Sample records for mental acuity tests

  1. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests.

    PubMed

    Turnage, J J; Kennedy, R S; Smith, M G; Baltzley, D R; Lane, N E

    1992-10-01

    Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety. PMID:1516578

  2. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnage, J. J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Smith, M. G.; Baltzley, D. R.; Lane, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety.

  3. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests for repeated-measures studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Wilkes, R. L.; Baltzley, D. R.; Fowlkes, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the development of the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), a computer battery of mental acuity tests that can be used to assess human performance in the presence of toxic elements and environmental stressors. There were four objectives in the development of APTS. First, the technical requirements for developing APTS followed the tenets of the classical theory of mental tests which requires that tests meet set criteria like stability and reliability (the lack of which constitutes insensitivity). To be employed in the study of the exotic conditions of protracted space flight, a battery with multiple parallel forms is required. The second criteria was for the battery to have factorial multidimensionality and the third was for the battery to be sensitive to factors known to compromise performance. A fourth objective was for the tests to converge on the abilities entailed in mission specialist tasks. A series of studies is reported in which candidate APTS tests were subjected to an examination of their psychometric properties for repeated-measures testing. From this work, tests were selected that possessed the requisite metric properties of stability, reliability, and factor richness. In addition, studies are reported which demonstrate the predictive validity of the tests to holistic measures of intelligence.

  4. Assessment of Visual Acuity in Relation to Central Nervous System Activation in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Karl; Grottland, Havar; Flaten, Magne Arve

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity, using Teller Acuity Cards, was combined with observations of behavioral state to indicate central nervous system activation in 24 individuals with mental retardation. Results indicate that forced-choice preferential-looking technique can be used to test visual acuity in this population unless the participant is drowsy.…

  5. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  6. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients’ scores were significantly worse than normals’ scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients. PMID:23000614

  7. Sensitivity of The Dynamic Visual Acuity Test To Sensorimotor Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob; Elizalde, Elizabeth; Fregia, Melody

    1999-01-01

    Post-flight astronauts, acutely post-vestibular nerve section patients, and patients with severe chronic bilateral vestibular deficits have oscillopsia caused by reduced vestibulocular reflex gains and decreased postural stability. Therefore, as previous work has shown, a test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA), in which the subject must read numbers from a computer screen while standing still or walking in place provides a composite measure of sensorimotor integration. This measure may be useful for determining the level of recovery, post-flight, post-operatively, or after vestibular rehabilitation. To determine the sensitivity of DVA to change in impaired populations we have tested patients with acoustic neuromas before and during the first post-operative week after resection of the tumors, and with bilaterally labyrinthine deficient subjects before and after six weeks of balance rehabilitation therapy.

  8. Computerized method of visual acuity testing: adaptation of the amblyopia treatment study visual acuity testing protocol 1 1 Additional technical information about the Electronic Visual Acuity Tester and the Amblyopia Treatment Study visual acuity testing protocol application can be obtained from the lead author (pmoke@jaeb.org)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela S. Moke; Andrew H. Turpin; Roy W. Beck; Jonathan M. Holmes; Michael X. Repka; Eileen E. Birch; Richard W. Hertle; Raymond T. Kraker; Joseph M. Miller; Chris A. Johnson

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a computerized method for determining visual acuity in children using the Amblyopia Treatment Study visual acuity testing protocol.METHODS: A computerized visual acuity tester was developed that uses a programmed handheld device that uses the Palm operating system (Palm, Inc, Santa Clara, California). The handheld device communicates with a personal computer running a Linux operating system and 17-inch

  9. Astronauts Cooper and Conrad prepare cameras during visual acuity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini 5 space flight, prepare their cameras while aboard a C-130 aircraft flying near Laredo. The two astronauts are taking part in a series of visual acuity experiments to aid them in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

  10. Visual Vestibular Interaction in the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test during Voluntary Head Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Moo Hoon; Durnford, Simon; Crowley, John; Rupert, Angus

    1996-01-01

    Although intact vestibular function is essential in maintaining spatial orientation, no good screening tests of vestibular function are available to the aviation community. High frequency voluntary head rotation was selected as a vestibular stimulus to isolate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from visual influence. A dynamic visual acuity test that incorporates voluntary head rotation was evaluated as a potential vestibular function screening tool. Twenty-seven normal subjects performed voluntary sinusoidal head rotation at frequencies from 0.7-4.0 Hz under three different visual conditions: visually-enhanced VOR, normal VOR, and visually suppressed VOR. Standardized Baily-Lovie chart letters were presented on a computer monitor in front of the subject, who then was asked to read the letters while rotating his head horizontally. The electro-oculogram and dynamic visual acuity score were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in gain or phase shift among three visual conditions in the frequency range of 2.8 to 4.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity score shifted less than 0.3 logMAR at frequencies under 2.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity test at frequencies a round 2.0 Hz can be recommended for evaluating vestibular function.

  11. Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ‘Unable to test’ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes (P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or “matching” approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities. PMID:24008790

  12. Mental tests and fossils.

    PubMed

    Littman, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the origins of the intelligence test item known as the Ball and Field in Lewis M. Terman's Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. The question was initially raised by the resemblance of paleontological ocean bed floor tracings left by ancient creatures to the responses produced by children given the Ball and Field Test. A version of the Ball and Field Test was invented by Clifton F. Hodge, one of Terman's graduate school instructors who devised it as a result of his observations about how birds and other animals navigated and found their way. He then tested how humans and children located hidden objects and found that, in many ways, animals and humans used similar strategies for getting home or finding objects. PMID:15378562

  13. Bias in Mental Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    1981-01-01

    While some forms of test bias (for example, bias in selection and prediction) appear amenable to definitional consensus, a definition of cultural bias will remain problematic so long as it is confused with the nature/nurture issue. (Author/BW)

  14. Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

  15. EVALUATION ON INFANT AND PRESCHOOL MENTAL TESTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALL, RACHELL S.; STOTT, LELAND H.

    AN INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF TOTAL INFANT AND PRESCHOOL MENTAL TESTING SITUATIONS AND SOME CONCLUSIONS AS TO THE CURRENT NEEDS IN THIS AREA ARE PRESENTED. THESE APPROACHES ARE MADE TO THE PROBLEM. FIRST, THE THEORETICAL THINKING ON THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE AND HOW IT DEVELOPS IN CHILDREN IS TRACED. THERE HAS BEEN DISAGREEMENT OVER THE…

  16. Psychological Testing in Outpatient Mental Health Facilities: A National Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Piotrowski; John W. Keller

    1989-01-01

    We surveyed psychological testing trends in outpatient mental health centers, clinics, and services in the United States. The sample was obtained from the National Directory of Mental Health and the National Registry of Community Mental Health Services. Of 900 facilities with a psychologist on staff, 413 (46%) returned questionnaires. The MMPI and the Wechsler scales were the instruments most frequently

  17. Using a Mental Measurements Yearbook Review to Evaluate a Test

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    1 Using a Mental Measurements Yearbook Review to Evaluate a Test Anthony J. Nitko Professor, University of Arizona Introduction Once you have located a test, you will want to read its Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) review. You need to use the review to make judgments about the quality of the test

  18. Can doctors predict patients' abbreviated mental test scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIZABETH BURLEIGH; I AN REEVES; C HRISTINE MCALPINE; J AMES DAVIE

    Objectives: the abbreviated mental test is widely used in the assessment of cognitive impairment in elderly patients. However, many doctors do not administer the full 10 questions, preferring to estimate the patient's score instead. We have studied the accuracy of doctors in predicting patients' abbreviated mental test scores. Methods: we assessed 102 patients in the geriatric unit. We asked doctors

  19. Vernier acuity in amblyopic and nonamblyopic children.

    PubMed

    Cox, J F; Suh, S; Leguire, L E

    1996-01-01

    We measured vernier acuity in normal and amblyopic children using a procedure that resembles a video game and is suitable for testing most children older than 4 years old. In this procedure, subjects align bars using two keys of a computer keypad. Following binocular practice trials, monocular vernier acuity was measured in 38 control children, 5 to 15 years old, and in 18 children with histories of amblyopia. Vernier acuity was defined as the standard deviation of adjusted position across a block of six trials. Vernier acuity improved as a function of age in the control subjects, indicating developmental improvement. Amblyopic subjects with strabismus (n = 5) and with both anisometropia and strabismus (n = 8) showed markedly impaired vernier acuity in their amblyopic eyes, with vernier acuitys four to five times larger than those of age-matched controls. However, the amblyopic subjects who were anisometropic (n = 5), without any history of strabismus, were not significantly different from control subjects in either eye. Testing with bars and gratings gave similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that vernier acuity deficits seen in adult amblyopes are also seen in child amblyopes. PMID:8965224

  20. Distance versus near visual acuity in amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Christoff, Alex; Repka, Michael X.; Kaminski, Brett M.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Ch, B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose There are conflicting reports about whether distance and near visual acuity are similar in eyes with amblyopia. The purpose of this study is to compare monocular distance visual acuity with near visual acuity in amblyopic eyes of children. Methods Subjects 2 to 6 years of age were evaluated in a randomized trial of amblyopia therapy for moderate amblyopia (20/40 to 20/80) due to anisometropia, strabismus, or both. Prior to initiating the protocol-prescribed therapy, subjects had best-corrected visual acuity measured with standardized protocols at 3 meters and 0.4 meters using single-surrounded HOTV optotypes. Results A total of 129 subjects were included. The mean amblyopic eye visual acuity was similar at distance and near (mean, 0.45 logMAR at distance versus 0.45 logMAR at near; mean difference, +0.00, 95% CI, ?0.03 to 0.03). Of the 129 subjects, 86 (67%) tested within one line at distance and near, 19 (15%) tested more than one logMAR line better at distance, and 24 (19%) tested more than one logMAR line better at near. The mean visual acuity difference between distance and near did not differ by cause of amblyopia, age, or spherical equivalent refractive error. Conclusions We found no systematic difference between distance and near visual acuity in 2- to 6-year-old children with moderate amblyopia associated with strabismus and/or anisometropia. Individual differences between distance and near visual acuity are likely due to test–retest variability. PMID:21907115

  1. [Challenges of researches on visual acuity charts for near].

    PubMed

    Lü, Fan; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiang-Tian

    2008-07-01

    Near "words" visual acuity testing is implemented in clinics to meet the exams for read demanding. Therefore, diversity formats or versions of near "words or characters" visual acuity occur. However, near visual acuity chart with the mandarin character as basic target has been debated all the time. It is due to the complexity of the mandarin characters and the comprehensive of reading while having the meaningful characters as basic targets. This article will be focused on these debates. PMID:19040071

  2. Item-Item Curves and Consistent Mental Test Parameter Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.

    It is shown that empirical mental test P - P plots are approximately equal to theoretical item-item curves, at least for long tests administered to many people. This result is important because it leads to (1) a distribution free method for estimating points on item-item curves; (2) a general method for defining estimates of item parameters; and…

  3. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  4. Dimensionality of a Test Battery for Nonprofessional Mental Health Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Door, Darwin; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Factor analysis of a test battery for nonprofessional mental health workers is reported. The battery measured cultural interests, attitudes toward job attributes, extraversion, helping person qualities, social class, and interest in science. When nonprofessional child aids were compared with nonprofessional controls, aids showed stronger cultural…

  5. Infant and Preschool Mental Tests: Review and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Leland H.; Ball, Rachell S.

    1965-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the present state of infant and preschool mental testing in the United States is the concern of this monograph by the Society for Research in Child Development. Literature, technical and professional, covering the concept of intelligence and its measurement, was reviewed, organized, and summarized (chapters II and…

  6. The influence of high contrast acuity and normalised low contrast acuity upon self-reported situation avoidance and driving crashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Slade; M. C. M. Dunne; J. N. V. Miles

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cues used to signal avoidance of difficult driving situations and to test the hypothesis that drivers with relatively poor high contrast visual acuity (HCVA) have fewer crashes than drivers with relatively poor normalised low contrast visual acuity (NLCVA). This is because those with poorer HCVA are well aware of their difficulties

  7. [Calculating the mean visual acuity and the change in visual acuity with a decimal acuity chart].

    PubMed

    Touzeau, O

    2003-06-01

    The decimal visual acuity chart is not easy to use for statistical analysis and requires a transformation into LogMAR units (decimal logarithm of the Minimum Angle Resolution). In contrast to the decimal chart, the logarithmic chart has an arithmetic progression and a constant interval between lines. The LogMAR chart makes statistical analysis of visual acuity easy. Change in visual acuity is calculated directly by subtracting LogMAR data, while the average visual acuity is obtained with the arithmetic mean value of the LogMAR data. The mean acuity expressed in LogMAR units can be transformed into a decimal chart for a more comprehensive result. To calculate the average visual acuity directly from the decimal data, the geometric mean value must be used instead of the arithmetic mean value. PMID:12910197

  8. Visual acuity vs letter contrast sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K R; Derlacki, D J; Fishman, G A

    1995-05-01

    This study examined the quantitative relationship between foveal visual acuity and contrast sensitivity for large-letter optotypes in a group of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), in order to assess more completely the extent of foveal vision loss in this group of hereditary retinal dystrophies. High-contrast visual acuity and large-letter contrast sensitivity were measured with a computer-based testing system and with commercially available letter charts (Lighthouse Distance Visual Acuity Test; Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Chart). Findings from 20 patients with typical RP or Usher syndrome were compared with those from 15 age-similar control subjects with normal vision. On both the computer-based test and the chart tests, the patients with RP showed approximately equal reductions in visual acuity and large-letter contrast sensitivity. However, intersubject controls was greater for contrast sensitivity than for visual acuity on both test protocols. As a result, the patients with RP required a greater reduction in contrast sensitivity than in acuity to exceed the normal range, indicating that visual acuity was the more sensitive index of the loss of foveal visual function. PMID:7645278

  9. Visual Acuity and Color Blindness Among Brazilian Cayapo Indians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Salzano

    1972-01-01

    Tests with Ishihara’s plates [6] showed that only 1 of 120 males belonging to two populations of Brazilian Cayapo Indians was color-blind (deuterodefective). This characteristic was not obser ved among 149 women. Visual acuity was tested in 149 persons; they generally presented excellent vision, more than half showing an acuity better than 20\\/20. These results are in accordance with the

  10. Influence of loupes and age on the near visual acuity of practicing dentists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenberger, Martina; Perrin, Philippe; Neuhaus, Klaus W.; Bringolf, Ueli; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the near visual acuity of 40 dentists and its improvement by using different magnification devices. The acuity was tested with miniaturized E-optotype tests on a negatoscope under the following conditions: 1. natural visual acuity, 300 mm; 2. single lens loupe, 2×, 250 mm; 3. Galilean loupe, 2.5×, 380 mm; and 4. Keplerian loupe, 4.3×, 400 mm. In part 1, the influence of the magnification devices was investigated for all dentists. The Keplerian loupe obtained the highest visual acuity (4.64), followed by the Galilean loupe (2.43), the single lens loupe (1.42), and natural visual acuity (1.19). For part 2, the dentists were classified according to their age (=40 years). The younger dentists' group achieved a significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices (p<0.001). For part 3, the dentists were grouped according to their natural visual acuity. The group with the higher natural visual acuity achieved significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices than did the group of dentists with the lower natural visual acuity (p<0.01). It can be concluded that near visual acuity varies highly between individuals and decreases during the lifetime. Independent of age or natural vision, visual acuity can be significantly improved by using magnification devices.

  11. Visual acuity vs letter contrast sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Alexander; Deborah J. Derlacki; Gerald A. Fishman

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the quantitative relationship between foveal visual acuity and contrast sensitivity for large-letter optotypes in a group of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), in order to asses more completely the extent of foveal vision loss in this group of hereditary retinal dystrophies. High-contrast visual acuity and large-letter contrast sensitivity were measured with a computer-based testing system and with

  12. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desmond J. Smith; Edward M. Rubin

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  13. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  14. Psychological test usage in southeastern outpatient mental health facilities in 1975

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Piotrowski; John W. Keller

    1978-01-01

    93 outpatient mental health centers and clinics in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi were surveyed for the frequency of use of 25 psychological tests. 111 questionnaires from 61 centers provided usable data. Findings indicate that testing is an important function of outpatient mental health centers. Results are discussed in light of recent claims that psychological testing, especially projective techniques,

  15. Dynamic visual acuity using "far" and "near" targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2005-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: DVA may be useful for assessing the functional consequences of an impaired gaze stabilization mechanism or for testing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation paradigm. Because target distance influences the relative contributions of canal and otolith inputs, the ability to measure DVA at near and far viewing distances may also lead to tests that will independently assess canal and otolith function. OBJECTIVE: To present and test a methodology that uses dynamic visual acuity (DVA) to assess the efficacy of compensatory gaze mechanisms during a functionally relevant activity that differentially measures canal and otolith function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of treadmill walking at a velocity of 1.79 m/s on subjects' visual acuity was assessed at each of two viewing distances. A custom-written threshold determination program was used to display Landolt C optotypes on a laptop computer screen during a "far" (4 m) target condition and on a micro-display for a "near" (50 cm) target condition. The walking acuity scores for each target distance were normalized by subtracting a corresponding acuity measure obtained while standing still on the treadmill belt. RESULTS: As predicted by subjective reports of relative target motion, the decrease in visual acuity was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) for the near compared to the far condition.

  16. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  17. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

  18. Stereoacuity and Binocular Visual Acuity in Prism-Induced Exodeviation

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Philip W.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Intermittent exotropia may be controlled by accommodative or motor convergence. Previous studies have reported that reduced binocular visual acuity in intermittent exotropia is due to the accommodation required to control the deviation. In order to test this hypothesis, we simulated convergence stress by inducing exodeviations in normal volunteers to investigate whether the transition from non-fused to fused is associated with a gradual or immediate transition in stereoacuity and binocular visual acuity. Methods Convergence stress was induced in 25 visually normal adults with 40pd base out prism and reduced stepwise in increments of 5pd until 20pd, and 2pd thereafter. Stereoacuity (Frisby Davis Distance (FD2) and the Distance Randot (DR)) and binocular visual acuity were measured at each step. For each subject, the recovery of fine stereoacuity (less than or equal to 60 seconds of arc) was categorized as immediate (nil to fine) or gradual (nil to moderate to fine). Results 24 of 25 (96%) showed gradual recovery of fine stereoacuity on either FD2 or DR. Median binocular visual acuity at baseline, first level of fusion, and subsequent levels was 20/15. Conclusion Under convergence stress, the transition from non-fused to fused is accompanied by a gradual recovery of fine stereoacuity in most individuals, consistent with some studies of patients with intermittent exotropia. Nevertheless, this degradation of stereoacuity was not associated with decreased binocular visual acuity, suggesting that accommodative convergence may not be recruited to restore and maintain binocularity under conditions of convergence stress. PMID:17419082

  19. Adaptive Mental Testing: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James R.

    In an adaptive test, the test administrator chooses test items sequentially during the test, in such a way as to adapt test difficulty to examinee ability as shown during testing. An effectively designed adaptive test can resolve the dilemma inherent in conventional test design. By tailoring tests to individuals, the adaptive test can…

  20. Columbia Mental Maturity Scale as a Test of Concept Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Jeanette; Mintz, Joanne

    1970-01-01

    Construct validity of the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) was examined in terms of dimensions derived from conceptual behavior research, namely, abstract or concrete exemplars and an oddity or pairing rule. The CMMS performance of children with normal IQs was superior to that of children with borderline IQs. Implications for the diagnosis of…

  1. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  2. Performance of a five-item mental health screening test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald M. Berwick; Jane M. Murphy; Paula A. Goldman; Ware John E. Jr; Arthur J. Barsky; Milton C. Weinstein

    1991-01-01

    We compared the screening accuracy of a short, five-item version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) with that of the 18-item MHI, the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and a 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI-28). Subjects were newly enrolled members of a health maintenance organization (HMO), and the criterion diagnoses were those found through use of the

  3. Night vision in barn owls: visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Julius; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Barn owls are effective nocturnal predators. We tested their visual performance at low light levels and determined visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of three barn owls by their behavior at stimulus luminances ranging from photopic to fully scotopic levels (23.5 to 1.5 × 10??). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity decreased only slightly from photopic to scotopic conditions. Peak grating acuity was at mesopic (4 × 10?˛ cd/m˛) conditions. Barn owls retained a quarter of their maximal acuity when luminance decreased by 5.5 log units. We argue that the visual system of barn owls is designed to yield as much visual acuity under low light conditions as possible, thereby sacrificing resolution at photopic conditions. PMID:23220576

  4. Spatial contrast sensitivity and grating acuity of barn owls.

    PubMed

    Harmening, Wolf M; Nikolay, Petra; Orlowski, Julius; Wagner, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    The eyes of barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola) display very little aberrations, and have thus excellent optical quality. In a series of behavioral experiments, we tested whether this presumably beneficial feature is also reflected at a perceptual level in this species. As fundamental indicators for visual performance, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and grating acuity were measured in two barn owls with psychophysical techniques. Stimulus luminance was 2.7 cd/m(2). The CSF found here renders the typical band-limited, inverted U-shaped function, with a low maximum contrast sensitivity of 8-19 at a spatial frequency of 1 cyc/deg. Grating acuity was estimated from the CSF high frequency cut-off and yielded 3.0-3.7 cyc/deg. In a second experiment, in which contrast was held constant and spatial frequency was varied, grating acuity was measured directly (2.6-4.0 cyc/deg). These results put barn owls at the very low end of the visual acuity spectrum of birds, and demonstrate that visual resolution and sensitivity cannot be predicted by optical considerations alone. PMID:19761328

  5. THE RELATION BETWEEN VISUAL ACUITY AND BRIGHTNESS DISCRIMINATION

    PubMed Central

    Hendley, Charles D.

    1948-01-01

    1. Visual acuity depends on the brightness contrast between test object and background; and conversely, brightness discrimination depends on the target size. Both functions vary with the brightness of the background. Measurements with rectangular targets of length-width ratio 2 were made over a range of sizes, contrasts, and brightnesses sufficient to determine the relations among these three variables. The rectangles were from 2' to 50' wide; the contrast fraction, ?I/I, ranged from 0.01 to 40; the background brightness varied from 0.0001 to 2500 millilamberts. 2. When ?I/I or visual acuity is plotted as a function of brightness the data do, in general, follow Hecht's equation. The departure from a simple photochemical theory which the larger targets show is probably due to changes in the functional retinal mosaic with changing brightness. 3. In general also, the relation between visual acuity and brightness, at selected contrasts, fits Hecht's derivation. At low contrasts, as the brightness is reduced a point is reached at which the test object becomes invisible at any size. 4. No simple relation emerges from the data relating visual acuity to contrast, at set levels of illumination. Over only a very short range are visual acuity and contrast directly related. At high contrasts, visual acuity reaches a maximum, whereas at low visual acuity, ?I/I reaches a minimum which cannot be passed regardless of size. 5. The shape of the curves relating ?I/I to brightness is not significantly altered by changing the exposure time. There is some evidence to show that a 3 second exposure of the target is equivalent to two looks of 0.2 second each. 6. In all these studies the thresholds were determined by a frequency of seeing method, and the data have been considered in terms of a quantum theory of threshold seeing. It was found that a threshold response involves between four and eight independent critical events, which are largely independent of size, brightness, and criterion of seeing. PMID:18917026

  6. Genetic Testing and Neuroimaging for Youth at Risk for Mental Illness: Trading off Benefit and Risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace; Mizgalewicz, Ania; Borgelt, Emily; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization, mental illness is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. The first onset of mental illness usually occurs during childhood or adolescence, with nearly 12 million diagnosed cases in the United States alone. NeuroimagingNeuroimaging and genetic testingGenetic testing have been invaluable in research on behavioral, affective, and attentional disorders, particularly with their potential predictive capabilities, and ability to improve diagnosis and to decrease the associated burdens of disease. The present study focused specifically the perspectives of mental healthMental health providers on the role of neuroimagingNeuroimaging and genetic testingGenetic testing in clinical practice with children and adolescents. Methods We interviewed 38 psychiatrists, psychologists, and allied mental health professionals who work primarily with youth about their receptivity toward either the use of neuroimagingNeuroimaging or genetic testingGenetic testing . Interviews probed the role they foresee for these modalities for prediction, diagnosis, treatment planning, and the benefits and risks they anticipate. Results Practitioners anticipated three major benefits associated with clinical introduction of imaging and genetic testingGenetic testing in the mental healthMental health care for youth: (1) improved understanding of the brain and mental illness, (2) more accurate diagnosis than available through conventional clinical examination, and (3) legitimization of treatment plans. They also perceived three major risks: (1) misuse or misinterpretation of the imaging or genetic data, (2) potential adverse impacts on employment and insurance as adolescents reach adulthood, and (3) infringements on self-esteem or self-motivation. Limitations The nature of the interview questions focused on the future of neuroimagingNeuroimaging and genetic testingGenetic testing research in the context of clinical neuroscience. Therefore, the responses from interview participants are based on anticipated rather than actual experience. Conclusions Continued expansion of brain imagingBrain imaging and genetic testingGenetic testing into clinical care will require a delicate balance of brain biology and respect for autonomy in the still-evolving cognitive and affective world of young individuals. PMID:25056008

  7. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M.; Pelli, Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions—anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia—each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding. PMID:24799622

  8. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M; Pelli, Denis G

    2014-01-01

    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions-anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia-each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding. PMID:24799622

  9. Figure connection test: a universal test for assessment of mental state.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, R K; Saraswat, V A; Verma, M; Naik, S R

    1995-01-01

    The number connection test (NCT), which assesses the extent of organic brain damage, has been used extensively to evaluate mental state in portasystemic encephalopathy, but has certain inherent limitations. It cannot be performed by illiterates and those unfamiliar with Roman alphanumeric notations. We, therefore, devised a figure connection test (FCT) based on the subject's identification of figures rather than alphabets or numerals. Four variations each of FCT-A (A1-A4) and FCT-B (B1-B4) employing different motifs were developed and compared with four variations each of NCT-A (A1-A4) and NCT-B (B1-B4) in groups of healthy volunteers with differing educational status. These volunteer groups were as follows: postgraduates 64; graduates 66; subgraduates 75; and illiterates 45. Significant differences in mean scores of various tests were observed between these normal groups. Control values of the tests for these groups have been standardized and can serve as nomograms. The effect of educational attainments on performance of FCT and other psychometric tests was analysed and trail-making tests were validated for serial use. The FCT was then prospectively validated on 70 patients (classified for comparison with controls according to educational status as follows: postgraduates 7; graduates 21; subgraduates 32; and illiterates 10) with cirrhosis of liver without over encephalopathy, to detect subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. NCT-A was abnormal in 31.7%, NCT-B in 38.3%, FCT-A in 42.9% and FCT-B in 28.6% of patients. Taken together these tests diagnosed subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in 34 (48.5%) patients. We conclude that FCT is as useful as NCT in detecting psychomotor performance defects in cirrhotic patients without overt encephalopathy. PMID:7620102

  10. Spatial acuity of ultrasound hearing in flying crickets.

    PubMed

    Wyttenbach, R A; Hoy, R R

    1997-07-01

    The minimum audible angle is the smallest angular separation at which two sounds are perceived as coming from distinct sources. To determine the spatial acuity of hearing in crickets, we measured minimum audible angles at various locations in azimuth and elevation. Crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) were able to discriminate between sources separated by 11.25 degrees (1/32 of a circle) in azimuth directly ahead of them; acuity declined to 45 degrees in azimuth for sound sources 90 degrees to the side and then improved to 33.75 degrees at the rear. Crickets were also able to discriminate between sources separated in elevation, although acuity was much poorer, ranging from 45 degrees at the front and rear of the animal to 90 degrees below the animal. A habituation-dishabituation test was used to test discrimination. This involved presenting a train of ultrasound pulses from one location, habituating the cricket's escape response. This train was followed by a test pulse of ultrasound from another location, after which a final pulse was presented from the original source. If the test pulse was discriminated from the habituating pulses, then the response to the final pulse was dishabituated. To determine the minimum audible angle, we repeated such tests while moving the two sound sources closer together until dishabituation no longer occurred. PMID:9246783

  11. Mini-Mental Parkinson: first validation study of a new bedside test constructed for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mahieux, F; Michelet, D; Manifacier, M J; Boller, F; Fermanian, J; Guillard, A

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a brief screening test aimed at identifying cognitive disorders in Parkinson's disease. The Mini-Mental Parkinson derives from the Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein. It includes seven ordered subsections, with a total score of 32. A pilot study was conducted in 50 community-dwelling parkinsonian patients, in order to establish its metrological qualities. Comparisons were made with a neuropsychological battery including several tests widely used in the assessment of specific cognitive disorders in Parkinson's disease. The correlations between the Mini-Mental Parkinson and each component of this battery were substantial, especially for the performance subtests of the WAIS-R (r = 0.62 to 0.72), the Stroop test (r = 0.65) the 15-objects test (r = 0.64), the word fluency (r = 0.63) and the Odd Man Out test (r = 0.61). The validity of each subtest of the Mini-Mental Parkinson was adequate except for one, based on a word choice, which requires a modification in French before definitive use. The test-retest reliability was high (r = 0.84). There was a significant difference in the mean scores in cases with confusional event (22.4), even without current signs of dementia, compared with patients with no such history (27.2). In conclusion, this brief test is suitable for assessment of parkinsonian patients. PMID:24487398

  12. Visual acuity in a species of coral reef fish: Rhinecanthus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Champ, Connor; Wallis, Guy; Vorobyev, Misha; Siebeck, Ulrike; Marshall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Coral reef fish present the human observer with an array of bold and contrasting patterns; however, the ability of such fish to perceive these patterns is largely unexamined. To understand this, the visual acuity of these animals - the degree to which they can resolve fine detail - must be ascertained. Behavioural studies are few in number and anatomical analysis has largely focused on estimates of ganglion cell density to predict the visual acuity in coral reef fish. Here, we report visual acuity measures for the triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus. Acuity was first assessed using a series of behavioural paradigms and the figures were then contrasted with those obtained anatomically, based on photoreceptor and ganglion cell counts. Behavioural testing indicated an upper behavioural acuity of 1.75 cycles·degree(-1), which is approximately the same level of acuity as that of the goldfish (Carassiusauratus). Anatomical estimates were then calculated from wholemount analysis of the photoreceptor layer and Nissl staining of cells within the ganglion cell layer. Both of these anatomical measures gave estimates that were substantially larger (7.75 and 3.4 cycles·degree(-1) for the photoreceptor cells and ganglion cells, respectively) than the level of acuity indicated by the behavioural tests. This indicates that in this teleost species spatial resolution is poor compared to humans (30-70 cycles·degree(-1)) and it is also not well indicated by anatomical estimates. PMID:24401772

  13. The MISTRA Data: Forty-Two Mental Ability Tests in Three Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) was initiated in 1979 and continued until 2000. It consisted of 139 pairs of twins who had been separated in early childhood and not re-united until adulthood, and members of their families. As part of a broader assessment, these participants completed 42 mental ability tests from three well-known…

  14. Submitted for publication The Sex Difference on Mental Rotation Tests Is Not

    E-print Network

    Chabris, Christopher F.

    Submitted for publication The Sex Difference on Mental Rotation Tests Is Not Necessarily Christopher F. Chabris* Department of Psychology, Union College Peter T. Ellison Department of Anthropology, Harvard University Rogier A. Kievit Department of Psychological Methods, University of Amsterdam Stephen M

  15. Exploring the Flynn Effect in Mentally Retarded Adults by Using a Nonverbal Intelligence Test for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Mental Illness: Tests of the Social Causation and Selection Hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher G. Hudson

    2005-01-01

    This study tests several hypotheses about the underlying causal structure of the inverse correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and mental illness. It does this through the analysis of a longitudinal statewide database on acute psychiatric hospitalization in Massachusetts for the fiscal years 1994-2000 as well as supplemental census data. The modeling strategy used techniques of structural equation modeling and found

  17. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

  18. Screening for Significant Refractive Error Using a Combination of Distance Visual Acuity and Near Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Peiyao; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Qiangqiang; He, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effectiveness of using a series of tests combining near visual acuity (NVA) and distance visual acuity (DVA) for large-scale screenings for significant refractive error (SRE) in primary school children. Method Each participant underwent DVA, NVA and cycloplegic autorefraction measurements. SREs, including high myopia, high hyperopia and high astigmatism were analyzed. Cycloplegic refraction results were considered to be the gold standard for the comparison of different screening measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to compare the area under the curve (AUC) and the Youden index among DVA, NVA and the series combined tests of DVA and NVA. The efficacies (including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) of each test were evaluated. Only the right eye data of each participant were analysed for statistical purpose. Result A total of 4416 children aged 6 to 12 years completed the study, among which 486 students had right eye SRE (SRE prevalence rate = 11.01%). There was no difference in the prevalence of high hyperopia and high astigmatism among different age groups. However, the prevalence of high myopia significantly increased with the age (?˛ = 381.81, p<0.01). High hyperopia was the biggest SRE factor associated with amblyopia?p?0.01?OR = 167.40, 95% CI: 75.14?372.94). The DVA test was better than the NVA test for detecting high myopia (Z = 2.71, p<0.01), but the NVA test was better for detecting high hyperopia (Z = 2.35, p = 0.02) and high astigmatism (Z = 4.45, p<0.01). The series combined DVA and NVA test had the biggest AUC and the highest Youden Index for detecting high hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, as well as all of the SREs (all p<0.01). Conclusion The series combined DVA and NVA test was more accurate for detecting SREs than either of the two tests alone. This new method could be applied to large-scale SRE screening of children, aged 6 to 12, in areas that are less developed. PMID:25689600

  19. Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura

    Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

  20. A new source of variance in visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Joris E; van den Berg, Thomas J T P

    2004-04-01

    In an ocularly healthy population, decimal visual acuities range from 1 to 3. We wondered how this spread can be understood. Using a maximum likelihood adaptive procedure, "visual acuity" was measured in a healthy population with four stimulus sets: unblurred Landolt Cs and Cs blurred with a Gaussian of width sigma = 2.12', 4.24' and 8.48'. A simple model based on scale invariance of the visual system was applied. This model was tested by predicting the outcomes of the 2.12' measurements based on the other measurements. The minimum angle of resolution (MAR) values found are closely proportional to "equivalent blur" of the stimulus defined as the convolution of a value for intrinsic blur of the eye and added blur. The proportionality factor is different between individuals and is an important source for the spread in acuities found in a healthy population. The differences between the proportionality factors are interpreted as differences in the (neuronal) judgment capability between individuals. The total standard deviation of log(MAR) found in our study was 0.11. This value can be subdivided in 0.06 for the (neuronal) judgment capability, 0.08 for the intrinsic retinal blur and a measurement accuracy of 0.04. PMID:14992839

  1. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual acuity of adult zebrafish by assessing the optokinetic reflex. Using a modified commercially available optomotor device (OptoMotry®), virtual three-dimensional gratings of variable spatial frequency or contrast were presented to adult zebrafish. In a first experiment, visual acuity was evaluated by changing the spatial frequency at different angular velocities. Thereafter, contrast sensitivity was evaluated by changing the contrast level at different spatial frequencies. Results At the different tested angular velocities (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 d/s) and a contrast of 100%, visual acuity values ranged from 0.56 to 0.58 c/d. Contrast sensitivity measured at different spatial frequencies (0.011, 0.025, 0.5, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.55 c/d) with an angular velocity of 10 d/s and 25 d/s revealed an inverted U-shaped contrast sensitivity curve. The highest mean contrast sensitivity (±SD) values of 20.49?±?4.13 and 25.24?±?8.89 were found for a spatial frequency of 0.05 c/d (angular velocity 10 d/s) and 0.1 c/d (angular velocity 25 d/s), respectively. Conclusions Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements in adult zebrafish with the OptoMotry® device are feasible and reveal a remarkably higher VA compared to larval zebrafish and mice. PMID:22643065

  2. Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Linda; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Ayala, Diego B; Gorceix, Nicolas; Gustafsson, Jörgen; Unsbo, Peter; Artal, Pablo

    2007-10-01

    Retinal sampling poses a fundamental limit to resolution acuity in the periphery. However, reduced image quality from optical aberrations may also influence peripheral resolution. In this study, we investigate the impact of different degrees of optical correction on acuity in the periphery. We used an adaptive optics system to measure and modify the off-axis aberrations of the right eye of six normal subjects at 20 degrees eccentricity. The system consists of a Hartmann-Shack sensor, a deformable mirror, and a channel for visual testing. Four different optical corrections were tested, ranging from foveal sphero-cylindrical correction to full correction of eccentric low- and high-order monochromatic aberrations. High-contrast visual acuity was measured in green light using a forced choice procedure with Landolt C's, viewed via the deformable mirror through a 4.8-mm artificial pupil. The Zernike terms mainly induced by eccentricity were defocus and with- and against-the-rule astigmatism and each correction condition was successfully implemented. On average, resolution decimal visual acuity improved from 0.057 to 0.061 as the total root-mean-square wavefront error changed from 1.01 mum to 0.05 mum. However, this small tendency of improvement in visual acuity with correction was not significant. The results suggest that for our experimental conditions and subjects, the resolution acuity in the periphery cannot be improved with optical correction. PMID:19550533

  3. A new paradigm to induce mental stress: the Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST)

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages on a screen, interleaved with 1-min time intervals. The final message is that the participant should sing a song aloud after the interval has elapsed. Participants sit still during the whole procedure. We found that heart rate and skin conductance during the 1-min intervals following the sing-a-song stress message are substantially higher than during intervals following neutral messages. The order of magnitude of the rise is comparable to that achieved by the Trier Social Stress Test. Skin conductance increase correlates positively with experienced stress level as reported by participants. We also simulated stress detection in real time. When using both skin conductance and heart rate, stress is detected for 18 out of 20 participants, approximately 10 s after onset of the sing-a-song message. In conclusion, the Sing-a-Song Stress Test provides a quick, easy, controlled and potent way to induce mental stress and could be helpful in studies ranging from examining physiological effects of mental stress to evaluating interventions to reduce stress. PMID:25120425

  4. Effects of molting on the visual acuity of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jamie; Johnsen, Sönke

    2011-09-15

    In crustaceans with compound eyes, the corneal lens of each facet is part of the exoskeleton and thus shed during molting. Here we used an optomotor assay to evaluate the impact of molting on visual acuity (as measured by the minimum resolvable angle, ?(min)) in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found that visual acuity decreases substantially in the days prior to molting and is gradually recovered after molting. Four days prior to molting, ?(min) was 1.8 deg (N=5), a value approximating the best possible acuity in this species. In the 24 h before ecdysis occurred, ?(min) increased to 15.0 deg (N=12), corresponding to an eightfold drop in visual acuity. Within 6 days after molting, ?(min) returned to the pre-molting value. Micrographs of C. sapidus eyes showed that a gap between the corneal lens and the crystalline cone first appeared approximately 5 days prior to shedding and increased in width as the process progressed. This separation was likely responsible for the loss of visual acuity observed in behavioral tests. In blue crabs, mating is limited to the period of the female's pubertal molt, and a reduction in acuity during this time may have an effect on the sensory cues used in female mate choice. The results described here may be broadly applicable to all arthropods that molt and have particular importance for crustaceans that molt multiple times in their lifetime or have mating cycles that are paired with molting. PMID:21865518

  5. Contrast letter acuity as a visual component for the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. j. Balcer; Msce M. l. Baier; J. a. Cohen; M. f. Kooijmans; A. w. Sandrock; M. l. Nano-schiavi; Co D. c. Pfohl; Mscn M. Mills; Rn J. Bowen; C. Ford; F. r. Heidenreich; D. a. Jacobs; C. e. Markowitz; W. h. Stuart; G. s. Ying; S. l. Galetta; M. g. Maguire; G. r. Cutter

    Abstract—Background:,Visual dysfunction,is one of the most,common,causes,of disability in multiple,sclerosis (MS). The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), a new clinical trial outcome measure, does not currently include a test of visual,function. Objective: To examine,contrast,letter acuity,as a candidate,visual function,test for the MSFC. Methods: Binocular,contrast,letter acuity,testing (Sloan charts) was,performed,in a subgroup,of participants,from,the International Multiple Sclerosis Secondary,Progressive,Avonex,Controlled,Trial (IMPACT Substudy) and,in MS patients,and,disease- free control

  6. 21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a...

  9. Binocular training reduces amblyopic visual acuity impairment.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, B; Singh, P; Globa, A; Pearson, P

    2014-03-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual impairment. Patching, which is modestly effective, is the current treatment of amblyopia in children. There is no clinically approved treatment for adults. The present study is a clinical trial (non-sham controlled and non-randomized) that assessed the efficacy of binocular training for improvement of the visual acuity in children and adults with amblyopia. Twenty-two amblyopic subjects ranging in age from 5 to 73 (mean: 36.2) years for whom patching and/or surgical treatments did not correct their visual impairment completed an average of 14.5 sessions of binocular training over a period of 4 to 6 weeks. Random dot kinematograms were presented dichoptically to the two eyes and the participants' task was to identify the direction of motion of the targets. Mean visual acuity improvement was 0.34 LogMAR (range: 0.1-0.58 LogMAR) and was shown to persist 6 months following the cessation of binocular training. Our study provides results in a large number of patients that confirm the clinical effectiveness of binocular training as a treatment for amblyopia in improving visual acuity in both children and adults. Moreover, this study is the first to demonstrate that the improvements in visual function were maintained for 6 months in the absence of any additional treatment. PMID:24564723

  10. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaja K Aas; Kristian Tambs; Marit S Kise; Per Magnus; Kjersti S Rřnningen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about

  11. Development, item analysis, and initial reliability and validity of a multiple-choice knowledge of mental illnesses test for lay samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Compton; Dana Hankerson-Dyson; Beth Broussard

    2011-01-01

    The public's level of mental health literacy remains low, despite growing access to information regarding mental illnesses. Because few measures exist to assess the level of knowledge of mental illnesses in lay samples, the Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illnesses Test (MC-KOMIT) was developed, initially for use in a study involving police officers, some of whom received 40h of training focused

  12. The impact of acuity on performance of four clinical measures of contrast sensitivity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Neargarder, Sandy A; Stone, Erika R; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Oross, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of contrast sensitivity losses in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have yielded mixed findings, with some investigators reporting deficits and others not. Potential reasons for these discrepancies include differences between samples and assessments utilized and the failure of some investigators to account for acuity differences between groups. To investigate these issues, we administered four clinical contrast sensitivity assessments to the same group of AD patients and elderly control participants and examined the impact of acuity on performance for each assessment. Results revealed group differences across the spatial frequency range. Further, group acuity differences significantly affected performance on two of the four measures (the Regan and the Vistech but not on the Pelli-Robson or Freiburg assessments). Information regarding the availability of established age norms, test-retest reliability data, and other factors including the time, cost, and training needed to administer each measure is provided to aid clinicians and researchers in their search for an effective measure of contrast sensitivity. PMID:12496302

  13. [Schoolchildren's visual acuity in the dynamics of learning].

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    The results of the screening study of the acuity of schoolchildren between 7 and 17 years old living in Rostov Region of the Russian Federation are discussed in the article. The method of computer optometry was used to measure acuity. 93772 pupils, 48621 girls and 45151 boys, from 150 schools participated in this examination. It was found that there is sustained growth of those with low acuity (0,2 and less) among children of both sexes from junior group (7 years) to the senior (17). The signs of the decline in visual acuity among girls (14%) are manifested earlier than in boys (8%). The decline in visual acuity among 7-8-year-old children is about 3%. While comparing children from rural areas with those from big cities a true dependence of the parameter (acuity) on the factors (city and sex) was found. PMID:25617102

  14. Stream segregation with high spatial acuity

    PubMed Central

    Middlebrooks, John C.; Onsan, Zekiye A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial hearing is widely regarded as helpful in recognizing a sound amid other competing sounds. It is a matter of debate, however, whether spatial cues contribute to “stream segregation,” which refers to the specific task of assigning multiple interleaved sequences of sounds to their respective sources. The present study employed “rhythmic masking release” as a measure of the spatial acuity of stream segregation. Listeners discriminated between rhythms of noise-burst sequences presented from free-field targets in the presence of interleaved maskers that varied in location. For broadband sounds in the horizontal plane, target-masker separations of ?8° permitted rhythm discrimination with d????1; in some cases, such thresholds approached listeners’ minimum audible angles. Thresholds were the same for low-frequency sounds but were substantially wider for high-frequency sounds, suggesting that interaural delays provided higher spatial acuity in this task than did interaural level differences. In the vertical midline, performance varied dramatically as a function of noise-burst duration with median thresholds ranging from >30° for 10-ms bursts to 7.1° for 40-ms bursts. A marked dissociation between minimum audible angles and masking release thresholds across the various pass-band and burst-duration conditions suggests that location discrimination and spatial stream segregation are mediated by distinct auditory mechanisms. PMID:23231120

  15. Mini mental Parkinson test: standardization and normative data on an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alberto; Bagoj, Eriola; Monaco, Marco; Zabberoni, Silvia; De Rosa, Salvatore; Mundi, Ciro; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The mini mental Parkinson (MMP) is a test built to overcome the limits of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in the short-time screening of cognitive disorders in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In fact, in this scale, items tapping executive functioning are included to better capture PD-related cognitive changes. Some data sustain the sensitivity and validity of the MMP in the short neuropsychological screening of these individuals. Here, we report normative data on the MMP we collected on a sample of 307 Italian healthy subjects ranging from 40 to 91 years. The results document a detrimental effect of age and an ameliorative effect of education on the MMP total performance score. We provide for correction grids for age and literacy that derive from results of the regression analyses. Moreover, we also computed equivalent scores in order to allow a direct and fast comparison between the performance on the MMP and on other psychometric measures that can be administered to the subjects. PMID:23479031

  16. Impaired functional visual acuity of dry eye patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiki Goto; Yukiko Yagi; Yukihiro Matsumoto; Kazuo Tsubota

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report dry eye patients’ functional visual acuity, which was measured after sustained eye opening for 10–20 seconds, as a simulation of visual function of daily acts of gazing, which is defined as looking at an object with involuntary blink suppression.METHODS: Interventional clinical nonrandomized comparative trial. We measured ordinary best-corrected visual acuity and functional visual acuity in non-Sjögren’s syndrome

  17. Developing a reliable and valid scale to measure psychosocial acuity.

    PubMed

    Klett, Stacey; Firn, Janice; Abney, Nina; Battles, Alethia; Harrington, Jack; Vantine, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    This tool is a unique comprehensive scale and methodology to measure the psychosocial acuity of patients and families across a health care continuum. Coupled with other measures, psychosocial acuity can tell a complete and compelling story of social work contributions and aid in resource alignment. Accurately conveying the full scope of social work value to anyone, especially health system leadership, requires that the psychosocial acuity of the patient and family be measured and factored into the equation, along with productivity, time spent, and services provided. The development and utilization of the Psychosocial Acuity Tool is the focus of this publication. PMID:24835092

  18. Visual acuity in 5-7-year-old children: individual variability and dependence on observation distance.

    PubMed

    Rozhkova, Galina I; Podugolnikova, Tatiana A; Vasiljeva, Nadezhda N

    2005-01-01

    Accurate measurements of uncorrected binocular and monocular visual acuity were performed in 65 children aged 5-7 years at five viewing distances in the range 0.5-5.0 m by means of the test charts containing widely spaced E stimuli in four orientations. It was found that, in most children of this age, visual acuity (V) changed with test distance, as had been reported previously with older subjects. Visual acuity could be considered as practically independent of observation distance (Vmax-Vminacuity but the shape of the acuity-distance curve varied. The acuity-distance curve of most children peaked at an intermediate distance (1-2 m), the typical difference Vmax-Vmin being 0.4 decimal units. To explain the existence of an optimal observation distance in the majority of children, a number of developmental and environmental factors could be proposed that adjust the parameters of the visual system to the parameters of operational visual space and prevailing activity. PMID:15649185

  19. Flourishing in Life: An Empirical Test of the Dual Continua Model of Mental Health and Mental Illness among Canadian University Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Peter; Lance W Roberts; Jennifer Dengate

    2011-01-01

    In the conventional paradigm, mental health and illness exist on a single continuum where the emphasis is on the presence or absence of pathological outcomes. By contrast, a new theoretical framework recognizes and promotes a dual continua model where mental health is no longer the absence of mental illness. This new paradigm argues that mental health should be regarded as

  20. A Comparison of Patched HOTV Visual Acuity and Photoscreening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Rachel; Clausen, Michelle M.; Bates, Janice; Stark, Lee; Arnold, Koni K.; Arnold, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of significant vision problems in children is a high priority for pediatricians and school nurses. Routine vision screening is a necessary part of that detection and has traditionally involved acuity charts. However, photoscreening in which "red eye" is elicited to show whether each eye is focusing may outperform routine acuity

  1. Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Falkmer, Marita; Ordqvist, Anna; Leung, Denise; Foster, Jonathan K.; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  2. Cognitive mediation of rape's mental, physical and social health impact: Tests of four models in cross-sectional data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary P. Koss; Ronald J. Prince

    2002-01-01

    Four nested, theoretically specified, increasingly complex models were tested representing cognitive mediation of rape's effects on mental, physical, and social health. Data were cross-sectional ( N 253 rape survivors). Outcomes were standardized assessments of social maladjustment, physical, and psy- chological symptoms, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The best-fitting model was not fully cognitively mediated. Personological and rape characteristics influenced the

  3. On the Myth and the Reality of the Temporal Validity Degradation of General Mental Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Claims of changes in the validity coefficients associated with general mental ability (GMA) tests due to the passage of time (i.e., temporal validity degradation) have been the focus of an on-going debate in applied psychology. To evaluate whether and, if so, under what conditions this degradation may occur, we integrate evidence from multiple…

  4. An Educational Test of the Learning Potential Hypothesis with Adolescent Mentally Retarded Special Class Children, Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, M.

    To test the hypothesis that the amount learned from a manipulative, nonverbal oriented unit on electricity would be better predicted by a learning potential assessment procedure than from an IQ based classification (educable mentally retarded status), an EMR group and a regular class non EMR group were both exposed to the unit; untaught EMRs…

  5. The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity. PMID:24904478

  6. The development of a "reduced logMAR" visual acuity chart for use in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, D; Laidlaw, D; Murdoch, I

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—The advantages of logMAR acuity data over the Snellen fraction are well known, and yet existing logMAR charts have not been adopted into routine ophthalmic clinical use. As this may be due in part to the time required for a logMAR measurement, this study was performed to determine whether an abbreviated logMAR chart design could combine the advantages of existing charts with a clinically acceptable measurement time.?METHODS—The test-retest variability, agreement (with the gold standard), and time taken for "single letter" (interpolated) acuity measurements taken using three prototype "reduced logMAR" (RLM) charts and the Snellen chart were compared with those of the ETDRS chart which acted as the gold standard. The Snellen chart was also scored with the more familiar "line assignment" method. The subjects undergoing these measurements were drawn from a typical clinical outpatient population exhibiting a range of acuities.?RESULTS—The RLM A prototype chart achieved a test-retest variability of +/?0.24 logMAR compared with +/?0.18 for the ETDRS chart. Test-retest variability for the Snellen chart was +/?0.24 logMAR using clinically prohibitive "single letter" scoring increasing to +/?0.33 with the more usual "line assignment" method. All charts produced acuity data which agreed well with those of the ETDRS chart. "Single letter" acuity measurements using the prototype RLM charts were completed in approximately half the time of those taken using the ETDRS and Snellen charts. The duration of a Snellen "line assignment" measurement was not evaluated.?CONCLUSION—The RLM A chart offers an acceptable level of test-retest variability when compared with the gold standard ETDRS chart, while reducing the measurement time by half. Also, by allowing a faster, less variable acuity measurement than the Snellen chart, the RLM A chart can bring the benefits of logMAR acuity to routine clinical practice.?? PMID:11264133

  7. Constructive replication of the visual–perceptual-image rotation model in Thurstone's (1941) battery of 60 tests of mental ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Johnson; Thomas J. Bouchard

    2005-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relative statistical performance of the Cattell–Horn fluid–crystallized model and the Vernon verbal–perceptual model of the structure of human intelligence in a sample of 436 adults heterogeneous for age, place of origin, and educational background who completed 42 separate tests of mental ability from three test batteries. We concluded that the Vernon model's performance was substantively superior

  8. Developmental Change in the Acuity of Approximate Number and Area Representations

    PubMed Central

    Odic, Darko; Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2015-01-01

    From very early in life, humans can approximate the number and surface area of objects in a scene. The ability to discriminate between 2 approximate quantities, whether number or area, critically depends on the ratio between the quantities, with the most difficult ratio that a participant can reliably discriminate known as the Weber fraction. While developmental improvements in the Weber fraction have been demonstrated for number, the developmental trajectory of improvement in area discrimination remains unknown. Here we investigated whether the development of area discrimination parallels that of number discrimination. We tested forty 3- to 6-year-old children and adults in both a number and an area discrimination task in which participants selected the greater of 2 quantities across a range of ratios. We used formal psychophysical models to derive, for each participant and each age group, the Weber fraction for both number and area discrimination. We found that, like number acuity, area acuity steadily improves during childhood. However, we also found area acuity to be consistently higher than number acuity, suggesting a potential difference in the underlying mechanisms that encode and/or represent approximate area and approximate number. We discuss these findings in the context of quantity processing and its development. PMID:22889394

  9. The Frequency of Decreased Visual Acuity in Orbital Fractures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Joo Ho; Hwang, Kun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and evaluate the effect of orbital fractures (blowout fractures and nonblowout fractures) on visual acuity. In PubMed search and Scopus search, the terms "orbital fracture OR maxillofacial injury OR facial trauma OR craniofacial fracture," and "visual acuity OR functional outcome OR visual outcome OR improving document of visual acuity OR blindness OR optic nerve neuropathy" were used, which resulted in 1634 and 1152 papers, respectively. Of the 2226 titles excluding 560 duplicated titles, 227 abstracts were reviewed. Of the 227 abstracts reviewed, the authors found 56 potentially relevant full-text articles, of which 5 studies met our inclusion criteria. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals from each study were abstracted. The statistical analysis was performed with review manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre).A summary of 5 studies affirmed that 43 patients among 532 orbital fractures (8.1%) had decreased visual acuity. Twelve patients among 159 blowout fractures (7.5%) had decreased visual acuity. Thirty-one patients among 373 orbital fractures other than pure blowout fractures (8.3%) had decreased visual acuity. In orbital fractures other than pure blowout fractures, the frequency of decreased visual acuity was higher than pure blowout fractures (n?=?532, odds ratio, 2.23, 95% confidence interval?=?1.06-4.70). Surgeons should acknowledge this with patients before surgery. PMID:26114513

  10. Pilot test of cooperative learning format for training mental health researchers and black community leaders in partnership skills.

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Danielle J.; Brannock, Kristen; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Parrish, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    To support reduction of racial disparities in mental health diagnosis and treatment, mental health researchers and black community-based organization (CBO) leaders need training on how to engage in collaborative research partnerships. In this study, we pilot tested a series of partnership skills training modules for researchers and CBO leaders in a collaborative learning format. Two different sets of three modules, designed for separate training of researchers and CBO leaders, covered considering, establishing and managing mental health research partnerships and included instructions for self-directed activities and discussions. Eight CBO leaders participated in 10 sessions, and six researchers participated in eight sessions. The effectiveness of the training content and format was evaluated through standardized observations, focus group discussions, participant evaluation forms and retrospective pre-/posttests to measure perceived gains in knowledge. Participants generally were satisfied with the training experience and gained new partnership knowledge and skills. Although the CBO leaders were more engaged in the cooperative learning process, this training format appealed to both audiences. Pilot testing demonstrated that: 1) our modules can equip researchers and CBO leaders with new partnership knowledge and skills and 2) the cooperative learning format is a well-received and suitable option for mental health research partnership training. PMID:18229772

  11. Effects of retinal eccentricity and acuity on global motion processing

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Jeffrey D.; Bian, Zheng; Andersen, George J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed direction discrimination of moving random dot cinematograms (RDCs) at retinal eccentricities of 0, 8, 22 and 40 deg. In addition, Landolt C acuity was assessed at these eccentricities to determine whether changes in motion discrimination performance covaried with acuity in the retinal periphery. The results of the experiment indicated that discrimination thresholds increased with retinal eccentricity and directional variance (noise) independent of acuity. Psychophysical modeling indicated that the results of eccentricity and noise could be explained by an increase in channel bandwidth and an increase in internal multiplicative noise. PMID:22382583

  12. Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children‘s food texture preferences. PMID:22711981

  13. Menstrual effects on asymmetrical olfactory acuity.

    PubMed

    Purdon, S E; Klein, S; Flor-Henry, P

    2001-09-01

    Gender specific discrepancies on psychometric examination are often interpreted to reflect static differences in cerebral hemisphere specialization, but dynamic alterations relating to circulating gonadal hormones may also be relevant after puberty. The often cited inference of a right hemisphere advantage in males and left hemisphere advantage in females derived from small but reliable differences on spatial tasks and verbal tasks, for example, may to some extent relate to gender-specific differences in circulating gonadal hormones. Performance fluctuations on other higher order cognitive tasks through the menstrual cycle tend to support a temporal association between alterations in cerebral laterality and hormone fluctuations. A potential left hemisphere advantage after menstruation when estrogen and progesterone levels are high in contrast to a right hemisphere advantage at menstruation when estrogen and progesterone levels are low has also received support from shifts in visual field perception. The present investigation continues this line of work by measurement of prospective changes in unirhinal olfactory acuity in the menstrual, ovulatory, and midluteal phases of the menstrual cycle in 11 healthy women who agreed to blood assays of estradiol and progesterone prior to completing a modified version of the Connecticut Chemosensory Perception Exam (CCPE). The CCPE detection of n-butanol showed a clear pattern of changes over the menstrual cycle marked by an asymmetry favoring the right nostril during menstruation when estradiol and progesterone levels were low, an asymmetry favoring the left nostril during ovulation when estradiol levels were high and progresterone levels were low, and an absence of asymmetry during the midluteal phase when estradiol levels decreased and progesterone levels increased. Preliminary correlation analyses revealed a potential competitive influence of estradiol and progesterone on this apparent shift in cerebral laterality. There is thus sufficient evidence to conclude that dynamic changes in relative cerebral hemisphere advantages have a temporal relation to fluctuations in circulating gonadal hormones and to suggest the value of additional investigation of more specific causal relations. PMID:11575592

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Ultrafine spatial acuity of blind expert human echolocators

    E-print Network

    Whitney, David

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Ultrafine spatial acuity of blind expert human echolocators Santani Teng · Amrita Echolocating organisms represent their external environment using reflected auditory information from emitted. This first measure of functional spatial resolution in a population of expert echolocators demonstrates

  15. Tinted windshield and its effects on aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Arbab, Mehran

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, automobile designers are utilizing tinted glasses for concept cars, specialty models, or to differentiate their vehicles. The objective of this study was to assess whether alternating different tinted windshields would affect aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response. Two commercially available windshields (bluish and greenish with same transmittance) were compared. The tests of visual acuity, contrast threshold, glare detection, and discomfort glare rating were performed to address the windshield effects on both the older and younger populations. Fourteen elderly and seven young individuals participated in the study. The results indicated that alternating between the tested tinted windshields would not affect drivers' visual performance for both age groups. The implications and future research are discussed. PMID:20582251

  16. The MOS 36Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colleen A. McHorney; Ware John E. Jr; Anastasia E. Raczek

    1993-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) were analyzed to test the validity of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scales as measures of physical and mental health constructs. Results from traditional psychometric and clinical tests of validity were compared. Principal components analysis was used to test for hypothesized physical and mental health dimensions. For purposes of clinical

  17. Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

  18. Olfactory acuity in theropods: palaeobiological and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Therrien, François; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2008-01-01

    This research presents the first quantitative evaluation of the olfactory acuity in extinct theropod dinosaurs. Olfactory ratios (i.e. the ratio of the greatest diameter of the olfactory bulb to the greatest diameter of the cerebral hemisphere) are analysed in order to infer the olfactory acuity and behavioural traits in theropods, as well as to identify phylogenetic trends in olfaction within Theropoda. A phylogenetically corrected regression of olfactory ratio to body mass reveals that, relative to predicted values, the olfactory bulbs of (i) tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids are significantly larger, (ii) ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids are significantly smaller, and (iii) ceratosaurians, allosauroids, basal tyrannosauroids, troodontids and basal birds are within the 95% CI. Relative to other theropods, olfactory acuity was high in tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids and therefore olfaction would have played an important role in their ecology, possibly for activities in low-light conditions, locating food, or for navigation within large home ranges. Olfactory acuity was the lowest in ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids, suggesting a reduced reliance on olfaction and perhaps an omnivorous diet in these theropods. Phylogenetic trends in olfaction among theropods reveal that olfactory acuity did not decrease in the ancestry of birds, as troodontids, dromaeosaurids and primitive birds possessed typical or high olfactory acuity. Thus, the sense of smell must have remained important in primitive birds and its presumed decrease associated with the increased importance of sight did not occur until later among more derived birds. PMID:18957367

  19. Mechanism of Dynamic Visual Acuity Recovery With Vestibular Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Michael C.; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Allak, Amir; Carey, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine why dynamic visual acuity (DVA) improves after vestibular rehabilitation in people with vestibular hypofunction. Design Combined descriptive and intervention study. Setting Outpatient department in an academic medical institution. Participants Five patients (age, 42–66y) and 4 age-matched controls (age, 39–67y) were studied. Patients had vestibular hypofunction (mean duration, 177 ± 188d) identified by clinical (positive head thrust test, abnormal DVA), physiologic (reduced angular vestibulo-ocular reflex [aVOR] gain during passive head thrust testing), and imaging examinations (absence of tumor in the internal auditory canals or cerebellopontine angle). Intervention Vestibular rehabilitation focused on gaze and gait stabilization (mean, 5.0 ± 1.4 visits; mean, 66 ± 24d). The control group did not receive any intervention. Main Outcome Measures aVOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity) during DVA testing (active head rotation) and horizontal head thrust testing (passive head rotation) to control for spontaneous recovery. Results For all patients, DVA improved (mean, 51% ± 25%; range, 21%–81%). aVOR gain during the active DVA test increased in each of the patients (mean range, 0.7 ± 0.2 to 0.9 ± 0.2 [35%]). aVOR gain during passive head thrust did not improve in 3 patients and improved only partially in the other 2. For control subjects, aVOR gain during DVA was near 1. Conclusions Our data suggest that vestibular rehabilitation increases aVOR gain during active head rotation independent of peripheral aVOR gain recovery. PMID:18295629

  20. Effect of Myopic Defocus on Visual Acuity after Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation and Wavefront-guided Laser in Situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Kimiya; Igarashi, Akihito; Kawamorita, Takushi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of myopic defocus on visual acuity after phakic intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (wfg-LASIK). Our prospective study comprised thirty eyes undergoing posterior chamber phakic IOL implantation and 30 eyes undergoing wfg-LASIK. We randomly measured visual acuity under myopic defocus after cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic correction. We also calculated the modulation transfer function by optical simulation and estimated visual acuity from Campbell & Green’s retinal threshold curve. Visual acuity in the phakic IOL group was significantly better than that in the wfg-LASIK group at myopic defocus levels of 0, –1, and –2 D (p?test), but not at a defocus of –3 D (p?=?0.30). Similar results were also obtained in a cycloplegic condition. Decimal visual acuity values at a myopic defocus of 0, ?1, ?2, and -3 D by optical simulation were estimated to be 1.95, 1.21, 0.97, and 0.75 in the phakic IOL group, and 1.39, 1.11, 0.94, and 0.71 in the wfg-LASIK group, respectively. From clinical and optical viewpoints, phakic IOL implantation was superior to wfg-LASIK in terms of the postoperative visual performance, even in the presence of low to moderate myopic regression. PMID:25994984

  1. Testing the proclaimed affordances of online support groups in a nationally representative sample of adults seeking mental health assistance.

    PubMed

    DeAndrea, David C

    2015-01-01

    In this study, explanations for why people turn to the Internet for social support are tested using a nationally representative sample of adults who sought mental health support through a traditional treatment outlet, an in-person support group, or an online support group. Results indicate that the more adults report having social stigma concerns, the more likely they are to seek support online instead of help from an in-person support group or traditional treatment. Likewise, as the reported number of logistical barriers to mental health treatment increases, a corresponding increase occurs in the odds of adults seeking online support instead of traditional treatment. These findings as well as estimates of demographic variation in the use of online support are discussed. PMID:25116383

  2. Visual Acuity of Simulated Thalamic Visual Prostheses in Normally Sighted Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Ailsa; Pezaris, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Simulation in normally sighted individuals is a crucial tool to evaluate the performance of potential visual prosthesis designs prior to human implantation of a device. Here, we investigated the effects of electrode count on visual acuity, learning rate and response time in 16 normally sighted subjects using a simulated thalamic visual prosthesis, providing the first performance reports for thalamic designs. A new letter recognition paradigm using a multiple-optotype two-alternative forced choice task was adapted from the Snellen eye chart, and specifically devised to be readily communicated to both human and non-human primate subjects. Validation of the method against a standard Snellen acuity test in 21 human subjects showed no significant differences between the two tests. The novel task was then used to address three questions about simulations of the center-weighted phosphene patterns typical of thalamic designs: What are the expected Snellen acuities for devices with varying numbers of contacts, do subjects display rapid adaptation to the new visual modality, and can response time in the task provide clues to the mechanisms of perception in low-resolution artificial vision? Population performance (hit rate) was significantly above chance when viewing Snellen 20/200 optotypes (Log MAR 1.0) with 370 phosphenes in the central 10 degrees of vision, ranging to Snellen 20/800 (Log MAR 1.6) with 25 central phosphenes. Furthermore, subjects demonstrated learning within the 1–2 hours of task experience indicating the potential for an effective rehabilitation and possibly better visual performance after a longer period of training. Response time differences suggest that direct letter perception occurred when hit rate was above 75%, whereas a slower strategy like feature-based pattern matching was used in conditions of lower relative resolution. As pattern matching can substantially boost effective acuity, these results suggest post-implant therapy should specifically address feature detection skills. PMID:24086286

  3. Large State-Level Fluctuations in Mental Retardation Classifications Related to Introduction of Renormed Intelligence Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Matthew H.

    2006-01-01

    Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence…

  4. Identifying student mental models from their response pattern to a physics multiple-choice test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximiliano Jose Montenegro Maggio

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students present different misconceptions across different but similar physical situations, but the cause of these differences is still not clear. In this study, a novel analysis method was introduced to help to gain a better understanding of how different physical situations affect students' responses and learning. This novel analysis groups students into mental model groups

  5. Visual acuity thresholds of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): an electrophysiological approach.

    PubMed

    Bartol, Soraya Moein; Musick, John A; Ochs, Alfred L

    2002-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials measure dynamic properties of the visual system by recording transient electric responses of neural tissue identified to correspond to a specific visual stimulus, such as light or a striped grid. In this study, visual evoked potentials were used to test the visual acuity of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in water. Subject animals were fitted with a Plexiglas goggle filled with filtered seawater. Stimuli of black and white striped gratings were presented to the turtles using a slide projector directing an image onto a screen via a rotatable mirror that shifted the striped pattern laterally one-half cycle. Bioelectric activity was collected using a digital averaging computer and subdermal platinum electrodes, implanted under the head scutes directly above the optic nerve and the contralateral optic tectum. To isolate the response signal from the noise, signal averaging techniques were used when collecting visual evoked potentials. The resulting response waveforms included a robust positive-negative compound that was used to track the turtle's response to visual stimulation. Acuity thresholds for these sea turtles, which were derived from linear regressions analysis of the positive-negative compound amplitudes versus stripe size, ranged from 0.130 to 0.215. This acuity level is comparable to other inshore, shallow water marine species. PMID:11913813

  6. Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Eric R.; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A.; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein ?3 (GNB3), also known as transducin ?3 or G?3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of G?3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells. (Ritchey et al. 2010)FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by G?3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and G?3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus. PMID:22824538

  7. How well do you see what you hear? The acuity of visual-to-auditory sensory substitution

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Alastair; Brown, David J.; Meijer, Peter; Proulx, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) aim to compensate for the loss of a sensory modality, typically vision, by converting information from the lost modality into stimuli in a remaining modality. “The vOICe” is a visual-to-auditory SSD which encodes images taken by a camera worn by the user into “soundscapes” such that experienced users can extract information about their surroundings. Here we investigated how much detail was resolvable during the early induction stages by testing the acuity of blindfolded sighted, naďve vOICe users. Initial performance was well above chance. Participants who took the test twice as a form of minimal training showed a marked improvement on the second test. Acuity was slightly but not significantly impaired when participants wore a camera and judged letter orientations “live”. A positive correlation was found between participants' musical training and their acuity. The relationship between auditory expertise via musical training and the lack of a relationship with visual imagery, suggests that early use of a SSD draws primarily on the mechanisms of the sensory modality being used rather than the one being substituted. If vision is lost, audition represents the sensory channel of highest bandwidth of those remaining. The level of acuity found here, and the fact it was achieved with very little experience in sensory substitution by naďve users is promising. PMID:23785345

  8. Effects of distance and duration on vertical dynamic visual acuity in screening healthy adults and people with vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) testing may be a useful, indirect indicator of vestibulo-ocular reflex function. Previous evidence shows that acuity for 2 m targets differs little between patients and normals using a 75 ms display duration and that healthy subjects do not differ in acuity when standing and walking while viewing a far target but they do differ when viewing a near target. Objective Improve the protocol of a screening tool by testing the hypothesis that healthy control subjects and patients and with unilateral peripheral vestibular weakness differ on DVA when viewing far targets while seated. Methods Controls and patients were tested while they were seated in a chair that oscillated vertically at 2 Hz. They viewed a computer screen 4 m away, while stationary and while moving, with viewing times of either 75 ms or 500 ms. Results The amount of change between static and dynamic conditions did not differ significantly between patients and controls for the 75 ms condition but controls had lower difference scores than patients when using the 500 ms duration. The ROC value was low, 0.68. Compared to historical data using the 75 ms duration at a distance of 2 m, subjects in both diagnostic groups had better visual acuity at the 75 ms/ 4 m distance. Conclusions These results suggest that using the longer duration is better for differentiating patients from healthy controls and they support previous evidence showing that near target viewing is more challenging. PMID:24447968

  9. Human visual ecology and orientation anisotropies in acuity.

    PubMed

    Annis, R C; Frost, B

    1973-11-16

    The visual environment of Cree Indians from the east coast of James Bay, Quebec, is different from that of city-raised Euro-Canadians. So also are their corresponding orientation anisotropies in visual acuity. A Euro-Canadian sample exhibited the usual higher resolution for vertically and horizontally oriented gratings as compared with oblique orientations, while a Cree Indian sample did not. The most parsimonious explanation of these acuity differences is that orientation-specific detectors in humans are tuned by the early visual environment. PMID:4752214

  10. Monocular and binocular low-contrast visual acuity and optical coherence tomography in pediatric multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Amy T.; Hiremath, Girish; Avery, Robert A.; Conger, Amy; Pineles, Stacy L.; Loguidice, Michael J.; Talman, Lauren S.; Galetta, Kristin M.; Shumski, Michael J.; Wilson, James; Ford, E'tona; Lavery, Amy M.; Conger, Darrel; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Frohman, Elliot M.; Balcer, Laura J.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-contrast letter acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) capture visual dysfunction and axonal loss in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been proposed as secondary outcome metrics for therapeutic trials. Clinical trials will soon be launched in pediatric MS, but such outcome metrics have not been well-validated in this population. Objectives To determine whether MS onset during childhood and adolescence is associated with measurable loss of visual acuity and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), whether such features are noted only in the context of clinical optic nerve inflammation (optic neuritis, ON) or are a feature of MS even in the absence of optic nerve relapses, and to define the optimal methods for such detection. Study design Cross-sectional study Methods Monocular and binocular high- and low-contrast letter acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed in a cross-sectional cohort of children (ages 5 to 17 years) with MS (N=22 patients, 44 eyes; 8 patients with a history of ON) and disease-free controls (N=29 patients; 58 eyes) from three academic centers. Binocular summation was determined by calculating the number of letters correctly identified using the binocular score minus the better eye score for each visual test. RNFL thickness was measured using OCT (Stratus OCT-3). Results were analyzed in terms of “eyes” as: MS ON+, MS ON?, and control eyes. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to compare patients to controls. Results Traditional high-contrast visual acuity scores did not differ between MS ON+, MS ON?, and controls eyes. MS ON+ eyes had decreased monocular (p<0.001) and decreased binocular (p=0.007) low-contrast letter acuity (Sloan 1.25% contrast charts) scores. Monocular visual acuity did not differ when comparing MS ON? and control eyes. The magnitude of binocular summation using low-contrast charts was similar for pediatric MS participants and controls and was not diminished in children with a history of ON. While the mean RNFL thickness for all MS eyes (103±17 ?m) trended lower when compared to corresponding measures in control eyes (109±9 ?m, p=0.085), we confirmed a highly significant reduction in mean RNFL thickness in MS eyes with a history of ON (86±22 ?m, p<0.001). RNFL thickness of MS ON? eyes in pediatric MS patients (109±11 ?m) did not differ from controls (p=0.994). Conclusions Low-contrast letter acuity detects subtle visual loss in MS patients with prior ON, consistent with incomplete recovery, a finding further supported by RNFL loss in ON affected eyes. In MS patients with prior unilateral ON, binocular acuity is decreased; however, the magnitude of binocular summation is preserved, unlike adult-onset MS who exhibit a reduced capacity for visual compensation in the context of unilateral injury. Also unlike findings in adult-onset MS, we did not demonstrate RNFL thinning in ON? eyes of children and adolescents with MS. Further validation is required to confirm whether neurodegeneration of visual pathways occurs in the absence of relapse, and thus whether OCT will serve as a sensitive metric for such pathology in the pediatric and adolescent MS context. PMID:24683535

  11. Visual Acuity’s Association with Levels of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark W; Bodner, Eric; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the affect of reduced vision on physical activity in older adults. This study evaluates the association of visual acuity level, self-reported vision and ocular disease conditions with leisure-time physical activity and calculated caloric expenditure. A cross sectional study of 911 subjects 65 yr and older from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging (SOA) cohort was conducted evaluating the association of vision-related variables to weekly kilocalorie expenditure calculated from the 17-item Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate possible associations controlling for potential confounders. In multivariate analyses, each lower step in visual acuity category below 20/50 was significantly associated with reduced odds of having a higher level of physical activity OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67, 0.97. Reduced visual acuity appears to be independently associated with lower levels of physical activity among community-dwelling adults. PMID:21945888

  12. The Ocular Trauma Score as a Method for the Prognostic Assessment of Visual Acuity in Patients with Close Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Serdarevic, Raif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic injuries of the eye are the most common cause of loss of visual function. In our study we performed Ocula Trauma Score (OTS). We compared with the values of visual acuity of injury and thus get an accurate model for determining the prognostic value of the final visual acuity before treatment of the patient. This model is a reliable test for both the ophthalmologist and the patient. Aim of study: The aim of this study was to show the socioepidemiological and demographic profile, as well as the most common mechanism in ophthalmic injuries, so to determine the final visual acuity and assessment and evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of ocular trauma score (OTS), and most importantly to determine the prognostic value final visual acuity after eye injuries. Material and Method: We conducted a clinical-epidemiological, retrospective-prospective study at the Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre University in Sarajevo in the period 2009-2011. A sample of 124 patients with diagnosed closed of eye injuries were recruited. We applied Classifying Closed Globe Injury, performed Calculating the OTS and convert of total raw points into % chance of vision outcomes. Results: Comparison of age groups by gender shows that there is no statistically significant (x2 = 5.155; p = 0.2718). Of the total number of closed eye injuries (N = 124) at the admission from groups D and E with the worst vision were 29 patients (23.38%), in group C had low visual acuity of 20 (16.12%), in group B the mean visual acuity 33 (26.61%), and in group A well-preserved visual acuity 42 (33.87%) patients. On the demission patients with well-preserved visual function was 84 (67.74%), with a medium of visual function 10 (80.64%), while the poorer visual function was 4 (3.225%) and 7 (5.645%) patients had a sense of light and projections and 1 (0.8%) patient had lost visual acuity-amaurosis. 18 (14:51%) patients did not take their eyesight due to a fresh post-operative recovery. Conclusion: Data on each patient are based on the possibility of such characteristics of the mechanism of injuries presentation of vision at the beginning of disease, injury and zones relative afferent pupillary defect possibility assumptions what will be with the vision postoperatively. PMID:26005272

  13. Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: Localization Acuity Measured with Minimum

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: Localization Acuity Measured with Minimum Audible Angle participated, 13 with BI cochlear implants (cochlear implant co- chlear implant), ranging in age from 3 to 16 yrs, and six with a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear (cochlear implant hearing aid), ages 4 to 14

  14. On Using Vernier Acuity to Assess Magnocellular Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skottun, Bernt C.; Skoyles, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study [Keri, S., & Benedek, G. (2009). Visual pathway deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers: A potential endophenotype. "Brain and Cognition", 69, 291-295] has found Vernier acuity deficiencies together with contrast sensitivity defects consistent with a magnocellular deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers. This may…

  15. Emmetropisation, squint, and reduced visual acuity after treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Ingram; P. E. Arnold; S. Dally; J. Lucas

    1991-01-01

    In a sample of children used to assess the value of optical correction of hypermetropia from the age of 6 months the refraction of the most hypermetropic meridian frequently became less than 3.5 D as the children grew. When this occurred, the incidence of squint was significantly less (p less than 0.001) and the last known acuity after treatment was

  16. Rapid Improvement in the Acuity of Infants After Visual

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Daphne M.

    of all patterned visual input by cataracts in one or both eyes until they were treated at 1 week to 9 acuity of infants who had been deprived of patterned visual input by dense central cataracts in one (n 16 of the cataractous lens, leaving the eye with no means to focus images. A few days to a few weeks after surgery

  17. From innervation density to tactile acuity 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul B. Brown; Ronald Millecchia; Jeffrey J. Lawson; Alan G. Brown; H. Richard Koerber; James Culberson; Stephanie Stephens

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dorsal horn laminae III–IV cell receptive fields (RFs) are initially established in three steps: cutaneous axons penetrate the dorsal horn near their rostrocaudal (RC) levels of entry into the spinal cord. Their terminal branches distribute mediolaterally (ML) according to their relative distoproximal RF locations on the leg, and form nonselective synapses with nearby dorsal horn

  18. Visual acuity losses in pigeons with lesions of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal that disrupt the adaptive regulation of choroidal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Hodos, W; Miller, R F; Ghim, M M; Fitzgerald, M E; Toledo, C; Reiner, A

    1998-01-01

    Choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in birds is regulated by a neural circuit whose components are the retina, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the medial division of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWM), the ciliary ganglion, and the choriod. We have previously shown that lesions of EWM appear to result in pathological alterations in the retina. To determine whether EWM lesions also lead to altered visual functions, we have examined the effects of EWM lesions on visual acuity in pigeons. Bilateral lesions of EWM were made electrolytically, and visual acuity for high-contrast, square-wave gratings was determined behaviorally about 1 year later and compared to that of a group of pigeons that had received sham lesions of EW about 1 year prior to acuity testing. Because lesions targeting EWM invariably resulted in damage to the adjoining lateral part of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWL), which controls pupillary constriction and accommodation, two additional control groups were studied. In one such control group, bilateral lesions in the area pretectalis (AP), which innervates the pupillary control part of EWL and thereby controls pupillary constriction, were made and the effects on visual acuity determined about 1 year later. In the second such control group, the effects of acute accommodative and pupillary dysfunction on acuity were studied in pigeons made cycloplegic. The accuracy of all lesions was later confirmed histologically. The mean acuities of birds with AP lesions (9.1+/-1.4 cycles/deg) and sham lesions (7.1+/-1.5 cycles/deg) were not significantly different from normal, based on published normative data on pigeons. In contrast, pigeons with lesions that completely destroyed EW bilaterally showed visual acuity (2.7+/-0.1 cycles/deg) that was well below the acuity of the sham and AP-lesion control groups. The acuity of the cycloplegic pigeons (4.8+/-0.3 cycles/deg) and one pigeon with a nearly complete bilateral EWL but a unilateral EWM lesion (6.4 cycles/deg) indicated that only about half of the loss with a bilateral EW lesion could be attributed to accommodative dysfunction. Thus, bilateral destruction of EWM appears to have led to a loss in visual acuity. This conclusion suggests that disruption of adaptive neural regulation of ChBF may impair visual function. Destruction of EWM was, however, associated with damage to the somatic components of the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. The possibility cannot be excluded that such damage also contributed to the acuity loss. PMID:9605529

  19. Organizational justice and mental health: a multi-level test of justice interactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald; Abubakar, Amina; Arasa, Josephine Nyaboke

    2014-04-01

    We examine main and interaction effects of organizational justice at the individual and the organizational levels on general health in a Kenyan sample. We theoretically differentiate between two different interaction patterns of justice effects: buffering mechanisms based on trust versus intensifying explanations of justice interactions that involve psychological contract violations. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model with responses from 427 employees in 29 organizations, only interpersonal justice at level 1 demonstrated a significant main effect. Interactions between distributive and interpersonal justice at both the individual and the collective levels were found. The intensifying hypothesis was supported: the relationship between distributive justice and mental health problems was strongest when interpersonal justice was high. This contrasts with buffering patterns described in Western samples. We argue that justice interaction patterns shift depending on the economic conditions and sociocultural characteristics of employees studied. PMID:24811881

  20. Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naďve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.

    PubMed

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2009-05-01

    Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naďve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naďve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth. PMID:18680639

  1. Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Enrique J.; Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M.; Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision. PMID:23761846

  2. Fundamental Causes of Housing Loss among Persons Diagnosed with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: A Theoretically Guided Test

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, Russell K.; Goldfinger, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on housing loss among severely mentally ill persons who have been placed in housing after being homeless has been largely atheoretical and has yielded inconsistent results. We develop a theory of housing loss based on identifying fundamental causes—problems in motives, means and social situation—and test these influences in a longitudinal, randomized comparison of housing alternatives. As hypothesized, individuals were more likely to lose housing if they had a history of alcohol or drug abuse, desired strongly to live independently contrary to clinician recommendations, or were African Americans placed in independent housing. Deficits in daily functioning did not explain these influences, but contributed to risk of housing loss. Our results demonstrate the importance of substance abuse, the value of distinguishing support preferences from support needs, and the necessity of explaining effects of race within a social context and thus should help to improve comparative research. PMID:20161654

  3. Ultrafine spatial acuity of blind expert human echolocators

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Amrita; Whitney, David

    2013-01-01

    Echolocating organisms represent their external environment using reflected auditory information from emitted vocalizations. This ability, long known in various non-human species, has also been documented in some blind humans as an aid to navigation, as well as object detection and coarse localization. Surprisingly, our understanding of the basic acuity attainable by practitioners—the most fundamental underpinning of echoic spatial perception—remains crude. We found that experts were able to discriminate horizontal offsets of stimuli as small as ~1.2° auditory angle in the frontomedial plane, a resolution approaching the maximum measured precision of human spatial hearing and comparable to that found in bats performing similar tasks. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between echolocation acuity and age of blindness onset. This first measure of functional spatial resolution in a population of expert echolocators demonstrates precision comparable to that found in the visual periphery of sighted individuals. PMID:22101568

  4. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  5. Psychiatrists’ views of the genetic bases of mental disorders and behavioral traits and their utilization of genetic tests

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Kristopher J.; Chung, Wendy; Marder, Karen; Ottman, Ruth; Taber, Katherine Johansen; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined how 372 psychiatrists view genetic aspects of mental disorders and behaviors, and use genetic tests (GTs). Most thought the genetic contribution was moderate/high for several disorders (e.g. bipolar, schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer’s, intelligence, creativity, anxiety, suicidality). In the past 6 months, 14.1% ordered GTs, 18.3% discussed prenatal testing with patients, 36.0% initiated discussions about other GTs, 41.6% had patients ask about GTs, and 5.3% excluded GT results from patient records. Many thought that GTs were available for schizophrenia (24.3%) and major depression (19.6%). Women were more likely to report that patients asked about GTs; and were less certain about the degree of genetic contribution to several disorders. Psychiatrists perceive strong genetic bases for numerous disorders and traits; and many have discussed and ordered tests for GTs; but have relatively little knowledge about available tests. These data suggest possible gender differences in psychiatrist’s beliefs about genetic contributions to disorders; and have implications for future research, education, policy, and care. PMID:24933415

  6. Spatial acuity of honeybee vision and its spectral properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Srinivasan; M. Lehrer

    1988-01-01

    1.In a series of behavioural experiments designed to measure spatial acuity, freely-flying honeybees were trained to discriminate between a horizontal and a vertical grating in a Y-shaped, dual-tunnel apparatus (Fig. 1). Each grating was placed at the entrance to a tunnel, and one of the gratings carried a reward of sugar solution. After training, the spatial frequency of the two

  7. Development of Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Leat, Susan J.; Yadav, Naveen K.; Irving, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of visual development have concentrated on visual development of infants. Only a few studies have extended this to children and determined the point at which visual function becomes truly adult-like. Yet from a clinical and research perspective it is important to know this. This review paper is a discussion of the development of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity into childhood. Methods The literature on subjective (measured with preferential looking or psychophysical methods) and objective (visually-evoked potential) measures of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity was examined with particular emphasis on studies of children over the age of 5 years and those articles that compared different age groups and those that made a comparison with adults. Results Visual acuity was found to be fully mature between the ages of 5 and the mid teenage years, while contrast sensitivity was found to mature fully between the ages of 8 to 19 years. Thus, there is still no clear answer to the fundamental question of when these basic aspects of visual function mature, but it may be later than previously thought. Conclusions Further studies are needed to answer this basic question more precisely and objective measures, such as VEP, may be able to answer this question better than psychophysical methods.

  8. Understanding Low-Acuity Visits to the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Farion, Ken J.; Wright, Megan; Zemek, Roger; Neto, Gina; Karwowska, Anna; Tse, Sandra; Reid, Sarah; Jabbour, Mona; Poirier, Stephanie; Moreau, Katherine A.; Barrowman, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Canadian pediatric emergency department visits are increasing, with a disproportionate increase in low-acuity visits locally (33% of volume in 2008-09, 41% in 2011-12). We sought to understand: 1) presentation patterns and resource implications; 2) parents’ perceptions and motivations; and 3) alternate health care options considered prior to presenting with low-acuity problems. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study at our tertiary pediatric emergency department serving two provinces to explore differences between patients with and without a primary care provider. During four, 2-week study periods over 1 year, parents of low-acuity visits received an anonymous survey. Presentation times, interventions, diagnoses and dispositions were captured on a data collection form linked to the survey by study number. Results Parents completed 2,443 surveys (74.1% response rate), with survey-data collection form pairs available for 2,146 visits. Overall, 89.7% of respondents had a primary care provider; 68% were family physicians. Surprisingly, 40% of visits occurred during weekday office hours and 27.3% occurred within 4 hours of symptom onset; 67.5% of those early presenters were for injuries. Few parents sought care from their primary care provider (25%), health information line (20.7%), or urgent care clinic (18.5%); 36% reported that they believed their child’s problem required the emergency department. Forty-five percent required only a history, physical exam and reassurance; only 11% required an intervention not available in an office setting. Patients without a primary care provider were significantly more likely to present during weekday office hours (p = 0.003), have longer symptom duration (p<0.001), and not know of other options (p = 0.001). Conclusions Many parents seek pediatric emergency department care for low-acuity problems despite their child having a primary care provider. Ensuring timely access to these providers may help reduce pediatric emergency department overuse. Educational initiatives should inform parents about low-acuity problems and where appropriate care can/should be accessed. PMID:26083338

  9. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  10. A Test Battery for Assessing the Vocational Competency of Moderately Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, William A.

    1978-01-01

    The study involving 61 moderately retarded Ss (16-41 years old) was designed to develop a battery of tests that would predict the vocational competency of moderately retarded Ss in a sheltered workshop program. (SBH)

  11. Significant others of persons with mental health problems: the testing of a questionnaire on the burden of significant others.

    PubMed

    Magne-Ingvar, Ulla; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2005-01-01

    The importance of family and friends for patients with mental health problems has been recognized over the past few years. Significant others (SO) of patients admitted to a psychiatric ward specializing in affective disorders and suicide prevention filled in a self-rating questionnaire concerning their burden as SOs, the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ). The aims of this study were twofold: first, to test whether the questionnaire IEQ was applicable in psychiatric services in Sweden and second, to relate the IEQ results to socio-demographic data and diagnosis of the patients, and also to the situation of the SOs. We found the questionnaire useful. Nearly half of the SOs had difficulties in accepting and handling the patient's psychiatric problems. More than half had been worried that the patient was going to harm him/herself and because of this had kept close watch on the patient. Almost all SOs worried about the patient's general health and future. Most of them felt obliged to intervene in the patient's activities of daily living. More than half worried about the kind of medical and psychological treatment the patient was receiving. Most SOs concluded that they were burdened by their engagement in the patient. Our results were compared with a European study of schizophrenic patients also investigated with the IEQ. The comparison indicated that the perceived burden on SOs of these different kinds of psychiatric patients can be equally burdensome. SOs need information, help and support in their difficult support role. This questionnaire could be useful in finding new routines for increasing the involvement by SOs in the treatment of patients with mental health problems. PMID:16316896

  12. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  13. Effectiveness of exome and genome sequencing guided by acuity of illness for diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Soden, Sarah E.; Saunders, Carol J.; Willig, Laurel K.; Farrow, Emily G.; Smith, Laurie D.; Petrikin, Josh E.; LePichon, Jean-Baptiste; Miller, Neil A.; Thiffault, Isabelle; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Twist, Greyson; Noll, Aaron; Heese, Bryce A.; Zellmer, Lee; Atherton, Andrea M.; Abdelmoity, Ahmed T.; Safina, Nicole; Nyp, Sarah S.; Zuccarelli, Britton; Larson, Ingrid A.; Modrcin, Ann; Herd, Suzanne; Creed, Mitchell; Ye, Zhaohui; Yuan, Xuan; Brodsky, Robert A.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) affect more than 3% of children and are attributable to single-gene mutations at more than 1000 loci. Traditional methods yield molecular diagnoses in less than one-half of children with NDD. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) can enable diagnosis of NDD, but their clinical and cost-effectiveness are unknown. One hundred families with 119 children affected by NDD received diagnostic WGS and/or WES of parent-child trios, wherein the sequencing approach was guided by acuity of illness. Forty-five percent received molecular diagnoses. An accelerated sequencing modality, rapid WGS, yielded diagnoses in 73% of families with acutely ill children (11 of 15). Forty percent of families with children with nonacute NDD, followed in ambulatory care clinics (34 of 85), received diagnoses: 33 by WES and 1 by staged WES then WGS. The cost of prior negative tests in the nonacute patients was $19,100 per family, suggesting sequencing to be cost-effective at up to $7640 per family. A change in clinical care or impression of the pathophysiology was reported in 49% of newly diagnosed families. If WES or WGS had been performed at symptom onset, genomic diagnoses may have been made 77 months earlier than occurred in this study. It is suggested that initial diagnostic evaluation of children with NDD should include trio WGS or WES, with extension of accelerated sequencing modalities to high-acuity patients. PMID:25473036

  14. Effectiveness of exome and genome sequencing guided by acuity of illness for diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Soden, Sarah E; Saunders, Carol J; Willig, Laurel K; Farrow, Emily G; Smith, Laurie D; Petrikin, Josh E; LePichon, Jean-Baptiste; Miller, Neil A; Thiffault, Isabelle; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Twist, Greyson; Noll, Aaron; Heese, Bryce A; Zellmer, Lee; Atherton, Andrea M; Abdelmoity, Ahmed T; Safina, Nicole; Nyp, Sarah S; Zuccarelli, Britton; Larson, Ingrid A; Modrcin, Ann; Herd, Suzanne; Creed, Mitchell; Ye, Zhaohui; Yuan, Xuan; Brodsky, Robert A; Kingsmore, Stephen F

    2014-12-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) affect more than 3% of children and are attributable to single-gene mutations at more than 1000 loci. Traditional methods yield molecular diagnoses in less than one-half of children with NDD. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) can enable diagnosis of NDD, but their clinical and cost-effectiveness are unknown. One hundred families with 119 children affected by NDD received diagnostic WGS and/or WES of parent-child trios, wherein the sequencing approach was guided by acuity of illness. Forty-five percent received molecular diagnoses. An accelerated sequencing modality, rapid WGS, yielded diagnoses in 73% of families with acutely ill children (11 of 15). Forty percent of families with children with nonacute NDD, followed in ambulatory care clinics (34 of 85), received diagnoses: 33 by WES and 1 by staged WES then WGS. The cost of prior negative tests in the nonacute patients was $19,100 per family, suggesting sequencing to be cost-effective at up to $7640 per family. A change in clinical care or impression of the pathophysiology was reported in 49% of newly diagnosed families. If WES or WGS had been performed at symptom onset, genomic diagnoses may have been made 77 months earlier than occurred in this study. It is suggested that initial diagnostic evaluation of children with NDD should include trio WGS or WES, with extension of accelerated sequencing modalities to high-acuity patients. PMID:25473036

  15. Comparison of the performance of the CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION bleeding risk scores in STEMI undergoing primary PCI: insights from a cohort of 1391 patients

    PubMed Central

    Couto-Mallón, D; Rodríguez-Garrido, J; García-Guimaraes, M; Gargallo-Fernández, P; Pińón-Esteban, P; Aldama-López, G; Salgado-Fernández, J; Calvińo-Santos, R; Vázquez-González, N; Castro-Beiras, A

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To compare the performance of the CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION risk models in the ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Methods: We studied all consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI at our institution between 2006 and 2010 (n=1391). The CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION risk scores were calculated based on the patients’ clinical characteristics. The occurrence of in-hospital major bleeding (defined as the composite of intracranial or intraocular bleeding, access site haemorrhage requiring intervention, reduction in haemoglobin ?4 g/dl without or ?3g/dl with overt bleeding source, reoperation for bleeding, or blood transfusion) reached 9.8%. Calibration and discrimination of the three risk models were evaluated by the Hosmer?Lemeshow test and the C-statistic, respectively. We compared the predictive accuracy of the risk scores by the DeLong non-parametric test. Results: Calibration of the three risk scores was adequate, given the non-significant results of Hosmer?Lemeshow test for the three risk models. Discrimination of CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION models was good (C-statistic 0.77, 0.70, and 0.78, respectively). The CRUSADE and ACTION risk scores had a greater predictive accuracy than the ACUITY-HORIZONS risk model (z=3.89, p-value=0.0001 and z=3.51, p-value=0.0004, respectively). There was no significant difference between the CRUSADE and ACTION models (z=0.63, p=0.531). Conclusions: The CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION scores are useful tools for the risk stratification of bleeding in STEMI treated by PPCI. Our findings favour the CRUSADE and ACTION risk models over the ACUITY-HORIZONS risk score. PMID:24062930

  16. A PCR-based test suitable for screening for fragile X syndrome among mentally retarded males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana A. Haddad; Regina C. Mingroni-Netto; Angela M. Vianna-Morgante; Sérgio D. J. Pena

    1996-01-01

    Ever since the identification of the genetic cause of fragile X syndrome as the expansion of an unstable trinucleotide sequence,\\u000a several diagnostic strategies have evolved from molecular studies. However, we still lack a simple test suitable for population\\u000a screening. We have therefore developed a nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique for the identification\\u000a of fragile X full mutations among men,

  17. Comparing frontal and lateral viewing in the pigeon. I. Tachistoscopic visual acuity as a function of distance.

    PubMed

    Bloch, S; Martinoya, C

    1982-07-01

    Pigeon's visual acuity has mainly been tested in free viewing conditions so that the direction of gaze could not be controlled. In order to be able to compare the resolving power of the two retinal areas of higher cellular density--the area dorsalis in the red field with frontal binocular projection and the fovea centralis with lateral monocular projection--a method of behavioural fixation was used. This method consists in a forced pecking schedule and a tachistocopic presentation of the stimulus. The pigeon has to discriminate the orientation (vertical, positive; horizontal, negative) of square gratings of increasing spatial frequency. Tests were done with the stimuli appearing 25 degrees below the beak for frontal and 80 degrees back from the beak for lateral viewing, at distances of 10, 20, 40 and 80 cm for each direction. Results show that while frontal acuity decreases with distance, lateral acuity increases with distance. These psychophysical data confirm previous dioptric measurements done on frozen eyes, showing that the pigeon is myopic in the frontal field and hyperopic in the lateral field. Pigeons seem to be well adapted for visually guided frontal tasks at near distances (feeding, landing) and for visually guided lateral tasks at far distances (warning). PMID:7115567

  18. Good Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Mental Health > Good mental health Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en espańol ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and mental health Sleep and mental health Stress ...

  19. Factors affecting visual acuity after one year of follow up after repeated intravitreal ranibizumab for macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gwyn Samuel; Seow, Eulee; Evans, Huw; Owoniyi, Muyiwa; Evans, Sam; Blyth, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Aim Providing intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age related macular degeneration (nARMD) is a source of increasing strain for many UK eye departments. Whilst most units attempt to adhere to the product licence of following up patients at four weekly intervals; delays in follow up appointments can and do occur. We aim to see if mean follow up intervals during the maintenance phase are correlated with visual outcomes at one year and perform a multivariate analysis of patient factors in a bit to understand the factors affecting visual acuity outcomes. Method A continuously updated prospective audit of patients receiving ranibizumab therapy at the Royal Gwent Hospital was accessed and a coefficient of determination and Spearman’s rank test undertaken to see whether mean follow up delays resulted in visual acuity penalties after nine months of maintenance. Multivariate analysis using ANOVA was then undertaken to examine in more detail the various factors affecting visual acuity outcomes. Results 805 eyes of 708 patients were included in the study. Mean follow up intervals varied between 28.0 and 96.3 days over the first six treatments of the maintenance phase (mean 49.2 – SD 10.7) with a mean change in visual acuity from baseline of +7.1 letters at 12 weeks and +4.6 letters at 52 weeks. There was a negative correlation seen between visual acuity gains after nine months of the maintenance phase and increasing clinic follow up times although Spearman’s rank analysis demonstrated a correlation coefficient of only ?0.078, which was not statistically significant. Variability in follow up appointments resulting in worse outcomes was however significant (p < 0.01), as was increasing age at presentation (p = 0.04). Smoking was found to decrease age of presentation by six years (74.2 years vs 80.0 years). The adjusted R2 for the whole analysis was 0.44. Conclusion Wide variation in follow up intervals was associated with a worse visual acuity outcome although longer mean follow up interval was not. Smokers presented at a significantly younger age than non-smokers or ex-smokers. This was a large study with an adjusted R2 of 0.44. The results are relevant to other macular degeneration service providers around the world. PMID:26155076

  20. Dynamic Visual Acuity While Walking in Normals and Labyrinthine-Deficient Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, Edward J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Cohen, Helen S.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new, objective, easily administered test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) while walking. Ten normal subjects and five patients with histories of severe bilateral vestibular dysfunctions participated in this study. Subjects viewed a visual display of numerals of different font sizes presented on a laptop computer while they stood still and while they walked on a motorized treadmill. Treadmill speed was adapted for 4 of 5 patients. Subjects were asked to identify the numerals as they appeared on the computer screen. Test results were reasonably repeatable in normals. The percent correct responses at each font size dropped slightly while walking in normals and dropped significantly more in patients. Patients performed significantly worse than normals while standing still and while walking. This task may be useful for evaluating post-flight astronauts and vestibularly impaired patients.

  1. [Study of stereoscopic visual acuity, by using the color anaglyph method].

    PubMed

    Vakurin, E A; Vakurina, A E; Kashchenko, T P; Seleznev, A V

    2009-01-01

    A method is proposed to study stereoscopic visual acuity (SVA) by means of the test objects designed by the computer program Adobe Photoshop CS 2 (version 9, 2005). Each test object contains 3-4 silhouette figures made on the principle of color anaglyphs with varying degrees of transverse disparity. The capacity of an examinee of correctly showing on the display screen the sequence of the layout for the figures in depth with a minimal disparity determines its SVA. The authors propose to consider a disparity of 30 seconds of angle as a unit of SVA. The results of SVA examination using the proposed method (when the same object is demonstrated) do not depend on the site of figures on the screen and on the distance between the examinee and the monitor. PMID:20143539

  2. Changes in brain morphology in albinism reflect reduced visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Holly; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Davies, George; Chambers, Claire; Gouws, Andre; Hoffmann, Michael; Morland, Antony B

    2014-07-01

    Albinism, in humans and many animal species, has a major impact on the visual system, leading to reduced acuity, lack of binocular function and nystagmus. In addition to the lack of a foveal pit, there is a disruption to the routing of the nerve fibers crossing at the optic chiasm, resulting in excessive crossing of fibers to the contralateral hemisphere. However, very little is known about the effect of this misrouting on the structure of the post-chiasmatic visual pathway, and the occipital lobes in particular. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness in a large cohort of subjects with albinism showed an increase in cortical thickness, relative to control subjects, particularly in posterior V1, corresponding to the foveal representation. Furthermore, mean cortical thickness across entire V1 was significantly greater in these subjects compared to controls and negatively correlated with visual acuity in albinism. Additionally, the group with albinism showed decreased gyrification in the left ventral occipital lobe. While the increase in cortical thickness in V1, also found in congenitally blind subjects, has been interpreted to reflect a lack of pruning, the decreased gyrification in the ventral extrastriate cortex may reflect the reduced input to the foveal regions of the ventral visual stream. PMID:23039995

  3. Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  4. [The drop of visual acuity with distance and visual fatigue (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sawires, W

    1979-12-01

    Using a new apparatus which enables us to measure in a continual manner the visual acuity for any distance; we have found considerable changes in the acuity between 24 metres and 10 centimetres. A drop in the visual acuity was found at the near vision. From dioptric and non-dioptric factors, we have infered our interpretation, which touches the question of visual fatigue and near vision. PMID:536574

  5. Specifying and Testing a Multi-Dimensional Model of Publicness: An Analysis of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

    E-print Network

    Merritt, Cullen

    2014-05-31

    abuse treatment facilities collected from the 2011 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) provides the basis for conducting a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In addition, interviews with 21 senior managers of mental...

  6. Is the Male Advantage in Mental-Rotation Performance Task Independent? On the Usability of Chronometric Tests and Paper-and-Pencil Tests in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a reanalysis of the data of 862 second and fourth graders collected in two previous studies, focusing on the influence of method (psychometric vs. chronometric) and stimulus type on the gender difference in mental-rotation accuracy. The children had to solve mental-rotation tasks with animal pictures, letters, or cube…

  7. The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

  8. How olfactory acuity affects the sensory assessment of boar fat: a proposal for quantification.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Johanna; Gertheiss, Jan; Wicke, Michael; Mörlein, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Due to animal welfare concerns the production of entire male pigs is one viable alternative to surgical castration. Elevated levels of boar taint may, however, impair consumer acceptance. Due to the lack of technical methods, control of boar taint is currently done using sensory quality control. While the need for control measures with respect to boar taint has been clearly stated in EU legislation, no specific requirements for selecting assessors have yet been documented. This study proposes tests for the psychophysical evaluation of olfactory acuity to key volatiles contributing to boar taint. Odor detection thresholds for androstenone and skatole are assessed as well as the subject's ability to identify odorants at various levels through easy-to-use paper smell strips. Subsequently, fat samples are rated by the assessors, and the accuracy of boar taint evaluation is studied. Considerable variation of olfactory performance is observed demonstrating the need for objective criteria to select assessors. PMID:24976560

  9. Activity-dependent transcription of BDNF enhances visual acuity during development.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Neil; Schohl, Anne; Ruthazer, Edward S

    2011-05-12

    In the developing Xenopus tadpole, conditioning with 20 min of visual stimulation leads to increased proBDNF protein levels in the tectum measured 4 hr later. Following conditioning, the ability to induce direction selectivity in tectal neurons, as well as both retinotectal long-term potentiation and depression, thought to underlie this phenomenon, was strongly facilitated. This facilitation was blocked by knockdown of BDNF expression in tectal neurons. Animals that had been exposed to visual conditioning and subsequently received normal visual input for 7-11 hr exhibited higher spatial frequency thresholds of tectal cell responses to counterphasing gratings than nonconditioned control animals. An improvement in visual acuity was confirmed by enhanced sensitivity to counterphasing gratings in a behavioral test. These results indicate that brief sensory stimulation, by initiating nuclear transcription and de novo protein synthesis of BDNF, can facilitate the refinement of response properties in the developing visual system. PMID:21555072

  10. Media Coverage of Youth Suicides and Its Impact on Paediatric Mental Health Emergency Department Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Stephanie L.; Cloutier, Paula; BéLair, Marc-André; Cappelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine mental health (MH) presentations to the emergency department (ED) of a paediatric hospital following two highly publicized local teen suicides. Methods: Youths aged 12–18 years with a MH chief complaint and/or diagnosis were included. Differences in frequencies were analyzed using chi-square tests, and relative risks were evaluated using generalized linear modelling. Results: Significant increases in the number of ED presentations were found within the months of the publicized suicides compared to the same months of previous years. No differences were found in symptom acuity, suicidal status and psychiatric hospitalization rates. Significant increases were found in relative risk of presenting to the ED 28 and 90 days post both publicized suicides. Conclusions: Results suggest there was an association between highly publicized suicides and an increase in the number of MH presentations to the local paediatric ED. Considerations of media's potentially positive role in MH awareness are needed. PMID:25410699

  11. Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish

    PubMed Central

    Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian; Piffer, Laura; Bahrami, Bahador; Petrazzini, Maria Elena Miletto; Agrillo, Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for more than a century that interacting people can generally achieve more accurate decisions than single individuals. Here we show that interacting guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) achieve a superior level of numerosity discrimination well beyond the average ability of the isolated individual fish. This enhancement of numerical acuity was observed in dyadic interactions when (Experiment 1) the dyad chose which larger shoal of guppies to join and when (Experiment 2) the dyad chose the higher or the lower numerosity among two decision options after having learned the task individually. Dyadic accuracy and that of the more competent member of each dyad matched closely, supporting the hypothesis that meritocratic leadership arises spontaneously between dyadically interacting fish, rather than the ‘many wrongs' principle that has been used to explain group superiority in many species. PMID:24691116

  12. [Proposal for a modified method of semantic differential diagnosis in testing for stereotyping of the mentally ill patient].

    PubMed

    Bak, O

    2000-01-01

    In the paper, a proposal of using the semantic differential (by Osgood) for the research on social perception of mentally ill is presented. It allows for investigation of the basic attributes of the stereotype of psychiatric patient: social character, evaluative aspect, simplification, over-generalization of the opinion and its stiffness. The article presents the pilot results coming from the research in a group of students of psychology (first year of studying), who had no lectures in psychiatry by that time (N = 149). The results lead to the conclusion that the picture of mentally ill has social character, that is--some of its attributes are common for a majority of responders (over 77%). They also confirm (with a high certainty--coming to 79%) that most of mentally ill persons (64-80%) are unpredictable, lost, difficult to understand, introvert, unconscious, not self-possessed, excitable, threatening, aggressive and violent. The results show that in the portrait of mentally ill negative attributes are in majority. This portrait--so one-sided and negative--can be one of the basic predictores of social rejection of mentally ill persons. PMID:11202021

  13. An investigation of the relation between sibilant production and somatosensory and auditory acuity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Matthies, Melanie L.; Maas, Edwin; Hanson, Alexandra; Tiede, Mark; Ménard, Lucie; Guenther, Frank H.; Lane, Harlan; Perkell, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between auditory acuity, somatosensory acuity and the magnitude of produced sibilant contrast was investigated with data from 18 participants. To measure auditory acuity, stimuli from a synthetic sibilant continuum ([s]-[?]) were used in a four-interval, two-alternative forced choice adaptive-staircase discrimination task. To measure somatosensory acuity, small plastic domes with grooves of different spacing were pressed against each participant’s tongue tip and the participant was asked to identify one of four possible orientations of the grooves. Sibilant contrast magnitudes were estimated from productions of the words ‘said,’ ‘shed,’ ‘sid,’ and ‘shid’. Multiple linear regression revealed a significant relation indicating that a combination of somatosensory and auditory acuity measures predicts produced acoustic contrast. When the participants were divided into high- and low-acuity groups based on their median somatosensory and auditory acuity measures, separate ANOVA analyses with sibilant contrast as the dependent variable yielded a significant main effect for each acuity group. These results provide evidence that sibilant productions have auditory as well as somatosensory goals and are consistent with prior results and the theoretical framework underlying the DIVA model of speech production. PMID:21110603

  14. Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

  15. The Optokinetic Response as a Quantitative Measure of Visual Acuity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Donald Joshua; Rassamdana, Faydim; Tam, Peony; Dang, Kathleen; Yanez, Carolina; Ghaemmaghami, Saman; Dehkordi, Mahsa Iranpour

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish are a proven model for vision research, however many of the earlier methods generally focused on larval fish or demonstrated a simple response. More recently adult visual behavior in zebrafish has become of interest, but methods to measure specific responses are new coming. To address this gap, we set out to develop a methodology to repeatedly and accurately utilize the optokinetic response (OKR) to measure visual acuity in adult zebrafish. Here we show that the adult zebrafish's visual acuity can be measured, including both binocular and monocular acuities. Because the fish is not harmed during the procedure, the visual acuity can be measured and compared over short or long periods of time. The visual acuity measurements described here can also be done quickly allowing for high throughput and for additional visual procedures if desired. This type of analysis is conducive to drug intervention studies or investigations of disease progression. PMID:24145465

  16. The Eye Phone Study: reliability and accuracy of assessing Snellen visual acuity using smartphone technology.

    PubMed

    Perera, C; Chakrabarti, R; Islam, F M A; Crowston, J

    2015-07-01

    PurposeSmartphone-based Snellen visual acuity charts has become popularized; however, their accuracy has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the equivalence of a smartphone-based visual acuity chart with a standard 6-m Snellen visual acuity (6SVA) chart.MethodsFirst, a review of available Snellen chart applications on iPhone was performed to determine the most accurate application based on optotype size. Subsequently, a prospective comparative study was performed by measuring conventional 6SVA and then iPhone visual acuity using the 'Snellen' application on an Apple iPhone 4.ResultsEleven applications were identified, with accuracy of optotype size ranging from 4.4-39.9%. Eighty-eight patients from general medical and surgical wards in a tertiary hospital took part in the second part of the study. The mean difference in logMAR visual acuity between the two charts was 0.02 logMAR (95% limit of agreement -0.332, 0.372 logMAR). The largest mean difference in logMAR acuity was noted in the subgroup of patients with 6SVA worse than 6/18 (n=5), who had a mean difference of two Snellen visual acuity lines between the charts (0.276 logMAR).ConclusionWe did not identify a Snellen visual acuity app at the time of study, which could predict a patients standard Snellen visual acuity within one line. There was considerable variability in the optotype accuracy of apps. Further validation is required for assessment of acuity in patients with severe vision impairment. PMID:25931170

  17. Mental pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Janet

    1905-01-01

    Discusses the direction taken and the developments made in the investigation of mental pathology, in the area of pathological psychology. The study of oscillations of mind brought to light by pathological psychology, call attention to the neglected phenomena of fatigue, sleep, emotions, various forms of intoxication, and neuropathic disorders. The modifications of mental states illustrated by semi-normal, semi-pathological conditions of

  18. Clinical vision characteristics of the congenital achromatopsias. I. Visual acuity, refractive error, and binocular status.

    PubMed

    Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G; Schneck, M E; Verdon, W A; Hewlett, S E

    1996-07-01

    Visual acuity, refractive error, and binocular status were determined in 43 autosomal recessive (AR) and 15 X-linked (XL) congenital achromats. The achromats were classified by color matching and spectral sensitivity data. Large interindividual variation in refractive error and visual acuity was present within each achromat group (complete AR, incomplete AR, and XL). However, the number of individuals with significant interocular acuity differences is very small. Most XLs are myopic; ARs show a wide range of refractive error from high myopia to high hyperopia. Acuity of the AR and XL groups was very similar. With-the-rule astigmatism of large amount is very common in achromats, particularly ARs. There is a close association between strabismus and interocular acuity differences in the ARs, with the fixating eye having better than average acuity. The large overlap of acuity and refractive error of XL and AR achromats suggests that these measures are less useful for differential diagnosis than generally indicated by the clinical literature. PMID:8843124

  19. Are there rapid feedback effects on Approximate Number System acuity?

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Humans are believed to be equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitude. Correlations between individual measures of the precision of the ANS and mathematical ability have raised the question of whether the precision can be improved by feedback training. A study (DeWind and Brannon, 2012) reported improvement in discrimination precision occurring within 600–700 trials of feedback, suggesting ANS malleability with rapidly improving acuity in response to feedback. We tried to replicate the rapid improvement in a control group design, while controlling for the use of perceptual cues. The results indicate no learning effects, but a minor constant advantage for the feedback group. The measures of motivation suggest that feedback has a positive effect on motivation and that the difference in discrimination is due to the greater motivation of participants with feedback. These results suggest that at least for adults the number sense may not respond to feedback in the short-term. PMID:23781191

  20. [History of instrumental measuring of hearing acuity: the first acumeter].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1992-09-01

    The necessity of measuring the acuity of hearing in a reproducible way arose for the first time when the invention of Volta's pile in 1800 seemed to present the opportunity of curing deafness. For this purpose Chr. H. Wolke in Jever, Northern Germany, in 1802 devised two instruments which he called "acumeter". Details of these instruments were hardly known, and Wolke's publication was believed to be lost. The author has now succeeded in tracing Wolke's publication and another associated paper by J. J. A. Sprenger. Hence, the circumstances of Wolke's and Sprenger's work and details of these first acumeters are now being published together with original figures and the correct dimensions of the instruments. The acumeters had a pendulum-like hammer that would strike against a plate swinging down from varying heights that could be read in degrees of angle from a scale. One of the instruments was made of wood. It was 1.50 m high, with the pendulum raised to the maximal position 2.70 m. The other instrument of similar construction was made of metal and about half the size of the first one, with a height of 0.70 m or 1.30 m respectively. For comparison Itard's acumeter is presented which was published in 1821. It worked on the same principle, and it is likely that Itard had been inspired by Wolke's paper. The development of mechanical acumeters after Wolke's and Itard's instruments is outlined briefly. PMID:1388477

  1. Traumatic optic neuropathy: facial CT findings affecting visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ramachandra P; Bodanapally, Uttam K; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Van der Byl, Giulia; Dreizin, David; Katzman, Lee; Shin, Robert Kang

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between admission visual acuity (VA) and facial computed tomographic (CT) findings of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON). We retrospectively evaluated CT findings in 44 patients with TON. Mid-facial fractures, extraconal and intraconal hematomas, hematomas along the optic nerve and the posterior globe, optic canal fracture, nerve impingement by optic canal fracture fragment, and extraconal and intraconal emphysema were evaluated. CT variables of patients with and without available VA were compared. VA was converted into logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) to provide a numeric scale for the purpose of statistical analysis. The risk factors related to poor VA on univariate analysis were as follows: intraconal hematoma [median logMAR -4.7 versus -1.15, p?=?0.016] and hematoma along the optic nerve [median -4.7 versus -1.3, p?=?0.029]. Intraconal hematoma was the best predictor of poor VA (coefficient, 1.01; SE, 0.34; and p?=?0.008). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the presence of intraconal hematoma and hematoma along the optic nerve predicted poor VA (logMAR of -3.7 or lower) with an area under the curve of 0.8 and 0.85, respectively. TON patients at higher risk of severe visual impairment may be identified based on admission facial CT. PMID:25563705

  2. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  3. The Flex Track: Flexible Partitioning between Low- and High-Acuity Areas of an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Laker, Lauren F.; Froehle, Craig M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Ward, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective EDs with both low- and high-acuity treatment areas often have fixed allocation of resources, regardless of demand. We demonstrate the utility of discrete-event simulation to evaluate flexible partitioning between low- and high-acuity ED areas to identify the best operational strategy for subsequent implementation. Methods A discrete-event simulation was used to model patient flow through a 50-bed, urban, teaching ED that handles 85,000 patient visits annually. The ED has historically allocated ten beds to a Fast Track for low-acuity patients. We estimated the effect of a Flex Track policy, which involved switching up to five of these Fast Track beds to serving both low- and high-acuity patients, on patient waiting times. When the high-acuity beds were not at capacity, low-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Otherwise, high-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Wait times were estimated for patients by disposition and emergency severity index (ESI) score. Results A Flex Track policy using three flexible beds produced the lowest mean patient waiting of 30.9 (95% CI 30.6–31.2) minutes. The typical Fast Track approach of rigidly separating high- and low–acuity beds produced a mean patient wait time of 40.6 (95% CI 40.2–50.0) minutes, 31% higher than the three-bed Flex Track. A completely flexible ED, where all beds can accommodate any patient, produced mean wait times of 35.1 (95% CI 34.8–35.4) minutes. The results from the three-bed Flex Track scenario were robust, performing well across a range of scenarios involving higher and lower patient volumes and care durations. Conclusion Using discrete-event simulation, we have shown that adding some flexibility into bed allocation between low- and high-acuity can provide substantial reductions in overall patient waiting and a more efficient ED. PMID:24954578

  4. Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals' experience of interacting with the healthcare system has significant impact on their overall health and well-being. To relate patients' experiences to a common set of standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of health system responsiveness. This study aimed to assess if the WHO responsiveness concept reflected the non-medical expectations of mental healthcare users in Teheran. Methods In this qualitative study, four mixed focus group discussions were formed, comprising 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Content analysis was performed for data analysis. Responses were examined in relation to the eight domains of the WHO's responsiveness model. Results There were many commonalities between the findings of this study and the eight domains of the WHO responsiveness model, although some variations were found. Effective care was a new domain generated from our findings. In addition, the domain of prompt attention was included in two new labelled domains: attention and access to care. Participants could not differentiate autonomy from choice of healthcare provider, believing that free choice is part of autonomy. Therefore these domains were unified under the name of autonomy. The domains of quality of basic amenities, access to social support, dignity and confidentiality were considered to be important for the responsiveness concept. Some differences regarding how these domains should be defined were observed, however. Conclusions The results showed that the concept of responsiveness developed by the WHO is applicable to mental health services in Iran. These findings might help policy-makers' better understanding of what is useful for the improvement of mental health services. PMID:22115499

  5. The Relationship of the Purpose in Life (PIL) Test to the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test Scores, and Grade Point Averages of High School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Martin; Elinor M. Martin

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present project was to determine the degree of correlation between the PIL and (a) the Time Competency (TC) scale of the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), (b) the Inner-directed (I) scale of the POI, (c) IQ scores of high school students who took the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test, Form L-M, and (d) grade point average (GPA) of

  6. What Is Mental Health?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  7. Mental Health Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Mental health conditions Mental health conditions Most teens have a lot to deal ... Taking care of your mental health What are mental health disorders? top Mental health disorders are a group ...

  8. Associations of Anisometropia with Unilateral Amblyopia, Interocular Acuity Difference and Stereoacuity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ciner, Elise; Cyert, Lynn; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relation of anisometropia with unilateral amblyopia, interocular acuity difference (IAD) and stereoacuity, among Head Start preschoolers, using both clinical notation and vector notation analyses. Design Multicenter, cross-sectional study. Participants 3- to 5-year-old participants in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study (N=4040). Methods Secondary analysis of VIP data from participants who had comprehensive eye examinations including monocular visual acuity (VA) testing, stereoacuity testing, and cycloplegic refraction. VA was retested with full cycloplegic correction when retest criteria were met. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as IAD ?2 lines in logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR). Anisometropia was defined as ?0.25 D (diopter) difference in spherical equivalent (SE) or in cylinder power, and also two approaches using power vector notation. The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity were compared between anisometropic and isometropic children. Main Outcomes Measures The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity. Results Compared with isometropic children, anisometropic children had a higher percentage of unilateral amblyopia (8% vs. 2%), larger mean IAD (0.07 vs. 0.05 logMAR) and worse mean stereoacuity (145 vs.117 arc sec) (all p<0.0001). Larger amounts of anisometropia were associated with higher percentages of unilateral amblyopia, larger IAD, and worse stereoacuity (trend p<0.001). Percentage of unilateral amblyopia was significantly increased with spherical equivalent (SE) anisometropia >0.5 D, cylindrical anisometropia >0.25 D, the vertical/horizontal meridian (J0) or oblique meridian (J45) >0.125 D, or vector dioptric distance (VDD) >0.35 D (all p<0.001). VDD had higher ability in detecting unilateral amblyopia than cylinder, SE, J0 and J45 (p<0.001). Conclusions The presence of and amount of anisometropia were associated with the presence of unilateral amblyopia, larger IAD and worse stereoacuity. The threshold level of anisometropia at which unilateral amblyopia becomes significant was lower than current guidelines. VDD is more accurate than spherical equivalent anisometropia or cylindrical anisometropia in identifying preschoolers with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:23174398

  9. Visual acuity and quality of life outcomes in patients with cataract in Shunyi County, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jialiang Zhao; Ruifang Sui; Lijan Jia; Astrid E Fletcher; Leon B Ellwein

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure visual acuity and vision-related quality of life in individuals in rural China operated on for cataract.METHODS: Five thousand fifty-two persons age 50 years and older, 90.9% (5,052\\/5,555) of a randomly selected population in Shunyi County, were examined in the fall of 1996. Visual functioning and quality of life questionnaires were administered to those with presenting visual acuity

  10. Development and Testing of Criteria for the Identification and Selection of Mentally Handicapped Students for Vocational Programs [and] A Review of Related Literature Concerning Components of Systems and Studies That Impact on Identification and Selection of EMRs and Slow Learners for Vocational Programs [and] VERT: Vocational Education Readiness Test. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shill, James F.; And Others

    A project was developed to (1) utilize a steering committee for project planning, review, and evaluation; (2) catalog, review, and analyze systems and studies that impact on identification/selection of mentally handicapped and slow learners for vocational programs; (3) design tests involving vocational skill prediction for use with mentally

  11. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    PubMed Central

    Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

  12. Plasticity of binocularity and visual acuity are differentially limited by nogo receptor.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Chan, Leanne L H; Parivash, Sherveen N; Dorton, Hilary M; Piechowicz, Mariel; Qiu, Shenfeng; McGee, Aaron W

    2014-08-27

    The closure of developmental critical periods consolidates neural circuitry but also limits recovery from early abnormal sensory experience. Degrading vision by one eye throughout a critical period both perturbs ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex and impairs visual acuity permanently. Yet understanding how binocularity and visual acuity interrelate has proven elusive. Here we demonstrate the plasticity of binocularity and acuity are separable and differentially regulated by the neuronal nogo receptor 1 (NgR1). Mice lacking NgR1 display developmental OD plasticity as adults and their visual acuity spontaneously improves after prolonged monocular deprivation. Restricting deletion of NgR1 to either cortical interneurons or a subclass of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons alters intralaminar synaptic connectivity in visual cortex and prevents closure of the critical period for OD plasticity. However, loss of NgR1 in PV neurons does not rescue deficits in acuity induced by chronic visual deprivation. Thus, NgR1 functions with PV interneurons to limit plasticity of binocularity, but its expression is required more extensively within brain circuitry to limit improvement of visual acuity following chronic deprivation. PMID:25164659

  13. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    PubMed

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children. PMID:25478752

  14. Changes in Near Visual Acuity of Over Time in the Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taiym, Wafa; Wear, Mary L.; Locke, James; Mason, Sara; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that visual impairment due to intracranial pressure (VIIP) would increase the rate of which presbyopia would occur in the astronaut population, with long durations flyers at an especially high risk. Presbyopia is characterized as the gradual loss of near visual acuity overtime due to a loss in ability to accommodate. It generally develops in the mid-40s and progresses until about age 65. This analysis considered annual vision exams conducted on active NASA astronauts with spaceflight experience currently between the ages of 40 to 60 years of age. Onset of presbyopia was characterized as a shift of at least 20 units on the standard Snellen test from one annual exam to the next. There were 236 short duration and 48 long duration flyers, the majority of whom did experience onset of presbyopia between age 40 and 60. This shift however, did not necessarily come after spaceflight. In comparing the short and long duration flyers the mean age of onset was 47 years old (SD+/-3.7). The mean of onset within the general population is 45 to 47 years old [1, 2]. The mean age of the onset of presbyopia as compared to the general population indicates that space flight does not induce early development of presbyopia.

  15. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... mail.nih.gov Share Science News About Women’s Mental Health Soldiers at High Suicide Risk after Hospitalization NIMH ...

  16. Can measures of sound localization acuity be related to the precision of absolute location estimates?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jordan M.; Tollin, Daniel J.; Yin, Tom C.T.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of sound localization use relative or absolute psychoacoustic paradigms. Relative tasks assess acuity by determining the smallest angle separating two sources that subjects can discriminate, the minimum audible angle (MAA), whereas absolute tasks measure subjects’ abilities to indicate sound location. It is unclear whether or how measures from the two tasks are related, though the belief that the MAA is specifically related to the precision of absolute localization is common. The present study aimed to investigate the basis of this relationship by comparing the precision of absolute location estimates with a measure of spatial acuity computed from the same data. Three cats were trained to indicate apparent sound source locations that varied in azimuth and elevation via orienting gaze shifts (combined eye and head movements). The precision of these absolute responses, as measured by their standard deviation, was compared with acuity thresholds derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of the cumulative distributions. Surprisingly, the acuity measures were occasionally very poor indicators of absolute localization precision. Incongruent results were attributed to errors in mean accuracy, which are disregarded in analyses of traditional relative tasks. Discussion focuses on the potential for internal biases to affect measures of localization acuity. PMID:18178351

  17. Near Visual Acuity Following Hyperopic Photorefractive Keratectomy in a Presbyopic Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Leccisotti, Antonio; Grills, Claire; Moore, Tara C. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess near visual acuity in a presbyopic age group following hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Setting. Private practice in Siena, Italy. Methods. In this retrospective single-surgeon comparative study, PRK with mitomycin C was performed to correct hyperopia using Bausch & Lomb 217z laser for 120 eyes of 60 patients in the presbyopic age group (mean spherical equivalent SE +2.38?D?±?0.71?D and mean age 52 ± 5.09). 120 eyes of 60 age-matched controls (mean age 54 ± 5.09) had their unaided near vision measured. Results. At 12 months mean SE was ?0.10?D ±?0.27?D in the PRK group. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.005 ± 0.022? log?MAR; 2 eyes lost ?0.1 log?MAR. Mean uncorrected visual acuity was 0.04 ± 0.077? log?MAR. Mean distance corrected near visual acuity (DCNVA) in the PRK group was J3.73 ± 1.06. This was statistically better (P < 0.05) than the mean unaided near visual acuity in the control group J4.07 ± 1.08. Conclusion. PRK was found to be safe, predictable, and an effective way of correcting hyperopia in this age group. It was also found to give better than expected near vision. PMID:24555123

  18. A randomized controlled trial undertaken to test a nurse-led weight management and exercise intervention designed for people with serious mental illness who take second generation antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Foster, Kim; Buettner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background Weight gain and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population with the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome reaching 20–25% of the global population. People with serious mental illness are at even higher risk, particularly those taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Design An experimental randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Method The control group received a 12-week healthy lifestyle booklet. In addition to the booklet, the intervention group received weekly nutrition and exercise education, exercise sessions, and nurse support. Participants (n = 101) were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Data were collected between March 2008–December 2010. Seven outcome measures were used: body measurements included girth (cm), weight (kg), height (cm), and body mass index (kg/m2); questionnaires included the medication compliance questionnaire, the Drug Attitude Inventory, the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36. Differences in primary outcome measures between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were compared between intervention and control groups using standard bi-variate statistical tests. The study was conducted between 2008–2010. Results The analysis of outcome measures for the control group (n = 50) and intervention group (n = 51) was not statistically significant. There was a mean weight change of ?0·74 kg at 12 weeks for the intervention group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 50) had a mean weight change of ?0·17 kg at 12 weeks. Conclusion The results were not statistically significant. PMID:22973945

  19. Racial Discrimination Through Mental Testing: A Social Critic's Point of View. IRCD Bulletin, No. 42, May 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuda, Ronald J.

    This paper, based on a book on the assessment of minority students, is a critical review of the research done heretofore on intelligence testing. It deals with such issues as: the social criticism of testing through numerous lawsuits, court rulings, and in the positions taken by the Association of Black Psychologists and the American Personnel and…

  20. Socioeconomic composition of low-acuity emergency department users in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    VanStone, Nancy A.; Belanger, Paul; Moore, Kieran; Caudle, Jaelyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the associations between the socioeconomic status of emergency department (ED) users and age, sex, and acuity of medical conditions to better understand users’ common characteristics, and to better meet primary and ambulatory health care needs. Design A retrospective, observational, population-based analysis. A rigorous proxy of socioeconomic status was applied using census-based methods to calculate a relative deprivation index. Setting Ontario. Participants All Ontario ED visits for the fiscal year April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System data set. Main outcome measures Emergency department visits were ranked into deprivation quintiles, and associations between deprivation and age, sex, acuity at triage, and association with a primary care physician were investigated. Results More than 25% of ED visits in Ontario were from the most deprived population; almost half of those (12.3%) were for conditions of low acuity. Age profiles indicated that a large contribution to low-acuity ED visits was made by young adults (aged 20 to 30 years) from the most deprived population. For the highest-volume ED in Ontario, 94 of the 499 ED visits per day were for low-acuity patients from the most deprived population. Most of the highest volume EDs in Ontario (more than 200 ED visits per day) follow this trend. Conclusion Overall input into EDs might be reduced by providing accessible and appropriate primary health care resources in catchment areas of EDs with high rates of low-acuity ED visits, particularly for young adults from the most deprived segment of the population. PMID:24733328

  1. The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity. PMID:24528223

  2. Tactile acuity training for patients with chronic low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain can disrupt the cortical representation of a painful body part. This disruption may play a role in maintaining the individual’s pain. Tactile acuity training has been used to normalise cortical representation and reduce pain in certain pain conditions. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of this intervention for chronic low back pain (CLBP). The primary aim of this study was to inform the development of a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) by providing preliminary data on the effect of tactile acuity training on pain and function in individuals with CLBP. The secondary aim was to obtain qualitative feedback about the intervention. Methods In this mixed-methods pilot RCT 15 individuals were randomised to either an intervention (tactile acuity training) or a placebo group (sham tactile acuity training). All participants received 3 sessions of acuity training (intervention or sham) from a physiotherapist and were requested to undertake daily acuity home training facilitated by an informal carer (friend/relative). All participants also received usual care physiotherapy. The primary outcome measures were pain (0-100visual analogue scale (VAS)) and function (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ)). Participants and their informal carers were invited to a focus group to provide feedback on the intervention. Results The placebo group improved by the greatest magnitude for both outcome measures, but there was no statistically significant difference (Mean difference (95%CI), p-value) between groups for change in pain (25.6 (-0.7 to 51.9), p?=?0.056) or function (2.2 (-1.6 to 6.0), p?=?0.237). Comparing the number of individuals achieving a minimally clinically significant improvement, the placebo group had better outcomes for pain with all participants achieving ?30% improvement compared to only a third of the intervention group (6/6 vs. 3/9, p?=?0.036). Qualitatively, participants reported that needing an informal carer was a considerable barrier to the home training component of the study. Conclusions This pilot RCT found tactile acuity training to be no more effective than sham tactile acuity training for function and less effective for pain in individuals with CLBP. That the intervention could not be self-applied was a considerable barrier to its use. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN98118082 PMID:24571855

  3. UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a Newly Developed Organizational Skills Assessment Tool for Severely Mentally Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T.; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants’ organizational skills were measured using our newly developed UCSD Sorting Test (U-SORT); a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a “junk drawer” into “keep” vs. “trash” piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms), were acceptable (mean r = |.34|), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = |.06|). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable and valid measure of functioning for this population. PMID:21135646

  4. Comparison of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity between deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Kandemir, Baran; Sayman, Isil Bahar; Selvi, Cem; Kamil Dogan, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate postoperative visual acuity and contrast sensitivity results following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with keratoconus (KC). METHODS All the patients' records with KC who had PK or DALK surgery between May 2010 and May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty patients who underwent successful corneal transplantation for KC: 30 eyes underwent DALK and 30 eyes underwent PK were included in this study. Preoperative and postoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), logMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Contrast sensitivity tests (CS) were done preoperative and 2 months after all sutures had removed. All surgeries were performed under regional anesthesia (retrobulbar anesthesia) by 1 surgeon (B.K.) who was experienced in penetrating and lamellar keratoplasty techniques. RESULTS The mean age of the DALK group was 29.67±4.95 (range 18-40) years and the PK group was 28.7±3.53 (range 18-39) years. Preoperatively there was no significant difference in the logMAR UCVA, logMAR BSCVA and IOP between the DALK (1.281±0.56; 0.97±0.85; 12.07±2.12mmHg) and PK (1.34±0.21; 0.98±0.21; 13±2.12mmHg) groups. One-year after surgery there was no significant difference in the mean logMAR UCVA and IOP between the DALK (0.46±0.37; 11.73±2.1mmHg) and PK (0.38±0.21; 12±2.12mmHg) groups. The mean contrast sensitivity was evaluated by CC-100 Topcon LCD at 1.5, 2.52, 4.23, 7.10 and 11.91 cycles per degree (cs/deg) spatial frequencies before and 2 months after the all sutures had removed. CONCLUSION All patients with keratoconus in both DALK and PK groups performed good visual function postoperatively. The mean contrast sensitivity increased considerably at all spatial frequencies compared with preoperative levels in the DALK and PK groups. The mean post-operative evaluation of contrast sensitivity measurements was not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:23275910

  5. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  6. Taste acuity of obese adolescents and changes in food neophobia and food preferences during a weight reduction session.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Taste acuity of obese adolescents and changes in food neophobia and food preferences during reduction program, neophobia, food liking, fruits and vegetables Abstract The relationship between taste acuity and food neophobia, food familiarity and liking has been studied in the context of a residential

  7. Depressive Styles and Social Acuity: Further Evidence for Distinct Interpersonal Correlates of Dependency and Self-Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aube, Jennifer; Whiffen, Valerie E.

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether dependency and self-criticism (personality types linked with depression) are related to social acuity. Uses 90 university students who completed 2 measures of social acuity. Finds that self-critical persons were significantly less accurate on both tasks, even when controlling for depressive symptomatology. Supports previous…

  8. Short-Term Visual Deprivation, Tactile Acuity, and Haptic Solid Shape Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Charles E.; Norman, J. Farley

    2014-01-01

    Previous psychophysical studies have reported conflicting results concerning the effects of short-term visual deprivation upon tactile acuity. Some studies have found that 45 to 90 minutes of total light deprivation produce significant improvements in participants' tactile acuity as measured with a grating orientation discrimination task. In contrast, a single 2011 study found no such improvement while attempting to replicate these earlier findings. A primary goal of the current experiment was to resolve this discrepancy in the literature by evaluating the effects of a 90-minute period of total light deprivation upon tactile grating orientation discrimination. We also evaluated the potential effect of short-term deprivation upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination using a set of naturally-shaped solid objects. According to previous research, short-term deprivation enhances performance in a tactile 2-D shape discrimination task – perhaps a similar improvement also occurs for haptic 3-D shape discrimination. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that not only does short-term visual deprivation not enhance tactile acuity, it additionally has no effect upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination. While visual deprivation had no effect in our study, there was a significant effect of experience and learning for the grating orientation task – the participants' tactile acuity improved over time, independent of whether they had, or had not, experienced visual deprivation. PMID:25397327

  9. Compensatory responses to age-related decline in odor quality acuity: Cholinergic neuromodulation and olfactory enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Mandairon; Shane T. Peace; Karim Boudadi; Christine E. Boxhorn; Venkata Anupama Narla; Sara D. Suffis; Thomas A. Cleland

    2011-01-01

    The perceptual differentiation of odors can be measured behaviorally using generalization gradients. The steepness of these gradients defines a form of olfactory acuity for odor quality that depends on neural circuitry within the olfactory bulb and is regulated by cholinergic activity therein as well as by associative learning. Using this system as a reduced model for age-related cognitive decline, we

  10. Electronically measured compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia is related to visual acuity increase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjoukje E. Loudon; Jan-Roelof Polling; Huibert J. Simonsz

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. We set out to determine whether the children who have low compliance (measured electronically) with occlusion therapy for amblyopia are those with insufficient increase of visual acuity. Methods. In 14 newly identified amblyopic children (mean age 4.3ǃ.9 years), compliance was measured electronically over a period of 1 week, 6 months after the start of occlusion therapy. Compliance was measured

  11. Subjective evaluation of intraocular lenses by visual acuity measurement using adaptive optics

    E-print Network

    Dainty, Chris

    Subjective evaluation of intraocular lenses by visual acuity measurement using adaptive optics Huanqing Guo,1, * Hamid R. Fallah,2 Chris Dainty,1 and Alexander V. Goncharov1 1 Applied Optics Group We present a new method for subjectively evaluating intraocular lenses (IOLs) without implantation

  12. Teachers' Knowledge of the Relationship of Auditory Acuity and Hearing Impairment to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Evelyn Myrtle

    Teacher's knowledge of the relationship of auditory acuity and hearing impairment to reading was evaluated with 60 teachers and specialists (regular classroom primary and upper elementary teachers, reading teachers, teachers of the learning disabled, teachers of the hearing impaired, and speech and language pathologists). Ss were administered a…

  13. Acuities for textures and gratings in kittens assessed by preferential looking.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, F

    1995-06-01

    A forced-choice preferential looking paradigm, similar to that developed for human infants, was used to assess visual thresholds in kittens between 21 and 45 days of age. In agreement with the earlier work of Sireteanu [19,30], the technique was found to be successful for grating acuity measurement. Acuity for square wave gratings (vs. matched greys) increased from 0.12 cycles/degrees at 21 days to 1.6 cycles/degrees at 40 days of age. Comparable results were obtained at three viewing distances: 20, 40, and 60 cm, indicating that accommodation is not a limiting factor in spatial resolution over this range of distances. Kittens also showed preferences for texture arrays with strong oriented components and 'texture acuities' were found to be comparable to acuity for square wave gratings. A consistent orientation anisotropy favouring horizontal line elements was seen in very young kittens but disappeared by 5 weeks of age. Preferences for texture arrays composed of dots were much weaker and thresholds could not be determined in all cases. The results are discussed in the context of the Banks and Ginsberg [2] model of infant preferences. PMID:7654305

  14. Relationship between Outer Retinal Layers Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raymond L. M.; Lee, Jacky W. Y.; Yau, Gordon S. K.; Wong, Ian Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the correlation of outer retinal layers (ORL) thickness and visual acuity (VA) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods. Consecutive DME patients seen at the Retina Clinic of The University of Hong Kong were recruited for OCT assessment. The ORL thickness was defined as the distance between external limiting membrane (ELM) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at the foveal center. The correlation between total retinal thickness, ORL thickness, and vision was calculated. Results. 78 patients with DME were recruited. The mean age was 58.1 years (±11.5 years) and their mean visual acuity measured with Snellen chart was 0.51 (±0.18). The correlation coefficient between total retinal thickness and visual acuity was 0.34 (P < 0.001) whereas the correlation coefficient was 0.65 between ORL thickness and visual acuity (P < 0.001). Conclusion. ORL thickness correlates better with vision than the total retinal thickness. It is a novel OCT parameter in the assessment of DME. Moreover, it could be a potential long term visual prognostic factor for patients with DME.

  15. Evaluating Explicit and Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness in Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2 years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not require the use of a comparison category. Compared to non-professionals, mental health professionals reported significantly higher approach emotions than non-professionals towards people with mental illness, showed a lesser tendency to discriminate against them, and held less restrictive attitudes. Both groups reported negative implicit attitudes towards mentally ill. Results suggest that both non-professionals and professionals display ambivalent attitudes towards people with mental illness and that professional, long-term contact with people with mental illness does not necessarily modify negative implicit attitudes. PMID:25535045

  16. Reduction in Dynamic Visual Acuity Reveals Gaze Control Changes Following Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris; Lawrence, Emily L.; Mulavara Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to microgravity causes adaptive changes in eye-head coordination that can lead to altered gaze control. This could affect postflight visual acuity during head and body motion. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in dynamic visual acuity after long-duration spaceflight. METHODS: Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) data from 14 astro/cosmonauts were collected after long-duration (6 months) spaceflight. The difference in acuity between seated and walking conditions provided a metric of change in the subjects ability to maintain gaze fixation during self-motion. In each condition, a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm was used to display Landolt ring optotypes at a size that was near each subject s acuity threshold. Verbal responses regarding the orientation of the gap were recorded as the optotypes appeared sequentially on a computer display 4 meters away. During the walking trials, subjects walked at 6.4 km/h on a motorized treadmill. RESULTS: A decrement in mean postflight DVA was found, with mean values returning to baseline within 1 week. The population mean showed a consistent improvement in DVA performance, but it was accompanied by high variability. A closer examination of the individual subject s recovery curves revealed that many did not follow a pattern of continuous improvement with each passing day. When adjusted on the basis of previous long-duration flight experience, the population mean shows a "bounce" in the re-adaptation curve. CONCLUSION: Gaze control during self-motion is altered following long-duration spaceflight and changes in postflight DVA performance indicate that vestibular re-adaptation may be more complex than a gradual return to normal.

  17. Visual stimulus parameters seriously compromise the measurement of approximate number system acuity and comparative effects between adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Sz?cs, Dénes; Nobes, Alison; Devine, Amy; Gabriel, Florence C.; Gebuis, Titia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that a simple non-symbolic magnitude comparison task is sufficient to measure the acuity of a putative Approximate Number System (ANS). A proposed measure of the ANS, the so-called “internal Weber fraction” (w), would provide a clear measure of ANS acuity. However, ANS studies have never presented adequate evidence that visual stimulus parameters did not compromise measurements of w to such extent that w is actually driven by visual instead of numerical processes. We therefore investigated this question by testing non-symbolic magnitude discrimination in seven-year-old children and adults. We manipulated/controlled visual parameters in a more stringent manner than usual. As a consequence of these controls, in some trials numerical cues correlated positively with number while in others they correlated negatively with number. This congruency effect strongly correlated with w, which means that congruency effects were probably driving effects in w. Consequently, in both adults and children congruency had a major impact on the fit of the model underlying the computation of w. Furthermore, children showed larger congruency effects than adults. This suggests that ANS tasks are seriously compromised by the visual stimulus parameters, which cannot be controlled. Hence, they are not pure measures of the ANS and some putative w or ratio effect differences between children and adults in previous ANS studies may be due to the differential influence of the visual stimulus parameters in children and adults. In addition, because the resolution of congruency effects relies on inhibitory (interference suppression) function, some previous ANS findings were probably influenced by the developmental state of inhibitory processes especially when comparing children with developmental dyscalculia and typically developing children. PMID:23882245

  18. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4?years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9?months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6?months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000457640. PMID:25805530

  19. The Tenth Mental Measurements Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoley, Jane Close, Ed.; Kramer, Jack J., Ed.

    Commercially available tests and measurement instruments for use with English-speaking subjects are described and reviewed. Only tests that are new, have been revised since last reviewed in the Mental Measurements Yearbook series, or are considered established and highly used are included. The contents are as follows: (1) a bibliography of…

  20. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  1. Mental Health: Military

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Mental Health > People > Military Let's Talk Facts Brochures Understanding Mental Disorders: Your Guide to DSM-5 Healthy Minds, Healthy ... Parity Healthy Minds TV What is a psychiatrist Mental Health Check-up Coping with Disasters Links for more ...

  2. Children's Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Children's Mental Health For parents, the key to handling mental disorders of children is to recognize the problem and seek ... and treatments, and a complete evaluation by a mental health provider can determine whether a child needs help. ...

  3. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en espańol ) Mental health for men More information on mental health for ... extremely effective. Return to top More information on Mental health for men Explore other publications and websites Attention ...

  4. Mental health nursing and stress: maintaining balance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Louise

    2011-04-01

    The recruitment and retention of mental health nurses within acute inpatient mental health facilities continues to be an ongoing issue. Literature and current research highlight an environment fraught with pressure and stress, identifying several key factors contributing to job dissatisfaction. These factors include greater patient acuity, unpredictable and challenging workspaces, violence, increased paperwork, and reduced managerial support. This qualitative, critical, feminist exploration investigated the lived experiences of 13 female mental health nurses working in inpatient services. They were asked about their practice and perceptions of workplace culture, and they shared their thoughts on stress management and professional well-being. Positive workplace practice was highlighted, and the participants revealed an environment they were proud to be a part of. Individual interviews, focus groups, and reflective practice were all used to collect data. The findings from the investigation unanimously support current literature that clearly confirms mental health nursing to be stressful. Interestingly, however, the findings also clearly identified that the way in which the nurse participants managed their stress was intrinsically linked to their job satisfaction. The major theme identified throughout the present study revealed that the female participants' ability to manage an at times complex workspace through the notions of teamwork, diversity, and creativity. All of the participants considered these elements as significant to providing a high standard in patient care. This research might provide an opportunity for others to view mental health nursing from a different perspective, and through the lived experiences of the participants, embrace the positive and rewarding aspects of the role. PMID:21371222

  5. DVA as a Diagnostic Test for Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.

  6. Diagnostic performance of a combination of Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test in detecting Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yuka; Narumoto, Jin; Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Okamura, Aiko; Koumi, Hiroyuki; Kishikawa, Yusuke; Terashima, Shigenori; Fukui, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Objective Because of the growing need for quick cognitive screening tests to distinguish Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), we compare the diagnostic performance of a combination of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a Clock Drawing Test (CDT) to the Japanese version of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-J cog) in differentiating between patients with AD, patients with MCI, and healthy controls (HC). Methods Data from 146 subjects with AD and 60 subjects with MCI, as well as 49 HC, was retrospectively analyzed. We used logistic regression analysis with diagnosis as dependent variables and scores of the MMSE, the CDT-command, and the CDT-copy as independent variables, and receiver operating characteristic analysis to distinguish patients with AD from patients with MCI or HC. Results When patients with AD were compared to HC, the independent predictors of AD were scores on the MMSE and the CDT-command. This combination was more sensitive than the MMSE alone and has nearly the same sensitivity and specificity as the ADAS-J cog. When patients with AD were compared to patients with MCI, the independent predictors were the MMSE and the CDT-copy. This combination was more sensitive and specific than the MMSE alone and was almost as sensitive and specific as the ADAS-J cog. Conclusion The combination of the MMSE and the CDT could be a powerful screening tool for differentiating between patients with AD, patients with MCI, and HC. Its sensitivity and specificity are comparable to ADAS-J cog, which takes more time. PMID:23662057

  7. Habitual plate-waste of 6- to 9-year-olds may not be associated with lower nutritional needs or taste acuity, but undesirable dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Baik, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Hongmie

    2009-12-01

    Efforts to reduce plate-waste (PW) are limited to those by a dietitian who serves the entire school rather than a better characterization of individuals who are served. We tested the hypothesis that children reporting habitual PW would have different physical or dietary characteristics compared with children without PW. Participants were 407 children aged 6 to 9 years in elementary schools in Kyeonggi, Korea. Information on eating behavior and food preference was collected using a questionnaire administered by parents. Among them, 91 students participated further in anthropometry, step counting, taste acuity tests, and nutrition intake from school lunches. Participants were divided into tertiles according to total frequency of leaving PW from each meal on a typical day: no PW, moderate PW, and habitual PW. Children with habitual PW showed several undesirable characteristics: consuming less of various vegetables, eating only what they like, poor table manners, and frequent consumption of street foods and cookies/beverages/fast foods. Whereas height, weight, and obesity index as well as taste acuity and daily steps in the habitual PW group were not significantly different, intakes of potassium, niacin, and folate were significantly lower compared with the other groups. Therefore, habitual PW did not seem to result from having a lower energy requirement or different taste acuity, or result in observed slowed growth, but it could place children at a risk for insufficient nutritional intake, consequently impairing growth and general health. The results emphasize the parental role in shaping children's diet and provide information for developing strategies to reduce PW of individual children. PMID:19963155

  8. Olfactory acuity in the common raven (Corvus corax).

    PubMed

    Harriman, A E; Berger, R H

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy with which ravens can locate concealed carrion and similar foods has been noted from antiquity. This ability has been claimed in folklore to indicate an acute sense of smell. Contemporary opinion among ornithologists is that the sense of smell is weak at best in passerines, and particularly so in corvids which lack developed olfactory apparatus. Four studies were performed to test whether ravens could find hidden food (fresh ground fish) under conditions where scent was presumed to be the sole cue. The subjects, captive juvenile ravens (five males and three females) capably chose which one in a pair of containers held food buried under 2.0 cm of No. 4 gravel, discovered food concealed under as much as 2.5 cm of gravel, and located as little as 1.0 g of food covered by 1.5 cm of gravel. The several findings are consistent with the possibility that ravens can use olfactory cues to find food. PMID:3960998

  9. Long-term preservation of cone photoreceptors and visual acuity in rd10 mutant mice exposed to continuous environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Strettoi, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In human patients and animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a gradual loss of rod photoreceptors and decline in scotopic vision are the primary manifestations of the disease. Secondary death of cones and gradual, regressive remodeling of the inner retina follow and progress at different speeds according to the underlying genetic defect. In any case, the final outcome is near-blindness without a conclusive cure yet. We recently reported that environmental enrichment (EE), an experimental manipulation based on exposure to enhanced motor, sensory, and social stimulation, when started at birth, exerts clear beneficial effects on a mouse model of RP, by slowing vision loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate in the same mouse the long-term effects of chronic exposure to an EE and assess the outcome of this manipulation on cone survival, inner retinal preservation, and visual behavior. Methods Two groups of rd10 mutant mice were maintained in an EE or standard (ST) laboratory conditions up to 1 year of age. Then, retinal preservation was assessed with immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy examination, cone counts, and electron microscopy of the photoreceptor layer, while visual acuity was tested behaviorally with a Prusky water maze. Results rd10 mice are a model of autosomal recessive RP with a typical rod-cone, center to the periphery pattern of photoreceptor degeneration. They carry a mutation of the rod-specific phosphodiesterase gene and undergo rod death that peaks at around P24, while cone electroretinogram (ERG) is extinct by P60. We previously showed that early exposure to an EE efficiently delays photoreceptor degeneration in these mutants, extending the time window of cone viability and cone-mediated vision well beyond the phase of maximum rod death. Here we find that a maintained EE can delay the degeneration of cones even in the long term. Confocal and electron microscopy examination of the retinas of the rd10 EE and ST mice at 1 year of age showed major degeneration of the photoreceptor layer in both experimental groups, with small clusters of photoreceptors persisting in the peripheral retina. These vestigial cells were positive for L and M opsins and cone arrestin and represented the residual population of cones. In the retinas of the EE mice, cones were more numerous and less remodeled than in the ST counterparts, albeit virtually devoid of outer segments, as confirmed with electron microscopy (EM) observations. Cone counting in retinal whole mounts showed that rd10 EE mice at 1 year had almost three times as many surviving cones (34,000±4,000) as the ST control mice (12,700±1,800), t test p=0.003. Accordingly, the rd10 EE mice at 1 year of age were still capable of performing the visual water task in photopic conditions, showing a residual visual acuity of 0.138±0 cycles/degree. This ability was virtually absent in the rd10 ST age-matched mice (0.063±0.014), t test, p=0.029. No major differences were detected in the morphology of the neurons of the inner retina between the two experimental groups. Conclusions The approaches used to test the effects of an EE were consistent in showing significantly better preservation of cones and measurable visual acuity in 1-year-old rd10 EE mice. We therefore confirm and extend previous findings that showed an EE is an effective, minimally invasive tool for promoting long-lasting retinal protection in experimental models of RP. PMID:25489227

  10. Do poor nutrition and display screens affect visual acuity in children?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catriona M; Tappin, David M

    2002-02-01

    Two studies conducted in Scotland have shown an increase in visual acuity (VA) screening failure among primary school-aged children in recent years. Two other trends were observed during the same period - an increase in children bringing packed lunches to school, and increased access to display screen equipment (DSE) including television, computers and hand-held computer games. This study set out to assess if either DSE use of poor diet could be linked with visual acuity screening failure in Scottish primary school children. Information was collected on diet and DSE use from 1384 children who had received VA screening in eight primary schools in Glasgow. After controlling for deprivation, DSE use other than watching television was associated with an increased risk of VA screening failure, as was a 'poor' diet. If these findings are confirmed by other studies and a causal link can be made, then health education at school could be designed to prevent VA screening failure. PMID:11865216

  11. Environmental enrichment promotes plasticity and visual acuity recovery in adult monocular amblyopic rats.

    PubMed

    Tognini, Paola; Manno, Ilaria; Bonaccorsi, Joyce; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2012-01-01

    Loss of visual acuity caused by abnormal visual experience during development (amblyopia) is an untreatable pathology in adults. In some occasions, amblyopic patients loose vision in their better eye owing to accidents or illnesses. While this condition is relevant both for its clinical importance and because it represents a case in which binocular interactions in the visual cortex are suppressed, it has scarcely been studied in animal models. We investigated whether exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) is effective in triggering recovery of vision in adult amblyopic rats rendered monocular by optic nerve dissection in their normal eye. By employing both electrophysiological and behavioral assessments, we found a full recovery of visual acuity in enriched rats compared to controls reared in standard conditions. Moreover, we report that EE modulates the expression of GAD67 and BDNF. The non invasive nature of EE renders this paradigm promising for amblyopia therapy in adult monocular people. PMID:22509358

  12. Microactuator production via high aspect ratio, high edge acuity metal fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckel, H.; Christenson, T. R.

    1993-01-01

    LIGA is a procession sequence which uses x-ray lithography on photoresist layers of several hundred micrometers to produce very high edge acuity photopolymer molds. These plastic molds can be converted to metal molds via electroplating of many different metals and alloys. The end results are high edge acuity metal parts with large structural heights. The LIGA process as originally described by W. Ehrfeld can be extended by adding a surface micromachining phase to produce precision metal parts which can be assembled to form three-dimensional micromechanisms. This process, SLIGA, has been used to fabricate a dynamometer on a chip. The instrument has been fully implemented and will be applied to tribology issues, speed-torque characterization of planar magnetic micromotors and a new family of sensors.

  13. Changes in smell acuity induced by radiation exposure of the olfactory mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ophir, D.; Guterman, A.; Gross-Isseroff, R.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two odorants (amyl acetate and eugenol) were determined before the start of radiation therapy, within a week of termination of therapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. The results show clearly that smell acuity is profoundly affected by therapeutic irradiation. Thresholds had increased in all 12 patients by the end of treatment and were still high one month later. Varying degrees of recovery were noted in most patients three to six months after cessation of treatment. The fate of the sense of smell deserves more attention when considering the disability caused by irradiation to certain head and neck tumors.

  14. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity in rats with retinal degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, D.; Goetz, G.; Lorach, H.; Mandel, Y.; Smith, R.; Boinagrov, D.; Lei, X.; Kamins, T.; Harris, J.; Mathieson, K.; Sher, A.

    2015-03-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for delivery of visual information. Subretinal photovoltaic arrays with 70?m pixels were used to convert pulsed near-IR light (880-915nm) into pulsed current to stimulate the nearby inner retinal neurons. Network-mediated responses of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) could be modulated by pulse width (1-20ms) and peak irradiance (0.5-10 mW/mm2). Similarly to normal vision, retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibited flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images, and non-linear spatial summation. Spatial resolution was assessed in-vitro and in-vivo using alternating gratings with variable stripe width, projected with rapidly pulsed illumination (20-40Hz). In-vitro, average size of the electrical receptive fields in normal retina was 248+/-59?m - similar to their visible light RF size: 249+/-44?m. RGCs responded to grating stripes down to 67?m using photovoltaic stimulation in degenerate rat retina, and 28?m with visible light in normal retina. In-vivo, visual acuity in normally-sighted controls was 29+/-5?m/stripe, vs. 63+/-4?m/stripe in rats with subretinal photovoltaic arrays, corresponding to 20/250 acuity in human eye. With the enhanced acuity provided by eye movements and perceptual learning in human patients, visual acuity might exceed the 20/200 threshold of legal blindness. Ease of implantation and tiling of these wireless arrays to cover a large visual field, combined with their high resolution opens the door to highly functional restoration of sight.

  15. Contrast visual acuity after multifocal intraocular lens implantation: aspheric versus spherical design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Hua; Feng, Yi-Fan; Zhao, Yun-E; Zhao, Yin-Ying; Lin, Lei

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate contrast visual acuity (CVA) after implantation of an aspheric apodized diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) or a spherical apodized diffractive IOL in cataract surgery. METHOD This prospective randomized controlled study with a 12-month follow-up compared the results of cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3 IOL (30 eyes) and a spherical AcrySof ReSTOR SN60D3 IOL (30 eyes). CVA with best distance correction was measured at 4 contrast levels (100%, 25%, 10% and 5%) under 3 levels of chart luminance [250, 85 and 25 candelas per square meter (cd/m2)] using a multi-functional visual acuity tester (MFVA-100) RESULTS At 12 months after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences in 100% CVA and 25% CVA under 250cd/m2 (P100%=0.875 and P25%=0.057) and 85cd/m2 (P100%=0.198 and P25%=0.193) between the aspheric group and the spherical group. However, the 10% CVA and 5% CVA were significant better in aspheric group than spherical group under 250cd/m2 (P10%=0.042 and P5%=0.007) and 85cd/m2 (P10%=0.002 and P5%=0.039). Under the luminance level of 25cd/m2, no significant differences was found in the 100% CVA between the 2 group (P100%=0.245), while aspheric group had better visual acuity in the remaining 3 contracts (P25%=0.023, P10%=0.026 and P5%=0.002, respectively). CONCULSION The aspheric AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3 IOL provided patients with better low-contrast visual acuity than the spherical AcrySof ReSTOR SN60D3 IOL. PMID:24634872

  16. The Relationship of Age-Related Maculopathy, Cataract, and Glaucoma to Visual Acuity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Klein; Qin Wang; Barbara E. K. Klein; Scot E. Moss; Stacy M. Meuer

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship of age-related maculopathy, cataract, and glaucoma to visual acuity in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed in people 43 through 86 years of age residing in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, who were identified between 1987 and 1988 and examined (n = 4926) between 1988 and 1990. Of those who

  17. Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Peters

    2010-01-01

    As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

  18. Mental Health and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enter ZIP code here Coping with HIV/AIDS: Mental Health for Veterans and the Public Mental Health and HIV: Entire Lesson Overview If you are ... deal with. Along with the physical illness are mental health conditions that may come up. Mental health refers ...

  19. STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    1 STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY Revised January 2013 #12;2 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Context Widening with a notable increase in the numbers of students with significant mental health difficulties entering HE the continuum from promoting positive mental well-being to working with students with severe mental health

  20. Auditory spatial acuity approximates the resolving power of space-specific neurons.

    PubMed

    Bala, Avinash D S; Spitzer, Matthew W; Takahashi, Terry T

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between neuronal acuity and behavioral performance was assessed in the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal raptor renowned for its ability to localize sounds and for the topographic representation of auditory space found in the midbrain. We measured discrimination of sound-source separation using a newly developed procedure involving the habituation and recovery of the pupillary dilation response. The smallest discriminable change of source location was found to be about two times finer in azimuth than in elevation. Recordings from neurons in its midbrain space map revealed that their spatial tuning, like the spatial discrimination behavior, was also better in azimuth than in elevation by a factor of about two. Because the PDR behavioral assay is mediated by the same circuitry whether discrimination is assessed in azimuth or in elevation, this difference in vertical and horizontal acuity is likely to reflect a true difference in sensory resolution, without additional confounding effects of differences in motor performance in the two dimensions. Our results, therefore, are consistent with the hypothesis that the acuity of the midbrain space map determines auditory spatial discrimination. PMID:17668055

  1. Acuity-independent effects of visual deprivation on human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chuan; Pettet, Mark W; Norcia, Anthony M

    2014-07-29

    Visual development depends on sensory input during an early developmental critical period. Deviation of the pointing direction of the two eyes (strabismus) or chronic optical blur (anisometropia) separately and together can disrupt the formation of normal binocular interactions and the development of spatial processing, leading to a loss of stereopsis and visual acuity known as amblyopia. To shed new light on how these two different forms of visual deprivation affect the development of visual cortex, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal evolution of visual responses in patients who had experienced either strabismus or anisometropia early in life. To make a specific statement about the locus of deprivation effects, we took advantage of a stimulation paradigm in which we could measure deprivation effects that arise either before or after a configuration-specific response to illusory contours (ICs). Extraction of ICs is known to first occur in extrastriate visual areas. Our ERP measurements indicate that deprivation via strabismus affects both the early part of the evoked response that occurs before ICs are formed as well as the later IC-selective response. Importantly, these effects are found in the normal-acuity nonamblyopic eyes of strabismic amblyopes and in both eyes of strabismic patients without amblyopia. The nonamblyopic eyes of anisometropic amblyopes, by contrast, are normal. Our results indicate that beyond the well-known effects of strabismus on the development of normal binocularity, it also affects the early stages of monocular feature processing in an acuity-independent fashion. PMID:25024230

  2. Acuity-independent effects of visual deprivation on human visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chuan; Pettet, Mark W.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Visual development depends on sensory input during an early developmental critical period. Deviation of the pointing direction of the two eyes (strabismus) or chronic optical blur (anisometropia) separately and together can disrupt the formation of normal binocular interactions and the development of spatial processing, leading to a loss of stereopsis and visual acuity known as amblyopia. To shed new light on how these two different forms of visual deprivation affect the development of visual cortex, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal evolution of visual responses in patients who had experienced either strabismus or anisometropia early in life. To make a specific statement about the locus of deprivation effects, we took advantage of a stimulation paradigm in which we could measure deprivation effects that arise either before or after a configuration-specific response to illusory contours (ICs). Extraction of ICs is known to first occur in extrastriate visual areas. Our ERP measurements indicate that deprivation via strabismus affects both the early part of the evoked response that occurs before ICs are formed as well as the later IC-selective response. Importantly, these effects are found in the normal-acuity nonamblyopic eyes of strabismic amblyopes and in both eyes of strabismic patients without amblyopia. The nonamblyopic eyes of anisometropic amblyopes, by contrast, are normal. Our results indicate that beyond the well-known effects of strabismus on the development of normal binocularity, it also affects the early stages of monocular feature processing in an acuity-independent fashion. PMID:25024230

  3. The Use of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock-Drawing Test for Dementia in a Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khaled; AMR, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An early and a quick identification of dementia is desirable to improve the overall care to the affected persons in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminative abilities of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) in differentiating the demented patients from the controls and also the differentiation between the different types of dementia. Patients and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate the patients with varied types and severities of dementia, who were diagnosed by using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. All the patients completed the MMSE and the simplified CDT. Results: This study included 197 patients with an age range of 43-79 years. Fifty-one patients (25.9%) were diagnosed with Alzheimer Dementia (AD), 37 patients (18.8%) with Vascular Dementia (VD), 23 patients (11.7%) with Parkinson’s Disease Dementia (PDD) and 86 patients (43.6%) with other variants of dementia. The total MMSE score of the enrolled patients was significantly lower as compared to that of the control subjects, with a non-significant difference between the varied diagnoses. The total CDT scores were significantly lower in the patients as compared to those in the controls, with significantly lower scores in the PDD group as compared to those in the AD group. The patients who had AD showed non-significantly higher CDT scores as compared to the patients who had vascular and other types of dementia. Conclusion: A combined application of both MMSE and CDT can identify the persons with a cognitive affection and this may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of the non Alzheimer’s type of dementia. PMID:23634401

  4. [Mental health problems].

    PubMed

    Momotani, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Haruyoshi

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes current issues in occupational mental health, occupational mental health activities currently underway, and priorities to improve the situation in Japan. A new tool to support these activities is then discussed. The incidence of employee mental health problems is rising, despite efforts to promote occupational mental health activities. The adoption of such activities is lagging behind in medium and small-sized enterprises. Priorities to improve occupational mental health include motivating business operators to address mental health issues, focusing more on prevention, and promoting mental health initiatives in medium and small-sized enterprises. Mental-Rosai, a web-based mental health check system, is a useful tool for the prevention of mental health problems and can provide support for medium and small-sized enterprises. PMID:24605529

  5. Transitions in Early Mental Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Robert B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study describes the developmental function and cross-age pattern of individual differences in mental test behavior during the first 5 years of life. Accompanying the study are brief commentaries by Ina C. Uzgiris and Earl S. Schaefer and a reply by the authors. (JMB)

  6. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  7. Teaching the Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Harold D.

    The text discusses the behavior, evaluation, and education of mentally retarded children. Harold D. Love presents an overview of the retarded, a description of intelligence and personality tests, and a historical survey of retardation; Virginia Cantrell reviews the educational philosophies and methods of Itard, Seguin, and Montessori. Shirley K.…

  8. Mental Health and HIV Risk Among African American Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Tolou-Shams; Roberta Paikoff; David J. McKirnan; Grayson N. Holmbeck

    2007-01-01

    The family system is integral to adolescent mental health and HIV risk. However, few studies have addressed family variables and adolescent outcomes among African American families. This study tested a longitudinal model of parenting, adolescent mental health, and adolescent HIV risk, among a community sample of low-income, urban African American families from the Collaborative HIV prevention and AdolescentMental Health Project

  9. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  10. Postrotatory Nystagmus Responses of Preschoolers Enrolled in Mental Health Programs and Preschoolers Enrolled in Non-Mental Health Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois A. Kramer; Jean C Deitz; Terry K. Crowe

    1991-01-01

    This study described and compared the postrotatory nystagmus response of 26 preschool children enrolled in mental health programs with 26 preschool children enrolled in Project Head Start, a non-mental health program. The Southern California Postrotatory Nystagmus Test was administered to all subjects. The children enrolled in mental health programs scored significantly lower than the children enrolled in Project Head Start.

  11. Mental health care in the community: An analysis of contemporary public attitudes towards, and public representations of, mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Hannigan

    1999-01-01

    Public tolerance of, and non-discrimination towards, people with mental health problems are key factors on which success in achieving the goal of community-based mental health care depends. This paper revisits Thomas Scheff' s (1966) sociological theory of mental illness, and tests elements of this thorough critical review of recent UK literature relating to public attitudes towards, and media representations, of

  12. Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

  13. Sound localization in common vampire bats: acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°-within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20?kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5?kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60??s. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  14. PERSPECTIVE: Is acuity enough? Other considerations in clinical investigations of visual prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepri, Bernard P.

    2009-06-01

    Visual impairing eye diseases are the major frontier facing ophthalmic research today in light of our rapidly aging population. The visual skills necessary for improving the quality of daily function and life are inextricably linked to these impairing diseases. Both research and reimbursement programs are emphasizing outcome-based results. Is improvement in visual acuity alone enough to improve the function and quality of life of visually impaired persons? This perspective summarizes the types of effectiveness endpoints for clinical investigations of visual prostheses that go beyond visual acuity. The clinical investigation of visual prostheses should include visual function, functional vision and quality of life measures. Specifically, they encompass contrast sensitivity, orientation and mobility, activities of daily living and quality of life assessments. The perspective focuses on the design of clinical trials for visual prostheses and the methods of determining effectiveness above and beyond visual acuity that will yield outcomes that are measured by improved function in the visual world and quality of life. The visually impaired population is the primary consideration in this presentation with particular emphases on retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Clinical trials for visual prostheses cannot be isolated from the need for medical rehabilitation in order to obtain measurements of effectiveness that produce outcomes/evidence-based success. This approach will facilitate improvement in daily function and quality of life of patients with diseases that cause chronic vision impairment. The views and opinions are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the US Food and Drug Administration, the US Department of Health and Human Services or the Public Health Service.

  15. Mental Health 3: Mental Health Through Literature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-07-27

    This lesson, from Science NetLinks, examines how mental illness has been portrayed in the arts while highlighting for students a more insightful way to further develop their ideas about human behavior. This lesson is the third of three lessons on mental health and human behavior.

  16. Mental Health Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more about child and adolescent mental health research . Older adults Because older people often have more medical problems ... people who take medications for mental disorders. An older adult may forget his or her regular dose and ...

  17. Sleep and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Espańol Text Size Email Print Share Sleep and Mental Health Article Body Sleep has become a casualty of ... MPH, FAAP Last Updated 5/5/2015 Source Mental Health, Naturally: The Family Guide to Holistic Care for ...

  18. Seniors (Mental Health)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia. Conclusion Having good mental health throughout life does not ensure immunity from severe ... The Joint Commission Let's Talk Facts Brochures Alzheimers Mental Health in Seniors Depression Healthy Minds TV - Depression Suicide ...

  19. Children's Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Media Policy Makers  National Center Homepage Children's Mental Health Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... problems can continue into adulthood. Public health includes mental health A new report from the Centers for Disease ...

  20. Mental Health Screening Center

    MedlinePLUS

    Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not a substitute for consultation with a health professional. ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression This screening form was developed from ...

  1. Teens and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... community for teens and young adults struggling with mental health problems and encourage them to talk about what ... just the typical “growing pains” or a real mental health problem. While adolescence is a difficult time for ...

  2. HUMAN SERVICES Mental Health Services

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    procedures. Federal government, Departments of Health and Human Services Justice Veterans AdministrationPSYCHOLOGY HUMAN SERVICES Counseling Advocacy Mental Health Services STRATEGIESAREAS EMPLOYERS State government, Departments of Human Services Mental Health & Mental Retardation Community mental

  3. Mental Health and African Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of Non-Hispanic Whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  4. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  5. Mental Health 2: Bedlam

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-07-28

    This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mental health and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mental health asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.

  6. Women's Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women’s Mental Health What it means to you. About this booklet “Women’s mental health is critical to their overall health and to ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Good mental health is important to everyone. And because it is ...

  7. Department. Mental Health

    E-print Network

    Li, Yi

    Student Services Department. Helping Students With Mental Health Difficulties. #12;#12;This document has been produced to assist staff in their dealings with students with mental health difficulties.1 It aims to: If a student is experiencing mental health difficulties there will often be warning

  8. Pediatric Primary Care Providers' Relationships with Mental Health Care Providers: Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidano, Anne E.; Honigfeld, Lisa; Bar-Halpern, Miri; Vivian, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As many as 20 % of children have diagnosable mental health conditions and nearly all of them receive pediatric primary health care. However, most children with serious mental health concerns do not receive mental health services. This study tested hypotheses that pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) in relationships with mental

  9. The Relationship of Mental Maturity to Vocational Maturity for a Group of Trade and Industrial Juniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Three hundred twelve Kentucky trade and industrial juniors' mental maturity was compared to data supplied with the California Mental Maturity Test. Aspects of vocational maturity significantly related to mental maturity measures for the group, and factors of mental maturity significantly related to aspects of their vocational maturity were also…

  10. Experiences of the transplant nurses caring for renal transplant patients in an acuity-adaptable patient room.

    PubMed

    Bonuel, Nena; Cesario, Sandra K

    2013-01-01

    This article describes transplant nurses' experiences in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room using Husserl's descriptive phenomenology. The setting was a twice-redesignated magnet urban tertiary center in the Southwest United States with 14 acuity-adaptable patient rooms. Audiotaped interviews were analyzed using Colaizzi's method and a purposive sample of 10 transplant nurses. Three theme clusters emerged that described the essence of the transplant nurses' experiences in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room: Patient and family comfort: "...I think their anxiety of just not knowing what's going on-that need is being met." Nurse empowerment: "...Her urine output was going down to the 40s and so I had to call the surgeon recommending that we maybe change the normal saline to half normal for replacement." Acuity-adaptable patient room future potential: "I wish that all patients had this kind of access." The nurses felt empowered in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room thereby creating a healing environment for the patient and the family. PMID:23470705

  11. Magnitude Representations in Williams Syndrome: Differential Acuity in Time, Space and Number Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rousselle, Laurence; Dembour, Guy; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2013-01-01

    For some authors, the human sensitivity to numerosities would be grounded in our ability to process non-numerical magnitudes. In the present study, the developmental relationships between non numerical and numerical magnitude processing are examined in people with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder known to associate visuo-spatial and math learning disabilities. Twenty patients with WS and 40 typically developing children matched on verbal or non-verbal abilities were administered three comparison tasks in which they had to compare numerosities, lengths or durations. Participants with WS showed lower acuity (manifested by a higher Weber fraction) than their verbal matched peers when processing numerical and spatial but not temporal magnitudes, indicating that they do not present a domain-general dysfunction of all magnitude processing. Conversely, they do not differ from non-verbal matched participants in any of the three tasks. Finally, correlational analyses revealed that non-numerical and numerical acuity indexes were both related to the first mathematical acquisitions but not with later arithmetical skills. PMID:24013906

  12. Impaired clustered protocadherin-? leads to aggregated retinogeniculate terminals and impaired visual acuity in mice.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Reiko; Hishida, Ryuichi; Tsukano, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Kohei; Imamura, Ryota; Tohmi, Manavu; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Yagi, Takeshi; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2015-04-01

    Clustered protocadherins (cPcdhs) comprising cPcdh-?, -?, and -?, encode a large family of cadherin-like cell-adhesion molecules specific to neurons. Impairment of cPcdh-? results in abnormal neuronal projection patterns in specific brain areas. To elucidate the role of cPcdh-? in retinogeniculate projections, we investigated the morphological patterns of retinogeniculate terminals in the lateral geniculate (LG) nucleus of mice with impaired cPcdh-?. We found huge aggregated retinogeniculate terminals in the dorsal LG nucleus, whereas no such aggregated terminals derived from the retina were observed in the olivary pretectal nucleus and the ventral LG nucleus. These aggregated terminals appeared between P10 and P14, just before eye opening and at the beginning of the refinement stage of the retinogeniculate projections. Reduced visual acuity was observed in adult mice with impaired cPcdh-?, whereas the orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons in the primary visual cortex were apparently normal. These findings suggest that cPcdh-? is required for adequate spacing of retinogeniculate projections, which may be essential for normal development of visual acuity. PMID:25650227

  13. Investigating photoreceptor densities, potential visual acuity, and cone mosaics of shallow water, temperate fish species.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D E; Rawlinson, N J F; Thomas, G A; Cobcroft, J M

    2015-06-01

    The eye is an important sense organ for teleost species but can vary greatly depending on the adaption to the habitat, environment during ontogeny and developmental stage of the fish. The eye and retinal morphology of eight commonly caught trawl bycatch species were described: Lepidotrigla mulhalli; Lophonectes gallus; Platycephalus bassensis; Sillago flindersi; Neoplatycephalus richardsoni; Thamnaconus degeni; Parequula melbournensis; and Trachurus declivis. The cone densities ranged from 38 cones per 0.01mm(2) for S. flindersi to 235 cones per 0.01mm(2) for P. melbournensis. The rod densities ranged from 22800 cells per 0.01mm(2) for L. mulhalli to 76634 cells per 0.01mm(2) for T. declivis and potential visual acuity (based on anatomical measures) ranged from 0.08 in L. gallus to 0.31 in P. melbournensis. Higher rod densities were correlated with maximum habitat depths. Six species had the regular pattern of four double cones arranged around a single cone in the photoreceptor mosaic, while T. declivis had only rows of double cones. P. melbournensis had the greatest potential ability for detecting fine detail based on eye anatomy. The potential visual acuity estimates and rod densities can be applied to suggest the relative detection ability of different species in a commercial fishing context, since vision is a critical sense in an illuminated environment for perceiving an oncoming trawl. PMID:25872175

  14. Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M.; Fernández, Enrique J.; Artal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes. PMID:25360355

  15. Mini-mental state examination in neurological patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J P Dick; R J Guiloff; A Stewart; J Blackstock; C Bielawska; E A Paul; C D Marsden

    1984-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State examination has been found to be a quick and valuable test for simple bedside screening, and for serial assessment of cognitive function in a population of 126 neurological patients. Amongst those with cognitive impairment, there was a close relation between the Mini-Mental State examination and the conventional Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). However, the Mini-Mental test was

  16. Slanted joint axes of the stick insect antenna: an adaptation to tactile acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujagic, Samir; Krause, André F.; Dürr, Volker

    2007-04-01

    Like many flightless, obligatory walking insects, the stick insect Carausius morosus makes intensive use of active antennal movements for tactile near range exploration and orientation. The antennal joints of C. morosus have a peculiar oblique and non-orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Moreover, this arrangement is known to differ from that in crickets (Ensifera), locusts (Caelifera) and cockroaches (Blattodea), all of which have an orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Our hypothesis was that the situation found in C. morosus represents an important evolutionary trait of the order of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea). If this was true, it should be common to other species of the Phasmatodea. The objective of this comparative study was to resolve this question. We have measured the joint axis orientation of the head scape and scape pedicel joints along with other parameters that affect the tactile efficiency of the antenna. The obtained result was a complete kinematic description of the antenna. This was used to determine the size and location of kinematic out-of-reach zones, which are indicators of tactile acuity. We show that the oblique and non-orthogonal arrangement is common to eight species from six sub-families indicating that it is a synapomorphic character of the Euphasmatodea. This character can improve tactile acuity compared to the situation in crickets, locusts and cockroaches. Finally, because molecular data of a recent study indicate that the Phasmatodea may have evolved as flightless, obligatory walkers, we argue that the antennal joint axis arrangement of the Euphasmatodea reflects an evolutionary adaptation to tactile near range exploration during terrestrial locomotion.

  17. Visual acuity after Ruthenium{sup 106} brachytherapy of choroidal melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, Bertil [Ocular Oncology Service, St. Paul's Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Bertil@damato.co.uk; Patel, Imran M. [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Campbell, Ian R. [IC Statistical Services, Wirral (United Kingdom); Mayles, Helen M. [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Errington, R. Douglas [Radiotherapy Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To report on conservation of visual acuity after Ruthenium{sup 106} (Ru-106) brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. Methods and materials: This study was a noncomparative interventional case series of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma treated at a single center between January 1993 and December 2001. The intervention consisted of Ru-106 brachytherapy delivering minimum scleral and apex doses of 300 Gy and 80 Gy, respectively, using a 15-mm or 20-mm plaque. For discrete, posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin. To ensure correct plaque positioning, any overlying extraocular muscles were dis-inserted, and the locations of both tumor and plaque edges were confirmed by transillumination and indentation. The main outcome measures were conservation of vision of 20/40 or better, 20/200 or better, and Counting Fingers or better, according to baseline variables. Results: The actuarial rate of conservation of 20/40 or better was 55% at 9 years, loss of such vision correlating with posterior tumor extension (p < 0.001), temporal tumor location (p = 0.001), increased tumor height (p = 0.01), and older age (p < 0.01) (Cox multivariate analysis). Similar analyses showed conservation of 20/200 or better in 57% of eyes at 9 years, loss correlating with reduced initial visual acuity (p < 0.001), posterior tumor extension (p < 0.001), and temporal tumor location (p = 0.006). Counting Fingers or better vision was conserved in 83% of patients at 9 years, loss correlating with increased tumor height (p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence occurred in 9 patients (actuarial rate, 3% at 9 years). Conclusion: Ruthenium{sup 106} brachytherapy of posterior choroidal melanoma achieves good conservation of vision if the tumor does not extend close to the optic nerve or fovea.

  18. Mental Health in Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trina Menden Anglin

    The United States federal government has a vested interest in the mental health of children and adolescents. It considers\\u000a the current state of mental health care for children a public crisis (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000). Approximately 21%\\u000a of children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 17 have a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder that causes at least

  19. Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery in Elderly People over 70 Years Old: Visual Acuity, Quality of Life, and Cost-Utility Values

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Haiyun; Bai, Lin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose To evaluate the influence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery on elderly patients in terms of visual acuity, vision-related quality of life and its cost-effectiveness. Methods Elderly patients over 70 years old, who were diagnosed and underwent RRD surgery at Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013. The participants received scleral buckling surgery and vitreous surgery with or without scleral buckling under retrobulbar anesthesia. We followed the patients for 1 year and collected best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), vision-related quality of life, and direct medical costs data. Utility values elicited by time-trade-off were analyzed to determine the quality of life. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in life expectancy were calculated and discounted at 3% annually. Costs per QALY gained were reported using the bootstrap method. Further analyses were made for two age groups, age 70–79 and age over 80 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test stability of the results. Results 98 patients were included in the study. The BCVA significantly improved by 0.53±0.44 (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR)) at the 1-year postoperative time point (p<0.001). Utility values increased from 0.77 to 0.84 (p<0.001), and an average of 0.4 QALYs were gained in the life expectancy. Costs per QALY gained from the RRD surgery were 33,186 Chinese Yuan (CNY) (5,276 US dollars (USD))/QALY; 24,535 CNY (3,901 USD)/QALY for the age group of 70–79 years and 71,240 CNY (11,326 USD)/QALY for the age group over 80 years. Conclusions RRD surgery improved the visual acuity and quality of life in the elderly patients over 70 years old. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, at a threshold of willingness to pay of 115,062 CNY (18,293 USD)/QALY, RRD surgery is cost effective in the elderly patients. PMID:25330168

  20. On mental privacy: the having of mental states 

    E-print Network

    Dembitzer, Simon David

    1998-01-01

    ) there are contemporary debates which are maintained, in large order, by the opposing sides subscribing to different notions of mental privacy; and (iii) a preliminary investigation makes clear that both mental states with propositional content and mental states with non...

  1. Neurobiology of Aging 32 (2011) 22542265 Compensatory responses to age-related decline in odor quality acuity

    E-print Network

    Cleland, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Neurobiology of Aging 32 (2011) 2254­2265 Compensatory responses to age-related decline in odor 2009 Available online 15 January 2010 Abstract The perceptual differentiation of odors can be measured acuity for odor quality that depends on neural circuitry within the olfactory bulb and is regulated

  2. The Development of a Computerized Version of Vandenburg's Mental Rotation Test and the Effect of Visuo-spatial Working Memory Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Shawn; Smith, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a test designed to allow meaningful and widespread computerized testing of various spatial factors. Examines the differences between traditional paper and pencil and computerized versions of the same test. Compares an interactive test designed to measure a working memory factor to the computerized version of…

  3. Implementing Mental Models Information Sciences Institute

    E-print Network

    Camp, L. Jean

    a network security test bed, and show that the implementations produce behaviors similar to those of users these models as the basis of an agent model of human behavior that can be used in a security test bed Bloomington, IN, USA ljcamp@indiana.edu Abstract--Users' mental models of security, though possibly incorrect

  4. Correlation between histological and behavioral measures of visual acuity in a zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis).

    PubMed

    Browman, H I; Gordon, W C; Evans, B I; O'Brien, W J

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of visual acuity in a pelagic freshwater zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Centrarchidae), were made using a behavioral measure, the maximum observed prey pursuit distance (MxPD), and a histological measure, the density of cone cells in the retina. The greatest number of pursuits occurs in the 0-30 degrees wedge of the visual field; 87% of all pursuits occur in the first 40 degrees. The longest pursuits (200 mm) also occur in this area and generally get shorter from 0 to 180 degrees (from forward-directed) in the visual field. Consistent with the behavioral results, the largest number of cone photoreceptors (13,000/mm2) is found in the far temporal retina along the eye's horizontal meridian. Cone cell densities in the corresponding region of the nasal retina are approximately half this value. The number of cones decreases dorsally and ventrally from the horizontal meridian. Although the absolute values of visual acuity calculated from cone cell topography (i.e. MxPDs of 500 mm) are 2-3 times greater than those observed behaviorally (i.e. MxPDs of 200 mm), the trends in visual acuity across the visual field obtained from both measures are consistent. We suggest that overestimates of visual acuity obtained from cone cell counts alone result from this measure's not accounting for, among other properties of the nervous system, cone cell convergence onto ganglion cells and higher brain centers. Behavioral measures of visual acuity are, therefore, likely to yield a more accurate estimate of an animal's visual abilities. PMID:2354354

  5. Mental Health Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    Rural Mental Health There is a significant need for mental health services in rural America. According to Substance Abuse and ... action to prevent suicides? Where can I find mental health statistics for rural populations? The Substance Abuse and ...

  6. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Child and Adolescent Mental Health Publications Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Fact ... the Adolescent Brain? In recognition of National Children’s Mental Health Awareness Day on May 8, 2014, parents gathered ...

  7. OT and Community Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Practice & Research Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy Mental Health Act AOTA's mental health legislation introduced in the ... Work Related For Professionals Ethics OT and Community Mental Health The overall goal of occupational therapy in community ...

  8. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 10th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  9. Mental Rotation Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of the most popular tasks used in measuring individual differences in spatial ability is a mental rotation task introduced by Shepard and Metzler (1971). This page provides information about use of a spatial ability task to illustrate the prinicple of mental rotation.

  10. BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises. BEATCALC will wake up your brain on Monday morning with a mental math exercise that will stimulate those gray cells. Each Monday you will receive instructions for an exercise that will enable you to do math computations mentally faster than a friend can do them on a calculator. For example, how about learning to square 65 or 95 mentally in quick time? You can beat that calculator! These exercises are designed for : (1) Foggy heads at work on Monday morning who need a mental jump-start for the week. (2) People who say "I never could do math" and need some math confidence. (3) Calculator cripples. Kids (and big kids) who need a calculator to do 8 times 9. (4) Individuals who have refused to think about numbers since fifth grade. Was it long division that did it? (5) Braggarts who would like to show up a colleague by doing math mentally faster than he/she can do it using a calculator. (6) Seniors who want to keep mentally alert by routinely exercising the noggin. (7) And other hardy and adventurous souls who can use a little mental stimulation. send email to beatcalc@aol.com in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE BEATCALC yourfirstname yourlastname

  11. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  12. Mental first aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ř. T. Foss

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a survey of staff of Oslo Sporveier who had been involved in serious incidents such as accidents resulting in severe personal injuries and death, suicide, robbery and assault. The survey was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Mental First Aid in a restrospective study. The introduction of Mental First Aid was based on the beneficial effects

  13. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    MedlinePLUS

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Division of Human Development and Disability What are ... gov CDC issues first comprehensive report on children’s mental health in the United States A new report from ...

  14. Mental Models and the Acquisition of a Complex Skill across Individuals and Teams: A Multilevel Study 

    E-print Network

    Munoz Galvez, Gonzalo Javier

    2014-01-13

    -level studies, the extant literature has not yet tested the validity of mental models as a multilevel construct. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which the relationships between mental models and performance generalizes...

  15. Frontoparietal white matter diffusion properties predict mental arithmetic skills in children

    E-print Network

    Wandell, Brian A.

    Frontoparietal white matter diffusion properties predict mental arithmetic skills in children about the relationship between white matter properties and performance on mental calculation tasks oxygen level­dependent signals in the parietal and frontal regions. We tested whether white matter

  16. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ? 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  17. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  18. Efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in enhancing visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function in adult hypermetropic anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Elvan; Balci, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of neural vision therapy, also termed perceptual vision therapy, in enhancing best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and contrast sensitivity function in amblyopic patients. Methods This prospective study enrolled 99 subjects previously diagnosed with unilateral hypermetropic amblyopia aged 9–50 years. The subjects were divided into two groups, with 53 subjects (53 eyes) in the perceptual vision therapy group and 46 subjects (46 eyes) in the control group. Because the nature of the treatment demands hard work and strict compliance, we enrolled the minimal number of subjects required to achieve statistically significant results. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Study phases included a baseline screening, a series of 45 training sessions with perceptual vision therapy, and an end-of-treatment examination. BCVA and contrast sensitivity function at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies were obtained for statistical analysis in both groups. All subjects had follow-up examinations within 4–8 months. With the exception of one subject from the study group and two subjects from the control group, all subjects had occlusion during childhood. The study was not masked. Results The results for the study group demonstrated a mean improvement of 2.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) lines in visual acuity (from 0.42 to 0.16 logMAR). Contrast sensitivity function improved at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies. The control group did not show any significant change in visual acuity or contrast sensitivity function. None of the treated eyes showed a drop in visual acuity. Manifest refractions remained unchanged during the study. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrate the efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in improving visual acuity. The 2.6 logMAR lines improvement in visual acuity is encouraging, and is consistent with the results of previous studies. However, long-term follow-up and further studies are needed. PMID:24376340

  19. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  20. Enhancing home visiting with mental health consultation.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Barbara Dillon; Mackrain, Mary; Perry, Deborah F; O'Brien, Kevin; Gwaltney, Margaret K

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting programs have been successful in engaging and enrolling families who are at high risk for stress, depression, and substance abuse. However, many of these mothers may not be receiving mental health services because home visitors lack the knowledge and skills to identify mental health or determine how to appropriately address these problems. In response, a growing number of home visiting programs are expanding their capacity by integrating a mental health provider into their ongoing operations. This approach, referred to as early childhood mental health consultation, involves a partnership between a professional consultant with early childhood mental health expertise and home visiting or family support programs, staff, and families. This integrated model holds the promise of promoting parent and child behavioral health by enhancing the capacity of home visitors to identify and appropriately address the unmet mental health needs of children and families. The article highlights efforts under way in several federally funded Linking Actions for Unmet Needs in Children's Health Project sites where local programs are testing the effectiveness of this model. PMID:24187122

  1. Effect of Passive Horizontal Rotations and Vertical Oscillations on Dynamic Visual Acuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Kulecz, Walter B.; Miller, Chris; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances after long duration space flight. These crewmembers may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons in various sea state conditions following a water landing. Exposure to even low frequency motions induced by sea conditions surrounding a vessel can cause significant fine and gross motor control problems affecting critical functions. The objective of this study was to document human motor and visual performance during simulated wave motion in the 0.1 to 2.0 Hz range. We examined in 12 healthy subjects the changes in accuracy when performing a seated visual target acquisition task in which the location of target was offset vertically during horizontal full body rotation at an oscillating frequency of 0.8 Hz (peak velocity of 160 deg/s). The main finding was that the accuracy of performance degraded in 7 of 12 subjects when acquiring vertical targets at perturbing frequencies of 0.8 Hz in the horizontal plane by one step size. We also examined in a separate study on 12 healthy subjects seated dynamic visual acuity (DVA) task performance during vertical full body oscillations at perturbing frequencies of 2 Hz (peak to peak motion of 5 cm). The main finding was that DVA was significantly reduced when acquiring targets at perturbing oscillations at frequencies of 2 Hz in the vertical plane by approximately 1 chart line. Thus low frequencies of perturbations in the horizontal and vertical planes can cause decrement in visual performance.

  2. Meta-analysis of best corrected visual acuity after treatment for myopic choroidal neovascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Xing, Yi-Qiao; Li, Tuo; Li, Yin; Song, Xiu-Sheng; Li, Jia-Zhang

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between Verteporfin with photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHOD Published literature from Medline, Premedline, Embase and the Cochrane Library from inception until November 2013 were retrieved. All studies evaluating the BCVA between Verteporfin with PDT and intravitreal anti-VEGF for myopic CNV were included. The results were pooled using mean difference (MD), a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS Finally, five studies enrolled 349 eyes were included in the meta-analysis. We inferred that the BCVA of myopic CNV after the treatment of anti-VEGF was significantly better compared with Verteporfin with PDT (MD=0.25, 95%CI:0.17-0.33, Z=5.97, P<0.00001). CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that intravitreal anti-VEGF could have a better BCVA after treatment than Verteporfin with PDT for myopic CNV. PMID:25161950

  3. Adaptation of the Central Retina for High Acuity Vision: Cones, the Fovea and the Avascular Zone

    PubMed Central

    Provis, Jan M; Dubis, Adam M; Maddess, Ted; Carroll, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Presence of a fovea centralis is directly linked to molecular specification of an avascular area in central retina, before the fovea (or `pit') begins to form. Modeling suggests that mechanical forces, generated within the eye, initiate formation of a pit within the avascular area, and its later remodeling in the postnatal period. Within the avascular area the retina is dominated by `midget' circuitry, in which signals are transferred from a single cone to a single bipolar cell, then a single ganglion cell. Thus in inner, central retina there are relatively few lateral connections between neurons. This renders the region adaptable to tangential forces, that translocate of ganglion cells laterally / centrifugally, to form the fovea. Optical coherence tomography enables live imaging of the retina, and shows that there is greater variation in the morphology of foveae in humans than previously thought. This variation is associated with differences in size of the avascular area and appears to be genetically based, but can be modified by environmental factors, including prematurity. Even when the fovea is absent (foveal hypoplasia), cones in central retina adopt an elongated and narrow morphology, enabling them to pack more densely to increase the sampling rate, and to act as more effective waveguides. Given these findings, what then is the adaptive advantage of a fovea? We suggest that the advantages of having a pit in central retina are relatively few, and minor, but together work to enhance acuity. PMID:23500068

  4. Correlation between Fluorescein Angiographic Findings and Visual Acuity in Behçet Retinal Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min; Kwon, Hee Jung; Choi, Eun Young; Kim, Sung Soo; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify significant fluorescein angiographic (FA) characteristics associated with visual acuity (VA) in Behçet retinal vasculitis. Materials and Methods Retrospective review of 86 eyes of 48 patients (age: 35.6±10.2 years) with Behçet retinal vasculitis were performed. VA and FA findings as well as correlation between them were assessed. Results The mean initial VA of eyes with posterior pole-involved vasculitis (63 eyes; 73.3%) was significantly worse than that of those with peripheral vasculitis (23 eye; 26.7%) (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution VA: 0.554±0.572 vs. 0.078±0.148; p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis revealed a more severe and diffuse pattern of vascular leakage in posterior pole-involved vasculitis compared to peripheral vasculitis (p<0.0001). Retinal vascular leakage (?=0.345; p<0.0001), optic disc hyperfluorescence (?=0.147; p=0.032), and macular leakage (?=0.107; p=0.047) were significantly associated with worse initial VA. During the follow up (mean: 33.3±17.9 months), the change of leakage showed no significant correlation with change of VA in posterior pole-involved vasculitis (?=0.199, p=0.092). Conclusion Posterior pole involvement, the degree of retinal vascular leakage, optic disc hyperfluorescence, and macular leakage are significantly associated with VA in Behçet retinal vasculitis. PMID:26069134

  5. Mental Health Matters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mental Health Matters is a collection of various mental health articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.

  6. MentalHealth.net

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mental health topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mental health, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mental health field.

  7. A Parametric Study of Mental Spatial Transformations of Bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Zacks; John M. Ollinger; Margaret A. Sheridan; Barbara Tversky

    2002-01-01

    Two classes of mental spatial transformation can be distinguished: Object-based spatial transformations are imagined movements of objects; and egocentric perspective transformations are imagined movements of one's point of view. The hypothesis that multiple neural systems contribute to these mental imagery operations was tested with functional MRI. Participants made spatial judgments about pictures of human bodies, and brain activity was analyzed

  8. College students' social anxiety associated with stress and mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi Kan; Jiang Nan; Chen Xuefeng; Wang Zhen; Gao Jing; Hu Weipeng

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. METHODS: 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEO), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self Consciousness Scale. RESUTL AND ANALYSIS: The college students' stressors were related to social anxiety and mental health.

  9. Further Evidence for Cognitive Inertia of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Dulaney, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    Forty young adults with mental retardation (MR) were compared to 40 young adults without mental retardation in tests examining postpractice interference effects in naming colors of Stroop words. The study concluded that practice developed automatized reading suppression responses which held greater cognitive inertia for longer periods among MR…

  10. Self-empowerment Choosing a mental health professional in California

    E-print Network

    Self-empowerment Choosing a mental health professional in California #12;Self- empowerment #12;It for medication, testing of a child with learning problems) that you may need to effectively resolve your issues different types of licensed mental health professionals. In California, they are regulated by different

  11. Does mental practice enhance performance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Driskell; Carolyn Copper; Aidan Moran

    1994-01-01

    Mental practice is the cognitive rehearsal of a task prior to performance. Although most researchers contend that mental practice is an effective means of enhancing performance, a clear consensus is precluded because (a) mental practice is often denned so loosely as to include almost any type of mental preparation and (b) empirical results are inconclusive. A meta-analysis of the literature

  12. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  13. Mental Mapping: A Classroom Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Les

    1978-01-01

    Examines potential uses of mental maps in the classroom by reviewing research efforts, providing an example of the differences between mental maps of two student groups, and suggesting how to use mental maps in the geography curriculum. Mental mapping (or cognitive mapping) refers to individuals' processes of collecting, storing, and retrieving…

  14. Student Mental Health Final Report

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    1 Student Mental Health Committee Final Report University of California Office of the President: Report of the University of California Student Mental Health Committee On behalf of the Student Mental in December 2005, and was given a charge to assess 1) trends in student mental health, 2) how these trends

  15. Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment Welcome to the Mental Health Clinic at Boynton Health or ADHD evaluation for review prior to scheduling your first medication appointment in the Mental Health). Contact the Medical Social Worker for resources­ 612-624-8182. · Long Term Therapy: The Mental Health

  16. Students & Mental Health Resource Pack

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Mark

    Students & Mental Health Resource Pack Produced by - www.rethink.org/at-ease/ SHEFFIELD EARLY is severe mental illness? 1.4 Treatment and prognosis What is mental health awareness? 2.1 Introduction 2 for students with experience of mental health problems 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Pre-entry guidance for students 5

  17. Mental Health and Mass Violence

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Mental Health and Mass Violence Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims Institute of Mental Health (2002). Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological are available through: The National Institute of Mental Health Office of Communications and Public Liaison 6001

  18. Color matches in diseased eyes with good acuity: detection of deficits in cone optical density and in chromatic discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, William H.; Fish, Gary E.

    1995-10-01

    Reduced foveal cone optical density in diseased eyes with normal acuity can affect color matches. Using field diameters of 1 deg, 2 deg, 4 deg, and 8 deg, we measured mean color-match midpoints and match widths in patients who had good acuity and who hereditary macular degeneration ( n=12 ), retinitis pigmentosa ( n=19 ), and glaucoma ( n=18 ). Results were compared with those for normal observers of comparable ages. Mean color-match midpoints were abnormal only for the population with hereditary macular degeneration, indicating a reduction in cone optical density in the central 4 deg. Mean color-match widths were enlarged for both hereditary macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, a result consistent with a reduction in the number of foveal cones. chromatic discrimination, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma.

  19. Mental Rotation Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

  20. Mental Math Strategies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 3-page document (pdf) offers numerous strategies that children can use to perform addition, subtraction, and multiplication mentally. These strategies help develop fact fluency, number sense, operation sense, and use of patterns.

  1. Nutrition and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to keep you feeling better physically and emotionally. Omega-3 fatty acids improve heart health by reducing “bad” cholesterol in your body and increasing “good” cholesterol. Omega-3 has also shown promise for improving mental health. ...

  2. Defending the Mentally Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournos, Francine; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of mental health and social services personnel in helping patients apply for recertification for Supplementary Security Income (SSI) benefits. Describes the appeal process and provides guidelines for professionals. (JAC)

  3. Florida Mental Health Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Louis de le Parte Florida Mental Health Institute is "to improve the lives of people with mental, addictive, and developmental disorders through research, training, and education." The Institute was created by the Florida legislature in 1967 and its work encompasses a range of mental health issues coupled with a rigorous outreach program. The materials here are divided into six thematic areas, including Publications/Reports, Research, and State & Local Partners. In the Publications/Reports area, visitors can learn about the Instituteâ??s scholarly activities through its quarterly newsletter and then browse through news briefs and Medicaid studies if so desired. Moving along, the Research area contains updates and reports on work in eight different areas, including autism, child welfare, and veteran's mental health affairs. Finally, the site also includes a section where visitors can contact the Institute to ask questions about its academic work and mission.

  4. Stigmatizing attitudes about mental illness and allocation of resources to mental health services.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C; Warpinski, Amy C; Gracia, Gabriela

    2004-08-01

    This study tests a social psychological model (Skitka & Tetlock, 1992). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 491-522; [1993]. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 1205-1223 stating that policy maker decisions regarding the allocation of resources to mental health services are influenced by their attitudes towards people with mental illness and treatment efficacy. Fifty four individuals participated in a larger study of education about mental health stigma. Participants completed various measures of resource allocation preferences for mandated treatment and rehabilitation services, attributions about people with mental illness, and factors that influence allocation preferences including perceived treatment efficacy. Results showed significant attitudinal correlates with resource allocation preferences for mandated treatment, but no correlates to rehabilitation services. In particular, people who pity people with mental illness as well as those that endorse coercive and segregated treatments, were more likely to rate resource allocation to mandated care as important. Perceived treatment efficacy was also positively associated with resource allocation preferences for mandated treatment. A separate behavioral measure that involved donating money to NAMI was found to be inversely associated with blaming people for their mental illness and not being willing to help them. Implications of these findings on strategies that seek to increase resources for mental health programs are discussed. PMID:15453083

  5. On developmental mental architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juyang Weng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a computational theory of developmental mental architectures for artificial and natural systems, motivated by neuroscience. The work is an attempt to approximately model biological mental architectures using mathematical tools. Six types of architecture are presented, beginning with the observation-driven Markov decision process as Type-1. From Type-1 to Type-6, the architecture progressively becomes more complete toward the necessary

  6. Mental workload and driving.

    PubMed

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers' training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  7. Mental workload and driving

    PubMed Central

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  8. Correlation between Histological and Behavioral Measures of Visual Acuity in a Zooplanktivorous Fish, the White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard I. Browman; William C. Gordon; Barbara I. Evans; W. John OBrien

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of visual acuity in a pelagic freshwater zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Centrarchidae), were made using a behavioral measure, the maximum observed prey pursuit distance (MxPD), and a histological measure, the density of cone cells in the retina. The greatest number of pursuits occurs in the 0–30° wedge of the visual field; 87% of all pursuits occur

  9. Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

  10. The Development and Field Testing of an Instructional Module Designed to Enhance the Self-Concept of Educable Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, C. Thomas; Fifield, Marvin

    1981-01-01

    The instructional module was field-tested with two teachers and their junior high school EMR students. Based on the scores of pretests and posttests of self-concept, the students viewed their own behavior more positively. (Author/SB)

  11. Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

  12. Does Assessing Eye Alignment along with Refractive Error or Visual Acuity Increase Sensitivity for Detection of Strabismus in Preschool Vision Screening?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Preschool vision screenings often include refractive error or visual acuity (VA) testing to detect amblyopia, as well as alignment testing to detect strabismus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of combining screening for eye alignment with screening for refractive error or reduced VA on sensitivity for detection of strabismus, with specificity set at 90% and 94%. Methods Over 3 years, 4040 preschool children were screened in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study, with different screening tests administered each year. Examinations were performed to identify children with strabismus. The best screening tests for detecting children with any targeted condition were noncycloplegic retinoscopy (NCR), Retinomax autorefractor (Right Manufacturing, Virginia Beach, VA), SureSight Vision Screener (Welch-Allyn, Inc., Skaneateles, NY), and Lea Symbols (Precision Vision, LaSalle, IL and Good-Lite Co., Elgin, IL) and HOTV optotypes VA tests. Analyses were conducted with these tests of refractive error or VA paired with the best tests for detecting strabismus (unilateral cover testing, Random Dot “E” [RDE] and Stereo Smile Test II [Stereo Optical, Inc., Chicago, IL]; and MTI PhotoScreener [PhotoScreener, Inc., Palm Beach, FL]). The change in sensitivity that resulted from combining a test of eye alignment with a test of refractive error or VA was determined with specificity set at 90% and 94%. Results Among the 4040 children, 157 were identified as having strabismus. For screening tests conducted by eye care professionals, the addition of a unilateral cover test to a test of refraction generally resulted in a statistically significant increase (range, 15%–25%) in detection of strabismus. For screening tests administered by trained lay screeners, the addition of Stereo Smile II to SureSight resulted in a statistically significant increase (21%) in sensitivity for detection of strabismus. Conclusions The most efficient and low-cost ways to achieve a statistically significant increase in sensitivity for detection of strabismus were by combining the unilateral cover test with the autorefractor (Retinomax) administered by eye care professionals and by combining Stereo Smile II with SureSight administered by trained lay screeners. The decision of whether to include a test of alignment should be based on the screening program’s goals (e.g., targeted visual conditions) and resources. PMID:17591881

  13. Ophthalmologic Psychophysical Tests Support OCT Findings in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salobrar-Garcia, Elena; de Hoz, Rosa; Rojas, Blanca; Ramirez, Ana I.; Yubero, Raquel; Gil, Pedro; Trivińo, Alberto; Ramirez, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze in mild Alzheimer's disease (MAD) patients, GDS-4 (Reisberg Scale), whether or not some psychophysical tests (PTs) support OCT macular findings in the same group of MAD patients reported previously. Methods. Twenty-three MAD patients and 28 age-matched control subjects with mean Mini Mental State Examination of 23.3 and 28.2, respectively, with no ocular disease or systemic disorders affecting vision were included. Best-corrected visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS) (3, 6, 12, and 18 cpds), color perception (CP), and perception digital test (PDT) were tested in one eye of each patient. Results. In comparison with the controls, MAD patients presented (i) a significant decrease in VA, PDT, and CS for all spatial frequencies analyzed, especially the higher ones, and (ii) a significant increase in unspecific errors on the blue axis (P < 0.05 in all instances). In MAD patients, a wide aROC curve was plotted in all PTs. Conclusions. In MAD, CS, VA, and the tritan axis in CP were impaired. The PTs with the greatest predictive value are the higher spatial frequencies in CS and tritan unspecific errors in CP. PT abnormalities are consistent with the structural findings reported in the same MAD patients using OCT.

  14. The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments

    PubMed Central

    Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Lindskog, Marcus; Nilsson, Hĺkan; Kerimi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahneman and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others. PMID:25140163

  15. Effect of hemodialysis on visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular thickness in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Chelala, Elias; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Slim, Elise; Abdelmassih, Youssef; Fakhoury, Henry; Baz, Patrick; Bejjani, Riad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD) on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and central foveal thickness (CFT) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods Forty-nine eyes from 49 chronic kidney-disease patients were analyzed. Causes of chronic kidney disease included diabetes mellitus (n=9 patients), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n=15 patients), and other causes (n=25 patients). All patients underwent HD in the Dialysis Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital. Best-corrected visual acuity, CFT, and IOP were evaluated before and after HD. CFT was measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Results Neither decimal best-corrected visual acuity (pre-HD 0.71±0.32, post-HD 0.72±0.31; P=0.877) nor CFT (pre-HD 251.39±39.29, post-HD 253.09±39.26; P=0.272) significantly changed after HD. However, mean IOP significantly decreased from 13.99±2.48 before HD to 12.65±2.41 mmHg after HD (P=0.001). IOP change was significantly correlated with serum albumin levels (P=0.008) and weight changes (P=0.047). Conclusion HD can affect various ocular parameters. This is particularly true of IOP, which decreases significantly following HD. PMID:25657575

  16. Training regimen involving cyclic induction of pupil constriction during far accommodation improves visual acuity in myopic children

    PubMed Central

    Yuda, Kenji; Uozato, Hiroshi; Hara, Naoto; Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Hisahara, Satoru; Horie, Hiroko; Nakajima, Satomi; Horie, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Myopia in school-age children has become increasingly prevalent in industrialized countries, especially in Asia. A large population of school-age children still suffers from low visual acuity. We have developed a novel, safe and noninvasive training method to activate a pupillary constriction response during far accommodation that results in improved visual acuity. Methods Myopic children (n = 95) were treated for 3-minute sessions up to twice a week for 12–106 weeks. We stimulated quick cycles of near/far accommodation by displaying a visual object on a LCD screen and moving the screen in cycles from a near (25 cm) to a far (70 cm) point and back, while keeping the retinal projection size and brightness of the object constant. Results Mechanistically, we noted pupillary constriction upon far accommodation in trained myopic children, which was not seen in normal subjects or in untrained myopic children. Eighty five percent (52/61) of trained myopic right eyes with two sessions weekly experienced improved visual acuity (VA) by more than 0.1 logMAR units with an average improvement of 0.30 ± 0.03 standard error of mean (SEM) logMAR units. With maintained training, most eyes’ improved VA stayed almost constant, for more than 50 weeks in the case of 12 long trained subjects. Conclusions This simple, short and safe accommodation training greatly improves the quality of vision in a large population suffering from refractive abnormalities. PMID:20463792

  17. Effects of filtering of harmonics from biosonar echoes on delay acuity by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Bates, Mary E; Simmons, James A

    2010-08-01

    Big brown bats emit FM biosonar sounds containing two principal harmonics (FM1 approximately 55-22 kHz;FM2 approximately 105-45 kHz). To examine the role of harmonics, they were selectively filtered from stimuli in electronic-echo delay discrimination experiments. Positive stimuli were delayed by 3.16 ms (55 cm simulated target range); negative stimuli were by delayed by 3.96 ms (68 cm). This large 800-micros delay difference (nearly 14 cm) was easily discriminated for echoes containing equal-strength FM1 and FM2. Performance gradually decreased as highpass filters removed progressively larger segments from FM1. For echoes with FM2 alone, performance collapsed to chance, but performance remained good for lowpass echoes containing FM1 alone. Attenuation of FM2 by 3 dB relative to FM1 also decreased performance, but shortening electronic delay of the attenuated FM2 by 48 micros counteracted amplitude-latency trading and restored performance. Bats require the auditory representations of FM1 and FM2 to be in temporal register for high delay acuity. Misalignment of neuronal responses degrades acuity, but outright removal of FM2, leaving only FM1, causes little loss of acuity. Functional asymmetry of harmonics reflects lowpass effects from beaming and atmospheric propagation, which leave FM1 intact. It may cooperate with latency shifts to aid in suppression of clutter. PMID:20707464

  18. Effects of filtering of harmonics from biosonar echoes on delay acuity by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Mary E.; Simmons, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Big brown bats emit FM biosonar sounds containing two principal harmonics (FM1?55–22 kHz;FM2?105–45 kHz). To examine the role of harmonics, they were selectively filtered from stimuli in electronic-echo delay discrimination experiments. Positive stimuli were delayed by 3.16 ms (55 cm simulated target range); negative stimuli were by delayed by 3.96 ms (68 cm). This large 800-?s delay difference (nearly 14 cm) was easily discriminated for echoes containing equal-strength FM1 and FM2. Performance gradually decreased as highpass filters removed progressively larger segments from FM1. For echoes with FM2 alone, performance collapsed to chance, but performance remained good for lowpass echoes containing FM1 alone. Attenuation of FM2 by 3 dB relative to FM1 also decreased performance, but shortening electronic delay of the attenuated FM2 by 48 ?s counteracted amplitude-latency trading and restored performance. Bats require the auditory representations of FM1 and FM2 to be in temporal register for high delay acuity. Misalignment of neuronal responses degrades acuity, but outright removal of FM2, leaving only FM1, causes little loss of acuity. Functional asymmetry of harmonics reflects lowpass effects from beaming and atmospheric propagation, which leave FM1 intact. It may cooperate with latency shifts to aid in suppression of clutter. PMID:20707464

  19. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N?=?52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only. PMID:24743576

  20. Microcomputer-based tests for repeated-measures: Metric properties and predictive validities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Baltzley, Dennis R.; Dunlap, William P.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

    1989-01-01

    A menu of psychomotor and mental acuity tests were refined. Field applications of such a battery are, for example, a study of the effects of toxic agents or exotic environments on performance readiness, or the determination of fitness for duty. The key requirement of these tasks is that they be suitable for repeated-measures applications, and so questions of stability and reliability are a continuing, central focus of this work. After the initial (practice) session, seven replications of 14 microcomputer-based performance tests (32 measures) were completed by 37 subjects. Each test in the battery had previously been shown to stabilize in less than five 90-second administrations and to possess retest reliabilities greater than r = 0.707 for three minutes of testing. However, all the tests had never been administered together as a battery and they had never been self-administered. In order to provide predictive validity for intelligence measurement, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wonderlic Personnel Test were obtained on the same subjects.

  1. Sporadic Visual Acuity Loss in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Benjamin J.; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Levy, Nicole E.; Maguire, Maureen G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate transient, large visual acuity (VA) decreases, termed sporadic vision loss, during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Cohort within a randomized clinical trial. Methods Setting Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT). Study Population 1185 CATT patients. Main Outcome Measures incidence of sporadic vision loss and odds ratio (OR) for association with patient and ocular factors. Sporadic vision loss was a decline of ? 15 letters from the previous visit, followed by a return at the next visit to no more than 5 letters worse than the visit before the VA loss. Results There were 143 sporadic vision loss events in 122/1185 (10.3%) patients. Mean VA at two years for those with and without sporadic vision loss was 58.5 (~20/63) and 68.4 (~20/40) letters, respectively (P < 0.001). Among patients treated pro re nata, no injection was given for 27.6% (27/98) of sporadic vision loss events. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that baseline predictors for sporadic vision loss included worse baseline VA (OR 2.92, 95%CI:1.65–5.17 for ? 20/200 compared with ? 20/40), scar (OR 2.21, 95%CI:1.22–4.01), intraretinal foveal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OR 1.80, 95%CI:1.11–2.91), and medical history of anxiety (OR 1.90, 95%CI:1.12–3.24) and syncope (OR 2.75, 95%CI:1.45–5.22). Refraction decreased the likelihood of sporadic vision loss (OR 0.62, 95%CI:0.42–0.91). Conclusions Approximately 10% of CATT patients had sporadic vision loss. Baseline predictors included AMD-related factors and factors independent of AMD. These data are relevant for clinicians in practice and those involved in clinical trials. PMID:24727261

  2. Association between ambient noise exposure, hearing acuity, and risk of acute occupational injury

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the associations between acute workplace injury risk, ambient noise exposure, and hearing acuity, adjusting for reported hearing protection use. Methods In a cohort of 9220 aluminum manufacturing workers studied over six years (33 300 person-years, 13 323 person-jobs), multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of all injuries as well as serious injuries by noise exposure category and hearing threshold level (HTL) adjusting for recognized and potential confounders. Results Compared to noise <82 dBA, higher exposure was associated with elevated risk in a monotonic and statistically significant exposure–response pattern for all injuries and serious injuries with higher risk estimates observed for serious injuries [82–84.99 dBA: RR 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.96–1.64; 85–87.99 dBA: RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.85; ?88 dBA: RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.52–3.47]. Hearing loss was associated with increased risk for all injuries, but was not a significant predictor of risk for the subset of more serious injuries. Compared to those without hearing loss, workers with HTL ?25 dB had 21% increased all injury risk (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09–1.33) while those with HTL 10–24.99 dB had 6% increased risk (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00–1.13). Reported hearing protection type did not predict injury risk. Conclusion Noise exposure levels as low as 85 dBA may increase workplace injury risk. HTL was associated with increased risk for all, but not the subset of serious, injuries. Additional study is needed both to confirm the observed associations and explore causal pathways. PMID:25137556

  3. Vision in avian emberizid foragers: maximizing both binocular vision and fronto-lateral visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Bret A; Pita, Diana; Tyrrell, Luke P; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Avian species vary in their visual system configuration, but previous studies have often compared single visual traits between two to three distantly related species. However, birds use different visual dimensions that cannot be maximized simultaneously to meet different perceptual demands, potentially leading to trade-offs between visual traits. We studied the degree of inter-specific variation in multiple visual traits related to foraging and anti-predator behaviors in nine species of closely related emberizid sparrows, controlling for phylogenetic effects. Emberizid sparrows maximize binocular vision, even seeing their bill tips in some eye positions, which may enhance the detection of prey and facilitate food handling. Sparrows have a single retinal center of acute vision (i.e. fovea) projecting fronto-laterally (but not into the binocular field). The foveal projection close to the edge of the binocular field may shorten the time to gather and process both monocular and binocular visual information from the foraging substrate. Contrary to previous work, we found that species with larger visual fields had higher visual acuity, which may compensate for larger blind spots (i.e. pectens) above the center of acute vision, enhancing predator detection. Finally, species with a steeper change in ganglion cell density across the retina had higher eye movement amplitude, probably due to a more pronounced reduction in visual resolution away from the fovea, which would need to be moved around more frequently. The visual configuration of emberizid passive prey foragers is substantially different from that of previously studied avian groups (e.g. sit-and-wait and tactile foragers). PMID:25750415

  4. Phonological Abstraction in the Mental Lexicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. McQueen; Anne Cutler; Dennis Norris

    A perceptual learning experiment provides evidence that the mental lexicon cannot consist solely of detailed acoustic traces of recognition episodes. In a training lexical decision phase, listeners heard an ambiguous (f-s) fricative sound, replacing either (f) or (s) in words. In a test phase, listeners then made lexical decisions to visual targets following auditory primes. Critical materials were minimal pairs

  5. Mental imagery verbal processes: A developmental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara D. Forisha

    1975-01-01

    Administered a battery of 9 tests, including verbal and imaginal measures, to 200 children in Grades 1-5 at 2 private suburban elementary schools. Results reveal that verbal processes and mental imagery developed in a curvilinear manner with parallel rates of change. Factor analyses also showed that the 2 components of imagery (cognitive and subjective) were distinct from each other and

  6. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  7. A de novo paradigm for mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisenka E L M Vissers; Joep de Ligt; Christian Gilissen; Irene Janssen; Marloes Steehouwer; Petra de Vries; Bart van Lier; Peer Arts; Nienke Wieskamp; Marisol del Rosario; Bregje W M van Bon; Alexander Hoischen; Bert B A de Vries; Han G Brunner; Joris A Veltman

    2010-01-01

    The per-generation mutation rate in humans is high. De novo mutations may compensate for allele loss due to severely reduced fecundity in common neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases, explaining a major paradox in evolutionary genetic theory. Here we used a family based exome sequencing approach to test this de novo mutation hypothesis in ten individuals with unexplained mental retardation. We identified

  8. Mental Models: Understanding the Impact of Fantasy Violence on Children's Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krcmar, Marina; Curtis, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Tests the efficacy of mental models in understanding the effect of exposure to fantasy violence on children's responses to and reasoning about moral dilemmas involving aggression. Offers a possible extension to mental models that is consistent with current theory in cognitive science. Suggests that the activation of mental models regarding…

  9. Perceived Social Support and Mental Retardation: A Social–Cognitive Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yona Lunsky; Betsey A. Benson

    2001-01-01

    Adults with mental retardation tend to have difficulty accurately interpreting social situations as well as the emotions of others. Predictions from a social–cognitive model of perceived social support were tested with 50 adults with mild mental retardation. Videotaped scenes portraying three levels of support were presented. The ratings of support perceptions provided by adults with mental retardation were contrasted with

  10. The Effect of Level of Patient Acuity, Critical Care Experience, and ACLS Certification on Clinical Decision Making: Implications for Computer Decision Support Systems

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Suzanne Bakken

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effect of patient acuity, critical care experience, and ACLS certification on clinical decision making. Each subject (N=68) completed two computerized clinical simulations. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) represented the high acuity situation and atrial flutter (AF) the lower acuity situation. Clinical decision making was measured by proficiency score, patient outcome (cure/die), and amount of data collected. In the AF simulation, proficiency scores were higher (p=.000), more dysrhythmias were cured (p<.005), and more data were collected (p=.040) than in the VT simulation. Experienced and inexperienced nurses did not differ on proficiency score, however, inexperienced nurses collected more data (p=.048) and cured fewer atrial flutter simulations (p=.04). ACLS certified nurses had higher proficiency scores (p=.033) and collected less data (p=.048). Clinical decision making on two simulations was affected by patient acuity, critical care experience, and ACLS certification. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of clinical decision support systems.

  11. Associations among Visual Acuity and Vision- and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Kempen, John H.; Dunn, James P.; Holland, Gary N.; Latkany, Paul; Rao, Narsing A.; Sen, H. Nida; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Wang, Robert C.; Holbrook, Janet T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the associations between visual acuity and self-reported visual function; visual acuity and health-related quality of life (QoL) metrics; a summary measure of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL; and individual domains of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL in patients with uveitis. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity, vision-related functioning as assessed by the NEI VFQ-25, and health-related QoL as assessed by the SF-36 and EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaires were obtained at enrollment in a clinical trial of uveitis treatments. Multivariate regression and Spearman correlations were used to evaluate associations between visual acuity, vision-related function, and health-related QoL. Results. Among the 255 patients, median visual acuity in the better-seeing eyes was 20/25, the vision-related function score indicated impairment (median, 60), and health-related QoL scores were within the normal population range. Better visual acuity was predictive of higher visual function scores (P ? 0.001), a higher SF-36 physical component score, and a higher EQ-5D health utility score (P < 0.001). The vision-specific function score was predictive of all general health-related QoL (P < 0.001). The correlations between visual function score and general quality of life measures were moderate (? = 0.29–0.52). Conclusions. The vision-related function score correlated positively with visual acuity and moderately positively with general QoL measures. Cost–utility analyses relying on changes in generic healthy utility measures will be more likely to detect changes when there are clinically meaningful changes in vision-related function, rather than when there are only changes in visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00132691.) PMID:22247489

  12. Mentally Gifted Disadvantaged Students: An Investigation of Methods of Identification, Including the Use of "Culture Fair" Tests, at the Eighth Grade Level. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skager, Rodney; Fitz-Gibbon, Carol

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a justifiable and efficient procedure for locating the top two percent of the eighth grade students in an inner-city junior high school. The WISC performance IQ was chosen as the criterion measure. Four screening measures were used to select students for the WISC: an achievement test (the California…

  13. Personality, Negative Interactions, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that an individual’s personality traits may mediate the relationship between social support and mental health. This study uses two national data sets to test a conceptual model that integrates personality, social support, negative interactions, and psychological distress. Results suggest that, beyond the influence of personality, social support is negatively associated with psychological distress, and negative interactions are positively associated with such distress. The findings also suggest that personality has direct and indirect effects, through social support and negative interactions, on psychological distress. Findings specify how positive and negative facets of relationships and personality influence mental health outcomes. PMID:21151733

  14. Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... curesma.org > learn about sma > causes & diagnoses > testing Testing An SMA diagnosis must be confirmed through genetic ... and must be identified through further testing. Prenatal Testing Prenatal testing is used to determine if a ...

  15. Co-morbidity and visual acuity are risk factors for health-related quality of life decline: five-month follow-up EQ-5D data of visually impaired older patients

    PubMed Central

    van Nispen, Ruth MA; de Boer, Michiel R; Hoeijmakers, Janneke GJ; Ringens, Peter J; van Rens, Ger HMB

    2009-01-01

    Background Co-morbidity is a common phenomenon in the elderly and is considered to be a major threat to quality of life (QOL). Knowledge of co-existing conditions or patient characteristics that lead to an increased QOL decline is important for individual care, and for public health purposes. In visually impaired older adults, it remains unclear which co-existing conditions or other characteristics influence their health-related QOL. Our aim was to present a risk profile of characteristics and conditions which predict deterioration of QOL in visually impaired older patients. Methods Analyses were performed on data from an observational study among 296 visually impaired older patients from four Dutch hospitals. QOL was measured with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and at five-month follow-up. Nine co-existing condition categories (musculoskeletal; diabetes; heart; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma; hearing impairment; stroke; cancer; gastrointestinal conditions) and six patient characteristics (age; gender; visual acuity; social status; independent living; rehabilitation type) were tested in a linear regression model to determine the risk profile. The model was corrected for baseline EQ-5D scores. In addition, baseline EQ-5D scores were compared with reference scores from a younger visually impaired population and from elderly in the general population. Results From the 296 patients, 50 (16.9%) were lost to follow-up. Patients who reported diabetes, COPD or asthma, consequences of stroke, musculoskeletal conditions, cancer, gastrointestinal conditions or higher logMAR Visual Acuity values, experienced a lower QOL. After five months, visual acuity, musculoskeletal conditions, COPD/asthma and stroke predicted a decline in QOL (R2 = 0.20). At baseline, the visually impaired older patients more often reported moderate or severe problems on most EQ-5D dimensions than the two reference groups. Conclusion In visually impaired older patients, visual acuity, musculoskeletal conditions, COPD/asthma and stroke predicted a relatively rapid decline in health-related QOL. With this risk profile, a specific referral by the ophthalmologist to another sub-specialty may have a beneficial effect on the patient's health-related QOL. A referral by the ophthalmologist or optometrist to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation service seems appropriate for some patients with co-morbidity. The current results need to be confirmed in studies using pre-structured questionnaires to assess co-morbidity. PMID:19243624

  16. Musical Ability and Mental Subnormality: An Experimental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeish, J.; Higgs, G.

    1982-01-01

    Research among mentally and educationally retarded children found that retardation in general ability was associated with retardation in musical ability. Factor analyses of musical tests identified a factor of musical ability, independent of intelligence, for this group. (Author/MJL)

  17. X-linked mental retardation associated with macro-orchidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Turner; C Eastman; J Casey; A McLeay; P Procopis; B Turner

    1975-01-01

    Two families are described with an X-linked form of mental retardation in whom the affected males were found to have bilateral enlargement of the testes. No conclusive evidence of any endocrinological disturbance was found.

  18. Males have greater g: Sex differences in general mental ability from 100,000 17- to 18-year-olds on the Scholastic Assessment Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas N. Jackson; J. Philippe Rushton

    2006-01-01

    In this study we found that 17- to 18-year old males averaged 3.63 IQ points higher than did their female counterparts on the 1991 Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT). We analysed 145 item responses from 46,509 males and 56,007 females (total N=102,516) using a principal components procedure. We found (1) the g factor underlies both the SAT Verbal (SAT-V) and the

  19. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. PMID:25133916

  20. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  1. The mental speed—IQ relationship: unitary or modular?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentin Bucik

    1996-01-01

    In his “specificity of mind” view, Ceci (1990a) asserted that mental speed-IQ relationships are only due to their sharing of a common knowledge base. According to the contrasting “singularity of mind” view, the mental speed-IQ correlation should reflect general intelligence. We tested these two views by letting 120 participants perform a battery of paper-and-pencil elementary cognitive tests (ECTs): a modified

  2. Axial Length/Corneal Radius Ratio: Association with Refractive State and Role on Myopia Detection Combined with Visual Acuity in Chinese Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between the AL/CR ratio and refractive state and explore the effectiveness of this ratio in the assessment of myopia, especially when combined with uncorrected visual acuity in schoolchildren among whom myopia is common. Methods Cross sectional study. 4686 children from 6 primary schools, aged from 6 to 12 years were selected using the clustered-stratified random sampling method. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature (CR), and cycloplegic refraction were tested. Refraction was measured as the spherical equivalent (SE). Results 3922 children were included in the analysis. The mean AL/CR ratio was 2.973±0.002, increased with age, and different in gender. The coefficients of correlations of the SE with the AL/CR ratio, AL, and CR were -0.811, -0.657, and 0.095, respectively. Linear regression showed a 10.72 D shift towards myopia with every 1 unit increase in the AL/CR ratio (P<0.001, r2 = 66.4%). The estimated SE values obtained by substituting the AL/CR ratio and gender back to the regression model that were within a difference of ±0.50 D in ATE/LER (allowable total error and limits for erroneous results) zones compared to the actual measured values was 51%. The area under the ROC curve of the AL/CR ratio, AL, and UCVA for myopia detection were 0.910, 0.822, and 0.889, respectively, and the differences between each pair were statistically significant (P<0.01). At a specificity of 90%, the sensitivities were 72.98%, 50.50%, 71.99%, and 82.96%, respectively, for the AL/CR ratio, AL, UCVA, and the combination of the AL/CR ratio and UCVA. Conclusions The AL/CR ratio was found to explain the total variance in SE better than AL alone. The effectiveness of the AL/CR ratio was statistically significantly better than UCVA for detecting myopia in children, and combining the two produced increased sensitivity without significantly decreasing specificity. PMID:25693186

  3. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  4. Community Mental Health Model for Campus Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, James H.

    University and college mental health services have historically modeled themselves after a traditional clinic model. Few delivery systems have been influenced by the community mental health model. The major reason for this lack of influence appears to be the "in loco parentis" stance of colleges and universities. A campus mental health service…

  5. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  6. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Older Adults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a ... increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on Depression and Older ...

  7. Mental Health Treatment Program Locator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Mental Health Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health treatment programs nearest you, find your State on ...

  8. Understanding Your Mental Health Insurance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF version of this document . Insurance benefits for mental health services have changed a lot in recent years. ... health care. It is important to understand your mental health care coverage so that you can be an ...

  9. Mental Health Care: Who's Who

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living Listen Espańol Text Size Email Print Share Mental Health Care: Who's Who Article Body Psychiatrist: An M. ... degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: Master’s degree and several years of supervised ...

  10. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts the physical body, it can also impact emotional and ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

  11. FastStats: Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on mental health Identifying Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children Aged ...

  12. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  13. Outcomes of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy: Analysis of dose-volume histograms and prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Azusa [Hospital, Charged Particle Research Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)]. E-mail: azusa@nirs.go.jp; Mizoe, Jun-etsu [Hospital, Charged Particle Research Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mizota, Atsushi [Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [Hospital, Charged Particle Research Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the tolerance dose for retention of visual acuity in patients with head-and-neck tumors treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: From June 1994 to March 2000, 163 patients with tumors in the head and neck or skull base region were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Analysis was performed on 54 optic nerves (ONs) corresponding to 30 patients whose ONs had been included in the irradiated volume. These patients showed no evidence of visual impairment due to other factors and had a follow-up period of >4 years. All patients had been informed of the possibility of visual impairment before treatment. We evaluated the dose-complication probability and the prognostic factors for the retention of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy, using dose-volume histograms and multivariate analysis. Results: The median age of 30 patients (14 men, 16 women) was 57.2 years. Median prescribed total dose was 56.0 gray equivalents (GyE) at 3.0-4.0 GyE per fraction per day (range, 48-64 GyE; 16-18 fractions; 4-6 weeks). Of 54 ONs that were analyzed, 35 had been irradiated with <57 GyE (maximum dose [D{sub max}]) resulting in no visual loss. Conversely, 11 of the 19 ONs (58%) irradiated with >57 GyE (D{sub max}) suffered a decrease of visual acuity. In all of these cases, the ONs had been involved in the tumor before carbon ion radiotherapy. In the multivariate analysis, a dose of 20% of the volume of the ON (D{sub 2}) was significantly associated with visual loss. Conclusions: The occurrence of visual loss seems to be correlated with a delivery of >60 GyE to 20% of the volume of the ON.

  14. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  15. Inferences about mental states

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    Human social cognition relies on an ability to predict what others will think, feel or do in novel situations. Research in social neuroscience has consistently observed several brain regions that contribute ubiquitously to these abilities, including medial prefrontal cortex and aspects of lateral and medial parietal cortex. Interestingly, parallel work has suggested that this same network of regions subserves several seemingly distinct phenomena—notably, the abilities to remember the past, imagine the future and visualize spatial layouts—suggesting the existence of a common set of cognitive processes devoted to projecting oneself into worlds that differ mentally, temporally or physically from one's current experience. This use of self-projection to understand others' minds requires perceivers to solve three distinct cognitive challenges: (i) generating a simulated facsimile of one's own hypothetical mental states in a given situation, (ii) suppressing one's own current mental states, and (iii) deciding on the appropriateness of simulated states for understanding a particular other person. The present paper reviews recent psychology and neuroscience research aimed at understanding the underlying mechanisms that allow humans to solve each of these cognitive challenges to use self-projection to predict and understand the mental states of others. PMID:19528012

  16. Educating the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, William O.

    1979-01-01

    A school can be an educational opportunity for mentally retarded citizens only if its teachers and learners can decide together on such things as the purposes toward which activities are directed, the means of reaching them, and the subject matter to be used in stimulating thinking. (Author/NQ)

  17. Violencia y salud mental

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALFREDO SAAVEDRA-CASTILLO

    The author reviews the relationship between violence and mental health. Initially, a review about general concepts of violence is made in order to place oneself into a macrosocial perspective. Subsequently, the concept of violence and citizenship security is developed, presenting a national survey about psychosocial problems that are mainly related to citizenship security in which alcoholism and drug addiction are

  18. Mentalization-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people—from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists—all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)—making mentalizing a core focus of therapy—was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD.

  19. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  20. Mental Health Occupational Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Kielhofner; Roann Barris

    1984-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of ideas and practice in psychosocial occupational therapy. It then reports the results of two studies which examined present-day perspectives as reflected in occupational therapy literature and the actural practices of psychosocial therapists. The first study was based on a review of mental health-related articles in AJOT and OTMH; the second represented secondary analyses

  1. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Walsh

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized despite considerable evidence of their effectiveness in both clinical and normal populations. TLCs are sometimes as effective as

  2. "Far" and "Near" Visual Acuity While Walking and the Collective Contributions of Non-Ocular Mechanisms to Gaze Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; vanEmmerik, Richard E. A.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Gaze stabilization was quantified in subjects (n=11) as they walked on a motorized treadmill (1.8 m/s) and viewed visual targets at two viewing distances. A "far" target was positioned at 4 m (FAR) in front of the subject and the "near" target was placed at a distance of 0.5 m (NEAR). A direct measure of visual acuity was used to assess the overall effectiveness of the gaze stabilization system. The contributions of nonocular mechanisms to the gaze goal were also quantified using a measure of the distance between the subject and point in space where fixation of the visual target would require the least eye movement amplitude (i.e. the head fixation distance (HFD)). Kinematic variables mirrored those of previous investigations with the vertical trunk translation and head pitch signals, and the lateral translation and head yaw signals maintaining what appear as antiphase relationships. However, an investigation of the temporal relationships between the maxima and minima of the vertical translation and head pitch signals show that while the maximum in vertical translation occurs at the point of the minimum head pitch signal, the inverse is not true. The maximum in the head pitch signal lags the vertical translation minimum by an average of greater than 12 percent of the step cycle time. Three HFD measures, one each for data in the sagittal and transverse planes, and one that combined the movements from both planes, all revealed changes between the FAR and NEAR target viewing conditions. This reorganization of the nonocular degrees of freedom while walking was consistent with a strategy to reduce the magnitude of the eye movements required when viewing the NEAR target. Despite this reorganization, acuity measures show that image stabilization is not occurring while walking and viewing the NEAR target. Group means indicate that visual acuity is not affected while walking in the FAR condition, but a decrement of 0.15 logMAR (i.e. 1.5 eye chart lines) exists between the standing and walking acuity measures when viewing the NEAR target.

  3. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL

  4. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaheen E Lakhan; Karen F Vieira

    2008-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in

  5. X-linked mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben C. J. Hamel; H.-Hilger Ropers

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental

  6. Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David J.

    The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…

  7. X-linked mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-Hilger Ropers; Pietro Chiurazzi

    1980-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental

  8. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  9. Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation in Florida Final Summary of Survey, with the Program Office of Substance Abuse and Mental Health in Florida's Department of Children and Families (DCF). Background Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) is an effective prevention and early

  10. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  11. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  12. MENTAL HEALTH and INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    MENTAL HEALTH and INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: What Educators Need to Know Ingle International cares about you and your students www.studyinsured.com #12;www.studyinsured.comMental Health and International Students: What Educators Need to Know Mental Health and International Students: What Educators Need to Know

  13. Mental health evidence in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Mariana; Jaffe, Lynn; Gibson, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the mental health articles published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) from 2008 through 2009 in light of meeting the Centennial Vision charge of supporting practice through evidence. Seven articles that addressed mental health practice were published in AJOT over these years. Review of the articles found that only two addressed effectiveness of occupational therapy intervention; one was rated as Level II evidence, and the other was rated as Level V evidence. Two articles addressed instrument development and testing. Three articles were basic research studies that expanded consideration about the needs of people with mental health conditions. Scholars and clinicians have begun to embrace the charge of the Centennial Vision to support practice with evidence and continue to embrace mental health practice but have a distance to travel. We hope that in the coming years, the profession will see more evidence published in AJOT supporting mental health as practiced by occupational therapists. PMID:20825138

  14. INSTITUTIONALISED MENTALLY RETARDED IN A STATE MENTAL HOSPITAL

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, O.; Papakumari, M.; Jayanthini, V.; Kumar, M.Suresh

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 298 institutionalised mentally retarded patients in Institute of Mental Health, Madras were studied for the aetiological factors, levels of intelligence, associated disorders and family structure and compared with 163 matched group of mentally retarded attending the outpatient services of the Institute of Mental Health. In 41% of the institutionalised the cause was unknown, 29.3% had infective aetiology, 18% formed the primary group and 6.4% were due to genetic and chromosomal factors. Statistically significant number of institutionalised were severely subnormal, had more associated disorders and poor family structure. The need for the development of exclusive residential services for the mentally retarded and community oriented approach are discussed. PMID:21847283

  15. Modelling of Human Low Frequency Sound Localization Acuity Demonstrates Dominance of Spatial Variation of Interaural Time Difference and Suggests Uniform Just-Noticeable Differences in Interaural Time Difference

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rosanna C. G.; Price, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization is critical to animal survival and for identification of auditory objects. We investigated the acuity with which humans localize low frequency, pure tone sounds using timing differences between the ears. These small differences in time, known as interaural time differences or ITDs, are identified in a manner that allows localization acuity of around 1° at the midline. Acuity, a relative measure of localization ability, displays a non-linear variation as sound sources are positioned more laterally. All species studied localize sounds best at the midline and progressively worse as the sound is located out towards the side. To understand why sound localization displays this variation with azimuthal angle, we took a first-principles, systemic, analytical approach to model localization acuity. We calculated how ITDs vary with sound frequency, head size and sound source location for humans. This allowed us to model ITD variation for previously published experimental acuity data and determine the distribution of just-noticeable differences in ITD. Our results suggest that the best-fit model is one whereby just-noticeable differences in ITDs are identified with uniform or close to uniform sensitivity across the physiological range. We discuss how our results have several implications for neural ITD processing in different species as well as development of the auditory system. PMID:24558468

  16. The Effect of 3D Visual Simulator on Children’s Visual Acuity - A Pilot Study Comparing Two Different Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Mariko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Miyao, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of two non-surgical interventions of vision improvement in children. Methods : A prospective, randomized, pilot study to compare fogging method and the use of head mounted 3D display. Subjects were children, between 5 to 15 years old, with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and up to -3D myopia. Subjects played a video game as near point work, and received one of the two methods of treatments. Measurements of uncorrected far visual acuity (UCVA), refraction with autorefractometer, and subjective accommodative amplitude were taken 3 times, at the baseline, after the near work, and after the treatment. Results : Both methods applied after near work, improved UCVA. Head mounted 3D display group showed significant improvement in UCVA and resulted in better UCVA than baseline. Fogging group showed improvement in subjective accommodative amplitude. While 3D display group did not show change in the refraction, fogging group’s myopic refraction showed significant increase indicating the eyes showed myopic change of eyes after near work and treatment. Discussion : Despite our lack of clear knowledge in the mechanisms, both methods improved UCVA after the treatments. The improvement in UCVA was not correlated to measured refraction values. Conclusion : UCVA after near work can be improved by repeating near and distant accommodation by fogging and 3D image viewing, although at the different degrees. Further investigation on mechanisms of improvements and their clinical significance are warranted. PMID:24222810

  17. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  18. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  19. WAR & Military Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  20. The genocidal mentality

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future.

  1. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation. PMID:19728074

  2. Mental Health and Stress

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Falconer

    2007-03-18

    This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. ...

  3. What Predicts Changes in Useful Field of View Test Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Lunsman, Melissa; Edwards, Jerri D.; Andel, Ross; Small, Brent J.; Ball, Karlene K.; Roenker, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The Useful Field of View Test (UFOV1) has been used to examine age-related changes in visual processing and cognition and as an indicator of everyday performance outcomes, particularly driving, for over 20 years. How UFOV performance changes with age and what may impact such changes have not previously been investigated longitudinally. Predictors of change in UFOV performance over a five-year period among control-group participants (n = 690) from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study were examined. Random effects models were estimated with four-subtest total UFOV as the outcome and baseline age, education, gender, race, visual acuity, depressive symptoms, mental status, and self-rated health, as well as attrition, as predictors. UFOV performance generally followed a curvilinear pattern, improving and then declining over time. Only increased age was consistently related to greater declines in UFOV performance over time. UFOV and WAIS-R Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), a standard measure of cognitive speed, had similar trajectories of change. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:19140660

  4. Measuring positive mental health: development of the Achutha Menon Centre Positive Mental Health Scale.

    PubMed

    Ganga, Nima S; Kutty, V Raman

    2015-03-01

    The authors developed a scale for positive mental health (PMH), which encompasses positive state of mind and positive functioning. The existing tools are inadequate to measure the construct, especially in a community where the self-statement format of a scale is difficult to internalize. The authors constructed a tool from an initial item pool with the help of experts and validated it in a sample of 326 young people in the state of Kerala, India. Factor analysis gave 4 underlying factors for the construct of PMH. The scale (mean = 67.41 ± 9.49) has Cronbach's ? value of .76 and test-retest correlation of .84. Convergent validity with the PMH Inventory is .864; discriminant validity with the Mental Health Inventory is .422. The findings prove that the scale, named the Achutha Menon Centre Positive Mental Health Scale, is reliable and valid and can be used in both individual- and population-based studies for measuring PMH. PMID:22548777

  5. Changing Middle Schoolers' Attitudes About Mental Illness Through Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy C. Watson; Emeline Otey; Anne L. Westbrook; April L. Gardner; Theodore A. Lamb; Patrick W. Corrigan; Wayne S. Fenton

    2004-01-01

    The field test of The Science of Mental Illness curriculum supplement for middle school (grades 6–8) children provided an opportunity to assess knowledge and attitudes about mental illness in more than 1,500 middle school students throughout the United States and to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on stigma-related attitudes. Two primary questions were examined: (1) what are the

  6. Durable and generalized effects of spatial experience on mental rotation: gender differences in growth patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa S. Terlecki; Nora S. Newcombe; Michelle Little

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This study addressed questions about improvement in mental rotation skills: (1) whether growth trajectories differformenandwomenwithhigherorlowerspatialexperience,(2)whethervideogame training has effects on performance and leads to transfer, (3) whether effects of repeated testing or training effects are durable and (4) whether transfer is durable. Undergraduates participated in repeated testing on the MRTor played thevideogame Tetris. Analyses showed large improvements in mental rotation

  7. Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…

  8. On the Relationship between Solution Strategies in Two Mental Rotation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Anne B.; Geiser, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in solution strategies have frequently been reported for different measures of mental rotation (MR) ability. In the present study (N=346 German students), we investigated the relationship between solution strategies on two tests commonly used to identify different patterns of strategies: the Mental Rotations Test (MRT;…

  9. Implementing new routines in adult mental health care to identify and support children of mentally ill parents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. This knowledge has led to changes in Norwegian legislation, making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, and to provide necessary support for the children of mentally ill patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the process of implementing new routines in adult mental health services to identify and support children of mentally ill parents. Methods The design was a pre-test post-test study. The sample (N = 219 at pre-test and N = 185 at post-test) included mental health professionals in the largest hospital in the region, who responded to a web-based survey on the routines of the services, attitudes within the workforce capacity, worker’s knowledge on the impact of parental mental illness on children, knowledge on legislation concerning children of patients, and demographic variables. Results The results of this study indicated that some changes are taking place in clinical practice in terms of increased identification of children. Adult mental health services providing support for the children was however not fully implemented as a new practice. Conclusion The main finding in this study is that the identification frequency had increased significantly according to self-reported data since the Family Assessment Form was implemented. The increase in self-reported identification behavior is however taking place very slowly. Three years after the legislation was changed to making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, it was still not fully incorporated in the routines of the entire workforce. In terms of support for the families affected by parental mental illness, the changes are not yet significant. PMID:24507566

  10. Light Therapy in Mental Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Cormac, H. Dove

    1929-01-01

    The position of actinotherapy in Mental Hospitals in this country is reviewed. An investigation of the results of ultra-violet irradiation in mental disorders at Parkside Mental Hospital is described and it is shown that certain types of the psychoses appear to benefit. The physiological action of actinic rays in relation to mental disorders is discussed and their mode of action on the nervous system suggested. Reference is made to substances which sensitize the body tissues to sunlight and ultra-violet radiation. An allusion is made to glass, penetrable by a portion of the actinic rays, and its uses. The need for ultra-violet ray apparatus in every mental hospital is urged both for treatment of mental and physical conditions and for the study of its action. PMID:19986837

  11. Mental illness and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brad D; Gulati, Sanjiv

    2014-06-01

    Transinstitutionalization (ie, the criminalization of those with mental illness) is relevant to individuals committing sexual offenses. Mental illness can affect the treatment and risk management of individuals committing sexual offenses. In this article the current literature on mentally disordered sexual offenders is described, including how psychosis, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and dementing disorders may affect treatment and management. PMID:24877705

  12. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  13. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  15. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  17. Perspectives: A Mental Health Magazine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Perspectives, provided by Mental Health Net, is a quarterly online magazine devoted to mental health. It features short (usually less than 2,000 word) articles about all aspects of its topic. The Vol. 1, No. 4 issue contains articles on Prozac, loneliness, and managed care, among others. It also includes a regular column on "Being Human." Archives are available at the site, as are submission guidelines. Mental Health Net is a well known "comprehensive guide to mental health online," with pointers to resources in the field, arranged by topic and resource type.

  18. Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Matthew J.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Muller, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3?min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (? = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ?MAP was comparable between groups (? = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %?FVC (?2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %?CVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ?HR and %?CVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ?HR and %?FVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress. PMID:24744859

  19. The Impact of Unilateral or Bilateral Cataract Surgery on Visual Acuity and Life Quality of Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lei; Zou, Haidong; Fei, Xinfeng; Xu, Weiqi; Zhang, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the CLVQOL was used to assess VRQOL before unilateral or bilateral cataract surgery and at the end of the follow-up period in order to determine the greater beneficial mode of surgery for patients, if one of the two surgical methods is more beneficial over the other. The patients were classified as receiving unilateral (group A) and bilateral cataract surgery (group B). There were no significant differences between groups A and B before the operation in terms of life quality scores, binocular weighted average LogMAR BCVA, age, educational level, gender, systematic and ocular comorbidities, and the complications of the operation. It was shown that visual acuity improved more significantly with bilateral cataract surgery than with unilateral surgery in elderly patients with a high preoperative disease burden in Shanghai city. However, the improvement in life quality was not different in patients receiving either bilateral or unilateral cataract surgery. PMID:25874115

  20. Improvement of visual acuity in children with anisometropic amblyopia treated with rotated prisms combined with near activity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao-Chyun; Chen, Po-Liang

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy of a new modality for improving visual acuity (VA) in pediatric patients with anisometropic amblyopia. METHODS Retrospective and interventional case series. Medical records of 360 children with anisometropic amblyopia treated with a modality that included rotated prisms, lenses, and near activities from January 2008 to January 2012 were analyzed. Characteristics such as improvement of VA and contrast sensitivity in amblyopic eyes and resolution of amblyopia (VA ?0.1logMAR or a difference of ?2 lines in logMAR between the eyes) were assessed. RESULTS Among the patients, the mean VA of the amblyopic eyes improved from 0.48logMAR (SD=0.16) to 0.12logMAR (SD=0.16) and the mean VA improvement was 0.36logMAR (SD=0.10, P<0.001). Resolution of amblyopia was achieved in 233 of 360 patients (64.72%). The mean time for resolution of amblyopia was 8.05 weeks (SD=4.83) or 14.14 sessions (SD=8.76). Among the study group, refraction error did not change significantly after treatment (P=0.437). We found that better baseline VA may be related to success and shorten the time to amblyopic resolution. CONCLUSION VA and contrast sensitivity improved with rotated prisms, correcting lenses, and near activities in children with anisometropic amblyopia. The VA improvement by this modality was comparable to other methods. However, the time to resolution of amblyopia was shorter with this method than with other modalities. Rotated prisms combined with near acuity could provide an alternative treatment in children with anisometropic amblyopia who can't tolerant traditional therapy method like patching. PMID:23991384

  1. Intact 2D-form recognition despite impaired tactile spatial acuity in complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Reiswich, Jana; Krumova, Elena K; David, Marianne; Stude, Philipp; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Tactile acuity measured by 2-point discrimination performance is impaired in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I). This is mirrored by pain-associated shrinkage of the cortical representation of the affected limb. We investigated whether, also, more complex tactile performance assessed by a dynamic 2D-form perception task is disturbed in CRPS-I patients. Therefore, we developed a Braille-like recognition task (BT) for geometrical dot pattern identification by dynamic touch. We studied 47 healthy volunteers (Study I) and compared them to 16 CRPS-I patients (Study II). Besides recognition time and error quote of the BT, we assessed static 2-point discrimination thresholds (TPDT). In healthy subjects, the performance in the BT correlated significantly with age and TPDT. In CRPS patients, TPDT was significantly increased on the affected side compared to sex- and age-matched controls from study I (2.98 ± 0.84 mm vs 2.05 ± 0.82 mm, P<0.01). The performance in the BT was not impaired in CRPS-I patients (compared to sex- and age-matched controls from study I) and was not correlated to the TPDT. The intact 2D-form recognition ability in CRPS-I patients might be explained by intact dynamic tactile and proprioceptive functions, which appear to be uncompromised by the impaired static tactile perception, provided that the spacing of the dot pattern is above the individual tactile acuity. These intact 2D-form perception capacities may also be related to higher sensory integration functions like the visual system and intact semantic understanding, which may be spared by the cortical reorganization phenomena in CRPS-I. PMID:22652386

  2. NrCAM deletion causes topographic mistargeting of thalamocortical axons to the visual cortex and disrupts visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Demyanenko, Galina P; Riday, Thorfinn T; Tran, Tracy S; Dalal, Jasbir; Darnell, Eli P; Brennaman, Leann H; Sakurai, Takeshi; Grumet, Martin; Philpot, Benjamin D; Maness, Patricia F

    2011-01-26

    NrCAM is a neural cell adhesion molecule of the L1 family that has been linked to autism spectrum disorders, a disease spectrum in which abnormal thalamocortical connectivity may contribute to visual processing defects. Here we show that NrCAM interaction with neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) is critical for semaphorin 3F (Sema3F)-induced guidance of thalamocortical axon subpopulations at the ventral telencephalon (VTe), an intermediate target for thalamic axon sorting. Genetic deletion of NrCAM or Npn-2 caused contingents of embryonic thalamic axons to misproject caudally in the VTe. The resultant thalamocortical map of NrCAM-null mutants showed striking mistargeting of motor and somatosensory thalamic axon contingents to the primary visual cortex, but retinogeniculate targeting and segregation were normal. NrCAM formed a molecular complex with Npn-2 in brain and neural cells, and was required for Sema3F-induced growth cone collapse in thalamic neuron cultures, consistent with a vital function for NrCAM in Sema3F-induced axon repulsion. NrCAM-null mice displayed reduced responses to visual evoked potentials recorded from layer IV in the binocular zone of primary visual cortex (V1), particularly when evoked from the ipsilateral eye, indicating abnormal visual acuity and ocularity. These results demonstrate that NrCAM is required for normal maturation of cortical visual acuity, and suggest that the aberrant projection of thalamic motor and somatosensory axons to the visual cortex in NrCAM-null mutant mice impairs cortical functions. PMID:21273439

  3. Presbyopia: a pilot investigation of the barriers and benefits of near visual acuity correction among a rural Filipino population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Presbyopia is the age-related decline in accommodation that diminishes the ability of the eye to focus on near objects. Presbyopia is common and easy to correct; however, many communities lack access to basic eye care. The purpose of this project was to assess the burden of uncorrected presbyopia in a rural Filipino population and to pilot an intervention aimed at increasing access to reading glasses in the community. Methods Individuals above the age of 40 who presented to a health outreach in the Philippines were invited to undergo a near vision exam to detect the presence of functional presbyopia and be fitted with ready-made, single-vision glasses. The change in stereoacuity was used as a surrogate measure of functional improvement after near vision correction. A questionnaire was administered to assess this population’s perceived barriers and benefits to correcting near vision. Results The average age of the participants was 57 ± 11 years, with 87.6% of participants having an uncorrected near visual acuity of <20/50. Reading glasses improved near vision to 20/40 or better in 77.7% of participants having near-vision impairment (uncorrected near visual acuity of <20/40). Over 75% of participants also showed improvement in stereoacuity. Cost, rather than availability, was perceived to be the greater barrier to the procurement of glasses, and 84% of participants reported that the glasses dispensed would greatly improve their ability to earn a living. Conclusions Dispensing ready-made, single-vision glasses is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve near vision and enhance depth perception. A greater understanding of the barriers and benefits to correcting near vision will inform the design and execution of a sustainable program to correct presbyopia in developing countries. PMID:24467667

  4. The relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja; Hong, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Yang Chool

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students. For this study, 228 university students were participated in this experiment (male 91, female 137). We tested health-related physical fitness and mental health with questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and liner regression. In the present results, there was significant difference according to gender in mental health and health-related physical fitness. The correlation between physical fitness and mental health was also observed. PMID:24409433

  5. O1 Dog Pack revising mental models creating mental models

    E-print Network

    Packard, Jane M.

    , or at a dog park). Observe the first video clip and write general notes on what happened in the box providedO1 Dog Pack revising mental models creating mental models A1 First sources Q1 Folk Psychology Wolf Inquiry Activity Module 1. Dogs & People Partnerships ANSWER QUESTIONS Distinguish between

  6. Farming and Mental Health Problems and Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Fraser; K. B. Smith; F. Judd; J. S. Humphreys; L. J. Fragar; A. Henderson

    2005-01-01

    Background: Farmers experience one of the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. This article provides an overview of the literature examining mental health issues experienced by farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States and

  7. Teaching Mental Abacus Calculation to Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hong

    2006-01-01

    The abacus is a calculating tool that has been used in Asia for thousands of years. Mental abacus calculation is a skill in which an abacus image in the mind is used without the actual physical manipulation of the abacus. Using this method, people can perform extremely rapid and accurate mental calculations. Research indicates that abacus training…

  8. Why Is It Important? What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health?

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    What Is Why Is It Important? ? #12;What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health? What is infant mental health? Does the term "infant mental health" make you think of a baby on a couch telling his problems to a psychiatrist? So what is infant mental health? Infant mental health reflects

  9. Deconstructing mental rotation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Axel

    2014-06-01

    A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials, flat RTs on negative trials, false alarms and miss rates, effects of complexity, and for the number of eye movement switches between stimuli as functions of angular difference in orientation. Analysis of eye movements supports key aspects of the model and shows that initial processing time is roughly constant until the first saccade switch between stimulus objects, while the duration of the remaining trial increases approximately linearly as a function of angular discrepancy. The increment results from additive effects of (a) a linear increase in the number of saccade switches between stimulus objects, (b) a linear increase in the number of saccades on a stimulus, and (c) a linear increase in the number and in the duration of fixations on a stimulus object. The fixation duration increment was the same on simple and complex trials (about 15 ms per 60°), which suggests that the critical orientation alignment take place during fixations at very high speed. PMID:24512611

  10. Trajectories of recurring victimization among people with major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Brent; Daigle, Leah E; Ballard, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    Relatively little is known about the violent victimization experiences of people with major mental disorders. Moreover, to date, no studies have examined recurring violent victimization experiences of people with major mental disorders. Using a risk heterogeneity framework commonly used in the study of recurring victimization, the current study examines the extent of recurring victimization among people with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Axis I mental disorders and trajectories of recurring violent victimization (n = 262), across four waves of data collected during a 1-year longitudinal study. Multilevel logistic regression analyses tested disorder, time, and time by disorder cross-level interactions predicting recurring victimization. Results suggest that recurring violent victimization is not uncommon among mentally disordered victims of violence, with 64% of victims experiencing a recurring victimization at a later point in time. However, trajectories of recurring violent victimization are not uniform across types of mental illness. Indeed, individuals diagnosed with a substance abuse disorder or major depression show significantly declining trajectories across the follow-up period whereas individuals diagnosed with a manic disorder or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder have flat trajectories of recurring violent victimization across the study period. Results of tests for cross-level interactions between disorder type and time demonstrate that individuals with a major depression or substance abuse/dependence diagnosis are significantly different from those with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis in their trajectories of recurring victimization. PMID:24255064

  11. Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Teens > Mind > Mental Health > Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care Print A A A Text Size What's in ... if you're concerned about paying for mental health care. Lots of people need help and worry that ...

  12. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

  13. Mental Health in the Hispanic / Latino Community

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A Guide for Latinos and their families. Latino Mental Health Video - English View the Video in Spanish Cultural ... Latinos with mental illness often go without professional mental health treatment. At-Risk Groups Studies have shown that ...

  14. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

  15. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

  16. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

  17. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

  18. Can nutritional supplements help mentally retarded children? an exploratory study.

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, R F; Capp, R H; Davis, D R; Peerless, J; Ravitz, L R

    1981-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that mental retardations are in part genetotrophic diseases (diseases in which the genetic pattern of the afflicted individual requires an augmented supply of one or more nutrients such that when these nutrients are adequately supplied the disease is ameliorated), we carried out a partially double-blind experiment with 16 retarded children (initial IQs, approximately 17-70) of school age who wee given nutritional supplements or placebos during a period of 8 months. The supplement contained 8 minerals in moderate amounts and 11 vitamins, mostly in relatively large amounts. During the first 4- month period (double-blind) the 5 children who received supplements increased their average IQ by 5.0-9.6, depending on the investigator, whereas the 11 subjects given placebos showed negligible change. The difference between these two groups is statistically significant (P less than 0.05). During the second period, the subjects who had been given placebos in the first study received supplements; they showed an average IQ increase of at least 10.2, a highly significant gain (P less than 0.001). Three of the five subjects who were given supplements for both periods showed additional IQ gains during the second 4 months. Three of four children with Down syndrome gained between 10 and 25 units in IQ and also showed physical changes toward normal. Other evidence suggests that the supplement improved visual acuity in two children and increased growth rates. These results support the hypothesis that mental retardations are in part genetotrophic in origin. PMID:6454137

  19. Learning to Identify Near-Acuity Letters, either with or without Flankers, Results in Improved Letter Size and Spacing Limits in Adults with Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; Li, Roger W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia. PMID:22558234

  20. Results suggest that there is an emergence of spatial hearing acuity regardless of whether or not children were able to perform the MAA task as toddlers

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    implanted children Shelly P. Godar and Ruth Y. Litovsky University of Wisconsin - Madison e-mail: godar with cochlear implants (CIs) · A recent study (Grieco-Calub & Litovsky, 2012), measured spatial acuity acoustic hearing, unilateral cochlear implants and bilateral cochlear implants," Ear Hear. 33, 561

  1. Mental Health & the Career Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Marty

    This supplement to ninth grade mental health units relates mental health to the following occupational clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, environment, health, marine science, communications and media, business and office, marketing and distribution, public service, transportation, personnel services, consumer and homemaking education,…

  2. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reighley, Joan

    A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…

  3. [Mental disorders in migraine patients].

    PubMed

    Sviridova, E I; Vladimirova, S M

    1986-01-01

    The mental state was studied in patients with different forms of migraine. Using experimental psychological, electroencephalographic, rheoencephalographic, echoencephalographic and dermatoglyphic methods patients with simple and associated migraine were examined. Characteristic mental disturbances were identified. The authors emphasize the significance of psychodiagnosis for selection of the correct management of patients and the selection of adequate therapy. PMID:3751429

  4. Mental Health, United States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

    In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

  5. Learning Mental Models Astro Teller

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Learning Mental Models Astro Teller Department of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 astro@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT The process of learning is not always as simple as mapping­deterministic functions. These results may not only aid future research into the causes and constituents of mental models

  6. Mentally Adding and Subtracting Tens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Format Edit

    2012-04-20

    Students will learn strategies to mentally add and subtract 10 from a given number. The lesson begins concretely using base-ten blocks, then to the representational using a hundred chart. Ultimately, the lesson moves to the abstract level where students mentally add or subtract ten from a given number.

  7. Sensory Integration in Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara W. Posthuma

    1983-01-01

    Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and

  8. Clinical Placement in Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jillian Gilbert; Jenny Strong

    2000-01-01

    The recruitment of students in health professions into the area of mental health has been shown to be influenced by their attitudes towards the area, with such attitudes possibly shaped in the same way as many of the attitudes towards mental illness are by the general community. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of occupational therapy

  9. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Cusick; Tracey Demattia; Sharon Doyle

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a low preference for mental health careers among students and practitioners in occupational therapy. Factors implicated include the social stigma of mental health in the community, fieldwork experience, academic preparation, and work setting factors such as role ambiguity and chronicity of clients. Of these factors, fieldwork may be the most important influence. A survey was administered

  10. An ancient eye test--using the stars.

    PubMed

    Bohigian, George M

    2008-01-01

    Vision testing in ancient times was as important as it is today. The predominant vision testing in some cultures was the recognition and identification of constellations and celestial bodies of the night sky. A common ancient naked eye test used the double star of the Big Dipper in the constellation Ursa Major or the Big Bear. The second star from the end of the handle of the Big Dipper is an optical double star. The ability to perceive this separation of these two stars, Mizar and Alcor, was considered a test of good vision and was called the "test" or presently the Arab Eye Test. This article is the first report of the correlation of this ancient eye test to the 20/20 line in the current Snellen visual acuity test. This article describes the astronomy, origin, history, and the practicality of this test and how it correlates with the present day Snellen visual acuity test. PMID:18929764

  11. The National Mental Health Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) remains the countryâ??s oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mental health and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The â??Need Info?â?ť area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mental health news coverage.

  12. The Cost-effectiveness of Welcome to Medicare Visual Acuity Screening and a Possible Alternative Welcome to Medicare Eye Evaluation Among Persons Without Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rein, David B.; Wittenborn, John S.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Hoerger, Thomas J.; Zhang, Ping; Klein, Barbara Eden Kobrin; Lee, Kris E.; Klein, Ronald; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of visual acuity screening performed in primary care settings and of dilated eye evaluations performed by an eye care professional among new Medicare enrollees with no diagnosed eye disorders. Medicare currently reimburses visual acuity screening for new enrollees during their initial preventive primary care health check, but dilated eye evaluations may be a more cost-effective policy. Design Monte Carlo cost-effectiveness simulation model with a total of 50 000 simulated patients with demographic characteristics matched to persons 65 years of age in the US population. Results Compared with no screening policy, dilated eye evaluations increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) by 0.008 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.005–0.011) and increased costs by $94 (95% CrI, ?$35 to $222). A visual acuity screening increased QALYs in less than 95% of the simulations (0.001 [95% CrI, ?0.002 to 0.004) and increased total costs by $32 (95% CrI, ?$97 to $159) per person. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a visual acuity screening and an eye examination compared with no screening were $29 000 and $12 000 per QALY gained, respectively. At a willingness-to-pay value of $15 000 or more per QALY gained, a dilated eye evaluation was the policy option most likely to be cost-effective. Conclusions The currently recommended visual acuity screening showed limited efficacy and cost-effectiveness compared with no screening. In contrast, a new policy of reimbursement for Welcome to Medicare dilated eye evaluations was highly cost-effective. PMID:22232367

  13. Macular edema in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity: Impact on visual acuity and refractive status after 1-year

    PubMed Central

    Vinekar, Anand; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Jayadev, Chaitra; Bauer, Noel; Munusamy, Sivakumar; Kemmanu, Vasudha; Kurian, Mathew; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Avadhani, Kavitha; Shetty, Bhujang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the impact of transient, self-resolving, untreated “macular edema” detected on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) on visual acuity (VA) and refraction at 1-year of corrected age. Materials and Methods: Visual acuity and refraction of 11 infants with bilateral macular edema (Group A) was compared with gestational age-matched 16 infants with ROP without edema (Group B) and 17 preterms infants without ROP and without edema (Group C) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of corrected age using Teller Acuity Cards and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Sub-group analysis of the previously described pattern A and B macular edema was performed. Results: Visual acuity was lower in infants with macular edema compared with the other two control groups throughout the study period, but statistically significant only at 3 months. Visual improvement in these infants was highest between the 3rd and 6th month and plateaued by the end of the 1st year with acuity comparable to the other two groups. The edema cohort was more hyperopic compared to the other two groups between 3 and 12 months of age. Pattern A edema had worse VA compared to pattern B, although not statistically significant. Conclusion: Macular edema, although transient, caused reduced VA as early as 3 months of corrected age in Asian Indian premature infants weighing <2000 g at birth. The higher hyperopia in these infants is possibly due to visual disturbances caused at a critical time of fovealization. We hypothesize a recovery and feedback mechanism based on the principles of active emmetropization to explain our findings. PMID:26139806

  14. Visual Acuity after Cataract Surgery in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report No. 5

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Nancy; Nicholson, Benjamin P.; Agrón, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E.; Bressler, Susan B.; Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Chew, Emily Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate visual acuity outcomes after cataract surgery in persons with varying severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Cohort study. Participants A total of 1232 eyes of 793 participants who underwent cataract surgery during the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements for treatment of AMD. Methods Preoperative and postoperative characteristics of participants who underwent cataract extraction during the 5 year trial were analyzed. Both clinical data and standardized red-reflex lens and fundus photographs were obtained at baseline and annually. Photographs were graded by a centralized reading center for cortical and posterior subcapsular lens opacities and for AMD severity. Cataract surgery was documented at annual study visits or by history during the 6 month telephone calls. Analyses were conducted using multivariate repeated-measures regression. Main Outcome Measures Change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after cataract surgery compared with preoperative BCVA. Results Adjusting for age at time of surgery, gender, interval between preoperative and postoperative visits, and type and severity of cataract, the mean changes in visual acuity were as follows: eyes with mild AMD (n=30) gained 11.2 letters (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.9-15.5), eyes with moderate AMD (n=346) gained 11.1 letters (95% CI, 9.1-13.2), eyes with severe AMD (n=462) gained 8.7 letters (95% CI, 6.7-10.7), eyes with non-central geographic atrophy (n=70) gained 8.9 letters (95% CI, 5.8-12.1), and eyes with advanced AMD (central geographic atrophy and/or neovascular) AMD (n=324) gained 6.8 letters (95% CI, 4.9-8.8). The visual acuity gain across all AMD severity groups was statistically significant from pre-operative state (P<0.0001). Conclusions Mean visual acuities improved significantly after cataract surgery across varying degrees of AMD severity. PMID:24613825

  15. Complete mental health recovery: bridging mental illness with positive mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene L. Provencher; Corey L. M. Keyes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose that the study, and the promotion, of recovery can be augmented by adopting the model of mental health as a complete state. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of the last two decades was undertaken and pathways to complete mental health in recovery are proposed. Findings – More work is needed

  16. Multidisciplinary mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Slade, M; Rosen, A; Shankar, R

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed current practice amongst 91 Indian and Australian staff working within multidisciplinary mental health teams, looking at leadership skills, conflict resolution and therapeutic abilities. Length of training was associated with management skills, though these skill were more developed by psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists working in community settings. Hospital settings involved less consensual decision-making than community teams. Psychiatric nurses spent most time in clinical work, and occupational therapists were rated as less skilled in the therapeutic activities assessed than any other profession. Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists undertook most research. The activities assessed in this study could be undertaken by a team comprising psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses and social workers, with clinical psychologists employed where possible, especially for research or service evaluation. PMID:8847199

  17. The effects of ranibizumab injections on fluorescein angiographic findings and visual acuity recovery in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gungel, Hulya; Osmanbasoglu, Ozen Ayranci; Altan, Cigdem; Baylancicek, Deniz Oygar; Pasaoglu, Isil Basgil

    2014-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to evaluate the effect of ranibizumab on retinal circulation times and vessel caliber and to analyze the correlation of these factors with visual acuity (VA) prognosis in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Subjects and methods This prospective cohort study included 52 eyes of 46 patients (mean age 73.5 years [standard deviation 7.7]; 28 males, 18 females). The study parameters were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) (pre- and posttreatment: for 3 months after the last injection), retinal circulation times, diameter of retinal arteriole (DRA), and diameter of retinal vein (DRV) (pre- and posttreatment: after a loading dose of three consecutive injections of ranibizumab with a 4-week interval in the initial phase). The pretreatment, posttreatment measurements, and their differences were recorded for analyses. The injections were repeated when needed. Eyes were grouped into one of two groups according to VA recovery: Group 1, cases showing significant recovery of VA (n=21, 37%), and Group 2, cases showing preservation of VA (n=22, 42%) and deterioration of VA (n=11, 21%). Differences were compared statistically in and between groups. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the correlation of these parameters with VA recovery. Results There was a significant reduction in DRA (P=0.007) and CMT levels (P<0.001) in both study groups after treatment. When the two groups were compared, the differences in pretreatment values of DRA (P=0.001), DRV (P=0.017), CMT (P=0.039), and mean BCVA (P=0.00) were found to be statistically significant. Posttreatment changes in DRA (P=0.013) and mean CMT (P=0.010) were found to be factors related to VA recovery by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Our findings reveal that ranibizumab treatment is associated with decrease in DRA, CMT, and significant improvement in VA recovery. Further, taking into account the cases in which VA was preserved, when needed, ranibizumab should be re-injected after the loading dose. PMID:24899794

  18. Serial Assessment of Physiological Evaluation Indices for Repetitive Mental Workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Karita, Keita

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of daily repetitive mental workload on physiological indices. Especially, the index derived from the nasal skin temperature(NST) measured by the infrared thermography was focused. The NST was the physiological index representing the sympathetic nervous system activity. The NST declines with the sympathetic nervous system's activation. The mental workload causes sympathetic nervous system's activation, so the mental workload can be measured by NST as a declining temperature. We have found that the relationship between the amount of mental workload and the NST declining under time pressure, even more complex stimuli. However, there's no study on evaluating the NST measured for the repetitive mental workload for certain period of time. In this paper, the NST and other physiological indices, which were Fm? wave component of Electroencephalograms(EEG) and high frequency component(HF) of R-wave interval time series of Electrocardiograms(ECG) were serially measured and evaluated on repetitive mental workload. Significant difference was found between those NST indices in each experiment by paired t-test. A stability of NST as an evaluation index for MWL was proved.

  19. Effects of user mental state on EEG-BCI performance

    PubMed Central

    Myrden, Andrew; Chau, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Changes in psychological state have been proposed as a cause of variation in brain-computer interface performance, but little formal analysis has been conducted to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of three mental states—fatigue, frustration, and attention—on BCI performance. Twelve able-bodied participants were trained to use a two-class EEG-BCI based on the performance of user-specific mental tasks. Following training, participants completed three testing sessions, during which they used the BCI to play a simple maze navigation game while periodically reporting their perceived levels of fatigue, frustration, and attention. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between frustration and BCI performance while the relationship between fatigue and BCI performance approached significance. BCI performance was 7% lower than average when self-reported fatigue was low and 7% higher than average when self-reported frustration was moderate. A multivariate analysis of mental state revealed the presence of contiguous regions in mental state space where BCI performance was more accurate than average, suggesting the importance of moderate fatigue for achieving effortless focus on BCI control, frustration as a potential motivating factor, and attention as a compensatory mechanism to increasing frustration. Finally, a visual analysis showed the sensitivity of underlying class distributions to changes in mental state. Collectively, these results indicate that mental state is closely related to BCI performance, encouraging future development of psychologically adaptive BCIs. PMID:26082705

  20. Head injury and mental handicap.

    PubMed Central

    Akuffo, E O; Sylvester, P E

    1983-01-01

    A clinical and pathological study of head injury and the implications in mental handicap are outlined. Non-accidental injury as a form of child abuse is suspected as contributing considerably to the cause of mental handicap in populations resident in long-stay hospital, but this is unlikely to be the best environment for such patients. A number of mentally handicapped epileptic patients who injure their heads during fits and patients who repeatedly bang their heads as a feature of self-injurious behaviour are exposed to progressive neurological deficits associated with lesions in the brain which could further impair the efficiency of brain function. PMID:6876043

  1. [Vocational rehabilitation in mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Tuisku, Katinka; Juvonen-Posti, Pirjo; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Heilä, Hannele; Vainiemi, Kirsi; Ropponen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Supporting the working careers of patients having mental disorders is in the best interest of the individual, the community and the society. In mental disorders, recovery to be able to work is more challenging than in other disease groups. Vocational rehabilitation yields the best results when implemented early enough and in close association with work. Work trial and preparation for work are among the most common means of rehabilitation supporting mental patients' return to work. Collaboration with the workplace is needed when the work and working hours are adapted to the needs of the rehabilitee. Supported employment helps even the severely ill to be able to return to work. PMID:24471205

  2. Child rights and mental health.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M

    2001-10-01

    This article introduces the principles and articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and discusses the implications of this new conceptualization of childhood for child mental health. Consistent with the articles of the CRC, Canadian and US health administrations call for including the perspectives and participation of children in promotion of their own mental health and in the planning of mental health services. Examples of the incorporation of the CRC into programs and services for children and youth are described. PMID:11588806

  3. Burnout in Mental Health Services: A Review of the Problem and Its Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Gary; Salyers, Michelle P.; Rollins, Angela L.; Monroe-DeVita, Maria; Pfahler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Staff burnout is increasingly viewed as a concern in the mental health field. In this article we first examine the extent to which burnout is a problem for mental health services in terms of two critical issues: its prevalence and its association with a range of undesirable outcomes for staff, organizations, and consumers. We subsequently provide a comprehensive review of the limited research attempting to remediate burnout among mental health staff. We conclude with recommendations for the development and rigorous testing of intervention approaches to address this critical area. Keywords: burnout, burnout prevention, mental health staff PMID:21533847

  4. Inferring mental states from neuroimaging data: From reverse inference to large-scale decoding

    PubMed Central

    Poldrack, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    A common goal of neuroimaging research is to use imaging data to identify the mental processes that are engaged when a subject performs a mental task. The use of reasoning from activation to mental functions, known as “reverse inference”, has been previously criticized on the basis that it does not take into account how selectively the area is activated by the mental process in question. In this Perspective, I outline the critique of informal reverse inference, and describe a number of new developments that provide the ability to more formally test the predictive power of neuroimaging data. PMID:22153367

  5. Risk Factors for Decreased Visual Acuity in Preschool Children: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease and Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Varma, Rohit; Cotter, Susan A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Lin, Jesse H.; Borchert, Mark S.; Torres, Mina; Wen, Ge; Azen, Stanley P.; Tielsch, James M.; Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Katz, Joanne; Ibironke, Josephine; Giordano, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors associated with unilateral or bilateral decreased visual acuity in preschool children. Design Population-based cross-sectional prevalence study. Participants Population-based samples of 6504 children ages 30-72 months from California and Maryland. Methods Participants were preschool African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children from Los Angeles, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. Data were obtained by a parental interview and a detailed ocular examination. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent associations between demographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors with unilateral and bilateral decreased visual acuity. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios (ORs) for various risk factors associated with inter-ocular difference (IOD) in visual acuity (VA) of 2 or more lines with 20/32 or worse in the worse eye, or bilateral decreased VA worse than 20/40 or worse than 20/50 if younger than 48 months of age. Results In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 2-line IOD with VA 20/32 or worse was independently associated with Hispanic ethnicity (OR 2.05); esotropia (OR 8.98); spherical equivalent (SE) anisometropia (ORs ranging between 1.5 and 39.7 for SE anisometropia ranging between 0.50 to <1.00 diopters and ?2.00 diopters); and aniso-astigmatism in J0 or J45 (ORs ranging between 1.4 and ?5.3 for J0 or J45 differences ranging between 0.25 to <0.50 D and ?1.00 D). Bilateral decreased VA was independently associated with lack of health insurance (OR 2.9); lower primary caregiver education (OR 1.7); astigmatism (OR 2.3 and 17.6 for astigmatism 1.00 to <2.00 D and ?2.00 D); and SE hyperopia ?4.00 D (OR 10.8). Conclusions Anisometropia and esotropia are risk factors for IOD in visual acuity. Astigmatism and high hyperopia are risk factors for bilateral decreased visual acuity. Guidelines for the screening and management of decreased visual acuity in preschool children should be considered in light of these risk associations. PMID:21856014

  6. Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M Platek; Samuel R Critton; Thomas E Myers; Gordon G Gallup

    2003-01-01

    Contagious yawning is a common, but poorly understood phenomenon. We hypothesized that contagious yawning is part of a more general phenomenon known as mental state attribution (i.e. the ability to inferentially model the mental states of others). To test this hypothesis we compared susceptibility to contagiously yawn with performance on a self-face recognition task, several theory of mind stories, and

  7. Research report C ontagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Platek; Samuel R. Critton; Thomas E. Myers; Gordon G. Gallup Jr

    Contagious yawning is a common, but poorly understood phenomenon. We hypothesized that contagious yawning is part of a more general phenomenon known as mental state attribution (i.e. the ability to inferentially model the mental states of others). To test this hypothesis we compared susceptibility to contagiously yawn with performance on a self-face recognition task, several theory of mind stories, and

  8. Inpatient care to community care: improving clinical handover in the private mental health setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K Wood; Allison K Campbell; Judith D Marden; Lavinia Schmidtman; George H Blundell; Noella J Sheerin; Patricia M Davidson

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and test a standardised clinical handover discharge strategy for improving information transfer between private mental health hospitals and community practitioners. Design, setting and participants: A quality improvement intervention using collaborative, iterative methods to develop a standardised discharge and outcome assessment strategy. 150 patient participants were consecutively recruited from two private mental health care hospitals in New South

  9. Chicanas/os and Mental Health Services: An Overview of Utilization, Counselor Preference, and Assessment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.; McNeill, Brian W.; Walls, Rebecca G.; Gomez, Sylvia P.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews literature pertaining to Chicanas/os' utilization of conventional mental health services. Notes that Chicanas/os underutilize mental health services, instead preferring family or nontraditional helpers for assistance. Discusses lack of support in the literature for use of many major psychological tests with Chicanas/os but reports that…

  10. Individual Differences in the Mental Rotation Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gender, academic performance and preschool education on mental rotation skills among Turkish prospective teachers. A total of 525 undergraduate students (364 female) from a government university located in western Turkey completed the Mental Rotation Test (MRT). A three-way [2 (gender) × 5 (academic…

  11. Burnout Among Mental Health Workers: a Review and a Research Agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Leiter; Phyllis L. Harvie

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review studies of burnout relating to mental health workers and to propose directions for future research. It will summarize findings with regard to established norms, demographic variables, possible antecedents and consequences of burnout, and burnout models tested with mental health workers. Comparison of group perceptions of burnout is facilitated by the fact that

  12. Complement Syntax, Mental Verbs, and Theory of Mind in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddington, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…

  13. Facilitators and Barriers to Support Group Participation for Family Caregivers of Adults with Mental Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Biegel; Robert D. Shafran; Jeffrey A. Johnsen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Few low-income and minority caregivers of persons with serious mental illness participate in support groups. This study examined the facilitators and barriers to participation in support groups for families of persons with serious mental illness among lower socioeconomic African-American and Caucasian family caregivers. Three hypotheses were tested in a multivariate model which included need, enabling and predisposing variables utilizing

  14. Reading Minds: The Relation between Children's Mental State Knowledge and Their Metaknowledge about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Zocchi, Silvia; Pagnin, Adriano; Palladino, Paola; Taumoepeau, Mele

    2010-01-01

    The relation between children's mental state knowledge and metaknowledge about reading was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 196 children (mean age = 9 years) were tested for verbal ability (VA), metaknowledge about reading, and mental state words in a story task. In Study 2, the results of Study 1 were extended by using a cross-lagged design and…

  15. Sex Differences in Mental Ability: A Proposed Means to Link Them to Brain Structure and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work with the 42 mental ability tests administered to participants of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) has suggested that there are important dimensions of mental ability that function independently of "g". Two of these dimensions, rotation-verbal and focus-diffusion, appear to involve trade-offs: greater residual rotation…

  16. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    There have been few research studies to examine the positive mental health of Asian adolescents. The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of a Korean version of the Mental Health Continuum-short form (K-MHC-SF), a newly developed self-report scale for…

  17. Counseling and Mental Health Services OUR MISSION

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Counseling and Mental Health Services Page 1 OUR MISSION The mission of Counseling and Mental Disclosure and Confidentiality The privacy of your mental health information, including all written of all disciplines involved in your treatment. Uses and Disclosures of Your Mental Health Information

  18. School Mental Health: A Federal Perspective

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    School Mental Health: A Federal Perspective David Esquith Director for the Office of Safe Ingrid Donato Branch Chief, Mental Health Promotion, Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) #12;Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal

  19. Validity and Reliability of Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) Measurement During Walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    DVA is primarily subserved by the vestibulo-ocular reflex mechanism. Individuals with vestibular hypofunction commonly experience highly debilitating illusory movement or blurring of visual images during daily activities possibly, due to impaired DVA. Even without pathologies, gradual age-related morphological deterioration is evident in all components of the vestibular system. We examined the construct validity to detect age-related differences and test-retest reliability of DVA measurements performed during walking. METHODS: Healthy adults were recruited into 3 groups: 1. young (20-39years, n=18), 2. middle-aged (40-59years, n=14), and 3. older adults (60-80years, n=15). Randomly selected seven participants from each group (n=21) participated in retesting. Participants were excluded if they had a history of vestibular or neuromuscular pathologies, dizziness/vertigo or >1 falls in the past year. Older persons with MMSE scores <29/30 were excluded to minimize cognitive errors. Participants' age, height, weight and normal walking speed were recorded. The binocular DVA was measured while walking on a treadmill at 0.8 m/s, 1.0 m/s and 1.2 m/s speeds. The walking speeds chosen represent a range of slow to moderate walking speeds for adult life span in participants who have no current mobility problems. The monitor that displayed Landolt 'C' optotypes was placed at 50 cm from the eyes for nearDVA (primary compensation by otolith organs) and at 3.0 m for farDVA (primary compensation by semicircular canals). A mixed factor ANOVA (age group x speed) was performed separately for the Near and FarDVA for detecting group differences. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for each condition to determine test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The three age groups were not different in their height, weight and normal walking speed (p>0.05). The post hoc analyses for DVA measurements demonstrated that each group was significantly different from the other two groups for Near as well as FarDVA (p<0.001-p=0.031). The effect of speed was significant for both NearDVA (p=0.012) and FarDVA (p=0.014), however, there was no age group x speed interaction (FarDVA p=0.607, NearDVA p=0.343). The ICCs for Near and FarDVA ranged between 0.85- 0.88 and 0.71-0.87, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in DVA between the three age groups were detected by using both Near and FarDVA protocols irrespective of the walking speed. Therefore, age group-specific reference values should be used for detecting malfunction. Further, consistency in walking speed is critical for comparing between studies. NearDVA at all walking speeds and FarDVA at the speed of 1.2 m/s demonstrated excellent testretest reliability. FarDVA at 0.8 m/s and 1.0 m/s demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICCs 0.71 and 0.77, respectively).

  20. High-resolution genomic microarrays for X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Veltman, Joris A; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2007-09-01

    Developments in genomic microarray technology have revolutionized the study of human genomic copy number variation. This has significantly affected many areas in human genetics, including the field of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Chromosome X-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes microarrays have been developed to specifically test this chromosome with a resolution of approximately 100 kilobases. Application of these microarrays in X-linked mental retardation studies has resulted in the identification of novel X-linked mental retardation genes, copy number variation at known X-linked mental retardation genes, and copy number variations harboring as yet unidentified X-linked mental retardation genes. Further enhancements in genomic microarray analysis will soon allow the reliable analysis of all copy number variations throughout this chromosome at the kilobase or single exon resolution. In this review, we describe the developments in this field and specifically highlight the impact of these microarray studies in the field of X-linked mental retardation. PMID:17873643

  1. A gender-informed model to train community health workers in maternal mental health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan V; Kruse-Austin, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The New Haven Mental Health Outreach for MotherS (MOMS) Partnership is a community-academic partnership that works to develop public health approaches to ensure that pregnant and parenting women living in the City of New Haven achieve the highest possible level of mental health. The MOMS Partnership developed a training model for community health workers specializing in maternal mental health. Six community health workers (termed Community Mental Health Ambassadors or CMHAs) were trained on key topics in this gender-informed maternal mental health curriculum. Pre- and post-test questionnaires assessed changes in attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and control using standardized scales. The results indicated preliminary acceptability of the training curriculum in transforming knowledge and attitudes about maternal mental health among community health workers. PMID:25534578

  2. Mental rotation and motor performance in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kaltner, Sandra; Jansen, Petra

    2014-03-01

    We compared the performance of normal-reading (N=14) and dyslexic children (N=14) in a chronometric mental rotation task (cMRT) using letters, animals and pseudo-letters, which are objects that look like letters. In a typical chronometric mental rotation task two items are presented simultaneously on a screen whereby the right item is a rotated version of the left item and could be the same or a mirror version of the left item. The mental rotation paradigm is an appropriate method to test predictions of two different approaches trying to explain the problems for dyslexics when reading. According to the functional coordination deficit (FCD) model dyslexics show a failure in suppression of symmetry in the representation of graphemic material and therefore cannot decide whether the letter is normal or mirrored because of an ambiguous mapping between phoneme and grapheme representations. Therefore, the deficits of dyslexic children regarding mental rotation performance are restricted to the stimulus "letters". According to findings that propose the involvement of the cerebellum in mental rotation tasks and a cerebellar deficit in dyslexia, an impaired mental rotation is expected affecting all types of stimuli. To investigate the involvement of the cerebellum, motor performance was additionally assessed because the cerebellum plays an important role in motor functions and motor imagery. For the cMRT we found that the dyslexic children show both slower reaction times regarding the stimulus "letters" and "pseudo-letters" and increased overall reaction times compared to non-dyslexic children. The mental rotation effect was more pronounced in dyslexic children than in normal readers. In contrast to previous approaches, the results of our study support the idea that poor results in mental rotation result from deficits in mental rotation itself rather than from a decision problem after mental rotation which supports the predictions of the cerebellar deficit hypothesis. However, since the impairment of dyslexics regarding mental rotation performance is letter-specific and motor results show no differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children, further approaches next to the cerebellar deficit hypothesis must be taken into account, especially in consideration of the fact that there are a number of causes for the failure in reading. PMID:24268351

  3. Modeling peripheral visual acuity enables discovery of gaze strategies at multiple time scales during natural scene search

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Pavan; Fernandes, Hugo; Kording, Konrad; Segraves, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Like humans, monkeys make saccades nearly three times a second. To understand the factors guiding this frequent decision, computational models of vision attempt to predict fixation locations using bottom-up visual features and top-down goals. How do the relative influences of these factors evolve over multiple time scales? Here we analyzed visual features at fixations using a retinal transform that provides realistic visual acuity by suitably degrading visual information in the periphery. In a task in which monkeys searched for a Gabor target in natural scenes, we characterized the relative importance of bottom-up and task-relevant influences by decoding fixated from nonfixated image patches based on visual features. At fast time scales, we found that search strategies can vary over the course of a single trial, with locations of higher saliency, target-similarity, edge–energy, and orientedness looked at later on in the trial. At slow time scales, we found that search strategies can be refined over several weeks of practice, and the influence of target orientation was significant only in the latter of two search tasks. Critically, these results were not observed without applying the retinal transform. Our results suggest that saccade-guidance strategies become apparent only when models take into account degraded visual representation in the periphery. PMID:25814545

  4. Visual acuity improvements after implantation of toric intraocular lenses in cataract patients with astigmatism: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cataracts are a common and significant cause of visual impairment globally. We aimed to evaluate uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) as an outcome in treating astigmatic cataract patients to assist clinicians or ophthalmologists in their decision making process regarding available interventions. Methods Medline, Embase and Evidence Based Reviews were systematically reviewed to identify relevant studies reporting changes in UDVA, UIVA and UNVA after cataract surgery in presbyopic patients. Strict inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to exclude any non-relevant studies. Relevant outcomes (UDVA, UIVA and UNVA) were identified from the studies retrieved through the systematic review process. Results The systematic review identified 11 studies which reported UCVA. All 11 studies reported UDVA. Four brands of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) were reported in these studies. All studies identified in the literature search reported improvements in UDVA following surgical implant of a toric IOL. The largest improvements in VA were reported using the Human Optics MicroSil toric IOL (0.74 LogMAR, UDVA) and the smallest improvements were also reported using the Human Optics MicroSil toric IOL (0.23 LogMAR, UDVA) in a different study. Conclusions The results of this systematic review showed the aggregate of studies reporting a beneficial increase in UDVA with the use of toric IOLs in cataract patients with astigmatism. PMID:22894651

  5. Behavior Rhythms in Mental Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melbin, Murray

    1969-01-01

    Research supported by a Russell Sage Foundation Residency Fellowship, National Science Foundation grant GL0919, National Institute of Mental Health grant M-5702(A), and National Institutes of Health grant RO2-NU-00251.

  6. COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTER PROGRAMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARTHUR H. BRAYFIELD

    1967-01-01

    A STATEMENT SUPPORTING THE GOALS OF THE COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTERS LEGISLATION GIVEN AT HEARINGS BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE OF THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE, 90TH CONGRESS, 1ST SESSION, 1967.

  7. The Burden of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, William W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Nestadt, Gerald; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Clarke, Diana; Alexandre, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and impairments related to the disorders, and costs. This review expands the range of mental disorders considered in a report on the global burden of disease, updates the literature, presents information on the range and depth of sources of information on burden, and adds estimates of costs. The purpose is to provide an accessible guide to the burden of mental disorders, especially for researchers and policy makers who may not be familiar with this subfield of epidemiology. PMID:18806255

  8. Sex, immorality, and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Gert, Bernard; Culver, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Although the definition of a mental disorder has remained essentially the same from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R) through DSM-IV to DSM-IV-TR, the account of the paraphilias has changed continually. Although the definition in all the DSMs explicitly rules out deviant sexual behavior as sufficient for labeling someone as having a mental disorder, deviant sexual behavior counts as sufficient for all the paraphilias in DSM-III-R. In DSM-IV, the account of all the paraphilias is made consistent with the definition. In DSM-IV-TR, mere deviant sexual behavior is not sufficient for being classified as having a paraphilia, but immoral deviant sexual behavior is. Thus, in DSM-IV-TR, only those paraphilias that involve immoral deviant sexual behavior are inconsistent with the definition, but deviant sexual behavior by itself does not count as a mental disorder. PMID:19690325

  9. Religion, Guilt, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; Ingersoll, R. Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Article reviews the constructs of religion, guilt, and mental health, and explores relationships between these constructs as they pertain to the counseling profession. General therapeutic approaches are identified and summarized for counseling practice. (Author/JDM)

  10. Rural Schools' Mental Health Needs

    E-print Network

    Lee, Steven W.; Lohmeier, Jill H.; Niileksela, Christopher Robert; Oeth, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Rural schools often can not provide the same access to mental health service as schools in larger population areas can.. Understanding the implications of these sometimes limited services is important in overcoming barriers to adequate services...

  11. Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE that having a psychiatric disorder is associated with a 25 percent lower likelihood of working. Mental health

  12. Web Sites Related to Mental Health Web Sites Related to Mental Health

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Web Sites Related to Mental Health Web Sites Related to Mental Health American Academy of Child://www.psychologicalscience.org/ Canadian Mental Health Association http://www.cmha.ca/ Center for Mental Health Services Research http://gwbweb.wustl.edu/Users/cmhsr/ Depression and Related Affective Disorders Association http://www.drada.org/ Disaster Mental Health http

  13. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio-vascular diseases and cancers, and due to poverty, poor health prevention and primary health care for these patients. From a system perspective, Australia has been inspired by Canada and created in 2012 its own mental health commission with a similar leading role for patients and families, aboriginal people representatives, but also a surveillance of the system with its own yearly report, like the Quebec Health Commissioner 2012 mental health system performance report. PMID:25120122

  14. Rurality and Mental Health Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily J. Hauenstein; Stephen Petterson; Virginia Rovnyak; Elizabeth Merwin; Barbara Heise; Douglas Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Diversity within rural areas renders rural–urban comparisons difficult. The association of mental health treatment rates with\\u000a levels of rurality is investigated here using Rural–Urban Continuum Codes. Data from the 1996–1999 panels of the Medical Expenditure\\u000a Panel Survey are aggregated to provide annual treatment rates for respondents reporting mental health problems. Data show\\u000a that residents of the most rural areas receive

  15. Stress in mental health nursing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J Kipping

    2000-01-01

    Although there have been growing concerns about stress in nursing over recent years, research has primarily focused on general nurses. This paper reports on stress in mental health nursing. The data were obtained, via questionnaires, from mental health nurses at the end of their training. Four-hundred and forty-seven questionnaires were returned, an 80% response rate. Open-ended questions were asked about

  16. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    PubMed

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues. PMID:19459098

  17. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

  18. The discrepancy between central foveal thickness and best corrected visual acuity in cystoid macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion after intravitreal lucentis(®) injection.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui; Li, Chenyan; Hu, Yuedong; Chen, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Cystoid macular edema is a common retinal disorder with the potential for significant vision-related morbidity, and intravitreal lucentis(®) injection is confirmed to be an effective therapy approach. In the present study, we investigated the discrepancy between central foveal thickness and best corrected visual acuity in such lesions and infered that intravitreal lucentis(®) injection may help the visual function, related to the renewal of cells. PMID:25818575

  19. Mental Health Professional Shortage Areas in Rural Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Context: Research on health disparities in Appalachia has rarely compared Appalachia to other geographic areas in such a way as to isolate possible Appalachian effects. Purpose: This study tests hypotheses that nonmetropolitan Appalachia will have higher levels of mental health professional shortage areas than other nonmetropolitan areas of the…

  20. The relationship between mental toughness and dispositional flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Crust; Christian Swann

    2011-01-01

    This article tested the relationship between mental toughness (MT) and dispositional flow. A sample of 135 athletes (M age = 20.81 years, SD = 2.76), derived from University sports teams and local sports clubs, gave informed consent before completing questionnaires to assess MT and dispositional flow. Pearson correlations revealed a significant and positive relationship between total MT and global flow

  1. Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

  2. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test

  3. The Mental Speed-IQ Relationship: Unitary or Modular?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Bucik, Valentin

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between mental speed and IQ was studied with 120 adults who completed a battery of elementary cognitive tests (ECTs). As expected, high speed of information processing on ECTs was related to high psychometric intelligence, but this relationship could not be localized at the level of general intelligence. (SLD)

  4. Shared and Separate Meanings in the Bilingual Mental Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yanping; Gui, Shichun; MacWhinney, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a shared, distributed, asymmetrical model for the bilingual mental lexicon. To test the sharing of conceptual relations across translation equivalents, Experiment 1 used the classical priming paradigm with specific methodological innovations, trying to satisfy various constraints that had not been addressed in previous studies.…

  5. Sex-Specific Response Strategies in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the marked sex difference in the original mental rotation test (MRT) is simply a result of sex differences in response strategies. Thirty-four participants (17 males, 17 females) completed the revised Vandenberg and Kuse MRT [Peters, M., Laeng, B., Latham, K., Jackson, M., Zaiyouna, R., & Richardson, C.…

  6. The Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In their article, Suldo and Shaffer (2008) join other researchers in proposing that subjective well-being might be a reliable, valid, and practical index of the positive dimensions of "health" in mental health. They appropriately indicate that, to date, there are only a few empirical tests of the relations that exist between the presence of…

  7. Sparing of Spatial Mental Imagery in Patients with Hippocampal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soyun; Borst, Grégoire; Thompson, William L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    In four experiments, we explored the capacity for spatial mental imagery in patients with hippocampal lesions, using tasks that minimized the role of learning and memory. On all four tasks, patients with hippocampal lesions performed as well as controls. Nonetheless, in separate tests, the patients were impaired at remembering the materials that…

  8. Improvement of visual acuity based on optical coherence tomography patterns following intravitreal bevacizumab treatment in patients with diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Haider R.; Al Habash, Ahmed; Al-Askar, Essam

    2014-01-01

    AIM To report the visual outcome based on various patterns of optical coherence tomography (OCT) morphology in diabetic macular edema (DME), following treatment with anti-VEGF intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection. METHODS Sixty-seven consecutive subjects with centre involving DME underwent intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) in this retrospective, comparative, non randomized study. The DME was classified into one of four categories: focal, diffuse, focal cystoid and neurosensory detachment based on OCT. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), macular appearance, and OCT findings were used to decide whether the subject should have a repeat injection of intravitreal bevacizumab. Outcome measures were a change in mean BCVA (Snellen converted to logMAR) and central macular thickness (CMT) in each group during the six month follow-up period. RESULTS The mean BCVA improved to logMAR 0.23 at final follow-up from a baseline of 0.32 logMAR (P=0.040) in the focal group, logMAR 0.80 at final follow-up from a baseline of 0.82 logMAR (P=0.838) in the diffuse group, worsened to logMAR 0.53 at final follow-up from a baseline of 0.43 logMAR (P=0.276) in the focal cystoid group, and improved to logMAR 0.79 at final follow-up from a baseline of 0.93 logMAR (P=0.490) in the neurosensory detachment group. The mean CMT before treatment were 298.8±25.03 µm in the focal group, 310.8±40.6 µm in the diffuse group, 397.15±31.05 µm in the focal cystoid group and 401.03±75.1 µm in the neurosensory detachment group. A mean of 2.05 (range: 1-5) injections in the focal group, 1.32 (range: 1-2) in the diffuse group, 2.6 (range: 1-6) in the focal cystoid group and 2.6 (range: 1-6) in the neurosensory detachment group were performed during the six month follow-up period. Following intravitreal bevacizumab treatment, vision improved, remained unchanged or worsened in 11, 7 and 2 subjects in focal group; 11, 9 and 8 in diffuse group; 0, 2 and 4 in focal cystoid group and 5, 5 and 3 subjects respectively in neurosensory detachment group. CONCLUSION OCT morpholgy patterns in DME may predict the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab treatment, and patients with focal DME are most likely to benefit from the improvent of visual acuity from this treatment. PMID:24790866

  9. Comparison of the VCTS-6500 and the CSV-1000 tests for visual contrast sensitivity testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Franco; Ana Carolina Silva; Ana Sofia Carvalho; Ana Sofia Macedo; Madalena Lira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze if differences exist between two available contrast sensitivity tests that use similar stimuli, specifically, the CSV-1000 (VectorVision, Greenville, OH)) and the VCTS-6500 (Vistech, Dayton, OH).Contrast sensitivity was measured on 105 healthy patients with ages ranged from 19 to 26 years with visual acuity of 20\\/25 or better. The tests were performed in

  10. Kinematic mental simulations in abduction and deduction

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet Suresh; Mackiewicz, Robert; Bucciarelli, Monica; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    We present a theory, and its computer implementation, of how mental simulations underlie the abductions of informal algorithms and deductions from these algorithms. Three experiments tested the theory’s predictions, using an environment of a single railway track and a siding. This environment is akin to a universal Turing machine, but it is simple enough for nonprogrammers to use. Participants solved problems that required use of the siding to rearrange the order of cars in a train (experiment 1). Participants abduced and described in their own words algorithms that solved such problems for trains of any length, and, as the use of simulation predicts, they favored “while-loops” over “for-loops” in their descriptions (experiment 2). Given descriptions of loops of procedures, participants deduced the consequences for given trains of six cars, doing so without access to the railway environment (experiment 3). As the theory predicts, difficulty in rearranging trains depends on the numbers of moves and cars to be moved, whereas in formulating an algorithm and deducing its consequences, it depends on the Kolmogorov complexity of the algorithm. Overall, the results corroborated the use of a kinematic mental model in creating and testing informal algorithms and showed that individuals differ reliably in the ability to carry out these tasks. PMID:24082090

  11. Mental Paper Folding Performance Following Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury in Combat Veterans: A Lesion Mapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Krueger, Frank; Solomon, Jeffrey; Raymont, Vanessa; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Mental paper folding is a complex measure of visuospatial ability involving a coordinated sequence of mental transformations and is often considered a measure of mental ability. The literature is inconclusive regarding the precise neural architecture that underlies performance. We combined the administration of the Armed Forces Qualification Test boxes subtest measuring mental paper folding ability, with a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping approach to identify brain regions associated with impaired mental paper folding ability. Using a large sample of subjects with penetrating traumatic brain injury and defined lesions studied over 2 time points, roughly 15 and 35 years post-injury, enabled us to answer the causal questions regarding mental paper folding impairment. Our results revealed that brain injury significantly exacerbates the decline of performance on mental paper folding tasks over time. Our study adds novel neuropsychological and neuroimaging support for parietal lobe involvement; specifically the right inferior parietal lobule (Broadmann's Area [BA] 40) and the left parahippocampal region (BAs 19, 36). Both areas were consistently associated with mental paper folding performance and demonstrate that the right parietal lobe and the left parahippocampal gyrus play an integral role in mental paper folding tasks. PMID:22669970

  12. If Memory Serves: The effect of mental representations of size on prehension motions 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Stuart P

    2009-07-03

    While previous studies have shown an effect of familiar size after recent exposure to an object (McIntosh & Lashley, 2008), this study aims to test the effect of object experience and potential mental representations that ...

  13. Integrating Decision Making and Mental Health Interventions Research: Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Celia E.; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    The importance of incorporating patient and provider decision-making processes is in the forefront of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) agenda for improving mental health interventions and services. Key concepts in patient decision making are highlighted within a simplified model of patient decision making that links patient-level/“micro” variables to services-level/“macro” variables via the decision-making process that is a target for interventions. The prospective agenda for incorporating decision-making concepts in mental health research includes (a) improved measures for characterizing decision-making processes that are matched to study populations, complexity, and types of decision making; (b) testing decision aids in effectiveness research for diverse populations and clinical settings; and (c) improving the understanding and incorporation of preference concepts in enhanced intervention designs. PMID:16724158

  14. Computerization of Mental Health Integration Complexity Scores at Intermountain Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Oniki, Thomas A.; Rodrigues, Drayton; Rahman, Noman; Patur, Saritha; Briot, Pascal; Taylor, David P.; Wilcox, Adam B.; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Cannon, Wayne H.

    2014-01-01

    Intermountain Healthcare’s Mental Health Integration (MHI) Care Process Model (CPM) contains formal scoring criteria for assessing a patient’s mental health complexity as “mild,” “medium,” or “high” based on patient data. The complexity score attempts to assist Primary Care Physicians in assessing the mental health needs of their patients and what resources will need to be brought to bear. We describe an effort to computerize the scoring. Informatics and MHI personnel collaboratively and iteratively refined the criteria to make them adequately explicit and reflective of MHI objectives. When tested on retrospective data of 540 patients, the clinician agreed with the computer’s conclusion in 52.8% of the cases (285/540). We considered the analysis sufficiently successful to begin piloting the computerized score in prospective clinical care. So far in the pilot, clinicians have agreed with the computer in 70.6% of the cases (24/34). PMID:25954401

  15. A survey of “mental hardiness” and “mental toughness” in professional male football players

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not uncommon for chiropractors to be associated with sports teams for injury prevention, treatment, or performance enhancement. There is increasing acceptance of the importance of sports psychology in the overall management of athletes. Recent findings indicate mental hardiness can be determined reliably using specific self-assessment questionnaires. This study set out to investigate the hardiness scores of professional footballers and examine the correlation between two questionnaires. It also included a mental hardiness rating of players by two coaches, and examined differences in hardiness and mental toughness between national and international players. Methods Two self-assessment questionnaires (modified Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire [SMTQ-M] and Psychological Performance Inventory [PPI-A]) were completed by 20 male professional footballers. Two coaches, independently rated each player. A percentage score from each questionnaire was awarded each player and an average score was calculated ({SMTQ-M % + PPI-A %} ÷ 2). The PPI-A and SMTQ-M scores obtained for each player were analysed for correlation with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Cohen’s kappa inter-reliability coefficient was used to determine agreement between coaches, and between the players’ hardiness scores and coaches’ ratings. The independent t-test was used to examine differences between national and international players. Results The players’ scores obtained from PPI-A and SMTQ-M correlated well (r = 0.709, p < 0.001). The coaches ratings showed significant, weak to moderate agreement (Cohen's kappa = 0.33). No significant agreement was found between player self-assessments and coaches’ ratings. The average ({SMTQ-M % + PPI-A %} ÷ 2) mean score was 77% (SD = 7.98) with international players scoring 7.4% (p = 0.04) higher than non-international players. Conclusions The questionnaires (SMTQ-M and PPI-A) correlated well in their outcome scores. These findings suggest that coaches moderately agree when assessing the level of mental hardiness of football players. There was no agreement between player self-assessment and ratings by coaches. Footballers who play or had played for national teams achieved slightly higher mental hardiness scores. Either questionnaire can offer the clinician a cost-effective, valuable measure of an individual’s psychological attributes, which could be relevant within the wider context of bio-psycho-social model of care. PMID:24735867

  16. Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Gordon C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following the tenets of world polity and innovation diffusion theories, I focus on the coercive and mimetic forces that influence the diffusion of mental health policy across nations. International organizations’ mandates influence government behavior. Dependency on external resources, namely foreign aid, also affects governments’ formulation of national policy. And finally, mounting adoption in a region alters the risk, benefits, and information associated with a given policy. Methods: I use post-war, discrete time data spanning 1950 to 2011 and describing 193 nations’ mental health systems to test these diffusion mechanisms. Results: I find that the adoption of mental health policy is highly clustered temporally and spatially. Results provide support that membership in the World Health Organization (WHO), interdependence with neighbors and peers in regional blocs, national income status, and migrant sub-population are responsible for isomorphism. Aid, however, is an insufficient determinant of mental health policy adoption. Conclusion: This study examines the extent to which mental, neurological, and substance use disorder are addressed in national and international contexts through the lens of policy diffusion theory. It also adds to policy dialogues about non-communicable diseases as nascent items on the global health agenda. PMID:25337601

  17. Using Kid Power to Teach Kids about Mental Retardation: A Long Term Follow-Up

    E-print Network

    Turnbull, Amy; Bronicki, G. J. Buzz

    1987-01-01

    JASH copyright 1987 by 1987, Vol. 12, No. 3, 216-217 The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps 216 Using Kid Power to Teach Kids about Mental Retardation: A Long-Term Follow-Up Amy..., I gave an attitude test to kids in two second grade classrooms. Then I taught a 50-min lesson about mental retardation to one of the classes. I gave the attitude test to both classrooms again. The kids in the experimental group that I taught had...

  18. Effects of a mental task on splanchnic blood flow in fasting and postprandial conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nami Someya; Masako Yamaoka Endo; Yoshiyuki Fukuba; Yoshitaka Hirooka; Naoyuki Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a mental task attenuates the meal-induced vasodilation in the splanchnic vasculature. Ten subjects\\u000a performed a 5-min colour-word conflict test (CWT) under fasting and postprandial conditions. Subjects in the postprandial\\u000a condition had ingested solid food with an energy content of 300 kcal (1,255 kJ) before either performing the CWT (mental task\\u000a trial) or resting (resting control trial). The

  19. [Hyperlipoproteinemia in mentally retarded children].

    PubMed

    Höllge, J; Vymlátil, J; Kostiuk, P; Böswart, J

    1993-08-01

    Screening revealed a significantly higher incidence of hyperlipoproteinaemia in mentally retarded children in an Institute for Social Welfare than in the healthy child population (P 1%). In the aetiology participate most markedly secondary influences ensuing in particular from complications of the basic diagnosis of oligophrenia. It is mainly a question of the action of antiepileptics, neuroleptics, the influence of viral hepatic infections and other endogenous and exogenous factors. Early diagnosis of hyperlipoproteinaemia is possible so far only by biochemical methods. It is essential for genetic counselling, for prevention of deterioration as regards mental retardation, restriction of pharmacotherapy and later for a reduced risk of development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:8403035

  20. Malayalam cinema and mental health.

    PubMed

    Menon, Koravangattu Valsraj; Ranjith, Gopinath

    2009-06-01

    There is a tradition of using films to teach various aspects of psychiatry and we feel that Malayalam cinema can also be used suitably to teach effectively. These films can be an invaluable resource in cultural competency training as they depict the effects of culture on psychopathology and cultural and regional influences on attitudes to mental illness and stigma. We also note that the portrayal is often far from reality but this is not a barrier for using the films as an effective alternative to traditional and didactic teaching methods. This method of teaching can stimulate interest and discussion and demystify the myths of novice students and others about mental health. PMID:19459097