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1

Visual acuity test  

MedlinePLUS

Eye test - acuity; Vision test - acuity; Snellen test ... from your face. This will test your near vision. ... examination, particularly if there is a change in vision or a problem with vision. In children, the ...

2

Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests for repeated-measures studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to detail the development of the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), a computer battery of mental acuity tests that can be used to assess human performance in the presence of toxic elements and environmental stressors. There were four objectives in the development of APTS. First, the technical requirements for developing APTS followed the tenets of the classical theory of mental tests which requires that tests meet set criteria like stability and reliability (the lack of which constitutes insensitivity). To be employed in the study of the exotic conditions of protracted space flight, a battery with multiple parallel forms is required. The second criteria was for the battery to have factorial multidimensionality and the third was for the battery to be sensitive to factors known to compromise performance. A fourth objective was for the tests to converge on the abilities entailed in mission specialist tasks. A series of studies is reported in which candidate APTS tests were subjected to an examination of their psychometric properties for repeated-measures testing. From this work, tests were selected that possessed the requisite metric properties of stability, reliability, and factor richness. In addition, studies are reported which demonstrate the predictive validity of the tests to holistic measures of intelligence.

Kennedy, R. S.; Wilkes, R. L.; Baltzley, D. R.; Fowlkes, J. E.

1990-01-01

3

Preschool visual acuity screening tests.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

Friendly, D S

1978-01-01

4

Visual acuity testing. From the laboratory to the clinic.  

PubMed

The need for precision in visual acuity assessment for low vision research led to the design of the Bailey-Lovie letter chart. This paper describes the decisions behind the design principles used and how the logarithmic progression of sizes led to the development of the logMAR designation of visual acuity and the improved sensitivity gained from letter-by-letter scoring. While the principles have since been adopted by most major clinical research studies and for use in most low vision clinics, use of charts of this design and application of letter-by-letter scoring are also important for the accurate assessment of visual acuity in any clinical setting. We discuss the test protocols that should be applied to visual acuity testing and the use of other tests for assessing profound low vision when the limits of visual acuity measurement by letter charts are reached. PMID:23685164

Bailey, Ian L; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan E

2013-09-20

5

Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments  

PubMed Central

Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients’ scores were significantly worse than normals’ scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients. PMID:23000614

Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2013-01-01

6

Sensitivity of The Dynamic Visual Acuity Test To Sensorimotor Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post-flight astronauts, acutely post-vestibular nerve section patients, and patients with severe chronic bilateral vestibular deficits have oscillopsia caused by reduced vestibulocular reflex gains and decreased postural stability. Therefore, as previous work has shown, a test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA), in which the subject must read numbers from a computer screen while standing still or walking in place provides a composite measure of sensorimotor integration. This measure may be useful for determining the level of recovery, post-flight, post-operatively, or after vestibular rehabilitation. To determine the sensitivity of DVA to change in impaired populations we have tested patients with acoustic neuromas before and during the first post-operative week after resection of the tumors, and with bilaterally labyrinthine deficient subjects before and after six weeks of balance rehabilitation therapy.

Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob; Elizalde, Elizabeth; Fregia, Melody

1999-01-01

7

The Freiburg Visual Acuity Test-Variability unchanged by post-hoc re-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Freiburg Visual Acuity and Contrast Test (FrACT) has been further developed; it is now available for Macintosh and Windows\\u000a free of charge at http:\\/\\/www.michaelbach.de\\/fract.html. The present study sought to reduce the test-retest variability of visual acuity on short runs (18 trials) by post-hoc re-analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The FrACT employs advanced computer graphics to present Landolt Cs over the full range of

Michael Bach

2006-01-01

8

Visual Vestibular Interaction in the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test during Voluntary Head Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although intact vestibular function is essential in maintaining spatial orientation, no good screening tests of vestibular function are available to the aviation community. High frequency voluntary head rotation was selected as a vestibular stimulus to isolate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from visual influence. A dynamic visual acuity test that incorporates voluntary head rotation was evaluated as a potential vestibular function screening tool. Twenty-seven normal subjects performed voluntary sinusoidal head rotation at frequencies from 0.7-4.0 Hz under three different visual conditions: visually-enhanced VOR, normal VOR, and visually suppressed VOR. Standardized Baily-Lovie chart letters were presented on a computer monitor in front of the subject, who then was asked to read the letters while rotating his head horizontally. The electro-oculogram and dynamic visual acuity score were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in gain or phase shift among three visual conditions in the frequency range of 2.8 to 4.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity score shifted less than 0.3 logMAR at frequencies under 2.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity test at frequencies a round 2.0 Hz can be recommended for evaluating vestibular function.

Lee, Moo Hoon; Durnford, Simon; Crowley, John; Rupert, Angus

1996-01-01

9

Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools  

PubMed Central

Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ‘Unable to test’ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes (P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or “matching” approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities. PMID:24008790

Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong

2014-01-01

10

An assessment of the iPad as a testing platform for distance visual acuity in adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Visual acuity is a common measurement in general practice, and the advent of new technology such as tablet computers offers a change in the way in which these tests are delivered. The aim of this study was to assess whether measurements of distance visual acuity using LogMAR letter charts displayed on an iPad tablet computer were in agreement with standard clinical tests of visual acuity in adults with normal vision. Design Blinded, diagnostic test study. Setting Single centre (University) in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants University staff and students (n=85). Participants were required to have visual acuity better than 6/60 and wear habitual refractive correction during testing. Participants were excluded if there was any history of ocular pathology. Primary and secondary outcome measures Visual acuity measured under a number of conditions. Results The iPad tablet with its glossy screen was highly susceptible to glare resulting in acuity measurements that were significantly poorer (approximately 2 LogMAR lines) than those made using an ETDRS chart and a standard computerised testing system (n=56). However, fitting the iPad with an antiglare screen and positioning the device away from sources creating reflected (veiling) glare resulted in acuity measurements that were equivalent those made using gold standard charts (n=29). Conclusions Tablet computers are an attractive option for visual acuity measurement due to portability, the ability to randomise letters, automated scoring of acuity and the ability to select from a range of charts. However, these devices are only suitable for use in situations where sources of glare can be eliminated. PMID:23794568

Black, J M; Jacobs, R J; Phillips, G; Chen, L; Tan, E; Tran, A; Thompson, B

2013-01-01

11

Normative Scores for the NIH Toolbox Dynamic Visual Acuity Test from 3 to 85?Years  

PubMed Central

As part of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative, a computerized test of dynamic visual acuity (cDVA) was developed and validated as an easy-to-administer, cost- and time-efficient test of vestibular and visual function. To establish normative reference values, 3,992 individuals, aged 3–85?years, without vestibular pathology underwent cDVA testing at multiple clinical research testing facilities across the United States. Test scores were stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. cDVA was worse in males (p?acuity across age groups binned from 3 to 49?years. Furthermore, we used these normative cDVA data as a criterion reference to compare both the long (validated) and short versions of the test. Both versions can distinguish between those with and without vestibular pathology (p?=?0.0002 long; p?=?0.0025 short). The intraclass correlation coefficient between long- and short-cDVA tests was 0.86. PMID:25400618

Li, Carol; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Rine, Rose Marie; Slotkin, Jerry; Schubert, Michael C.

2014-01-01

12

The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The performance of some subjects nicely parallels the stereotypical recovery curve observed in the group mean data. Others show dramatic changes in DVA from one test day to another. These changes may be indicative of a re-adaptation process that is not characterized by a steady improvement with the passage of time, but is instead a dynamic search for appropriate coordinative strategy to achieve the desired gaze stabilization goal. Ground-based data have been collected in our lab using DVA with one of the goals being to improve the DVA test itself. In one of these studies, the DVA test was repeated using a visual target viewing distance of 0.5 meters. While walking, the relative contributions of the otoliths and semi-circular canals that are required to stabilize gaze are affected by visual target viewing distance. It may be possible to exploit this using the current treadmill DVA test to differentially assess changes in these vestibular subsystems. The postflight DVA evaluations currently used have been augmented to include the near target version of the test. Preliminary results from these assessments, as well as the results from the ground-based tests will also be reported. DVA provides a direct measure of a subject's ability to see clearly in the presence of self-motion. The use of the current tests for providing a functionally relevant metric is evident. However, it is possible to expand the scope of DVA testing to include scenarios other than walking. A facility for measuring DVA in the presence of passive movements is being created. Using a mechanized platform to provide the perturbation, it should be possible to simulate aircraft and automobile vibration profiles. Used in conjunction with the far and near visual displays this facility should be able to assess a subject s ability to clearly see distant objects as well as those that appear on the dashboard or instrument control panel during functionally relevant situations.

Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2006-01-01

13

Brief Report: The Relationship between Visual Acuity, the Embedded Figures Test and Systemizing in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enhanced performance upon the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has informed psychological theories of the non-social aspects that characterise ASD. The Extreme Male Brain theory of autism proposes that enhanced visual acuity underpins greater attention to detail (assessed by the EFT) which is a…

Brosnan, Mark J.; Gwilliam, Lucy R.; Walker, Ian

2012-01-01

14

Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure  

PubMed Central

Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

2013-01-01

15

Two-Point Orientation Discrimination Versus the Traditional Two-Point Test for Tactile Spatial Acuity Assessment  

PubMed Central

Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal) of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants’ psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological assessment. PMID:24062677

Tong, Jonathan; Mao, Oliver; Goldreich, Daniel

2013-01-01

16

Low contrast visual acuity testing is associated with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive impairment and visual deterioration are two key clinical symptoms in MS and affect 50 to 80% of patients. Little is known about the influence of cognitive impairment on visual tests recommended for MS such as low contrast sensitivity testing. Our objective was to investigate whether low contrast sensitivity testing is influenced by cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Cross-sectional study including 89 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. All patients received cognitive evaluation using Rao’s Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Testing (BRB-N). Visual assessments included low contrast sensitivity (CS) by functional acuity contrast testing and high contrast visual acuity (VA) using ETDRS charts. Retinal morphology as visual impairment correlate was measured using retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography. Results In combined analyses using generalized estimating equation models, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and RNFL as well as and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and RNFL predicted CS. To further control for a potential influence of the anterior visual system we performed partial correlation analyses between visual function and cognitive function test results but controlling for RNFL. Even when controlling for RNFL, CS was associated with PASAT performance and SDMT performance. Conclusion Our data show that: a) cognitive impairment and performance in visual function tests such as low contrast sensitivity testing are associated; b) the main cognitive domains correlating with visual test performance are information processing speed and, to a lesser degree, memory; This preliminary data needs to be substantiated in further studies investigating patients with a higher cognitive burden, healthy controls and in longitudinal settings. PMID:24206900

2013-01-01

17

Improving the reliability of visual acuity measures in young children  

E-print Network

measurement and allow dierences in scores to be determined with increased con®dence. Test charts acuity test (Glasgow Acuity Cards), which incorporates several key design features used in adult test test in children. The test±retest reliability of acuity measurements made with Glas- gow Acuity Cards

Nottingham, University of

18

Abstract--In this paper we discuss under which conditions standard stereo visual acuity tests can be implemented on 3D TV  

E-print Network

on these measurements, with respect to the technology used to display the tests. Implementing conventional depth conditions, on the measurement of the stereo visual acuity, when using conventional 3D tests, such as Wirt with conventional tests and then to analyse the impact of different display technology on these measurements due

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Development of a test of suprathreshold acuity in noise in Brazilian Portuguese: a new method for hearing screening and surveillance.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: "a hearing check is recommended" (red light), "a hearing check would be advisable" (yellow light), and "no hearing difficulties" (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention. PMID:25247181

Vaez, Nara; Desgualdo-Pereira, Liliane; Paglialonga, Alessia

2014-01-01

20

A user-operated test of suprathreshold acuity in noise for adult hearing screening: The SUN (Speech Understanding in Noise) test.  

PubMed

A novel, user-operated test of suprathreshold acuity in noise for use in adult hearing screening (AHS) was developed. The Speech Understanding in Noise test (SUN) is a speech-in-noise test that makes use of a list of vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) stimuli in background noise presented in a three-alternative forced choice (3AFC) paradigm by means of a touch sensitive screen. The test is automated, easy-to-use, and provides self-explanatory results (i.e., 'no hearing difficulties', or 'a hearing check would be advisable', or 'a hearing check is recommended'). The test was developed from its building blocks (VCVs and speech-shaped noise) through two main steps: (i) development of the test list through equalization of the intelligibility of test stimuli across the set and (ii) optimization of the test results through maximization of the test sensitivity and specificity. The test had 82.9% sensitivity and 85.9% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening, and 83.8% sensitivity and 83.9% specificity to identify individuals with disabling hearing impairment. Results obtained so far showed that the test could be easily performed by adults and older adults in less than one minute per ear and that its results were not influenced by ambient noise (up to 65dBA), suggesting that the test might be a viable method for AHS in clinical as well as non-clinical settings. PMID:25016290

Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Grandori, Ferdinando

2014-09-01

21

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2014-07-01

22

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2012-07-01

23

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2013-07-01

24

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2011-07-01

25

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2010-07-01

26

Can doctors predict patients' abbreviated mental test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: the abbreviated mental test is widely used in the assessment of cognitive impairment in elderly patients. However, many doctors do not administer the full 10 questions, preferring to estimate the patient's score instead. We have studied the accuracy of doctors in predicting patients' abbreviated mental test scores. Methods: we assessed 102 patients in the geriatric unit. We asked doctors

ELIZABETH BURLEIGH; I AN REEVES; C HRISTINE MCALPINE; J AMES DAVIE

27

A distance visual acuity chart incorporating some new design features.  

PubMed

Standardized visual acuity assessments are possible when consideration is given to legibility, acuity row legibility, letter spacing, optotype, row arrangement, and letter size gradation. The relative optotype legibilities reported by Sloan were verified experimentally under simulated conditions of optical defocus. Acuity row component letters were selected to equalize aggregate row legibilities and were arranged to minimize contaminative sequencing dependency. We describe a new acuity chart format with vertical acuity row presentations to eliminate bias from previous reading experience, and testing procedures using this chart. PMID:3977674

Strong, G; Woo, G C

1985-01-01

28

Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast  

PubMed Central

Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from ?2.5% to ?99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding. PMID:23770657

Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.

2013-01-01

29

Color improves “visual” acuity via sound  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution devices (SSDs) convey visual information via sound, with the primary goal of making visual information accessible to blind and visually impaired individuals. We developed the EyeMusic SSD, which transforms shape, location, and color information into musical notes. We tested the “visual” acuity of 23 individuals (13 blind and 10 blindfolded sighted) on the Snellen tumbling-E test, with the EyeMusic. Participants were asked to determine the orientation of the letter “E.” The test was repeated twice: in one test, the letter “E” was drawn with a single color (white), and in the other test, with two colors (red and white). In the latter case, the vertical line in the letter, when upright, was drawn in red, with the three horizontal lines drawn in white. We found no significant differences in performance between the blind and the sighted groups. We found a significant effect of the added color on the “visual” acuity. The highest acuity participants reached in the monochromatic test was 20/800, whereas with the added color, acuity doubled to 20/400. We conclude that color improves “visual” acuity via sound. PMID:25426015

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Riemer, Dar; Amedi, Amir

2014-01-01

30

Submitted for publication The Sex Difference on Mental Rotation Tests Is Not  

E-print Network

Submitted for publication The Sex Difference on Mental Rotation Tests Is Not Necessarily Schenectady, NY 12308 Email: chabris@gmail.com Running head: Sex differences on mental rotation tests #12;Sex differences on mental rotation tests ­ p. 2 of 26 Abstract The largest consistent sex difference in human

Chabris, Christopher F.

31

RETENTION OF HIGH TACTILE ACUITY THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN IN BLINDNESS  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip using passive touch have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have re-examined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts requiring active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to Braille and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind Braille readers and sighted subjects, ranging in age from 12 to 85 years, were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically Braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the lifespan. PMID:19064491

Legge, Gordon E.; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N.; Cheong, Allen M.Y.; Miller, Joseph C.

2009-01-01

32

Visual Handicaps of Mentally Handicapped People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent literature concerning visual handicaps of mentally handicapped people is reviewed. Topic areas considered are etiology and epidemiology, visual acuity, color vision, and educational techniques. (Author)

Ellis, David

1979-01-01

33

Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine

2012-01-01

34

Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

2013-01-01

35

Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor  

DOEpatents

A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

36

Visual acuity vs letter contrast sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the quantitative relationship between foveal visual acuity and contrast sensitivity for large-letter optotypes in a group of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), in order to asses more completely the extent of foveal vision loss in this group of hereditary retinal dystrophies. High-contrast visual acuity and large-letter contrast sensitivity were measured with a computer-based testing system and with

Kenneth R. Alexander; Deborah J. Derlacki; Gerald A. Fishman

1995-01-01

37

Brain plasticity: 'visual' acuity of blind persons via the tongue.  

PubMed

The 'visual' acuity of blind persons perceiving information through a newly developed human-machine interface, with an array of electrical stimulators on the tongue, has been quantified using a standard Ophthalmological test (Snellen Tumbling E). Acuity without training averaged 20/860. This doubled with 9 h of training. The interface may lead to practical devices for persons with sensory loss such as blindness, and offers a means of exploring late brain plasticity. PMID:11454331

Sampaio, E; Maris, S; Bach-y-Rita, P

2001-07-27

38

Sex Differences in Mental Test Scores, Variability, and Numbers of High-Scoring Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in central tendency, variability, and numbers of high scores on mental tests have been extensively studied. Research has not always seemed to yield consistent results, partly because most studies have not used representative samples of national populations. An analysis of mental test scores from six studies that used national probability samples provided evidence that although average sex differences

Larry V. Hedges; Amy Nowell

1995-01-01

39

Dynamic visual acuity using "far" and "near" targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CONCLUSIONS: DVA may be useful for assessing the functional consequences of an impaired gaze stabilization mechanism or for testing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation paradigm. Because target distance influences the relative contributions of canal and otolith inputs, the ability to measure DVA at near and far viewing distances may also lead to tests that will independently assess canal and otolith function. OBJECTIVE: To present and test a methodology that uses dynamic visual acuity (DVA) to assess the efficacy of compensatory gaze mechanisms during a functionally relevant activity that differentially measures canal and otolith function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of treadmill walking at a velocity of 1.79 m/s on subjects' visual acuity was assessed at each of two viewing distances. A custom-written threshold determination program was used to display Landolt C optotypes on a laptop computer screen during a "far" (4 m) target condition and on a micro-display for a "near" (50 cm) target condition. The walking acuity scores for each target distance were normalized by subtracting a corresponding acuity measure obtained while standing still on the treadmill belt. RESULTS: As predicted by subjective reports of relative target motion, the decrease in visual acuity was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) for the near compared to the far condition.

Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2005-01-01

40

HIV Testing and Receipt of Test Results Among Homeless Persons With Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the rates and predictors of HIV testing and receipt of results among homeless adults with serious mental ill- ness in the initial 3-month period after contact with a community-based case management program. Method: Baseline and follow-up inter- view data came from clients (N=5,890) in the Access to Community Care and Effec-

Mayur M. Desai; M. P. H. Robert; A. Rosenheck

2004-01-01

41

The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

2003-01-01

42

Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

2009-01-01

43

T-CAT: a new thermal camera acuity tester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T-CAT (Thermal Camera Acuity Tester) is a thermal `eye chart' for measuring the spatial resolution (`sensor acuity') of thermal imaging systems. It is a small, portable system,, that is used in a similar way as the optometrists' visual acuity charts. The design is an implementation of the TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) method for Electro-Optic sensor characterization that has recently been introduced. The purpose of the T-CAT is do quick and easy assessments of thermal imager performance, e.g. for routine testing such as go/nogo decisions. T-CAT measures system performance including the human observer, which is still the best way to assess actual field performance of an imaging device.

Valeton, J. M.; Bijl, Piet; Agterhuis, Evert; Kriekaard, Sjaak

2000-07-01

44

The Concept of Visual Acuity Ratio to the Maximum Level of Individual Visual Acuity—The Evaluation Method of Background Luminance and Visual Distance on Visibility Taking into Account of Individual Visual Acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the maximum level of individual visual acuity (MVA) as an index for the individual visual ability. Also, we define the concept of the ratio of visual acuity under various environmental conditions for the MVA as Visual Acuity Ratio (VAR), in order to describe differences between individual visibilities. An experiment was carried out using various levels of background luminance and visual distance. The visual acuity of subjects in two age groups (Young and Aged) was measured by using Landolt’s eye chart (luminance contrast: 0.93). The Aged subjects’ vision was corrected by two kinds of spectacles: ones for myopia / presbyopia. Under conditions providing sufficient visual acuity, the subjects’ order of individual visual acuity was unchanged. Therefore, MVA can be used as an index for the visual ability of the individual. Regardless of corrected conditions, the individual visual acuity reaches the maximum level under 800cd/m2 and the corrected position. The results of the eyesight test can be used as a substitution for MVA. Visual acuity is changing under environmental conditions, and a degree of the changes varies with age, corrected conditions, and differences in visual acuity. Under the corrected position, the relationship between background luminance and VAR is constant regardless of age group, corrected conditions and differences of visual acuity. The relationship between visual distance and VAR differs by age and corrected conditions. However, in the neighborhood of the corrected position, the relationship between visual distance and VAR is constant regardless of differences between individual visibilities. The concept of VAR is applicable to past studies.

Akizuki, Yuki; Inoue, Youko

45

Driver mental workload requirements on horizontal curves based on occluded vision test measurements  

E-print Network

This thesis documents an evaluation of driver mental workload requirements on horizontal curves based on occluded vision test measurements. Driver workload is an important concept in the design of highway systems. A successful highway design...

Shafer, Mark Anthony

1994-01-01

46

HIV testing among adults with mental illness in the United States.  

PubMed

Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed. PMID:25459230

Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B

2014-12-01

47

Dynamic Visual Acuity during Passive Head Thrusts in Canal Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA

Michael C. Schubert; Americo A. Migliaccio; Charles C. Della Santina

2006-01-01

48

Functional Multijoint Position Reproduction Acuity in Overhead-Throwing Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Baseball players rely on the sensorimotor system to uphold the balance between upper extremity stability and mobility while maintaining athletic performance. However, few researchers have studied functional multijoint measures of sensorimotor acuity in overhead-throwing athletes. Objective: To compare sensorimotor acuity between 2 high-demand functional positions and among planes of motion within individual joints and to describe a novel method of measuring sensorimotor function. Design: Single-session, repeated-measures design. Setting: University musculoskeletal research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball players (age = 20.8 ± 1.5 years, height = 181.3 ± 5.1 cm, mass = 87.8 ± 9.1 kg) with no history of upper extremity injury or central nervous system disorder. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured active multijoint position reproduction acuity in multiple planes using an electromagnetic tracking device. Subjects reproduced 2 positions: arm cock and ball release. We calculated absolute and variable error for individual motions at the scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, elbow, and wrist joints and calculated overall joint acuity with 3-dimensional variable error. Results: Acuity was significantly better in the arm-cock position compared with ball release at the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints. We observed significant differences among planes of motion within the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints at ball release. Scapulothoracic internal rotation and glenohumeral horizontal abduction and rotation displayed less acuity than other motions. Conclusions: We established the reliability of a functional measure of upper extremity sensorimotor system acuity in baseball players. Using this technique, we observed differences in acuity between 2 test positions and among planes of motion within the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints. Clinicians may consider these differences when designing and implementing sensorimotor system training. Our error scores are similar in magnitude to those reported using single-joint and single-plane measures. However, 3-dimensional, multijoint measures allow practical, unconstrained test positions and offer additional insight into the upper extremity as a functional unit. PMID:16791298

Tripp, Brady L; Uhl, Timothy L; Mattacola, Carl G; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Shapiro, Robert

2006-01-01

49

Interobserver Agreement for Grating Acuity and Letter Acuity Assessment in 1- to 5.5-Year-Olds with Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS. For sighted eyes, interobserver agreement for grating acuity (across all five test ages) was 0.5 octave or better in 57% of eyes and 1.0 octave or better in 85% of eyes. Interobserver agreement for letter acuity (35-, 4.5-, and 5.5-year test ages) was 0.5 octave or better in 71% of eyes and 1.0 octave or better in 93% of

Erin M. Harvey; Velma Dobson; Betty Tung; Graham E. Quinn; Robert J. Hardy

1999-01-01

50

Performance of a five-item mental health screening test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the screening accuracy of a short, five-item version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) with that of the 18-item MHI, the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and a 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI-28). Subjects were newly enrolled members of a health maintenance organization (HMO), and the criterion diagnoses were those found through use of the

Donald M. Berwick; Jane M. Murphy; Paula A. Goldman; Ware John E. Jr; Arthur J. Barsky; Milton C. Weinstein

1991-01-01

51

Maximal exercise testing of mentally retarded adolescents and adults: reliability study.  

PubMed

Few data are available regarding maximal exercise testing of mentally retarded individuals. No data are available on the reliability of maximal exercise testing of mentally retarded individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of graded exercise testing of mentally retarded adolescents and adults. The testing was conducted at two geographically different centers. At Center A, 14 mentally retarded adolescents (11 boys, three girls) with Down syndrome, who were educable or trainable, were recruited from a nonresidential school. The subjects completed two Balke-Ware treadmill protocols until exhaustion. The treadmill time and heart rate (HR) were recorded. The time between tests was approximately one week. At Center B, 21 mentally retarded adults (14 women, seven men means IQ = 56) were recruited from local workshops and group homes. These subjects completed a treadmill walking protocol, with metabolic measurements, until exhaustion. The time between tests varied from one to four months. At Center A, the subjects achieved a mean treadmill time of 8.72min on test one and 8.84min on test two (means HR = 174 and 175bpm, respectively). The reliability coefficient between the two tests was .94. At Center B, the subjects achieved a mean V0(2)max of 27.2mL.kg-1.min-1 on test one and 26.9mL.kg-1.min-1 on test two. The reliability coefficient was .93. These data show that maximal exercise testing is reliable for these populations of mentally retarded individuals, exhibiting similar values to their nonretarded peers. PMID:2256807

Fernhall, B; Millar, A L; Tymeson, G T; Burkett, L N

1990-12-01

52

Visual Acuity Assessment in Persons with Dementia. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies of vision in persons with Alzheimer's disease either exclude those with advanced dementia or are unable to assess their vision adequately, and therefore, improperly report these persons' visual acuity status. In this study, visual acuity was assessed using the ETDRS Snellen-type acuity chart and Teller Acuity Cards. The Teller Acuity

Morse, Alan R.; Teresi, Jeanne; Rosenthal, Bruce; Holmes, Douglas; Yatzkan, Elaine S.

2004-01-01

53

Degraded time-frequency acuity to time-reversed notes.  

PubMed

Time-reversal symmetry breaking is a key feature of many classes of natural sounds, originating in the physics of sound production. While attention has been paid to the response of the auditory system to "natural stimuli," very few psychophysical tests have been performed. We conduct psychophysical measurements of time-frequency acuity for stylized representations of "natural"-like notes (sharp attack, long decay) and the time-reversed versions of these notes (long attack, sharp decay). Our results demonstrate significantly greater precision, arising from enhanced temporal acuity, for such sounds over their time-reversed versions, without a corresponding decrease in frequency acuity. These data inveigh against models of auditory processing that include tradeoffs between temporal and frequency acuity, at least in the range of notes tested and suggest the existence of statistical priors for notes with a sharp-attack and a long-decay. We are additionally able to calculate a minimal theoretical bound on the sophistication of the nonlinearities in auditory processing. We find that among the best studied classes of nonlinear time-frequency representations, only matching pursuit, spectral derivatives, and reassigned spectrograms are able to satisfy this criterion. PMID:23799012

Oppenheim, Jacob N; Isakov, Pavel; Magnasco, Marcelo O

2013-01-01

54

Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

55

Tactile spatial acuity in childhood: effects of age and fingertip size.  

PubMed

Tactile acuity is known to decline with age in adults, possibly as the result of receptor loss, but less is understood about how tactile acuity changes during childhood. Previous research from our laboratory has shown that fingertip size influences tactile spatial acuity in young adults: those with larger fingers tend to have poorer acuity, possibly because mechanoreceptors are more sparsely distributed in larger fingers. We hypothesized that a similar relationship would hold among children. If so, children's tactile spatial acuity might be expected to worsen as their fingertips grow. However, concomitant CNS maturation might result in more efficient perceptual processing, counteracting the effect of fingertip growth on tactile acuity. To investigate, we conducted a cross-sectional study, testing 116 participants ranging in age from 6 to 16 years on a precision-controlled tactile grating orientation task. We measured each participant's grating orientation threshold on the dominant index finger, along with physical properties of the fingertip: surface area, volume, sweat pore spacing, and temperature. We found that, as in adults, children with larger fingertips (at a given age) had significantly poorer acuity, yet paradoxically acuity did not worsen significantly with age. We propose that finger growth during development results in a gradual decline in innervation density as receptive fields reposition to cover an expanding skin surface. At the same time, central maturation presumably enhances perceptual processing. PMID:24454612

Peters, Ryan M; Goldreich, Daniel

2013-01-01

56

Spatial contrast sensitivity and grating acuity of barn owls.  

PubMed

The eyes of barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola) display very little aberrations, and have thus excellent optical quality. In a series of behavioral experiments, we tested whether this presumably beneficial feature is also reflected at a perceptual level in this species. As fundamental indicators for visual performance, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and grating acuity were measured in two barn owls with psychophysical techniques. Stimulus luminance was 2.7 cd/m(2). The CSF found here renders the typical band-limited, inverted U-shaped function, with a low maximum contrast sensitivity of 8-19 at a spatial frequency of 1 cyc/deg. Grating acuity was estimated from the CSF high frequency cut-off and yielded 3.0-3.7 cyc/deg. In a second experiment, in which contrast was held constant and spatial frequency was varied, grating acuity was measured directly (2.6-4.0 cyc/deg). These results put barn owls at the very low end of the visual acuity spectrum of birds, and demonstrate that visual resolution and sensitivity cannot be predicted by optical considerations alone. PMID:19761328

Harmening, Wolf M; Nikolay, Petra; Orlowski, Julius; Wagner, Hermann

2009-01-01

57

Use of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score by junior doctors on patients with fractured neck of femur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The mental state of patients with fractured neck of femur is important as a predictor of post-operative outcome. The Hodgkinson\\u000a Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) is a validated and simple method of assessing the pre-operative mental state of patients\\u000a with fractured neck of femur. This survey investigated whether or not orthopaedic junior doctors (SHOs) appreciated the importance\\u000a of mental state

N. P. M. Jain; P. M. Guyver; P. McCarthy; S. Sarasin; N. K. Rouholamin; M. J. H. McCarthy

2008-01-01

58

Age and strength influences on lingual tactile acuity  

PubMed Central

Sensory function during the oral processing of liquids is thought to play a key role in informing the tailoring of swallowing motor behaviours to the flow characteristics of the bolus. In addition to taste receptors, the mouth and tongue house trigeminal nerve receptors that support the sensory detection of bolus size, shape (stereognosis), mass, temperature and movement. Recent studies suggest that healthy adults lose tongue strength with advancing age. However, little is known about changes in the sensory function of the tongue attributable to age, or associated with reductions in strength. In this study, we explored lingual tactile acuity in healthy young and older adults, and measured the relationship between tactile acuity and measures of tongue strength. The results showed an age-related reduction in lingual tactile acuity that was not explained by variations in tongue strength. Practical Applications Sensory motor interactions are a topic of interest in understanding the processing activities that take place in the mouth during eating and swallowing. In this paper, we explore a test of sensory acuity in the mouth, in which the tongue is used to “read” embossed letters on Teflon strips. Our questions were to determine whether sensory acuity for this task declines with age, or with age-related reductions in tongue strength. We determined that older people perform this task with less accuracy, suggesting some changes in oral sensory function with age. However, these changes were not related to tongue strength. The findings suggest that strength does not play a major role in the kind of sensory discrimination task tested in this study. PMID:25663715

Steele, Catriona M.; Hill, Lisa; Stokely, Shauna; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie

2015-01-01

59

Teaching Test-Taking Strategies to Improve the Academic Achievement of Students with Mild Mental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of teaching a test-taking strategy to 4 fourth- and fifth-grade students with mild mental disabilities on reading and math achievement. The intervention consisted of a direct and explicit instructional method using a mnemonic strategy. The participants' acquisition and application of the test-taking strategy on…

Kretlow, Allison G.; Lo, Ya-yu; White, Richard B.; Jordan, LuAnn

2008-01-01

60

The Barbee Doll Mentality and the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author suggests that the scoring criteria for the Draw-A-Woman Scale of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test reflect outmoded images and attitudes of the female. The woman-as-sex-object image is called the "Barbee Doll Mentality." This suggestion was tested in a sample of eleven to thirteen-year old sixth graders. The children--44 boys and 62…

Troll, Enid Williams

61

A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening.  

PubMed

Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions-anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia-each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding. PMID:24799622

Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M; Pelli, Denis G

2014-01-01

62

A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening  

PubMed Central

Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions—anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia—each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding. PMID:24799622

Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M.; Pelli, Denis G.

2014-01-01

63

Cognitive assessment in elderly patients admitted to hospital: the relationship between the Abbreviated Mental Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the relationship between Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in elderly patients admitted to hospital.Design: Prospective study of 364 consecutive admissions to an elderly medicine unit. Eighty-eight (24.2%) patients were excluded. The AMT and MMSE were administered to the remaining 276 patients and the relationship between the two tests evaluated statistically.Setting: Inner city

David G Swain; Alicia G OBrien; Peter G Nightingale

1999-01-01

64

Figure connection test: a universal test for assessment of mental state.  

PubMed

The number connection test (NCT), which assesses the extent of organic brain damage, has been used extensively to evaluate mental state in portasystemic encephalopathy, but has certain inherent limitations. It cannot be performed by illiterates and those unfamiliar with Roman alphanumeric notations. We, therefore, devised a figure connection test (FCT) based on the subject's identification of figures rather than alphabets or numerals. Four variations each of FCT-A (A1-A4) and FCT-B (B1-B4) employing different motifs were developed and compared with four variations each of NCT-A (A1-A4) and NCT-B (B1-B4) in groups of healthy volunteers with differing educational status. These volunteer groups were as follows: postgraduates 64; graduates 66; subgraduates 75; and illiterates 45. Significant differences in mean scores of various tests were observed between these normal groups. Control values of the tests for these groups have been standardized and can serve as nomograms. The effect of educational attainments on performance of FCT and other psychometric tests was analysed and trail-making tests were validated for serial use. The FCT was then prospectively validated on 70 patients (classified for comparison with controls according to educational status as follows: postgraduates 7; graduates 21; subgraduates 32; and illiterates 10) with cirrhosis of liver without over encephalopathy, to detect subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. NCT-A was abnormal in 31.7%, NCT-B in 38.3%, FCT-A in 42.9% and FCT-B in 28.6% of patients. Taken together these tests diagnosed subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in 34 (48.5%) patients. We conclude that FCT is as useful as NCT in detecting psychomotor performance defects in cirrhotic patients without overt encephalopathy. PMID:7620102

Dhiman, R K; Saraswat, V A; Verma, M; Naik, S R

1995-01-01

65

Development of Pocket Vision Screener and its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim was to construct a visual acuity chart and find its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits. Materials and Methods: Two phases were involved in this study. Construction of the screener: Ten Sloan letters (C, D, H, K, N, O, R, S, V, and Z) were selected and the letters were constructed and reduced to 0.2 logMAR acuity size (6.92 mm) for viewing at 3 m. The screener contains three lines with seven letters in each. Few combinations of the seven letter sequences were chosen based on the row legibility scores. Three seven letter combinations close to the median of all combinations were selected, such that maximum difficulty score difference between the lines are <1%. Finding the effectiveness of the screener: 100 literate subjects with unaided visual acuity better than or equal to 6/60 were recruited for the study. Unaided visual acuity was tested using both the newly constructed Pocket Vision Screener and a logMAR visual acuity chart and the time taken to measure the visual acuity using both the charts was noted. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 43 ± 17 years. Subjects were classified as normal or deficient based on the logMAR visual acuity measurement. The screener was found to have 81% sensitivity, 94% specificity. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 91% and 87%, respectively. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found in the time taken to record visual acuity using both the charts. Conclusion: The Pocket Vision Screener can be used as a quick and accurate tool to screen subjects for visual acuity deficits, being highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective. PMID:25579360

Raja, Monica; Ramamurthy, Dharani; Srinivasan, Krithica; Varadharajan, L. Srinivasa

2014-01-01

66

Motor Fitness Testing Manual for the Moderately Mentally Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual provides instructions for adapting the Special Fitness Test and the Special Fitness Test Award System for moderately retarded children. It is noted that major purposes of the test and award system are to motivate youngsters to participate actively in physical education and recreation activities and give them feelings of accomplishment…

Johnson, Leon; Londeree, Ben

67

A new measure of nystagmus acuity  

PubMed Central

AIM To construct a new visual acuity measuring function for congenital nystagmus (CN) patients by studying the relationships between acuity, velocities and positions of the eye. METHODS After assessing the relationship between acuity, movement velocities and positions of the eye separately, a new function, which we call the automated nystagmus acuity function (ANAF), was constructed to measure the visual acuity of CN patients. Using a high-speed digital video system working at 500 frames per second, each eye was calibrated during monocular fixation. Twenty-six recorded nystagmus data were selected randomly. Using nystagmus waveforms, the best vision position (foveation period) and visual acuity were analyzed in three groups of subjects, and then all outputs were compared with the well-known expanded nystagmus acuity function (NAFX) and ANAF. Standard descriptive statistics were used to summarize the outputs of the two programs. RESULTS Foveation periods were brief intervals in the CN waveform when the image was on or near the fovea and eye velocity was relatively slow. Results showed good visual acuity happened during the period when velocity was low and the eye position was near the zero position, which fitted the foveation periods. The data analyzed with NAFX and ANAF had a correlation coefficient of 0.934276, with an average error of -0.00973. CONCLUSION The results from ANAF and NAFX analyses showed no significant difference. The NAFX manually identifies foveation eye positions and produces accurate measurements. The ANAF, however, can be calculated simply using the factors eye position and velocity, and it automatically calculates the ANAF without the need to manually identify foveation eye positions. PMID:24634871

Yao, Jun-Ping; Tai, Zheng; Yin, Zheng-Qin

2014-01-01

68

Exploring the Flynn Effect in Mentally Retarded Adults by Using a Nonverbal Intelligence Test for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…

Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.

2010-01-01

69

The MISTRA Data: Forty-Two Mental Ability Tests in Three Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) was initiated in 1979 and continued until 2000. It consisted of 139 pairs of twins who had been separated in early childhood and not re-united until adulthood, and members of their families. As part of a broader assessment, these participants completed 42 mental ability tests from three well-known…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

2011-01-01

70

Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

2012-01-01

71

Screening for Significant Refractive Error Using a Combination of Distance Visual Acuity and Near Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore the effectiveness of using a series of tests combining near visual acuity (NVA) and distance visual acuity (DVA) for large-scale screenings for significant refractive error (SRE) in primary school children. Method Each participant underwent DVA, NVA and cycloplegic autorefraction measurements. SREs, including high myopia, high hyperopia and high astigmatism were analyzed. Cycloplegic refraction results were considered to be the gold standard for the comparison of different screening measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to compare the area under the curve (AUC) and the Youden index among DVA, NVA and the series combined tests of DVA and NVA. The efficacies (including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) of each test were evaluated. Only the right eye data of each participant were analysed for statistical purpose. Result A total of 4416 children aged 6 to 12 years completed the study, among which 486 students had right eye SRE (SRE prevalence rate = 11.01%). There was no difference in the prevalence of high hyperopia and high astigmatism among different age groups. However, the prevalence of high myopia significantly increased with the age (?² = 381.81, p<0.01). High hyperopia was the biggest SRE factor associated with amblyopia?p?0.01?OR = 167.40, 95% CI: 75.14?372.94). The DVA test was better than the NVA test for detecting high myopia (Z = 2.71, p<0.01), but the NVA test was better for detecting high hyperopia (Z = 2.35, p = 0.02) and high astigmatism (Z = 4.45, p<0.01). The series combined DVA and NVA test had the biggest AUC and the highest Youden Index for detecting high hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, as well as all of the SREs (all p<0.01). Conclusion The series combined DVA and NVA test was more accurate for detecting SREs than either of the two tests alone. This new method could be applied to large-scale SRE screening of children, aged 6 to 12, in areas that are less developed. PMID:25689600

Jin, Peiyao; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Qiangqiang; He, Xiangui

2015-01-01

72

Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura

73

Understanding and Testing Risk Mechanisms for Mental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 50 years there has been a virtual revolution in thinking about risk mechanisms. The key areas of challenge and opportunity include: identification of environmental causes; use of natural experiments; gene-environment interaction; testing for mediation; developmental moderation; biological programming; and developmental perturbations.

Rutter, Michael

2009-01-01

74

Potential acuity meter for predicting visual acuity after Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy  

SciTech Connect

We studied 30 patients with opacifications of the posterior capsule to determine if the potential acuity meter (PAM) could accurately predict final visual outcome after Nd:YAG discussion. The final visual acuity was within one line of the PAM prediction in 22 of 30 patients (73%), better by two or more lines in seven patients (23%), and worse in one patient (4%) by two lines. Although in thicker capsules the final acuity was occasionally better than the PAM prediction, the rates of false negative and false positive predictions were very low. Mild cystoid macular edema (3 patients), age-related macular degeneration (3 patients), intraocular lens status, and level of initial acuity did not diminish PAM accuracy. The PAM effectively predicts final visual acuity after YAG posterior capsulotomy, when used in a patient, unhurried manner.

Smiddy, W.E.; Radulovic, D.; Yeo, J.H.; Stark, W.J.; Maumenee, A.E.

1986-03-01

75

Design of an Arabic near visual acuity chart.  

PubMed

This paper describes the design of an Arabic test chart for measurement of visual acuity at near. The chart was designed employing specially selected Arabic letters and was based on the logMAR principle devised by Bailey and Lovie. Ten Arabic letters of nearly equal legibility values (0.92-1.05) (mean = 1.00), (SD = 0.05) were used in the design of the chart. Each row of the chart has 5 letters and row legibility values range from 4.82 to 5.03 with a mean of 4.92 (SD = 0.06). The logMAR method of visual acuity scaling was used, hence the sizes of letters in the rows progress in a uniform step of 0.1 log unit. The inter-letter spacing is equal to the width of each letter in the row, while inter-row spacing is equal to the height of letter in the subjacent row. The height of letters ranged from 3.67 to 0.46 mm corresponding to visual acuity of 2.4 M to 0.3 M which is equivalent to reduced Snellen 6/36 to 6/4.5 at 0.4 m. The chart is designed for use at 40 cm with a recommended luminance level of 160 cd/m2. PMID:9196680

Oduntan, A O; al-Abdulmunem, M A

1997-03-01

76

An assessment of hypothesis testing in mentally retarded adolescents.  

PubMed

Groups of educable and trainable institutionalised retarded adolescents were tested on a discrimination learning problem with a modified blank trials procedure in an attempt to measure their hierarchy of hypotheses. Results indicated that the hierarchy and size of initial hypothesis sets varied as a function of degree of retardation. Trainable retarded subjects had fewer hypotheses, and initially chose position hypotheses predominantly. Under discriminate reinforcement, most of these were readily switched to stimulus dimension hypotheses, which they retained during additional non-discriminate (100 per cent) reinforcement trials. Educable retarded subjects predominantly chose stimulus dimension hypotheses initially, and most of these switched to position hypotheses during either discriminate or non-discriminate reinforcement trials. PMID:1011249

Whittemore, C L; Spitz, H H

1976-12-01

77

The performance of individuals with mental retardation on cognitive tests assessing effort and motivation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine which tests of effort and motivation would be appropriate for use with patients with mental retardation when feigning of cognitive deficits is suspected. The seven measures evaluated included the WMS-III Rarely Missed Index Test, forced-choice recognition portion of the California Verbal Learning Test-II, Reliable Digit Span test, Rey 15-Item Test, Rey Dot Counting Test, the Rey 15-Item Test with Recognition Trial, and the Vocabulary (V)-Digit Span (DS) difference score. Results indicated that the forced-choice portion of the CVLT-II, the V-DS difference score, and the Rarely Missed Index Test from the WMS-III might be appropriate for use with this population with passing rates of 89%, 98%, and 91% respectively. PMID:17676547

Marshall, Paul; Happe, Maggie

2007-09-01

78

Sex Differences on the Mental Rotation Test: An Analysis of Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating a finding now common in the literature, the present study revealed a significant difference between the performance of men (M = 19.66; SD = 5.34; SK = 0.52) and the performance of women (M = 14.85; SD = 6.06; SK = -0.38, Cohen's d = 0.90) on the Mental Rotation Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978). In an attempt to identify determinants of…

Bors, Douglas A.; Vigneau, Francois

2011-01-01

79

A new paradigm to induce mental stress: the Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST)  

PubMed Central

We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages on a screen, interleaved with 1-min time intervals. The final message is that the participant should sing a song aloud after the interval has elapsed. Participants sit still during the whole procedure. We found that heart rate and skin conductance during the 1-min intervals following the sing-a-song stress message are substantially higher than during intervals following neutral messages. The order of magnitude of the rise is comparable to that achieved by the Trier Social Stress Test. Skin conductance increase correlates positively with experienced stress level as reported by participants. We also simulated stress detection in real time. When using both skin conductance and heart rate, stress is detected for 18 out of 20 participants, approximately 10 s after onset of the sing-a-song message. In conclusion, the Sing-a-Song Stress Test provides a quick, easy, controlled and potent way to induce mental stress and could be helpful in studies ranging from examining physiological effects of mental stress to evaluating interventions to reduce stress. PMID:25120425

Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

2014-01-01

80

Identifying student mental models from their response pattern to a physics multiple-choice test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has shown that students present different misconceptions across different but similar physical situations, but the cause of these differences is still not clear. In this study, a novel analysis method was introduced to help to gain a better understanding of how different physical situations affect students' responses and learning. This novel analysis groups students into mental model groups (MMG) by similarities in their responses to multiple-choice test items, under the assumption that they have similar mental models. The Mass and Energy Conservation test was developed to probe the common misconception that objects with greater mass fall faster than objects with lesser mass across four physical situations and four knowledge sub-domains: information, dynamics, work, and energy. The test was applied before and after energy instruction to 144 college students in a large Midwestern university attending a calculus-based introductory physics course. Test time along with instruction and physical situation were the two factors. It was found that physical situation did not have a significant effect on mental models: The number of MMGs identified and the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG were not significantly different (p > .05) across physical situations. However, there was a significant effect of test time on mental models (p < .05): the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG changed from the pretest to the posttest, in that the MMG representing higher performance became predominant than the MMG with lower performance for the posttest results. A MANOVA for the average scores for each sub-domain and physical situation combination was applied to validate the previous results. It was found that a significant effect (p < .01) by physical situation resulted due to a lower average dynamics sub-domain score for the friction physical-situation attribute when compared to the no-friction physical-situation attribute. A significant effect (p < .01) was found for test time. This was due to an increase of the average energy sub-domain score from the pretest to the posttest. No significant interaction effect ( p > .05) was found. The MANOVA results obtained can be explained through the change in proportion of the MMGs present in the sample.

Montenegro Maggio, Maximiliano Jose

81

Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

Fisher, R. W.

1983-01-01

82

Social class and mental health: testing exploitation as a relational determinant of depression.  

PubMed

This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as "ownership type" (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and "managerial domination" (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

2015-04-01

83

Goofy coordinates the acuity of olfactory signaling.  

PubMed

The basic scheme of odor perception and signaling from olfactory cilia to the brain is well understood. However, factors that affect olfactory acuity of an animal, the threshold sensitivity to odorants, are less well studied. Using signal sequence trap screening of a mouse olfactory epithelium cDNA library, we identified a novel molecule, Goofy, that is essential for olfactory acuity in mice. Goofy encodes an integral membrane protein with specific expression in the olfactory and vomeronasal sensory neurons and predominant localization to the Golgi compartment. Goofy-deficient mice display aberrant olfactory phenotypes, including the impaired trafficking of adenylyl cyclase III, stunted olfactory cilia, and a higher threshold for physiological and behavioral responses to odorants. In addition, the expression of dominant-negative form of cAMP-dependent protein kinase results in shortening of olfactory cilia, implying a possible mechanistic link between cAMP and ciliogenesis in the olfactory sensory neurons. These results demonstrate that Goofy plays an important role in establishing the acuity of olfactory sensory signaling. PMID:23926254

Kaneko-Goto, Tomomi; Sato, Yuki; Katada, Sayako; Kinameri, Emi; Yoshihara, Sei-ichi; Nishiyori, Atsushi; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Fujita, Hiroko; Touhara, Kazushige; Reed, Randall R; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro

2013-08-01

84

The effects of time, luminance, and high contrast targets: revisiting grating acuity in the domestic cat.  

PubMed

Based on optical clarity and retinal cone density, the cat has a potential acuity of 20-30 cycles per degree (cpd), yet most behavioral studies estimate feline acuity between 3 and 9 cpd. Those studies, however, were limited by restrictive experimental conditions that may have inadvertently lowered the estimated grating acuity. Two domestic cats previously trained on a two-choice visual discrimination task were retrained on a grating detection/discrimination task with unlimited time, high luminance, high contrast targets, and adequate space to prevent poor accommodation from affecting the results. Initially, vertical gratings of increasing cpd were tested until failure. Then, horizontal gratings of increasing cpd were tested until failure. Finally, the finest horizontal grating resolved was confirmed with a third test requiring 24 correct out of 36 consecutive trials, yielding a binomial probability less than 0.02 of non-random occurrence. M1, a 7-year-old male gray tabby with +2.00 OU refraction, tested for a grating detection acuity of 15 cpd for both vertical and horizontal gratings (binomial probability = 0.009). F1, a 2-year-old female gray tabby with +0.25 OU refraction, tested for a grating orientation discrimination acuity of 20 cpd for both vertical and horizontal gratings (binomial probability = 0.004). These results demonstrate that a young cat with good focus is capable of discriminating 20 cpd, in close agreement with the physiologic maximum. Uncorrected focusing errors appear to degrade visual performance. Optimum experimental conditions resulted in better grating acuity measurements than previously reported, emphasizing the importance of environmental factors in feline behavioral testing. PMID:23978601

Clark, Daria L; Clark, Robert A

2013-11-01

85

Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about

Kaja K Aas; Kristian Tambs; Marit S Kise; Per Magnus; Kjersti S Rønningen

2010-01-01

86

Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.  

PubMed

Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups. PMID:21427270

Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

2011-03-01

87

Visual Acuity Using Head-fixed Displays During Passive Self and Surround Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to read head-fixed displays on various motion platforms requires the suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflexes. This study examined dynamic visual acuity while viewing a head-fixed display during different self and surround rotation conditions. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to report the orientation of Landolt C optotypes presented on a micro-display fixed to a rotating chair at 50 cm distance. Acuity thresholds were determined by the lowest size at which the subjects correctly identified 3 of 5 optotype orientations at peak velocity. Visual acuity was compared across four different conditions, each tested at 0.05 and 0.4 Hz (peak amplitude of 57 deg/s). The four conditions included: subject rotated in semi-darkness (i.e., limited to background illumination of the display), subject stationary while visual scene rotated, subject rotated around a stationary visual background, and both subject and visual scene rotated together. Visual acuity performance was greatest when the subject rotated around a stationary visual background; i.e., when both vestibular and visual inputs provided concordant information about the motion. Visual acuity performance was most reduced when the subject and visual scene rotated together; i.e., when the visual scene provided discordant information about the motion. Ranges of 4-5 logMAR step sizes across the conditions indicated the acuity task was sufficient to discriminate visual performance levels. The background visual scene can influence the ability to read head-fixed displays during passive motion disturbances. Dynamic visual acuity using head-fixed displays can provide an operationally relevant screening tool for visual performance during exposure to novel acceleration environments.

Wood, Scott J.; Black, F. Owen; Stallings, Valerie; Peters, Brian

2007-01-01

88

Factors Accounting for the Four Year Change in Acuity in Patients between 50 and 80 Years  

PubMed Central

Purpose It is well known acuity slowly decreases in later decades of life. We wish to determine the extent 4 year longitudinal acuity changes can be accounted for by changes in optical quality, or combination of optical quality metrics and age between 50 and 80. Methods High contrast logMAR acuity, 35 image quality metrics, 4 intraocular scatter metrics, and 4 Lens Opacification Classification System-III metrics and entry age were measured on one eye of each of 148 subjects. Acuity change between baseline and the last visit was regressed against change in each metric for all eyes and a faster changing subset of 50 eyes with a gain or loss of 4 or more letters. Results Average change across 148 subjects was a 1.6 ± 4 letter loss (t148 = 4.31, p < 0.001) and loss for the faster changing subset was 3.4 ± 6.1 letters (t50 = 2.73, p = 0.008). The multiple-regression model for faster changing eyes included change in point spread function entropy, posterior subcapsular cataract, and trefoil and baseline age (sequential r2-adj values 0.19, 0.27, 0.32, 0.34 respectively p = 1.48×10?4 for the full 4 factor model). The same variables entered the multiple-regression model for the full 148 data set where the majority of the acuity measurements were within test re-test error and accounted for less of the variance (r2-adj = 0.15, p = 2.37×10?5). Conclusions Despite being near noise levels for the measurement of acuity, change in optical quality metrics were the most important factors in eyes that lost or gained 4 or more letters of acuity. These findings should be generalizable given our four year acuity change is essentially identical to other studies, and indicate these optical quality markers can be used to help identify those on a faster track to an acuity change. PMID:23708925

Koenig, Darren E.; Nguyen, Lan Chi; Parker, Katrina E.; Applegate, Raymond A.

2013-01-01

89

Development, item analysis, and initial reliability and validity of a multiple-choice knowledge of mental illnesses test for lay samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public's level of mental health literacy remains low, despite growing access to information regarding mental illnesses. Because few measures exist to assess the level of knowledge of mental illnesses in lay samples, the Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illnesses Test (MC-KOMIT) was developed, initially for use in a study involving police officers, some of whom received 40h of training focused

Michael T. Compton; Dana Hankerson-Dyson; Beth Broussard

2011-01-01

90

Mental stress test is an effective inducer of vasospastic angina pectoris: comparison with cold pressor, hyperventilation and master two-step exercise test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cold pressor, hyperventilation and exercise stress tests were usually used for inducing an angina attack in patients with vasospastic angina pectoris. We induced vasospastic angina attack using the mental calculation stress test, and compared the results with those using other stress tests. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 29 patients with vasospastic angina pectoris. Their ages were 60.8±8.4 years. Coronary

Kazuyo Yoshida; Toshinori Utsunomiya; Toshifumi Morooka; Miyuki Yazawa; Keiko Kido; Toshihiro Ogawa; Toshihiro Ryu; Toru Ogata; Shinsuke Tsuji; Takashi Tokushima; Shuzo Matsuo

1999-01-01

91

Telephone Administration of the Mental Alternation Test: Sensitivity to Cognitive Decline and Practice Effects across Midlife and Late Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We evaluated the utility of the telephone-administered Mental Alternation Test (MAT, an oral variant of the Trail-Making Test) for remote assessment of cognitive functioning in older adults. We examined (1) the sensitivity of MAT scores to cognitive change across 4 age groups, (2) practice effects associated with repeat administration, and (3) the uniformity of practice effects across age groups.

Erin McComb; Paul Brewster; Pak Hei Benedito Chou; Margaret Crossley; Martine Simard; Holly Tuokko

2010-01-01

92

The Relation of Infants' Home Environments to Mental Test Performance from 6 to 36 Months: A Longitudinal Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine whether the mental test performance of 77 children tested at 6, 12, and 36 months of age could be predicted from scores on an Inventory of Home Stimulation used to assess the children's home environment during their infancy. The Inventory of Home Stimulation had six subscales: (1) emotional and verbal responsivity…

Elardo, Richard; And Others

93

The exact estimation of visual acuity by VEP technology: A report of 726 cases of eye injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study explored the accuracy of using visual evoked potentials (VEP) technology for visual acuity estimation. The enrolled\\u000a 726 patients with post-traumatic unilateral decrease in visual acuity included the injured eyes served as the experimental\\u000a group, and the healthy eyes as the control group. The least signal visual angle (LSVA), and amplitude and latency of P100 were chosen as test

Guangxun Rao; Bingwei Wu; Lingli Zhang

2010-01-01

94

Stream segregation with high spatial acuity  

PubMed Central

Spatial hearing is widely regarded as helpful in recognizing a sound amid other competing sounds. It is a matter of debate, however, whether spatial cues contribute to “stream segregation,” which refers to the specific task of assigning multiple interleaved sequences of sounds to their respective sources. The present study employed “rhythmic masking release” as a measure of the spatial acuity of stream segregation. Listeners discriminated between rhythms of noise-burst sequences presented from free-field targets in the presence of interleaved maskers that varied in location. For broadband sounds in the horizontal plane, target-masker separations of ?8° permitted rhythm discrimination with d????1; in some cases, such thresholds approached listeners’ minimum audible angles. Thresholds were the same for low-frequency sounds but were substantially wider for high-frequency sounds, suggesting that interaural delays provided higher spatial acuity in this task than did interaural level differences. In the vertical midline, performance varied dramatically as a function of noise-burst duration with median thresholds ranging from >30° for 10-ms bursts to 7.1° for 40-ms bursts. A marked dissociation between minimum audible angles and masking release thresholds across the various pass-band and burst-duration conditions suggests that location discrimination and spatial stream segregation are mediated by distinct auditory mechanisms. PMID:23231120

Middlebrooks, John C.; Onsan, Zekiye A.

2012-01-01

95

Acuity of auditory images in pitch and time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the pitch and temporal acuity of auditory expectations\\/images formed under attentionalcuing and imagery task conditions,\\u000a in order to address whether auditory expectations and auditory images are functionally equivalent. Across three experiments,\\u000a we observed that pitch acuity was comparable between the two task conditions, whereas temporal acuity deteriorated in the\\u000a imagery task. A fourth experiment indicated that the observed

Petr Janata; Kaivon Paroo

2006-01-01

96

Fixing acuity: a professional approach to patient classification and staffing.  

PubMed

Traditional acuity systems have met with limited success in hospitals. The requirements and high costs of installation, auditing, maintenance, and updating have been problematic criticisms. Intermountain Health Care developed an innovative system which focuses on and refines the professional judgment and decision making of nurses and caregivers as the basis for patient classification and staffing. Results have been favorable for: (a) increasing the usefulness and accuracy of the information, (b) enabling delivery-level innovation in staffing models and successfully considering and testing alternative care delivery models to reduce the costs of care, (c) reducing the expenses associated with maintaining, auditing, and updating the systems, and (d) fostering delivery-level ownership and enhancing the professionalism and satisfaction of the caregiver users. PMID:9087032

Shaha, S H; Bush, C

1996-01-01

97

Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

Albrecht, Matthew A.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Falkmer, Marita; Ordqvist, Anna; Leung, Denise; Foster, Jonathan K.; Falkmer, Torbjorn

2014-01-01

98

On the Myth and the Reality of the Temporal Validity Degradation of General Mental Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims of changes in the validity coefficients associated with general mental ability (GMA) tests due to the passage of time (i.e., temporal validity degradation) have been the focus of an on-going debate in applied psychology. To evaluate whether and, if so, under what conditions this degradation may occur, we integrate evidence from multiple…

Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

2011-01-01

99

The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity.  

PubMed

Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity. PMID:24904478

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

2014-01-01

100

The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity  

PubMed Central

Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity. PMID:24904478

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

2014-01-01

101

A Cross-Sectional Test of the Similar-Trajectory Hypothesis among Adults with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The similar-sequence and the similar-structure hypotheses are the two mainstays of the developmental approach to mental retardation. In the present study, a third way, the similar-trajectory hypothesis, is described and illustrated using the WAIS-R results of adults with and without mental retardation aged from 20 to 54 years. The whole sample (N…

Facon, Bruno

2008-01-01

102

Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly

2004-01-01

103

Community Mental Health Services for Hispanics: A Test of the Culture Compatibility Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 161 Hispanic clients in the community mental health system of Seattle-King County (Washington), the dropout rate (after 1 session) was lower, and number of therapy sessions was greater for those who received services from Hispanic staff or at a Hispanic community mental health center than those who received services from non-Hispanic staff…

O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Lasso, Bethsabe

1992-01-01

104

Tactile-'visual' acuity of the tongue in early blind individuals.  

PubMed

This study compares the 'tactile-visual' acuity of the tongue for 15 early blind participants with that of 24 age-matched and sex-matched sighted controls. Snellen's tumbling E test was used to assess 'visual' acuity using the tongue display unit. The tongue display unit is a sensory substitution device that converts a visual stimulus grabbed by a camera into electro-tactile pulses delivered to the tongue via a grid made out of electrodes. No overall significant difference was found in thresholds between early blind (1/206) and sighted control (1/237) participants. We found, however, a larger proportion of early blind in the two highest visual acuity categories (1/150 and 1/90). These results extend earlier findings that it is possible to measure visual acuity in the blind individuals using the tongue. Moreover, our data demonstrate that a subgroup of early blind participants is more efficient than controls in conveying visual information through the tongue. PMID:18007183

Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Rainville, Constant; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

2007-12-01

105

Developmental Change in the Acuity of Approximate Number and Area Representations  

PubMed Central

From very early in life, humans can approximate the number and surface area of objects in a scene. The ability to discriminate between 2 approximate quantities, whether number or area, critically depends on the ratio between the quantities, with the most difficult ratio that a participant can reliably discriminate known as the Weber fraction. While developmental improvements in the Weber fraction have been demonstrated for number, the developmental trajectory of improvement in area discrimination remains unknown. Here we investigated whether the development of area discrimination parallels that of number discrimination. We tested forty 3- to 6-year-old children and adults in both a number and an area discrimination task in which participants selected the greater of 2 quantities across a range of ratios. We used formal psychophysical models to derive, for each participant and each age group, the Weber fraction for both number and area discrimination. We found that, like number acuity, area acuity steadily improves during childhood. However, we also found area acuity to be consistently higher than number acuity, suggesting a potential difference in the underlying mechanisms that encode and/or represent approximate area and approximate number. We discuss these findings in the context of quantity processing and its development. PMID:22889394

Odic, Darko; Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

2015-01-01

106

Pilot test of cooperative learning format for training mental health researchers and black community leaders in partnership skills.  

PubMed Central

To support reduction of racial disparities in mental health diagnosis and treatment, mental health researchers and black community-based organization (CBO) leaders need training on how to engage in collaborative research partnerships. In this study, we pilot tested a series of partnership skills training modules for researchers and CBO leaders in a collaborative learning format. Two different sets of three modules, designed for separate training of researchers and CBO leaders, covered considering, establishing and managing mental health research partnerships and included instructions for self-directed activities and discussions. Eight CBO leaders participated in 10 sessions, and six researchers participated in eight sessions. The effectiveness of the training content and format was evaluated through standardized observations, focus group discussions, participant evaluation forms and retrospective pre-/posttests to measure perceived gains in knowledge. Participants generally were satisfied with the training experience and gained new partnership knowledge and skills. Although the CBO leaders were more engaged in the cooperative learning process, this training format appealed to both audiences. Pilot testing demonstrated that: 1) our modules can equip researchers and CBO leaders with new partnership knowledge and skills and 2) the cooperative learning format is a well-received and suitable option for mental health research partnership training. PMID:18229772

Laborde, Danielle J.; Brannock, Kristen; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Parrish, Theodore

2007-01-01

107

Near-vision acuity levels and performance on neuropsychological assessments used in occupational therapy.  

PubMed

We investigated how induced blur affects performance on the Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol Test routinely used in occupational therapy cognitive evaluations. The study used a factorial design with both age (young and old adults) and simulated blur levels of near visual acuity (20/50 and 20/100) manipulated between participants. A sample of 124 healthy, community-living adults was used in the final analysis. Significant differences (p<.05) were found in performance for young participants between 20/50 and 20/100 blur level as well as between 20/20 and 20/100 blur level for the Digit Symbol Test. Scores for old participants decreased as a function of blur but were not significant. This study illustrates that cognitive evaluations used throughout the lifespan may require the appropriate visual acuity level to maximize performance. Occupational therapists' understanding of client factors and their effect on performance is fundamental to the client evaluation process. PMID:20131570

Hunt, Linda A; Bassi, Carl J

2010-01-01

108

Visual acuity outcome in patients with diabetic maculopathy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to follow up visual acuity in patients diagnosed with clinically significant macular edema and treated by an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide or in combination with bevacizumab. The working method: based on the selectivity criteria we involved 295 patients (460 eyes), divided into 2 groups according to the treatment administered and one control group. The results showed a better preservation of the functional parameter for the group of patients treated with intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide and bevacizumab. Abbreviations: VA = visual acuity, VA0 = visual acuity at study entry, WESDR = Wisconsin epidemiological study of diabetic retinopathy, ETDRS = Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study, OCT = optical coherence tomography

Serban, R; Cioboata, M; Chiotan, C; Corn?cel, C; Liora, R; Anghelie, A

2014-01-01

109

Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers  

PubMed Central

Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children‘s food texture preferences. PMID:22711981

Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

2012-01-01

110

Motor Testing at 1 Year Improves the Prediction of Motor and Mental Outcome at 2 Years after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) in 32 surviving children (20 males, 12…

van Schie, Petra Em; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Barkhof, Frederik; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen

2010-01-01

111

Diagnosis and Administrative Interventions for Students with Mental Retardation in Australia, France, United States, and Zimbabwe 98 Years after Binet's First Intelligence Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes some prevailing policies and practices important to the assessment of mental retardation in Australia, France, the United States, and Zimbabwe. Discusses international standards for diagnosis and classification of mental disorders and cross-national similarities and differences. Also discusses implications for test development. (SLD)

Oakland, Thomas; Mpofu, Elias; Glasgow, Ken; Jumel, Bernard

2003-01-01

112

Object Frequency Characteristics of Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To examine the extent to which visual acuity (VA) for broadband optotypes is scale invariant by determining whether the same object frequencies mediate VA for individuals with different levels of VA. Methods. LogMAR (minimum angle of resolution) VA for briefly presented tumbling E's was measured in 10 visually normal individuals and in five patients with VA loss. The E's were either unblurred or blurred with Gaussian low-pass filters that had cutoff frequencies spanning a 1.2-log unit range. The data were fit with a standard equivalent intrinsic blur model to estimate each subject's unblurred VA (MAR0 in minutes of arc) and equivalent intrinsic blur (?int in minutes of arc). From these estimates, the high-frequency cutoff of the band of retinal frequencies (cpdcrit in cycles per degree) and object frequencies (cplcrit in cycles per letter) mediating VA were derived. Results. LogMAR0 was related linearly to log ?int with a slope of 1.47, which is steeper than that predicted by scale invariance. Log cpdcrit was related linearly to logMAR0 by a slope of ?0.64, which is shallower than that predicted by scale invariance. This lack of scale invariance is due to a linear relationship between log cplcrit and logMAR0 that had a slope of 0.36. Conclusions. The overall pattern of results is not consistent with the expectation of scale invariance underlying the MAR scale. Optotypes that conform to the expectations of scale invariance are needed to improve vision assessment and to provide equivalency of VA defined in terms of MAR and cpd. PMID:22110062

Alexander, Kenneth R.; Lim, Jennifer I.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

2011-01-01

113

49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2012-10-01

114

49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2013-10-01

115

49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2014-10-01

116

Acuity of the approximate number system and preschoolers' quantitative development.  

PubMed

The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics achievement following one year of preschool, and predicted performance on measures of children's explicit knowledge of Arabic numerals, number words, and cardinal value, controlling for age, sex, parental education, intelligence, executive control, and preliteracy knowledge. The relation between ANS acuity, as measured by the Weber fraction and task accuracy, and mathematics achievement was fully mediated by children's performance on the symbolic quantitative tasks, with knowledge of cardinal value emerging as a particularly important mediator. The overall pattern suggests that ANS acuity facilitates the early learning of symbolic quantitative knowledge and indirectly influences mathematics achievement through this knowledge. PMID:24498980

van Marle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W; Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

2014-07-01

117

Tobias Mayer--experiments on visual acuity (1755).  

PubMed

The pioneering experimental work of Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) on visual acuity, published in 1755 in Latin, is presented in English translation. Mayer distinguished between two kinds of visual acuity, the one (30 arc sec) for single objects seen against a uniform background, the other (1 arc min) for more complex objects such as gratings, grids, or checkerboards. Strong illumination did not improve visual acuity. For targets seen in the light of a candle, the visual angle needed for resolution was inversely proportional to the cube root of the distance of the candle and therefore to the sixth root of 'brightness'. The historical significance of Mayer's work on visual acuity is briefly outlined. PMID:3154942

Scheerer, E

1987-01-01

118

The MOS 36Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional data from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) were analyzed to test the validity of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scales as measures of physical and mental health constructs. Results from traditional psychometric and clinical tests of validity were compared. Principal components analysis was used to test for hypothesized physical and mental health dimensions. For purposes of clinical

Colleen A. McHorney; Ware John E. Jr; Anastasia E. Raczek

1993-01-01

119

Tinted windshield and its effects on aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, automobile designers are utilizing tinted glasses for concept cars, specialty models, or to differentiate their vehicles. The objective of this study was to assess whether alternating different tinted windshields would affect aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response. Two commercially available windshields (bluish and greenish with same transmittance) were compared. The tests of visual acuity, contrast threshold, glare detection, and discomfort glare rating were performed to address the windshield effects on both the older and younger populations. Fourteen elderly and seven young individuals participated in the study. The results indicated that alternating between the tested tinted windshields would not affect drivers' visual performance for both age groups. The implications and future research are discussed. PMID:20582251

Shi, Wen; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Arbab, Mehran

2010-01-01

120

Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

2009-08-01

121

Dynamic visual acuity during passive head thrusts in canal planes.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA (htDVA) performance in 19 healthy control subjects, five patients before and six patients after plugging of one superior SCC for treatment of superior canal dehiscence, and two subjects with unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD) by vestibular neurectomy. We compared htDVA results for each SCC to vestibulo-ocular reflex gains measured using 3-D scleral coil recordings during a passive head-thrust-test paradigm. Individuals with normal vestibular function had similar htDVA scores for each of the six directions (canals) tested (mean 0.058 +/- 0.050 LogMAR). Individuals tested after surgical plugging of one superior SCC were similar to normal for all SCCs except the plugged SCC, which had significantly worse htDVA scores (mean 0.270 +/- 0.08 LogMAR). Individuals with UVD had significantly worse htDVA scores for head rotations maximally exciting any of the ipsilesional SCC (mean 0.317 +/- 0.129 LogMAR) and scores similar to normal subjects for contralesional rotations (0.063 +/- 0.051 LogMAR). These findings suggest that the htDVA test, which does not require scleral coil placement, magnetic field coils, or expensive oculography equipment, can provide a useful quantitative measure of individual SCC function. PMID:16810569

Schubert, Michael C; Migliaccio, Americo A; Della Santina, Charles C

2006-12-01

122

Dynamic Visual Acuity during Passive Head Thrusts in Canal Planes  

PubMed Central

We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA (htDVA) performance in 19 healthy control subjects, five patients before and six patients after plugging of one superior SCC for treatment of superior canal dehiscence, and two subjects with unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD) by vestibular neurectomy. We compared htDVA results for each SCC to vestibulo-ocular reflex gains measured using 3-D scleral coil recordings during a passive head-thrust-test paradigm. Individuals with normal vestibular function had similar htDVA scores for each of the six directions (canals) tested (mean 0.058 ± 0.050 LogMAR). Individuals tested after surgical plugging of one superior SCC were similar to normal for all SCCs except the plugged SCC, which had significantly worse htDVA scores (mean 0.270 ± 0.08 LogMAR). Individuals with UVD had significantly worse htDVA scores for head rotations maximally exciting any of the ipsilesional SCC (mean 0.317 ± 0.129 LogMAR) and scores similar to normal subjects for contralesional rotations (0.063 ± 0.051 LogMAR). These findings suggest that the htDVA test, which does not require scleral coil placement, magnetic field coils, or expensive oculography equipment, can provide a useful quantitative measure of individual SCC function. PMID:16810569

Migliaccio, Americo A.; Della Santina, Charles C.

2006-01-01

123

Mechanism of Dynamic Visual Acuity Recovery With Vestibular Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine why dynamic visual acuity (DVA) improves after vestibular rehabilitation in people with vestibular hypofunction. Design Combined descriptive and intervention study. Setting Outpatient department in an academic medical institution. Participants Five patients (age, 42–66y) and 4 age-matched controls (age, 39–67y) were studied. Patients had vestibular hypofunction (mean duration, 177 ± 188d) identified by clinical (positive head thrust test, abnormal DVA), physiologic (reduced angular vestibulo-ocular reflex [aVOR] gain during passive head thrust testing), and imaging examinations (absence of tumor in the internal auditory canals or cerebellopontine angle). Intervention Vestibular rehabilitation focused on gaze and gait stabilization (mean, 5.0 ± 1.4 visits; mean, 66 ± 24d). The control group did not receive any intervention. Main Outcome Measures aVOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity) during DVA testing (active head rotation) and horizontal head thrust testing (passive head rotation) to control for spontaneous recovery. Results For all patients, DVA improved (mean, 51% ± 25%; range, 21%–81%). aVOR gain during the active DVA test increased in each of the patients (mean range, 0.7 ± 0.2 to 0.9 ± 0.2 [35%]). aVOR gain during passive head thrust did not improve in 3 patients and improved only partially in the other 2. For control subjects, aVOR gain during DVA was near 1. Conclusions Our data suggest that vestibular rehabilitation increases aVOR gain during active head rotation independent of peripheral aVOR gain recovery. PMID:18295629

Schubert, Michael C.; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Allak, Amir; Carey, John P.

2010-01-01

124

The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel ( Falco sparverius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was used to measure the visual acuity and refractive state of nine American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Visual acuity was determined from psychometric functions of PERG amplitude vs. spatial frequency. Refractive state was measured by finding the trial lens that resulted in the highest acuity. All nine kestrels were found to be emmetropic. Their median visual acuity

Matthew F. Gaffney; William Hodos

2003-01-01

125

The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).  

PubMed

The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was used to measure the visual acuity and refractive state of nine American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Visual acuity was determined from psychometric functions of PERG amplitude vs. spatial frequency. Refractive state was measured by finding the trial lens that resulted in the highest acuity. All nine kestrels were found to be emmetropic. Their median visual acuity was 29 c/deg. The PERG, however, underestimates behaviorally determined visual acuity by approximately 37%. When adjusted for this underestimation, the median kestrel acuity was 46 c/deg. The visual acuity of American kestrels is compared to reports in the literature of 17 other species of birds. PMID:12842158

Gaffney, Matthew F; Hodos, William

2003-09-01

126

Preschool Acuity of the Approximate Number System Correlates with School Math Ability  

PubMed Central

Previous research shows a correlation between individual differences in people’s school math abilities and the accuracy with which they rapidly and nonverbally approximate how many items are in a scene. This finding is surprising because the Approximate Number System (ANS) underlying numerical estimation is shared with infants and non-human animals who never acquire formal mathematics. However, it remains unclear whether the link between individual differences in math ability and the ANS depends on formal mathematics instruction. Earlier studies demonstrating this link tested participants only after they had received many years of mathematics education, or assessed participants’ ANS acuity using tasks that required additional symbolic or arithmetic processing similar to that required in standardized math tests. To ask whether the ANS and math ability are linked early in life, we measured the ANS acuity of 200 3- to 5-year-old children using a task that did not also require symbol use or arithmetic calculation. We also measured children’s math ability and vocabulary size prior to the onset of formal math instruction. We found that children’s ANS acuity correlated with their math ability, even when age and verbal skills were controlled for. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the primitive sense of number and math ability starting early in life. PMID:22010889

Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

2012-01-01

127

Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant

2012-01-01

128

Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant

2011-01-01

129

Large State-Level Fluctuations in Mental Retardation Classifications Related to Introduction of Renormed Intelligence Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence…

Scullin, Matthew H.

2006-01-01

130

Visual acuity of simulated thalamic visual prostheses in normally sighted humans.  

PubMed

Simulation in normally sighted individuals is a crucial tool to evaluate the performance of potential visual prosthesis designs prior to human implantation of a device. Here, we investigated the effects of electrode count on visual acuity, learning rate and response time in 16 normally sighted subjects using a simulated thalamic visual prosthesis, providing the first performance reports for thalamic designs. A new letter recognition paradigm using a multiple-optotype two-alternative forced choice task was adapted from the Snellen eye chart, and specifically devised to be readily communicated to both human and non-human primate subjects. Validation of the method against a standard Snellen acuity test in 21 human subjects showed no significant differences between the two tests. The novel task was then used to address three questions about simulations of the center-weighted phosphene patterns typical of thalamic designs: What are the expected Snellen acuities for devices with varying numbers of contacts, do subjects display rapid adaptation to the new visual modality, and can response time in the task provide clues to the mechanisms of perception in low-resolution artificial vision? Population performance (hit rate) was significantly above chance when viewing Snellen 20/200 optotypes (Log MAR 1.0) with 370 phosphenes in the central 10 degrees of vision, ranging to Snellen 20/800 (Log MAR 1.6) with 25 central phosphenes. Furthermore, subjects demonstrated learning within the 1-2 hours of task experience indicating the potential for an effective rehabilitation and possibly better visual performance after a longer period of training. Response time differences suggest that direct letter perception occurred when hit rate was above 75%, whereas a slower strategy like feature-based pattern matching was used in conditions of lower relative resolution. As pattern matching can substantially boost effective acuity, these results suggest post-implant therapy should specifically address feature detection skills. PMID:24086286

Bourkiza, Béchir; Vurro, Milena; Jeffries, Ailsa; Pezaris, John S

2013-01-01

131

Assessing the utility of visual acuity measures in visual prostheses.  

PubMed

There are presently several ongoing clinical trials to provide usable sight to profoundly visually impaired patients by means of electrical stimulation of the retina. Some of the blind patients implanted with retinal prosthesis reported un-patterned perception and yet benefit from the device in many activities of daily living, seemingly because they adopt active scanning strategies. The aim of the present work is to evaluate if and under what conditions a measured visual acuity level is truly an indication that the brain perceived a patterned image from the electrical stimulation of the visual prosthesis. Sighted subjects used a pixelized simulator in which they perceived either a low resolution sub-sampling of the original image ("normal mode" - patterned vision) or an image that was solely a function of the brightness and size of the original image ("brightness mode" - no patterned vision). Results show that subjects were able to adopt a head scanning strategy that enabled acuity beyond the resolution set by a static view of the stimulus. In brightness mode, i.e. without patterned vision, most subjects achieved a measurable acuity level better than the limit set by the geometrical resolution of the entire array but worse than the limit set by the distance between neighboring simulated pixels. In normal mode all subject achieved acuity level that is better than the geometrical resolution of the simulated pixels. Thus, visual acuity levels comparable with the electrodes/pixels resolution implies that the patient perceives an image with spatial patterns. PMID:25637855

Caspi, Avi; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

2015-03-01

132

The Influence of Auditory Acuity on Acoustic Variability and the Use of Motor Equivalence during Adaptation to a Perturbation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this study was to relate speakers' auditory acuity for the sibilant contrast, their use of motor equivalent trading relationships in producing the sibilant /[esh]/, and their produced acoustic distance between the sibilants /s/ and /[esh]/. Specifically, the study tested the hypotheses that during adaptation to a perturbation…

Brunner, Jana; Ghosh, Satrajit; Hoole, Philip; Matthies, Melanie; Tiede, Mark; Perkell, Joseph

2011-01-01

133

Endogenous endophthalmitis with a visual acuity of 6/6.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man suffering from Klebsiella liver abscess and bacteraemia presented with left eye visual disturbance a few days after admission. His visual acuity was 6/6. There was a whitish subretinal mass located at the temporal periphery without vitritis. His visual acuity dropped to 6/120 with marked vitritis 1?day later and a diagnosis of a subretinal abscess was made. The vitreous cultures were negative. Response was suboptimal with intravitreal antibiotics, and retinotomy, vitrectomy, antibiotic irrigation and silicone oil tamponade were required. His vision gradually improved to 6/60 with silicone oil in situ. This case illustrates the rare presentation of a subretinal abscess in endogenous endophthalmitis with no initial associated vitritis, and the importance of maintaining a high level of suspicion despite good visual acuity on presentation in cases with relevant history. Early detection and intervention, and close monitoring may salvage the patient's vision in such cases. PMID:25786816

Siu, Gillian Denise Ji-Yee; Lo, Ernie Chi-Fung; Young, Alvin

2015-01-01

134

Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein ?3 (GNB3), also known as transducin ?3 or G?3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of G?3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells. (Ritchey et al. 2010)FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by G?3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and G?3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus. PMID:22824538

Ritchey, Eric R.; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A.; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J.

2012-01-01

135

Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping  

SciTech Connect

In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects.

Bosimini, E.; Galli, M.; Guagliumi, G.; Giubbini, R.; Tavazzi, L. (Centro Medico di Riabilitazione, Veruno (Italy))

1991-04-01

136

How well do you see what you hear? The acuity of visual-to-auditory sensory substitution  

PubMed Central

Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) aim to compensate for the loss of a sensory modality, typically vision, by converting information from the lost modality into stimuli in a remaining modality. “The vOICe” is a visual-to-auditory SSD which encodes images taken by a camera worn by the user into “soundscapes” such that experienced users can extract information about their surroundings. Here we investigated how much detail was resolvable during the early induction stages by testing the acuity of blindfolded sighted, naïve vOICe users. Initial performance was well above chance. Participants who took the test twice as a form of minimal training showed a marked improvement on the second test. Acuity was slightly but not significantly impaired when participants wore a camera and judged letter orientations “live”. A positive correlation was found between participants' musical training and their acuity. The relationship between auditory expertise via musical training and the lack of a relationship with visual imagery, suggests that early use of a SSD draws primarily on the mechanisms of the sensory modality being used rather than the one being substituted. If vision is lost, audition represents the sensory channel of highest bandwidth of those remaining. The level of acuity found here, and the fact it was achieved with very little experience in sensory substitution by naïve users is promising. PMID:23785345

Haigh, Alastair; Brown, David J.; Meijer, Peter; Proulx, Michael J.

2013-01-01

137

Effects of distance and duration on vertical dynamic visual acuity in screening healthy adults and people with vestibular disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) testing may be a useful, indirect indicator of vestibulo-ocular reflex function. Previous evidence shows that acuity for 2 m targets differs little between patients and normals using a 75 ms display duration and that healthy subjects do not differ in acuity when standing and walking while viewing a far target but they do differ when viewing a near target. Objective Improve the protocol of a screening tool by testing the hypothesis that healthy control subjects and patients and with unilateral peripheral vestibular weakness differ on DVA when viewing far targets while seated. Methods Controls and patients were tested while they were seated in a chair that oscillated vertically at 2 Hz. They viewed a computer screen 4 m away, while stationary and while moving, with viewing times of either 75 ms or 500 ms. Results The amount of change between static and dynamic conditions did not differ significantly between patients and controls for the 75 ms condition but controls had lower difference scores than patients when using the 500 ms duration. The ROC value was low, 0.68. Compared to historical data using the 75 ms duration at a distance of 2 m, subjects in both diagnostic groups had better visual acuity at the 75 ms/ 4 m distance. Conclusions These results suggest that using the longer duration is better for differentiating patients from healthy controls and they support previous evidence showing that near target viewing is more challenging. PMID:24447968

Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2013-01-01

138

Visual acuity and pupillary reactions after peribulbar anaesthesia.  

PubMed Central

The effect of peribulbar anaesthesia on optic nerve function in 20 patients, before and after cataract surgery, was measured. All the patients had decreased visual acuity. Five (25%) had no perception of light. Seventeen (85%) developed a relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD). No patients saw the operating instruments. Seven (35%) had improved visual acuity immediately postoperatively. Patients should be warned that they may lose vision completely on being given a peribulbar anaesthetic; however their vision will improve, but not necessarily immediately, postoperatively. Examination for an RAPD is a good method of providing reassurance that the operating instruments will not be seen. PMID:8110698

Talks, S J; Chong, N H; Gibson, J M; Francis, I R

1994-01-01

139

Monocular and binocular low-contrast visual acuity and optical coherence tomography in pediatric multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Low-contrast letter acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) capture visual dysfunction and axonal loss in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been proposed as secondary outcome metrics for therapeutic trials. Clinical trials will soon be launched in pediatric MS, but such outcome metrics have not been well-validated in this population. Objectives To determine whether MS onset during childhood and adolescence is associated with measurable loss of visual acuity and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), whether such features are noted only in the context of clinical optic nerve inflammation (optic neuritis, ON) or are a feature of MS even in the absence of optic nerve relapses, and to define the optimal methods for such detection. Study design Cross-sectional study Methods Monocular and binocular high- and low-contrast letter acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed in a cross-sectional cohort of children (ages 5 to 17 years) with MS (N=22 patients, 44 eyes; 8 patients with a history of ON) and disease-free controls (N=29 patients; 58 eyes) from three academic centers. Binocular summation was determined by calculating the number of letters correctly identified using the binocular score minus the better eye score for each visual test. RNFL thickness was measured using OCT (Stratus OCT-3). Results were analyzed in terms of “eyes” as: MS ON+, MS ON?, and control eyes. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to compare patients to controls. Results Traditional high-contrast visual acuity scores did not differ between MS ON+, MS ON?, and controls eyes. MS ON+ eyes had decreased monocular (p<0.001) and decreased binocular (p=0.007) low-contrast letter acuity (Sloan 1.25% contrast charts) scores. Monocular visual acuity did not differ when comparing MS ON? and control eyes. The magnitude of binocular summation using low-contrast charts was similar for pediatric MS participants and controls and was not diminished in children with a history of ON. While the mean RNFL thickness for all MS eyes (103±17 ?m) trended lower when compared to corresponding measures in control eyes (109±9 ?m, p=0.085), we confirmed a highly significant reduction in mean RNFL thickness in MS eyes with a history of ON (86±22 ?m, p<0.001). RNFL thickness of MS ON? eyes in pediatric MS patients (109±11 ?m) did not differ from controls (p=0.994). Conclusions Low-contrast letter acuity detects subtle visual loss in MS patients with prior ON, consistent with incomplete recovery, a finding further supported by RNFL loss in ON affected eyes. In MS patients with prior unilateral ON, binocular acuity is decreased; however, the magnitude of binocular summation is preserved, unlike adult-onset MS who exhibit a reduced capacity for visual compensation in the context of unilateral injury. Also unlike findings in adult-onset MS, we did not demonstrate RNFL thinning in ON? eyes of children and adolescents with MS. Further validation is required to confirm whether neurodegeneration of visual pathways occurs in the absence of relapse, and thus whether OCT will serve as a sensitive metric for such pathology in the pediatric and adolescent MS context. PMID:24683535

Waldman, Amy T.; Hiremath, Girish; Avery, Robert A.; Conger, Amy; Pineles, Stacy L.; Loguidice, Michael J.; Talman, Lauren S.; Galetta, Kristin M.; Shumski, Michael J.; Wilson, James; Ford, E'tona; Lavery, Amy M.; Conger, Darrel; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Frohman, Elliot M.; Balcer, Laura J.; Calabresi, Peter A.

2014-01-01

140

Visual Acuity’s Association with Levels of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the affect of reduced vision on physical activity in older adults. This study evaluates the association of visual acuity level, self-reported vision and ocular disease conditions with leisure-time physical activity and calculated caloric expenditure. A cross sectional study of 911 subjects 65 yr and older from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging (SOA) cohort was conducted evaluating the association of vision-related variables to weekly kilocalorie expenditure calculated from the 17-item Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate possible associations controlling for potential confounders. In multivariate analyses, each lower step in visual acuity category below 20/50 was significantly associated with reduced odds of having a higher level of physical activity OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67, 0.97. Reduced visual acuity appears to be independently associated with lower levels of physical activity among community-dwelling adults. PMID:21945888

Swanson, Mark W; Bodner, Eric; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard

2013-01-01

141

Comparative visual acuity of coleoid cephalopods Alison M. Sweeney,1,  

E-print Network

Comparative visual acuity of coleoid cephalopods Alison M. Sweeney,1,Ã? Steven H. D. Haddock, and So of the lenses of eight species of pelagic cephalopods to obtain an approximation of their visual capabilities-matched, we considered our measurements of cephalopod lens MTF to be a good proxy for their visual

Johnsen, Sönke

142

Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: Localization Acuity Measured with Minimum  

E-print Network

Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: Localization Acuity Measured with Minimum Audible Angle participated, 13 with BI cochlear implants (cochlear implant co- chlear implant), ranging in age from 3 to 16 yrs, and six with a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear (cochlear implant hearing aid), ages 4 to 14

Litovsky, Ruth

143

The effect of decreased visual acuity on control of posture  

PubMed Central

Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of visual acuity on the anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) components of postural control. Methods Ten individuals participated in the experiments involving perturbations induced by a pendulum while their visual acuity was altered. The different visual acuity conditions were no glasses, blurred vision induced by wearing glasses with positive or negative lenses, and no vision. EMG activity of trunk and leg muscles and ground reaction forces were recorded during the typical anticipatory and compensatory periods. Results In the no vision condition the subjects did not generate APAs, which resulted in the largest displacements of the center of pressure (COP) after the perturbation (p<0.01). In all other visual conditions APAs were present showing a distal to proximal order of muscle activation. The subjects wearing positive glasses showed earlier and larger anticipatory EMGs than while wearing negative glasses or no glasses at all. Conclusions The study outcome revealed that changes in visual acuity induced by wearing differently powered eye glasses alter the generation APAs and as a consequence, affect the compensatory components of postural control. Significance The observed changes in APAs and CPAs in conditions with blurred vision induced by positive and negative glasses suggest the importance of using glasses with an appropriate power. This outcome should be taken into consideration in balance rehabilitation of individuals wearing glasses. PMID:21778109

Sambit, Mohapatra; Vennila, Krishnan; Alexander S., Aruin

2011-01-01

144

On Using Vernier Acuity to Assess Magnocellular Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study [Keri, S., & Benedek, G. (2009). Visual pathway deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers: A potential endophenotype. "Brain and Cognition", 69, 291-295] has found Vernier acuity deficiencies together with contrast sensitivity defects consistent with a magnocellular deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers. This may…

Skottun, Bernt C.; Skoyles, John R.

2010-01-01

145

Emmetropisation, squint, and reduced visual acuity after treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sample of children used to assess the value of optical correction of hypermetropia from the age of 6 months the refraction of the most hypermetropic meridian frequently became less than 3.5 D as the children grew. When this occurred, the incidence of squint was significantly less (p less than 0.001) and the last known acuity after treatment was

R. M. Ingram; P. E. Arnold; S. Dally; J. Lucas

1991-01-01

146

Rapid Improvement in the Acuity of Infants After Visual  

E-print Network

of the cataractous lens, leaving the eye with no means to focus images. A few days to a few weeks after surgery of all patterned visual input by cataracts in one or both eyes until they were treated at 1 week to 9 acuity of infants who had been deprived of patterned visual input by dense central cataracts in one (n 16

Maurer, Daphne M.

147

A phytochemical-rich diet may explain the absence of age-related decline in visual acuity of Amazonian hunter-gatherers in Ecuador.  

PubMed

Myopia is absent in undisturbed hunter-gatherers but ubiquitous in modern populations. The link between dietary phytochemicals and eye health is well established, although transition away from a wild diet has reduced phytochemical variety. We hypothesized that when larger quantities and greater variety of wild, seasonal phytochemicals are consumed in a food system, there will be a reduced prevalence of degenerative-based eye disease as measured by visual acuity. We compared food systems and visual acuity across isolated Amazonian Kawymeno Waorani hunter-gatherers and neighboring Kichwa subsistence agrarians, using dietary surveys, dietary pattern observation, and Snellen Illiterate E visual acuity examinations. Hunter-gatherers consumed more food species (130 vs. 63) and more wild plants (80 vs. 4) including 76 wild fruits, thereby obtaining larger variety and quantity of phytochemicals than agrarians. Visual acuity was inversely related to age only in agrarians (r = -.846, P < .001). As hypothesized, when stratified by age (<40 and ? 40 years), Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that hunter-gatherers maintained high visual acuity throughout life, whereas agrarian visual acuity declined (P values < .001); visual acuity of younger participants was high across the board, however, did not differ between groups (P > .05). This unusual absence of juvenile-onset vision problems may be related to local, organic, whole food diets of subsistence food systems isolated from modern food production. Our results suggest that intake of a wider variety of plant foods supplying necessary phytochemicals for eye health may help maintain visual acuity and prevent degenerative eye conditions as humans age. PMID:25636674

London, Douglas S; Beezhold, Bonnie

2015-02-01

148

A study of the relations between mental activity and the circulation of the blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the following: (1) changes in the rate and force of heart beat and the vasomotor fluctuations accompanying sensations and affective states, under conditions of mental acuity and fatigue; (2) these changes as connected with processes of intellection during the progression of a state of mental fatigue; (3) consideration of vasomotor rhythm, indicated by the Traube-Hering waves, in relation to

Frederick G. Bonser

1903-01-01

149

Visual acuity and visual skills in Malaysian children with learning disabilities  

PubMed Central

Background: There is limited data in the literature concerning the visual status and skills in children with learning disabilities, particularly within the Asian population. This study is aimed to determine visual acuity and visual skills in children with learning disabilities in primary schools within the suburban Kota Bharu district in Malaysia. Methods: We examined 1010 children with learning disabilities aged between 8–12 years from 40 primary schools in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia from January 2009 to March 2010. These children were identified based on their performance in a screening test known as the Early Intervention Class for Reading and Writing Screening Test conducted by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. Complete ocular examinations and visual skills assessment included near point of convergence, amplitude of accommodation, accommodative facility, convergence break and recovery, divergence break and recovery, and developmental eye movement tests for all subjects. Results: A total of 4.8% of students had visual acuity worse than 6/12 (20/40), 14.0% had convergence insufficiency, 28.3% displayed poor accommodative amplitude, and 26.0% showed signs of accommodative infacility. A total of 12.1% of the students had poor convergence break, 45.7% displayed poor convergence recovery, 37.4% showed poor divergence break, and 66.3% were noted to have poor divergence recovery. The mean horizontal developmental eye movement was significantly prolonged. Conclusion: Although their visual acuity was satisfactory, nearly 30% of the children displayed accommodation problems including convergence insufficiency, poor accommodation, and accommodative infacility. Convergence and divergence recovery are the most affected visual skills in children with learning disabilities in Malaysia. PMID:23055674

Muzaliha, Mohd-Nor; Nurhamiza, Buang; Hussein, Adil; Norabibas, Abdul-Rani; Mohd-Hisham-Basrun, Jaafar; Sarimah, Abdullah; Leo, Seo-Wei; Shatriah, Ismail

2012-01-01

150

Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.  

PubMed

Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth. PMID:18680639

Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

2009-05-01

151

Measuring symptoms and diagnosing mental disorders in the elderly community: the test-retest reliability of the CIDI65+  

PubMed

Prevalence findings for the elderly are artificially low, most likely due to insufficient consideration of age-related cognitive abilities in diagnostic interviews. Aims: (1) To describe the rationale for the development of an age-adapted Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI65+) for use in a European project (MentDis_ICF65+). (2) To examine its test-retest reliability. Methods: Based on substantive pilot work the CIDI standard questions were shortened, broken down into shorter subsets and combined with sensitization questions and dimensional measures. Test-retest was determined in N?=?68 subjects aged 60-79 years via two independent examinations by clinical interviewers using kappa (sensitivity, specificity) for categorical and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients for dimensional measures. Results: Test-retest reliability was good for any mental disorder (??=?0.63), major depression (??=?0.55), anxiety (??=?0.62, range?=?0.30-0.78), substance (??=?0.77, range?=?0.71-0.82), obsessive-compulsive disorder (??=?1.00) and most core symptoms/syndromes (? range?=?0.48-1.00). Agreement for some disorders (i.e. somatoform/pain) attenuated, partly due to time lapse effects. ICC for age of onset, recency, quantity, frequency and duration questions ranged between ??=?0.60-0.90. Dimensional agreement measures were not consistently higher. Conclusion: The age-adapted CIDI65+ is reliable for assessing most mental disorders, distress, impairment and time-related information in the elderly, prompting the need to examine validity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25308743

Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Strehle, Jens; Gerschler, Anja; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Ausìn, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Crawford, Mike; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Munoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Weber, Kerstin; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin; Andreas, Sylke

2014-10-13

152

Psychiatrists’ views of the genetic bases of mental disorders and behavioral traits and their utilization of genetic tests  

PubMed Central

We examined how 372 psychiatrists view genetic aspects of mental disorders and behaviors, and use genetic tests (GTs). Most thought the genetic contribution was moderate/high for several disorders (e.g. bipolar, schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer’s, intelligence, creativity, anxiety, suicidality). In the past 6 months, 14.1% ordered GTs, 18.3% discussed prenatal testing with patients, 36.0% initiated discussions about other GTs, 41.6% had patients ask about GTs, and 5.3% excluded GT results from patient records. Many thought that GTs were available for schizophrenia (24.3%) and major depression (19.6%). Women were more likely to report that patients asked about GTs; and were less certain about the degree of genetic contribution to several disorders. Psychiatrists perceive strong genetic bases for numerous disorders and traits; and many have discussed and ordered tests for GTs; but have relatively little knowledge about available tests. These data suggest possible gender differences in psychiatrist’s beliefs about genetic contributions to disorders; and have implications for future research, education, policy, and care. PMID:24933415

Abbate, Kristopher J.; Chung, Wendy; Marder, Karen; Ottman, Ruth; Taber, Katherine Johansen; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Appelbaum, Paul S.

2014-01-01

153

Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

1994-01-01

154

Serious mental illness, criminal risk, parole supervision, and recidivism: testing of conditional effects.  

PubMed

Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who are released from prison tend to recidivate more quickly and at higher rates than similarly situated adults who do not have SMI. The current study examined whether this relationship with recidivism is mediated by criminal risk level and whether parole supervision can ameliorate the effects of SMI on recidivism. Findings indicate that SMI did exhibit a significant indirect effect with recidivism when considering its relationship with actuarially assessed risk. However, this indirect effect was not conditioned by whether the individual was released to parole; specifically release status did not moderate the relationship between risk and recidivism. The direct effects of SMI on recidivism were found to be conditioned upon release status. Specifically, we found no relationship between SMI and recidivism for parolees and a negative relationship between SMI and recidivism among nonparolees. Findings indicate a need for paroling authorities to find more effective ways of reducing criminal risk, which can decrease subsequent recidivism, among the individuals they supervise. PMID:24933170

Matejkowski, Jason; Ostermann, Michael

2015-02-01

155

Human Visual Ecology and Orientation Anisotropies in Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual environment of Cree Indians from the east coast of James Bay, Quebec, is different from that of city-raised Euro-Canadians. So also are their corresponding orientation anisotropies in visual acuity. A Euro-Canadian sample exhibited the usual higher resolution for vertically and horizontally oriented gratings as compared with oblique orientations, while a Cree Indian sample did not. The most parsimonious

Robert C. Annis; Barrie Frost

1973-01-01

156

Spatial acuity of honeybee vision and its spectral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In a series of behavioural experiments designed to measure spatial acuity, freely-flying honeybees were trained to discriminate between a horizontal and a vertical grating in a Y-shaped, dual-tunnel apparatus (Fig. 1). Each grating was placed at the entrance to a tunnel, and one of the gratings carried a reward of sugar solution. After training, the spatial frequency of the two

M. V. Srinivasan; M. Lehrer

1988-01-01

157

Visual acuity and spatial contrast sensitivity in tree squirrels.  

PubMed

The visual sensitivity of tree squirrels from three different species (two western gray squirrels, Sciurus griseus; three fox squirrels, Sciurus niger; and an eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) was measured for spatial patterns defined by luminance differences. Spatial contrast sensitivity functions were determined in behavioral discrimination experiments in which the stimuli were sinusoidally-modulated gratings. At an average luminance level of 3.4 cd/m(2) these squirrels were maximally sensitive to spatial frequencies of about 0.5 cycles/degree (c/d). These experiments, in conjunction with additional measurements involving discrimination of square-wave grating patterns, also indicate that the finest gratings these squirrels can discriminate average 2.2 c/d (SD = 0.42 c/d). There are no obvious differences in resolution acuity among the three species. Grating acuity also was measured at a much higher luminance level (340 cd/m(2)). The results of this experiment indicate that the spatial acuity of the tree squirrel increases with luminance level, reaching a maximum of 3.9 c/d at 340 cd/m(2). PMID:24923501

Jacobs, G H; Birch, D G; Blakeslee, B

1982-12-01

158

Effects of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis.  

PubMed

The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

2015-01-01

159

Effects of Horizontal Acceleration on Human Visual Acuity and Stereopsis  

PubMed Central

The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

2015-01-01

160

Are Individual Differences in Reading Speed Related to Extrafoveal Visual Acuity and Crowding?  

PubMed Central

Readers differ considerably in their speed of self-paced reading. One factor known to influence fixation durations in reading is the preprocessing of words in parafoveal vision. Here we investigated whether individual differences in reading speed or the amount of information extracted from upcoming words (the preview benefit) can be explained by basic differences in extrafoveal vision—i.e., the ability to recognize peripheral letters with or without the presence of flanking letters. Forty participants were given an adaptive test to determine their eccentricity thresholds for the identification of letters presented either in isolation (extrafoveal acuity) or flanked by other letters (crowded letter recognition). In a separate eye-tracking experiment, the same participants read lists of words from left to right, while the preview of the upcoming words was manipulated with the gaze-contingent moving window technique. Relationships between dependent measures were analyzed on the observational level and with linear mixed models. We obtained highly reliable estimates both for extrafoveal letter identification (acuity and crowding) and measures of reading speed (overall reading speed, size of preview benefit). Reading speed was higher in participants with larger uncrowded windows. However, the strength of this relationship was moderate and it was only observed if other sources of variance in reading speed (e.g., the occurrence of regressive saccades) were eliminated. Moreover, the size of the preview benefit—an important factor in normal reading—was larger in participants with better extrafoveal acuity. Together, these results indicate a significant albeit moderate contribution of extrafoveal vision to individual differences in reading speed. PMID:25789812

Frömer, Romy; Dimigen, Olaf; Niefind, Florian; Krause, Niels; Kliegl, Reinhold; Sommer, Werner

2015-01-01

161

Are individual differences in reading speed related to extrafoveal visual acuity and crowding?  

PubMed

Readers differ considerably in their speed of self-paced reading. One factor known to influence fixation durations in reading is the preprocessing of words in parafoveal vision. Here we investigated whether individual differences in reading speed or the amount of information extracted from upcoming words (the preview benefit) can be explained by basic differences in extrafoveal vision-i.e., the ability to recognize peripheral letters with or without the presence of flanking letters. Forty participants were given an adaptive test to determine their eccentricity thresholds for the identification of letters presented either in isolation (extrafoveal acuity) or flanked by other letters (crowded letter recognition). In a separate eye-tracking experiment, the same participants read lists of words from left to right, while the preview of the upcoming words was manipulated with the gaze-contingent moving window technique. Relationships between dependent measures were analyzed on the observational level and with linear mixed models. We obtained highly reliable estimates both for extrafoveal letter identification (acuity and crowding) and measures of reading speed (overall reading speed, size of preview benefit). Reading speed was higher in participants with larger uncrowded windows. However, the strength of this relationship was moderate and it was only observed if other sources of variance in reading speed (e.g., the occurrence of regressive saccades) were eliminated. Moreover, the size of the preview benefit-an important factor in normal reading-was larger in participants with better extrafoveal acuity. Together, these results indicate a significant albeit moderate contribution of extrafoveal vision to individual differences in reading speed. PMID:25789812

Frömer, Romy; Dimigen, Olaf; Niefind, Florian; Krause, Niels; Kliegl, Reinhold; Sommer, Werner

2015-01-01

162

Relationships of hardiness to physical and mental health status in military men: a test of mediated effects.  

PubMed

Evidence links the personality trait hardiness to both mental (MH) and physical health (PH) status, but few unifying models delineate interrelationships of these variables. The first purpose of this study was to examine the association of hardiness to MH and PH in military men. Second, we tested the hypothesis that MH would mediate the association of hardiness with PH. Identical measures were collected in two separate, demographically-similar samples (n = 65 and n = 55). All subjects completed a background questionnaire, the Dispositional Resilience Scale-15 and the Short Form 36 Medical Outcomes Survey. Associations between hardiness, PH and MH were examined using regression-based mediation analyses followed by the Sobel test of indirect effects. In the total sample, hardiness predicted PH in an initial regression model (? = 0.37, p < .001). When MH was added to the model, however, PH's influence was substantially attenuated and no longer significant (? = 0.06, p > .05). A Sobel test of significance confirmed a mediated effect (p < .001). Similar patterns were observed in each individual sample. Hardiness is associated with PH in military men, and this relationship is mediated by MH. PMID:22108762

Taylor, Marcus K; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Taverniers, John; Leon, Matthew R; Fern, Benedict J

2013-02-01

163

Protecting self-esteem from stigma: A test of different strategies for coping with the stigma of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To date, there has been little research into effective strategies for preventing the detrimental effects of stigma on the well-being of people with mental illness.Aim: The present research set out to identify adaptive strategies for dealing with the stigma of mental illness.Methods: On the basis of the responses of 355 people with mental illness (PWMI) a standardized questionnaire assessing

Marie Ilic; Jost Reinecke; Gerd Bohner; Röttgers Hans-Onno; Thomas Beblo; Martin Driessen; Ulrich Frommberger; Patrick William Corrigan

2012-01-01

164

Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

1989-01-01

165

Increasing the health literacy of learning disability and mental health nurses in physical care skills: A pre and post-test evaluation of a workshop on diabetes care.  

PubMed

This paper presents the pre- and post-test results of the outcomes of a workshop designed to increase learning disability and mental health nurses' knowledge and skill to undertake interventions for service users at risk of, or with a diagnosis of, type 2 diabetes. Health literacy is also discussed as a way of explaining why such nurses may lack expertise in physical health care. Findings from the workshop show that learning disability and mental health nurses have the motivation to increase their health literacy (skills and knowledge) in diabetes care. The potential of such workshops, and how organisations looking forward to the future can build health literacy, is discussed. PMID:25547647

Hemingway, Steve; Stephenson, John; Trotter, Fiona; Clifton, Andrew; Holdich, Phillip

2015-01-01

166

ANXIETY, PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY MEASURED, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON MENTAL TEST PERFORMANCE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH (1) EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ANXIETY INFLUENCES ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE AND (2) THE VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS WERE ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING MEASURES OF ANXIETY--(1) S-R INVENTORY OF ANXIOUSNESS, (2) AFFECT ADJECTIVE…

CHAMBERS, ALMA C.; HOPKINS, KENNETH D.

167

Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University City…

University City School District, MO.

168

Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery was tested. Subjects reported on modality, sequence, and vividness of images to questions that evoked either no images or visual, auditory, or kinesthetic images. Eye movement direction and spoken predicates were matched with sensory modality of the questions. Subjects reported images in

Matthew Elich; Richard W. Thompson; Laurence Miller

1985-01-01

169

Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

Elich, Matthew; And Others

1985-01-01

170

Determination of myopes' visual acuity using stimuli with different contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of different contrast stimuli on the myopes’ visual acuity (VA) was studied using positive (35.7), negative (-0.97) and low contrast (-0.11) Landolt optotypes. Test subjects were 13 myopes with corrected eyesight and 8 emmetropes, all of them being 20-22 years old. For VA determination the FrACT computer program was employed. In the tests it was found that for emmetropes the positive and negative contrast VA values do not differ significantly, while for myopes the respective values are better with positive than with negative contrast stimuli. These differences were the same in the measurements taken with spectacles or contact lenses. Our results also show that the retinal straylight created by clean spectacles or soft contact lenses is similar in both cases. Dažu autoru p?t?jumi r?da, ka miopijas gad?jum? redzes asums ir lab?ks ar pozit?va V?bera kontrasta stimuliem (balts stimuls uz melna fona) nek? negat?va kontrasta stimuliem (melns stimuls uz balta fona). Šis fenomens tiek saist?tas ar neir?l?m izmai??m ON un OFF ce?os un miopisk?s ac?s. Citi p?t?jumi r?da, ka ar? ac? izklied?t?s gaismas ietekm? lab?ks redzes asums ir ar pozit?viem kontrasta stimuliem nek? negat?va. Miopijas gad?jum? papildus gaismas izkliedi rada bri??u l?cas vai kontaktl?cas. M?s sav? p?t?jum? v?l?j?mies noskaidrot, cik liel? m?r? lab?ks redzes asums ar pozit?va kontrasta stimuliem miopisk?s ac?s ir saist?ms ar optisk?s korekcijas rad?to gaismas izkliedi. P?t?jum? piedal?j?s 21 dal?bnieks - 8 emetropi un 13 miopi ar sf?risko refrakcijas lielumu no -1.25 l?dz -6,25 D. Dal?bnieku vecums bija no 20 l?dz 22 gadi. Izmantojot FrACT datorprogrammu, tika noteiks monokul?rais redzes asums VA ar Landolta gredzeniem pie pozit?va, negat?va un zema kontrasta fotopiskos apst?k?os. V?bera kontrasti stimuliem attiec?gi bija 35.7, -0.97 un -0.11. Miopiem m?r?jumi tika veikti gan ar brill?m, gan kontaktl?c?m. Emetropiem redzes asums pie pozit?va un negat?va kontrasta nav b?tiski atš?ir?gs, savuk?rt kori??tiem miopiem redzes asums bija lab?ks ar pozit?va nek? ar negat?va kontrasta stimuliem. Starp?ba m?r?jumos, veiktos ar kontaktl?c?m, gan brill?m, nebija b?tiski atš?ir?ga. No ieg?tajiem rezult?tiem var secin?t, ka bri??u l?cas un kontaktl?cas rada l?dz?gu ac? 'nokl?duš?s” gaismas daudzumu.

Ikaunieks, G.; Caure, E.; Kassaliete, E.; Meskovska, Z.

2012-10-01

171

Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p = 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p = 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

Bolze, M.S. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan); Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

1982-07-01

172

Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

1982-07-01

173

Linkages of biomarkers of zinc with cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study (n?=?403) was conducted to examine the relationship of plasma zinc (PZ) and erythrocyte zinc (EZ) levels with cognitive performance and taste acuity for salt in Indian adolescent girls. PZ, EZ and hemoglobin were estimated in schoolgirls (10-16 years). Cognitive performance was assessed by simple-reaction-time (SRT), recognition-reaction-time (RRT), visual-memory, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Taste acuity was determined by recognition-thresholds-for-salt (RTS) using 10 different salt concentrations. Low PZ (<0.7?mg/l) and EZ (<8?µg/g of packed cells) were observed in 72% and 23.6% of girls, respectively. PZ and EZ were negatively associated with SRT (r?=?-0.41, -0.34), RRT (r?=?-0.49, -0.4), and positively with Memory (r?=?0.43, 0.34) and RPM (r?=?0.39, 0.31; p?

Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Kawade, Rama

2014-06-01

174

Test-Retest Reliability of Maternal Reports of Lifetime Mental Disorders in Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the test-retest reliability of maternal reports of lifetime psychopathology using DSM-III-R criteria in nonreferred offspring. Sixty-three mothers reported on 79 children, ages 6 to 18 years. Retest intervals were between one and 12 months. The results indicated acceptable reliability for all supraordinate categories (any disorder, any anxiety disorder, any disruptive disorder, externalizing disorders, internalizing disorders) as well

Lisa M. Kentgen; Rachel G. Klein; Salvatore Mannuzza; Mark Davies

1997-01-01

175

Dynamic Visual Acuity While Walking in Normals and Labyrinthine-Deficient Patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a new, objective, easily administered test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) while walking. Ten normal subjects and five patients with histories of severe bilateral vestibular dysfunctions participated in this study. Subjects viewed a visual display of numerals of different font sizes presented on a laptop computer while they stood still and while they walked on a motorized treadmill. Treadmill speed was adapted for 4 of 5 patients. Subjects were asked to identify the numerals as they appeared on the computer screen. Test results were reasonably repeatable in normals. The percent correct responses at each font size dropped slightly while walking in normals and dropped significantly more in patients. Patients performed significantly worse than normals while standing still and while walking. This task may be useful for evaluating post-flight astronauts and vestibularly impaired patients.

Hillman, Edward J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Cohen, Helen S.

1996-01-01

176

Military readiness: an exploration of the relationship between marksmanship and visual acuity.  

PubMed

The United States military relies on visual acuity standards to assess enlistment induction and military occupational specialty eligibility, as well as to monitor soldiers' combat vision readiness. However, these vision standards are not evidence based and may not accurately reflect appropriate standards for military readiness or reflect a correlation between visual acuity and occupational performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between visual acuity and marksmanship performance using a single blind trial with the Engagement Skills Trainer 2000. Marksmanship performance was evaluated in 28 subjects under simulated day and night conditions with habitual spectacle prescription and contact lenses that created visual blur. Panel Poisson regression using an independent correlation structure revealed significant differences (p < 0.001) as visual acuity decreased from 20/25 to 20/50. We conclude that marksmanship performance decreases as visual acuity decreases. We believe that this relationship supports the use of a visual acuity requirement. PMID:19485110

Wells, Kenney H; Wagner, Heidi; Reich, Lewis N; Hardigan, Patrick C

2009-04-01

177

Measuring value for low-acuity care across settings.  

PubMed

Increasing healthcare costs have created an emphasis on improving value, defined as how invested time, money, and resources improve health. The role of emergency departments (EDs) within value-driven health systems is still undetermined. Often questioned is the value of an ED visit for conditions that could be reasonably treated elsewhere such as office-based, urgent, and retail clinics. This paper presents a conceptual approach to assess the value of these low-acuity visits. It adapts an existing analytic model to highlight specific factors that impact key stakeholders' (patients, insurers, and society) assessments of the value of ED-based care compared with care in alternative settings. These factors are presented in 3 equations, 1 for each stakeholder, emphasizing how tangible and intangible benefits of care weigh against direct and indirect costs and how each perspective influences value. Aligning value among groups could allow stakeholders to influence each other and could guide rational change in the delivery of acute medical care for low-acuity conditions. PMID:23009334

Morgan, Sofie Rahman; Smith, Meaghan A; Pitts, Stephen R; Shesser, Robert; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Ward, Michael J; Pines, Jesse M

2012-09-01

178

Differential associative training enhances olfactory acuity in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Training can improve the ability to discriminate between similar, confusable stimuli, including odors. One possibility of enhancing behaviorally expressed discrimination (i.e., sensory acuity) relies on differential associative learning, during which animals are forced to detect the differences between similar stimuli. Drosophila represents a key model organism for analyzing neuronal mechanisms underlying both odor processing and olfactory learning. However, the ability of flies to enhance fine discrimination between similar odors through differential associative learning has not been analyzed in detail. We performed associative conditioning experiments using chemically similar odorants that we show to evoke overlapping neuronal activity in the fly's antennal lobes and highly correlated activity in mushroom body lobes. We compared the animals' performance in discriminating between these odors after subjecting them to one of two types of training: either absolute conditioning, in which only one odor is reinforced, or differential conditioning, in which one odor is reinforced and a second odor is explicitly not reinforced. First, we show that differential conditioning decreases behavioral generalization of similar odorants in a choice situation. Second, we demonstrate that this learned enhancement in olfactory acuity relies on both conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition. Third, inhibitory local interneurons in the antennal lobes are shown to be required for behavioral fine discrimination between the two similar odors. Fourth, differential, but not absolute, training causes decorrelation of odor representations in the mushroom body. In conclusion, differential training with similar odors ultimately induces a behaviorally expressed contrast enhancement between the two similar stimuli that facilitates fine discrimination. PMID:24478363

Barth, Jonas; Dipt, Shubham; Pech, Ulrike; Hermann, Moritz; Riemensperger, Thomas; Fiala, André

2014-01-29

179

What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... 950-NAMI; info@nami.org ©2015 What is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts Mental illnesses are medical conditions that disrupt ... illness recovery. Here are some important facts about mental illness and recovery: Mental illnesses are serious medical illnesses. ...

180

The Relationship between OCT-measured Central Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal thickness and visual acuity in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) both before and after macular laser photocoagulation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Participants 210 subjects (251 eyes) with DME enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of laser techniques. Methods Retinal thickness was measured with OCT and visual acuity was measured with the electronic-ETDRS procedure. Main Outcome Measures OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity Results The correlation coefficients for visual acuity versus OCT center point thickness were 0.52 at baseline and 0.49, 0.36, and 0.38 at 3.5, 8, and 12 months post-laser photocoagulation. The slope of the best fit line to the baseline data was approximately 4.4 letters (95% C.I.: 3.5, 5.3) better visual acuity for every 100 microns decrease in center point thickness at baseline with no important difference at follow-up visits. Approximately one-third of the variation in visual acuity could be predicted by a linear regression model that incorporated OCT center point thickness, age, hemoglobin A1C, and severity of fluorescein leakage in the center and inner subfields. The correlation between change in visual acuity and change in OCT center point thickening 3.5 months after laser treatment was 0.44 with no important difference at the other follow-up times. A subset of eyes showed paradoxical improvements in visual acuity with increased center point thickening (7–17% at the three time points) or paradoxical worsening of visual acuity with a decrease in center point thickening (18%–26% at the three time points). Conclusions There is modest correlation between OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity, and modest correlation of changes in retinal thickening and visual acuity following focal laser treatment for DME. However, a wide range of visual acuity may be observed for a given degree of retinal edema and paradoxical increases in center point thickening with increases in visual acuity as well as paradoxical decreases in center point thickening with decreases in visual acuity were not uncommon. Thus, although OCT measurements of retinal thickness represent an important tool in clinical evaluation, they cannot reliably substitute as a surrogate for visual acuity at a given point in time. This study does not address whether short-term changes on OCT are predictive of long-term effects on visual acuity. PMID:17123615

2008-01-01

181

Is the Male Advantage in Mental-Rotation Performance Task Independent? On the Usability of Chronometric Tests and Paper-and-Pencil Tests in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a reanalysis of the data of 862 second and fourth graders collected in two previous studies, focusing on the influence of method (psychometric vs. chronometric) and stimulus type on the gender difference in mental-rotation accuracy. The children had to solve mental-rotation tasks with animal pictures, letters, or cube…

Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea

2014-01-01

182

Media Coverage of Youth Suicides and Its Impact on Paediatric Mental Health Emergency Department Presentations  

PubMed Central

Background: To examine mental health (MH) presentations to the emergency department (ED) of a paediatric hospital following two highly publicized local teen suicides. Methods: Youths aged 12–18 years with a MH chief complaint and/or diagnosis were included. Differences in frequencies were analyzed using chi-square tests, and relative risks were evaluated using generalized linear modelling. Results: Significant increases in the number of ED presentations were found within the months of the publicized suicides compared to the same months of previous years. No differences were found in symptom acuity, suicidal status and psychiatric hospitalization rates. Significant increases were found in relative risk of presenting to the ED 28 and 90 days post both publicized suicides. Conclusions: Results suggest there was an association between highly publicized suicides and an increase in the number of MH presentations to the local paediatric ED. Considerations of media's potentially positive role in MH awareness are needed. PMID:25410699

Leon, Stephanie L.; Cloutier, Paula; BéLair, Marc-André; Cappelli, Mario

2014-01-01

183

Water-Induced Finger Wrinkles Do Not Affect Touch Acuity or Dexterity in Handling Wet Objects  

PubMed Central

Human non-hairy (glabrous) skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n?=?40) in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects. PMID:24416318

Frenzel, Henning; Gross, Manfred; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

184

The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences  

PubMed Central

Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

2009-01-01

185

Comparison of visual acuity estimates using three different letter charts under two ambient room illuminations  

PubMed Central

Background: Visual acuity is an essential estimate to assess ability of the visual system and is used as an indicator of ocular health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the consistency of acuity estimates from three different clinical visual acuity charts under two levels of ambient room illumination. Materials and Methods: This study involved thirty Malay university students aged between 19 and 23 years old (7 males, 23 females), with their spherical refractive error ranging between plano and –7.75D, astigmatism ranging from plano to –1.75D, anisometropia less than 1.00D and with no history of ocular injury or pathology. Right eye visual acuity (recorded in logMAR unit) was measured with Snellen letter chart (Snellen), wall mounted letter chart (WM) and projected letter chart (PC) under two ambient room illuminations, room light on and room light off. Results: Visual acuity estimates showed no statistically significant difference when measured with the room light on and with the room light off (F1,372 = 0.26, P = 0.61). Post-hoc analysis with Tukey showed that visual acuity estimates were significantly different between the Snellen and PC (P = 0.009) and between Snellen and WM (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Different levels of ambient room illumination had no significant effect on visual acuity estimates. However, the discrepancies in estimates of visual acuity noted in this study were purely due to the type of letter chart used. PMID:22446903

Chen, Ai-Hong; Norazman, Fatin Nur Najwa; Buari, Noor Halilah

2012-01-01

186

An investigation of the relation between sibilant production and somatosensory and auditory acuity  

PubMed Central

The relation between auditory acuity, somatosensory acuity and the magnitude of produced sibilant contrast was investigated with data from 18 participants. To measure auditory acuity, stimuli from a synthetic sibilant continuum ([s]-[?]) were used in a four-interval, two-alternative forced choice adaptive-staircase discrimination task. To measure somatosensory acuity, small plastic domes with grooves of different spacing were pressed against each participant’s tongue tip and the participant was asked to identify one of four possible orientations of the grooves. Sibilant contrast magnitudes were estimated from productions of the words ‘said,’ ‘shed,’ ‘sid,’ and ‘shid’. Multiple linear regression revealed a significant relation indicating that a combination of somatosensory and auditory acuity measures predicts produced acoustic contrast. When the participants were divided into high- and low-acuity groups based on their median somatosensory and auditory acuity measures, separate ANOVA analyses with sibilant contrast as the dependent variable yielded a significant main effect for each acuity group. These results provide evidence that sibilant productions have auditory as well as somatosensory goals and are consistent with prior results and the theoretical framework underlying the DIVA model of speech production. PMID:21110603

Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Matthies, Melanie L.; Maas, Edwin; Hanson, Alexandra; Tiede, Mark; Ménard, Lucie; Guenther, Frank H.; Lane, Harlan; Perkell, Joseph S.

2010-01-01

187

Acuity of the Approximate Number System and Preschoolers' Quantitative Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics…

van Marle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W.; Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

2014-01-01

188

Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

2011-01-01

189

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

2014-10-01

190

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

2013-10-01

191

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

2012-10-01

192

Influence of Motion Smear on Visual Acuity in Simulated Infantile Nystagmus  

PubMed Central

Purpose In persons with infantile nystagmus (IN), visual acuity correlates with the duration of the foveation period of the nystagmus waveform, i.e., when the retinal image is on or near the fovea and moves with low velocity. In this study, we asked how acuity is affected by the non-foveating phases of the nystagmus waveform, when the velocity of retinal image motion is substantially higher. Methods Visual acuity was measured in three normal observers for high-contrast, 4-orientation Ts, presented during image motion that simulated either the whole jerk-IN waveform (whole-waveform) or only the foveation periods of the IN waveform (foveation-only). Simulated foveation durations ranged from 20 to 120 ms. For both motion waveforms, we displayed the acuity target for different number of cycles to examine if acuity benefits from multiple presentations of the stimulus. Results As expected, visual acuity improves with longer simulated foveation durations in both the whole-waveform and foveation-only conditions. Acuity is consistently better (by approximately 0.1 logMAR) in the foveation-only than the whole-waveform condition, indicating that the high-velocity image motion during the simulated IN waveform has a detrimental effect. This difference in acuity between the two waveform conditions increases with the number of cycles, apparently because summation occurs across cycles in the foveation-only condition but not in the whole-waveform condition. Conclusions In normal observers, visual acuity in the presence of a simulated nystagmus waveform is limited not only by the duration of the foveation periods, but also by the non-foveating phases of the waveform. However, because persons with IN report little or no motion smear in association with their nystagmus, it remains unclear whether the rapid retinal image motion during the non-foveating phases of the nystagmus waveform generates a similar degradation of visual acuity in IN. PMID:21200353

Chung, Susana T. L.; LaFrance, Martin W.; Bedell, Harold E.

2011-01-01

193

75 FR 71632 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Mental Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Medical Criteria for Evaluating Mental Disorders AGENCY: Social Security...reference to standardized tests in the mental illness sections of the proposed rules and...children and adults with serious mental disorders who qualify for...

2010-11-24

194

Effect of methylphenidate on neurocognitive test battery: an evaluation according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, subtypes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the neuropsychological characteristics of the restrictive (R) subtype according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined (CB) type and predominantly inattentive (PI) type subtypes and to evaluate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects neurocognitive test battery scores according to these subtypes. This study included 360 children and adolescents (277 boys, 83 girls) between 7 and 15 years of age who had been diagnosed with ADHD and compared the neuropsychological characteristics and MPH treatment responses of patients with the R subtype-which has been suggested for inclusion among the ADHD subtypes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-with those of patients with the PI and CB subtypes. They did not differ from the control subjects in the complex attention domain, which includes Continuous Performance Test, Stroop test, and Shifting Attention Test, which suggests that the R subtype displayed a lower level of deterioration in these domains compared with the PI and CB subtypes. The patients with the CB and PI subtypes did not differ from the control subjects in the Continuous Performance Test correct response domain, whereas those with the R subtype presented a poorer performance than the control subjects. The R subtype requires a more detailed evaluation because it presented similar results in the remaining neuropsychological evaluations and MPH responses. PMID:24875071

Durak, Sibel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Yuce, Deniz; Ercan, Elif; Ipci, Melis

2014-08-01

195

Reliability of the Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Testing Protocol in Children 7 to 13 Years Old  

Microsoft Academic Search

? PURPOSE: To assess the test-retest reliability of the electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) visual acuity algorithm using the computer- ized Electronic Visual Acuity (EVA) tester in children 7 to <13 years old. ? DESIGN: Test-retest reliability study. ? METHODS: This multicenter study involved 245 sub- jects at four clinical sites. As the main outcome measure, visual acuity

SUSAN A. COTTER; RAYMOND H. CHU; DANIELLE L. CHANDLER; ROY W. BECK; JONATHAN M. HOLMES; MELISSA L. RICE; RICHARD W. HERTLE; EILEEN E. BIRCH; PAMELA S. MOKE

2003-01-01

196

Rhythms of Mental Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions to…

Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

2008-01-01

197

Taste acuity of obese adolescents and changes in food neophobia and food preferences during a weight reduction session.  

E-print Network

1 Taste acuity of obese adolescents and changes in food neophobia and food preferences during words Taste recognition threshold, taste perceived intensity, PROP, obesity, adolescent, weight Weight Reduction Session (WRS, mean duration: 10 months) in 39 obese adolescents. Taste acuity

Boyer, Edmond

198

Mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental disorders are diseases that affect cognition, emotion, and behavioral control and substantially interfere both with the ability of children to learn and with the ability of adults to function in their families, at work, and in the broader society. Mental disorders tend to begin early in life and often run a chronic recurrent course. They are common in all

Shepherd Ivory Franz; Dan Chisholm; Ronald Kessler; Vikram Patel; Harvey Whiteford

1922-01-01

199

Impact of graft thickness on visual acuity after Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty.  

PubMed

Objective To evaluate the relationship, over time, between central graft thickness and visual acuity following Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). Methods A retrospective analysis of 70 consecutive cases of DSEK. All donor lenticules were dissected manually. Serial postoperative measurements of central graft and total corneal thicknesses were made using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Visual acuity, refraction and patient demographics were collected from case notes. The correlation between central graft thickness and visual acuity at serial time points was calculated. Results The median age at surgery was 75 years (lower quartile (LQ) 66, upper quartile (UQ) 83, range 36-90 years). Nineteen eyes were excluded from statistical analysis, leaving 51 eyes of 46 patients remaining. Last follow-up occurred a median of 12 months postoperatively (LQ 6, UQ 23, range 4-38 months). The median preoperative visual acuity was 0.71 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), improving to 0.34 logMAR postoperatively (p<0.001, n=43). Median graft thickness decreased from 209 ?m at day 1 to 142 ?m at last follow-up (p<0.001). No statistically significant correlation was found between central total corneal thickness and visual acuity at any time point. Except for a single time point, no statistically significant correlation was found between central graft thickness and visual acuity. Conclusion There is no clear association between central graft, or total corneal, thickness and visual acuity following DSEK. PMID:22028474

Shinton, Anthony J; Tsatsos, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Aris; Goverdhan, Srini; Elsahn, Ahmad F; Anderson, David F; Hossain, Parwez

2012-02-01

200

Are there rapid feedback effects on Approximate Number System acuity?  

PubMed Central

Humans are believed to be equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitude. Correlations between individual measures of the precision of the ANS and mathematical ability have raised the question of whether the precision can be improved by feedback training. A study (DeWind and Brannon, 2012) reported improvement in discrimination precision occurring within 600–700 trials of feedback, suggesting ANS malleability with rapidly improving acuity in response to feedback. We tried to replicate the rapid improvement in a control group design, while controlling for the use of perceptual cues. The results indicate no learning effects, but a minor constant advantage for the feedback group. The measures of motivation suggest that feedback has a positive effect on motivation and that the difference in discrimination is due to the greater motivation of participants with feedback. These results suggest that at least for adults the number sense may not respond to feedback in the short-term. PMID:23781191

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

2013-01-01

201

Luminance effects on visual acuity and small letter contrast sensitivity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of luminance on visual acuity (VA) and small letter contrast sensitivity (SLCS). Computer-generated letter charts were used to measure VA and SLCS [6/7.5 (20/25) Snellen equivalent] as a function of stimulus luminance. Letter size (VA) and contrast (SLCS) were varied in equal logarithmic steps, making the task and scoring procedure comparable for the two types of measurement. Both VA and SLCS decreased with decreasing luminance, but the effect was far greater in the contrast domain. Reducing luminance from 116 cd/m2 to 0.23 cd/m2 produced a 3 x reduction in VA, but a 17 x reduction in SLCS. The greater sensitivity of SLCS to luminance endured even after correction for greater measurement variability. SLCS is a sensitive approach for detecting resolution loss undisclosed by standard measures of VA. It may be useful for monitoring visual loss from light attenuation in early cataracts, and for detecting subtle resolution loss from neural or pathologic factors in ocular and neuro-ophthalmologic disease. PMID:7885672

Rabin, J

1994-11-01

202

Effect of vestibular rehabilitation on passive dynamic visual acuity  

PubMed Central

While active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been shown to improve with gaze stabilization exercises, we sought to determine whether DVA during passive head impulses (pDVA) would also improve following a rehabilitation course of vestibular physical therapy (VPT) in patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibular hypofunction. VPT consisted of gaze and gait stabilization exercises done as a home exercise program. Scleral search coil was used to characterize the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) during pDVA before and after VPT. Mean duration of VPT was 66 ± 24 days, over a total of 5 ± 1.4 outpatient visits. Two of three subjects showed improvements in pDVA with a mean reduction of 43% (LogMAR 0.58 to 0.398 and 0.92 to 0.40). Our data suggest improvements in pDVA may be due in part to improvements in aVOR velocity and acceleration gains or reduced latency of the aVOR. Each subject demonstrated a reduction in the ratio of compensatory saccades to head impulses after VPT. Preliminary data suggest that active gaze stability exercises may contribute to improvements in pDVA in some individuals. PMID:19126985

Scherer, Matthew; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Schubert, Michael C.

2010-01-01

203

Dynamic Visual Acuity Associated With Eye Movements And Pupillary Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectively was evaluate dynamic visual acuity (DVA), using moving optotypes, while monitoring eye movements and pupillary responses. Under controlled conditions of luminance and contrast the viewers were asked to look carefully at a moving alphabetic letter. The letter was moved in the horizontal plane at a determined speed by a sinusoidal frequency generator. The initial frequency was gradually incremented until the viewer reported was not able to distinguish the object. Objective measures of DVA were obtained using video-oculography (VOG) in which, pupillary images and eye movements were analyzed by image processing. We found that when a large dilatation of the pupil is presented coincided with a pause eye movement (0.1s). It was when the viewer leaves to see clearly the letter of Snellen. The changes of pupil diameter of the five viewers were found averages to nasal trajectory from 3.58 mm (0 Hz) to 3.85 mm (1Hz), and to temporal trajectory from 3.54 mm (0 Hz) to 3.96 mm (1 Hz). Also, the bandwidth since 0.6 to 1.2 Hz, of the viewers due to the response at the stimulus (letter of Snellen) with 20° of amplitude, was obtained.

Suaste, Ernesto; García, Nadia; Rodríguez, Dolores; Zúñiga, Arturo

2004-09-01

204

Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity.  

PubMed

Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa. PMID:23382193

Böröczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby

2013-02-26

205

What Is Mental Health?  

MedlinePLUS

... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

206

The Flex Track: Flexible Partitioning between Low- and High-Acuity Areas of an Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Study Objective EDs with both low- and high-acuity treatment areas often have fixed allocation of resources, regardless of demand. We demonstrate the utility of discrete-event simulation to evaluate flexible partitioning between low- and high-acuity ED areas to identify the best operational strategy for subsequent implementation. Methods A discrete-event simulation was used to model patient flow through a 50-bed, urban, teaching ED that handles 85,000 patient visits annually. The ED has historically allocated ten beds to a Fast Track for low-acuity patients. We estimated the effect of a Flex Track policy, which involved switching up to five of these Fast Track beds to serving both low- and high-acuity patients, on patient waiting times. When the high-acuity beds were not at capacity, low-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Otherwise, high-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Wait times were estimated for patients by disposition and emergency severity index (ESI) score. Results A Flex Track policy using three flexible beds produced the lowest mean patient waiting of 30.9 (95% CI 30.6–31.2) minutes. The typical Fast Track approach of rigidly separating high- and low–acuity beds produced a mean patient wait time of 40.6 (95% CI 40.2–50.0) minutes, 31% higher than the three-bed Flex Track. A completely flexible ED, where all beds can accommodate any patient, produced mean wait times of 35.1 (95% CI 34.8–35.4) minutes. The results from the three-bed Flex Track scenario were robust, performing well across a range of scenarios involving higher and lower patient volumes and care durations. Conclusion Using discrete-event simulation, we have shown that adding some flexibility into bed allocation between low- and high-acuity can provide substantial reductions in overall patient waiting and a more efficient ED. PMID:24954578

Laker, Lauren F.; Froehle, Craig M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Ward, Michael J.

2014-01-01

207

Amniotic membrane covering promotes healing of cornea epithelium and improves visual acuity after debridement for fungal keratitis  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the effect of amniotic membrane covering (AMC) on the healing of cornea epithelium and visual acuity for fungal keratitis after debridement. METHODS Twenty fungal keratitis patients were divided into two groups randomly, the AMC group and the control group, ten patients each group. Both debridement of the infected cornea tissue and standard anti-fungus drugs treatments were given to every patients, monolayer amniotic membrane were sutured to the surface of the entire cornea and bulbar conjunctiva with 10-0 nylon suture for patients in the AMC group. The diameter of the ulcer was determined with slit lamp microscope and the depth of the infiltration was determined with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was tested before surgery and three month after healing of the epithelial layer. The healing time of the cornea epithelium, visual acuity (VA) was compared between the two groups using t-test. RESULTS There was no statistical difference of the diameter of the ulcer, depth of the infiltration, height of the hypopyon and VA between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05). The average healing time of the AMC group was 6.89±2.98d, which was statistically shorter than that of the control group (10.23±2.78d) (P<0.05). The average UCVA of the AMC group was 0.138±0.083, which was statistically better than that of the control group (0.053±0.068) (P<0.05). CONCLUSION AMC surgery could promote healing of cornea epithelium after debridement for fungal keratitis and lead to better VA outcome. PMID:25349793

Zeng, Bo; Wang, Ping; Xu, Ling-Juan; Li, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Hong; Li, Gui-Gang

2014-01-01

208

Comparison of Visual Acuity in Reduced Lumination and Facility of Ocular Accommodation in Table Tennis Champions and Non- Players  

PubMed Central

A table tennis player should fixate at different distances; track the objects with different speed, and in different visual environment. Their visual skills must be well developed for these capabilities. Therefore, visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation those are two criteria for visual skills have been compared in table tennis players and normal non-players. Twenty-nine young table tennis champions and 29 normal matched non-players (did not take part in any racket sports game) were evaluated. Basic visual and eye examinations were done for both of them. Normal results in basic examination were fundamental requirement for all the subjects. +/-2.00 sphere lenses for accommodation facility are used. An electrical current regulator changed the output light intensity of a conventional chart projector (Topcon). Light intensity decreased to 10 cd·m-2 and visual acuity tested. In comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non-players there are significant differences (p < 0.001). In the preliminary visual tests there was not any significant different in the two groups but the results in the top level table tennis player was very uniform and in every test and the standard deviation was lesser in tennis player group than non-players. These results show that motor and sensorial functions of expert players are well developed. That is consistent with other researchers. This result was interpreted as reflecting a better perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents. However some visual and perceptual training that usually used in orthoptics can be used for novice table tennis player to improve their abilities. Key Points That the ability of a champion depends on many sensory, motor and perceptual factors. Visual factors such as facility of accommodation and visual acuity in reduced lumination should be considered in table tennis players. Visual training may be useful for novice and also for experts. PMID:24497820

Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yarigholi, Mohammad R.

2004-01-01

209

Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals' experience of interacting with the healthcare system has significant impact on their overall health and well-being. To relate patients' experiences to a common set of standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of health system responsiveness. This study aimed to assess if the WHO responsiveness concept reflected the non-medical expectations of mental healthcare users in Teheran. Methods In this qualitative study, four mixed focus group discussions were formed, comprising 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Content analysis was performed for data analysis. Responses were examined in relation to the eight domains of the WHO's responsiveness model. Results There were many commonalities between the findings of this study and the eight domains of the WHO responsiveness model, although some variations were found. Effective care was a new domain generated from our findings. In addition, the domain of prompt attention was included in two new labelled domains: attention and access to care. Participants could not differentiate autonomy from choice of healthcare provider, believing that free choice is part of autonomy. Therefore these domains were unified under the name of autonomy. The domains of quality of basic amenities, access to social support, dignity and confidentiality were considered to be important for the responsiveness concept. Some differences regarding how these domains should be defined were observed, however. Conclusions The results showed that the concept of responsiveness developed by the WHO is applicable to mental health services in Iran. These findings might help policy-makers' better understanding of what is useful for the improvement of mental health services. PMID:22115499

2011-01-01

210

Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media News & Events Awareness ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

211

Neural Constraints on Visual Acuity in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Visual acuity (VA) in normally-sighted individuals is highly correlated with equivalent intrinsic blur, a measure of the amount of blur within the visual system that is generated by optical and neural sources. This study assessed the extent to which VA, equivalent intrinsic blur, optical blur, and neural blur are abnormal in subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and characterized the relationships among these parameters. Methods Best-corrected VA of 10 subjects with PDR (ages 25 to 68) and 10 normally-sighted individuals (ages 46 to 63) was measured for tumbling E optotypes. The Es were either unblurred or blurred through convolution with Gaussian functions of different widths. Values of equivalent intrinsic blur (?int) and unblurred VA (MAR0) were derived using a standard model. Optical blur (?opt), a measure of blur generated by higher-order aberrations, was quantified using Shack-Hartmann aberrometry. An index of neural blur (?) was defined as 1-?opt/?int, which represents the remaining blur once the contributions of ?opt to ?int have been accounted for. Results Log MAR0 and log ?int were correlated significantly (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) for the PDR subjects and the values of these parameters ranged from normal to more than a factor of 2 above the upper limit of normal. In comparison, log MAR measured for the most blurred E was elevated by a relatively small amount for all PDR subjects and was not correlated significantly with log ?int (r = 0.40, p = 0.25). MAR0, ?int, and ? differed significantly between the PDR subjects and the controls (all p < 0.05) but ?opt did not (p = 0.50). Conclusions Subjects with PDR and VA loss had higher than normal equivalent intrinsic blur that was due primarily to neural blur elevations, suggesting that neural blur is an important factor that limits VA in these patients. PMID:24317136

McAnany, J. Jason; Wanek, Justin; Zelkha, Ruth; Lim, Jennifer I.; Chau, Felix; Shahidi, Mahnaz

2014-01-01

212

Visual acuity impairment in patients with retinitis pigmentosa at age 45 years or older  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the severity of visual acuity impairment in patients, age 45 years or older, with either isolated or identifiable genetic subtypes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Usher syndrome.

Sandeep Grover; Gerald A Fishman; Robert J Anderson; Marcia S. V Tozatti; John R Heckenlively; Richard G Weleber; Albert O Edwards; Jeremiah Brown

1999-01-01

213

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2011-10-01

214

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2012-10-01

215

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2013-10-01

216

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2014-10-01

217

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2010-10-01

218

Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?  

PubMed Central

Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

2014-01-01

219

Longitudinal Relationships among Visual Acuity and Tasks of Everyday Life: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To study the relationships among visual and physical function trajectories of aging adults. Methods. The community-based random sample consists of 2520 adults who were aged 65 to 84 years in 1993 to 1995 and reassessed 2, 6, and 8 years later. Presenting and best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity were obtained. Activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) were evaluated through survey instruments. Growth curve models were used to simultaneously estimate health trajectories and obtain associations among the trajectories while controlling for relevant covariates. Results. Best-corrected acuity (logMAR) worsened by an average of 0.013 (?1 letter) annually. ADL difficulties increased by 0.22 standard deviations (SD) and IADL difficulties increased by 0.28 SD annually. Controlling for demographic and health covariates, visual acuity rates of decline correlated with rates of increase in ADL difficulties (r = 0.15, P = 0.05) and IADL difficulties (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Acuity loss was significantly related to increases in ADLs for men (b = 0.039, P < 0.01), but not for women (b = 0.001, P > 0.9). The direct effects of acuity loss were strongest for IADLs where a 1-unit decline in acuity (logMAR) was associated with a 0.067 SD increase in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) at baseline, and a 1-unit acuity decline (logMAR) per year resulted in a 0.10 SD unit increase in the rate of change in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) per year. Conclusions. Over time, increases in visual acuity loss were related to increased IADL difficulties in men and women and increases in ADL difficulties for men only. The findings support the importance of maintaining vision in older adults. PMID:23221066

Lam, Byron L.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zheng, D. Diane; West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Lee, David J.

2013-01-01

220

The effect of exercise on the visual and auditory acuity of table-tennis players.  

PubMed

Utilizing a simulated table-tennis task, improved visual and auditory acuity of a group of 13 Ss was found after a playing period of 10 min. 2 passive control groups, 1 observing ball flight and the other a static display, showed no significant improvements in either visual or auditory acuity. The results are interpreted in terms of sensory facilitation brought about by increased arousal resulting from gross-bodily activity. PMID:23952594

Whiting, H T; Sanderson, F H

1972-09-01

221

Grating Visual Acuity Results in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare grating (resolution) visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment (ET) for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) versus eyes that were managed conventionally (CM). Methods In a randomized clinical trial, infants with bilateral, high-risk prethreshold ROP (N=317) had one eye treated early at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, and treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (N=84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either ET or CM. Main Outcome Measures Grating visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers using Teller acuity cards. Results Monocular grating acuity results were obtained from 317 (86%) of 370 surviving children. Analysis of grating acuity results for all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant overall benefit for early treatment (18.1% vs 22.8% unfavorable outcome, P=0.08). When the 6-year grating acuity results were analyzed according to a clinical algorithm (high-risk Type 1 and high-risk Type 2 prethreshold ROP), a benefit was seen in Type 1 eyes (16.4% vs 25.2%, P=0.004) that were treated early, but not in Type 2 eyes (21.3% vs 15.9%, P=0.29). Conclusion Early treatment for eyes with Type 1 ROP improved grating acuity outcomes but early treatment for eyes with Type 2 ROP did not. Application to Clinical Medicine Type I eyes should be treated early; however, based on acuity results at age 6 years, Type 2 eyes should be cautiously monitored for progression to Type 1 ROP. Trial Registration NCT00027222 PMID:21746974

2015-01-01

222

Influence of Local Cooling on Proprioceptive Acuity in the Quadriceps Muscle  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the influence of cooling on proprioceptive acuity as reflected in the ability to discriminate weights. Design and Setting: Participants were trained to perform a weight-discrimination task. Their ability to correctly report small increments in weight was compared before and after local cooling (a 20-minute application of a crushed-ice pack) of the quadriceps muscle group. Data were collected at a university research laboratory. Subjects: Twenty young, physically active adults (undergraduate students; 14 men, 6 women; mean age, 22.1 ± 2.6 years). Measurements: We calculated overall performance in the weight-discrimination task (percentage of discrimination correct) for each participant to estimate the differential threshold (ie, minimal increment in weight that yields a probability of 75% correct responses). Results: Before local cooling, participants discriminated increments in the order of 4% to 10% from the standard weight (mean threshold, 0.17 ± 0.06 kg). After local cooling, the discriminative performance remained, on average, very similar to that seen before cooling (mean threshold, 0.17 ± 0.08 kg; paired t test: t = 0.24, P = .81). Only a small group of participants (n = 5) showed evidence of a decreased ability to discriminate weight after cooling. Conclusions: The perception of force signals required for weight discrimination does not appear to be affected by local cooling of the quadriceps muscle group. This finding provides additional evidence for the relative safety of cold applications and their effect on proprioceptive perceptual abilities. PMID:12937450

Estephan, Lorein; Legendre, Martine; Sulpher, Stéphanie

2001-01-01

223

Plasticity of Binocularity and Visual Acuity Are Differentially Limited by Nogo Receptor  

PubMed Central

The closure of developmental critical periods consolidates neural circuitry but also limits recovery from early abnormal sensory experience. Degrading vision by one eye throughout a critical period both perturbs ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex and impairs visual acuity permanently. Yet understanding how binocularity and visual acuity interrelate has proven elusive. Here we demonstrate the plasticity of binocularity and acuity are separable and differentially regulated by the neuronal nogo receptor 1 (NgR1). Mice lacking NgR1 display developmental OD plasticity as adults and their visual acuity spontaneously improves after prolonged monocular deprivation. Restricting deletion of NgR1 to either cortical interneurons or a subclass of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons alters intralaminar synaptic connectivity in visual cortex and prevents closure of the critical period for OD plasticity. However, loss of NgR1 in PV neurons does not rescue deficits in acuity induced by chronic visual deprivation. Thus, NgR1 functions with PV interneurons to limit plasticity of binocularity, but its expression is required more extensively within brain circuitry to limit improvement of visual acuity following chronic deprivation. PMID:25164659

Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Chan, Leanne L.H.; Parivash, Sherveen N.; Dorton, Hilary M.; Piechowicz, Mariel

2014-01-01

224

Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

2011-01-01

225

Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is mental health? Mental health is a goal for all people, including those with mental retardation, not just those having difficulties. Mental health is an essential ingredient in the quality of life. The two main aspects of mental health are emotional well-being and rewarding social and interpersonal relationships. Emotional well-being is an important part of the gift of human

Steven Reiss; Ruth Ryan

226

Visual evoked potential measurement of contrast sensitivity in a case of retinal laser injury reveals visual function loss despite normal acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although visual function following retinal laser injuries has traditionally been assessed by measuring visual acuity, this measure only indicates the highest spatial frequency resolvable under high-contrast viewing conditions. Another visual psychophysical parameter is contrast sensitivity (CS), which measures the minimum contrast required for detection of targets over a range of spatial frequencies, and may evaluate visual mechanisms that do not directly subserve acuity. We used the visual evoked potential (VEP) to measure CS in a population of normal subjects and in patients with ophthalmic conditions affecting retinal function, including one patient with a laser injury in the macula. In this patient, the acuity had recovered from test field but not for larger test fields. These data indicated that contrast sensitivity measurements may reveal alterations in visual neural processing mechanisms not detected with standard clinical tests of acuity.

Glickman, Randolph D.; Harrison, Joseph M.; Zwick, Harry; Longbotham, Harold G.; Ballentine, Charles S.; Pierce, Bennie

1996-04-01

227

Changes in Near Visual Acuity of Over Time in the Astronaut Corps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We hypothesized that visual impairment due to intracranial pressure (VIIP) would increase the rate of which presbyopia would occur in the astronaut population, with long durations flyers at an especially high risk. Presbyopia is characterized as the gradual loss of near visual acuity overtime due to a loss in ability to accommodate. It generally develops in the mid-40s and progresses until about age 65. This analysis considered annual vision exams conducted on active NASA astronauts with spaceflight experience currently between the ages of 40 to 60 years of age. Onset of presbyopia was characterized as a shift of at least 20 units on the standard Snellen test from one annual exam to the next. There were 236 short duration and 48 long duration flyers, the majority of whom did experience onset of presbyopia between age 40 and 60. This shift however, did not necessarily come after spaceflight. In comparing the short and long duration flyers the mean age of onset was 47 years old (SD+/-3.7). The mean of onset within the general population is 45 to 47 years old [1, 2]. The mean age of the onset of presbyopia as compared to the general population indicates that space flight does not induce early development of presbyopia.

Taiym, Wafa; Wear, Mary L.; Locke, James; Mason, Sara; VanBaalen, Mary

2014-01-01

228

A novel computer software for the evaluation of dynamic visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate fine details in a moving target. Albeit a growing interest in DVA, there is a lack of standardized, validated instrumentation and procedures for the assessment of this visual function parameter. The aim of the present study was to analyze qualitative construct validity and test–retest reliability of a novel, computer-assisted instrument (DinVA 3.0) for the measurement of DVA. Methods Two different experiments are presented, involving the participation of 33 subjects. The first experiment aimed at testing qualitative construct validity of the DinVA 3.0 by comparing the outcome of a series of trials consisting in different speeds, contrasts and trajectories of the target stimuli with those reported in the literature. The second experiment assessed test–retest reliability by repeating a series of trials at three different time intervals, at maximum target stimuli contrast and either high or low speed configurations. Results The results of the first experiment gave support to the qualitative construct validity of DinVA 3.0, as the DVA scores were found to be modulated by the speed of the moving target (high speeds yielded lower DVA), contrast (high contrast resulted in better DVA) and trajectory (DVA was better at horizontal rather than oblique trajectories). Test–retest reliability was found to be good, with a small insignificant trend towards improvement with learning. Conclusion The DinVA 3.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of DVA and may be considered a promising tool for both clinicians and researchers.

Quevedo, Lluïsa; Aznar-Casanova, José Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genís; Solé-Fortó, Joan

2012-01-01

229

Correlation of recognition visual acuity with posterior retinal structure in advanced retinopathy of prematurity.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To compare Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity outcome with retinal structural outcome at the 6-year follow-up examination of infants randomized in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. METHODS We compared the results in 606 eyes of subjects in whom both functional (visual acuity) and retinal structural assessments were obtained at age 6 years. Visual acuity assessments were performed by masked testers, and retinal examinations were performed by certified ophthalmologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Visual acuity and retinal structure at age 6 years. RESULTS Concordant outcomes occurred in 462 eyes (76.2%): 402 eyes had favorable functional and structural outcomes and 60 eyes had unfavorable functional and structural outcomes. Discordant outcomes occurred in 92 eyes (15.2%): 86 eyes had unfavorable functional and favorable structural outcomes and 6 eyes had favorable functional and unfavorable structural outcomes. Of the 86 eyes with unfavorable functional and favorable structural outcomes, 43 had optic atrophy (23 eyes) and/or retinal abnormalities that were less severe than those considered to be unfavorable (32 eyes). In 52 eyes (8.6%), retinal structure could not be assessed or the visual acuity was untestable. CONCLUSION Posterior pole appearance correlates well with visual acuity in 6-year-old infants with a history of advanced retinopathy of prematurity. APPLICATION TO CLINICAL PRACTICE When the retinal structure is normal but visual acuity is poor in infants with a history of severe retinopathy of prematurity, other diagnoses such as optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment could at least partially account for the discrepancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222. PMID:22892757

Wallace, David K; Bremer, Don L; Good, William V; Fellows, Rae; Summers, C Gail; Tung, Betty; Hardy, Robert J

2012-12-01

230

Effect of Target Location on Dynamic Visual Acuity During Passive Horizontal Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates eye rotation to compensate for potential retinal slip in the specific plane of head movement. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been utilized as a functional measure of the VOR. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in accuracy and reaction time when performing a DVA task with targets offset from the plane of rotation, e.g. offset vertically during horizontal rotation. Visual acuity was measured in 12 healthy subjects as they moved a hand-held joystick to indicate the orientation of a computer-generated Landolt C "as quickly and accurately as possible." Acuity thresholds were established with optotypes presented centrally on a wall-mounted LCD screen at 1.3 m distance, first without motion (static condition) and then while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (DVA, peak velocity 60 deg/s). The effect of target location was then measured during horizontal rotation with the optotypes randomly presented in one of nine different locations on the screen (offset up to 10 deg). The optotype size (logMar 0, 0.2 or 0.4, corresponding to Snellen range 20/20 to 20/50) and presentation duration (150, 300 and 450 ms) were counter-balanced across five trials, each utilizing horizontal rotation at 0.8 Hz. Dynamic acuity was reduced relative to static acuity in 7 of 12 subjects by one step size. During the random target trials, both accuracy and reaction time improved proportional to optotype size. Accuracy and reaction time also improved between 150 ms and 300 ms presentation durations. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements when acquiring vertical targets. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of motion. Both reaction time and accuracy are functionally relevant DVA parameters of VOR function.

Appelbaum, Meghan; DeDios, Yiri; Kulecz, Walter; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott

2010-01-01

231

Women and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... mail.nih.gov Share Science News About Women’s Mental Health Soldiers at High Suicide Risk after Hospitalization NIMH ...

232

Children's Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Children’s Mental Disorders: A Journey for Parents and Children Meet two ... school, and in their communities. What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental ...

233

Mental Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biographies of great achievers, in science as well as other disciplines, suggest that those of genius caliber possess, in addition to their intellectual gift or gifts, an extraordinary abundance of mental energy. They can focus their attention on some task for long periods without tiring or becoming distracted from the problem at hand. It is…

Lykken, D.T.

2005-01-01

234

Development of a test battery (NPM-X) for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination of children with developmental disabilities or mental retardation. A theoretical and clinical study.  

PubMed

Biological and behavioural diagnosis often do not provide information on functional competence. This is, however, of utmost importance in planning services as well as in research on treatment effects for children with developmental disorders. For school-aged children neuropsychological assessment has proved its value in this respect. For children of chronological age (CA) below 5-7 with specific developmental disabilities, and for children with severe mental retardation there has been a lack of applicable test batteries. This thesis presents a new test battery for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination, NPM-X, for these two groups of children. The first part of the thesis reviews available medical and psychological tests and assessment procedures with respect to applicability and relevance for neuropsychological assessment to children with mental retardation and mental age (MA) below 7. The second part describes the theoretical background and the content of the new test battery. The methodology for testing these children, who due to their age and/or their developmental disabilities often co-operate poorly, is described. Scoring categories, specifically developed to enable a detailed and differentiated description of the child, are presented. Because of the instability of the behavioural function in early age as well as in cases of severe disability, the scoring system records both the child's optimal functional capacity and inconsistencies in behaviour. For the purpose of planning treatment and training according to the child's resources as well as dysfunctions, two different functional profiles are provided. In the normative functional profile the child's functional level is compared to normal expectations for the child's CA, and in the ideographic functional profile the child's function in each area is compared to the child's average functional level. In the third part of the thesis the reliability results are presented and discussed. A pair of trained M.D.s, or psychology or special education Ph.D.s examined 110 children in a blind design. The study showed satisfactory interrater and test-retest reliability. In the fourth part current validation theory is reviewed before content and construct validity for the test battery is discussed. A concurrent criterion validation study is presented as well. Assessments available in the psychological and psychiatric records (PPR) of 35 children with CA below 7 were compared to test results obtained with NPM-X. The comparison showed high agreement in areas of function assessed both by PPR and NPM-X. In addition, NPM-X provided more information about the child's functional capacity, of relevance for the diagnostic appraisal as well as for the treatment of the child. It is concluded that a reliable and valid test battery for neuropsychological and neuromotor developmental assessment has showed its applicability and clinical utility for children with specific developmental disabilities and CA < 7 and for children with general developmental disabilities up to CA 12-13 but with MA < 7. PMID:9212855

Gjaerum, B

1997-01-01

235

Determine the effect of neck muscle fatigue on dynamic visual acuity in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether neck muscle fatigue affects dynamic visual acuity in healthy young participants. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a double-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty healthy young subjects (ages 21 to 30?years) participated in the study. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed an exercise designed to induce neck muscle fatigue and the control group preformed non-fatiguing sham exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in mean dynamic visual acuity between the two groups (0.26±0.11 LogMar versus 0.003±0.02 LogMar). Subjects in the experimental group showed a significant decline in their dynamic visual acuity compared with the control group. Dynamic visual acuity strongly correlated with neck muscle fatigue (r = 0.79). No significant differences in joint position error were observed between the two groups and no significant correlations between joint position error and neck muscle fatigue were observed (r = 0.23). [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that neck muscle fatigue negatively impacts dynamic visual acuity. Although not statistically significant, cervical spine proprioception as measured by the joint position error in the experimental group was diminished after fatigue. PMID:25642087

Al Saif, Amer A; Al Senany, Samira

2015-01-01

236

Can measures of sound localization acuity be related to the precision of absolute location estimates?  

PubMed

Studies of sound localization use relative or absolute psychoacoustic paradigms. Relative tasks assess acuity by determining the smallest angle separating two sources that subjects can discriminate, the minimum audible angle (MAA), whereas absolute tasks measure subjects' abilities to indicate sound location. It is unclear whether or how measures from the two tasks are related, though the belief that the MAA is specifically related to the precision of absolute localization is common. The present study aimed to investigate the basis of this relationship by comparing the precision of absolute location estimates with a measure of spatial acuity computed from the same data. Three cats were trained to indicate apparent sound source locations that varied in azimuth and elevation via orienting gaze shifts (combined eye and head movements). The precision of these absolute responses, as measured by their standard deviation, was compared with acuity thresholds derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of the cumulative distributions. Surprisingly, the acuity measures were occasionally very poor indicators of absolute localization precision. Incongruent results were attributed to errors in mean accuracy, which are disregarded in analyses of traditional relative tasks. Discussion focuses on the potential for internal biases to affect measures of localization acuity. PMID:18178351

Moore, Jordan M; Tollin, Daniel J; Yin, Tom C T

2008-04-01

237

Mental Rotation: Cross-Task Training and Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that performance on standard mental rotation tasks improves with training (Peters et al., 1995), but thus far there is little consensus regarding the degree of transfer to other tasks which also involve mental rotation. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of mental rotation training on participants' Mental Rotation Test

Stransky, Debi; Wilcox, Laurie M.; Dubrowski, Adam

2010-01-01

238

Diagnosing Students' Mental Models via the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental models play an important role in science education research. To extend the effectiveness of conceptual change research and to improve mental model identi?cation and diagnosis, the authors developed and tested the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis (WMMD) system. In this article, they describe their WMMD system, which goes beyond the…

Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Lin, Jing-Wen; Chou, Chin-Cheng

2013-01-01

239

Calibration-free gaze tracking for automatic measurement of visual acuity in human infants.  

PubMed

Most existing vision-based methods for gaze tracking need a tedious calibration process. In this process, subjects are required to fixate on a specific point or several specific points in space. However, it is hard to cooperate, especially for children and human infants. In this paper, a new calibration-free gaze tracking system and method is presented for automatic measurement of visual acuity in human infants. As far as I know, it is the first time to apply the vision-based gaze tracking in the measurement of visual acuity. Firstly, a polynomial of pupil center-cornea reflections (PCCR) vector is presented to be used as the gaze feature. Then, Gaussian mixture models (GMM) is employed for gaze behavior classification, which is trained offline using labeled data from subjects with healthy eyes. Experimental results on several subjects show that the proposed method is accurate, robust and sufficient for the application of measurement of visual acuity in human infants. PMID:25570120

Chunshui Xiong; Lei Huang; Changping Liu

2014-08-01

240

Socioeconomic composition of low-acuity emergency department users in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the associations between the socioeconomic status of emergency department (ED) users and age, sex, and acuity of medical conditions to better understand users’ common characteristics, and to better meet primary and ambulatory health care needs. Design A retrospective, observational, population-based analysis. A rigorous proxy of socioeconomic status was applied using census-based methods to calculate a relative deprivation index. Setting Ontario. Participants All Ontario ED visits for the fiscal year April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System data set. Main outcome measures Emergency department visits were ranked into deprivation quintiles, and associations between deprivation and age, sex, acuity at triage, and association with a primary care physician were investigated. Results More than 25% of ED visits in Ontario were from the most deprived population; almost half of those (12.3%) were for conditions of low acuity. Age profiles indicated that a large contribution to low-acuity ED visits was made by young adults (aged 20 to 30 years) from the most deprived population. For the highest-volume ED in Ontario, 94 of the 499 ED visits per day were for low-acuity patients from the most deprived population. Most of the highest volume EDs in Ontario (more than 200 ED visits per day) follow this trend. Conclusion Overall input into EDs might be reduced by providing accessible and appropriate primary health care resources in catchment areas of EDs with high rates of low-acuity ED visits, particularly for young adults from the most deprived segment of the population. PMID:24733328

VanStone, Nancy A.; Belanger, Paul; Moore, Kieran; Caudle, Jaelyn M.

2014-01-01

241

Specifying and Testing a Multi-Dimensional Model of Publicness: An Analysis of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities  

E-print Network

This study specifies and tests a multi-dimensional model of publicness, building upon extant literature in this area. Publicness represents the degree to which an organization has "public" ties. An organization's degree ...

Merritt, Cullen

2014-05-31

242

Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

2009-01-01

243

Comparison of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity between deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate postoperative visual acuity and contrast sensitivity results following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with keratoconus (KC). METHODS All the patients' records with KC who had PK or DALK surgery between May 2010 and May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty patients who underwent successful corneal transplantation for KC: 30 eyes underwent DALK and 30 eyes underwent PK were included in this study. Preoperative and postoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), logMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Contrast sensitivity tests (CS) were done preoperative and 2 months after all sutures had removed. All surgeries were performed under regional anesthesia (retrobulbar anesthesia) by 1 surgeon (B.K.) who was experienced in penetrating and lamellar keratoplasty techniques. RESULTS The mean age of the DALK group was 29.67±4.95 (range 18-40) years and the PK group was 28.7±3.53 (range 18-39) years. Preoperatively there was no significant difference in the logMAR UCVA, logMAR BSCVA and IOP between the DALK (1.281±0.56; 0.97±0.85; 12.07±2.12mmHg) and PK (1.34±0.21; 0.98±0.21; 13±2.12mmHg) groups. One-year after surgery there was no significant difference in the mean logMAR UCVA and IOP between the DALK (0.46±0.37; 11.73±2.1mmHg) and PK (0.38±0.21; 12±2.12mmHg) groups. The mean contrast sensitivity was evaluated by CC-100 Topcon LCD at 1.5, 2.52, 4.23, 7.10 and 11.91 cycles per degree (cs/deg) spatial frequencies before and 2 months after the all sutures had removed. CONCLUSION All patients with keratoconus in both DALK and PK groups performed good visual function postoperatively. The mean contrast sensitivity increased considerably at all spatial frequencies compared with preoperative levels in the DALK and PK groups. The mean post-operative evaluation of contrast sensitivity measurements was not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:23275910

Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Kandemir, Baran; Sayman, Isil Bahar; Selvi, Cem; Kamil Dogan, Omer

2012-01-01

244

Development of the Mental Clutter Scale.  

PubMed

Mental fog is a core symptom of fibromyalgia. Its definition and measurement are central to an understanding of fibromyalgia-related cognitive disability. The Mental Clutter Scale was designed to measure mental fogginess. In an exploratory factor analysis of two different samples (n=128 and n=170), cognitive symptoms of fibromyalgia loaded on 2 dimensions: cognition and mental clarity. The mental clarity factor comprised 8 items with factor loadings greater than .60 and was named the Mental Clutter Scale. The factor stability of the new scale was good, internal consistency was .95, and test-retest reliability over a median of 5 days was .92. The 8-item scale is a quick measure of mental fog that provides clinicians with information about cognitive functioning in fibromyalgia. PMID:22238851

Leavitt, Frank; Katz, Robert S

2011-10-01

245

Acuity-adaptable patient room improves length of stay and cost of patients undergoing renal transplant: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The acuity-adaptable patient room concept is an emerging care model where patient is cared for in the same room from admission through discharge regardless of the patient level of acuity. After implementation of the care cluster strategy to support the implementation of an acuity-adaptable patient room, a descriptive study was conducted looking at so whether there will be a decreased length of stay and cost on patient cared for in the acuity-adaptable patient room compared to patients cared for in a transitional care process. Result of the study showed decreased length of stay of kidney transplant patients from 9.6 (11.0) days (before acuity-adaptable patient room) to 4.1 (1.3) days (acuity-adaptable patient room). Not only that the acuity-adaptable patient room improves patient outcome and cost but with the nursing competency preparation to support the implementation of the acuity-adaptable patient room, a hybrid nurse was created who possessed both critical care and medical-surgical skills. This can be a potential trend in the professional nurse model to address the health care challenges we face today in terms of nursing shortage, abbreviated plan of care, and facility operation efficiency. PMID:23470704

Bonuel, Nena; Degracia, Alma; Cesario, Sandra

2013-01-01

246

Familiarity with mental illness and social distance from people with schizophrenia and major depression: testing a model using data from a representative population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The main purpose of this study is to examine whether the relationship between familiarity with mental illness and stigmatizing attitudes about mental illness, which had been observed in a previous study based on a sample of community college students (Psychiatr. Serv. 52 (2001) 953), can be replicated using data from a representative population survey. Methods: In spring 2001, a

Matthias C Angermeyer; Herbert Matschinger; Patrick W Corrigan

2004-01-01

247

A Close Eye on the Eagle-Eyed Visual Acuity Hypothesis of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP).…

Bolte, Sven; Schlitt, Sabine; Gapp, Volker; Hainz, Daniela; Schirman, Shella; Poustka, Fritz; Weber, Bernhard; Freitag, Christine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik

2012-01-01

248

Acuity, crowding, reading and fixation stability Helle K. Falkenberg a,*, Gary S. Rubin b  

E-print Network

eccentricity. Visual performance was assessed at different levels of instability with forced choice measurements of acuity, crowding and reading speed in a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm vision. People with AMD are forced to use non-foveal retina for visually guided behaviour and often adopt

Bex, Peter

249

Is Theta Burst Stimulation Applied to Visual Cortex Able to Modulate Peripheral Visual Acuity?  

PubMed Central

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is usually applied to visual cortex to explore the effects on cortical excitability. Most researchers therefore concentrate on changes of phosphene threshold, rarely on consequences for visual performance. Thus, we investigated peripheral visual acuity in the four quadrants of the visual field using Landolt C optotypes before and after repetitive stimulation of the visual cortex. We applied continuous and intermittend theta burst stimulation with various stimulation intensities (60%, 80%, 100%, 120% of individual phosphene threshold) as well as monophasic and biphasic 1 Hz stimulation, respectively. As an important result, no serious adverse effects were observed. In particular, no seizure was induced, even with theta burst stimulation applied with 120% of individual phosphene threshold. In only one case stimulation was ceased because the subject reported intolerable pain. Baseline visual acuity decreased over sessions, indicating a continuous training effect. Unexpectedly, none of the applied transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols had an effect on performance: no change in visual acuity was found in any of the four quadrants of the visual field. Binocular viewing as well as the use of peripheral instead of foveal presentation of the stimuli might have contributed to this result. Furthermore, intraindividual variability could have masked the TMS- induced effects on visual acuity. PMID:24914682

Brückner, Sabrina; Kammer, Thomas

2014-01-01

250

Short-Term Visual Deprivation, Tactile Acuity, and Haptic Solid Shape Discrimination  

PubMed Central

Previous psychophysical studies have reported conflicting results concerning the effects of short-term visual deprivation upon tactile acuity. Some studies have found that 45 to 90 minutes of total light deprivation produce significant improvements in participants' tactile acuity as measured with a grating orientation discrimination task. In contrast, a single 2011 study found no such improvement while attempting to replicate these earlier findings. A primary goal of the current experiment was to resolve this discrepancy in the literature by evaluating the effects of a 90-minute period of total light deprivation upon tactile grating orientation discrimination. We also evaluated the potential effect of short-term deprivation upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination using a set of naturally-shaped solid objects. According to previous research, short-term deprivation enhances performance in a tactile 2-D shape discrimination task – perhaps a similar improvement also occurs for haptic 3-D shape discrimination. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that not only does short-term visual deprivation not enhance tactile acuity, it additionally has no effect upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination. While visual deprivation had no effect in our study, there was a significant effect of experience and learning for the grating orientation task – the participants' tactile acuity improved over time, independent of whether they had, or had not, experienced visual deprivation. PMID:25397327

Crabtree, Charles E.; Norman, J. Farley

2014-01-01

251

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. ...this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet...lenses; (2) A field of vision of at least 70 degrees in the...and distinguish between the colors of railroad signals as...

2010-10-01

252

49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. ...this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet...lenses; (2) A field of vision of at least 70 degrees in the...and distinguish between the colors of railroad signals as...

2011-10-01

253

Ophthalmological follow up of preterm infants: a population based, prospective study of visual acuity and strabismus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND\\/AIMSPrematurely born infants are known to have an increased rate of ophthalmological morbidity. The aim of the present study was to investigate visual acuity and ocular alignment in a population of preterm infants in a geographical area, in infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).METHODSA prospective population based study of ophthalmological status of preterm infants with a birth weight

G Holmström; M el Azazi; U Kugelberg

1999-01-01

254

The Effects of Drift and Displacement Motion on Dynamic Visual Acuity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) can be measured from two types of equivalently considered movement referred to as drifting-motion and displacement-motion. Displacement motion can be best described as the horizontal displacement of a stimulus, thus implying pursuit eye movements, and involves moving the stimulus from the fixation point of gaze towards…

Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio; Quevedo, Lluisa; Sinnett, Scott

2005-01-01

255

Impacting patient outcomes through design: acuity adaptable care/universal room design.  

PubMed

To succeed in today's challenging healthcare environment, hospitals must examine their impact on customers--patients and families--staff and physicians. By using competitive facility design and incorporating evidence-based concepts such as the acuity adaptable care delivery model and the universal room, the hospital will realize an impact on patient satisfaction that will enhance market share, on physician satisfaction that will foster loyalty, and on staff satisfaction that will decrease turnover. At the same time, clinical outcomes such as a reduction in mortality and complications and efficiencies such as a reduction in length of stay and minimization of hospital costs through the elimination of transfers can be gained. The results achieved are dependent on the principles used in designing the patient room that should focus on maximizing patient safety and improving healing. This article will review key design elements that support the success of an acuity adaptable unit such as the use of a private room with zones dedicated to patients, families, and staff, healing environment, technology, and decentralized nursing stations that support the success of the acuity adaptable unit. Outcomes of institutions currently utilizing the acuity adaptable concept will be reviewed. PMID:17063100

Brown, Katherine Kay; Gallant, Dennis

2006-01-01

256

The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4?years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9?months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6?months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000457640. PMID:25805530

Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

2015-01-01

257

Teen Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

258

Mental Health: Military  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Mental Health > People > Military Let's Talk Facts Brochures Understanding Mental Disorders: Your Guide to DSM-5 Healthy Minds, Healthy ... Parity Healthy Minds TV What is a psychiatrist Mental Health Check-up Coping with Disasters Links for more ...

259

Children's Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

Children's Mental Health Why Is Children's Mental Health Important? Mental health — an essential part of children's overall health — has a complex interactive relationship with their physical health and their ability ...

260

Children's Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

Children's Mental Health For parents, the key to handling mental disorders of children is to recognize the problem and seek ... and treatments, and a complete evaluation by a mental health provider can determine whether a child needs help. ...

261

Mental Health America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental Health America is a nonprofit organization that has developed a website concerning mental health issues. The focus is to educate, advocate, and serve all people. The website promotes wellness by providing users with information about mental disorders.

Cortney Kramer

2011-01-01

262

Good Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... health care professionals to address the burden of mental illness on women and to address the stigma associated ... provides information on the signs and symptoms of mental illness and solutions for preventing and coping with mental ...

263

Smoking and Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Mental Illness February 5, 2013 The mental illness estimates presented in this publication may differ from estimates in other publications due to revisions to the mental illness estimation methods in 2013. For more information, see “ ...

264

Mental Illness Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... population. Research on mental health epidemiology shows that mental disorders are common throughout the United States, affecting tens ... available on the prevalence, treatment, and costs of mental disorders for the population of the United States, in ...

265

Preparation for high-acuity clinical placement: confidence levels of final-year nursing students  

PubMed Central

Aim To measure final-year nursing students’ preparation for high-acuity placement with emphasis on clinical skill performance confidence. Background Self-confidence has been reported as being a key component for effective clinical performance, and confident students are more likely to be more effective nurses. Clinical skill performance is reported to be the most influential source of self-confidence. Student preparation and skill acquisition are therefore important aspects in ensuring students have successful clinical placements, especially in areas of high acuity. Curriculum development should aim to assist students with their theoretical and clinical preparedness for the clinical environment. Method A modified pretest/posttest survey design was used to measure the confidence of third-year undergraduate nursing students (n = 318) for placement into a high-acuity clinical setting. The survey comprised four questions related to clinical placement and prospect of participating in a cardiac arrest scenario, and confidence rating levels of skills related to practice in a high-acuity setting. Content and face validity were established by an expert panel (? = 0.90) and reliability was established by the pilot study in 2009. Comparisons were made between confidence levels at the beginning and end of semester. Results Student confidence to perform individual clinical skills increased over the semester; however their feelings of preparedness for high-acuity clinical placement decreased over the same time period. Reported confidence levels improved with further exposure to clinical placement. Conclusion There may be many external factors that influence students’ perceptions of confidence and preparedness for practice. Further research is recommended to identify causes of poor self-confidence in final-year nursing students. PMID:23900655

Porter, Joanne; Morphet, Julia; Missen, Karen; Raymond, Anita

2013-01-01

266

Visual acuity and retinal function in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a genetic, multisystem disorder that causes severe visual impairment. This condition is characterized by retinal dystrophy, obesity, digit anomalies, renal disease, and hypogonadism. The purpose of this study was to analyze visual acuity and full-field electroretinogram findings in patients with the Bardet-Biedl syndrome phenotype. METHODS: The visual acuity of a group of 23 patients (15 males) with ages ranging from 6-36 years (mean?=?15.8±6.4; median?=?14.7) was assessed. Retinal function was evaluated by full-field electroretinography, and dark-adapted thresholds were assessed. RESULTS: Visual acuity in the better-seeing eye was 20/40 or better in 5 patients (21.7%), 20/50-20/150 in 13 (56.5%) patients, 20/200-20/400 in 2 (8.7%) patients and worse than 20/400 in one (4.3%) patient. The mean acuity in the better-seeing eye was 0.7±0.6 logMAR (20/100, Snellen equivalent). Scotopic rod and maximal responses were non-detectable in 21 (91.3%) patients, and cone responses were non-detectable in 15 (65.2%) patients. Elevated dark-adapted visual thresholds were observed in all 19 patients who were able to be assessed, with 10 (52.6%) patients having thresholds greater than 30 dB. CONCLUSIONS: In a relatively young cohort of patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, only 21% had 20/40 or better vision. ERG scotopic responses were absent in the majority of cases, with cone responses being observed in less than half of cases. These findings showed the early deleterious effects in retinal function and visual acuity caused by this condition. PMID:22358239

Berezovsky, Adriana; Rocha, Daniel Martins; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Watanabe, Sung Song; Cavascan, Nívea Nunes; Salomão, Solange Rios

2012-01-01

267

The Tenth Mental Measurements Yearbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commercially available tests and measurement instruments for use with English-speaking subjects are described and reviewed. Only tests that are new, have been revised since last reviewed in the Mental Measurements Yearbook series, or are considered established and highly used are included. The contents are as follows: (1) a bibliography of…

Conoley, Jane Close, Ed.; Kramer, Jack J., Ed.

268

DVA as a Diagnostic Test for Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.

Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan

2010-01-01

269

A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

1988-01-01

270

Olfactory acuity in the common raven (Corvus corax).  

PubMed

The efficacy with which ravens can locate concealed carrion and similar foods has been noted from antiquity. This ability has been claimed in folklore to indicate an acute sense of smell. Contemporary opinion among ornithologists is that the sense of smell is weak at best in passerines, and particularly so in corvids which lack developed olfactory apparatus. Four studies were performed to test whether ravens could find hidden food (fresh ground fish) under conditions where scent was presumed to be the sole cue. The subjects, captive juvenile ravens (five males and three females) capably chose which one in a pair of containers held food buried under 2.0 cm of No. 4 gravel, discovered food concealed under as much as 2.5 cm of gravel, and located as little as 1.0 g of food covered by 1.5 cm of gravel. The several findings are consistent with the possibility that ravens can use olfactory cues to find food. PMID:3960998

Harriman, A E; Berger, R H

1986-01-01

271

STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY  

E-print Network

1 STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY Revised January 2013 #12;2 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Context Widening with a notable increase in the numbers of students with significant mental health difficulties entering HE the continuum from promoting positive mental well-being to working with students with severe mental health

Martin, Ralph R.

272

Microactuator production via high aspect ratio, high edge acuity metal fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LIGA is a procession sequence which uses x-ray lithography on photoresist layers of several hundred micrometers to produce very high edge acuity photopolymer molds. These plastic molds can be converted to metal molds via electroplating of many different metals and alloys. The end results are high edge acuity metal parts with large structural heights. The LIGA process as originally described by W. Ehrfeld can be extended by adding a surface micromachining phase to produce precision metal parts which can be assembled to form three-dimensional micromechanisms. This process, SLIGA, has been used to fabricate a dynamometer on a chip. The instrument has been fully implemented and will be applied to tribology issues, speed-torque characterization of planar magnetic micromotors and a new family of sensors.

Guckel, H.; Christenson, T. R.

1993-01-01

273

Do poor nutrition and display screens affect visual acuity in children?  

PubMed

Two studies conducted in Scotland have shown an increase in visual acuity (VA) screening failure among primary school-aged children in recent years. Two other trends were observed during the same period - an increase in children bringing packed lunches to school, and increased access to display screen equipment (DSE) including television, computers and hand-held computer games. This study set out to assess if either DSE use of poor diet could be linked with visual acuity screening failure in Scottish primary school children. Information was collected on diet and DSE use from 1384 children who had received VA screening in eight primary schools in Glasgow. After controlling for deprivation, DSE use other than watching television was associated with an increased risk of VA screening failure, as was a 'poor' diet. If these findings are confirmed by other studies and a causal link can be made, then health education at school could be designed to prevent VA screening failure. PMID:11865216

Kerr, Catriona M; Tappin, David M

2002-02-01

274

Operant measurement of subjective visual acuity in non-verbal children1  

PubMed Central

The present experiment sought to develop a reliable procedure for measuring visual acuity in non-verbal retarded children. Five non-verbal retarded children and two literate adults were examined. The two adults were included in the experiment so that verbal communication with them could validate certain assumptions regarding the experimental procedures. By utilizing a lever press as the criterion response signifying a visual discrimination and employing the Snellen “E” discriminanda, a reliable subjective measure was obtained, not unlike those measures taken from verbal adults. Contrary to several antecedent procedures, a relatively precise measurement of subjective acuity was shown to be obtainable from non-verbal retarded children. Additionally, the procedure was successful in evaluating the effectiveness of prosthetic lenses previously prescribed for two of the children. PMID:16795277

Macht, Joel

1971-01-01

275

[Mental health problems].  

PubMed

This paper describes current issues in occupational mental health, occupational mental health activities currently underway, and priorities to improve the situation in Japan. A new tool to support these activities is then discussed. The incidence of employee mental health problems is rising, despite efforts to promote occupational mental health activities. The adoption of such activities is lagging behind in medium and small-sized enterprises. Priorities to improve occupational mental health include motivating business operators to address mental health issues, focusing more on prevention, and promoting mental health initiatives in medium and small-sized enterprises. Mental-Rosai, a web-based mental health check system, is a useful tool for the prevention of mental health problems and can provide support for medium and small-sized enterprises. PMID:24605529

Momotani, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Haruyoshi

2014-02-01

276

Visual acuity versus field of view and light level for night vision goggles (NVGs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual acuity (resolution) and field of view are two significant parameters used to characterize night vision goggles (NVGs). It is well established that these two parameters are coupled together in an inverse relationship: an increase in field of view results in a reduction in visual acuity and vice versa. An experiment was conducted to determine how visual acuity through NVGs changes as a function of NVG field of view and ambient scene illumination level. A total of three trained observers were used for this study who ranged in age from 33 to 42 years of age. The NVGs used in the study had fields of view of 40, 47, and 52 degrees, respectively. Five levels of ambient scene illumination (corresponding to NVG output luminance levels of 0.01, 0.03, 0.08, 0.26, and 1.9 fL) were provided by a 2856k light source which ranged from overcast starlight to quarter moon. The targets used in the study were approximately 95+% contrast square wave targets ranging in size from 45 cycles/degree to 5 cycles per degree. The method of adjustment was employed by having the trained observer start at a distance of 30 feet and determine the highest spatial frequency target which was clearly discernable. The subject was then directed to walk back slowly from the target until it was just out of focus, and then walk forward until the target was barely discernable. The distance from the target was recorded and used to calculate the angular spatial frequency (and equivalent Snellen acuity). The results indicate that the simple geometric model of the inverse relationship between resolution and field of view is adequate for characterizing this design trade-off for the quality of image intensifier tubes currently available.

Donohue-Perry, Mary M.; Task, H. Lee; Dixon, Sharon A.

1994-06-01

277

[The visual acuity impairment as the only sign of cerebral aneurysms--case report].  

PubMed

Cerebral aneurysms are the most common reason of subarachnoid haemorrhage at the age of 50-60. Though the results of such haemorrhage are severe (high morbidity and mortality), it is quite often, the first noticeable sign of the problem. Previous symptoms i. e. headache, ophthalmic disturbances, temporary neurological symptoms are often passed over. The authors present the case of a young woman with cerebral aneurysms, in which the visual acuity impairment was the only symptom of the disease. PMID:16619823

Kopacz, Dorota; Maciejewicz, Piotr; Dróbecka-Brydak, Ewa; Prokopienko, Marek; Brozek-Szyma?ska, Kinga; Kecik, Dariusz; Marchel, Andrzej; Jaworski, Maciej

2005-01-01

278

A Close Eye on the Eagle-Eyed Visual Acuity Hypothesis of Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity\\u000a (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined\\u000a VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP). Participants with ASD did not\\u000a show higher

Sven BolteSabine; Sabine Schlitt; Volker Gapp; Daniela Hainz; Shella Schirman; Fritz Poustka; Bernhard Weber; Christine Freitag; Angela Ciaramidaro; Henrik Walter

279

Variance analysis. Part I, Extending flexible budget variance analysis to acuity.  

PubMed

The author reviews the concepts of flexible budget variance analysis, including the price, quantity, and volume variances generated by that technique. He also introduces the concept of acuity variance and provides direction on how such a variance measure can be calculated. Part II in this two-part series on variance analysis will look at how personal computers can be useful in the variance analysis process. PMID:1870002

Finkler, S A

1991-01-01

280

The Relationship of Age-Related Maculopathy, Cataract, and Glaucoma to Visual Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To investigate the relationship of age-related maculopathy, cataract, and glaucoma to visual acuity in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed in people 43 through 86 years of age residing in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, who were identified between 1987 and 1988 and examined (n = 4926) between 1988 and 1990. Of those who

Ronald Klein; Qin Wang; Barbara E. K. Klein; Scot E. Moss; Stacy M. Meuer

1995-01-01

281

Contrast visual acuity after multifocal intraocular lens implantation: aspheric versus spherical design  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate contrast visual acuity (CVA) after implantation of an aspheric apodized diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) or a spherical apodized diffractive IOL in cataract surgery. METHOD This prospective randomized controlled study with a 12-month follow-up compared the results of cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3 IOL (30 eyes) and a spherical AcrySof ReSTOR SN60D3 IOL (30 eyes). CVA with best distance correction was measured at 4 contrast levels (100%, 25%, 10% and 5%) under 3 levels of chart luminance [250, 85 and 25 candelas per square meter (cd/m2)] using a multi-functional visual acuity tester (MFVA-100) RESULTS At 12 months after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences in 100% CVA and 25% CVA under 250cd/m2 (P100%=0.875 and P25%=0.057) and 85cd/m2 (P100%=0.198 and P25%=0.193) between the aspheric group and the spherical group. However, the 10% CVA and 5% CVA were significant better in aspheric group than spherical group under 250cd/m2 (P10%=0.042 and P5%=0.007) and 85cd/m2 (P10%=0.002 and P5%=0.039). Under the luminance level of 25cd/m2, no significant differences was found in the 100% CVA between the 2 group (P100%=0.245), while aspheric group had better visual acuity in the remaining 3 contracts (P25%=0.023, P10%=0.026 and P5%=0.002, respectively). CONCULSION The aspheric AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3 IOL provided patients with better low-contrast visual acuity than the spherical AcrySof ReSTOR SN60D3 IOL. PMID:24634872

Li, Jun-Hua; Feng, Yi-Fan; Zhao, Yun-E; Zhao, Yin-Ying; Lin, Lei

2014-01-01

282

Impaired clustered protocadherin-? leads to aggregated retinogeniculate terminals and impaired visual acuity in mice.  

PubMed

Clustered protocadherins (cPcdhs) comprising cPcdh-?, -?, and -?, encode a large family of cadherin-like cell-adhesion molecules specific to neurons. Impairment of cPcdh-? results in abnormal neuronal projection patterns in specific brain areas. To elucidate the role of cPcdh-? in retinogeniculate projections, we investigated the morphological patterns of retinogeniculate terminals in the lateral geniculate (LG) nucleus of mice with impaired cPcdh-?. We found huge aggregated retinogeniculate terminals in the dorsal LG nucleus, whereas no such aggregated terminals derived from the retina were observed in the olivary pretectal nucleus and the ventral LG nucleus. These aggregated terminals appeared between P10 and P14, just before eye opening and at the beginning of the refinement stage of the retinogeniculate projections. Reduced visual acuity was observed in adult mice with impaired cPcdh-?, whereas the orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons in the primary visual cortex were apparently normal. These findings suggest that cPcdh-? is required for adequate spacing of retinogeniculate projections, which may be essential for normal development of visual acuity. Clustered protocadherin-? (cPcdh-?) is a family of cadherin-like cell-adhesion molecules specifically expressed in the brain. We revealed that impairment of cPcdh-? causes aggregation of fine retinogeniculate terminals in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd), and leads to impaired visual acuity in mice. PMID:25650227

Meguro, Reiko; Hishida, Ryuichi; Tsukano, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Kohei; Imamura, Ryota; Tohmi, Manavu; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Yagi, Takeshi; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

2015-04-01

283

Population-based visual acuity in the presence of defocus well predicted by classical theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to classical theory, visual acuity (VA) can be modeled using the intersection of the eye's modulation transfer function with a retinal threshold function. To date, there have been limited attempts to validate this methodology by comparing theory with actual measured data. We use the methodology to predict the visual acuity in the presence of defocus of a population of cataract patients implanted with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. For the prediction, we used a set of physiological eye models that include chromatic and higher order aberrations. We found that the simulations correlated strongly to the clinical outcomes (R2=0.93). While the simulated VA of the eye models was systematically 0.05 logMAR units lower (better acuity) than the clinical results, this difference was independent of defocus (p=0.98). These results show that when the simple and straightforward classical theory is applied using physiological eye models, accurate predictions of the VA, and through-focus VA of a population can be made. This method may be suited for predicting visual performance of new cataract and refractive treatments.

Weeber, Henk A.; Featherstone, Kristen A.; Piers, Patricia A.

2010-07-01

284

Auditory spatial acuity approximates the resolving power of space-specific neurons.  

PubMed

The relationship between neuronal acuity and behavioral performance was assessed in the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal raptor renowned for its ability to localize sounds and for the topographic representation of auditory space found in the midbrain. We measured discrimination of sound-source separation using a newly developed procedure involving the habituation and recovery of the pupillary dilation response. The smallest discriminable change of source location was found to be about two times finer in azimuth than in elevation. Recordings from neurons in its midbrain space map revealed that their spatial tuning, like the spatial discrimination behavior, was also better in azimuth than in elevation by a factor of about two. Because the PDR behavioral assay is mediated by the same circuitry whether discrimination is assessed in azimuth or in elevation, this difference in vertical and horizontal acuity is likely to reflect a true difference in sensory resolution, without additional confounding effects of differences in motor performance in the two dimensions. Our results, therefore, are consistent with the hypothesis that the acuity of the midbrain space map determines auditory spatial discrimination. PMID:17668055

Bala, Avinash D S; Spitzer, Matthew W; Takahashi, Terry T

2007-01-01

285

Comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity and mental health service utilization by female inmates: Testing the worst of both worlds hypothesis with the PAI.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether female inmates with comorbid proclivity for antisocial behavior and substance misuse, as measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 2007), use more mental health-related services than female inmates with either antisocial or substance misuse proclivity alone. A second purpose was to determine whether the effect of comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity on mental health service utilization is cumulative or interactive. In a survey of 421 female federal prison inmates, it was noted that proclivity for both antisocial behavior and substance misuse was associated with significantly greater subsequent use of mental health services in female inmates than either proclivity alone, even after preexisting mental health diagnoses and treatment were controlled. In addition, the effect was additive rather than interactive. These findings provide further support for the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis, which holds that comorbid antisocial and substance involvement/proclivity portend poorer future outcomes than either antisocial or substance involvement/proclivity alone. The implications of these results for development of a comprehensive training model that provides mental health professionals with the skills to properly screen and effectively treat female inmates are discussed, along with the need to clarify the theory behind the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25222110

Walters, Glenn D; Magaletta, Philip R

2015-02-01

286

Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

Bowen, Peter

287

Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

2010-01-01

288

Computer Experience and Gender Differences in Undergraduate Mental Rotation Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed undergraduates (27 men, 83 women) to investigate gender differences in mental rotation. It compared pretesting on the Vandenberg Test of Mental Rotation (VTMR) and posttesting after two sessions of computer games. Men typically scored higher on pretest VTMR. After playing a game requiring mental rotation of figures, women…

De Lisi, Richard; Cammarano, Diane M.

1996-01-01

289

Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

Palmer, Glen A.

2006-01-01

290

Correlation Between the Findings of Optical Coherent Retinal Tomography (OCT), Stereo Biomicroscopic Images from Fundus of an Eye and Values from Visual Acuity of Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Diabetic maculopathy is the major cause of reduced visual acuity in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and occurs on average in 29% of patients who have diabetes for 20 or more years. Aim: The aim of this study is to re examine the correlation between the findings of optical coherence retinal tomography, stereo bio-microscopic images from fundus of an eye and values from visual acuity of diabetic macular edema. In addition, the aim is to show the importance of various ophthalmic tests for establishing diagnosis in time. Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 90 subjects-patients from Cabinet for photographic documentation, fluorescein angiography and laser photocoagulation in Department of Ophthalmology at the University Clinical Centre in Sarajevo. The study was a one-year long, prospective, clinical study. Results: Research has shown a positive correlation between the various tests that are applied for the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema. Accurate and early diagnosis is of great importance for the treatment in time of this disease by applying laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injections of Anti-VEGF drugs or surgical treatment by Pars Plana Vitrectomy. PMID:25395723

Nisic, Faruk; Turkovic, Samir; Mavija, Milka; Jovanovic, Nina; Alimanovic, Emina Halilovic-

2014-01-01

291

Mental health care in the community: An analysis of contemporary public attitudes towards, and public representations of, mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public tolerance of, and non-discrimination towards, people with mental health problems are key factors on which success in achieving the goal of community-based mental health care depends. This paper revisits Thomas Scheff' s (1966) sociological theory of mental illness, and tests elements of this thorough critical review of recent UK literature relating to public attitudes towards, and media representations, of

Ben Hannigan

1999-01-01

292

Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

2012-01-01

293

Of Unsound Mind and Body: A Statistical Test of the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Chronic Physical and Mental Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of literature, both academic and in the popular media, has focused on intimate partner violence (IPV) and its consequences. In addition to the acute physical, social, and economic consequence of IPV, IPV clearly causes great stress for IPV women. While research has shown an association between exposure to external stressors and poor chronic physical and mental health,

Darryl Andre Brice

2011-01-01

294

Mental imagery Some mental imagery phenomena  

E-print Network

and scanning data seem to argue against propositional representations ­ Yet mental images also have structure. · In this example, people are more likely to identify the H than the T Brain evidence · Patients with lesions. Auditory imagery does not. #12;6 Summary · Mental imagery ­ Rotation and scanning data · Consistent

Pillow, Jonathan

295

Mental Health 3: Mental Health Through Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, examines how mental illness has been portrayed in the arts while highlighting for students a more insightful way to further develop their ideas about human behavior. This lesson is the third of three lessons on mental health and human behavior.

Science Netlinks

2002-07-27

296

Teens and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... community for teens and young adults struggling with mental health problems and encourage them to talk about what ... just the typical “growing pains” or a real mental health problem. While adolescence is a difficult time for ...

297

Seniors (Mental Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia. Conclusion Having good mental health throughout life does not ensure immunity from severe ... The Joint Commission Let's Talk Facts Brochures Alzheimers Mental Health in Seniors Depression Healthy Minds TV - Depression Suicide ...

298

Mental Health Screening Center  

MedlinePLUS

Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not a substitute for consultation with a health professional. ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression This screening form was developed from ...

299

Women's Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... of your doctor. And it does not diagnose mental illness. But it offers tips to help you protect ... see why. There is still shame associated with mental illness. We fear what we do not understand. Family ...

300

Mental Health and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of Non-Hispanic Whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

301

Symptoms of common mental disorder and cognitive associations with seropositivity among a cohort of people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of research on HIV/AIDS and mental health has been carried out among clinical populations: the time of onset of comorbid depression and the mechanisms for this are therefore unclear. Although there is evidence to suggest that asymptomatic people living with HIV/AIDS exhibit some cognitive deficits, the prevalence of poor cognitive functioning among people in low income settings at an early, pre-clinical stage has not yet been investigated. Methods We used a cross-sectional survey design to test the hypotheses that symptoms of Common Mental Disorder (CMD) and low scores on cognitive tests would be associated with seropositivity among participants coming for testing for HIV/AIDS. Participants were recruited at the time of coming for testing for HIV/AIDS; voluntary informed consent was sought for participation in research interviews and data linkage with HIV test results. Baseline questionnaires including sociodemographic variables and measures of mental health (PHQ-9, GAD-7, panic disorder questions, AUDIT and delayed word list learning and recall and animal naming test of verbal fluency) were administered by trained interviews. HIV status data was extracted from clinical records. Results CMD and scoring below the educational norm on the test of verbal fluency were associated with testing positive for HIV/AIDS in bivariate analysis (OR?=?2.26, 1.31-3.93; OR?=?1.77, 1.26-2.48, respectively). After controlling for the effects of confounders, the association between CMD and seropositivity was no longer statistically significant (AOR?=?1.56, 0.86-2.85). After adjusting for the effects of confounders, the association between low scores on the test of verbal fluency and seropositivity was retained (AOR?=?1.77, 1.27-2.48). Conclusions Our findings provide tentative evidence to suggest that low cognitive test scores (and possibly depressive symptoms) may be associated with HIV status among people who have yet to receive their HIV test results. Impaired cognitive functioning and depression-like symptoms may be the result of the same underlying neurological damage. CMD and cognitive impairment may overlap to a greater extent than previously assumed. If replicated, this may have implications for the way in which we measure and treat CMD and cognitive functioning among people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23497308

2013-01-01

302

Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.  

PubMed

People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

2014-09-01

303

PERSPECTIVE: Is acuity enough? Other considerations in clinical investigations of visual prostheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual impairing eye diseases are the major frontier facing ophthalmic research today in light of our rapidly aging population. The visual skills necessary for improving the quality of daily function and life are inextricably linked to these impairing diseases. Both research and reimbursement programs are emphasizing outcome-based results. Is improvement in visual acuity alone enough to improve the function and quality of life of visually impaired persons? This perspective summarizes the types of effectiveness endpoints for clinical investigations of visual prostheses that go beyond visual acuity. The clinical investigation of visual prostheses should include visual function, functional vision and quality of life measures. Specifically, they encompass contrast sensitivity, orientation and mobility, activities of daily living and quality of life assessments. The perspective focuses on the design of clinical trials for visual prostheses and the methods of determining effectiveness above and beyond visual acuity that will yield outcomes that are measured by improved function in the visual world and quality of life. The visually impaired population is the primary consideration in this presentation with particular emphases on retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Clinical trials for visual prostheses cannot be isolated from the need for medical rehabilitation in order to obtain measurements of effectiveness that produce outcomes/evidence-based success. This approach will facilitate improvement in daily function and quality of life of patients with diseases that cause chronic vision impairment. The views and opinions are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the US Food and Drug Administration, the US Department of Health and Human Services or the Public Health Service.

Lepri, Bernard P.

2009-06-01

304

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities  

E-print Network

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (MRDD) Branch NICHD Report to the NACHHD ..................................................................................................................... 15 OTHER MENTAL RETARDATION CONDITIONS

Rau, Don C.

305

Introduction to Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

Arc of the United States, 2004

2004-01-01

306

MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

307

Mental Health Parity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health is a key development issue. The development of mental health services in individual countries is a means of contributing towards the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of reducing extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Mental ill health accounts for 11 per cent of the total Global Burden of Disease . Conflict, disasters, increasing numbers of displaced people,

Virginia R. Wittig

2009-01-01

308

Mental Health 2: Bedlam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mental health and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mental health asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.

Science Netlinks

2002-07-28

309

Department. Mental Health  

E-print Network

Student Services Department. Helping Students With Mental Health Difficulties. #12;#12;This document has been produced to assist staff in their dealings with students with mental health difficulties.1 It aims to: If a student is experiencing mental health difficulties there will often be warning

Li, Yi

310

Mental accounting matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental accounting is the set of cognitive operations used by individuals and households to organize, evaluate, and keep track of financial activities. Making use of research on this topic over the past decade, this paper summarizes the current state of our knowledge about how people engage in mental accounting activities. Three components of mental accounting receive the most attention. This

Richard H. Thaler

1999-01-01

311

Reduced visual acuity in elderly people: the role of ergonomics and gerontechnology.  

PubMed

Gerontology is the scientific study of the ageing process and special problems of aged people. Ergonomics is an applied science for optimizing performance and productivity and reducing the risks of injury, discomfort and illness. Gerontechnology is concerned with fundamental and applied research on the complex interaction of elderly people with technological products and the built environment. It has the potential to improve the capability of people confronted by the challenges of ageing. We suggest that gerontechnology may have a particular role in relation to the reduction of visual acuity, and can improve the comfort and safety of older people. PMID:9351477

Pinto, M R; De Medici, S; Zlotnicki, A; Bianchi, A; Van Sant, C; Napoli, C

1997-09-01

312

these neurophysiological findings is the behavioral loss of acuity and pattern dis-  

E-print Network

of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 of vision by mental set. Well-controlled experiments have es be ruled out, we are forced to conclude that mental set can affect even this basic perceptual function. Our stimuli were random dot patterns presented on a cathode-ray tube (CRT) by a small computer (3). Viewing

Sekuler, Robert

313

Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

2007-01-01

314

Neural Correlates in Exceptional Mental Arithmetic--About the Neural Architecture of Prodigious Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prodigies are individuals with exceptional mental abilities. How is it possible that some of these people mentally calculate exponentiations with high accuracy and speed? We examined CP, a mental calculation prodigy, and a control group of 11 normal calculators for moderate mental arithmetic tasks. CP has additionally been tested for exceptionally…

Fehr, Thorsten; Weber, Jochen; Willmes, Klaus; Herrmann, Manfred

2010-01-01

315

Pediatric Primary Care Providers' Relationships with Mental Health Care Providers: Survey Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As many as 20 % of children have diagnosable mental health conditions and nearly all of them receive pediatric primary health care. However, most children with serious mental health concerns do not receive mental health services. This study tested hypotheses that pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) in relationships with mental

Pidano, Anne E.; Honigfeld, Lisa; Bar-Halpern, Miri; Vivian, James E.

2014-01-01

316

Experiences of the transplant nurses caring for renal transplant patients in an acuity-adaptable patient room.  

PubMed

This article describes transplant nurses' experiences in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room using Husserl's descriptive phenomenology. The setting was a twice-redesignated magnet urban tertiary center in the Southwest United States with 14 acuity-adaptable patient rooms. Audiotaped interviews were analyzed using Colaizzi's method and a purposive sample of 10 transplant nurses. Three theme clusters emerged that described the essence of the transplant nurses' experiences in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room: Patient and family comfort: "...I think their anxiety of just not knowing what's going on-that need is being met." Nurse empowerment: "...Her urine output was going down to the 40s and so I had to call the surgeon recommending that we maybe change the normal saline to half normal for replacement." Acuity-adaptable patient room future potential: "I wish that all patients had this kind of access." The nurses felt empowered in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room thereby creating a healing environment for the patient and the family. PMID:23470705

Bonuel, Nena; Cesario, Sandra K

2013-01-01

317

Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay.  

PubMed

Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes. PMID:25360355

Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Fernández, Enrique J; Artal, Pablo

2014-10-01

318

Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay  

PubMed Central

Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes. PMID:25360355

Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M.; Fernández, Enrique J.; Artal, Pablo

2014-01-01

319

Enhancement of Speech-Relevant Auditory Acuity in Absolute Pitch Possessors  

PubMed Central

Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify the frequency or musical name of a specific tone, or to identify a tone without comparing it with any objective reference tone. While AP has recently been shown to be associated with morphological changes and neurophysiological adaptations in the planum temporale, a cortical area in the brain involved in speech perception processes, no behavioral evidence of speech-relevant auditory acuity in any AP possessors has hitherto been reported. In order to seek such evidence, in the present study, 15 professional musicians with AP and 14 without AP, all of whom had acquired Japanese as their first language, were asked to identify isolated Japanese syllables as quickly as possible after these syllables were presented auditorily. When the mean latency to the syllable identification was compared, it was significantly shorter in AP possessors than in non-AP possessors whether the presented syllables were those used as Japanese labels representing the 7 tones constituting an octave or not. The latency to hear the stimuli per se did not differ according to whether the participants were AP possessors or not. The results indicate the possibility that possessing AP provides one with extraordinarily enhanced acuity to individual syllables per se as fundamental units of a segmented word in the speech stream. PMID:21779258

Masataka, Nobuo

2011-01-01

320

Simulation of thalamic prosthetic vision: reading accuracy, speed, and acuity in sighted humans  

PubMed Central

The psychophysics of reading with artificial sight has received increasing attention as visual prostheses are becoming a real possibility to restore useful function to the blind through the coarse, pseudo-pixelized vision they generate. Studies to date have focused on simulating retinal and cortical prostheses; here we extend that work to report on thalamic designs. This study examined the reading performance of normally sighted human subjects using a simulation of three thalamic visual prostheses that varied in phosphene count, to help understand the level of functional ability afforded by thalamic designs in a task of daily living. Reading accuracy, reading speed, and reading acuity of 20 subjects were measured as a function of letter size, using a task based on the MNREAD chart. Results showed that fluid reading was feasible with appropriate combinations of letter size and phosphene count, and performance degraded smoothly as font size was decreased, with an approximate doubling of phosphene count resulting in an increase of 0.2 logMAR in acuity. Results here were consistent with previous results from our laboratory. Results were also consistent with those from the literature, despite using naive subjects who were not trained on the simulator, in contrast to other reports. PMID:25408641

Vurro, Milena; Crowell, Anne Marie; Pezaris, John S.

2014-01-01

321

Occupation-related long-term sensory training enhances roughness discrimination but not tactile acuity.  

PubMed

Extensive use of sensorimotor properties has been shown to lead to use-dependent plasticity in the human motor cortex as well as sensory areas. The sensory consequences of these cortical changes, however, remain widely unclear. We were interested whether job-related long-term haptic training is measurable in terms of changes in haptic perception (active touch exploration) in manual physiotherapists (PT). To that end, the haptic thresholds of PT (students and employed) and registered osteopathic manual therapists (OMT; PT with postgraduate specialization) were measured and compared to age- and sex-matched control groups. Additionally, tactile acuity (passive static touch) was assessed using grating domes. PT and OMT had superior mean haptic thresholds compared to the control group, suggesting an increase in sensitivity through use. An age-related decline in haptic perception capacity occurred only in the control group, suggesting that the job-related training of the manual therapist groups may have slowed their age-related decline. Contrary to our expectation, we found significantly poorer mean haptic threshold results in the PT student group than for the controls. No significant differences or changes in tactile acuity were found for any of the groups (students and professional). The present results demonstrate use-dependent plasticity in manual therapists. Furthermore, the results underline the known effect of a superior discrimination ability of haptic as opposed to tactile perception. PMID:24609417

Mueller, S; Winkelmann, C; Krause, F; Grunwald, M

2014-06-01

322

Magnitude Representations in Williams Syndrome: Differential Acuity in Time, Space and Number Processing  

PubMed Central

For some authors, the human sensitivity to numerosities would be grounded in our ability to process non-numerical magnitudes. In the present study, the developmental relationships between non numerical and numerical magnitude processing are examined in people with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder known to associate visuo-spatial and math learning disabilities. Twenty patients with WS and 40 typically developing children matched on verbal or non-verbal abilities were administered three comparison tasks in which they had to compare numerosities, lengths or durations. Participants with WS showed lower acuity (manifested by a higher Weber fraction) than their verbal matched peers when processing numerical and spatial but not temporal magnitudes, indicating that they do not present a domain-general dysfunction of all magnitude processing. Conversely, they do not differ from non-verbal matched participants in any of the three tasks. Finally, correlational analyses revealed that non-numerical and numerical acuity indexes were both related to the first mathematical acquisitions but not with later arithmetical skills. PMID:24013906

Rousselle, Laurence; Dembour, Guy; Noël, Marie-Pascale

2013-01-01

323

Binocular depth acuity research to support the modular multi-spectral stereoscopic night vision goggle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the depth acuity research conducted in support of the development of a Modular Multi-Spectral Stereoscopic (M2S2) night vision goggle (NVG), a customizable goggle that lets the user select one of five goggle configurations: monocular thermal, monocular image intensifier (I2), binocular I2, binocular thermal, and binocular dual-waveband (thermal imagery to one eye and I2 imagery to the other eye). The motives for the development of this type of customizable goggle were (1) the need for an NVG that allows the simultaneous use of two wavebands, (2) the need for an alternative sensor fusion method to avoid the potential image degradation that may accompany digitally fused images, (3) a requirement to provide the observer with stereoscopic, dual spectrum views of a scene, and (4) the need to handle individual user preferences for sensor types and ocular configurations employed in various military operations. Among the increases in functionality that the user will have with this system is the ability to convert from a binocular I2 device (needed for detailed terrain analysis during off-road mobility) to a monocular thermal device (for increased situational awareness in the unaided eye during nights with full moon illumination). Results of the present research revealed potential depth acuity advantages that may apply to off-road terrain hazard detection for the binocular thermal configuration. The results also indicated that additional studies are needed to address ways to minimize binocular incompatibility for the dual waveband configuration.

Merritt, John O.; CuQlock-Knopp, V. Grayson; Paicopolis, Peter; Smoot, Jennifer; Kregel, Mark; Corona, Bernard

2006-05-01

324

Mini-mental state examination in neurological patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mini-Mental State examination has been found to be a quick and valuable test for simple bedside screening, and for serial assessment of cognitive function in a population of 126 neurological patients. Amongst those with cognitive impairment, there was a close relation between the Mini-Mental State examination and the conventional Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). However, the Mini-Mental test was

J P Dick; R J Guiloff; A Stewart; J Blackstock; C Bielawska; E A Paul; C D Marsden

1984-01-01

325

Vision Test in Seconds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acuity Systems, Inc. developed an electro-optical instrument under a grant from NASA to measure the visual performance of pilots. Transferred from Ames Research Center, this instrument now allows you to have your eyes tested in seconds by relatively unskilled operators. The device automatically measures refractive error of eye and prints out proper prescription for glasses. The unit also detects cataracts and glaucoma.

1976-01-01

326

The last mental hospital.  

PubMed

The public mental hospital system was created in part because many mentally ill people were being held in prisons and jails. Support for those hospitals waned over time, however, and by the time they had degenerated into "snake pits" a consensus was reached to close them down. Unfortunately, they were not replaced with adequate community mental health resources, so as the hospitals have emptied, the prisons and jails have filled, partly with the mentally ill. That is the destructive reason for the growth of prison psychiatry in this country: the prison has become the last mental hospital. The constructive one has been a new emphasis on bringing psychiatric treatment to a previously neglected population: people who have committed serious violence, whether because of Axis I mental illnesses or Axis II character disorders. Unfortunately, four inter-related, mutually reinforcing nationwide trends threaten to reinforce that destructive development and vitiate the constructive one. PMID:11293201

Gilligan, J

2001-01-01

327

Mental patients in prisons.  

PubMed

Mental conditions usually affect cognitive, emotional and volitional aspects and functions of the personality, which are also functions of interest in law, as they are essential at the time of adjudicating guilt, labeling the accused a criminal, and proffering a sentence. A relationship between mental illness and criminality has, thus, been described and given as one of the reasons for the large number of mental patients in prisons. Whether this relationship is one of causality or one that flows through many other variables is a matter of debate, but there is no debating that prisons have become a de facto part, and an important one, of mental health systems in many countries. This paper deals with the issue of the relationship and provides estimates of prevalence of mental patients in prisons culled from many studies in different countries. It also provides some direction for the management of mental patients as they crowd correctional systems. PMID:19812758

Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

2009-10-01

328

Relations within a Family with a Mentally Handicapped Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-one 10- to 16-year-old siblings of mentally retarded children were given the Family Relations Test and Rotter's Incomplete Sentence Test. Results indicated family dynamics were influenced by parent reaction to the handicapped child. Compared to controls, the siblings showed idealization of the mentally handicapped child and more conflicts…

Lawenius, Maria

1988-01-01

329

The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the influence of juggling training on mental rotation performance in children. Material and methods: Two groups of girls aged 6-14 years were studied: experimental (EG; n = 26) and control (CG; n = 24). All girls solved a mental rotation task with 3-D block figures on computer screen (pre-test). After the initial test, EG…

Jansen, Petra; Lange, Leonie F.; Heil, Martin

2011-01-01

330

UPDATES IN HIV: Mental health  

E-print Network

UPDATES IN HIV: Mental health May 2012, Issue 5 People with mental illness are the "invisible" risk with mental health problems compared to the rest of the population1,2 . Unfortunately, mental illness can have behavior. This is particularly concerning since the overall contribution of mental illness to the global

Sharp, Kim

331

Religion and mental health  

PubMed Central

In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

2013-01-01

332

Mental hospitals in India.  

PubMed

This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

2000-04-01

333

Visual Acuity Changes during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran  

PubMed Central

In this research, we represent the changes in visual acuity during pregnancy and after delivery. Changes as myopic shift start during second trimester and will be stopped after delivery; however it is obtained that women will have the same refractive error as what they had in the first trimester, after postpartum. So, any change in their spectacle prescription during this period is forbidden. As a result, not only changing in hormones can cause myopic shift in vision, but also overweight has its retributive role. What we are trying to do is to notify gynecologists and optometrists to be aware of these changes, so as to leave spectacle prescription writing to the session after postpartum period. PMID:25328705

Chaichian, Shahla; Mehdizadehkashi, Abolfazl; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Moazzami, Bahram; Pishgahroudsari, Mohaddeseh

2014-01-01

334

The accuracy of drivers' judgments of the effects of headlight glare on their own visual acuity.  

PubMed

Drivers' judgments of the magnitude of disability glare caused by high-beam headlights may not match actual declines in visual performance. This study investigated younger and older drivers' beliefs about their own visual performance in the presence of headlight glare. Eleven older drivers and seventeen younger drivers judged the distance at which they would just be able to recognize the orientation of a white Landolt C if it were present adjacent to the headlamps of a stationary opposing vehicle at night. The younger participants were generally accurate in their estimates of the recognition distance of the stimulus, while older participants significantly overestimated both their own acuity and the effect of glare on their vision. From this study, we see that older drivers' judgments about the disabling effects of oncoming headlights may be systematically inaccurate. These misperceptions about headlight glare may help explain why drivers tend to underuse high beams. PMID:25638936

Stafford Sewall, Ashley A; Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie A; Tyrrell, Richard A

2014-01-01

335

Visual acuity after Ruthenium{sup 106} brachytherapy of choroidal melanomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on conservation of visual acuity after Ruthenium{sup 106} (Ru-106) brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. Methods and materials: This study was a noncomparative interventional case series of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma treated at a single center between January 1993 and December 2001. The intervention consisted of Ru-106 brachytherapy delivering minimum scleral and apex doses of 300 Gy and 80 Gy, respectively, using a 15-mm or 20-mm plaque. For discrete, posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin. To ensure correct plaque positioning, any overlying extraocular muscles were dis-inserted, and the locations of both tumor and plaque edges were confirmed by transillumination and indentation. The main outcome measures were conservation of vision of 20/40 or better, 20/200 or better, and Counting Fingers or better, according to baseline variables. Results: The actuarial rate of conservation of 20/40 or better was 55% at 9 years, loss of such vision correlating with posterior tumor extension (p < 0.001), temporal tumor location (p = 0.001), increased tumor height (p = 0.01), and older age (p < 0.01) (Cox multivariate analysis). Similar analyses showed conservation of 20/200 or better in 57% of eyes at 9 years, loss correlating with reduced initial visual acuity (p < 0.001), posterior tumor extension (p < 0.001), and temporal tumor location (p = 0.006). Counting Fingers or better vision was conserved in 83% of patients at 9 years, loss correlating with increased tumor height (p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence occurred in 9 patients (actuarial rate, 3% at 9 years). Conclusion: Ruthenium{sup 106} brachytherapy of posterior choroidal melanoma achieves good conservation of vision if the tumor does not extend close to the optic nerve or fovea.

Damato, Bertil [Ocular Oncology Service, St. Paul's Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Bertil@damato.co.uk; Patel, Imran M. [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Campbell, Ian R. [IC Statistical Services, Wirral (United Kingdom); Mayles, Helen M. [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Errington, R. Douglas [Radiotherapy Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom)

2005-10-01

336

Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients  

PubMed Central

Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

2015-01-01

337

Emergency department triage of low acuity patients to a Federally Qualified Health Center.  

PubMed

Many emergency departments (ED) are experiencing ever increasing volumes as they serve as a safety net for patients without established access to primary care. Impending physician shortages, our aging population, and recent changes in national healthcare policy are expected to further exacerbate this situation and worsen ED overcrowding. These conditions could result in a dilution of ED resources and significantly impact the ability of emergency personnel to provide quality care for patients with serious illnesses. Previous studies have demonstrated that low acuity patients without emergencies can be safely and legally identified in triage and can be sent away from the ED for further outpatient treatment and evaluation. However, without a specific designated clinic follow up, these patients often fail to get the appropriate care required. In this study, we couple the ED medical screening exam process with a timely medical referral system to a local Federally Qualified Healthcare Clinic (FQHC). These referred patients were monitored for subsequent success in satisfaction with their primary care needs and their rate of recidivism to the ED. Most of the non-emergent patients who were judged to be appropriate to refer to the FQHC were satisfied with their medical screening process (89%) and most elected to attend the same day clinic appointment at the FQHC (85%). Only 17% of these patients who were referred out of our ED returned to be seen in our ED within the three-month interval. We concluded that referring low acuity patients out of the emergency department to a primary care clinic setting provided an opportunity for these patients to establish a medical home for future access to non-emergent health care. PMID:24498708

Nguyen, Nghia D; Moore, Justin B; McIntosh, Nathan P; Jones, Michael L; Zimmerman, Jason; Summers, Richard L

2013-10-01

338

Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients.  

PubMed

Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

Zamorano, Anna M; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M; Montoya, Pedro

2014-01-01

339

Biosocial variables and auditory acuity as risk factors for non-fatal childhood injuries in Greece.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether biosocial variables and auditory acuity are risk factors for injuries among children. SETTING: Children with injuries who presented at the emergency clinics of one of the two university hospitals for children in Athens, Greece between December 1993 and April 1994. METHODS: 144 children aged 5-14 years, residents of Athens, were brought to the emergency clinics for a moderate to severe injury. For each of these children one hospital control, matched for age and sex, and one classmate control similarly matched were identified. A standard interview form was completed for all 432 children and acouometric and tympanometric examinations were performed in each of them. Analysis was done through conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The likelihood of an accident was higher in children of younger fathers (odds ratio (OR) = 0.7, p = 0.04), children of mothers with non-professional jobs (OR = 1.9, p = 0.03) as well as in children of higher birth order (OR = 1.7, p = 0.01), in those with predominantly other than parental daily supervision (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), and those with a history of previous accident (OR = 1.3, p = 0.002). Somatometric factors, school performance, use of corrective eyeglasses and subnormal auditory acuity were not found to be risk factors, but auditory imbalance and abnormal tympanograms were positively related to the risk of childhood injury (OR = 2.6, p = 0.02; and OR = 2.3, p = 0.08 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: the findings of this study underline the importance of attentive supervision and safety training of children living in modern cities; they also suggest that children with auditory imbalance and history of an accident are at higher injury risk and they should be targeted with specific intervention programs. PMID:9346003

Petridou, E.; Zervos, I.; Christopoulos, G.; Revinthi, K.; Papoutsakis, G.; Trichopoulos, D.

1995-01-01

340

Slanted joint axes of the stick insect antenna: an adaptation to tactile acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many flightless, obligatory walking insects, the stick insect Carausius morosus makes intensive use of active antennal movements for tactile near range exploration and orientation. The antennal joints of C. morosus have a peculiar oblique and non-orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Moreover, this arrangement is known to differ from that in crickets (Ensifera), locusts (Caelifera) and cockroaches (Blattodea), all of which have an orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Our hypothesis was that the situation found in C. morosus represents an important evolutionary trait of the order of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea). If this was true, it should be common to other species of the Phasmatodea. The objective of this comparative study was to resolve this question. We have measured the joint axis orientation of the head scape and scape pedicel joints along with other parameters that affect the tactile efficiency of the antenna. The obtained result was a complete kinematic description of the antenna. This was used to determine the size and location of kinematic out-of-reach zones, which are indicators of tactile acuity. We show that the oblique and non-orthogonal arrangement is common to eight species from six sub-families indicating that it is a synapomorphic character of the Euphasmatodea. This character can improve tactile acuity compared to the situation in crickets, locusts and cockroaches. Finally, because molecular data of a recent study indicate that the Phasmatodea may have evolved as flightless, obligatory walkers, we argue that the antennal joint axis arrangement of the Euphasmatodea reflects an evolutionary adaptation to tactile near range exploration during terrestrial locomotion.

Mujagic, Samir; Krause, André F.; Dürr, Volker

2007-04-01

341

Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery in Elderly People over 70 Years Old: Visual Acuity, Quality of Life, and Cost-Utility Values  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To evaluate the influence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery on elderly patients in terms of visual acuity, vision-related quality of life and its cost-effectiveness. Methods Elderly patients over 70 years old, who were diagnosed and underwent RRD surgery at Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013. The participants received scleral buckling surgery and vitreous surgery with or without scleral buckling under retrobulbar anesthesia. We followed the patients for 1 year and collected best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), vision-related quality of life, and direct medical costs data. Utility values elicited by time-trade-off were analyzed to determine the quality of life. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in life expectancy were calculated and discounted at 3% annually. Costs per QALY gained were reported using the bootstrap method. Further analyses were made for two age groups, age 70–79 and age over 80 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test stability of the results. Results 98 patients were included in the study. The BCVA significantly improved by 0.53±0.44 (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR)) at the 1-year postoperative time point (p<0.001). Utility values increased from 0.77 to 0.84 (p<0.001), and an average of 0.4 QALYs were gained in the life expectancy. Costs per QALY gained from the RRD surgery were 33,186 Chinese Yuan (CNY) (5,276 US dollars (USD))/QALY; 24,535 CNY (3,901 USD)/QALY for the age group of 70–79 years and 71,240 CNY (11,326 USD)/QALY for the age group over 80 years. Conclusions RRD surgery improved the visual acuity and quality of life in the elderly patients over 70 years old. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, at a threshold of willingness to pay of 115,062 CNY (18,293 USD)/QALY, RRD surgery is cost effective in the elderly patients. PMID:25330168

Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Haiyun; Bai, Lin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

2014-01-01

342

ANS Acuity and Learning Number Words from Number Books and Games James Negen, Meghan C. Goldman, Tanya D. Anaya and Barbara W. Sarnecka  

E-print Network

ANS Acuity and Learning Number Words from Number Books and Games James Negen, Meghan C. Goldman ANS acuity (see Set Comparison in Method) learn more number words from simple counting books) ·Counting books (left): Read books where they progressively counted from 1 to 9 objects (control just

Stanford, Kyle

343

Prism adaptation by mental practice.  

PubMed

The prediction of our actions and their interaction with the external environment is critical for sensorimotor adaptation. For instance, during prism exposure, which deviates laterally our visual field, we progressively correct movement errors by combining sensory feedback with forward model sensory predictions. However, very often we project our actions to the external environment without physically interacting with it (e.g., mental actions). An intriguing question is whether adaptation will occur if we imagine, instead of executing, an arm movement while wearing prisms. Here, we investigated prism adaptation during mental actions. In the first experiment, participants (n = 54) performed arm pointing movements before and after exposure to the optical device. They were equally divided into six groups according to prism exposure: Prisms-Active, Prisms-Imagery, Prisms-Stationary, Prisms-Stationary-Attention, No Conflict-Prisms-Imagery, No Prisms-Imagery. Adaptation, measured by the difference in pointing errors between pre-test and post-test, occurred only in Prisms-Active and Prisms-Imagery conditions. The second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment and further showed that sensorimotor adaptation was mainly due to proprioceptive realignment in both Prisms-Active (n = 10) and Prisms-Imagery (n = 10) groups. In both experiments adaptation was greater following actual than imagined pointing movements. The present results are the first demonstration of prism adaptation by mental practice under prism exposure and they are discussed in terms of internal forward models and sensorimotor plasticity. PMID:23276397

Michel, Carine; Gaveau, Jérémie; Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

2013-09-01

344

Mental Health and Asian Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 10th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

345

Older Adults and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Older Adults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a normal part of ... Finder Newsletters RSS Feeds The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of ...

346

Association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity and hand symptoms reported by operators of power tools.  

PubMed

An association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and symptoms of reduced manipulative function, as established by responses to a questionnaire, was demonstrated in a population of 81 manual workers from the mining industry (62 power-tool operators and 19 nonusers). Mechanoreceptor-specific vibrotactile thresholds were determined for the slowly adapting type I (SAI) and fast-adapting types I and II (FAI and FAII) receptors at the fingertip of the third digit of each hand. Statistically significant threshold shifts in SAI and/or FAII acuity were found in persons responding affirmatively to questions concerning finger/hand numbness, blanching, and difficulty buttoning clothing. The best predictors of a quantitative change in tactile acuity were questions relating to difficulty manipulating small objects and buttoning clothing, yielding positive predictive values of from 90% to 100% and false positive rates of from 0% to 2.8%. The demonstration of an association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and some symptom reports, obtained by means of a questionnaire, provides the basis for the development of a screening procedure for persons at risk of such disturbances in hand function. PMID:9330148

Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Brammer, A J; Piercy, J E

1997-09-01

347

Comparative study of visual acuity and aberrations after intralase femtosecond LASIK: small corneal flap versus big corneal flap  

PubMed Central

AIM To study the effect of different flap sizes on visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and aberrations after femtosecond laser for laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS In each of the forty patients enrolled, 1 eye was randomly assigned to receive treatment with a 8.1mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the small flap, while the other eye was treated with a 8.6mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the big flap. Refractive errors, visual acuity, and higher-order aberrations were compared between the two groups at week 1, month 1 and 3 postoperatively. RESULTS The postoperative refractive errors and visual acuity all conformed to the intended goal. Postoperative higher-order aberrations were increased, especially in spherical aberration (Z12) and vertical coma (Z7). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of postoperative refractive errors, visual acuity, root mean square of total HOAs (HO-RMS), trefoil 30° (Z6), vertical coma (Z7), horizontal coma (Z8), trefoil 0° (Z9), and spherical aberration (Z12) at any point during the postoperative follow-up. CONCLUSION Both the small and big flaps are safe and effective procedures to correct myopia, provided the exposure stroma meets the excimer laser ablations. The personalized size corneal flap is feasible, as we can design the size of corneal flap based on the principle that the corneal flap diameter should be equal to or greater than the sum of the maximum ablation diameter and apparatus error. PMID:24195040

Zhang, Ya-Li; Liu, Lei; Cui, Chang-Xia; Hu, Ming; Li, Zhao-Na; Cao, Li-Jun; Jing, Xiu-Hua; Mu, Guo-Ying

2013-01-01

348

Visual Acuity of Youths 12-17 Years, United States. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, No. 127.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the findings of a national health examination survey of uncorrected and corrected monocular and binocular visual acuity of 7,514 noninstitutionalized youth 12 to 17 years of age analyzed with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, size of place of residence, and annual family income. Among findings reported are that 70 0/0 of…

Roberts, Jean; Slaby, David

349

Patient with Macular Disease, Good Visual Acuity, and Central Visual Field Disruption and Significant Difficulties with Activities of Daily Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally appreciated that patients with macular disease frequently experience reduced visual acuity. It is not as widely appreciated that they often have significant central visual field disruption, which, by itself, can cause significant problems with activities of daily living, such as reading and driving, even when they maintain good…

Fletcher, Donald C.; Schuchard, Ronald A.; Walker, Joseph P.; Raskauskas, Paul A.

2008-01-01

350

Association of contrast sensitivity with LogMAR visual acuity and glycosylated hemoglobin in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

A tertiary care center-based prospective case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the association of contrast sensitivity with LogMAR visual acuity and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in 205 cases of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and 115 controls. LogMAR visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were scored using ETDRS and Pelli-Robson charts, respectively. Bivariate correlation between contrast sensitivity and LogMAR visual acuity showed significant inverse correlation in cases without retinopathy (r?=?-0.466) and with non-proliferative retinopathy (r?=?-0.307). In a multivariate model, on applying linear regression analysis, LogMAR visual acuity (p?

Misra, Shaili; Saxena, Sandeep; Kishore, Poonam; Bhasker, Shashi K; Misra, Arvind; Meyer, Carsten H

2010-06-01

351

Readers' Trust, Socio-Demographic, and Acuity Influences in Citizen Journalism Credibility for Disrupted Online Newspapers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative research study was to evaluate and determine if significant associations and linear correlations exist between reader socio-demographics, levels of trust and affinity in online citizen writer news story article content, brand loyalty, and acuity in newspaper organizations transitioning from print to online in a…

Wester, Aaron Micah

2013-01-01

352

Mental contamination: the perpetrator effect.  

PubMed

In order to test the proposition that imagining carrying out an unacceptable non-consensual act can evoke contamination-related feelings in the perpetrator, 4 connected experiments were carried out involving male students. The effects of the experimental procedure were enhanced by the introduction of a theme of betrayal which boosted the feelings of contamination and urges to wash. The non-consensual scenarios were followed by substantial increases in negative emotions, notably shame, disgust and guilt, and these increases were boosted over successive enhancements of the procedure. Overall the results show that perpetrators of (imagined) unacceptable acts report a range of negative emotions and feelings of dirtiness. The main conclusion of this research is that imagining an unacceptable, non-consensual act can produce feelings of contamination. It is an experimental illustration of mental contamination, that is, contamination which is evoked by a mental event without any contact with a tangible contaminant. PMID:21888871

Rachman, S; Radomsky, Adam S; Elliott, Corinna M; Zysk, Eva

2012-03-01

353

Children's Mental Health Surveillance  

MedlinePLUS

Children’s Mental Health Surveillance National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Division of Human Development and Disability What are ... gov CDC issues first comprehensive report on children’s mental health in the United States A new report from ...

354

BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises. BEATCALC will wake up your brain on Monday morning with a mental math exercise that will stimulate those gray cells. Each Monday you will receive instructions for an exercise that will enable you to do math computations mentally faster than a friend can do them on a calculator. For example, how about learning to square 65 or 95 mentally in quick time? You can beat that calculator! These exercises are designed for : (1) Foggy heads at work on Monday morning who need a mental jump-start for the week. (2) People who say "I never could do math" and need some math confidence. (3) Calculator cripples. Kids (and big kids) who need a calculator to do 8 times 9. (4) Individuals who have refused to think about numbers since fifth grade. Was it long division that did it? (5) Braggarts who would like to show up a colleague by doing math mentally faster than he/she can do it using a calculator. (6) Seniors who want to keep mentally alert by routinely exercising the noggin. (7) And other hardy and adventurous souls who can use a little mental stimulation. send email to beatcalc@aol.com in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE BEATCALC yourfirstname yourlastname

1997-01-01

355

Mental Rotation Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most popular tasks used in measuring individual differences in spatial ability is a mental rotation task introduced by Shepard and Metzler (1971). This page provides information about use of a spatial ability task to illustrate the prinicple of mental rotation.

356

Correlation between histological and behavioral measures of visual acuity in a zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis).  

PubMed

Estimates of visual acuity in a pelagic freshwater zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Centrarchidae), were made using a behavioral measure, the maximum observed prey pursuit distance (MxPD), and a histological measure, the density of cone cells in the retina. The greatest number of pursuits occurs in the 0-30 degrees wedge of the visual field; 87% of all pursuits occur in the first 40 degrees. The longest pursuits (200 mm) also occur in this area and generally get shorter from 0 to 180 degrees (from forward-directed) in the visual field. Consistent with the behavioral results, the largest number of cone photoreceptors (13,000/mm2) is found in the far temporal retina along the eye's horizontal meridian. Cone cell densities in the corresponding region of the nasal retina are approximately half this value. The number of cones decreases dorsally and ventrally from the horizontal meridian. Although the absolute values of visual acuity calculated from cone cell topography (i.e. MxPDs of 500 mm) are 2-3 times greater than those observed behaviorally (i.e. MxPDs of 200 mm), the trends in visual acuity across the visual field obtained from both measures are consistent. We suggest that overestimates of visual acuity obtained from cone cell counts alone result from this measure's not accounting for, among other properties of the nervous system, cone cell convergence onto ganglion cells and higher brain centers. Behavioral measures of visual acuity are, therefore, likely to yield a more accurate estimate of an animal's visual abilities. PMID:2354354

Browman, H I; Gordon, W C; Evans, B I; O'Brien, W J

1990-01-01

357

Association between individual differences in non-symbolic number acuity and math performance: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Many recent studies have examined the association between number acuity, which is the ability to rapidly and non-symbolically estimate the quantity of items appearing in a scene, and symbolic math performance. However, various contradictory results have been reported. To comprehensively evaluate the association between number acuity and symbolic math performance, we conduct a meta-analysis to synthesize the results observed in previous studies. First, a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies (36 samples, N = 4705) revealed a significant positive correlation between these skills (r = 0.20, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.26]); the association remained after considering other potential moderators (e.g., whether general cognitive abilities were controlled). Moreover, a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies revealed 1) that number acuity may prospectively predict later math performance (r = 0.24, 95% CI = [0.11, 0.37]; 6 samples) and 2) that number acuity is retrospectively correlated to early math performance as well (r = 0.17, 95% CI = [0.07, 0.26]; 5 samples). In summary, these pieces of evidence demonstrate a moderate but statistically significant association between number acuity and math performance. Based on the estimated effect sizes, power analyses were conducted, which suggested that many previous studies were underpowered due to small sample sizes. This may account for the disparity between findings in the literature, at least in part. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of our meta-analytic findings are presented, and future research questions are discussed. PMID:24583622

Chen, Qixuan; Li, Jingguang

2014-05-01

358

Patient's Self-recognition of Reduced Visual Acuity Due to Recurrence of Macular Edema and Prompt Visitation to the Hospital in Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate patients' self-recognition of reduced visual acuity due to recurring macular edema in retinal vein occlusion. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of patients who were diagnosed with recurring macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion was performed. The proportion of patients who recognized reduced visual acuity due to the recurrence of macular edema and who visited the hospital before the scheduled follow-up date was determined. Parameters including age, sex, diagnosis, visual acuity before recurrence of macular edema, and extent of visual acuity reduction due to recurrence of macular edema were compared in patients who recognized a reduction in visual acuity and those who did not. The proportion of patients who visited the hospital promptly was also determined. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients were included in the analysis. Sixteen and 24 patients were diagnosed with central retinal vein occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion, respectively. Twenty-one patients (52.5%) recognized reduced visual acuity due to recurring macular edema. These patients were younger (59.2 ± 7.6 vs. 64.8 ± 9.4 years, p = 0.046), had better visual acuity before recurrence of macular edema (0.52 ± 0.48 vs. 1.02 ± 0.46, p = 0.002), and exhibited a greater reduction in visual acuity after recurrence of macular edema (0.34 ± 0.24 vs. 0.14 ± 0.13, p = 0.003). Only four patients visited the hospital before the scheduled follow-up date, and all of these patients lived relatively close to the hospital. Conclusions For prompt treatment of recurring macular edema, more intensive education about the self-estimation of visual acuity is necessary, particularly for elderly patients who have relatively poor visual acuity. In addition, a simple and easy way to identify the recurrence of macular edema at the local clinic should be established for patients who live relatively far from the hospital. PMID:24882954

Jeong, Seong Hun; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Tae Gon; Kim, Chul Gu; Yoo, Su Jin; Choi, Mun Jung

2014-01-01

359

Mental Models and the Acquisition of a Complex Skill across Individuals and Teams: A Multilevel Study  

E-print Network

-level studies, the extant literature has not yet tested the validity of mental models as a multilevel construct. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which the relationships between mental models and performance generalizes...

Munoz Galvez, Gonzalo Javier

2014-01-13

360

The Cross-Cultural Stability of Mental Test Items. An Investigation of Response Patterns for Ten Socio-Cultural Groups. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national random sample of over 14,000 high school seniors was studied with respect to socio-cultural differences in responses to cognitive test items. Six different cognitive tests and ten different groups were analyzed. The tests were: vocabulary, picture-number, reading, letter-groups, mathematics, and mosaic comparisons. The groups were:…

Breland, Hunter; And Others

361

Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra

2008-01-01

362

Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation  

SciTech Connect

Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

Miller, R.W.

1988-08-01

363

Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

364

MentalHealth.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mental health topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mental health, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mental health field.

365

Mental Health Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mental Health Matters is a collection of various mental health articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.

366

Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma  

PubMed Central

Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, were assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. PMID:20493559

Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

2009-01-01

367

Change in visual acuity is highly correlated with change in six image quality metrics independent of wavefront error and/or pupil diameter  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the wavefront error (WFE) of the eye varies from individual to individual with pupil diameter (PD) and age. Numerous studies have been proposed evaluating the relationship between visual acuity and WFE, but all these studies were performed with either a fixed or natural PD. It is still not clear if metrics of image quality correlate well with visual acuity independent of PD. Here we investigate the correlation between the change in visual acuity and the change in 30 image quality metrics for a range of optical quality typically established in normal eyes that varies both with age and PD. Visual acuity was recorded for 4 normal subjects using simulated blurred logMAR acuity charts generated from the point spread functions of different scaled WFEs for 6 different PDs (2–7 mm in 1 mm steps). Six image quality metrics (log neural sharpness, log visual Strehl [spatial domain], log visual Strehl [MTF method], log pupil fraction [tessellated], log pupil fraction [concentric area], and log root mean square of WFE slope) accounted for over 80% of variance in change in acuity across all WFEs and all PDs. Multiple regression analysis did not significantly increase the R2. Simple metrics derived from WFE could potentially act as an objective surrogate to visual acuity without the need for complex models. PMID:22984224

Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Sarver, Edwin J.; Applegate, Raymond A.

2012-01-01

368

Supporting medical students with mental  

E-print Network

-to-moderate mental health conditions 23­24 15 Severe mental illnesses 25 16 Eating disorders 26­27 17 SubstanceSupporting medical students with mental health conditions #12;02 | General Medical Council Contents Supporting medical students with mental health conditions #12;General Medical Council | 01 Supporting medical

Heinke, Dietmar

369

Mental Health and Mass Violence  

E-print Network

Mental Health and Mass Violence Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims Institute of Mental Health (2002). Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological are available through: The National Institute of Mental Health Office of Communications and Public Liaison 6001

Baker, Chris I.

370

Mental health consequences of disasters.  

PubMed

We present in this review the current state of disaster mental health research. In particular, we provide an overview of research on the presentation, burden, correlates, and treatment of mental disorders following disasters. We also describe challenges to studying the mental health consequences of disasters and discuss the limitations in current methodologies. Finally, we offer directions for future disaster mental health research. PMID:24159920

Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

2014-01-01

371

Does mental practice enhance performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental practice is the cognitive rehearsal of a task prior to performance. Although most researchers contend that mental practice is an effective means of enhancing performance, a clear consensus is precluded because (a) mental practice is often denned so loosely as to include almost any type of mental preparation and (b) empirical results are inconclusive. A meta-analysis of the literature

James E. Driskell; Carolyn Copper; Aidan Moran

1994-01-01

372

Students & Mental Health Resource Pack  

E-print Network

#12;Introduction What is mental illness? 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Why are students vulnerable? 1.3 What is severe mental illness? 1.4 Treatment and prognosis What is mental health awareness? 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Some facts about mental illness 2.3 Equal opportunities 2.4 Awareness in the educational environment

Stevenson, Mark

373

The Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

2008-01-01

374

Student Mental Health Final Report  

E-print Network

1 Student Mental Health Committee Final Report University of California Office of the President: Report of the University of California Student Mental Health Committee On behalf of the Student Mental in December 2005, and was given a charge to assess 1) trends in student mental health, 2) how these trends

O'Toole, Alice J.

375

Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment  

E-print Network

Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment Welcome to the Mental Health Clinic at Boynton Health or ADHD evaluation for review prior to scheduling your first medication appointment in the Mental Health). Contact the Medical Social Worker for resources­ 612-624-8182. · Long Term Therapy: The Mental Health

Weiblen, George D

376

Activity of daily living and its associated factors in war survivors with no visual acuity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: War is a known cause of tremendous physical injuries to different body organs, and eyes are not exceptions. War-related no visual acuity (NVA) affects both the victim and the family. Activity of daily living (ADL) can display personal life independency and is considered as a morbidity index. This study was designed to investigate the ADL profile of war survivors with NVA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Iran. In this study, 500 Iranian people with war related NVA were invited to take part in a camp in Mashhad city. ADL was evaluated using Barthel Index and demographic data were collected using a data sheet. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the associates of ADL. RESULTS: The overall response rate to the invitation was 50%. From the total 250 participants 96.5% were male with a mean age of 43 ± 8 years. Only 8.3% had no dependency in ADL and other 91.7% had some ranges of dependency in at least one of the daily living activities. ADL score was higher in highly educated participants, those younger than 50 years old, those with less co-morbid physical problems (hearing loss) and those with regular physical exercises. According to regression analysis, age and duration of war related NVA were significant predictors of ADL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, both age and the time passed from war related NVA increase the dependency of people with war related NVA. PMID:21526082

Amini, Reza; Haghani, Hamid; Masoomi, Mehdi; Assari, Shervin

2010-01-01

377

Ultrananocrystalline diamond-CMOS device integration route for high acuity retinal prostheses.  

PubMed

High density electrodes are a new frontier for biomedical implants. Increasing the density and the number of electrodes used for the stimulation of retinal ganglion cells is one possible strategy for enhancing the quality of vision experienced by patients using retinal prostheses. The present work presents an integration strategy for a diamond based, high density, stimulating electrode array with a purpose built application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The strategy is centered on flip-chip bonding of indium bumps to create high count and density vertical interconnects between the stimulator ASIC and an array of diamond neural stimulating electrodes. The use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) housing prevents cross-contamination of the biocompatible diamond electrode with non-biocompatible materials, such as indium, used in the microfabrication process. Micro-imprint lithography allowed edge-to-edge micro-scale pattering of the indium bumps on non-coplanar substrates that have a form factor that can conform to body organs and thus are ideally suited for biomedical applications. Furthermore, micro-imprint lithography ensures the compatibility of lithography with the silicon ASIC and aluminum contact pads. Although this work focuses on 256 stimulating diamond electrode arrays with a pitch of 150 ?m, the use of indium bump bonding technology and vertical interconnects facilitates implants with tens of thousands electrodes with a pitch as low as 10 ?m, thus ensuring validity of the strategy for future high acuity retinal prostheses, and bionic implants in general. PMID:25877379

Ahnood, A; Escudie, M C; Cicione, R; Abeyrathne, C D; Ganesan, K; Fox, K E; Garrett, D J; Stacey, A; Apollo, N V; Lichter, S G; Thomas, C D L; Tran, N; Meffin, H; Prawer, S

2015-06-01

378

Effect of Passive Horizontal Rotations and Vertical Oscillations on Dynamic Visual Acuity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances after long duration space flight. These crewmembers may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons in various sea state conditions following a water landing. Exposure to even low frequency motions induced by sea conditions surrounding a vessel can cause significant fine and gross motor control problems affecting critical functions. The objective of this study was to document human motor and visual performance during simulated wave motion in the 0.1 to 2.0 Hz range. We examined in 12 healthy subjects the changes in accuracy when performing a seated visual target acquisition task in which the location of target was offset vertically during horizontal full body rotation at an oscillating frequency of 0.8 Hz (peak velocity of 160 deg/s). The main finding was that the accuracy of performance degraded in 7 of 12 subjects when acquiring vertical targets at perturbing frequencies of 0.8 Hz in the horizontal plane by one step size. We also examined in a separate study on 12 healthy subjects seated dynamic visual acuity (DVA) task performance during vertical full body oscillations at perturbing frequencies of 2 Hz (peak to peak motion of 5 cm). The main finding was that DVA was significantly reduced when acquiring targets at perturbing oscillations at frequencies of 2 Hz in the vertical plane by approximately 1 chart line. Thus low frequencies of perturbations in the horizontal and vertical planes can cause decrement in visual performance.

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Kulecz, Walter B.; Miller, Chris; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

2010-01-01

379

Serum lipid fatty acids and temporal processing acuity in children with oral clefts.  

PubMed

We investigated the relation between a biological factor (fatty acids, FA) and a cognitive processing speed factor (temporal processing acuity, TPA) that are both suggested to relate to neuronal and cognitive functioning. Blood samples of 49 ten-year-old children with oral clefts were collected for FA analysis in serum triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids on the same day as they performed behavioral TPA tasks (simultaneity/nonsimultaneity judgments) in several perceptual modalities (visual, auditory, tactile, audiotactile, visuotactile, and audiovisual). This population has larger than expected variation in the relevant cognitive measures (TPA, learning ability, and intelligence). Sequential regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, and cleft type) showed that saturated FAs were not generally associated with TPA. Monounsaturated erucic and nervonic acids were inversely related with TPA. Of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were positively associated with TPA, whereas gamma-linolenic acid was inversely related to TPA. In summary, we found significant relations between a biological (certain FAs) and a cognitive factor (TPA). PMID:16545557

Laasonen, M; Erkkilä, A T; Isotalo, E; Mäenpää, P K; Pulkkinen, J J; Virsu, V; Haapanen, M-L

2006-04-01

380

Meta-analysis of best corrected visual acuity after treatment for myopic choroidal neovascularisation  

PubMed Central

AIM To compare the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between Verteporfin with photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHOD Published literature from Medline, Premedline, Embase and the Cochrane Library from inception until November 2013 were retrieved. All studies evaluating the BCVA between Verteporfin with PDT and intravitreal anti-VEGF for myopic CNV were included. The results were pooled using mean difference (MD), a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS Finally, five studies enrolled 349 eyes were included in the meta-analysis. We inferred that the BCVA of myopic CNV after the treatment of anti-VEGF was significantly better compared with Verteporfin with PDT (MD=0.25, 95%CI:0.17-0.33, Z=5.97, P<0.00001). CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that intravitreal anti-VEGF could have a better BCVA after treatment than Verteporfin with PDT for myopic CNV. PMID:25161950

Zhou, Lin; Xing, Yi-Qiao; Li, Tuo; Li, Yin; Song, Xiu-Sheng; Li, Jia-Zhang

2014-01-01

381

Proximity to Urban Parks and Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Background Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. Aims of the Study To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Results Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. Discussion and Limitations This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Implications for Health Policy Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted attention to modifiable environmental determinants, population mental health may benefit substantially from environmental interventions. Implications for Future Research Policy evaluations should incorporate mental health measures when assessing neighborhood improvement programs and physical environments. Many recent and ongoing studies have excluded mental health measure in the belief that they are too burdensome for respondents or irrelevant. If a causal relationship is confirmed, then ameliorating neighborhood conditions and physical environments could represent a scalable way to improve mental health issues for large populations. PMID:24864118

Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah

2014-01-01

382

Applicability of interactive evolutionary computation to mental health measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show experimentally the applicability of interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) to a new ap- plication field, mental health measurement. We had 3 schizophrenics and 5 mentally healthy students design happy and sad impression computer graphics (CG) lighting images using IEC and asked other 33 students to evaluate the CG images using Scheff´ e's method of paired comparison. Statis- tical tests

Hideyuki Takagi; Tomohiro Takahashi; Ken Aoki

2004-01-01

383

Mental-Attentional Capacity: Does Cognitive Style Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used multigroup scaling models to separate the contributions of cognitive style from ability in school-age children's performance on Figural Intersection Test. Results showed that field-dependent children had greater odds of success than field-independent children when the task's mental-attentional demand was above the child's mental-attentional…

Baillargeon, Raymond; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Roncadin, Caroline

1998-01-01

384

Further Evidence for Cognitive Inertia of Persons with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty young adults with mental retardation (MR) were compared to 40 young adults without mental retardation in tests examining postpractice interference effects in naming colors of Stroop words. The study concluded that practice developed automatized reading suppression responses which held greater cognitive inertia for longer periods among MR…

Ellis, Norman R.; Dulaney, Cynthia L.

1991-01-01

385

Defending the Mentally Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of mental health and social services personnel in helping patients apply for recertification for Supplementary Security Income (SSI) benefits. Describes the appeal process and provides guidelines for professionals. (JAC)

Cournos, Francine; And Others

1984-01-01

386

Florida Mental Health Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Louis de le Parte Florida Mental Health Institute is "to improve the lives of people with mental, addictive, and developmental disorders through research, training, and education." The Institute was created by the Florida legislature in 1967 and its work encompasses a range of mental health issues coupled with a rigorous outreach program. The materials here are divided into six thematic areas, including Publications/Reports, Research, and State & Local Partners. In the Publications/Reports area, visitors can learn about the Instituteâ??s scholarly activities through its quarterly newsletter and then browse through news briefs and Medicaid studies if so desired. Moving along, the Research area contains updates and reports on work in eight different areas, including autism, child welfare, and veteran's mental health affairs. Finally, the site also includes a section where visitors can contact the Institute to ask questions about its academic work and mission.

387

Mental Health for Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If you ... well-being, as well as information about referrals. Schizophrenia - This booklet discusses schizophrenia, including information about what ...

388

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

389

How mental systems believe  

Microsoft Academic Search

tance. In this view, the mental representation of abstract ideas is quite similar to the mental representation of phys- ical objects: People believe in the ideas they comprehend, as quickly and automatically as they believe in the objects they see. Research in social and cognitive psychology sug- gests that Spinoza's model,may,be a more,accurate ac- count of human,belief than is that

Daniel T. Gilbert

1991-01-01

390

On developmental mental architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computational theory of developmental mental architectures for artificial and natural systems, motivated by neuroscience. The work is an attempt to approximately model biological mental architectures using mathematical tools. Six types of architecture are presented, beginning with the observation-driven Markov decision process as Type-1. From Type-1 to Type-6, the architecture progressively becomes more complete toward the necessary

Juyang Weng

2007-01-01

391

Mental workload and driving  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

2014-01-01

392

Coagulation and Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders. PMID:25386352

Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Brenner, Benjamin

2014-01-01

393

The Robustness of Mini Mental State Examination Scores at Different Baseline Times of Testing in Psychogeriatric Patients upon Admission to the Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate possible differences in MMSE scores due to the time of testing at admission to the hospital, we randomly stratified eligible patients into two groups, and tested on the first day (n = 28) or the third day (n = 26) of admission, respectively. Both groups were retested on day seven, and there was no significant difference in delta

Kari Midtbø Kristiansen; Fredrik A. Dahl; Bernhard Lorentzen; Lars Tanum

2010-01-01

394

Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

2010-01-01

395

Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

2012-07-01

396

Color matches in diseased eyes with good acuity: detection of deficits in cone optical density and in chromatic discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced foveal cone optical density in diseased eyes with normal acuity can affect color matches. Using field diameters of 1 deg, 2 deg, 4 deg, and 8 deg, we measured mean color-match midpoints and match widths in patients who had good acuity and who hereditary macular degeneration ( n=12 ), retinitis pigmentosa ( n=19 ), and glaucoma ( n=18 ). Results were compared with those for normal observers of comparable ages. Mean color-match midpoints were abnormal only for the population with hereditary macular degeneration, indicating a reduction in cone optical density in the central 4 deg. Mean color-match widths were enlarged for both hereditary macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, a result consistent with a reduction in the number of foveal cones. chromatic discrimination, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma.

Swanson, William H.; Fish, Gary E.

1995-10-01

397

[Perioperative disorders of mental functions].  

PubMed

Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and confusion, leading to a high prevalence of irreversible functional decline. An interdisciplinary approach to delirium should also include family or other caregivers. In the diagnosis of delirium, several tests are used to complement clinical assessment. Among the most commonly used are the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM-ICU) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) test. Depression is a common disorder among patients treated at ICU and occurs due to the impact of the disease on the body and the quality of life, independence, employment and other aspects of life. Depression can interfere with the speed of recovery, affects the postoperative quality of life, and in a certain number of patients may lead to suicidal thoughts and intentions. Phobias and generalized anxiety are the most common anxiety disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by strong, excessive anxiety and worry about everyday life events. PTSD is delayed and/or protracted response to a stressful event or situation, extremely threatening or catastrophic nature, which is outside the common experience of people and would hit or traumatize almost all people. Treatment of delirium and other disorders is causal. The causes of psychosis are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease symptoms. The primary objective of prevention is appropriate therapy and correction of potential imbalances possibly underlying disturbances, stabilization of vital functions as well as early return to daily activities. Doctors and other medical staff must be aware of the importance and consequences of behavioral and emotional disorders in critically ill patients. Additional research is needed to discover the ways to prevent and/ or reduce the frequency and severity of the consequences and treatment of cognitive and emotional disorders. PMID:23088091

Tonkovi?, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacevi?, Marko; Bogovi?, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

2012-03-01

398

Is 20/20 vision good enough? Visual acuity differences within the normal range predict contour element detection and integration.  

PubMed

Contour integration (CI) combines appropriately aligned and oriented elements into continuous boundaries. Collinear facilitation (CF) occurs when a low-contrast oriented element becomes more visible when flanked by collinear high-contrast elements. Both processes rely at least partly on long-range horizontal connections in early visual cortex, and thus both have been extensively studied to understand visual cortical functioning in aging, development, and clinical disorders. Here, we ask: Can acuity differences within the normal range predict CI or CF? To consider this question, we measured binocular visual acuity and compared subjects with 20/20 vision to those with better-than-20/20 vision (SharpPerceivers) on two tasks. In the CI task, subjects located an integrated shape embedded in varying amounts of noise; in the CF task, subjects detected a low-contrast element flanked by collinear or orthogonal high-contrast elements. In each case, displays were scaled in size to modulate element visibility and spatial frequency (4-12 cycles/deg). SharpPerceivers could integrate contours under noisier conditions than the 20/20 group (p = .0002), especially for high spatial frequency displays. Moreover, although the two groups exhibited similar collinear facilitation, SharpPerceivers could detect the central target with lower contrast at high spatial frequencies (p <. 05). These results suggest that small acuity differences within the normal range-corresponding to about a one line difference on a vision chart-strongly predict element detection and integration. Furthermore, simply ensuring that subjects have normal or corrected-to-normal vision is not sufficient when comparing groups on contour tasks; visual acuity confounds also need to be ruled out. PMID:24845876

Keane, Brian P; Kastner, Sabine; Paterno, Danielle; Silverstein, Steven M

2015-02-01

399

Correlation between Histological and Behavioral Measures of Visual Acuity in a Zooplanktivorous Fish, the White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of visual acuity in a pelagic freshwater zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Centrarchidae), were made using a behavioral measure, the maximum observed prey pursuit distance (MxPD), and a histological measure, the density of cone cells in the retina. The greatest number of pursuits occurs in the 0–30° wedge of the visual field; 87% of all pursuits occur

Howard I. Browman; William C. Gordon; Barbara I. Evans; W. John OBrien

1990-01-01

400

Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners. PMID:3776982

Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

1986-12-01

401

Tactile acuity in experienced Tai Chi practitioners: evidence for use dependent plasticity as an effect of sensory-attentional training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific discovery of novel training paradigms has yielded better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying cortical\\u000a plasticity, learning and development. This study is a first step in evaluating Tai Chi (TC), the Chinese slow-motion meditative\\u000a exercise, as a training paradigm that, while not engaging in direct tactile stimulus training, elicits enhanced tactile acuity\\u000a in long-term practitioners. The rationale for this

Catherine E. Kerr; Jessica R. Shaw; Rachel H. Wasserman; Vanessa W. Chen; Alok Kanojia; Thomas Bayer; John M. Kelley

2008-01-01

402

Dynamic visual acuity during passive and self-generated transient head rotation in normal and unilaterally vestibulopathic humans.  

PubMed

To determine whether dynamic visual acuity (DVA) during head rotations on the stationary body can lateralize unilateral vestibular deafferentation and detect non-labyrinthine compensation mechanisms, 15 normal and 11 subjects with unilateral vestibular deafferentation underwent manually imposed and self-generated transient yaw head rotations during measurement of binocular DVA. DVA was measured by a four-alternative, forced choice, staircase procedure with optotype presentation only when head velocity exceeded thresholds of 50 degree or 75 degree/s. Eye and head movements were recorded using search coils to characterize ocular motor strategies. During directionally unpredictable, manually imposed contralesional rotation, unilaterally deafferented subjects had decreases in DVA from the static condition of 0.36 +/- 0.22 and 0.47 +/- 0.53 log of the minimum angle resolvable (logMAR, mean +/- SD), respectively, for 50 degree and 75 degree/s thresholds, not significantly greater than those of normal subjects (0.26 +/- 0.13 and 0.36 +/- 0.14, P>0.05). However, during manually imposed ipsilesional rotation, vestibulopathic subjects had decreases in DVA of 0.66 +/- 0.36 and 1.08 +/- 0.47 logMAR, significantly greater than during contralesional rotation ( P<0.01). The DVA reduction difference for the ipsi- and contralesional directions was less during self-generated than during manually imposed head rotations. The directional difference for manually administered head rotations yielded a robust diagnostic measure with essentially no overlap in performance with normal subjects. Diagnostic performance for DVA during self-generated head rotation was poorer. Recordings of eye and head movements made using search coils during DVA testing confirmed a deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during ipsilesional rotation, with most unilaterally vestibulopathic subjects employing predictive smooth eye movements and vestibular catch-up saccades. Measurement of DVA during transient head rotation on the body thus reliably can detect and lateralize vestibular pathology and compensatory mechanisms. Extravestibular mechanisms for compensation appear more effective during self-generated than manually imposed head rotations. PMID:11845244

Tian, Jun-ru; Shubayev, Igor; Demer, Joseph L

2002-02-01

403

Mental Representation and Mental Practice: Experimental Investigation on the Functional Links between Motor Memory and Motor Imagery  

PubMed Central

Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N?=?52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only. PMID:24743576

Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

2014-01-01

404

The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahneman and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others. PMID:25140163

Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Lindskog, Marcus; Nilsson, Håkan; Kerimi, Neda

2014-01-01

405

Rod-cone Dystrophy with Initially Preserved Visual Acuity Despite Early Macular Involvement Suggests Recessive CERKL Mutations.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To highlight that recessive CERKL mutations cause an early-onset rod-cone dystrophy with initially preserved visual acuity despite early macular involvement, an unusual and distinct initial phenotypic presentation. Methods: A retrospective case series. Results: Two young Saudi Arabian adults complained of worsening night blindness over the preceding few years, one of whom had been symptomatic since early childhood. Both had retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) mottling/granularity, vascular attenuation, few bone spicules, and frank macular RPE atrophic changes despite relatively preserved visual acuity. Electroretinography was non-recordable, and ocular coherence tomography confirmed retinal thinning, particularly of the outer nuclear layer in the fovea. Each patient harbored a different homozygous CERKL mutation (p.L245P, p.C333*). The few prior reports that detail the presenting phenotype of CERKL mutations describe children or young adults with the similar unusual presenting constellation of findings: rod-cone dystrophy and frank macular atrophy but relatively preserved visual acuity. With time, central vision is affected. Conclusions: The initial presenting features of CERKL-related retinopathy are distinct and unusual. Recognition of this initial presenting phenotype can facilitate earlier molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:24547929

Khan, Arif O; Abu-Safieh, Leen

2014-02-19

406

Effect of hemodialysis on visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular thickness in patients with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD) on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and central foveal thickness (CFT) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods Forty-nine eyes from 49 chronic kidney-disease patients were analyzed. Causes of chronic kidney disease included diabetes mellitus (n=9 patients), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n=15 patients), and other causes (n=25 patients). All patients underwent HD in the Dialysis Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital. Best-corrected visual acuity, CFT, and IOP were evaluated before and after HD. CFT was measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Results Neither decimal best-corrected visual acuity (pre-HD 0.71±0.32, post-HD 0.72±0.31; P=0.877) nor CFT (pre-HD 251.39±39.29, post-HD 253.09±39.26; P=0.272) significantly changed after HD. However, mean IOP significantly decreased from 13.99±2.48 before HD to 12.65±2.41 mmHg after HD (P=0.001). IOP change was significantly correlated with serum albumin levels (P=0.008) and weight changes (P=0.047). Conclusion HD can affect various ocular parameters. This is particularly true of IOP, which decreases significantly following HD. PMID:25657575

Chelala, Elias; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Slim, Elise; Abdelmassih, Youssef; Fakhoury, Henry; Baz, Patrick; Bejjani, Riad

2015-01-01

407

Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

Crissey, Marie Skodak

1975-01-01

408

A de novo paradigm for mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The per-generation mutation rate in humans is high. De novo mutations may compensate for allele loss due to severely reduced fecundity in common neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases, explaining a major paradox in evolutionary genetic theory. Here we used a family based exome sequencing approach to test this de novo mutation hypothesis in ten individuals with unexplained mental retardation. We identified

Lisenka E L M Vissers; Joep de Ligt; Christian Gilissen; Irene Janssen; Marloes Steehouwer; Petra de Vries; Bart van Lier; Peer Arts; Nienke Wieskamp; Marisol del Rosario; Bregje W M van Bon; Alexander Hoischen; Bert B A de Vries; Han G Brunner; Joris A Veltman

2010-01-01

409

Phonological Abstraction in the Mental Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A perceptual learning experiment provides evidence that the mental lexicon cannot consist solely of detailed acoustic traces of recognition episodes. In a training lexical decision phase, listeners heard an ambiguous [f-s] fricative sound, replacing either [f] or [s] in words. In a test phase, listeners then made lexical decisions to visual…

McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne; Norris, Dennis

2006-01-01

410

Evidence for the Role of Shape in Mental Representations of Similes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People mentally represent the shapes of objects. For instance, the mental representation of an eagle is different when one thinks about a flying or resting eagle. This study examined the role of shape in mental representations of "similes" (i.e., metaphoric comparisons). We tested the prediction that when people process a simile they…

Weelden, Lisanne; Schilperoord, Joost; Maes, Alfons

2014-01-01

411

The Nature of Relationships between Mental Rotation, Math, and Language in Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three mental rotation tasks, the Card Rotation Task (CRT), the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test (VMRT), and the Money Road-Map of Direction Sense (MRM), were administered to 60 deaf students from Gallaudet University to determine if mental rotation was predictive of scores on the ACT English or Math subtests. Other predictor variables, such as…

Halper, Elizabeth Blaisdell

2009-01-01

412

Mental Imagery of Faces and Places Activates Corresponding Stimulus-Specific Brain Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

What happens in the brain when you conjure up a mental image in your mind's eye? We tested whether the particular regions of extrastriate cortex activated during mental imagery depend on the content of the image. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we demonstrated selective activation within a region of cortex specialized for face perception during mental imagery of faces,

K. M. O'Craven; N. Kanwisher

2000-01-01

413

[The Lang stereo-test in mass screening of kindergarten students].  

PubMed

During the 1990-91 school year 2856 kindergarten children underwent screening in the Geneva area. Their visual acuity was measured and stereoscopic vision estimated with the Lang test. Positive cases were referred to an ophthalmologist for diagnosis. PMID:8051873

Franceschetti, A; Donati, G; Jeanneret, O; Hazeghi, H

1994-05-01

414

Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean…

Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

2008-01-01

415

Association between ambient noise exposure, hearing acuity, and risk of acute occupational injury  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to examine the associations between acute workplace injury risk, ambient noise exposure, and hearing acuity, adjusting for reported hearing protection use. Methods In a cohort of 9220 aluminum manufacturing workers studied over six years (33 300 person-years, 13 323 person-jobs), multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of all injuries as well as serious injuries by noise exposure category and hearing threshold level (HTL) adjusting for recognized and potential confounders. Results Compared to noise <82 dBA, higher exposure was associated with elevated risk in a monotonic and statistically significant exposure–response pattern for all injuries and serious injuries with higher risk estimates observed for serious injuries [82–84.99 dBA: RR 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.96–1.64; 85–87.99 dBA: RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.85; ?88 dBA: RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.52–3.47]. Hearing loss was associated with increased risk for all injuries, but was not a significant predictor of risk for the subset of more serious injuries. Compared to those without hearing loss, workers with HTL ?25 dB had 21% increased all injury risk (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09–1.33) while those with HTL 10–24.99 dB had 6% increased risk (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00–1.13). Reported hearing protection type did not predict injury risk. Conclusion Noise exposure levels as low as 85 dBA may increase workplace injury risk. HTL was associated with increased risk for all, but not the subset of serious, injuries. Additional study is needed both to confirm the observed associations and explore causal pathways. PMID:25137556

Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

2015-01-01

416

Transmission of colour and acuity signals by parvocellular cells in marmoset monkeys  

PubMed Central

Abstract The red–green axis of colour vision evolved recently in primate evolutionary history. Signals serving red–green colour vision travel together with signals serving spatial vision, in the parvocellular (PC) division of the subcortical visual pathway. However, the question of whether receptive fields of PC pathway cells are specialized to transmit red–green colour signals remains unresolved. We addressed this question in single-cell recordings from the lateral geniculate nucleus of anaesthetized marmosets. Marmosets show a high proportion of dichromatic (red–green colour-blind) individuals, allowing spatial and colour tuning properties of PC cells to be directly compared in dichromatic and trichromatic visual systems. We measured spatial frequency tuning for sine gratings that provided selective stimulation of individual photoreceptor types. We found that in trichromatic marmosets, the foveal visual field representation is dominated by red–green colour-selective PC cells. Colour selectivity of PC cells is reduced at greater eccentricities, but cone inputs to centre and surround are biased to create more selectivity than predicted by a purely ‘random wiring’ model. Thus, one-to-one connections in the fovea are sufficient, but not necessary, to create colour-selective responses. The distribution of spatial tuning properties for achromatic stimuli shows almost complete overlap between PC cells recorded in dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets. These data indicate that transmission of red–green colour signals has been enabled by centre–surround receptive fields of PC cells, and has not altered the capacity of PC cells to serve high-acuity vision at high stimulus contrast. PMID:21486786

Martin, Paul R; Blessing, Esther M; Buzás, Péter; Szmajda, Brett A; Forte, Jason D

2011-01-01

417

Associations Between Frontal Plane Joint Stiffness and Proprioceptive Acuity in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective It has been proposed that proprioceptive impairments observed in knee osteoarthritis (OA) may be associated with disease-related changes in joint mechanics. The aim of this study was to quantify joint proprioception and stiffness in the frontal plane of the knee in persons with and without knee OA and to report the associations between these two metrics. Methods Thirteen persons with knee OA and fourteen healthy age-matched subjects participated. Proprioceptive acuity was assessed in varus and valgus using the threshold to detection of movement (TDPM). Passive joint stiffness was estimated as the slope of the normalized torque-angle relationship at 0° joint rotation (neutral) and several rotations in varus and valgus. Analyses of variance were performed to determine the effect of OA and gender on each metric. Linear regression was used to assess the correlation between TDPM and joint stiffness. Results TDPM was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the OA group compared to controls for both varus and valgus, but significant gender differences were observed. Passive joint stiffness was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in OA participants compared to the control group in neutral and valgus, but not varus, and significantly reduced in females compared to males. A weak negative correlation was observed between TDPM and stiffness estimates, suggesting that poorer proprioception was associated with less joint stiffness. Conclusions While both joint stiffness and proprioception were reduced in the OA population, they were only weakly correlated. This suggests that other neurophysiological factors play a larger role in the proprioceptive deficits in knee OA. PMID:22213576

Cammarata, Martha L; Dhaher, Yasin Y

2012-01-01

418

Preoperative visual acuity among cataract surgery patients and countries’ state of development: a global study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the preoperative surgical case mix among patients undergoing cataract extraction and explore associations between case mix, country level of development (as measured by the Human Development Index, HDI) and cataract surgery rates (CSRs). Methods Ophthalmologists in 50 countries were invited to join the newly-established International Eye Research Network and asked to complete a web-based questionnaire about their eye hospitals. Those who complied received a data collection form for recording demographic and clinical data on 100 consecutive patients about to undergo cataract surgery. Countries were ranked into five HDI categories and multivariable regression was used to explore associations. Findings Ophthalmologists at 112 eye hospitals (54% of them nongovernmental) in 50 countries provided data on 11?048 cataract procedures over 9 months in 2008. Patients whose visual acuity (VA) before surgery was

Gilbert, Claire E; Razavi, Hessom; Turner, Elizabeth L; Lindfield, Robert J

2011-01-01

419

Changes in myopia, visual acuity, and psychological distress after biofeedback visual training.  

PubMed

The effects of auditory biofeedback training on myopia, visual acuity (VA), and psychological distress were evaluated in a controlled prospective study involving 55 mildly myopic (< or = -3.5 D) high school students. These myopes were divided into 2 groups, matched for age and dioptric defect: 33 were treated with visual training and 22 were not; 27 emmetropic subjects formed a further control group. Subjects were evaluated at the baseline (T0), at 10 weeks after the end of the treatment (T1), and after an interval of 12 months (T2) from the baseline for: (1) manifest and cycloplegic refraction, and the difference between them (cycloplegic tonus); (2) VA measured with a conventional optotype in all subjects, and also with a computer-generated optotype in the treated group; and (3) psychometric values and personality profile. At T2, myopia had significantly worsened both in the treated and in the control myopes; VA in the treated myopes appeared significantly improved when measured by the conventional optotype, but unchanged when measured by computer. Psychometric scores improved significantly in the treated myopes and in the emmetropic controls. Objectively the autorefractometer showed that 38% of the myopes had voluntary control of positive accommodation, i.e., the ability to increase spherical defect; no voluntary control of negative accommodation was observed. An increase in VA was associated with a significant increase in the foveation time (i.e., the period of time when the target is imaged on the fovea and the eye is motionless), and was partly attributable to a learning effect. In conclusion, biofeedback visual training had a positive effect on psychological distress and subjective VA improvement, but failed to reduce the existing myopia or delay its evolution. PMID:8867680

Angi, M R; Caucci, S; Pilotto, E; Racano, E; Rupolo, G; Sabbadin, E

1996-01-01

420

Comparison of gait velocity and center of mass during square and semicircular turning gaits between groups of elderly people with differing visual acuity  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate gait velocity and center of mass (COM) during square and semicircular turning gaits between two groups of elderly people with differing visual acuity. [Subjects] Twenty elderly Korean women who could walk independently and who lived in the community were recruited. [Methods] We measured gait velocity and COM using an accelerometer during two different turning gaits. [Results] The velocity during square and semicircular turning gaits of participants with good binocular visual acuity (GBVA) was significantly higher than that of participants with poor binocular visual acuity (PBVA). The COM during square and semicircular turning gaits of the GBVA group was significantly decreased compared with that of the PBVA group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that visual acuity affects velocity and COM during square and semicircular turning gaits of elderly people. PMID:25729174

Shin, Sun-shil; An, Duk-hyun; Yoo, Won-gyu

2015-01-01

421

Comparison of gait velocity and center of mass during square and semicircular turning gaits between groups of elderly people with differing visual acuity.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate gait velocity and center of mass (COM) during square and semicircular turning gaits between two groups of elderly people with differing visual acuity. [Subjects] Twenty elderly Korean women who could walk independently and who lived in the community were recruited. [Methods] We measured gait velocity and COM using an accelerometer during two different turning gaits. [Results] The velocity during square and semicircular turning gaits of participants with good binocular visual acuity (GBVA) was significantly higher than that of participants with poor binocular visual acuity (PBVA). The COM during square and semicircular turning gaits of the GBVA group was significantly decreased compared with that of the PBVA group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that visual acuity affects velocity and COM during square and semicircular turning gaits of elderly people. PMID:25729174

Shin, Sun-Shil; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2015-02-01

422

Microcomputer-based tests for repeated-measures: Metric properties and predictive validities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A menu of psychomotor and mental acuity tests were refined. Field applications of such a battery are, for example, a study of the effects of toxic agents or exotic environments on performance readiness, or the determination of fitness for duty. The key requirement of these tasks is that they be suitable for repeated-measures applications, and so questions of stability and reliability are a continuing, central focus of this work. After the initial (practice) session, seven replications of 14 microcomputer-based performance tests (32 measures) were completed by 37 subjects. Each test in the battery had previously been shown to stabilize in less than five 90-second administrations and to possess retest reliabilities greater than r = 0.707 for three minutes of testing. However, all the tests had never been administered together as a battery and they had never been self-administered. In order to provide predictive validity for intelligence measurement, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wonderlic Personnel Test were obtained on the same subjects.

Kennedy, Robert S.; Baltzley, Dennis R.; Dunlap, William P.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

1989-01-01

423

Personality, Negative Interactions, and Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that an individual’s personality traits may mediate the relationship between social support and mental health. This study uses two national data sets to test a conceptual model that integrates personality, social support, negative interactions, and psychological distress. Results suggest that, beyond the influence of personality, social support is negatively associated with psychological distress, and negative interactions are positively associated with such distress. The findings also suggest that personality has direct and indirect effects, through social support and negative interactions, on psychological distress. Findings specify how positive and negative facets of relationships and personality influence mental health outcomes. PMID:21151733

Lincoln, Karen D.

2010-01-01

424

Associations among Visual Acuity and Vision- and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the associations between visual acuity and self-reported visual function; visual acuity and health-related quality of life (QoL) metrics; a summary measure of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL; and individual domains of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL in patients with uveitis. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity, vision-related functioning as assessed by the NEI VFQ-25, and health-related QoL as assessed by the SF-36 and EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaires were obtained at enrollment in a clinical trial of uveitis treatments. Multivariate regression and Spearman correlations were used to evaluate associations between visual acuity, vision-related function, and health-related QoL. Results. Among the 255 patients, median visual acuity in the better-seeing eyes was 20/25, the vision-related function score indicated impairment (median, 60), and health-related QoL scores were within the normal population range. Better visual acuity was predictive of higher visual function scores (P ? 0.001), a higher SF-36 physical component score, and a higher EQ-5D health utility score (P < 0.001). The vision-specific function score was predictive of all general health-related QoL (P < 0.001). The correlations between visual function score and general quality of life measures were moderate (? = 0.29–0.52). Conclusions. The vision-related function score correlated positively with visual acuity and moderately positively with general QoL measures. Cost–utility analyses relying on changes in generic healthy utility measures will be more likely to detect changes when there are clinically meaningful changes in vision-related function, rather than when there are only changes in visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00132691.) PMID:22247489

Drye, Lea T.; Kempen, John H.; Dunn, James P.; Holland, Gary N.; Latkany, Paul; Rao, Narsing A.; Sen, H. Nida; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Wang, Robert C.; Holbrook, Janet T.

2012-01-01

425

Spontaneous mentalizing predicts the fundamental attribution error.  

PubMed

When explaining the reasons for others' behavior, perceivers often overemphasize underlying dispositions and personality traits over the power of the situation, a tendency known as the fundamental attribution error. One possibility is that this bias results from the spontaneous processing of others' mental states, such as their momentary feelings or more enduring personality characteristics. Here, we use fMRI to test this hypothesis. Participants read a series of stories that described a target's ambiguous behavior in response to a specific social situation and later judged whether that act was attributable to the target's internal dispositions or to external situational factors. Neural regions consistently associated with mental state inference-especially, the medial pFC-strongly predicted whether participants later made dispositional attributions. These results suggest that the spontaneous engagement of mentalizing may underlie the biased tendency to attribute behavior to dispositional over situational forces. PMID:24168220

Moran, Joseph M; Jolly, Eshin; Mitchell, Jason P

2014-03-01

426

Elderly Mental Health: Needs*  

PubMed Central

This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed.

Parkar, Shubhangi R.

2015-01-01

427

X-linked mental retardation associated with macro-orchidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two families are described with an X-linked form of mental retardation in whom the affected males were found to have bilateral enlargement of the testes. No conclusive evidence of any endocrinological disturbance was found.

G Turner; C Eastman; J Casey; A McLeay; P Procopis; B Turner

1975-01-01

428

A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.  

PubMed

We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. PMID:25133916

Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

2015-02-01

429

Mental-attentional capacity: does cognitive style make a difference?  

PubMed

There is currently no consensus on whether the difference between field-dependent and field-independent subjects on tasks of cognitive abilities result from different mental processing strategies, from true group differences in cognitive ability, or from both. School-age children (N = 239) were tested for field dependence/independence using the Children's Embedded Figures Test and for mental-attentional capacity using the Figural Intersection Task. Multigroup scaling models were used to separate the contributions of style from ability in children's performance on Figural Intersection items. Results show that field-dependent children have greater odds of success than field-independent children in Figural Intersection items when the task's mental-attentional demand is above the child's mental attentional capacity, as assessed in the same task. The contrary is true when the task's mental-attentional demand is below or equal to the mental-attentional capacity of the child. Overall, field-dependent children obtain lower estimates of mental-attentional capacity than field-independent children in this task. We discuss the implications of these results for the measurement of mental-attentional capacity and the conceptualization of field dependence/independence. PMID:9742177

Baillargeon, R; Pascual-Leone, J; Roncadin, C

1998-09-01

430

The Effect of Holy Quran Voice on Mental Health.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the effect of Quran listening without its musical tone (Tartil) on the mental health of personnel in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast of Iran. The results showed significant differences between the test and control groups in their mean mental health scores after Quran listening (P = 0.037). No significant gender differences in the test group before and after intervention were found (P = 0.806). These results suggest that Quran listening could be recommended by psychologists for improving mental health and achieving greater calm. PMID:24421119

Mahjoob, Monireh; Nejati, Jalil; Hosseini, Alireaza; Bakhshani, Noor Mohammad

2014-01-14

431

Global Mental Health 1 No health without mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 14% of the global burden of disease has been attributed to neuropsychiatric disorders, mostly due to the chronically disabling nature of depression and other common mental disorders, alcohol-use and substance-use disorders, and psychoses. Such estimates have drawn attention to the importance of mental disorders for public health. However, because they stress the separate contributions of mental and physical disorders

Martin Prince; Vikram Patel; Shekhar Saxena; Mario Maj; Joanna Maselko; Michael R Phillips; Atif Rahman

432

School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2013-01-01

433

Homelessness, the chronic mentally ill and community mental health centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current efforts in the development of improved systems of care for the chronically mentally ill represent yet another phase in the evolution of mental health policy in this country. As described in the literature (Goldman and Morrissey 1985), the history of public policy on behalf of the mentally ill reflects a cyclical pattern of institutional reforms. Each cycle is marked

A. Anthony Arce; Michael J. Vergare

1987-01-01

434

FastStats: Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on mental health Identifying Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children Aged ...

435

Understanding Your Mental Health Insurance  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF version of this document . Insurance benefits for mental health services have changed a lot in recent years. ... health care. It is important to understand your mental health care coverage so that you can be an ...

436

Mental Health Treatment Program Locator  

MedlinePLUS

... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Mental Health Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health treatment programs nearest you, find your State on ...

437

Defining the Severely Mentally Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The known target population of severely mentally disabled in community mental health centers is defined. Criteria include intensive treatment contact and persistent, severe disability, but not diagnosis. Feasible and reliable screening procedures are demonstrated. (Author/BS)

Hargreaves, William A.; And Others

1984-01-01

438

Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses  

MedlinePLUS

... be possible to delay or prevent a major mental illness altogether. What are the Signs and Symptoms to ... two of these symptoms can’t predict a mental illness. But a person experiencing several together that are ...

439

Mental Health Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... of non-metropolitan counties had some sort of mental illness in the past year, which amounts to over ... suicide during the year. While the prevalence of mental illness is similar between rural and urban residents, the ...

440

What are Mental Disorders? What is Addiction?  

E-print Network

What are Mental Disorders? What is Addiction? Depression Bipolar Disorder Postpartum AlternativeTreatments for Mental Disorders Treatments for Addictions Recovery from Mental Disorders Addictions and Relapse Prevention Harm Reduction Preventing Addictions Achieving Positive Mental Health

441

ROYAL COLLEGE OF PSYCHIATRISTS MENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION  

E-print Network

in pregnancy Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Personality disorders Physical illness and mental health Post Natal Depression Postpartum Psychosis: Severe mental illness after childbirth Post-traumatic Stress Learning disability and mental health Severe mental illness (psychosis) Other Leaflets Feeling Stressed

Chittka, Lars

442

Contributions of Optical and Non-Optical Blur to Variation in Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the relative contributions of optical and non-optical sources of intrinsic blur to variations in visual acuity (VA) among normally sighted subjects. Methods Best-corrected VA of sixteen normally sighted subjects was measured using briefly presented (59 ms) tumbling E optotypes that were either unblurred or blurred through convolution with Gaussian functions of different widths. A standard model of intrinsic blur was used to estimate each subject’s equivalent intrinsic blur (?int) and VA for the unblurred tumbling E (MAR0). For 14 subjects, a radially averaged optical point spread function due to higher-order aberrations was derived by Shack-Hartmann aberrometry and fit with a Gaussian function. The standard deviation of the best-fit Gaussian function defined optical blur (?opt). An index of non-optical blur (?) was defined as: 1-?opt/?int. A control experiment was conducted on 5 subjects to evaluate the effect of stimulus duration on MAR0 and ?int. Results Log MAR0 for the briefly presented E was correlated significantly with log ?int (r = 0.95, p < 0.01), consistent with previous work. However, log MAR0 was not correlated significantly with log ?opt (r = 0.46, p = 0.11). For subjects with log MAR0 equivalent to approximately 20/20 or better, log MAR0 was independent of log ?, whereas for subjects with larger log MAR0 values, log MAR0 was proportional to log ?. The control experiment showed a statistically significant effect of stimulus duration on log MAR0 (p < 0.01) but a non-significant effect on ?int (p = 0.13). Conclusions The relative contributions of optical and non-optical blur to VA varied among the subjects, and were related to the subject’s VA. Evaluating optical and non-optical blur may be useful for predicting changes in VA following procedures that improve the optics of the eye in patients with both optical and non-optical sources of VA loss. PMID:21460756

McAnany, J. Jason; Shahidi, Mahnaz; Applegate, Raymond A.; Zelkha, Ruth; Alexander, Kenneth R.

2011-01-01

443

Correlation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in acute central serous chorioretinopathy with visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the structural changes in the acute phase of central serous chorioretinopathy and after its resolution, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, to correlate these tomographic changes with visual acuity (VA). Method This was a prospective study of 100 consecutive patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy. It was based on presenting the best-corrected VA, divided into three groups (Group 1, n = 36, VA 6/6; Group 2, n = 49, VA 6/9–6/18; Group 3, n = 15, VA > 6/18). All patients underwent fundus evaluation followed by fluorescein angiography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results The mean age of the patients was 40 ± 7.17 years. The mean log MAR VA was 0.176 ± 0.0185. Single pigment epithelial detachment (PED), and multiple discrete and multiple confluent PEDs were seen in 21%, 17%, and 32% of the eyes, respectively. The location of the PED was subfoveal in 35% of the eyes. The presence of subretinal fibrin and a rough undersurface of the neurosensory retina were noted in 61% and 64% of the eyes, respectively. On en-face scanning, a break in the walls of the PED and overlying fibrin were seen in 32.8% and 45% of the eyes, respectively. The mean subretinal fluid height at the fovea was 279.11 ± 148.78 ?. The mean outer nuclear layer thickness during the active stage was 95.10 ? and during the resolved stage, it was 77.69 ? (P = 0.012). The average photoreceptor lengths were 73.1 ?, 84.6 ?, and 94.9 ? in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, in the acute phase; and 69.5 ?, 70.8 ?, and 61.6 ?, respectively, after resolution (P = 0.013, P = 0.010, and P = 0.011). Conclusion In the acute phase of the disease, poorer VA showed statistically significant association with greater dimensions of subretinal fluid – particularly, greater subretinal fluid height and thinning of the outer nuclear layer at the fovea. The presence of fibrin, subretinal precipitates, subfoveal location, or type of PED did not have any association with poor VA. In resolved central serous chorioretinopathy, poorer VA was associated with a persistently thinner outer nuclear layer, shorter photoreceptor lengths, and inner and outer segment junction atrophy. PMID:23225998

Nair, Unnikrishnan; Ganekal, Sunil; Soman, Manoj; Nair, KGR

2012-01-01

444

MANOVIKARA (Mental disorders) IN AYURVEDA  

PubMed Central

An attempt is made to project at one place the available Ayurvedic material on manas and treatment of manovikara in an orderly manner which would be both easy to understand and rewarding in the field of treatment, by describing the definition of manas, its functions, qualities, concept of psychosomatics, classification of mental disorders, treatment of mental illness prevention of mental illnesses, method of examination of mental illness and other important aspects. PMID:22557473

Ramu, M.G.; Venkataram, B.S.

1985-01-01

445

Axial Length/Corneal Radius Ratio: Association with Refractive State and Role on Myopia Detection Combined with Visual Acuity in Chinese Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the association between the AL/CR ratio and refractive state and explore the effectiveness of this ratio in the assessment of myopia, especially when combined with uncorrected visual acuity in schoolchildren among whom myopia is common. Methods Cross sectional study. 4686 children from 6 primary schools, aged from 6 to 12 years were selected using the clustered-stratified random sampling method. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature (CR), and cycloplegic refraction were tested. Refraction was measured as the spherical equivalent (SE). Results 3922 children were included in the analysis. The mean AL/CR ratio was 2.973±0.002, increased with age, and different in gender. The coefficients of correlations of the SE with the AL/CR ratio, AL, and CR were -0.811, -0.657, and 0.095, respectively. Linear regression showed a 10.72 D shift towards myopia with every 1 unit increase in the AL/CR ratio (P<0.001, r2 = 66.4%). The estimated SE values obtained by substituting the AL/CR ratio and gender back to the regression model that were within a difference of ±0.50 D in ATE/LER (allowable total error and limits for erroneous results) zones compared to the actual measured values was 51%. The area under the ROC curve of the AL/CR ratio, AL, and UCVA for myopia detection were 0.910, 0.822, and 0.889, respectively, and the differences between each pair were statistically significant (P<0.01). At a specificity of 90%, the sensitivities were 72.98%, 50.50%, 71.99%, and 82.96%, respectively, for the AL/CR ratio, AL, UCVA, and the combination of the AL/CR ratio and UCVA. Conclusions The AL/CR ratio was found to explain the total variance in SE better than AL alone. The effectiveness of the AL/CR ratio was statistically significantly better than UCVA for detecting myopia in children, and combining the two produced increased sensitivity without significantly decreasing specificity. PMID:25693186

He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng

2015-01-01

446

Lifestyle and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized despite considerable evidence of their effectiveness in both clinical and normal populations. TLCs are sometimes as effective as

Roger Walsh

2011-01-01

447

Inferences about mental states.  

PubMed

Human social cognition relies on an ability to predict what others will think, feel or do in novel situations. Research in social neuroscience has consistently observed several brain regions that contribute ubiquitously to these abilities, including medial prefrontal cortex and aspects of lateral and medial parietal cortex. Interestingly, parallel work has suggested that this same network of regions