2.4 for men. A similar gender pattern emerged with medical-hospitalization-days: from 2.2 medical hospital days down to 0.1 for women, and from 0.9 days up to 1.8 for men. While women had fewer psychiatric hospitalization days than men regardless of program involvement (2.5 and 4.6, respectively), both genders experienced fewer days after MHRC compared to before. Women and men showed equal gains from successful program completion in reduced jail days. Conclusions Despite similar participation characteristics, findings point to greater health gains by female compared to male participants, and to lower overall psychiatric acuity. Mental-health-court participation was associated with decreased psychiatric hospitalization days and emergency department visits. Successful program completion correlated to fewer jail days for both women and men. PMID:25530934

Kothari, Catherine L; Butkiewicz, Robert; Williams, Emily R; Jacobson, Caron; Morse, Diane S; Cerulli, Catherine

2014-01-01

408

Some myths about "mental illness".  

PubMed

Radical psychiatrists and others assert that mental illness is a myth. The opening and closing portions of the article deal with the impact such an argument has had in law and psychiatry. The body of the article discusses the five following versions of the myth argument prevalent in radical psychiatry: (1) that there is no such thing as mental illness; (2) that those called "mentally ill" are really as rational as everyone else, only with different aims, that the only reasons anyone ever thought differently was (3) because of unsophisticated category mistakes or (4) because of an adherence to the epistemology of a sick society; and (5) that the phrase "mental illness" is used to mask value judgments about others' behavior in pseudoscientific respectability. Reasons are given for rejecting each of these versions of the argument that mental illness is a myth. PMID:1200768

Moore, M S

1975-12-01

409

The National Mental Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) remains the countryâ??s oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mental health and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The â??Need Info?â?ť area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mental health news coverage.

2006-01-01

410

Adherence to Occlusion Therapy in the First Six Months of Follow-Up and Visual Acuity among Participants in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS)  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Achieving good vision in infants born with a unilateral cataract is believed to require early surgery and consistent occlusion of the fellow eye. This article examines the relationship between adherence to patching and grating acuity. Methods. Data came from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a randomized clinical trial of treatment for unilateral congenital cataract. Infants were either left aphakic (n = 53) or had an intraocular lens implanted (n = 55). Patching was prescribed 1 hour per day per month of age until 8 months of age and 50% of waking hours thereafter. Adherence was measured as the mean percentage of prescribed patching reported in a 7-day diary completed 2 months after surgery, and 48-hour recall interviews conducted 3 and 6 months after surgery. Grating visual acuity was measured within 1 month of the infant's first birthday (n = 108) using Teller Acuity Cards by a tester masked to treatment. Nonparametric correlations were used to examine the relationship with grating acuity. Results. On average, caregivers reported patching 84.3% (SD = 31.2%) of prescribed time and adherence did not differ by treatment (t = ?1.40, df = 106, p = 0.16). Adherence was associated with grating acuity (rSpearman = ?0.27, p < 0.01), but more so among pseudophakic (rSpearman = ?0.41, p < 0.01) than aphakic infants (rSpearman = ?0.10, p = 0.49). Conclusions. This study empirically has shown that adherence to patching during the first 6 months after surgery is associated with better grating visual acuity at 12 months of age after treatment for unilateral cataract and that implanting an intraocular lens is not associated with adherence. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:22491410

Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D.; Celano, Marianne; Kruger, Stacey; Hartmann, E. Eugenie

2012-01-01

411

Apolipoprotein E Phenotypes and Cardiovascular Responses to Experimentally Induced Mental Stress in Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism and cardiovascular responses to experimentally induced mental stress. Mental stress was induced in 28 healthy 16-year-old boys with a series of stressors (e.g., mental arithmetic, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test). Heart rate (HR), finger blood volume, and skin conductance level were recorded continuously during the task performance. We found that boys with

Niklas Ravaja; Katri Räikkönen; Heikki Lyytinen; Terho Lehtimäki; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

1997-01-01

412

Children's Mental Health Visits to the Emergency Department: Factors Affecting Wait Times and Length of Stay  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study explores the association of patient and emergency department (ED) mental health visit characteristics with wait time and length of stay (LOS). Methods. We examined data from 580 ED mental health visits made to two urban EDs by children aged ?18 years from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. Logistic regressions identified characteristics associated with wait time and LOS using hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. Sex (male: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.20–1.84), ED type (pediatric ED: HR = 5.91, 95% CI = 4.16–8.39), and triage level (Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) 2: HR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.24–5.85) were statistically significant predictors of wait time. ED type (pediatric ED: HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.18–2.46), triage level (CTAS 5: HR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.15–3.48), number of consultations (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.31–0.69), and number of laboratory investigations (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.66–0.85) predicted LOS. Conclusions. Based on our results, quality improvement initiatives to reduce ED waits and LOS for pediatric mental health visits may consider monitoring triage processes and the availability, access, and/or time to receipt of specialty consultations. PMID:24563785

Newton, Amanda S.; Grewal, Simran; Dow, Nadia; Rosychuk, Rhonda J.

2014-01-01

413

Why Cyclops could not compete with Ulysses: monocular vision and mental images.  

PubMed

The present research demonstrates that the limitations of congenitally blind people in tasks requiring the processing of mental images are specifically related to the absence of binocular vision and not to the absence of vision per se. We contrasted three different groups of participants: sighted; visually impaired, with reduced binocular vision; monocular, with a normal visual acuity although in one eye only. Visually impaired participants (i.e. blurred vision) show a pattern of performance comparable to that of the sighted. In contrast, monocular participants show a similar pattern of performance to congenitally blind individuals despite being able to see perfectly well. These results shed new light on the relationship between perception and imagery and on the characteristics of sequential and simultaneous processes in the human brain. PMID:16641676

Vecchi, Tomaso; Cattaneo, Zaira; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Cornoldi, Cesare; Pietrini, Pietro

2006-05-15

414

Development and neurophysiology of mentalizing.  

PubMed Central

The mentalizing (theory of mind) system of the brain is probably in operation from ca. 18 months of age, allowing implicit attribution of intentions and other mental states. Between the ages of 4 and 6 years explicit mentalizing becomes possible, and from this age children are able to explain the misleading reasons that have given rise to a false belief. Neuroimaging studies of mentalizing have so far only been carried out in adults. They reveal a system with three components consistently activated during both implicit and explicit mentalizing tasks: medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), temporal poles and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). The functions of these components can be elucidated, to some extent, from their role in other tasks used in neuroimaging studies. Thus, the MPFC region is probably the basis of the decoupling mechanism that distinguishes mental state representations from physical state representations; the STS region is probably the basis of the detection of agency, and the temporal poles might be involved in access to social knowledge in the form of scripts. The activation of these components in concert appears to be critical to mentalizing. PMID:12689373

Frith, Uta; Frith, Christopher D

2003-01-01

415

Economic Stress and Mental Health  

PubMed Central

This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

Butts, Hugh F.

1979-01-01

416

National Institute of Mental Health: Child and Adolescent Mental Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as a public service by the National Institute of Mental Health, this Web site contains a wealth of materials that will be very useful to mental health practitioners, parents, and those who work with young people in any capacity. First-time visitors will want to read the brief notes on the mental health of children and adolescents, as well as the section dealing with the treatment of children with mental disorders, which answers some basic questions about various disorders and psychotropic medicines commonly prescribed to treat these conditions. The Educational Materials section provides a number of booklets, fact sheets, and additional Web sites on such conditions as autism, depression, learning disabilities, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Researchers and health care professionals will want to examine the sections devoted to current research reports and multi-center collaborations, including the Child and Adolescent Research Consortium and the Child Abuse and Neglect Working Group.

417

Presbyopia: a pilot investigation of the barriers and benefits of near visual acuity correction among a rural Filipino population  

PubMed Central

Background Presbyopia is the age-related decline in accommodation that diminishes the ability of the eye to focus on near objects. Presbyopia is common and easy to correct; however, many communities lack access to basic eye care. The purpose of this project was to assess the burden of uncorrected presbyopia in a rural Filipino population and to pilot an intervention aimed at increasing access to reading glasses in the community. Methods Individuals above the age of 40 who presented to a health outreach in the Philippines were invited to undergo a near vision exam to detect the presence of functional presbyopia and be fitted with ready-made, single-vision glasses. The change in stereoacuity was used as a surrogate measure of functional improvement after near vision correction. A questionnaire was administered to assess this population’s perceived barriers and benefits to correcting near vision. Results The average age of the participants was 57 ± 11 years, with 87.6% of participants having an uncorrected near visual acuity of <20/50. Reading glasses improved near vision to 20/40 or better in 77.7% of participants having near-vision impairment (uncorrected near visual acuity of <20/40). Over 75% of participants also showed improvement in stereoacuity. Cost, rather than availability, was perceived to be the greater barrier to the procurement of glasses, and 84% of participants reported that the glasses dispensed would greatly improve their ability to earn a living. Conclusions Dispensing ready-made, single-vision glasses is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve near vision and enhance depth perception. A greater understanding of the barriers and benefits to correcting near vision will inform the design and execution of a sustainable program to correct presbyopia in developing countries. PMID:24467667

2014-01-01

418

Mental Health Service Utilization Among Patients with Severe Mental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of healthcare reforms, the study aims to assess variables associated with mental healthcare service utilization in\\u000a general and in both primary and specialized care by patients with severe mental disorders (SMD, mainly schizophrenia). The\\u000a study is based on a sample of 140 patients with SMD from five regions in Quebec (Canada). Variables were organized in accordance\\u000a with Andersen’s

Marie-Josée Fleury; Guy Grenier; Jean-Marie Bamvita; Jean Caron

419

School Mental Health: A Federal Perspective  

E-print Network

School Mental Health: A Federal Perspective David Esquith Director for the Office of Safe Ingrid Donato Branch Chief, Mental Health Promotion, Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) #12;Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal

Weber, David J.

420

Counseling and Mental Health Services OUR MISSION  

E-print Network

Counseling and Mental Health Services Page 1 OUR MISSION The mission of Counseling and Mental Disclosure and Confidentiality The privacy of your mental health information, including all written of all disciplines involved in your treatment. Uses and Disclosures of Your Mental Health Information

Alpay, S. Pamir

421

InvestIng In National Advisory Mental  

E-print Network

IMH is to transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving in the brain and behavioral sciences to fuel research on the causes of mental disorders · chart mental illness that incorporate the diverse needs and circumstances of people with mental illnesses · Strengthen the public health

Baker, Chris I.

422

CULTURE AND MENTAL HEALTH FALL TERM, 2009  

E-print Network

illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different cultures define it differently? What is meant by culture

Lockery, Shawn

423

CULTURE AND MENTAL HEALTH WINTER TERM, 2008  

E-print Network

illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different cultures define it differently? What is meant by culture

Lockery, Shawn

424

Children's and Adolescents' Mental Health. Factsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet addresses the mental health needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mental health problems, that these mental health problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mental health problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

425

The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.  

PubMed

The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209

Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

2013-03-01

426

An Exploratory Study of Student Service Members and Veterans Mental Health Characteristics by Sexual Orientation.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Explore the mental health differences of student veterans by sexual orientation. Participants: Student service members/veterans (n = 702) from the fall 2011 National College Health Assessment. Method: Descriptive statistics and two-sample proportion and mean tests were used to compare mental health characteristics. Results: Student veterans who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or unsure had higher levels of mental health symptoms and treatment. Conclusions: Results suggest a need for continued examination of student service members/ veterans related to disparities in mental health by sexual orientation. PMID:25102441

Pelts, Michael D; Albright, David L

2014-08-01

427

Rural Schools' Mental Health Needs  

E-print Network

Rural schools often can not provide the same access to mental health service as schools in larger population areas can.. Understanding the implications of these sometimes limited services is important in overcoming barriers to adequate services...

Lee, Steven W.; Lohmeier, Jill H.; Niileksela, Christopher Robert; Oeth, Jessica

2009-01-01

428

Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

1974-01-01

429

Recurrence risks in mental retardation.  

PubMed Central

Despite improvements in diagnostic techniques and progress made in mapping genes associated with syndromal mental handicap, the estimation of recurrence risks in non-syndromal mental retardation is still dependent on empirical data. Unfortunately, few studies are available to guide the clinician and their results differ significantly. For example, recurrence risks to all sibs of a male index patient with severe mental retardation vary between 3.5% and 14% in commonly quoted series. The present review highlights the problems involved in interpreting the previous work in this area and discusses the definition of mental retardation according to the degree of severity, phenotype, and its pattern of inheritance. In planning future studies, an appreciation of these issues should allow us to derive accurate and comparable risk figures for use in counselling affected subjects and their families. PMID:9541099

Crow, Y J; Tolmie, J L

1998-01-01

430

Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

431

Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on deinstitutionalization of mentally retarded persons is reviewed. Cited are studies showing positive aspects, including improved communication abilities, increased adaptive behavior and personal satisfaction. Community adjustment findings focus on effects of involuntary relocation to another facility, age differences, and…

Cortez, Patricia

432

DEATH AND MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS  

E-print Network

Special images associated with the concept ofdeath are applied to people who are mentally retarded. The images reflect, and are reflected in, social attitudes which often lead to alienating expertences for retarded persons. These experiences...

Evans, Daryl

1981-01-01

433

Bulgaria mental health country profile.  

PubMed

The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health. PMID:15276942

Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

2004-01-01

434

Mental Health and Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS

... seeking relief from smoking, drinking or eating fatty foods. That thinking has started to change. Research shows there could be physiological connections, too. The biological and chemical factors that trigger mental health issues ...

435

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS  

E-print Network

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE that having a psychiatric disorder is associated with a 25 percent lower likelihood of working. Mental health

Shyy, Wei

436

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program  

E-print Network

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Bureau of Mental Health (BMH) or Bureau of Children, Youth and Families (CYF). Individuals

Qiu, Weigang

437

Web Sites Related to Mental Health Web Sites Related to Mental Health  

E-print Network

Web Sites Related to Mental Health Web Sites Related to Mental Health American Academy of Child://www.psychologicalscience.org/ Canadian Mental Health Association http://www.cmha.ca/ Center for Mental Health Services Research http://gwbweb.wustl.edu/Users/cmhsr/ Depression and Related Affective Disorders Association http://www.drada.org/ Disaster Mental Health http

de Lijser, Peter

438

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program  

E-print Network

&Treatment," " Children, Youth & Families," or "Mental Retardation and Developmental DisabilitiesNew York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the Bureau of Mental Health. Individuals

Qiu, Weigang

439

Sampling from the Mental Number Line Sampling from the Mental Number Line  

E-print Network

Sampling from the Mental Number Line 1 Sampling from the Mental Number Line: How are Approximate Kingdom m.j.inglis@lboro.ac.uk 3863 words #12;Sampling from the Mental Number Line 2 Abstract Nonsymbolic cognition research. #12;Sampling from the Mental Number Line 3 SAMPLING FROM THE MENTAL NUMBER LINE: HOW

Inglis, Matthew

440

“If It’s Not Working, Why Would They Be Testing It?”: mental models of HIV vaccine trials and preventive misconception among men who have sex with men in India  

PubMed Central

Background Informed consent based on comprehension of potential risks and benefits is fundamental to the ethical conduct of clinical research. We explored mental models of candidate HIV vaccines and clinical trials that may impact on the feasibility and ethics of biomedical HIV prevention trials among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. Methods A community-based research project was designed and implemented in partnership with community-based organizations serving MSM in Chennai and Mumbai. We conducted 12 focus groups (n?=?68) with diverse MSM and 14 key informant interviews with MSM community leaders/service providers using a semi-structured interview guide to explore knowledge and beliefs about HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Focus groups (60–90 minutes) and interviews (45–60 minutes) were conducted in participants’ native language (Tamil in Chennai; Marathi or Hindi in Mumbai), audio-taped, transcribed and translated into English. We explored focus group and interview data using thematic analysis and a constant comparative method, with a focus on mental models of HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Results A mental model of HIV vaccine-induced seropositivity as “having HIV” resulted in fears of vaccine-induced infection and HIV stigma. Some participants feared inactivated vaccines might “drink blood” and “come alive”. Pervasive preventive misconception was based on a mental model of prevention trials as interventions, overestimation of likely efficacy of candidate vaccines and likelihood of being assigned to the experimental group, with expectations of protective benefits and decreased condom use. Widespread misunderstanding and lack of acceptance of placebo and random assignment supported perceptions of clinical trials as “cheating”. Key informants expressed concerns that volunteers from vulnerable Indian communities were being used as “experimental rats” to benefit high-income countries. Conclusions Evidence-informed interventions that engage with shared mental models among potential trial volunteers, along with policies and funding mechanisms that ensure local access to products that demonstrate efficacy in trials, may support the safe and ethical implementation of HIV vaccine trials in India. PMID:23919283

2013-01-01

441

Mental hygiene of the special schools teachers in Kerman, Iran.  

PubMed

The goal of this research is to identify and study the mental hygiene and its related factors (individual, family, organizational) in the Kerman special schools teachers. 266 teachers of the special schools of the cities of the province Kerman were chosen as the research sample. The necessary data were obtained by "questionnaire" which its validity and reliability were determined. The statistical analysis of the research findings (by Spearman coefficient test) Man-Whithey and Kruskal wallis tests showed that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between "Level of education", "service of record" "the number of the members of teacher's family", "income", "dwelling-place", "economic power", "acceptance of the teacher's job in their family", "leadership style", "suitable educational possibilities", "suitable educational space", "job satisfaction" with the mental hygiene of the teachers. The results of the research also showed that the Kerman special schools teachers enjoyed a "relatively desirable" mental hygiene. PMID:15844850

Alavi, S Hamid Reza; Benadeki, Maryam Dahgan

2005-01-01

442

Stress in mental health nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there have been growing concerns about stress in nursing over recent years, research has primarily focused on general nurses. This paper reports on stress in mental health nursing. The data were obtained, via questionnaires, from mental health nurses at the end of their training. Four-hundred and forty-seven questionnaires were returned, an 80% response rate. Open-ended questions were asked about

C. J Kipping

2000-01-01

443

Black Americans' and White Americans' views of the etiology and treatment of mental health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black Americans, in contrast to White Americans, use the mental health system in different ways. For example, Blacks tend to terminate treatment earlier than Whites. One explanation for the racial differences is that members of the two groups hold different views about mental health problems and their treatment. To test this explanation, subjects read and responded to questions about vignettes

Peter E. Millet; Bryce F. Sullivan; Andrew I. Schwebel; Linda J. Myers

1996-01-01

444

Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in an Adolescent Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been few research studies to examine the positive mental health of Asian adolescents. The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of a Korean version of the Mental Health Continuum-short form (K-MHC-SF), a newly developed self-report scale for…

Lim, Young-Jin

2014-01-01

445

Burnout Among Mental Health Workers: a Review and a Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review studies of burnout relating to mental health workers and to propose directions for future research. It will summarize findings with regard to established norms, demographic variables, possible antecedents and consequences of burnout, and burnout models tested with mental health workers. Comparison of group perceptions of burnout is facilitated by the fact that

Michael P. Leiter; Phyllis L. Harvie

1996-01-01

446

Conceptual Change in Physical Geography and Environmental Sciences through Mental Model Building: The Example of Groundwater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research tested the hypothesis that students' erroneous mental models about groundwater will change towards more valid concepts if they are taught on the basis of a mental model-building strategy that focuses on the clarification of students' misconceptions. To examine the hypothesis a quasi-experimental research design was chosen. The…

Reinfried, Sibylle

2006-01-01

447

Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious yawning is a common, but poorly understood phenomenon. We hypothesized that contagious yawning is part of a more general phenomenon known as mental state attribution (i.e. the ability to inferentially model the mental states of others). To test this hypothesis we compared susceptibility to contagiously yawn with performance on a self-face recognition task, several theory of mind stories, and

Steven M Platek; Samuel R Critton; Thomas E Myers; Gordon G Gallup

2003-01-01

448

Research report C ontagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious yawning is a common, but poorly understood phenomenon. We hypothesized that contagious yawning is part of a more general phenomenon known as mental state attribution (i.e. the ability to inferentially model the mental states of others). To test this hypothesis we compared susceptibility to contagiously yawn with performance on a self-face recognition task, several theory of mind stories, and

Steven M. Platek; Samuel R. Critton; Thomas E. Myers; Gordon G. Gallup Jr

449

Sufism and mental health  

PubMed Central

Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

2013-01-01

450

A comparison of grating visual acuity, strabismus, and reoperation outcomes among children with aphakia and pseudophakia after unilateral cataract surgery during the first six months of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The method of correcting aphakia after unilateral cataract extraction during infancy is controversial. Some authorities advocate correction with an intraocular lens (IOL) whereas others advocate correction with a contact lens (CL). We compared grating visual acuity, alignment, and reoperative outcomes in age-matched children treated with these 2 modalities at 5 clinical centers. Methods: Twenty-five infants born in 1997 or

Scott R. Lambert; Michael Lynn; Carolyn Drews-Botsch; Donna Loupe; David A. Plager; Norman B. Medow; M. Edward Wilson; Edward G. Buckley; Arlene V. Drack; Sherry L. Fawcett

2001-01-01

451

Social determinants of mental health.  

PubMed

A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

2014-08-01

452

Evaluation of various mental task combinations for near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain-computer interfaces.  

PubMed

A number of recent studies have demonstrated that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a promisingneuroimaging modality for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). So far, most NIRS-based BCI studies have focusedon enhancing the accuracy of the classification of different mental tasks. In the present study, we evaluated theperformances of a variety of mental task combinations in order to determine the mental task pairs that are bestsuited for customized NIRS-based BCIs. To this end, we recorded event-related hemodynamic responses whileseven participants performed eight different mental tasks. Classification accuracies were then estimated for allpossible pairs of the eight mental tasks (8C2 = 28). Based on this analysis, mental task combinations with relatively high classification accuracies frequently included the following three mental tasks: “mental multiplication,” “mental rotation,” and “right-hand motor imagery.” Specifically, mental task combinations consisting of two of these three mental tasks showed the highest mean classification accuracies. It is expected that our results will be a useful reference to reduce the time needed for preliminary tests when discovering individual-specific mental task combinations. PMID:25036216

Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Do-Won; Im, Chang-Hwan

2014-07-01

453

Evaluation of various mental task combinations for near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain-computer interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of recent studies have demonstrated that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a promising neuroimaging modality for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). So far, most NIRS-based BCI studies have focused on enhancing the accuracy of the classification of different mental tasks. In the present study, we evaluated the performances of a variety of mental task combinations in order to determine the mental task pairs that are best suited for customized NIRS-based BCIs. To this end, we recorded event-related hemodynamic responses while seven participants performed eight different mental tasks. Classification accuracies were then estimated for all possible pairs of the eight mental tasks (C=28). Based on this analysis, mental task combinations with relatively high classification accuracies frequently included the following three mental tasks: "mental multiplication," "mental rotation," and "right-hand motor imagery." Specifically, mental task combinations consisting of two of these three mental tasks showed the highest mean classification accuracies. It is expected that our results will be a useful reference to reduce the time needed for preliminary tests when discovering individual-specific mental task combinations.

Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Do-Won; Im, Chang-Hwan

2014-07-01

454

Malaysia mental health country profile.  

PubMed

Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine. PMID:15276949

Parameshvara Deva, M

2004-01-01

455

An ancient eye test--using the stars.  

PubMed

Vision testing in ancient times was as important as it is today. The predominant vision testing in some cultures was the recognition and identification of constellations and celestial bodies of the night sky. A common ancient naked eye test used the double star of the Big Dipper in the constellation Ursa Major or the Big Bear. The second star from the end of the handle of the Big Dipper is an optical double star. The ability to perceive this separation of these two stars, Mizar and Alcor, was considered a test of good vision and was called the "test" or presently the Arab Eye Test. This article is the first report of the correlation of this ancient eye test to the 20/20 line in the current Snellen visual acuity test. This article describes the astronomy, origin, history, and the practicality of this test and how it correlates with the present day Snellen visual acuity test. PMID:18929764

Bohigian, George M

2008-01-01

456

Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Pregnant Women’s Mental Health: Mental Distress and Mental Strength  

PubMed Central

The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

2011-01-01

457

Spatial forms and mental imagery.  

PubMed

Four studies investigated how general mental imagery might be involved in mediating the phenomenon of 'synaesthetic' spatial forms - i.e., the experience that sequences such as months or numbers have spatial locations. In Study 1, people with spatial forms scored higher than controls on visual imagery self-report scales. This is consistent with the suggestion that strong general imagery is at least a necessary condition to experience spatial forms. However self-reported spatial imagery did not differ between groups, suggesting either that the spatial nature of forms is mediated by special synaesthetic mechanisms, or that forms are depictive visual images rather than explicit spatial models. A methodological implication of Study 1 was that a general tendency for people with spatial forms to use imagery strategies might account for some of their previously-reported behavioural differences with control groups. This concern was supported by Studies 2-4. Normal participants were encouraged to visually image the months in various spatial layouts, and spatial associations for months were tested using left/right key presses to classify month names as belonging to the first or second half of the year (Studies 2-3) or as odd/even (Study 4). Reaction times showed month-SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effects of similar magnitude to previously-reported data from spatial form participants (Price and Mentzoni, 2008). Additionally, reversing the spatial associations within instructed images was sufficient to reverse the direction of observed month-SNARC effects (i.e., positive vs negative slope), just as different spatial forms were previously shown to modulate the direction of effects (ibid.). Results challenge whether previously observed behavioural differences between spatial form and control groups need to be explained in terms of special synaesthetic mechanisms rather than intentional imagery strategies. It is argued that usually strong general imagery processes should complement synaesthetic mechanisms as possible explanations of spatial forms. PMID:19665116

Price, Mark C

2009-01-01

458

Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

1996-01-01

459

Infants' Joint Attention Skills Predict Toddlers' Emerging Mental State Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess predictive relations between joint attention skills, intention understanding, and mental state vocabulary, 88 children were tested with measures of comprehension of gaze and referential pointing, as well as the production of declarative gestures and the comprehension and production of imperative gestures, at the ages of 7-18 months.…

Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Thoermer, Claudia; Perst, Hannah

2011-01-01

460

IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test

Keyes, Denis William

461

Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

2009-01-01

462

Mental Health Computing in the 1980s: II. Clinical Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the second of a two-part state-of-the-art review concerning current trends in mental health computing, with special clinical applications in automated psychological testing, computer interviews, computerized diagnosis, clinical consultation, computer-aided instruction, computerized treatment intervention, and user acceptance. (Author/ABB)

Hedlund, James L.; And Others

1985-01-01

463

Differences between Spatial and Visual Mental Representations  

PubMed Central

This article investigates the relationship between visual mental representations and spatial mental representations in human visuo-spatial processing. By comparing two common theories of visuo-spatial processing – mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery – we identified two open questions: (1) which representations are modality-specific, and (2) what is the role of the two representations in reasoning. Two experiments examining eye movements and preferences for under-specified problems were conducted to investigate these questions. We found that significant spontaneous eye movements along the processed spatial relations occurred only when a visual mental representation is employed, but not with a spatial mental representation. Furthermore, the preferences for the answers of the under-specified problems differed between the two mental representations. The results challenge assumptions made by mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery. PMID:23761768

Sima, Jan Frederik; Schultheis, Holger; Barkowsky, Thomas

2013-01-01