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Sample records for mental acuity tests

  1. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnage, J. J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Smith, M. G.; Baltzley, D. R.; Lane, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety.

  2. Visual acuity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Eye test -- acuity; Vision test -- acuity; Snellen test ... from your face. This will test your near vision. ... examination, particularly if there is a change in vision or a problem with vision. In children, the ...

  3. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests for repeated-measures studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Wilkes, R. L.; Baltzley, D. R.; Fowlkes, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the development of the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), a computer battery of mental acuity tests that can be used to assess human performance in the presence of toxic elements and environmental stressors. There were four objectives in the development of APTS. First, the technical requirements for developing APTS followed the tenets of the classical theory of mental tests which requires that tests meet set criteria like stability and reliability (the lack of which constitutes insensitivity). To be employed in the study of the exotic conditions of protracted space flight, a battery with multiple parallel forms is required. The second criteria was for the battery to have factorial multidimensionality and the third was for the battery to be sensitive to factors known to compromise performance. A fourth objective was for the tests to converge on the abilities entailed in mission specialist tasks. A series of studies is reported in which candidate APTS tests were subjected to an examination of their psychometric properties for repeated-measures testing. From this work, tests were selected that possessed the requisite metric properties of stability, reliability, and factor richness. In addition, studies are reported which demonstrate the predictive validity of the tests to holistic measures of intelligence.

  4. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  5. Enhanced tactile acuity through mental states

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Sebastian T.; Kalisch, Tobias; Wachtler, Thomas; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily training typically evokes behavioral and perceptual gains, enforcing neuroplastic processes and affecting neural representations. We investigated the effect on somatosensory perception of a three-day Zen meditation exercise, a purely mental intervention. Tactile spatial discrimination of the right index finger was persistently improved by only 6?hours of mental–sensory focusing on this finger, suggesting that intrinsic brain activity created by mental states can alter perception and behavior similarly to external stimulation. PMID:26310433

  6. Sensitivity of The Dynamic Visual Acuity Test To Sensorimotor Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob; Elizalde, Elizabeth; Fregia, Melody

    1999-01-01

    Post-flight astronauts, acutely post-vestibular nerve section patients, and patients with severe chronic bilateral vestibular deficits have oscillopsia caused by reduced vestibulocular reflex gains and decreased postural stability. Therefore, as previous work has shown, a test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA), in which the subject must read numbers from a computer screen while standing still or walking in place provides a composite measure of sensorimotor integration. This measure may be useful for determining the level of recovery, post-flight, post-operatively, or after vestibular rehabilitation. To determine the sensitivity of DVA to change in impaired populations we have tested patients with acoustic neuromas before and during the first post-operative week after resection of the tumors, and with bilaterally labyrinthine deficient subjects before and after six weeks of balance rehabilitation therapy.

  7. The three point vernier alignment or acuity test (3Pt VA test): an analysis of variance.

    PubMed

    Fang, M S; Enoch, J M; Lakshminarayanan, V; Kim, E; Kono, M; Strada, E; Srinivasan, R

    2000-05-01

    A very useful clinical vernier acuity or vernier alignment test has been developed in this and associated laboratories over a span of two decades. We seek to refine further this test, to seek internal inconsistencies and to optimize parameters used in a variety of devices and environments. Vernier testing, and many aspects of this work have been considered by numerous able scientists over a long time period (not reviewed here), but none have encountered conditions faced by this group, particularly in the developing world. The three point vernier alignment (acuity) threshold test (3Pt VeA test) employed here has broad applications; it can be used as a clinical test of vision status, for triage, and as a reference standard for vision testing (in general). As one example, if sufficient luminance is employed, the test is applicable in the presence of truly dense media disorders, even advanced leucomas, mature cataracts, intraocular bleeds, as well as combinations of these disorders, with or without a window to the retina. Only retinal and centrally-based neural disorders, eccentricity from fixation, and about 50% of hypermature cataracts affect outcomes. With minor alterations, this test can be employed to assess the visual field. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on a defined set of parameters, to enable us to understand better the special properties and requirements associated with this test. Results are not significantly altered between ages 10-94 years (not assessed here). Employing settings well above threshold for test spot detection and well separated individual test spots, changes in test spot luminance, or background luminance (or adaptation level), contrast, veiling glare, test spot size, clear and variously degraded images, seem not to affect meaningfully measured outcomes. If an observer can define well a center of gravity for each test spot viewed, he can align the three points with remarkable precision. PMID:10897344

  8. Visual Vestibular Interaction in the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test during Voluntary Head Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Moo Hoon; Durnford, Simon; Crowley, John; Rupert, Angus

    1996-01-01

    Although intact vestibular function is essential in maintaining spatial orientation, no good screening tests of vestibular function are available to the aviation community. High frequency voluntary head rotation was selected as a vestibular stimulus to isolate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from visual influence. A dynamic visual acuity test that incorporates voluntary head rotation was evaluated as a potential vestibular function screening tool. Twenty-seven normal subjects performed voluntary sinusoidal head rotation at frequencies from 0.7-4.0 Hz under three different visual conditions: visually-enhanced VOR, normal VOR, and visually suppressed VOR. Standardized Baily-Lovie chart letters were presented on a computer monitor in front of the subject, who then was asked to read the letters while rotating his head horizontally. The electro-oculogram and dynamic visual acuity score were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in gain or phase shift among three visual conditions in the frequency range of 2.8 to 4.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity score shifted less than 0.3 logMAR at frequencies under 2.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity test at frequencies a round 2.0 Hz can be recommended for evaluating vestibular function.

  9. Test Re-Test Reliability and Validity of Different Visual Acuity and Stereoacuity Charts Used in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Moganeswari, Diana; Srinivasan, Krithica; Jacob, George P

    2015-01-01

    Background Preschool vision screenings are cost effective ways to detect children with vision impairments. The use of any vision tests in children must be age appropriate, testable, repeatable and valid. Aim To compare the test re-test reliability, sensitivity and specificity of different visual acuity and stereo acuity charts used in preschool children. Materials and Methods Monocular visual acuity of 90 subjects (180 eyes) of age 36 to 71 months was assessed with HOTV, Lea and E-chart in a preschool located in a semi urban area, Manipal, Karnataka. After the vision assessment, stereo acuity was recorded using Frisby and Titmus stereo charts followed by comprehensive eye examination. Repeated measurements of visual acuity and stereo acuity were done one week after the initial assessment. Results Mean age of children was 53± 10 months with equal gender distribution. Intra class correlation (ICC) of Lea, HOTV, E-chart, Frisby and Titmus charts were 0.96, 0.99, 0.92, 1.0 and 1.0 respectively. The area under receiver operating curve (ROC) for Lea and E-chart was 0.892 and 0.776. HOTV was considered as the gold standard as it showed the least difference on repeated measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of E-chart was 99, 15, 45, 94 and 21.8 percent, and Lea was 93, 56, 59 and 92 percent. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Frisby was 75, 27, 9, 92 percent were as of Titmus was 75, 13, 8 and 85 percent respectively. Conclusion HOTV chart can be used as the gold standard for measuring visual acuity of pre-schoolers in a semi urban area. Lea chart can be used in the absence of HOTV chart. Frisby and Titmus charts are good screening tools, but with poor diagnostic criteria. PMID:26675120

  10. An assessment of the iPad as a testing platform for distance visual acuity in adults

    PubMed Central

    Black, J M; Jacobs, R J; Phillips, G; Chen, L; Tan, E; Tran, A; Thompson, B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Visual acuity is a common measurement in general practice, and the advent of new technology such as tablet computers offers a change in the way in which these tests are delivered. The aim of this study was to assess whether measurements of distance visual acuity using LogMAR letter charts displayed on an iPad tablet computer were in agreement with standard clinical tests of visual acuity in adults with normal vision. Design Blinded, diagnostic test study. Setting Single centre (University) in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants University staff and students (n=85). Participants were required to have visual acuity better than 6/60 and wear habitual refractive correction during testing. Participants were excluded if there was any history of ocular pathology. Primary and secondary outcome measures Visual acuity measured under a number of conditions. Results The iPad tablet with its glossy screen was highly susceptible to glare resulting in acuity measurements that were significantly poorer (approximately 2 LogMAR lines) than those made using an ETDRS chart and a standard computerised testing system (n=56). However, fitting the iPad with an antiglare screen and positioning the device away from sources creating reflected (veiling) glare resulted in acuity measurements that were equivalent those made using gold standard charts (n=29). Conclusions Tablet computers are an attractive option for visual acuity measurement due to portability, the ability to randomise letters, automated scoring of acuity and the ability to select from a range of charts. However, these devices are only suitable for use in situations where sources of glare can be eliminated. PMID:23794568

  11. The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The performance of some subjects nicely parallels the stereotypical recovery curve observed in the group mean data. Others show dramatic changes in DVA from one test day to another. These changes may be indicative of a re-adaptation process that is not characterized by a steady improvement with the passage of time, but is instead a dynamic search for appropriate coordinative strategy to achieve the desired gaze stabilization goal. Ground-based data have been collected in our lab using DVA with one of the goals being to improve the DVA test itself. In one of these studies, the DVA test was repeated using a visual target viewing distance of 0.5 meters. While walking, the relative contributions of the otoliths and semi-circular canals that are required to stabilize gaze are affected by visual target viewing distance. It may be possible to exploit this using the current treadmill DVA test to differentially assess changes in these vestibular subsystems. The postflight DVA evaluations currently used have been augmented to include the near target version of the test. Preliminary results from these assessments, as well as the results from the ground-based tests will also be reported. DVA provides a direct measure of a subject's ability to see clearly in the presence of self-motion. The use of the current tests for providing a functionally relevant metric is evident. However, it is possible to expand the scope of DVA testing to include scenarios other than walking. A facility for measuring DVA in the presence of passive movements is being created. Using a mechanized platform to provide the perturbation, it should be possible to simulate aircraft and automobile vibration profiles. Used in conjunction with the far and near visual displays this facility should be able to assess a subject s ability to clearly see distant objects as well as those that appear on the dashboard or instrument control panel during functionally relevant situations.

  12. Mental status testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... being tested cannot read or write, tell the health care provider before the test. If your child is having the test, it ... test is scored from 0 to 30. The test is also divided into sections, ... which part of someone's thinking and memory may be affected.

  13. Brief Report: The Relationship between Visual Acuity, the Embedded Figures Test and Systemizing in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Gwilliam, Lucy R.; Walker, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced performance upon the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has informed psychological theories of the non-social aspects that characterise ASD. The Extreme Male Brain theory of autism proposes that enhanced visual acuity underpins greater attention to detail (assessed by the EFT) which is a…

  14. Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

  15. Development of a Test of Suprathreshold Acuity in Noise in Brazilian Portuguese: A New Method for Hearing Screening and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Vaez, Nara; Desgualdo-Pereira, Liliane; Paglialonga, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: “a hearing check is recommended” (red light), “a hearing check would be advisable” (yellow light), and “no hearing difficulties” (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention. PMID:25247181

  16. Radiologists and visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Quaghebeur, G; Bhattacharya, J J; Murfitt, J

    1997-01-01

    Visual acuity (VA) and potential risks to the radiologist's eyesight have been relatively neglected subjects in the radiological literature. This study comprises two parts, the first consisting of a questionnaire on this subject sent to a random sample of 480 practising radiologists in the United Kingdom, and the second, a spot check of the VA of radiologists in our department. Of questionnaires, 73 %were returned. Of respondents, 76 % felt that ionising radiation could affect their vision, but only 13 % used lead glasses on a regular basis. A total of 71 % felt that regular monitoring of eyesight should be required. Of 25 tested radiologists, 5 had suboptimal VA and could benefit from further correction. The pertinent literature is reviewed, and a case for periodic eyesight testing is presented, including VA and grey-scale discrimination. PMID:9000394

  17. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

  18. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

  19. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

  20. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

  1. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

  2. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  3. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  4. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  5. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  6. Using a Mental Measurements Yearbook Review to Evaluate a Test

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Using a Mental Measurements Yearbook Review to Evaluate a Test Anthony J. Nitko Professor, University of Arizona Introduction Once you have located a test, you will want to read its Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) review. You need to use the review to make judgments about the quality of the test

  7. Hand test characteristics of dual diagnosed mentally retarded older adults.

    PubMed

    Panek, P E; Wagner, E E

    1993-10-01

    The projective Hand Test (Wagner, 1962/1983) was administered to 17 older adults with a dual diagnosis (mental retardation existing concurrently with some form of mental illness) residing in a Midwestern institution for the mentally retarded. Each of these individuals was matched with another resident in the same institution with a single diagnosis of mental retardation on the variables of age, sex, and level of mental retardation to determine differences between the groups on the Hand Test. The dual diagnosis group gave significantly more bizarre (BIZ) responses, whereas the single diagnosis group gave more descriptive (DES) responses. It was contended that these two variables accurately reflect the essential difference between dual and single diagnosed mentally retarded individuals. PMID:8229637

  8. Stereopsis and positional acuity under dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, M S; Hubel, D H

    1994-03-01

    Though experience tells us we can perceive depth in dim light, it is not so obvious that one of the chief mechanisms for depth perception, stereopsis, is possible under scotopic conditions. The only studies on human stereopsis in the dark adapted state seem to be those of Nagel [(1902) Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 27, 264-266] and Mueller and Lloyd [(1948) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 34, 223-227], both of which used real objects or line stereograms. We tested stereopsis using both random-dot and line stereograms and, in agreement with these studies, found that stereopsis is indeed possible in dark adaptation. We also measured stereo acuity and positional acuity (both of which are examples of hyperacuity) and compared these with grating acuity at several levels of light and dark adaptation. At all illumination levels tested, acuities for stereopsis and relative line position were both higher than for grating acuity. As light levels decreased, positional and grating acuity declined in parallel fashion, whereas stereoacuity declined more steeply. PMID:8160394

  9. Color improves “visual” acuity via sound

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Riemer, Dar; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution devices (SSDs) convey visual information via sound, with the primary goal of making visual information accessible to blind and visually impaired individuals. We developed the EyeMusic SSD, which transforms shape, location, and color information into musical notes. We tested the “visual” acuity of 23 individuals (13 blind and 10 blindfolded sighted) on the Snellen tumbling-E test, with the EyeMusic. Participants were asked to determine the orientation of the letter “E.” The test was repeated twice: in one test, the letter “E” was drawn with a single color (white), and in the other test, with two colors (red and white). In the latter case, the vertical line in the letter, when upright, was drawn in red, with the three horizontal lines drawn in white. We found no significant differences in performance between the blind and the sighted groups. We found a significant effect of the added color on the “visual” acuity. The highest acuity participants reached in the monochromatic test was 20/800, whereas with the added color, acuity doubled to 20/400. We conclude that color improves “visual” acuity via sound. PMID:25426015

  10. Set shot shooting performance and visual acuity in basketball.

    PubMed

    Applegate, R A; Applegate, R A

    1992-10-01

    Common sense suggests that decreasing visual acuity will have a negative effect on basketball shooting performance. To test the hypothesis that basketball shooting performance monotonically decreases with decreasing acuity, 19 subjects attempted 25 set shots from a fixed location at each of 5 different acuity levels: 6/6 or better and vision blurred (by optical defocus) to visual acuities of 6/12, 6/24, 6/48, and 6/75. Our results revealed a small but statistically nonsignificant decrease in shooting performance between the 6/6+ and 6/12 conditions. For visual acuities between 6/12 and 6/75, the number of baskets made remained constant. We conclude that decreases in visual acuity over the range of 6/6+ to 6/75 resulting from defocus do not significantly reduce set shot shooting performance. PMID:1436997

  11. High-acuity spatial stream segregation.

    PubMed

    Middlebrooks, John C

    2013-01-01

    In a complex auditory scene, location in space is one of several acoustic features that permit listeners to segregate competing sequences of sounds into discrete perceptual streams. Nevertheless, the spatial acuity of stream segregation is unknown. Moreover, it is not clear whether this is really a spatial effect or whether it reflects a binaural process that only indirectly involves space. We employed "rhythmic masking release" as an objective measure of spatial stream segregation. That task revealed spatial acuity nearly as fine as listeners' discriminations of static locations (i.e., their minimum audible angles). Tests using low-pass, high-pass, and varying-level conditions in the horizontal dimension demonstrated that binaural difference cues provide finer acuity than does any monaural cue and that low-frequency interaural delay cues give finer acuity than do high-frequency interaural level differences. Surprisingly, stream segregation in the vertical dimension, where binaural difference cues are negligible, could be nearly as acute as that in the horizontal dimension. The results show a common spatial underpinning to performance. Nevertheless, a dissociation across conditions between localization acuity and masking-release thresholds suggests that spatial stream segregation is accomplished by brain systems discrete from those responsible for sound-localization judgments. PMID:23716256

  12. Confidence and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke-Simpson, Amanda; Voyer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in…

  13. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  14. RETENTION OF HIGH TACTILE ACUITY THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN IN BLINDNESS

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N.; Cheong, Allen M.Y.; Miller, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip using passive touch have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have re-examined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts requiring active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to Braille and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind Braille readers and sighted subjects, ranging in age from 12 to 85 years, were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically Braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the lifespan. PMID:19064491

  15. Influence of loupes and age on the near visual acuity of practicing dentists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenberger, Martina; Perrin, Philippe; Neuhaus, Klaus W.; Bringolf, Ueli; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the near visual acuity of 40 dentists and its improvement by using different magnification devices. The acuity was tested with miniaturized E-optotype tests on a negatoscope under the following conditions: 1. natural visual acuity, 300 mm; 2. single lens loupe, 2×, 250 mm; 3. Galilean loupe, 2.5×, 380 mm; and 4. Keplerian loupe, 4.3×, 400 mm. In part 1, the influence of the magnification devices was investigated for all dentists. The Keplerian loupe obtained the highest visual acuity (4.64), followed by the Galilean loupe (2.43), the single lens loupe (1.42), and natural visual acuity (1.19). For part 2, the dentists were classified according to their age (=40 years). The younger dentists' group achieved a significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices (p<0.001). For part 3, the dentists were grouped according to their natural visual acuity. The group with the higher natural visual acuity achieved significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices than did the group of dentists with the lower natural visual acuity (p<0.01). It can be concluded that near visual acuity varies highly between individuals and decreases during the lifetime. Independent of age or natural vision, visual acuity can be significantly improved by using magnification devices.

  16. Visual acuity in the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Nguyen, Hoang; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Krubitzer, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Monodelphis domestica (short-tailed opossum) is an emerging animal model for studies of neural development due to the extremely immature state of the nervous system at birth and its subsequent rapid growth to adulthood. Yet little is known about its normal sensory discrimination abilities. In the present investigation, visual acuity was determined in this species using the optokinetic test (OPT), which relies on involuntary head tracking of a moving stimulus and can be easily elicited using a rotating visual stimulus of varying spatial frequencies. Using this methodology, we determined that the acuity of Monodelphis is 0.58 cycles per degree (cpd), which is similar to the acuity of rats using the same methodology, and higher than in mice. However, acuity in the short-tailed opossum is lower than in other marsupials. This is in part due to the methodology used to determine acuity, but may also be due to differences in diel patterns, lifestyle and phylogeny. We demonstrate that for the short-tailed opossum, the OPT is a rapid and reliable method of determining a baseline acuity and can be used to study enhanced acuities due to cortical plasticity. PMID:22871523

  17. Commercialisation of Biomarker Tests for Mental Illnesses: Advances and Obstacles.

    PubMed

    Chan, Man K; Cooper, Jason D; Bahn, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Substantial strides have been made in the field of biomarker research for mental illnesses over the past few decades. However, no US FDA-cleared blood-based biomarker tests have been translated into routine clinical practice. Here, we review the challenges associated with commercialisation of research findings and discuss how these challenges can impede scientific impact and progress. Overall evidence indicates that a lack of research funding and poor reproducibility of findings were the most important obstacles to commercialization of biomarker tests. Fraud, pre-analytical and analytical limitations, and inappropriate statistical analysis are major contributors to poor reproducibility. Increasingly, these issues are acknowledged and actions are being taken to improve data validity, raising the hope that robust biomarker tests will become available in the foreseeable future. PMID:26549771

  18. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  19. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  20. Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

  1. Visual Acuity and the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

  2. Dynamic visual acuity using "far" and "near" targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2005-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: DVA may be useful for assessing the functional consequences of an impaired gaze stabilization mechanism or for testing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation paradigm. Because target distance influences the relative contributions of canal and otolith inputs, the ability to measure DVA at near and far viewing distances may also lead to tests that will independently assess canal and otolith function. OBJECTIVE: To present and test a methodology that uses dynamic visual acuity (DVA) to assess the efficacy of compensatory gaze mechanisms during a functionally relevant activity that differentially measures canal and otolith function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of treadmill walking at a velocity of 1.79 m/s on subjects' visual acuity was assessed at each of two viewing distances. A custom-written threshold determination program was used to display Landolt C optotypes on a laptop computer screen during a "far" (4 m) target condition and on a micro-display for a "near" (50 cm) target condition. The walking acuity scores for each target distance were normalized by subtracting a corresponding acuity measure obtained while standing still on the treadmill belt. RESULTS: As predicted by subjective reports of relative target motion, the decrease in visual acuity was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) for the near compared to the far condition.

  3. Response Classification Images in Vernier Acuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Beard, B. L.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Orientation selective and local sign mechanisms have been proposed as the basis for vernier acuity judgments. Linear image features contributing to discrimination can be determined for a two choice task by adding external noise to the images and then averaging the noises separately for the four types of stimulus/response trials. This method is applied to a vernier acuity task with different spatial separations to compare the predictions of the two theories. Three well-practiced observers were presented around 5000 trials of a vernier stimulus consisting of two dark horizontal lines (5 min by 0.3 min) within additive low-contrast white noise. Two spatial separations were tested, abutting and a 10 min horizontal separation. The task was to determine whether the target lines were aligned or vertically offset. The noises were averaged separately for the four stimulus/response trial types (e.g., stimulus = offset, response = aligned). The sum of the two 'not aligned' images was then subtracted from the sum of the 'aligned' images to obtain an overall image. Spatially smoothed images were quantized according to expected variability in the smoothed images to allow estimation of the statistical significance of image features. The response images from the 10 min separation condition are consistent with the local sign theory, having the appearance of two linear operators measuring vertical position with opposite sign. The images from the abutting stimulus have the same appearance with the two operators closer together. The image predicted by an oriented filter model is similar, but has its greatest weight in the abutting region, while the response images fall to nonsignificance there. The response correlation image method, previously demonstrated for letter discrimination, clarifies the features used in vernier acuity.

  4. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  5. T-CAT: a new thermal camera acuity tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeton, J. M.; Bijl, Piet; Agterhuis, Evert; Kriekaard, Sjaak

    2000-07-01

    T-CAT (Thermal Camera Acuity Tester) is a thermal `eye chart' for measuring the spatial resolution (`sensor acuity') of thermal imaging systems. It is a small, portable system,, that is used in a similar way as the optometrists' visual acuity charts. The design is an implementation of the TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) method for Electro-Optic sensor characterization that has recently been introduced. The purpose of the T-CAT is do quick and easy assessments of thermal imager performance, e.g. for routine testing such as go/nogo decisions. T-CAT measures system performance including the human observer, which is still the best way to assess actual field performance of an imaging device.

  6. The Concept of Visual Acuity Ratio to the Maximum Level of Individual Visual Acuity—The Evaluation Method of Background Luminance and Visual Distance on Visibility Taking into Account of Individual Visual Acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akizuki, Yuki; Inoue, Youko

    We use the maximum level of individual visual acuity (MVA) as an index for the individual visual ability. Also, we define the concept of the ratio of visual acuity under various environmental conditions for the MVA as Visual Acuity Ratio (VAR), in order to describe differences between individual visibilities. An experiment was carried out using various levels of background luminance and visual distance. The visual acuity of subjects in two age groups (Young and Aged) was measured by using Landolt’s eye chart (luminance contrast: 0.93). The Aged subjects’ vision was corrected by two kinds of spectacles: ones for myopia / presbyopia. Under conditions providing sufficient visual acuity, the subjects’ order of individual visual acuity was unchanged. Therefore, MVA can be used as an index for the visual ability of the individual. Regardless of corrected conditions, the individual visual acuity reaches the maximum level under 800cd/m2 and the corrected position. The results of the eyesight test can be used as a substitution for MVA. Visual acuity is changing under environmental conditions, and a degree of the changes varies with age, corrected conditions, and differences in visual acuity. Under the corrected position, the relationship between background luminance and VAR is constant regardless of age group, corrected conditions and differences of visual acuity. The relationship between visual distance and VAR differs by age and corrected conditions. However, in the neighborhood of the corrected position, the relationship between visual distance and VAR is constant regardless of differences between individual visibilities. The concept of VAR is applicable to past studies.

  7. Visual Acuity of Radiologists: The Important but Forgotten Component of the Radiological Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Barbara C.

    This paper reports on a study of visual acuity among radiologists. Twenty-eight radiologists had their visual acuity tested by an optometrist. One week later, 70 medical school faculty radiologists were asked to respond to a printed questionnaire that elicited information about: (1) the date of the respondent's immediately previous examination;…

  8. A Multisite Study of the Prevalence of HIV With Rapid Testing in Mental Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Michael B.; Himelhoch, Seth S.; Balaji, Alexandra B.; Metzger, David S.; Dixon, Lisa B.; Rose, Charles E.; Oraka, Emeka; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Thompson, William W.; Heffelfinger, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated HIV prevalence and risk factors among persons receiving mental health treatment in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, January 2009 to August 2011. Methods. We used a multisite, cross-sectional design stratified by clinical setting. We tested 1061 individuals for HIV in university-based inpatient psychiatric units (n?=?287), intensive case-management programs (n?=?273), and community mental health centers (n?=?501). Results. Fifty-one individuals (4.8%) were HIV-infected. Confirmed positive HIV tests were 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?3.7%, 9.4%) for inpatient units, 5.1% (95% CI?=?3.1%, 8.5%) for intensive case-management programs, and 4.0% (95% CI?=?2.6%, 6.1%) for community mental health centers. Characteristics associated with HIV included Black race, homosexual or bisexual identity, and HCV infection. Conclusions. HIV prevalence for individuals receiving mental health services was about 4 times as high as in the general population. We found a positive association between psychiatric symptom severity and HIV infection, indicating that engaging persons with mental illness in appropriate mental health treatment may be important to HIV prevention. These findings reinforce recommendations for routine HIV testing in all clinical settings to ensure that HIV-infected persons receiving mental health services are identified and referred to timely infectious disease care. PMID:24524493

  9. Physical Fitness Test Battery for Mentally Retarded Children (Trainable and Educable).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fait, Hollis F.

    A physical fitness test battery for educable and trainable mentally handicapped children is presented. Instructions are given for administering the test; descriptions are given of the seven test items, including the 25 yard run, bent arm hang, leg lift, static balance, thrust, and 300 yard run-walk. Rationale for the items and factors in…

  10. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  11. Visual Acuity Assessment in Persons with Dementia. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Alan R.; Teresi, Jeanne; Rosenthal, Bruce; Holmes, Douglas; Yatzkan, Elaine S.

    2004-01-01

    Most studies of vision in persons with Alzheimer's disease either exclude those with advanced dementia or are unable to assess their vision adequately, and therefore, improperly report these persons' visual acuity status. In this study, visual acuity was assessed using the ETDRS Snellen-type acuity chart and Teller Acuity Cards. The Teller Acuity

  12. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  13. Night vision in barn owls: visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Julius; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Barn owls are effective nocturnal predators. We tested their visual performance at low light levels and determined visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of three barn owls by their behavior at stimulus luminances ranging from photopic to fully scotopic levels (23.5 to 1.5 × 10??). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity decreased only slightly from photopic to scotopic conditions. Peak grating acuity was at mesopic (4 × 10?² cd/m²) conditions. Barn owls retained a quarter of their maximal acuity when luminance decreased by 5.5 log units. We argue that the visual system of barn owls is designed to yield as much visual acuity under low light conditions as possible, thereby sacrificing resolution at photopic conditions. PMID:23220576

  14. A Comparison of an Achievement Battery with Two Tests of Ability with Educable Mental Retardates. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Ronald C.; Elliott, Charles

    To find the concurrent validity of two scholastic aptitude tests when a scholastic achievement test was used as a criterion for use in placement of mentally retarded children, 127 subjects were involved. The California Achievement Test (CAT) was used as a criterion measure, and the Primary Mental Abilities test (PMA) and the Slosson Intelligence…

  15. Spatial contrast sensitivity and grating acuity of barn owls.

    PubMed

    Harmening, Wolf M; Nikolay, Petra; Orlowski, Julius; Wagner, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    The eyes of barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola) display very little aberrations, and have thus excellent optical quality. In a series of behavioral experiments, we tested whether this presumably beneficial feature is also reflected at a perceptual level in this species. As fundamental indicators for visual performance, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and grating acuity were measured in two barn owls with psychophysical techniques. Stimulus luminance was 2.7 cd/m(2). The CSF found here renders the typical band-limited, inverted U-shaped function, with a low maximum contrast sensitivity of 8-19 at a spatial frequency of 1 cyc/deg. Grating acuity was estimated from the CSF high frequency cut-off and yielded 3.0-3.7 cyc/deg. In a second experiment, in which contrast was held constant and spatial frequency was varied, grating acuity was measured directly (2.6-4.0 cyc/deg). These results put barn owls at the very low end of the visual acuity spectrum of birds, and demonstrate that visual resolution and sensitivity cannot be predicted by optical considerations alone. PMID:19761328

  16. Age and strength influences on lingual tactile acuity

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Catriona M.; Hill, Lisa; Stokely, Shauna; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Sensory function during the oral processing of liquids is thought to play a key role in informing the tailoring of swallowing motor behaviours to the flow characteristics of the bolus. In addition to taste receptors, the mouth and tongue house trigeminal nerve receptors that support the sensory detection of bolus size, shape (stereognosis), mass, temperature and movement. Recent studies suggest that healthy adults lose tongue strength with advancing age. However, little is known about changes in the sensory function of the tongue attributable to age, or associated with reductions in strength. In this study, we explored lingual tactile acuity in healthy young and older adults, and measured the relationship between tactile acuity and measures of tongue strength. The results showed an age-related reduction in lingual tactile acuity that was not explained by variations in tongue strength. Practical Applications Sensory motor interactions are a topic of interest in understanding the processing activities that take place in the mouth during eating and swallowing. In this paper, we explore a test of sensory acuity in the mouth, in which the tongue is used to “read” embossed letters on Teflon strips. Our questions were to determine whether sensory acuity for this task declines with age, or with age-related reductions in tongue strength. We determined that older people perform this task with less accuracy, suggesting some changes in oral sensory function with age. However, these changes were not related to tongue strength. The findings suggest that strength does not play a major role in the kind of sensory discrimination task tested in this study. PMID:25663715

  17. Personality stability of institutionalized mentally retarded adults as measured by the Hand Test.

    PubMed

    Wagner, E E; Ryan, C A; Panek, P E

    1991-05-01

    Eighty-two institutionalized mentally retarded individuals were administered the Hand Test and a measure of intellectual/cognitive functioning (Stanford-Binet or WAIS-R) in a 3-year test-retest paradigm (longitudinal research design) to investigate the stability of personality during adulthood. Stability of both personality and intellectual functioning during adulthood was observed. Implications are discussed. PMID:2066415

  18. Hand Test Indices of Violent and Destructive Behavior for Institutionalized Mental Retardates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The Hand Test and the maladaptive behavior scale of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) were administered to 78 institutionalized mentally retarded. Significant correlations were found between two purported Hand Test indicators of destructive acting-out behavior and observed violent behavior. (MH)

  19. Relationships between Hand Test variables and mental retardation: a confirmation and extension.

    PubMed

    Panek, P E; Wagner, E E

    1979-12-01

    Eighty-one mentally retarded individuals, including a range of deficiencies (severe, moderate, and mild), were given the Hand Test in order to investigate the relationship between IQ and personality. There were significant correlations between Hand Test personality variables and IQ and different subgroup configurations were noted. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:392070

  20. The Barbee Doll Mentality and the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Enid Williams

    The author suggests that the scoring criteria for the Draw-A-Woman Scale of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test reflect outmoded images and attitudes of the female. The woman-as-sex-object image is called the "Barbee Doll Mentality." This suggestion was tested in a sample of eleven to thirteen-year old sixth graders. The children--44 boys and 62…

  1. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M.; Pelli, Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions—anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia—each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding. PMID:24799622

  2. Motor Fitness Testing Manual for the Moderately Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leon; Londeree, Ben

    The manual provides instructions for adapting the Special Fitness Test and the Special Fitness Test Award System for moderately retarded children. It is noted that major purposes of the test and award system are to motivate youngsters to participate actively in physical education and recreation activities and give them feelings of accomplishment…

  3. Sympathetic neural reactivity to mental stress in humans: test-retest reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Fonkoue, Ida T; Carter, Jason R

    2015-12-01

    Mental stress consistently increases arterial blood pressure, but this reliable pressor response is often associated with highly variable muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responsiveness between individuals. Although MSNA has been shown to be reproducible within individuals at rest and during the cold pressor test (CPT), intraindividual reproducibility of MSNA responsiveness to mental stress has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this study was to examine MSNA reactivity to mental stress across three experimental sessions. Sixteen men and women (age 21 ± 1 yr) performed two experimental sessions within a single laboratory visit and a third experimental session 1 mo later. Each experimental session consisted of a mental stress trial via mental arithmetic and a CPT trial. Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured, and the consistencies of these variables were determined using intraclass correlation (Cronbach's ? coefficient). MSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and HR were highly reproducible across the baselines preceding mental stress (Cronbach's ? ? 0.816, P ? 0.001) and CPT (Cronbach's ? ? 0.782, P ? 0.001). Across the three mental stress trials, changes in MSNA (Cronbach's ? = 0.875; P = 0.001), MAP (Cronbach's ? = 0.749; P < 0.001), and HR (Cronbach's ? = 0.919; P < 0.001) were reproducible. During CPT, changes in MSNA (Cronbach's ? = 0.805; P = 0.008), MAP (Cronbach's ? = 0.878; P < 0.001), and HR (Cronbach's ? = 0.927; P < 0.001) remained consistent across the three sessions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that MSNA reactivity to mental stress is consistent within a single laboratory visit and across laboratory sessions conducted on separate days. PMID:26400186

  4. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores. PMID:16060458

  5. Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Maria Paz; Jellinek, Michael; George, Myriam; Hartley, Marcela; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; Canenguez, Katia M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Yucel, Recai; White, Gwyne W; Guzman, Javier; Murphy, J Michael

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher- and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about one-fifth of the country's elementary schools. In fourth grade, students take the national achievement tests (SIMCE) of language, mathematics and science. This study examined whether mental health problems identified through either or both screens predicted achievement test scores after controlling for student and family risk factors. A total of 17,252 students had complete first grade teacher forms and these were matched with fourth grade SIMCE data for 11,185 students, 7,903 of whom also had complete parent form data from the first grade. Students at risk on either the TOCA-RR or the PSC-Cl or both performed significantly worse on all SIMCE subtests. Even after controlling for covariates and adjusting for missing data, students with mental health problems on one screen in first grade had fourth grade achievement scores that were 14-18 points (~1/3 SD) lower than students screened as not at risk. Students at risk on both screens had scores that were on average 33 points lower than students at risk on either screen. Mental health problems in first grade were one of the strongest predictors of lower achievement test scores 3 years later, supporting the premise that for children mental health matters in the real world. PMID:21647553

  6. Screening for Significant Refractive Error Using a Combination of Distance Visual Acuity and Near Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Peiyao; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Qiangqiang; He, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effectiveness of using a series of tests combining near visual acuity (NVA) and distance visual acuity (DVA) for large-scale screenings for significant refractive error (SRE) in primary school children. Method Each participant underwent DVA, NVA and cycloplegic autorefraction measurements. SREs, including high myopia, high hyperopia and high astigmatism were analyzed. Cycloplegic refraction results were considered to be the gold standard for the comparison of different screening measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to compare the area under the curve (AUC) and the Youden index among DVA, NVA and the series combined tests of DVA and NVA. The efficacies (including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) of each test were evaluated. Only the right eye data of each participant were analysed for statistical purpose. Result A total of 4416 children aged 6 to 12 years completed the study, among which 486 students had right eye SRE (SRE prevalence rate = 11.01%). There was no difference in the prevalence of high hyperopia and high astigmatism among different age groups. However, the prevalence of high myopia significantly increased with the age (?² = 381.81, p<0.01). High hyperopia was the biggest SRE factor associated with amblyopia?p?0.01?OR = 167.40, 95% CI: 75.14?372.94). The DVA test was better than the NVA test for detecting high myopia (Z = 2.71, p<0.01), but the NVA test was better for detecting high hyperopia (Z = 2.35, p = 0.02) and high astigmatism (Z = 4.45, p<0.01). The series combined DVA and NVA test had the biggest AUC and the highest Youden Index for detecting high hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, as well as all of the SREs (all p<0.01). Conclusion The series combined DVA and NVA test was more accurate for detecting SREs than either of the two tests alone. This new method could be applied to large-scale SRE screening of children, aged 6 to 12, in areas that are less developed. PMID:25689600

  7. Generalisation, decision making, and embodiment effects in mental rotation: A neurorobotic architecture tested with a humanoid robot.

    PubMed

    Seepanomwan, Kristsana; Caligiore, Daniele; Cangelosi, Angelo; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    Mental rotation, a classic experimental paradigm of cognitive psychology, tests the capacity of humans to mentally rotate a seen object to decide if it matches a target object. In recent years, mental rotation has been investigated with brain imaging techniques to identify the brain areas involved. Mental rotation has also been investigated through the development of neural-network models, used to identify the specific mechanisms that underlie its process, and with neurorobotics models to investigate its embodied nature. Current models, however, have limited capacities to relate to neuro-scientific evidence, to generalise mental rotation to new objects, to suitably represent decision making mechanisms, and to allow the study of the effects of overt gestures on mental rotation. The work presented in this study overcomes these limitations by proposing a novel neurorobotic model that has a macro-architecture constrained by knowledge held on brain, encompasses a rather general mental rotation mechanism, and incorporates a biologically plausible decision making mechanism. The model was tested using the humanoid robot iCub in tasks requiring the robot to mentally rotate 2D geometrical images appearing on a computer screen. The results show that the robot gained an enhanced capacity to generalise mental rotation to new objects and to express the possible effects of overt movements of the wrist on mental rotation. The model also represents a further step in the identification of the embodied neural mechanisms that may underlie mental rotation in humans and might also give hints to enhance robots' planning capabilities. PMID:26604095

  8. Community Mental Health Service Providers' Codes of Ethics and the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacc, Nicholas A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Nilsen, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    Compares the codes of ethics of 13 professional organizations for community mental health service providers. Results suggest that only two of the codes of ethics address many of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing." Provides implications and recommendations for professional organizations. (Contains 20 references and 1 table.)…

  9. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

  10. Understanding and Testing Risk Mechanisms for Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been a virtual revolution in thinking about risk mechanisms. The key areas of challenge and opportunity include: identification of environmental causes; use of natural experiments; gene-environment interaction; testing for mediation; developmental moderation; biological programming; and developmental perturbations.

  11. Visual acuity and foveal cone density in the retina of the aged rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Ordy, J M; Brizee, K R; Hansche, J

    1980-01-01

    The specific aims of this study were to examine age differences in visual acuity among young adult (5 years), middle aged (12 years) and aged (22 years) rhesus monkeys in relation to foveal cone density in the diurnal duplex retina. Classically, acuity has been defined as the reciprocal of the least resolvable detail measured in minutes of visual angle. The minimum separable binocular acuity mean of the young adult group was 0.83 ± 0.11, middle age acuity mean was 0.86 ± 0.12, and the acuity mean of the aged monkeys was 2.0 - 0.70 minutes of visual angle. According to analysis of variance and multiple range tests for specific group means, the 0.83' acuity m mean of the young, and the 0.86' acuity mean of the middle age group did not differ significantly, whereas the 2.0' acuity mean of the old group differed significantly from the 2 younger age groups. Foveal cone density was determined morphometrically by assesmeent of cone inner segment width, and absolute cone inner segment number per 100 Am along the horizontal meridian of the pure cone, rod free 1° × 1° foveola. Foveal cone density decreased significantly from 44.16 per 100 Am in the middle age group to 39.00 per 100 Am in the old macaque group. Since the diurnal macaque is of the same taxonomic order as man, and the visual systems of the two species are directly comparable in terms of ac acuity and the central receptive field organization of the retino-geniculo-striate system, it may be concluded that the macaque may represent an attractive and valid model for studies of aging in photopic and scotopic vision of diurnal primates, including man. PMID:24279936

  12. Potential acuity meter for predicting visual acuity after Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Smiddy, W.E.; Radulovic, D.; Yeo, J.H.; Stark, W.J.; Maumenee, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    We studied 30 patients with opacifications of the posterior capsule to determine if the potential acuity meter (PAM) could accurately predict final visual outcome after Nd:YAG discussion. The final visual acuity was within one line of the PAM prediction in 22 of 30 patients (73%), better by two or more lines in seven patients (23%), and worse in one patient (4%) by two lines. Although in thicker capsules the final acuity was occasionally better than the PAM prediction, the rates of false negative and false positive predictions were very low. Mild cystoid macular edema (3 patients), age-related macular degeneration (3 patients), intraocular lens status, and level of initial acuity did not diminish PAM accuracy. The PAM effectively predicts final visual acuity after YAG posterior capsulotomy, when used in a patient, unhurried manner.

  13. Visual acuity and the developing visual system.

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, D C

    1978-10-01

    The objective measurement of visual acuity in infants is reviewed. Recent techniques have shown that visual acuity levels as early as four to six months after birth. This and other evidence indicates that the most sensitive period in the development of the visual system may be during the first six months of life. With this as a rationale, it is suggested that eye care practitioners consider eye examinations and correction of refractive errors during infancy as a means of prevention of future strabismus and amblyopia. PMID:730982

  14. A new paradigm to induce mental stress: the Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST)

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages on a screen, interleaved with 1-min time intervals. The final message is that the participant should sing a song aloud after the interval has elapsed. Participants sit still during the whole procedure. We found that heart rate and skin conductance during the 1-min intervals following the sing-a-song stress message are substantially higher than during intervals following neutral messages. The order of magnitude of the rise is comparable to that achieved by the Trier Social Stress Test. Skin conductance increase correlates positively with experienced stress level as reported by participants. We also simulated stress detection in real time. When using both skin conductance and heart rate, stress is detected for 18 out of 20 participants, approximately 10 s after onset of the sing-a-song message. In conclusion, the Sing-a-Song Stress Test provides a quick, easy, controlled and potent way to induce mental stress and could be helpful in studies ranging from examining physiological effects of mental stress to evaluating interventions to reduce stress. PMID:25120425

  15. Test Bias in the Intermediate Mental Alertness, Mechanical Comprehension, Blox and High Level Figure Classification Tests. An NTB/HSRC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holburn, P. T.

    Research is reported on four tests commonly used in South Africa to select apprentices, the Intermediate Mental Alertness Test, the High Level Figure Classification Test, the Blox Test, and the Mechanical Comprehension Test. Samples were as follows: (1) 206 Asian, 208 Black, 102 Coloured, and 99 White mostly male applicants for sugar industry…

  16. Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

  17. Preoperative visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in children with small, partial, or non-central cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Eileen E.; Subramanian, Vidhya; Patel, Christina Cheng; Stager, David

    2013-01-01

    Background While there is clear evidence that dense central cataracts >3 mm diameter warrant prompt intervention to prevent deprivation amblyopia, guidelines for management of small, partial and non-central cataracts are not evidence-based. Consensus guidelines advise managing affected infants and preschool children by monitoring for possible progression in size or density and pharmacologic pupillary dilation, if indicated. Extraction is deemed necessary if the cataract progresses sufficiently to obscure the visual axis or if strabismus or nystagmus develops. We evaluated the long-term visual acuity outcome of the consensus guidelines and whether sensory testing during infancy and early childhood may be helpful in guiding treatment. Methods A total of 40 consecutive children diagnosed with small, partial, or non-central cataracts at 1 week to 2.5 years of age were enrolled in a prospective study of forced-choice preferential looking visual acuity and contrast sensitivity development. Long-term visual acuity outcome was assessed by crowded HOTV or ETDRS at 4–11 years. Results Of the 40 children managed by consensus guidelines, 24 (60%) had abnormal visual acuity at 4–11 years of age, including 9 (23%) who had moderate to severe visual impairment (20/80 or worse) in one or both eyes. Abnormal visual acuity and contrast sensitivity during development were predictive of abnormal long-term visual acuity outcomes. Conclusions Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity tests were sensitive to the effects of visual deprivation on the developing visual system and may be useful in early identification of children with small, partial, or non-central cataracts who could benefit from cataract extraction. PMID:23993715

  18. Social class and mental health: testing exploitation as a relational determinant of depression.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as "ownership type" (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and "managerial domination" (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  19. Night driving (mesopic) visual acuity in sober male alcoholics with and without liver disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T D; Sampliner, R E; Russell, R M; Garrett, M S

    1981-01-01

    Night driving (mesopic) visual acuity and recovery after dazzle has been reported to be reduced in patients with liver disease. Mesopic visual acuity and dazzle recovery were evaluated in 32 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, 29 alcoholics without liver disease, and 27 age-matched normal controls. All subjects were sober for at least 7 days prior to visual testing, a mean sobriety period of 22 and 39 weeks in alcoholics and cirrhotics, respectively. Serum vitamin A levels and/or dark adaptation were normal in all. Mean best decimal acuities were not significantly different among the groups: alcoholic cirrhotics, 0.32 +/- 0.02; alcoholics, 0.32 +/- 0.02; and normals 0.33 +/- 0.03 at 2 min. Although cirrhotics had significantly higher SGOT and lower albumin levels than alcoholics, mesopic acuity did not relate to liver blood tests. Decimal acuity following a dazzle stimulus was not significantly worse in cirrhotics and alcoholics compared to normals. Sober patients with alcoholic cirrhosis or a history of alcoholism have no evidence of a static mesopic visual defect and therefore may not have impaired night driving vision. PMID:7013544

  20. Visual Acuity Using Head-fixed Displays During Passive Self and Surround Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Black, F. Owen; Stallings, Valerie; Peters, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The ability to read head-fixed displays on various motion platforms requires the suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflexes. This study examined dynamic visual acuity while viewing a head-fixed display during different self and surround rotation conditions. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to report the orientation of Landolt C optotypes presented on a micro-display fixed to a rotating chair at 50 cm distance. Acuity thresholds were determined by the lowest size at which the subjects correctly identified 3 of 5 optotype orientations at peak velocity. Visual acuity was compared across four different conditions, each tested at 0.05 and 0.4 Hz (peak amplitude of 57 deg/s). The four conditions included: subject rotated in semi-darkness (i.e., limited to background illumination of the display), subject stationary while visual scene rotated, subject rotated around a stationary visual background, and both subject and visual scene rotated together. Visual acuity performance was greatest when the subject rotated around a stationary visual background; i.e., when both vestibular and visual inputs provided concordant information about the motion. Visual acuity performance was most reduced when the subject and visual scene rotated together; i.e., when the visual scene provided discordant information about the motion. Ranges of 4-5 logMAR step sizes across the conditions indicated the acuity task was sufficient to discriminate visual performance levels. The background visual scene can influence the ability to read head-fixed displays during passive motion disturbances. Dynamic visual acuity using head-fixed displays can provide an operationally relevant screening tool for visual performance during exposure to novel acceleration environments.

  1. Is there a "special relationship" between unconscious emotions and visual imagery? Evidence from a mental rotation test.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Nicola

    2011-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in the relationship between imagery and emotion (e.g., Holmes & Mathews, 2005). The present research examined whether unconscious emotions affect visual imagery. In particular, participants were invited to perform a mental rotation test following subliminal presentation of happy, sad and neutral expressions. This study revealed an increase in mental rotation abilities after unconscious visual processing of emotional expressions. Altogether, these findings support the hypothesis of a bidirectional relationship between imagery and emotions. PMID:21075008

  2. Constructive Replication of the Visual-Perceptual-Image Rotation Model in Thurstone's (1941) Battery of 60 Tests of Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W.; Bouchard, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relative statistical performance of the Cattell-Horn fluid-crystallized model and the Vernon verbal-perceptual model of the structure of human intelligence in a sample of 436 adults heterogeneous for age, place of origin, and educational background who completed 42 separate tests of mental ability from three test

  3. Stream segregation with high spatial acuity.

    PubMed

    Middlebrooks, John C; Onsan, Zekiye A

    2012-12-01

    Spatial hearing is widely regarded as helpful in recognizing a sound amid other competing sounds. It is a matter of debate, however, whether spatial cues contribute to "stream segregation," which refers to the specific task of assigning multiple interleaved sequences of sounds to their respective sources. The present study employed "rhythmic masking release" as a measure of the spatial acuity of stream segregation. Listeners discriminated between rhythms of noise-burst sequences presented from free-field targets in the presence of interleaved maskers that varied in location. For broadband sounds in the horizontal plane, target-masker separations of ?8° permitted rhythm discrimination with d' ? 1; in some cases, such thresholds approached listeners' minimum audible angles. Thresholds were the same for low-frequency sounds but were substantially wider for high-frequency sounds, suggesting that interaural delays provided higher spatial acuity in this task than did interaural level differences. In the vertical midline, performance varied dramatically as a function of noise-burst duration with median thresholds ranging from >30° for 10-ms bursts to 7.1° for 40-ms bursts. A marked dissociation between minimum audible angles and masking release thresholds across the various pass-band and burst-duration conditions suggests that location discrimination and spatial stream segregation are mediated by distinct auditory mechanisms. PMID:23231120

  4. From visual acuity to hyperacuity: a 10-year update.

    PubMed

    Gwiazda, J; Bauer, J; Held, R

    1989-06-01

    Visual acuity, the most basic measure of developing pattern vision in human infants, has been used extensively for detecting anomalies of vision and oculomotor coordination. In the past 10 years much has been learned about the development of two hyperacuities, namely, vernier acuity and stereoacuity. These two acuities become superior to grating acuity after the third month and remain so throughout life. Compared to females, males show slower development of stereopsis and vernier acuity, but not grating acuity, during the third through sixth months. We have suggested that this may result from the neurotrophic effects of the early pulse of testosterone found in males. Measures of vernier acuity have proven effective in detecting meridional amblyopia in older children who had significant astigmatism in the first year and subsequently lost it. The susceptible period for acquiring meridional amblyopia extends from the second half of the first year to at least the end of the second year. Deviations from the typical oblique effect (equal acuity for vertical and horizontal edges; equal, but lower, acuity for left oblique and right oblique) may result from uncorrected astigmatism early in life. PMID:2486491

  5. Mesopic Functional Visual Acuity in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Takahiro; Hoshi, Sujin; Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Fumiki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate mesopic functional visual acuity (FVA) with a newly developed system in normal subjects and to compare the results with photopic FVA, sixty-eight healthy volunteers (24.03 ± 4.42 [mean ± standard deviation] years) were enrolled in this study. A commercially available FVA measurement system (AS-28; Kowa, Aichi, Japan) was modified to measure FVA under mesopic conditions as well as photopic conditions. Measurements were performed monocularly in photopic conditions during 60 seconds. After dark adaptation for 15 minutes, the same measurements were repeated in mesopic conditions. Outcomes included starting visual acuity (VA), FVA (the average of VAs), visual maintenance ratio (VMR), maximum VA, minimum VA, and numbers of blinks during the 60-second measurement session, and were compared between mesopic and photopic conditions. Starting VA was –0.11 ± 0.08 and 0.39 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) in photopic and mesopic conditions, respectively. FVA was –0.06 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.14 logMAR, VMR was 0.98 ± 0.02 and 0.94 ± 0.04, maximum VA was –0.15 ± 0.06 and 0.33 ± 0.12 logMAR, the minimum VA was 0.05 ± 0.12 and 0.78 ± 0.20 logMAR, and the number of blinks was 8.23 ± 7.54 and 7.23 ± 6.20, respectively. All these parameters except the number of blinks were significantly different between the two conditions (P < 0.001). Besides, the difference between maximum and minimum VAs and standard deviation of VA were significantly larger in mesopic than in photopic conditions (P < 0.001). This study revealed that not only overall visual function decline but also instability of vision under mesopic conditions even in healthy subjects. PMID:26218066

  6. Effect of Trichiasis Surgery on Visual Acuity Outcomes in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Woreta, Tinsay A.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; Gower, Emily W.; Alemayehu, Wondu; West, Sheila K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of trichiasis surgery on visual acuity. Methods A total of 439 participants in the Surgery for Trichiasis, Antibiotics to Prevent Recurrence (STAR) trial had visual and subjective concerns measured before and 6 months after surgery. Trichiasis surgery was performed in at least 1 eye by integrated eye care workers. Visual acuity was measured using illiterate E versions of Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study charts with standardized, forced-choice procedures. Improvement was defined as improvement in visual acuity greater than 1 line (5 letters). Results The mean improvement in visual acuity for the eyes that had surgery was 0.129 logMAR units (P<.001). Surgery was associated with improvement in visual acuity compared with no surgery (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–2.70). Independent predictors of visual acuity improvement in the eyes that had surgery included the number of lashes touching the globe prior to surgery and baseline visual acuity. Among patients, 93.8% described significant pain and 90.4% significant photophobia at baseline compared with only 1.4% and 0.9%, respectively, following surgery. Conclusions Surgery to correct trichiasis appears to provide significant visual acuity improvement as well as a decrease in subjective concerns in patients with trachomatous trichiasis. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00347776 PMID:19901217

  7. A Comparison of Patched HOTV Visual Acuity and Photoscreening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Rachel; Clausen, Michelle M.; Bates, Janice; Stark, Lee; Arnold, Koni K.; Arnold, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of significant vision problems in children is a high priority for pediatricians and school nurses. Routine vision screening is a necessary part of that detection and has traditionally involved acuity charts. However, photoscreening in which "red eye" is elicited to show whether each eye is focusing may outperform routine acuity

  8. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section...Eligibility Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each...paragraph (j) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed...

  9. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section...Eligibility Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each...paragraph (j) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed...

  10. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section...Eligibility Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each...paragraph (j) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed...

  11. Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Falkmer, Marita; Ordqvist, Anna; Leung, Denise; Foster, Jonathan K.; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  12. Pilot testing of a questionnaire for the evaluation of mental health services in family health team clinics in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Farmanova, Elina; Grenier, Jean; Chomienne, Marie-Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Family health teams (FHTs), regarded today as a premier model of provision of primary care services in North America, were introduced in 2004 to improve traditionally fragmented primary healthcare in Ontario. Physicians and healthcare providers from various disciplines team up under the same roof in FHTs to provide and coordinate care and to ensure adequate access to and continuity of care. Because many Canadians with mental health problems consult family physicians in primary care, routine evaluation of the delivery of primary mental health care services in FHTs is becoming important. The authors' goal was to develop and test an evaluation tool (containing a questionnaire for patients and a questionnaire for providers) for mental health services provided in FHTs with a focus on accessibility, availability, quality, continuity of care and coordination of services. They developed and pilot tested an English-French tailored evaluation instrument in several FHTs in South East, Champlain and North East Local Health Integration Networks across Ontario. A convenience sample of English- and French-speaking healthcare providers and patients using mental health services was recruited. Provider and patient questionnaires were developed and pilot-tested with 12 providers and 10 clients. Patient reviewers rated the patient questionnaire consistently as "good" or "very good." Provider reviewers found the provider questionnaire to be important and timely and the questions to be adequate and interesting. This instrument evaluates, from both the patient and provider perspectives, whether mental health services are structured to meet expectations set for FHTs, and enables healthcare providers, administrators and policy makers to learn about the benefits and the deficiencies of mental health care delivered through these clinics. This instrument can also be used to enhance future research and evaluation of FHTs. Further validation effort will be required to establish its validity and reliability. PMID:24485246

  13. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players. PMID:22614142

  14. Using basketball test battery to monitor players with mental retardation across 2 sports seasons.

    PubMed

    Baldari, Carlo; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Reis, Victor Machado; Guidetti, Laura

    2009-11-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, literature concerning basketball test and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to assess basketball ability before (PRE) and after (POST) a 6-month training in athletes with MR across 2 sports seasons (ss) and to analyze the variation of basketball abilities by subjects' MR level. Fifteen trained basketball players with MR participated (11 men and 4 women; age range 19-43 years; MR: 3 Mild, 8 Moderate, 3 Severe, and 1 Profound). Athletes were tested PRE and POST a 6-month training during 2 following sports seasons (ss1 and ss2). The tests assessed 4 ability levels, each one characterized by the analysis of 4 fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting), divided into 5 specific components. The athletes' global score improved after training in both ss1 (41.5 +/- 12.0 vs. 48.6 +/- 15.4; p < 0.01) and ss2 (41.7 +/- 12.4 vs. 50.8 +/- 16.2; p < 0.01). Levels II, III, and IV showed an increase both after each ss and the 2 following ss (p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between POST-ss1 and POST-ss2 due to score decrease during the resting period between the 2 ss. In both ss, global and level scores were negatively correlated to MR level indicating that athletes with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, a 6-month training caused a general improvement, especially evident in levels II and III in both ss. Global and level scores were negatively correlated to MR level (p < 0.05) indicating that athletes with a lower MR obtained higher scores. Therefore, the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training. PMID:19826289

  15. Community Mental Health Services for Hispanics: A Test of the Culture Compatibility Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Lasso, Bethsabe

    1992-01-01

    Among 161 Hispanic clients in the community mental health system of Seattle-King County (Washington), the dropout rate (after 1 session) was lower, and number of therapy sessions was greater for those who received services from Hispanic staff or at a Hispanic community mental health center than those who received services from non-Hispanic staff…

  16. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

  17. Vernier acuity of normal and visually deprived cats.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K M; Mitchell, D E

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between grating and vernier acuity in cats that were either normally reared, unilaterally amblyopic as a result of a period of monocular deprivation, or bilaterally amblyopic resulting from a period of reverse occlusion followed by binocular visual experience. Vernier acuity was assessed on a jumping stand by use of a vernier-grating stimulus similar to that devised for use with human infants. The vernier thresholds for normal cats were 1.2-1.3 min arc, values that were approx. 6 times better than their grating acuity, and hence may represent a true hyperacuity. By contrast, the vernier acuity of the visually deprived cats were substantially below normal (19-83 min arc). The vernier thresholds for the deprived eye of the monocularly deprived cat and both eyes of the reverse occluded cats had fallen to the point where they were at best equal, and sometimes worse than the corresponding grating acuity. This pattern of results is similar to those observed in some types of human amblyopia, where vernier acuity also no longer represents a hyperacuity, and where in severe cases the thresholds may be worse than grating acuity. PMID:2017886

  18. Near-vision acuity levels and performance on neuropsychological assessments used in occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda A; Bassi, Carl J

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how induced blur affects performance on the Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol Test routinely used in occupational therapy cognitive evaluations. The study used a factorial design with both age (young and old adults) and simulated blur levels of near visual acuity (20/50 and 20/100) manipulated between participants. A sample of 124 healthy, community-living adults was used in the final analysis. Significant differences (p<.05) were found in performance for young participants between 20/50 and 20/100 blur level as well as between 20/20 and 20/100 blur level for the Digit Symbol Test. Scores for old participants decreased as a function of blur but were not significant. This study illustrates that cognitive evaluations used throughout the lifespan may require the appropriate visual acuity level to maximize performance. Occupational therapists' understanding of client factors and their effect on performance is fundamental to the client evaluation process. PMID:20131570

  19. Dynamic Visual Acuity and Landing Sickness in Crewmembers Returning from Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M.J.F; Peters, B.T.; Reschke, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity causes sensorimotor adaptations that result in functional deficits upon returning to a gravitational environment. At landing the vestibular system and the central nervous system, responsible for coordinating head and eye movements, are adapted to microgravity and must re-adapt to the gravitational environment. This re-adaptation causes decrements in gaze control and dynamic visual acuity, with astronauts reporting oscillopsia and blurred vision. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is assessed using an oscillating chair developed in the Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC. This chair is lightweight and easily portable for quick deployment in the field. The base of the chair is spring-loaded and allows for manual oscillation of the subject. Using a metronome, the chair is vertically oscillated plus or minus 2 cm at 2 Hz by an operator, to simulate walking. While the subject is being oscillated, they are asked to discern the direction of Landolt-C optotypes of varying sizes and record their direction using a gamepad. The visual acuity thresholds are determined using an algorithm that alters the size of the optotype based on the previous response of the subject using a forced-choice best parameter estimation that is able to rapidly converge on the threshold value. Visual acuity thresholds were determined both for static (seated) and dynamic (oscillating) conditions. Dynamic visual acuity is defined as the difference between the dynamic and static conditions. Dynamic visual acuity measures will be taken prior to flight (typically L-180, L-90, and L-60) and up to eight times after landing, including up to 3 times on R plus 0. Follow up measurements will be taken at R plus 1 (approximately 36 hours after landing). Long-duration International Space Station crewmembers will be tested once at the refueling stop in Europe and once again upon return to Johnson Space Center. In addition to DVA, subjective ratings of motion sickness will be recorded throughout the testing. Using the chair as a portable and reliable way to test DVA, we aim to test returning astronauts to assess the amount of retinal slip that they experience. By comparing these measurements to their motion sickness scores (using a scale of 1 to 20 where 20 is vomiting), we will correlate the amount of retinal slip to the level of motion sickness experienced. In addition to testing this in returning astronauts, we will perform ground-based studies to determine the effectiveness of stroboscopic goggles in reducing retinal slip and improving DVA. Finally, we will employ stroboscopic goggles in the field to astronauts experiencing high levels of motion sickness to minimize retinal slip and reduce their symptoms.

  20. [An epidemiological study regarding the hearing acuity of residents in the area with high level of aircraft noise: results of hearing tests conducted in the vicinity of Kadena Air Base].

    PubMed

    Miyakita, T; Yoza, T; Matsui, T; Ito, A; Hiramatsu, K; Osada, Y; Yamamoto, T

    2001-10-01

    Hearing tests, primary and secondary, were conducted in two communities vicinal to Kadena US Air Base in Okinawa from May 1996 to July 1998. The noise exposure expressed in WECPNL as designated by the Defense Facilities Administration Agency ranged from 85 to 95 and above. A total of 2035 subjects aged between 25 and 69 years inclusive were considered eligible for inclusion in this study and among them 137 males and 206 females underwent the primary test. Before the test, subjects were asked about hearing difficulty, tinnitus, otological anamnesis and past experience of noise exposure at work and/or hobbies. The primary test was a pure tone audiometry using the ascending method of limits with 5 dB step at 7 test frequencies of 0.5 to 8 kHz. Forty individuals who were judged to have possible noise induced hearing loss were sent to Okinawa Chubu Hospital as subjects for the secondary test. The secondary test consisted of pure tone audiometry with 1 dB step at 9 test frequencies with the addition of 3 kHz and 6 kHz to the primary test frequencies, a Short Increment Sensitivity Index (SISI), test, tympanometry and audioscan audiometry. Based on test findings 12 subjects were considered to have noise induced hearing loss. The examiners interviewed the 12 subjects again to confirm that they had not experienced habitual or repeated intense noise exposure other than aircraft noise exposure around their homes. The geographical distribution of the subject's residences showed their proximity to the airfield, which strongly suggests that the cause of hearing loss may be exposure to aircraft noise from Kadena Air Base. PMID:11692623

  1. Improving the reliability of visual acuity measures in young children

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    with amblyopia. 7 2000 The College of Optometrists. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Introduction Visual acuity of Optometrists. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain 0275

  2. Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

  3. Acoustic basis of directional acuity in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Amanda M; Slee, Sean J; May, Bradford J

    2011-10-01

    The acoustic basis of auditory spatial acuity was investigated in CBA/129 mice by relating patterns of behavioral errors to directional features of the head-related transfer function (HRTF). Behavioral performance was assessed by training the mice to lick a water spout during sound presentations from a "safe" location and to suppress the response during presentations from "warning" locations. Minimum audible angles (MAAs) were determined by delivering the safe and warning sounds from different locations in the inter-aural horizontal and median vertical planes. HRTFs were measured at the same locations by implanting a miniature microphone and recording the gain of sound energy near the ear drum relative to free field. Mice produced an average MAA of 31° when sound sources were located in the horizontal plane. Acoustic measures indicated that binaural inter-aural level differences (ILDs) and monaural spectral features of the HRTF change systematically with horizontal location and therefore may have contributed to the accuracy of behavioral performance. Subsequent manipulations of the auditory stimuli and the directional properties of the ear produced errors that suggest the mice primarily relied on ILD cues when discriminating changes in azimuth. The MAA increased beyond 80° when the importance of ILD cues was minimized by testing in the median vertical plane. Although acoustic measures demonstrated a less robust effect of vertical location on spectral features of the HRTF, this poor performance provides further evidence for the insensitivity to spectral cues that was noted during behavioral testing in the horizontal plane. PMID:21717290

  4. Tinted windshield and its effects on aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Arbab, Mehran

    2008-10-01

    Increasingly, automobile designers are utilizing tinted glasses for concept cars, specialty models, or to differentiate their vehicles. The objective of this study was to assess whether alternating different tinted windshields would affect aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response. Two commercially available windshields (bluish and greenish with same transmittance) were compared. The tests of visual acuity, contrast threshold, glare detection, and discomfort glare rating were performed to address the windshield effects on both the older and younger populations. Fourteen elderly and seven young individuals participated in the study. The results indicated that alternating between the tested tinted windshields would not affect drivers' visual performance for both age groups. The implications and future research are discussed. PMID:20582251

  5. Tinted windshield and its effects on aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Arbab, Mehran

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, automobile designers are utilizing tinted glasses for concept cars, specialty models, or to differentiate their vehicles. The objective of this study was to assess whether alternating different tinted windshields would affect aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response. Two commercially available windshields (bluish and greenish with same transmittance) were compared. The tests of visual acuity, contrast threshold, glare detection, and discomfort glare rating were performed to address the windshield effects on both the older and younger populations. Fourteen elderly and seven young individuals participated in the study. The results indicated that alternating between the tested tinted windshields would not affect drivers' visual performance for both age groups. The implications and future research are discussed. PMID:20582251

  6. Motor Testing at 1 Year Improves the Prediction of Motor and Mental Outcome at 2 Years after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schie, Petra Em; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Barkhof, Frederik; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) in 32 surviving children (20 males, 12…

  7. A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

  8. Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity and Color Vision Three Years After Iodine-125 Brachytherapy for Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Irena; Beardsley, Robert M; McCannel, Tara A; Oliver, Scott C; Chun, Melissa W; Lee, Steve P; Chow, Phillip E; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Yu, Fei; Straatsma, Bradley R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To report visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and color vision prior to, 1 year after, 2 years after and 3 years after iodine-125 brachytherapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma (CCM). Design : Prospective interventional case series. Participants : Thirty-seven patients (37 eyes) with CCM. Methods : Patients had best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity, Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity and Hardy-Rand-Rittler color vision measurement; comprehensive ophthalmology examination; optical coherence tomography; and ultrasonography at baseline prior to, 1 year after, 2 years after and 3 years after I-125 brachytherapy. Main Outcome Measures : Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and color vision prior to, 1 year after, 2 years after and 3 years after brachytherapy. Results : Nineteen (19) men and 18 women with mean age of 58 years (SD 13, range 30-78) prior to, 1 year after, 2 years after and 3 years after brachytherapy had mean best-corrected visual acuity of 77 letters (20/32), 65 letters (20/50), 56 letters (20/80) and 47 letters (20/125); contrast sensitivity of 30, 26, 22 and 19 letters; color vision of 26, 20, 17 and 14 test figures, respectively. Decrease in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and color vision was statistically significant from baseline at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years after brachytherapy. Decreased acuity at 3 years was associated with mid-choroid and macula melanoma location, ? 4.1 mm melanoma height, radiation maculopathy and radiation optic neuropathy. Conclusion : 1, 2 and 3 years after brachytherapy, eyes with CCM had significantly decreased visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and color vision. PMID:26312123

  9. Concurrent validity of Spanish-language versions of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Mental Status Questionnaire, Information-Memory-Concentration test, and Orientation-Memory-Concentration test: Alzheimer's disease patients and nondemented elderly comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Taussig, I M; Mack, W J; Henderson, V W

    1996-07-01

    One-hundred fifty-eight elderly Spanish-speaking U.S. residents (81 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and 77 subjects without dementia) were tested with Spanish-language versions of four brief cognitive assessment instruments: the Mini-Mental State Examination (S-MMSE), the Mental Status Questionnaire (S-MSQ), the Information-Memory-Concentration test (S-IMC), and the Orientation-Memory-Concentration test (S-OMC). Within-group performances were highly correlated for all four instruments. All tests distinguished between the demented and nondemented groups, but best discrimination was achieved with the S-IMC, which correctly classified 98% of subjects. This version was also the best predictor of functional disability, as measured by impairments in instrumental activities of daily living. Within the normal comparison group, neither gender nor a subject's monolingual/bilingual status affected test performance. These four Spanish-language cognitive screening tasks may aid in the evaluation of dementia among Spanish-speaking patients. PMID:9375177

  10. Effect of Myopic Defocus on Visual Acuity after Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation and Wavefront-guided Laser in Situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Kimiya; Igarashi, Akihito; Kawamorita, Takushi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of myopic defocus on visual acuity after phakic intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (wfg-LASIK). Our prospective study comprised thirty eyes undergoing posterior chamber phakic IOL implantation and 30 eyes undergoing wfg-LASIK. We randomly measured visual acuity under myopic defocus after cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic correction. We also calculated the modulation transfer function by optical simulation and estimated visual acuity from Campbell & Green’s retinal threshold curve. Visual acuity in the phakic IOL group was significantly better than that in the wfg-LASIK group at myopic defocus levels of 0, –1, and –2 D (p?test), but not at a defocus of –3 D (p?=?0.30). Similar results were also obtained in a cycloplegic condition. Decimal visual acuity values at a myopic defocus of 0, ?1, ?2, and -3 D by optical simulation were estimated to be 1.95, 1.21, 0.97, and 0.75 in the phakic IOL group, and 1.39, 1.11, 0.94, and 0.71 in the wfg-LASIK group, respectively. From clinical and optical viewpoints, phakic IOL implantation was superior to wfg-LASIK in terms of the postoperative visual performance, even in the presence of low to moderate myopic regression. PMID:25994984

  11. Combinatorial Versus Individual Gene Pharmacogenomic Testing in Mental Health: A Perspective on Context and Implications on Clinical Utility.

    PubMed

    Winner, Joel G; Dechairo, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing in mental health has not yet reached its full potential. An important reason for this involves differentiating individual gene testing (IGT) from a combinatorial pharmacogenomic (CPGx) approach. With IGT, any given gene reveals specific information that may, in turn, pertain to a smaller number of medications. CPGx approaches attempt to encompass more complete genomic information by combining moderate risk alleles and synergistically viewing the results from the perspective of the medication. This manuscript will discuss IGT and CPGx approaches to psychiatric pharmacogenomics and review the clinical validity, clinical utility, and economic parameters of both. PMID:26604861

  12. Combinatorial Versus Individual Gene Pharmacogenomic Testing in Mental Health: A Perspective on Context and Implications on Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Joel G.; Dechairo, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing in mental health has not yet reached its full potential. An important reason for this involves differentiating individual gene testing (IGT) from a combinatorial pharmacogenomic (CPGx) approach. With IGT, any given gene reveals specific information that may, in turn, pertain to a smaller number of medications. CPGx approaches attempt to encompass more complete genomic information by combining moderate risk alleles and synergistically viewing the results from the perspective of the medication. This manuscript will discuss IGT and CPGx approaches to psychiatric pharmacogenomics and review the clinical validity, clinical utility, and economic parameters of both. PMID:26604861

  13. Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Post-Acute Acuity Rating for Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jane E.; Dumas, Helene M.

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Acute Acuity Rating for Children (PAARC) is the first known acuity rating intended to reflect medical severity based on age, reason for admission, diagnoses, dependence in activities of daily living, and technology reliance for children admitted to post-acute care rehabilitation hospitals. Content validity was tested using an expert panel scoring the Content Validity Index (CVI). Concurrent validity was examined using clinician's opinion of acuity at admission, the Complexity Index, and All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) codes. Predictive validity was examined with acute care readmission within 30 days. Interrater reliability was assessed using admission histories from closed cases. Content validity was established and concurrent validity was moderate to high with clinician opinion (rho = .76, p < .001), the Complexity Index (rho = .76, p < .001), and APR-DRGs (rho = .349, p = .001). Predictive validity was moderate (rho = .504, p = .005) and returns to acute care within 30 days. Interrater reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.92–0.90, p < .001). Experts agreed that the PAARC's content is relevant, simple, and representative of the population. The PAARC measured well against indicators of medical complexity for pediatric outpatient care and medical record coding and was reliable between raters. This work supports proceeding with additional development and validity testing of the PAARC. PMID:26609433

  14. The Approximate Number System Acuity Redefined: A Diffusion Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonkoo; Starns, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    While all humans are capable of non-verbally representing numerical quantity using so-called the approximate number system (ANS), there exist considerable individual differences in its acuity. For example, in a non-symbolic number comparison task, some people find it easy to discriminate brief presentations of 14 dots from 16 dots while others do not. Quantifying individual ANS acuity from such a task has become an essential practice in the field, as individual differences in such a primitive number sense is thought to provide insights into individual differences in learned symbolic math abilities. However, the dominant method of characterizing ANS acuity—computing the Weber fraction (w)—only utilizes the accuracy data while ignoring response times (RT). Here, we offer a novel approach of quantifying ANS acuity by using the diffusion model, which accounts both accuracy and RT distributions. Specifically, the drift rate in the diffusion model, which indexes the quality of the stimulus information, is used to capture the precision of the internal quantity representation. Analysis of behavioral data shows that w is contaminated by speed-accuracy tradeoff, making it problematic as a measure of ANS acuity, while drift rate provides a measure more independent from speed-accuracy criterion settings. Furthermore, drift rate is a better predictor of symbolic math ability than w, suggesting a practical utility of the measure. These findings demonstrate critical limitations of the use of w and suggest clear advantages of using drift rate as a measure of primitive numerical competence.

  15. Large State-Level Fluctuations in Mental Retardation Classifications Related to Introduction of Renormed Intelligence Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Matthew H.

    2006-01-01

    Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence…

  16. A Test of the Inventory of Attitudes towards Seeking Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Philip; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Shevlin, Mark; Maguire, Rebecca; Morley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the construct validity, composite reliability and concurrent validity of the "Inventory of attitudes towards seeking mental health services" (IASMHS). A large sample of Irish police officers (N = 331) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure of the scale, while…

  17. Visual acuity trade-offs and microhabitat-driven adaptation of searching behaviour in psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae).

    PubMed

    Farnier, Kevin; Dyer, Adrian G; Taylor, Gary S; Peters, Richard A; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2015-05-15

    Insects have evolved morphological and physiological adaptations in response to selection pressures inherent to their ecology. Consequently, visual performance and acuity often significantly vary between different insect species. Whilst psychophysics has allowed for the accurate determination of visual acuity for some Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, very little is known about other insect taxa that cannot be trained to positively respond to a given stimulus. In this study, we demonstrate that prior knowledge of insect colour preferences can be used to facilitate acuity testing. We focused on four psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae), namely Ctenarytaina eucalypti, Ctenarytaina bipartita, Anoeconeossa bundoorensis and Glycaspis brimblecombei, that differ in their colour preferences and utilization of different host-plant modules (e.g. apical buds, stems, leaf lamellae) and tested their visual acuity in a modified Y-maze adapted to suit psyllid searching behaviour. Our study revealed that psyllids have visual acuity ranging from 6.3 to 8.7 deg. Morphological measurements for different species showed a close match between inter-ommatidial angles and behaviourally determined visual angles (between 5.5 and 6.6 deg) suggesting detection of colour stimuli at the single ommatidium level. Whilst our data support isometric scaling of psyllids' eyes for C. eucalypti, C. bipartita and G. brimblecombei, a morphological trade-off between light sensitivity and spatial resolution was found in A. bundoorensis. Overall, species whose microhabitat preferences require more movement between modules appear to possess superior visual acuity. The psyllid searching behaviours that we describe with the help of tracking software depict species-specific strategies that presumably evolved to optimize searching for food and oviposition sites. PMID:25827835

  18. The Influence of Auditory Acuity on Acoustic Variability and the Use of Motor Equivalence during Adaptation to a Perturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jana; Ghosh, Satrajit; Hoole, Philip; Matthies, Melanie; Tiede, Mark; Perkell, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to relate speakers' auditory acuity for the sibilant contrast, their use of motor equivalent trading relationships in producing the sibilant /[esh]/, and their produced acoustic distance between the sibilants /s/ and /[esh]/. Specifically, the study tested the hypotheses that during adaptation to a perturbation…

  19. The Effect of Zeaxanthin on the Visual Acuity of Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, Eric A.; Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Cameron, D. Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Oral supplementation of carotenoids such as zeaxanthin or lutein which naturally occur in human retina have been shown to improve vision and prevent progression of damage to advanced AMD in some studies. The zebrafish eye shares many physiological similarities with the human eye and is increasingly being used as model for vision research. We hypothesized that injection of zeaxanthin into the zebrafish eye would improve the visual acuity of the zebrafish over time. Visual acuity, calculated in cycles per degree, was measured in adult zebrafish to establish a consistent baseline using the optokinetic response. Zeaxanthin dissolved into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS only was injected into the anterior chamber of the right and left eyes of the Zebrafish. Visual acuities were measured at 1 week and 3, 8 and 12 weeks post-injection to compare to baseline values. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare visual acuities between fish injected with PBS and zeaxanthin. A significant improvement in visual acuity, 14% better than before the injection (baseline levels), was observed one week after injection with zeaxanthin (p = 0.04). This improvement peaked at more than 30% for some fish a few weeks after the injection and improvement in vision persisted at 3 weeks after injection (p = 0.006). The enhanced visual function was not significantly better than baseline at 8 weeks (p = 0.19) and returned to baseline levels 12 weeks after the initial injection (p = 0.50). Zeaxanthin can improve visual acuity in zebrafish eyes. Further studies are required to develop a better understanding of the role zeaxanthin and other carotenoids play during normal visual function. PMID:26267864

  20. Fresnel prisms and their effects on visual acuity and binocularity.

    PubMed Central

    Véronneau-Troutman, S

    1978-01-01

    1. The visual acuity with the Fresnel membrane prism is significantly less than that with the conventional prism of the same power for all prism powers from 12 delta through 30 delata at distance and from 15 delta through 30 delta at near. 2. The difference in the visual acuity between base up and base down, and between base in and base out, is not significantly different for either the Fresnel membrane prism or for the conventional prism. 3. For both Fresnel membrane prism and the conventional prism, the visual acuity when looking straight ahead. 4. Using Fresnel membrane prisms of the same power from different lots, the visual acuity varied significantly. The 30 delta prism caused the widest range in visual acuity. 5. When normal subjects are fitted with the higher powers of the Fresnel membrane prism, fusion and stereopsis are disrupted to such an extent that the use of this device to restore or to improve binocular vision in cases with large-angle deviations is seriously questioned. 6. Moreover, the disruption of fusion and stereopsis is abrupt and severe and does not parallel the decrease in visual acuity. The severely reduced ability to maintain fusion may be related to the optical aberrations, which, in turn, may be due to the molding process and the polyvinyl chloride molding material. 7. Through the flexibility of the membrane prism is a definite advantage, because of its proclivity to reduce visual acuity and increase aberrations its prescription for adults often must be limited to only one eye. 8. For the same reasons in the young child with binocular vision problems, the membrane prism presently available should be prescribed over both eyes only in powers less than 20 delta. When the membrane prism is to be used as a partial occluder (over one eye only), any power can be used. 9. The new Fresnel "hard" prism reduces visual acuity minimally and rarely disrupts binocularity, thus increasing the potential for prismotherapy to establish binocularity. This prism is currently available only for use as a trial set. Since the cosmetic appearance of the Fresnel "hard" prism is similar to that of the Fresnel membrane prism and it is easier to maintain, it would be the prism of choice (over all other types) for bilateral prescriptions in the young patient with emmetropia. The manufacturer is urged to make these prisms available to fit a special round adjustable frame, such as that developed in Europe for use with the wafer prism. Images FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 12 PMID:754384

  1. Human Time-Frequency Acuity Beats the Fourier Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2013-01-01

    The time-frequency uncertainty principle states that the product of the temporal and frequency extents of a signal cannot be smaller than 1/(4?). We study human ability to simultaneously judge the frequency and the timing of a sound. Our subjects often exceeded the uncertainty limit, sometimes by more than tenfold, mostly through remarkable timing acuity. Our results establish a lower bound for the nonlinearity and complexity of the algorithms employed by our brains in parsing transient sounds, rule out simple “linear filter” models of early auditory processing, and highlight timing acuity as a central feature in auditory object processing.

  2. The concept of mental toughness: tests of dimensionality, nomological network, and traitness.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Hanton, Sheldon; Gordon, Sandy; Mallett, Clifford J; Temby, Philip

    2015-02-01

    Mental toughness has received increased scholarly attention in recent years, yet conceptual issues related to its (a) dimensionality, (b) nomological network, and (c) traitness remain unresolved. The series of studies reported in this article were designed to examine these three substantive issues across several achievement contexts, including sport, education, military, and the workplace. Five studies were conducted to examine these research aims-Study 1: N?=?30; Study 2: calibration sample (n?=?418), tertiary students (n?=?500), athletes (n?=?427), and employees (n?=?550); Study 3: N?=?497 employees; Study 4: N?=?203 tertiary students; Study 5: N?=?115 army candidates. Collectively, the results of these studies revealed that mental toughness may be best conceptualized as a unidimensional rather than a multidimensional concept; plays an important role in performance, goal progress, and thriving despite stress; and can vary and have enduring properties across situations and time. This series of studies provides a foundation for further basic and applied research of mental toughness across various achievement contexts. PMID:24428736

  3. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed. PMID:19530560

  4. The Ocular Trauma Score as a Method for the Prognostic Assessment of Visual Acuity in Patients with Close Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Serdarevic, Raif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic injuries of the eye are the most common cause of loss of visual function. In our study we performed Ocula Trauma Score (OTS). We compared with the values of visual acuity of injury and thus get an accurate model for determining the prognostic value of the final visual acuity before treatment of the patient. This model is a reliable test for both the ophthalmologist and the patient. Aim of study: The aim of this study was to show the socioepidemiological and demographic profile, as well as the most common mechanism in ophthalmic injuries, so to determine the final visual acuity and assessment and evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of ocular trauma score (OTS), and most importantly to determine the prognostic value final visual acuity after eye injuries. Material and Method: We conducted a clinical-epidemiological, retrospective-prospective study at the Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre University in Sarajevo in the period 2009-2011. A sample of 124 patients with diagnosed closed of eye injuries were recruited. We applied Classifying Closed Globe Injury, performed Calculating the OTS and convert of total raw points into % chance of vision outcomes. Results: Comparison of age groups by gender shows that there is no statistically significant (x2 = 5.155; p = 0.2718). Of the total number of closed eye injuries (N = 124) at the admission from groups D and E with the worst vision were 29 patients (23.38%), in group C had low visual acuity of 20 (16.12%), in group B the mean visual acuity 33 (26.61%), and in group A well-preserved visual acuity 42 (33.87%) patients. On the demission patients with well-preserved visual function was 84 (67.74%), with a medium of visual function 10 (80.64%), while the poorer visual function was 4 (3.225%) and 7 (5.645%) patients had a sense of light and projections and 1 (0.8%) patient had lost visual acuity-amaurosis. 18 (14:51%) patients did not take their eyesight due to a fresh post-operative recovery. Conclusion: Data on each patient are based on the possibility of such characteristics of the mechanism of injuries presentation of vision at the beginning of disease, injury and zones relative afferent pupillary defect possibility assumptions what will be with the vision postoperatively. PMID:26005272

  5. Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: Localization Acuity Measured with Minimum

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    experi- ence affects sound localization acuity. In addition, to investigate the extent to which a hearing yrs, and six with a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear (cochlear implant hearing aid), ages 4 to 14. Minimum audible angle thresholds were mea- sured in the BI (cochlear implant cochlear im- plant

  6. On Using Vernier Acuity to Assess Magnocellular Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skottun, Bernt C.; Skoyles, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study [Keri, S., & Benedek, G. (2009). Visual pathway deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers: A potential endophenotype. "Brain and Cognition", 69, 291-295] has found Vernier acuity deficiencies together with contrast sensitivity defects consistent with a magnocellular deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers. This may…

  7. Rapid Improvement in the Acuity of Infants After Visual

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Daphne M.

    patterned visual input and each of the geometric means for patients falls between 30 and 60 min of arc, the range typically reported for normal newborns (1­3, 5). The acuity of patients falls farther below) or both eyes (n 12) to that of age-matched normal infants (7). Patients had been deprived of patterned

  8. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  9. Visual Function after Primary Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation in Pediatric Unilateral Cataract: Stereopsis and Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Seong Joon; Choung, Ho Kyung

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between binocular function and vision after cataract removal and primary posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation in children with unilateral cataract and to identify visual function differences according cataract type. Methods Clinical records of 2- to 6-year-old patients with unilateral cataract removal and primary PC-IOL implantation were reviewed retrospectively. Visual acuity and ocular alignment were measured. Sensory fusion was assessed with the Worth 4-dot test, and stereoacuity with the Titmus stereo test. Cataracts were classified according to cause, lens opacity location, age at onset, and presence of strabismus. Clinical characteristics of patients who obtained good visual function were identified. Results Forty-seven patients were included. Among 22 (46.8%) with good vision (20/40 or better), only 6 (27.3%) achieved good binocular function (the presence of fusion and 100 seconds of arc or better of stereoacuity). Visual acuity was better in eyes with good binocular function (p=0.002). No other variables were significant for achieving good binocular function. Conclusions The removal of unilateral cataract in a visually immature child can result in a combination of good visual acuity and binocular function. Good binocular function is closely related to good visual acuity. PMID:18063882

  10. A phytochemical-rich diet may explain the absence of age-related decline in visual acuity of Amazonian hunter-gatherers in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    London, Douglas S; Beezhold, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Myopia is absent in undisturbed hunter-gatherers but ubiquitous in modern populations. The link between dietary phytochemicals and eye health is well established, although transition away from a wild diet has reduced phytochemical variety. We hypothesized that when larger quantities and greater variety of wild, seasonal phytochemicals are consumed in a food system, there will be a reduced prevalence of degenerative-based eye disease as measured by visual acuity. We compared food systems and visual acuity across isolated Amazonian Kawymeno Waorani hunter-gatherers and neighboring Kichwa subsistence agrarians, using dietary surveys, dietary pattern observation, and Snellen Illiterate E visual acuity examinations. Hunter-gatherers consumed more food species (130 vs. 63) and more wild plants (80 vs. 4) including 76 wild fruits, thereby obtaining larger variety and quantity of phytochemicals than agrarians. Visual acuity was inversely related to age only in agrarians (r = -.846, P < .001). As hypothesized, when stratified by age (<40 and ? 40 years), Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that hunter-gatherers maintained high visual acuity throughout life, whereas agrarian visual acuity declined (P values < .001); visual acuity of younger participants was high across the board, however, did not differ between groups (P > .05). This unusual absence of juvenile-onset vision problems may be related to local, organic, whole food diets of subsistence food systems isolated from modern food production. Our results suggest that intake of a wider variety of plant foods supplying necessary phytochemicals for eye health may help maintain visual acuity and prevent degenerative eye conditions as humans age. PMID:25636674

  11. THE VISUAL ACUITY AND INTENSITY DISCRIMINATION OF DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Selig; Wald, George

    1934-01-01

    Drosophila possesses an inherited reflex response to a moving visual pattern which can be used to measure its capacity for intensity discrimination and its visual acuity at different illuminations. It is found that these two properties of vision run approximately parallel courses as functions of the prevailing intensity. Visual acuity varies with the logarithm of the intensity in much the same sigmoid way as in man, the bee, and the fiddler crab. The resolving power is very poor at low illuminations and increases at high illuminations. The maximum visual acuity is 0.0018, which is 1/1000 of the maximum of the human eye and 1/10 that of the bee. The intensity discrimination of Drosophila is also extremely poor, even at its best. At low illuminations for two intensities to be recognized as different, the higher must be nearly 100 times the lower. This ratio decreases as the intensity increases, and reaches a minimum of 2.5 which is maintained at the highest intensities. The minimum value of ?I/I for Drosophila is 1.5, which is to be compared with 0.25 for the bee and 0.006 for man. An explanation of the variation of visual acuity with illumination is given in terms of the variation in number of elements functional in the retinal mosaic at different intensities, this being dependent on the general statistical distribution of thresholds in the ommatidial population. Visual acuity is thus determined by the integral form of this distribution and corresponds to the total number of elements functional. The idea that intensity discrimination is determined by the differential form of this distribution—that is, that it depends on the rate of entrance of functional elements with intensity—is shown to be untenable in the light of the correspondence of the two visual functions. It is suggested that, like visual acuity, intensity discrimination may also have to be considered as a function of the total number of elements active at a given intensity. PMID:19872798

  12. Driver mental workload requirements on horizontal curves based on occluded vision test measurements 

    E-print Network

    Shafer, Mark Anthony

    1994-01-01

    angle. The vision occlusion test method was found to be sensitive to changes in driver workload values on horizontal curves. The results of the testing indicate that as degree of curvature increases, the workload level on a driver increases. The test...

  13. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  14. Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Enrique J.; Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M.; Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision. PMID:23761846

  15. Psychiatrists’ views of the genetic bases of mental disorders and behavioral traits and their utilization of genetic tests

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Kristopher J.; Chung, Wendy; Marder, Karen; Ottman, Ruth; Taber, Katherine Johansen; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined how 372 psychiatrists view genetic aspects of mental disorders and behaviors, and use genetic tests (GTs). Most thought the genetic contribution was moderate/high for several disorders (e.g. bipolar, schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer’s, intelligence, creativity, anxiety, suicidality). In the past 6 months, 14.1% ordered GTs, 18.3% discussed prenatal testing with patients, 36.0% initiated discussions about other GTs, 41.6% had patients ask about GTs, and 5.3% excluded GT results from patient records. Many thought that GTs were available for schizophrenia (24.3%) and major depression (19.6%). Women were more likely to report that patients asked about GTs; and were less certain about the degree of genetic contribution to several disorders. Psychiatrists perceive strong genetic bases for numerous disorders and traits; and many have discussed and ordered tests for GTs; but have relatively little knowledge about available tests. These data suggest possible gender differences in psychiatrist’s beliefs about genetic contributions to disorders; and have implications for future research, education, policy, and care. PMID:24933415

  16. Effects of Horizontal Acceleration on Human Visual Acuity and Stereopsis

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

  17. Understanding Low-Acuity Visits to the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Farion, Ken J.; Wright, Megan; Zemek, Roger; Neto, Gina; Karwowska, Anna; Tse, Sandra; Reid, Sarah; Jabbour, Mona; Poirier, Stephanie; Moreau, Katherine A.; Barrowman, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Canadian pediatric emergency department visits are increasing, with a disproportionate increase in low-acuity visits locally (33% of volume in 2008-09, 41% in 2011-12). We sought to understand: 1) presentation patterns and resource implications; 2) parents’ perceptions and motivations; and 3) alternate health care options considered prior to presenting with low-acuity problems. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study at our tertiary pediatric emergency department serving two provinces to explore differences between patients with and without a primary care provider. During four, 2-week study periods over 1 year, parents of low-acuity visits received an anonymous survey. Presentation times, interventions, diagnoses and dispositions were captured on a data collection form linked to the survey by study number. Results Parents completed 2,443 surveys (74.1% response rate), with survey-data collection form pairs available for 2,146 visits. Overall, 89.7% of respondents had a primary care provider; 68% were family physicians. Surprisingly, 40% of visits occurred during weekday office hours and 27.3% occurred within 4 hours of symptom onset; 67.5% of those early presenters were for injuries. Few parents sought care from their primary care provider (25%), health information line (20.7%), or urgent care clinic (18.5%); 36% reported that they believed their child’s problem required the emergency department. Forty-five percent required only a history, physical exam and reassurance; only 11% required an intervention not available in an office setting. Patients without a primary care provider were significantly more likely to present during weekday office hours (p = 0.003), have longer symptom duration (p<0.001), and not know of other options (p = 0.001). Conclusions Many parents seek pediatric emergency department care for low-acuity problems despite their child having a primary care provider. Ensuring timely access to these providers may help reduce pediatric emergency department overuse. Educational initiatives should inform parents about low-acuity problems and where appropriate care can/should be accessed. PMID:26083338

  18. Hand Test indices of violent and destructive behavior for institutionalized mental retardates.

    PubMed

    Panek, P E; Wagner, E E; Suen, H

    1979-08-01

    The Hand Test (Wagner, 1962) and the maladaptive behavior scale of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) were administered to 78 institutionalized retardates (46 males and 32 females) in order to investigate the relationship between violent and destructive behavior and two purported indicants of violent and destructive acting-out behavior on the Hand Test, the acting-out-score (AOS and movement-content response (ACT-MOV). Significant correlations between the two Hand Test indices and the number of types of violent and destructive behavior evinced during a three-month period were obtained. PMID:480111

  19. Assessing Visual Attention in Young Children and Adolescents with Severe Mental Retardation Utilizing Conditional-Discrimination Tasks and Multiple Testing Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguenin, Nancy H.

    2004-01-01

    To effectively reduce overselective attention, a fine-grained analysis of the control exhibited by compound training cues is first needed. Computer software was developed in this study to administer two different stimulus control-testing procedures to assess how three young children of normal development and three adolescents with severe mental

  20. Evaluating the impact of summer vacation on the visual acuity of AMD patients treated with ranibizumab.

    PubMed

    Massamba, N; Dirani, A; Knoeri, J; Pasquier, B; Ingram, A; Soubrane, G

    2015-11-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the impact of traditional French summer vacation on visual acuity and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of Wet AMD patients being treated with intravitreal Ranibizumab.MethodsThis was a consecutive, comparative, single-centre, prospective analysis. All patients who were being treated with intravitreal injection of 0.5?mg ranibizumab at Cergy Pontoise Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology between July 2013 and September 2014 were included. Patients were divided into two groups: (A) patients who skipped one ranibizumab intravitreal injection during holidays, and (B) patients who received injection during their holidays. Evaluations occurred prior to traditional holiday (baseline) and 2 months later, consisting of BCVA using ETDRS, and a complete ophthalmic examination that included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). All patients were being treated with PRN anti-VEGF regimen and criteria for reinjection included a visual acuity loss >5 ETDRS letters and/or an increase of central retinal thickness, presence of subretinal fluid, intraretinal fluid, or pigment epithelium detachment. If reinjection criteria were not met, patients were advised to return in 4 weeks.ResultsThe mean visual acuity change was -0.071±0.149 (LogMAR) in group A and +0.003±0.178 in group B (P=0.041). At the second visit (2 months after preholidays visit), 61.8% of patients in group A had SRF and/or intraretinal cysts, and only 27.6% of patients in group B. There was a significant difference in the persistence of fluid between the two groups (P=0.007, ?(2)-test).ConclusionThis cases series demonstrated the detrimental impact of holidays on visual acuity in patients treated with ranibizumab for AMD, which, in spite of their treatment regimen, still leave in vacation. Therefore, it is important to convey the message of treatment adherence to patients, despite their need of holidays. PMID:26206530

  1. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  2. Increasing the health literacy of learning disability and mental health nurses in physical care skills: a pre and post-test evaluation of a workshop on diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Steve; Stephenson, John; Trotter, Fiona; Clifton, Andrew; Holdich, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the pre- and post-test results of the outcomes of a workshop designed to increase learning disability and mental health nurses' knowledge and skill to undertake interventions for service users at risk of, or with a diagnosis of, type 2 diabetes. Health literacy is also discussed as a way of explaining why such nurses may lack expertise in physical health care. Findings from the workshop show that learning disability and mental health nurses have the motivation to increase their health literacy (skills and knowledge) in diabetes care. The potential of such workshops, and how organisations looking forward to the future can build health literacy, is discussed. PMID:25547647

  3. Determination of myopes' visual acuity using stimuli with different contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikaunieks, G.; Caure, E.; Kassaliete, E.; Meskovska, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The influence of different contrast stimuli on the myopes’ visual acuity (VA) was studied using positive (35.7), negative (-0.97) and low contrast (-0.11) Landolt optotypes. Test subjects were 13 myopes with corrected eyesight and 8 emmetropes, all of them being 20-22 years old. For VA determination the FrACT computer program was employed. In the tests it was found that for emmetropes the positive and negative contrast VA values do not differ significantly, while for myopes the respective values are better with positive than with negative contrast stimuli. These differences were the same in the measurements taken with spectacles or contact lenses. Our results also show that the retinal straylight created by clean spectacles or soft contact lenses is similar in both cases. Dažu autoru p?t?jumi r?da, ka miopijas gad?jum? redzes asums ir lab?ks ar pozit?va V?bera kontrasta stimuliem (balts stimuls uz melna fona) nek? negat?va kontrasta stimuliem (melns stimuls uz balta fona). Šis fenomens tiek saist?tas ar neir?l?m izmai??m ON un OFF ce?os un miopisk?s ac?s. Citi p?t?jumi r?da, ka ar? ac? izklied?t?s gaismas ietekm? lab?ks redzes asums ir ar pozit?viem kontrasta stimuliem nek? negat?va. Miopijas gad?jum? papildus gaismas izkliedi rada bri??u l?cas vai kontaktl?cas. M?s sav? p?t?jum? v?l?j?mies noskaidrot, cik liel? m?r? lab?ks redzes asums ar pozit?va kontrasta stimuliem miopisk?s ac?s ir saist?ms ar optisk?s korekcijas rad?to gaismas izkliedi. P?t?jum? piedal?j?s 21 dal?bnieks - 8 emetropi un 13 miopi ar sf?risko refrakcijas lielumu no -1.25 l?dz -6,25 D. Dal?bnieku vecums bija no 20 l?dz 22 gadi. Izmantojot FrACT datorprogrammu, tika noteiks monokul?rais redzes asums VA ar Landolta gredzeniem pie pozit?va, negat?va un zema kontrasta fotopiskos apst?k?os. V?bera kontrasti stimuliem attiec?gi bija 35.7, -0.97 un -0.11. Miopiem m?r?jumi tika veikti gan ar brill?m, gan kontaktl?c?m. Emetropiem redzes asums pie pozit?va un negat?va kontrasta nav b?tiski atš?ir?gs, savuk?rt kori??tiem miopiem redzes asums bija lab?ks ar pozit?va nek? ar negat?va kontrasta stimuliem. Starp?ba m?r?jumos, veiktos ar kontaktl?c?m, gan brill?m, nebija b?tiski atš?ir?ga. No ieg?tajiem rezult?tiem var secin?t, ka bri??u l?cas un kontaktl?cas rada l?dz?gu ac? 'nokl?duš?s” gaismas daudzumu.

  4. ANXIETY, PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY MEASURED, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON MENTAL TEST PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAMBERS, ALMA C.; HOPKINS, KENNETH D.

    EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH (1) EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ANXIETY INFLUENCES ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE AND (2) THE VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS WERE ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING MEASURES OF ANXIETY--(1) S-R INVENTORY OF ANXIOUSNESS, (2) AFFECT ADJECTIVE…

  5. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  6. Twins: Concordance for Piagetian-Equivalent Items Derived from the Bayley Mental Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Adam P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzed 20 test items for evidence of concordance for samples that included at least 120 pairs of identical twins and 85 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins at ages 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Also computed within-pair correlations for the total number of Piagetian-equivalent items passed. (Author/SDH)

  7. Reduced Grating Acuity Associated with Retinal Toxicity in Children with Infantile Spasms on Vigabatrin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Sivan; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether visual functions are decreased in children with infantile spasms and vigabatrin-attributed retinal toxicity. Methods Contrast sensitivity and grating acuity were measured by using sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) testing in 42 children with infantile spasms (mean age, 29.23 ± 18.31 months). All children had been exposed to vigabatrin (VGB) for a minimum of 1 month. These children were divided into retinal toxicity and no toxicity groupings based on 30-Hz flicker amplitude reductions on the full-field electroretinogram. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) compared visual functions between children with and without retinal toxicity. Results The MANOVA showed that visual function was significantly affected by VGB retinal toxicity. Further univariate analysis revealed that grating acuity was significantly reduced in children with toxicity. No differences in contrast sensitivity were found between children with toxicity and those without. Conclusions Reduced visual functions from VGB-attributed retinal toxicity can be detected in children with infantile spasms with the sweep VEP. PMID:19279311

  8. Effectiveness of exome and genome sequencing guided by acuity of illness for diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Soden, Sarah E.; Saunders, Carol J.; Willig, Laurel K.; Farrow, Emily G.; Smith, Laurie D.; Petrikin, Josh E.; LePichon, Jean-Baptiste; Miller, Neil A.; Thiffault, Isabelle; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Twist, Greyson; Noll, Aaron; Heese, Bryce A.; Zellmer, Lee; Atherton, Andrea M.; Abdelmoity, Ahmed T.; Safina, Nicole; Nyp, Sarah S.; Zuccarelli, Britton; Larson, Ingrid A.; Modrcin, Ann; Herd, Suzanne; Creed, Mitchell; Ye, Zhaohui; Yuan, Xuan; Brodsky, Robert A.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) affect more than 3% of children and are attributable to single-gene mutations at more than 1000 loci. Traditional methods yield molecular diagnoses in less than one-half of children with NDD. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) can enable diagnosis of NDD, but their clinical and cost-effectiveness are unknown. One hundred families with 119 children affected by NDD received diagnostic WGS and/or WES of parent-child trios, wherein the sequencing approach was guided by acuity of illness. Forty-five percent received molecular diagnoses. An accelerated sequencing modality, rapid WGS, yielded diagnoses in 73% of families with acutely ill children (11 of 15). Forty percent of families with children with nonacute NDD, followed in ambulatory care clinics (34 of 85), received diagnoses: 33 by WES and 1 by staged WES then WGS. The cost of prior negative tests in the nonacute patients was $19,100 per family, suggesting sequencing to be cost-effective at up to $7640 per family. A change in clinical care or impression of the pathophysiology was reported in 49% of newly diagnosed families. If WES or WGS had been performed at symptom onset, genomic diagnoses may have been made 77 months earlier than occurred in this study. It is suggested that initial diagnostic evaluation of children with NDD should include trio WGS or WES, with extension of accelerated sequencing modalities to high-acuity patients. PMID:25473036

  9. Dynamic Visual Acuity While Walking in Normals and Labyrinthine-Deficient Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, Edward J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Cohen, Helen S.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new, objective, easily administered test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) while walking. Ten normal subjects and five patients with histories of severe bilateral vestibular dysfunctions participated in this study. Subjects viewed a visual display of numerals of different font sizes presented on a laptop computer while they stood still and while they walked on a motorized treadmill. Treadmill speed was adapted for 4 of 5 patients. Subjects were asked to identify the numerals as they appeared on the computer screen. Test results were reasonably repeatable in normals. The percent correct responses at each font size dropped slightly while walking in normals and dropped significantly more in patients. Patients performed significantly worse than normals while standing still and while walking. This task may be useful for evaluating post-flight astronauts and vestibularly impaired patients.

  10. Factors affecting visual acuity after one year of follow up after repeated intravitreal ranibizumab for macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gwyn Samuel; Seow, Eulee; Evans, Huw; Owoniyi, Muyiwa; Evans, Sam; Blyth, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Aim Providing intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age related macular degeneration (nARMD) is a source of increasing strain for many UK eye departments. Whilst most units attempt to adhere to the product licence of following up patients at four weekly intervals; delays in follow up appointments can and do occur. We aim to see if mean follow up intervals during the maintenance phase are correlated with visual outcomes at one year and perform a multivariate analysis of patient factors in a bit to understand the factors affecting visual acuity outcomes. Method A continuously updated prospective audit of patients receiving ranibizumab therapy at the Royal Gwent Hospital was accessed and a coefficient of determination and Spearman’s rank test undertaken to see whether mean follow up delays resulted in visual acuity penalties after nine months of maintenance. Multivariate analysis using ANOVA was then undertaken to examine in more detail the various factors affecting visual acuity outcomes. Results 805 eyes of 708 patients were included in the study. Mean follow up intervals varied between 28.0 and 96.3 days over the first six treatments of the maintenance phase (mean 49.2 – SD 10.7) with a mean change in visual acuity from baseline of +7.1 letters at 12 weeks and +4.6 letters at 52 weeks. There was a negative correlation seen between visual acuity gains after nine months of the maintenance phase and increasing clinic follow up times although Spearman’s rank analysis demonstrated a correlation coefficient of only ?0.078, which was not statistically significant. Variability in follow up appointments resulting in worse outcomes was however significant (p < 0.01), as was increasing age at presentation (p = 0.04). Smoking was found to decrease age of presentation by six years (74.2 years vs 80.0 years). The adjusted R2 for the whole analysis was 0.44. Conclusion Wide variation in follow up intervals was associated with a worse visual acuity outcome although longer mean follow up interval was not. Smokers presented at a significantly younger age than non-smokers or ex-smokers. This was a large study with an adjusted R2 of 0.44. The results are relevant to other macular degeneration service providers around the world. PMID:26155076

  11. Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  12. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  13. A Gender Difference in Visual-Spatial Ability in 4-Year-Old Children: Effects on Performance of a Kinesthetic Acuity Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, David J.; Intili, Daniela

    1996-01-01

    Compared male and female four-year-olds' performance on a kinesthetic acuity test (KAT) with or without extra visual-spatial cues and on a measure of visual-spatial ability. Found that all children performed better on the KAT with extra cues and that boys scored higher on visual-spatial ability and performed better on the KAT only with extra cues.…

  14. The Relationship between OCT-measured Central Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal thickness and visual acuity in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) both before and after macular laser photocoagulation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Participants 210 subjects (251 eyes) with DME enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of laser techniques. Methods Retinal thickness was measured with OCT and visual acuity was measured with the electronic-ETDRS procedure. Main Outcome Measures OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity Results The correlation coefficients for visual acuity versus OCT center point thickness were 0.52 at baseline and 0.49, 0.36, and 0.38 at 3.5, 8, and 12 months post-laser photocoagulation. The slope of the best fit line to the baseline data was approximately 4.4 letters (95% C.I.: 3.5, 5.3) better visual acuity for every 100 microns decrease in center point thickness at baseline with no important difference at follow-up visits. Approximately one-third of the variation in visual acuity could be predicted by a linear regression model that incorporated OCT center point thickness, age, hemoglobin A1C, and severity of fluorescein leakage in the center and inner subfields. The correlation between change in visual acuity and change in OCT center point thickening 3.5 months after laser treatment was 0.44 with no important difference at the other follow-up times. A subset of eyes showed paradoxical improvements in visual acuity with increased center point thickening (7–17% at the three time points) or paradoxical worsening of visual acuity with a decrease in center point thickening (18%–26% at the three time points). Conclusions There is modest correlation between OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity, and modest correlation of changes in retinal thickening and visual acuity following focal laser treatment for DME. However, a wide range of visual acuity may be observed for a given degree of retinal edema and paradoxical increases in center point thickening with increases in visual acuity as well as paradoxical decreases in center point thickening with decreases in visual acuity were not uncommon. Thus, although OCT measurements of retinal thickness represent an important tool in clinical evaluation, they cannot reliably substitute as a surrogate for visual acuity at a given point in time. This study does not address whether short-term changes on OCT are predictive of long-term effects on visual acuity. PMID:17123615

  15. Is the Male Advantage in Mental-Rotation Performance Task Independent? On the Usability of Chronometric Tests and Paper-and-Pencil Tests in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a reanalysis of the data of 862 second and fourth graders collected in two previous studies, focusing on the influence of method (psychometric vs. chronometric) and stimulus type on the gender difference in mental-rotation accuracy. The children had to solve mental-rotation tasks with animal pictures, letters, or cube…

  16. The amelioration of olfactory acuity upon sexual maturation might affect food preferences.

    PubMed

    Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L; Cannella, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

  17. The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

  18. Effects of contrast and spatial frequency on vernier acuity.

    PubMed

    Bradley, A; Skottun, B C

    1987-01-01

    We have examined vernier acuity using sinusoidal luminance gratings. Vernier thresholds were affected by both grating contrast and spatial frequency. With fixed (50%) contrast gratings, vernier thresholds reached minimum values of approximately 10 sec of arc at spatial frequencies between 6 and 16 c/deg. Vernier thresholds for all spatial frequencies are related to contrast by a power law with exponents of approximately -0.8. Thresholds approach half a grating period (180 deg phase shift) as grating contrast approaches detection thresholds. We discuss our results in relation to three models for vernier detection. Most of our data are consistent with the predictions of Wilson's [(1986) Vision Res. 26, 453-469] model. Detection of vernier off-sets at low spatial frequencies may depend on detection of the horizontal border formed between the two halves of the grating. PMID:3445471

  19. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Lorach, Henri; Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Mandel, Yossi; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Huie, Philip; Harris, James; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for delivery of visual information. We demonstrate that subretinal arrays with 70 ?m photovoltaic pixels provide highly localized stimulation, with electrical and visual receptive fields of comparable sizes in rat retinal ganglion cells. Similarly to normal vision, retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibits flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images and non-linear spatial summation. In rats with retinal degeneration, these photovoltaic arrays provide spatial resolution of 64 ± 11 ?m, corresponding to half of the normal visual acuity in pigmented rats. Ease of implantation of these wireless and modular arrays, combined with their high resolution opens the door to functional restoration of sight. PMID:25915832

  20. Recovery of stereo acuity in adults with amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T; McGraw, Paul V; Webb, Ben S

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of visual input to one eye during early development leads to marked functional impairments of vision, commonly referred to as amblyopia. A major consequence of amblyopia is the inability to encode binocular disparity information leading to impaired depth perception or stereo acuity. If amblyopia is treated early in life (before 4 years of age), then recovery of normal stereoscopic function is possible. Treatment is rarely undertaken later in life (adulthood) because declining levels of neural plasticity are thought to limit the effectiveness of standard treatments. Here, the authors show that a learning-based therapy, designed to exploit experience-dependent plastic mechanisms, can be used to recover stereoscopic visual function in adults with amblyopia. These cases challenge the long-held dogma that the critical period for visual development and the window for treating amblyopia are one and the same. PMID:22707543

  1. A comparison of vernier acuity for narrowband and broadband stimuli.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brendan T; Whitaker, David

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of contrast and exposure duration on vernier acuity thresholds for abutting and separated narrowband stimuli, and asks whether these data can predict broadband vernier performance. Vernier thresholds were determined for sinusoidal grating stimuli at two spatial frequencies (1 and 8 c/deg) across a range of contrasts (0.05-0.8) and exposure durations (35-2100 ms). Performance was assessed for the abutting configuration, and when a gap equivalent to 0.5 to 1.5 times the spatial period of the grating was introduced between the upper and lower halves of the grating. Vernier thresholds were also determined for a square-wave stimulus as a function of contrast (0.06 to 0.78). Exposure duration was fixed at 2100 ms. In addition, thresholds were determined at the appropriate contrast levels for the fundamental frequency (1.8 c/deg) of the square-wave, and for a number of the harmonics (3F, 5F, 7F, 9F). Our results provide support for filter models of vernier acuity by showing that vernier performance for abutting and closely-separated broadband stimuli represents the envelope of vernier sensitivity of those spatial frequency mechanisms that are activated by the broadband stimulus. In the case of high frequency grating stimuli presented for long exposure durations, vernier performance can be invariant across much of the contrast range. Despite this, however, contrast independence is not exhibited for abutting broadband stimuli because, within the broadband stimuli, the contrast of the higher harmonic components never reaches a level to reveal this plateau. PMID:15078015

  2. Sensitivity to Mental Effort and Test-Retest Reliability of Heart Rate Variability Measures in Healthy Seniors

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Yadav, Rajeev; Yung, Iris; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Oken, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine 1) whether heart rate variability (HRV) was a sensitive and reliable measure in mental effort tasks carried out by healthy seniors and 2) whether non-linear approaches to HRV analysis, in addition to traditional time and frequency domain approaches were useful to study such effects. Methods Forty healthy seniors performed two visual working memory tasks requiring different levels of mental effort, while ECG was recorded. They underwent the same tasks and recordings two weeks later. Traditional and 13 non-linear indices of HRV including Poincaré, entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were determined. Results Time domain (especially mean R-R interval/RRI), frequency domain and, among nonlinear parameters- Poincaré and DFA were the most reliable indices. Mean RRI, time domain and Poincaré were also the most sensitive to different mental effort task loads and had the largest effect size. Conclusions Overall, linear measures were the most sensitive and reliable indices to mental effort. In non-linear measures, Poincaré was the most reliable and sensitive, suggesting possible usefulness as an independent marker in cognitive function tasks in healthy seniors. Significance A large number of HRV parameters was both reliable as well as sensitive indices of mental effort, although the simple linear methods were the most sensitive. PMID:21459665

  3. Retinal glial cells enhance human vision acuity A. M. Labin and E. N. Ribak

    E-print Network

    Ribak, Erez

    Retinal glial cells enhance human vision acuity A. M. Labin and E. N. Ribak Physics Department, mode propagation PACS: 87.19lt, 42.66.Ne A prominent feature of the human eye is a resolution and light. This special location accounts for the highest visual acuity. On the other hand, light hitting the pupil

  4. Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

  5. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

  6. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

  7. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

  8. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

  9. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

  10. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

  11. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

  12. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

  13. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240.121...Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. (a) Each...paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or...

  14. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

  15. An investigation of the relation between sibilant production and somatosensory and auditory acuity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Matthies, Melanie L.; Maas, Edwin; Hanson, Alexandra; Tiede, Mark; Ménard, Lucie; Guenther, Frank H.; Lane, Harlan; Perkell, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between auditory acuity, somatosensory acuity and the magnitude of produced sibilant contrast was investigated with data from 18 participants. To measure auditory acuity, stimuli from a synthetic sibilant continuum ([s]-[?]) were used in a four-interval, two-alternative forced choice adaptive-staircase discrimination task. To measure somatosensory acuity, small plastic domes with grooves of different spacing were pressed against each participant’s tongue tip and the participant was asked to identify one of four possible orientations of the grooves. Sibilant contrast magnitudes were estimated from productions of the words ‘said,’ ‘shed,’ ‘sid,’ and ‘shid’. Multiple linear regression revealed a significant relation indicating that a combination of somatosensory and auditory acuity measures predicts produced acoustic contrast. When the participants were divided into high- and low-acuity groups based on their median somatosensory and auditory acuity measures, separate ANOVA analyses with sibilant contrast as the dependent variable yielded a significant main effect for each acuity group. These results provide evidence that sibilant productions have auditory as well as somatosensory goals and are consistent with prior results and the theoretical framework underlying the DIVA model of speech production. PMID:21110603

  16. Vernier Acuity and the Magnocellular System Revisited: Response to Skottun and Skoyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keri, Szabolcs; Benedek, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    Skottun and Skoyles (2009) recently presented a comment on Vernier acuity and magnocellular dysfunctions in fragile X premutation carriers (Keri & Benedek, 2009). The authors concluded that our finding that the magnocellular deficit, as revealed by luminance-contrast sensitivity measurements, is associated with impaired Vernier acuity for…

  17. Acuity of the Approximate Number System and Preschoolers' Quantitative Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Marle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W.; Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics…

  18. Selective Electrical Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve Activates a Pathway Specialized for High Temporal Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Middlebrooks, John C.; Snyder, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    Deaf people who use cochlear implants show surprisingly poor sensitivity to the temporal fine structure of sounds. One possible reason is that conventional cochlear implants cannot activate selectively the auditory-nerve fibers having low characteristic frequencies (CFs), which, in normal hearing, phase lock to stimulus fine structure. Recently, we tested in animals an alternative mode of auditory prosthesis employing penetrating auditory-nerve electrodes that permit frequency-specific excitation in all frequency regions. We present here measures of temporal transmission through the auditory brainstem – from pulse trains presented with various auditory-nerve electrodes to phase-locked activity of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). On average, intraneural stimulation resulted in significant ICC phase locking at higher pulse rates (i.e., higher “limiting rates”) than did cochlear-implant stimulation. That could be attributed, however, to the larger percentage of low-CF neurons activated selectively by intraneural stimulation. Most ICC neurons with limiting rates >500 pulses per second had CFs <1.5 kHz, whereas neurons with lower limiting rates tended to have higher CFs. High limiting rates also correlated strongly with short first-spike latencies. It follows that short latencies correlated significantly with low CFs, opposite to the correlation observed with acoustical stimulation. These electrical-stimulation results reveal a high-temporal-acuity brainstem pathway characterized by low CFs, short latencies, and high-fidelity transmission of periodic stimulation. Frequency-specific stimulation of that pathway by intraneural stimulation might improve temporal acuity in human users of a future auditory prosthesis, which in turn might improve musical pitch perception and speech reception in noise. PMID:20130202

  19. Rhythms of Mental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions to…

  20. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  1. Cortical sources of vernier acuity: an EEG-source imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chuan; Kim, Yee-Joon; Verghese, Preeti

    2015-09-01

    Vernier acuity determines the relative position of visual features with a precision better than the sampling resolution of the cone mosaic. Because the vernier offset is thought to be detected by orientation-tuned mechanisms, we expect cortical areas such as V1 to respond strongly to vernier stimuli. Here we use 128-channel EEG combined with cortical source imaging to identify multiple regions of visual cortex that underlie the detection of vernier offsets. Steady-state Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) were recorded from fifteen normal vision observers under two conditions. In the test condition, vernier offsets were periodically introduced and withdrawn at 3.75 Hz (alignment/misalignment) on a 2 cpd square-wave grating. In the control condition, the offsets were displaced symmetrically with respect to the reference (misalignment/misalignment), to produce the same displacement as in the test condition. In both conditions, the size of the offset was swept from 8 to 0.5 arcmin in 10-logarithm steps within a ten-second presentation interval. The vernier-offset (test condition) elicited robust odd harmonic responses in V1 and lateral occipital cortex (LOC). Thresholds for eliciting odd-harmonic responses were lowest in V1 and LOC, followed by V3a, with higher thresholds in middle temporal (hMT+) and hV4. Importantly, the control condition elicited very weak odd harmonic activity. Both the vernier test and the lateral-motion control condition elicited similar activity at even harmonics in all cortical regions of interest (ROI), related to the lateral-motion of the offsets. Our data indicate that V1, LOC and V3a are particularly sensitive to the detection of vernier offsets, while all visual ROIs are sensitive to lateral motion. Our results support a role for V1 in vernier acuity related to its exquisite sensitivity to orientation differences. The robust activation of LOC might be related to the texture characteristics of the extended vernier, or to its sensitivity to vernier offsets. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326692

  2. Amniotic membrane covering promotes healing of cornea epithelium and improves visual acuity after debridement for fungal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bo; Wang, Ping; Xu, Ling-Juan; Li, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Hong; Li, Gui-Gang

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of amniotic membrane covering (AMC) on the healing of cornea epithelium and visual acuity for fungal keratitis after debridement. METHODS Twenty fungal keratitis patients were divided into two groups randomly, the AMC group and the control group, ten patients each group. Both debridement of the infected cornea tissue and standard anti-fungus drugs treatments were given to every patients, monolayer amniotic membrane were sutured to the surface of the entire cornea and bulbar conjunctiva with 10-0 nylon suture for patients in the AMC group. The diameter of the ulcer was determined with slit lamp microscope and the depth of the infiltration was determined with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was tested before surgery and three month after healing of the epithelial layer. The healing time of the cornea epithelium, visual acuity (VA) was compared between the two groups using t-test. RESULTS There was no statistical difference of the diameter of the ulcer, depth of the infiltration, height of the hypopyon and VA between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05). The average healing time of the AMC group was 6.89±2.98d, which was statistically shorter than that of the control group (10.23±2.78d) (P<0.05). The average UCVA of the AMC group was 0.138±0.083, which was statistically better than that of the control group (0.053±0.068) (P<0.05). CONCLUSION AMC surgery could promote healing of cornea epithelium after debridement for fungal keratitis and lead to better VA outcome. PMID:25349793

  3. Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals' experience of interacting with the healthcare system has significant impact on their overall health and well-being. To relate patients' experiences to a common set of standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of health system responsiveness. This study aimed to assess if the WHO responsiveness concept reflected the non-medical expectations of mental healthcare users in Teheran. Methods In this qualitative study, four mixed focus group discussions were formed, comprising 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Content analysis was performed for data analysis. Responses were examined in relation to the eight domains of the WHO's responsiveness model. Results There were many commonalities between the findings of this study and the eight domains of the WHO responsiveness model, although some variations were found. Effective care was a new domain generated from our findings. In addition, the domain of prompt attention was included in two new labelled domains: attention and access to care. Participants could not differentiate autonomy from choice of healthcare provider, believing that free choice is part of autonomy. Therefore these domains were unified under the name of autonomy. The domains of quality of basic amenities, access to social support, dignity and confidentiality were considered to be important for the responsiveness concept. Some differences regarding how these domains should be defined were observed, however. Conclusions The results showed that the concept of responsiveness developed by the WHO is applicable to mental health services in Iran. These findings might help policy-makers' better understanding of what is useful for the improvement of mental health services. PMID:22115499

  4. Global motion perception is independent from contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination and visual acuity in 4.5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Harding, Jane E; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    Global motion processing depends on a network of brain regions that includes extrastriate area V5 in the dorsal visual stream. For this reason, psychophysical measures of global motion perception have been used to provide a behavioral measure of dorsal stream function. This approach assumes that global motion is relatively independent of visual functions that arise earlier in the visual processing hierarchy such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested this assumption by assessing the relationships between global motion perception, contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination (henceforth referred to as contrast sensitivity) and habitual visual acuity in a large group of 4.5-year-old children (n=117). The children were born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment because of prenatal drug exposure or risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia. Motion coherence thresholds, a measure of global motion perception, were assessed using random dot kinematograms. The contrast of the stimuli was fixed at 100% and coherence was varied. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the same stimuli by fixing motion coherence at 100% and varying dot contrast. Stereoacuity was also measured. Motion coherence thresholds were not correlated with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity. However, lower (better) motion coherence thresholds were correlated with finer stereoacuity (?=0.38, p=0.004). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were also correlated (?=-0.26, p=0.004) with each other. These results indicate that global motion perception for high contrast stimuli is independent of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity and can be used to assess motion integration mechanisms in children. PMID:26318529

  5. Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  6. Plasticity of Binocularity and Visual Acuity Are Differentially Limited by Nogo Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Chan, Leanne L.H.; Parivash, Sherveen N.; Dorton, Hilary M.; Piechowicz, Mariel

    2014-01-01

    The closure of developmental critical periods consolidates neural circuitry but also limits recovery from early abnormal sensory experience. Degrading vision by one eye throughout a critical period both perturbs ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex and impairs visual acuity permanently. Yet understanding how binocularity and visual acuity interrelate has proven elusive. Here we demonstrate the plasticity of binocularity and acuity are separable and differentially regulated by the neuronal nogo receptor 1 (NgR1). Mice lacking NgR1 display developmental OD plasticity as adults and their visual acuity spontaneously improves after prolonged monocular deprivation. Restricting deletion of NgR1 to either cortical interneurons or a subclass of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons alters intralaminar synaptic connectivity in visual cortex and prevents closure of the critical period for OD plasticity. However, loss of NgR1 in PV neurons does not rescue deficits in acuity induced by chronic visual deprivation. Thus, NgR1 functions with PV interneurons to limit plasticity of binocularity, but its expression is required more extensively within brain circuitry to limit improvement of visual acuity following chronic deprivation. PMID:25164659

  7. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    PubMed

    Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

  8. Assessment of Mental Status.

    PubMed

    Finney, Glen R; Minagar, Alireza; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the mental status of patients with a neurobehavioral disorder is a critical element in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. This assessment should always be performed after the patient's history it taken and a general physical as well as a neurologic examination is completed. The mental status examination commences with observing the patient's appearance and level of consciousness. The examiner should also pay attention to patient's social behavior, emotional state and mood. There are 3 major means of assessing a patient's mental status. One type attempts to determine if the patient is demented and the severity of the dementia as it pertains to their ability to perform activities of daily living as well as instrumental activities. A second type of assessment utilizes what may be termed as "screening tests" or "omnibus tests". These brief tests are performed independent of the patient's history and examination. The two most frequently used screening tests are the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The third means of assessing a patient's mental status is by using specific neuropsychological tests that focus on specific domains of cognition, such as frontal executive functions, attention, episodic verbal and visuospatial memory, declarative knowledge such as language (speech, reading and writing) and arithmetical, as well as visuospatial and perceptual abilities. These neurobehavioral, neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological assessments of patients with a cognitive decline and behavioral abnormalities should often be accompanied by laboratory tests, and neuroimaging that can help determine the underlying pathologic process so that effective therapeutic and management approaches can be provided. PMID:26613992

  9. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  10. Testing a model of facilitated reflection on network feedback: a mixed method study on integration of rural mental healthcare services for older people

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Muir Cochrane, Eimear; Dawson, Suzanne; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; O'Kane, Deb; Gerace, Adam; McPhail, Ruth; Sparkes, Deb; Fuller, Michelle; Reed, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a management model of facilitated reflection on network feedback as a means to engage services in problem solving the delivery of integrated primary mental healthcare to older people. Design Participatory mixed methods case study evaluating the impact of a network management model using organisational network feedback (through social network analysis, key informant interviews and policy review). Intervention A model of facilitated network reflection using network theory and methods. Setting A rural community in South Australia. Participants 32 staff from 24 services and 12 senior service managers from mental health, primary care and social care services. Results Health and social care organisations identified that they operated in clustered self-managed networks within sectors, with no overarching purposive older people's mental healthcare network. The model of facilitated reflection revealed service goal and role conflicts. These discussions helped local services to identify as a network, and begin the problem-solving communication and referral links. A Governance Group assisted this process. Barriers to integrated servicing through a network included service funding tied to performance of direct care tasks and the lack of a clear lead network administration organisation. Conclusions A model of facilitated reflection helped organisations to identify as a network, but revealed sensitivity about organisational roles and goals, which demonstrated that conflict should be expected. Networked servicing needed a neutral network administration organisation with cross-sectoral credibility, a mandate and the resources to monitor the network, to deal with conflict, negotiate commitment among the service managers, and provide opportunities for different sectors to meet and problem solve. This requires consistency and sustained intersectoral policies that include strategies and funding to facilitate and maintain health and social care networks in rural communities. PMID:26560057

  11. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental ... Statistics Understanding the scope of mental illnesses and their treatment is central ...

  12. Changes in Near Visual Acuity of Over Time in the Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taiym, Wafa; Wear, Mary L.; Locke, James; Mason, Sara; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that visual impairment due to intracranial pressure (VIIP) would increase the rate of which presbyopia would occur in the astronaut population, with long durations flyers at an especially high risk. Presbyopia is characterized as the gradual loss of near visual acuity overtime due to a loss in ability to accommodate. It generally develops in the mid-40s and progresses until about age 65. This analysis considered annual vision exams conducted on active NASA astronauts with spaceflight experience currently between the ages of 40 to 60 years of age. Onset of presbyopia was characterized as a shift of at least 20 units on the standard Snellen test from one annual exam to the next. There were 236 short duration and 48 long duration flyers, the majority of whom did experience onset of presbyopia between age 40 and 60. This shift however, did not necessarily come after spaceflight. In comparing the short and long duration flyers the mean age of onset was 47 years old (SD+/-3.7). The mean of onset within the general population is 45 to 47 years old [1, 2]. The mean age of the onset of presbyopia as compared to the general population indicates that space flight does not induce early development of presbyopia.

  13. Origins of Superior Dynamic Visual Acuity in Baseball Players: Superior Eye Movements or Superior Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yusuke; Kudoh, Daisuke; Murakami, Akira; Honda, Masaaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions), whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions). The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina. PMID:22384033

  14. Effect of Target Location on Dynamic Visual Acuity During Passive Horizontal Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Meghan; DeDios, Yiri; Kulecz, Walter; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates eye rotation to compensate for potential retinal slip in the specific plane of head movement. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been utilized as a functional measure of the VOR. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in accuracy and reaction time when performing a DVA task with targets offset from the plane of rotation, e.g. offset vertically during horizontal rotation. Visual acuity was measured in 12 healthy subjects as they moved a hand-held joystick to indicate the orientation of a computer-generated Landolt C "as quickly and accurately as possible." Acuity thresholds were established with optotypes presented centrally on a wall-mounted LCD screen at 1.3 m distance, first without motion (static condition) and then while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (DVA, peak velocity 60 deg/s). The effect of target location was then measured during horizontal rotation with the optotypes randomly presented in one of nine different locations on the screen (offset up to 10 deg). The optotype size (logMar 0, 0.2 or 0.4, corresponding to Snellen range 20/20 to 20/50) and presentation duration (150, 300 and 450 ms) were counter-balanced across five trials, each utilizing horizontal rotation at 0.8 Hz. Dynamic acuity was reduced relative to static acuity in 7 of 12 subjects by one step size. During the random target trials, both accuracy and reaction time improved proportional to optotype size. Accuracy and reaction time also improved between 150 ms and 300 ms presentation durations. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements when acquiring vertical targets. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of motion. Both reaction time and accuracy are functionally relevant DVA parameters of VOR function.

  15. Mental rotation test performance in four cross-cultural samples (n = 3367): overall sex differences and the role of academic program in performance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Michael; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Takahira, Sayuri; Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Jordan, Kirsten

    2006-10-01

    Two meta-analyses (Linn and Petersen, 1985; Voyer et al., 1995) discuss variables that affect mental rotation performance but they do not mention a potentially important variable, the Academic Program in which students are enrolled. Sex differences in brain size have been related to sex differences in spatial performance (e.g., Falk et al., 1999) and thus it is important to know whether mental rotation performance shows a significant interaction between Sex and Academic Program. To put our understanding of the Academic Program effect on a firmer empirical footing, we conducted a large scale multicultural study, with samples from Canada, Germany and Japan, using identical test procedures in all studies. Significant main effects for Sex and Academic Program were found in all four studies, with large effect sizes for Sex and medium to large effect sizes for Academic Program (based on Cohen's d). No significant interactions between these variables were found in the four samples. Our demonstration of a reliable Academic Program effect has clear and important pragmatic implications for a broad range of work on spatial ability and its interpretation. PMID:17172180

  16. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... nih.gov Share Science News About Women’s Mental Health Soldiers at High Suicide Risk after Hospitalization NIMH ...

  17. Near Visual Acuity Following Hyperopic Photorefractive Keratectomy in a Presbyopic Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Leccisotti, Antonio; Grills, Claire; Moore, Tara C. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess near visual acuity in a presbyopic age group following hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Setting. Private practice in Siena, Italy. Methods. In this retrospective single-surgeon comparative study, PRK with mitomycin C was performed to correct hyperopia using Bausch & Lomb 217z laser for 120 eyes of 60 patients in the presbyopic age group (mean spherical equivalent SE +2.38?D?±?0.71?D and mean age 52 ± 5.09). 120 eyes of 60 age-matched controls (mean age 54 ± 5.09) had their unaided near vision measured. Results. At 12 months mean SE was ?0.10?D ±?0.27?D in the PRK group. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.005 ± 0.022? log?MAR; 2 eyes lost ?0.1 log?MAR. Mean uncorrected visual acuity was 0.04 ± 0.077? log?MAR. Mean distance corrected near visual acuity (DCNVA) in the PRK group was J3.73 ± 1.06. This was statistically better (P < 0.05) than the mean unaided near visual acuity in the control group J4.07 ± 1.08. Conclusion. PRK was found to be safe, predictable, and an effective way of correcting hyperopia in this age group. It was also found to give better than expected near vision. PMID:24555123

  18. Bevacizumab Injection in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Associated with Poor Initial Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    El Matri, Leila; Bouraoui, Rym; Chebil, Ahmed; Kort, Fedra; Bouladi, Mejda; Limaiem, Rym; Landoulsi, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate functional and anatomic effects of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with neovascular AMD and initial low visual acuity. Methods. Retrospective case series of 38 eyes with neovascular AMD and initial visual acuity of 20/200 or less, treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Results. Mean followup was 14.1 months ±??7.1 (range: 5 to 24 months). Mean logMAR vision at baseline was 1.38 logMAR ±??0.33, at 6 months was 1.14 logMAR ±??0.37 (P = 0.001) and at 12 months was 1.22 logMar ±??0.33 (P = 0.004). Mean baseline central retinal thickness was 431??m ±??159.7 at 6 months was 293.43??m??±??122.79 (P = 10?4) and at 12 months was 293.1??m??±??130 (P = 0.004). Visual acuity improved in both patients with or without prior PDT treatment. Conclusions. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection may increase the chance of visual acuity gain in neovascular AMD even in cases with initial low visual acuity. PMID:22174999

  19. Bevacizumab injection in patients with age-related macular degeneration associated with poor initial visual acuity.

    PubMed

    El Matri, Leila; Bouraoui, Rym; Chebil, Ahmed; Kort, Fedra; Bouladi, Mejda; Limaiem, Rym; Landoulsi, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate functional and anatomic effects of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with neovascular AMD and initial low visual acuity. Methods. Retrospective case series of 38 eyes with neovascular AMD and initial visual acuity of 20/200 or less, treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Results. Mean followup was 14.1 months ±??7.1 (range: 5 to 24 months). Mean logMAR vision at baseline was 1.38 logMAR ±??0.33, at 6 months was 1.14 logMAR ±??0.37 (P = 0.001) and at 12 months was 1.22 logMar ±??0.33 (P = 0.004). Mean baseline central retinal thickness was 431??m ±??159.7 at 6 months was 293.43??m??±??122.79 (P = 10(-4)) and at 12 months was 293.1??m??±??130 (P = 0.004). Visual acuity improved in both patients with or without prior PDT treatment. Conclusions. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection may increase the chance of visual acuity gain in neovascular AMD even in cases with initial low visual acuity. PMID:22174999

  20. Mental Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykken, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Biographies of great achievers, in science as well as other disciplines, suggest that those of genius caliber possess, in addition to their intellectual gift or gifts, an extraordinary abundance of mental energy. They can focus their attention on some task for long periods without tiring or becoming distracted from the problem at hand. It is…

  1. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care. PMID:25963120

  2. A randomized controlled trial undertaken to test a nurse-led weight management and exercise intervention designed for people with serious mental illness who take second generation antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Foster, Kim; Buettner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background Weight gain and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population with the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome reaching 20–25% of the global population. People with serious mental illness are at even higher risk, particularly those taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Design An experimental randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Method The control group received a 12-week healthy lifestyle booklet. In addition to the booklet, the intervention group received weekly nutrition and exercise education, exercise sessions, and nurse support. Participants (n = 101) were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Data were collected between March 2008–December 2010. Seven outcome measures were used: body measurements included girth (cm), weight (kg), height (cm), and body mass index (kg/m2); questionnaires included the medication compliance questionnaire, the Drug Attitude Inventory, the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36. Differences in primary outcome measures between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were compared between intervention and control groups using standard bi-variate statistical tests. The study was conducted between 2008–2010. Results The analysis of outcome measures for the control group (n = 50) and intervention group (n = 51) was not statistically significant. There was a mean weight change of ?0·74 kg at 12 weeks for the intervention group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 50) had a mean weight change of ?0·17 kg at 12 weeks. Conclusion The results were not statistically significant. PMID:22973945

  3. Adding the female condom to HIV prevention interventions for women with severe mental illness: a pilot test.

    PubMed

    Collins, Pamela Y; von Unger, Hella; Putnins, Susan; Crawford, Natalie; Dutt, Ragini; Hoffer, Marcela

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a gender-specific intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors by introducing female-initiated methods to urban women with severe mental illness. Seventy-nine women received 10 sessions of an HIV prevention intervention or a control intervention. The primary outcome was unprotected oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse, expressed using the Vaginal Episode Equivalent (VEE) score. Knowledge and use of the female condom were also assessed. Women in the HIV prevention intervention showed a three-fold reduction in the VEE score at the 3-month follow-up compared to the control group, but the difference was not significant. These women were significantly more likely to know about female condoms, have inserted one and used it with a sexual partner at the 3-month follow-up and to have inserted it at 6 months compared to controls. The female condom may be a useful addition, for a subset of women with SMI, to comprehensive HIV prevention programs. PMID:20336486

  4. Mental Rotation: Cross-Task Training and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stransky, Debi; Wilcox, Laurie M.; Dubrowski, Adam

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that performance on standard mental rotation tasks improves with training (Peters et al., 1995), but thus far there is little consensus regarding the degree of transfer to other tasks which also involve mental rotation. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of mental rotation training on participants' Mental Rotation Test

  5. EDUCATION ENHANCES THE ACUITY OF THE NON-VERBAL APPROXIMATE NUMBER SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Manuela; Pica, Pierre; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    All humans share a universal, evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) that estimates and combines the number of objects in sets with ratio-limited precision. Inter-individual variability in the acuity of the ANS correlates with mathematical achievement, but the causes of this correlation have never been established. We acquired psychophysical measures of ANS acuity in child and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, who have a very restricted numerical lexicon and highly variable access to mathematical education. By comparing Mundurucu subjects with or without access to schooling, we demonstrate that education significantly enhances the acuity with which sets of concrete objects are estimated. These results speak in favor of an important effect of culture and education on basic number perception. We hypothesize that symbolic and non-symbolic numerical thinking mutually enhance one another over the course of mathematics instruction. PMID:23625879

  6. The role of numeracy and approximate number system acuity in predicting value and probability distortion.

    PubMed

    Patalano, Andrea L; Saltiel, Jason R; Machlin, Laura; Barth, Hilary

    2015-12-01

    It is well documented that individuals distort outcome values and probabilities when making choices from descriptions, and there is evidence of systematic individual differences in distortion. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between individual differences in such distortions and two measures of numerical competence, numeracy and approximate number system (ANS) acuity. Participants indicated certainty equivalents for a series of simple monetary gambles, and data were used to estimate individual-level value and probability distortion, using a cumulative prospect theory framework. We found moderately strong negative correlations between numeracy and value and probability distortion, but only weak and non-statistically reliable correlations between ANS acuity and distortions. We conclude that low numeracy contributes to number distortion in decision making, but that approximate number system acuity might not underlie this relationship. PMID:26404634

  7. Comparison of ACUITY and CRUSADE Scores in Predicting Major Bleeding during Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luis C. L.; Ferreira, Felipe; Kalil, Felipe; Silva, André; Pereira, Luisa; Carvalhal, Manuela; Cerqueira, Maurício; Lopes, Fernanda; de Sá, Nicole; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2015-01-01

    Background The ACUITY and CRUSADE scores are validated models for prediction of major bleeding events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the comparative performances of these scores are not known. Objective To compare the accuracy of ACUITY and CRUSADE in predicting major bleeding events during ACS. Methods This study included 519 patients consecutively admitted for unstable angina, non-ST-elevation or ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The scores were calculated based on admission data. We considered major bleeding events during hospitalization and not related to cardiac surgery, according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria (type 3 or 5: hemodynamic instability, need for transfusion, drop in hemoglobin ? 3 g, and intracranial, intraocular or fatal bleeding). Results Major bleeding was observed in 31 patients (23 caused by femoral puncture, 5 digestive, 3 in other sites), an incidence of 6%. While both scores were associated with bleeding, ACUITY demonstrated better C-statistics (0.73, 95% CI = 0.63 - 0.82) as compared with CRUSADE (0.62, 95% CI = 0.53 - 0.71; p = 0.04). The best performance of ACUITY was also reflected by a net reclassification improvement of + 0.19 (p = 0.02) over CRUSADE’s definition of low or high risk. Exploratory analysis suggested that the presence of the variables ‘age’ and ‘type of ACS’ in ACUITY was the main reason for its superiority. Conclusion The ACUITY Score is a better predictor of major bleeding when compared with the CRUSADE Score in patients hospitalized for ACS. PMID:26039664

  8. The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity. PMID:24528223

  9. Diagnosing Students' Mental Models via the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Lin, Jing-Wen; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Mental models play an important role in science education research. To extend the effectiveness of conceptual change research and to improve mental model identi?cation and diagnosis, the authors developed and tested the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis (WMMD) system. In this article, they describe their WMMD system, which goes beyond the…

  10. Mental Retirement*

    PubMed Central

    Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement. PMID:20975927

  11. UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a Newly Developed Organizational Skills Assessment Tool for Severely Mentally Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T.; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants’ organizational skills were measured using our newly developed UCSD Sorting Test (U-SORT); a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a “junk drawer” into “keep” vs. “trash” piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms), were acceptable (mean r = |.34|), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = |.06|). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable and valid measure of functioning for this population. PMID:21135646

  12. Specifying and Testing a Multi-Dimensional Model of Publicness: An Analysis of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

    E-print Network

    Merritt, Cullen

    2014-05-31

    This study specifies and tests a multi-dimensional model of publicness, building upon extant literature in this area. Publicness represents the degree to which an organization has "public" ties. An organization's degree ...

  13. DSM-IV-defined common mental disorders: Association with HIV testing, HIV-related fears, perceived risk and preventive behaviours among South African adults

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J; Grimsrud, Anna T; Herman, Allen; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few reports from South Africa on how common mental disorders may be associated with HIV-related perceptions and behaviours. Methods Between 2002 and 2004, 4 351 South African adults were interviewed. Psychiatric diagnoses of depression, anxiety and substance abuse disorders were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV). HIV-related fears, perceived risk and behaviour change were measured using multi-item scales. We analysed forms of behaviour change that were appropriate for risk reduction (such as changes in sexual behaviour) separately from behaviour changes that were inappropriate to prevent HIV (such as care over things touched or avoiding certain social situations). Results The presence of any DSM-IV-defined disorder during the previous 12 months was associated with previous HIV testing, increased HIV-related fears, and high levels of perceived risk of HIV. There were no associations between depression, anxiety and substance abuse disorders and appropriate forms of behaviour change for HIV risk reduction. However, individuals with an anxiety or a depressive disorder were more likely to report inappropriate forms of behaviour change. For example, individuals with any depressive and/or anxiety disorders were 1.57 and 1.47 times more likely, respectively, to report avoiding certain social situations to prevent HIV/AIDS compared with those who did not have such disorders (p<0.01 for both associations). Discussion The lack of appropriate forms of behaviour change to prevent HIV transmission, despite increased levels of HIV-related fear and perceived risk, underscores the need for HIV risk reduction interventions for individuals living with common mental disorders in South Africa. PMID:19588804

  14. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child. PMID:26474475

  15. Comparison of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity between deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Kandemir, Baran; Sayman, Isil Bahar; Selvi, Cem; Kamil Dogan, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate postoperative visual acuity and contrast sensitivity results following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with keratoconus (KC). METHODS All the patients' records with KC who had PK or DALK surgery between May 2010 and May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty patients who underwent successful corneal transplantation for KC: 30 eyes underwent DALK and 30 eyes underwent PK were included in this study. Preoperative and postoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), logMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Contrast sensitivity tests (CS) were done preoperative and 2 months after all sutures had removed. All surgeries were performed under regional anesthesia (retrobulbar anesthesia) by 1 surgeon (B.K.) who was experienced in penetrating and lamellar keratoplasty techniques. RESULTS The mean age of the DALK group was 29.67±4.95 (range 18-40) years and the PK group was 28.7±3.53 (range 18-39) years. Preoperatively there was no significant difference in the logMAR UCVA, logMAR BSCVA and IOP between the DALK (1.281±0.56; 0.97±0.85; 12.07±2.12mmHg) and PK (1.34±0.21; 0.98±0.21; 13±2.12mmHg) groups. One-year after surgery there was no significant difference in the mean logMAR UCVA and IOP between the DALK (0.46±0.37; 11.73±2.1mmHg) and PK (0.38±0.21; 12±2.12mmHg) groups. The mean contrast sensitivity was evaluated by CC-100 Topcon LCD at 1.5, 2.52, 4.23, 7.10 and 11.91 cycles per degree (cs/deg) spatial frequencies before and 2 months after the all sutures had removed. CONCLUSION All patients with keratoconus in both DALK and PK groups performed good visual function postoperatively. The mean contrast sensitivity increased considerably at all spatial frequencies compared with preoperative levels in the DALK and PK groups. The mean post-operative evaluation of contrast sensitivity measurements was not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:23275910

  16. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  17. Short-Term Visual Deprivation, Tactile Acuity, and Haptic Solid Shape Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Charles E.; Norman, J. Farley

    2014-01-01

    Previous psychophysical studies have reported conflicting results concerning the effects of short-term visual deprivation upon tactile acuity. Some studies have found that 45 to 90 minutes of total light deprivation produce significant improvements in participants' tactile acuity as measured with a grating orientation discrimination task. In contrast, a single 2011 study found no such improvement while attempting to replicate these earlier findings. A primary goal of the current experiment was to resolve this discrepancy in the literature by evaluating the effects of a 90-minute period of total light deprivation upon tactile grating orientation discrimination. We also evaluated the potential effect of short-term deprivation upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination using a set of naturally-shaped solid objects. According to previous research, short-term deprivation enhances performance in a tactile 2-D shape discrimination task – perhaps a similar improvement also occurs for haptic 3-D shape discrimination. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that not only does short-term visual deprivation not enhance tactile acuity, it additionally has no effect upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination. While visual deprivation had no effect in our study, there was a significant effect of experience and learning for the grating orientation task – the participants' tactile acuity improved over time, independent of whether they had, or had not, experienced visual deprivation. PMID:25397327

  18. Teachers' Knowledge of the Relationship of Auditory Acuity and Hearing Impairment to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Evelyn Myrtle

    Teacher's knowledge of the relationship of auditory acuity and hearing impairment to reading was evaluated with 60 teachers and specialists (regular classroom primary and upper elementary teachers, reading teachers, teachers of the learning disabled, teachers of the hearing impaired, and speech and language pathologists). Ss were administered a…

  19. A Neural Computation for Visual Acuity in the Presence of Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    A Neural Computation for Visual Acuity in the Presence of Eye Movements Xaq Pitkow1¤ , Haim caused by spontaneous retinal activity. This is a challenge since the trajectory of the eye movements eye movements perform much worse. We then show how a simple, biologically plausible neural network

  20. Developmental changes during childhood in single-letter acuity and its crowding by surrounding contours

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Daphne M.

    perception Single-letter acuity Crowding Development Children Psychophysics a b s t r a c t Crowding refers history: Received 24 November 2009 Revised 25 May 2010 Available online 14 July 2010 Keywords: Visual in multiples of thresh- old stroke width, were smaller in adults (2.83) than in the three groups of children

  1. The Effects of Drift and Displacement Motion on Dynamic Visual Acuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio; Quevedo, Lluisa; Sinnett, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) can be measured from two types of equivalently considered movement referred to as drifting-motion and displacement-motion. Displacement motion can be best described as the horizontal displacement of a stimulus, thus implying pursuit eye movements, and involves moving the stimulus from the fixation point of gaze towards…

  2. Subjective evaluation of intraocular lenses by visual acuity measurement using adaptive optics

    E-print Network

    Dainty, Chris

    Subjective evaluation of intraocular lenses by visual acuity measurement using adaptive optics Huanqing Guo,1, * Hamid R. Fallah,2 Chris Dainty,1 and Alexander V. Goncharov1 1 Applied Optics Group an ocular adaptive optics system by a single subject. To separate the spherical aberration

  3. "Culture-Fair" Mental Ability Testing with Schoolchildren: A Review of the Silent Raven; Adequate If Used with Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This paper examines Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices Scale (CPM) IQ test which is considered by many to be "culture fair." The emphasis is on socioeconomic status but factors of sex and ethnicity are also considered. Two major studies from which socioeconomic status data can be extracted are examined. These and other studies found that…

  4. Visual Acuity for Moving Objects in First-and Second-Order Neurons of the Fly Compound Eye

    E-print Network

    Juusola, Mikko

    as a function of both objects in first- and second-order neurons of the fly compound eye. light adaptation physical environment. Although the visual the angular sensitivity of the light-accepting components. acuityVisual Acuity for Moving Objects in First- and Second-Order Neurons of the Fly Compound Eye MIKKO

  5. The relationship among the quantitative perfusion-defect indices in Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT, IQ test, and involved extremities in children with cerebral palsy due to perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Kao, C H; Wang, S J; Yeh, S H

    1994-04-01

    Brain SPECT imaging was performed in 13 children with cerebral palsy (6 girls, 7 boys; age, 7-17 years) due to perinatal asphyxia with mental retardation and involved limbs were studied. The involved coronal slices were summated to a picture for the calculation of the perfusion defect indices as the quantitative and objective estimation of the perfusion defects in each brain. The records of IQ tests were scored from severe to mild mental retardation. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians analyzed the results of the Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECTs by visual interpretation. The involved limbs were judged by two pediatricians to be either the right or left side. The relationship among the Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECTs, IQ test, and physical examinations of the extremities were established. The results showed that two cases of mild mental retardation had the smaller perfusion defect indices (< 0.1), six cases of severe mental retardation had the larger perfusion defect indices (> 0.30), and the other group was between the first two groups. Two cases of mild mental retardation did not have significant perfusion defects in the brain and involved limbs, and two cases with decreased visual acuity had definite perfusion defects in the occipital regions. The other cases had the matched perfusion defects of the brain with the involved limbs. The authors encourage the potential use of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECTs to predict the outcome of mental development and limb involvement. PMID:8004862

  6. [Hearing acuity in otitis media with effusion and adhesive otitis media].

    PubMed

    Akachi, Y

    1990-03-01

    The relationship between findings established by the photograph of the tympanic membrane and hypacusia was determined by pure-tone audiometry. Subjects were 352 ears of 267 patients diagnosed as otitis media with effusion (OME) or adhesive otitis media (AdOM). These two diseases were evaluated on the basis of photographs of the tympanic membrane taken from 1983 to 1988. The results were as follows; 1) The effect of aging process on hearing acuity was noted in patients with these diseases, i.e., values of hearing acuity by air and bone conduction were, in descending order, early-, mature-, and advanced-age groups, with significant differences (p less than 0.01). 2) Greater loss of acuity by air conduction in the middle to high frequency ranges was found in patients with OME than with AdOM. In bone conduction, a decrease in low frequency range in the early--and mature--age groups was larger in patients with AdOM than with OME and a significant decrease in 2000-6000 Hz in the advanced-age group was more marked in patients with OME than with AdOM (p less than 0.05). 3) Among patients with AdOM, those with retained fluid in the middle ear showed a significant decrease in air conduction values and a significant increase in air-bone gap compared with those without fluid (p less than 0.05). 4) The degrees of adhesion correlated well with a decrease in hearing acuity. 5) Hearing acuity was not influenced by attic retraction, white plaque, scar and atrophy of their tympanic membranes. PMID:2352052

  7. Reduction in Dynamic Visual Acuity Reveals Gaze Control Changes Following Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris; Lawrence, Emily L.; Mulavara Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to microgravity causes adaptive changes in eye-head coordination that can lead to altered gaze control. This could affect postflight visual acuity during head and body motion. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in dynamic visual acuity after long-duration spaceflight. METHODS: Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) data from 14 astro/cosmonauts were collected after long-duration (6 months) spaceflight. The difference in acuity between seated and walking conditions provided a metric of change in the subjects ability to maintain gaze fixation during self-motion. In each condition, a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm was used to display Landolt ring optotypes at a size that was near each subject s acuity threshold. Verbal responses regarding the orientation of the gap were recorded as the optotypes appeared sequentially on a computer display 4 meters away. During the walking trials, subjects walked at 6.4 km/h on a motorized treadmill. RESULTS: A decrement in mean postflight DVA was found, with mean values returning to baseline within 1 week. The population mean showed a consistent improvement in DVA performance, but it was accompanied by high variability. A closer examination of the individual subject s recovery curves revealed that many did not follow a pattern of continuous improvement with each passing day. When adjusted on the basis of previous long-duration flight experience, the population mean shows a "bounce" in the re-adaptation curve. CONCLUSION: Gaze control during self-motion is altered following long-duration spaceflight and changes in postflight DVA performance indicate that vestibular re-adaptation may be more complex than a gradual return to normal.

  8. Evaluating Explicit and Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness in Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2 years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not require the use of a comparison category. Compared to non-professionals, mental health professionals reported significantly higher approach emotions than non-professionals towards people with mental illness, showed a lesser tendency to discriminate against them, and held less restrictive attitudes. Both groups reported negative implicit attitudes towards mentally ill. Results suggest that both non-professionals and professionals display ambivalent attitudes towards people with mental illness and that professional, long-term contact with people with mental illness does not necessarily modify negative implicit attitudes. PMID:25535045

  9. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4?years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9?months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6?months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000457640. PMID:25805530

  10. Gitelman's syndrome with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Rena; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Nakamura, Akinobu; Tajima, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Yoshihiko

    2006-01-01

    A 56-year-old mentally retarded Japanese woman (intelligence quotient: 49) was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaints of headache, dizziness, vomiting, and lower limb paralysis. Laboratory tests showed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. These findings suggested a diagnosis of Gitelman's syndrome (GS). We examined the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (TSC) gene for the mutations that can be responsible for Gitelman's syndrome, and confirmed the diagnosis. After potassium and magnesium supplementation, her paralysis improved dramatically. The marriage of her parents was consanguineous. She had nine siblings (all with mental retardation), among whom five had died of unknown causes during childhood. Familial mental retardation has never been detected before in Gitelman's syndrome. Here we report a rare case of Gitelman's syndrome with familial mental retardation. PMID:16543691

  11. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  12. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  13. Nutrition and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... certain supplement will improve a person’s mental health? Mental illness is serious. In some cases, it can even be life-threatening. If you are struggling with mental health issues, talk to your family doctor. He ...

  14. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  15. Significant Improvement in Dynamic Visual Acuity after Cataract Surgery: A Promising Potential Parameter for Functional Vision

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Mingxin; Li, Xuemin; Huang, Chen; Hou, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Weiqiang; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is a relatively independent parameter for evaluating the ability to distinguish details of a moving target. The present study has been designed to discuss the extent to which age-related cataract impacts DVA in elderly individuals and to determine whether it could be restored after bilateral phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery. Methods Twenty-six elderly cataract patients scheduled for binocular cataract surgery and 30 elderly volunteers without cataract were enrolled in the study. DVA at 15, 30, 60 and 90 degree per second (dps) was assessed, and velocity-dependent visual acuity decreases between consecutive speed levels were calculated. Results Compared with the control group, the patient group exhibited significantly worse DVA performance at all speed levels (p<0.001), and the decreases in velocity-dependent visual acuity were more serious in the patient group at the intervals of 0–15 dps (p<0.001), 15–30 dps (p?=?0.007) and 30–60 dps (p?=?0.008). Postoperatively, DVA performance at every speed level in the patient group clearly improved (p<0.001) and recovered to levels compatible to the control group. The decrease in visual acuity with increasing speed was less pronounced than during the preoperative phase (p0–15 dps?=?0.001, p15–30 dps<0.001 and p30–60 dps?=?0.001) and became similar to that of the control group. The postoperative visual benefit regarding DVA was more pronounced than the improvement in static visual acuity (p15 dps?=?0.001 and p<0.001 at 30 dps, 60 dps and 90 dps). Conclusions The impact of age-related cataract on DVA was more severe than its effects on static visual acuity. After cataract surgery, not only static vision of the patients was restored markedly, but also the dynamic vision. DVA could be an important adjunct to the current evaluation system of functional vision, thereby meriting additional attention in clinical assessment. PMID:25541959

  16. DVA as a Diagnostic Test for Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.

  17. Visual acuity: the role of visual input in inducing postnatal change Daphne Maurera,b,*, Terri L. Lewisa,b,c

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Daphne M.

    : Visual acuity; Newborn; Development; Congenital cataract; Visual deprivation; Infant 1. Introduction No matter how it is measured, the visual acuity of newborn infants is poor, and improves rapidly during improvements. For example, the acuity of newborns is 40 times worse than that of normal adults, largely because

  18. Better futures: a randomized field test of a model for supporting young people in foster care with mental health challenges to participate in higher education.

    PubMed

    Geenen, Sarah; Powers, Laurie E; Phillips, Lee Ann; Nelson, May; McKenna, Jessica; Winges-Yanez, Nichole; Blanchette, Linda; Croskey, Adrienne; Dalton, Lawrence D; Salazar, Amy; Swank, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a preliminary efficacy evaluation of the Better Futures model, which is focused on improving the postsecondary preparation and participation of youth in foster care with mental health challenges. Sixty-seven youth were randomized to either a control group that received typical services or an intervention group, which involved participation in a Summer Institute, individual peer coaching, and mentoring workshops. Findings indicate significant gains for the intervention group on measures of postsecondary participation, postsecondary and transition preparation, hope, self-determination, and mental health empowerment, as compared to the control group. Youth in the intervention group also showed positive trends in the areas of mental health recovery, quality of life, and high school completion. Implications for future research and practice are discussed, while emphasizing the capacities of youth in foster care with mental health conditions to successfully prepare for and participate fully in high education. PMID:25502222

  19. Changes in smell acuity induced by radiation exposure of the olfactory mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ophir, D.; Guterman, A.; Gross-Isseroff, R.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two odorants (amyl acetate and eugenol) were determined before the start of radiation therapy, within a week of termination of therapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. The results show clearly that smell acuity is profoundly affected by therapeutic irradiation. Thresholds had increased in all 12 patients by the end of treatment and were still high one month later. Varying degrees of recovery were noted in most patients three to six months after cessation of treatment. The fate of the sense of smell deserves more attention when considering the disability caused by irradiation to certain head and neck tumors.

  20. Intraocular lens powers used in the triple procedure. Effect on visual acuity and refractive error.

    PubMed

    Binder, P S

    1985-11-01

    The refractive results of 43 consecutive triple procedures (transplant, cataract extraction, and lens implant) performed by one surgeon were analyzed. Twenty-one out of 43 eyes achieved refractive errors within 2 diopters (D) of emmetropia. The mean refractive error was -1.79 D, and the mean corneal astigmatic error was 2.75 D. Seventy percent of the eyes achieved 20/40 or better corrected acuity. Forty-four percent had 20/80 or better uncorrected acuity. Using the average postoperative keratometry readings from other recent transplant cases and an updated A constant in the SRK regression formula would have placed 39 of 43 eyes (91%) within 2 D of emmetropia with a mean refractive error of -0.07 D. The use of recent keratometry readings in a multiple regression formula is recommended to improve refractive results with the triple procedure. PMID:3909037

  1. Do poor nutrition and display screens affect visual acuity in children?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catriona M; Tappin, David M

    2002-02-01

    Two studies conducted in Scotland have shown an increase in visual acuity (VA) screening failure among primary school-aged children in recent years. Two other trends were observed during the same period - an increase in children bringing packed lunches to school, and increased access to display screen equipment (DSE) including television, computers and hand-held computer games. This study set out to assess if either DSE use of poor diet could be linked with visual acuity screening failure in Scottish primary school children. Information was collected on diet and DSE use from 1384 children who had received VA screening in eight primary schools in Glasgow. After controlling for deprivation, DSE use other than watching television was associated with an increased risk of VA screening failure, as was a 'poor' diet. If these findings are confirmed by other studies and a causal link can be made, then health education at school could be designed to prevent VA screening failure. PMID:11865216

  2. Visual Acuity Improvement of Amblyopia in an Adult With Levodopa/Carbidopa Treatment.

    PubMed

    Orge, Faruk H; Dar, Suhail A

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is the leading cause of visual loss in children, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. Occlusion of the dominant eye is the primary and best treatment, although efficacy decreases after 6 years of age. As a result, levodopa/carbidopa has been explored as an adjunct to conventional therapy and has been shown to have an immediate impact on visual acuity. Several studies to date have shown mixed results on the benefit of supplementing occlusion therapy with levodopa/carbidopa, although they have primarily studied children. The authors describe the oldest patient (46 years old) documented in the literature to have shown improvement in visual acuity using levodopa/carbidopa. He was given a 16-week course at a dose in line with previous studies while being effectively occluded full time due to a glaucomatous right eye with no light perception. On 3-month follow-up, his left eye improved two lines and stabilized at 6 months. PMID:26352209

  3. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity in rats with retinal degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, D.; Goetz, G.; Lorach, H.; Mandel, Y.; Smith, R.; Boinagrov, D.; Lei, X.; Kamins, T.; Harris, J.; Mathieson, K.; Sher, A.

    2015-03-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for delivery of visual information. Subretinal photovoltaic arrays with 70?m pixels were used to convert pulsed near-IR light (880-915nm) into pulsed current to stimulate the nearby inner retinal neurons. Network-mediated responses of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) could be modulated by pulse width (1-20ms) and peak irradiance (0.5-10 mW/mm2). Similarly to normal vision, retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibited flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images, and non-linear spatial summation. Spatial resolution was assessed in-vitro and in-vivo using alternating gratings with variable stripe width, projected with rapidly pulsed illumination (20-40Hz). In-vitro, average size of the electrical receptive fields in normal retina was 248+/-59?m - similar to their visible light RF size: 249+/-44?m. RGCs responded to grating stripes down to 67?m using photovoltaic stimulation in degenerate rat retina, and 28?m with visible light in normal retina. In-vivo, visual acuity in normally-sighted controls was 29+/-5?m/stripe, vs. 63+/-4?m/stripe in rats with subretinal photovoltaic arrays, corresponding to 20/250 acuity in human eye. With the enhanced acuity provided by eye movements and perceptual learning in human patients, visual acuity might exceed the 20/200 threshold of legal blindness. Ease of implantation and tiling of these wireless arrays to cover a large visual field, combined with their high resolution opens the door to highly functional restoration of sight.

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN FOVEAL VISUAL ACUITY AND ILLUMINATION UNDER REDUCED OXYGEN TENSION

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, R. A.; Halperin, M. H.

    1940-01-01

    1. The foveal visual acuity of eleven subjects was studied in relation to illumination under normal atmospheric conditions and at simulated altitudes of 10,000 feet (14.3 per cent O2) and 18,000 feet (10.3 per cent O2). A mask was used to administer the desired mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen. At the end of each experiment, measurements were made while inhaling 100 per cent oxygen from a cylinder. A red filter (No. 70 Wratten) was used so as to study only the behavior of the cones of the retina. 2. The logarithm of illumination was plotted horizontally (abscissa) and the logarithm of visual acuity vertically (ordinate). The reduced oxygen tensions resulted in a shift of the curve to the right, along the intensity axis, the extent of the change being 0.24 of a log unit at 14.3 per cent O2 and 0.47 of a log unit at 10.3 per cent O2. These effects were completely counteracted within a few minutes by inhaling oxygen. 3. As a consequence of the shape of the curve, such a shift to the right resulted in a relatively large decrease of visual acuity at low illuminations. At increasing light intensities anoxia produced less and less change, until at very high illuminations the decrease was negligible. Thus with 10.34 per cent O2 the visual acuity at 0.144 photons decreased an average of 0.344 of a log unit, to 45 per cent of its normal value. At 1320 photons, however, it decreased only 0.026 of a log unit, to 94 per cent of its normal value for that intensity. PMID:19873178

  5. Population-based visual acuity in the presence of defocus well predicted by classical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeber, Henk A.; Featherstone, Kristen A.; Piers, Patricia A.

    2010-07-01

    According to classical theory, visual acuity (VA) can be modeled using the intersection of the eye's modulation transfer function with a retinal threshold function. To date, there have been limited attempts to validate this methodology by comparing theory with actual measured data. We use the methodology to predict the visual acuity in the presence of defocus of a population of cataract patients implanted with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. For the prediction, we used a set of physiological eye models that include chromatic and higher order aberrations. We found that the simulations correlated strongly to the clinical outcomes (R2=0.93). While the simulated VA of the eye models was systematically 0.05 logMAR units lower (better acuity) than the clinical results, this difference was independent of defocus (p=0.98). These results show that when the simple and straightforward classical theory is applied using physiological eye models, accurate predictions of the VA, and through-focus VA of a population can be made. This method may be suited for predicting visual performance of new cataract and refractive treatments.

  6. The relatively small decline in orientation acuity as stimulus size decreases.

    PubMed

    Henrie, J A; Shapley, R M

    2001-06-01

    Orientation acuity was measured with circular patches of sinusoidal gratings of various sizes. Threshold estimates were lowest (acuity highest) for the largest size patch, and increased as the stimulus size was reduced, consistent with the results of many researchers using line stimuli. These results are compared with the predictions of a simple and widely accepted model of spatial vision whereby the output of independent feed-forward filters are combined to produce threshold estimates. Specifically, the rectified output of a number of independent filters (i.e. Gabors) spanning the stimulus space (i.e. orientation) are combined via Bayesian decision theory. This model cannot account quantitatively for the relatively low thresholds estimated for the small sized stimuli when compared to the thresholds measured with larger patches. Application of a comparable analysis, with preliminary measurements of neuronal responses from primary visual cortex replacing the response rectified Gabor filter's responses, provides a more reasonable account of behavioral acuity. This indicates a fundamental inadequacy of the feed-forward filter model in accounting for V1 neurons' role in perception. PMID:11348653

  7. Normal Visual Acuity and Electrophysiological Contrast Gain in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Bach, Michael; Blessing, Julia; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    A common neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is defined by specific patterns in social perception, social competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests, and a strong subjective need for behavioral routines. Furthermore, distinctive features of visual perception, such as markedly reduced eye contact and a tendency to focus more on small, visual items than on holistic perception, have long been recognized as typical ASD characteristics. Recent debate in the scientific community discusses whether the physiology of low-level visual perception might explain such higher visual abnormalities. While reports of this enhanced, “eagle-like” visual acuity contained methodological errors and could not be substantiated, several authors have reported alterations in even earlier stages of visual processing, such as contrast perception and motion perception at the occipital cortex level. Therefore, in this project, we have investigated the electrophysiology of very early visual processing by analyzing the pattern electroretinogram-based contrast gain, the background noise amplitude, and the psychophysical visual acuities of participants with high-functioning ASD and controls with equal education. Based on earlier findings, we hypothesized that alterations in early vision would be present in ASD participants. This study included 33 individuals with ASD (11 female) and 33 control individuals (12 female). The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, and education level. We found no evidence of altered electrophysiological retinal contrast processing or psychophysical measured visual acuities. There appears to be no evidence for abnormalities in retinal visual processing in ASD patients, at least with respect to contrast detection. PMID:26379525

  8. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    BATEMAN, ANTHONY; FONAGY, PETER

    2010-01-01

    Mentalizing is the process by which we make sense of each other and ourselves, implicitly and explicitly, in terms of subjective states and mental processes. It is a profoundly social construct in the sense that we are attentive to the mental states of those we are with, physically or psychologically. Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a common psychiatric condition with important implications for public health, that has received the most attention. Patients with BPD show reduced capacities to mentalize, which leads to problems with emotional regulation and difficulties in managing impulsivity, especially in the context of interpersonal interactions. Mentalization based treatment (MBT) is a time-limited treatment which structures interventions that promote the further development of mentalizing. It has been tested in research trials and found to be an effective treatment for BPD when delivered by mental health professionals given limited additional training and with moderate levels of supervision. This supports the general utility of MBT in the treatment of BPD within generic mental health services. PMID:20148147

  9. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  10. General Mental Ability: From Psychometrics to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes empirical findings of research on a theory of general mental ability, based on laboratory studies of the relationship between measurements of individual differences on conventional psychometric tests and in speed and efficiency of information processes. The paper covers characteristics of "g" (general mental ability),…

  11. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE

    PubMed Central

    Pendlebury, S. T.; Klaus, S. P.; Mather, M.; de Brito, M.; Wharton, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: routine cognitive screening for in-patients aged ?75 years is recommended, but there is uncertainty around how this should be operationalised. We therefore determined the feasibility and reliability of the Abbreviated mental test score (AMTS/10) and its relationship to subjective memory complaint, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA/30) and informant report in unselected older admissions. Methods: consecutive acute general medicine patients aged ?75 years admitted over 10 weeks (March–May 2013) had AMTS and a question regarding subjective memory complaint (if no known dementia/delirium). At ?72 h, the 30-point Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) were done. Cognitive impairment was defined as AMTS < 9 or MoCA < 26 (mild impairment) and MoCA < 20 (moderate/severe impairment) or IQCODE ? 3.6. Results: among 264 patients (mean age/SD = 84.3/5.6 years, 117 (44%) male), 228 (86%) were testable with AMTS. 49/50 (98%) testable patients with dementia/delirium had low AMTS compared with 79/199 (44%) of those without (P < 0.001). Subjective memory complaint agreed poorly with objective cognitive deficit (39% denying a memory problem had AMTS < 9 (kappa = 0.134, P = 0.086)) as did informant report (kappa = 0.18, P = 0.15). In contrast, correlation between AMTS and MoCA was strong (R2 = 0.59, P < 0.001) with good agreement between AMTS < 9 and MoCA < 20 (kappa = 0.50, P < 0.01), although 85% of patients with normal AMTS had MoCA < 26. Conclusions: the AMTS was feasible and valid in older acute medicine patients agreeing well with the MoCA albeit with a ceiling effect. Objective cognitive deficits were prevalent in patients without known dementia or delirium but were not reliably identified by subjective cognitive complaint or informant report. PMID:26464420

  12. Comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity and mental health service utilization by female inmates: testing the worst of both worlds hypothesis with the PAI.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Magaletta, Philip R

    2015-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether female inmates with comorbid proclivity for antisocial behavior and substance misuse, as measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 2007), use more mental health-related services than female inmates with either antisocial or substance misuse proclivity alone. A second purpose was to determine whether the effect of comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity on mental health service utilization is cumulative or interactive. In a survey of 421 female federal prison inmates, it was noted that proclivity for both antisocial behavior and substance misuse was associated with significantly greater subsequent use of mental health services in female inmates than either proclivity alone, even after preexisting mental health diagnoses and treatment were controlled. In addition, the effect was additive rather than interactive. These findings provide further support for the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis, which holds that comorbid antisocial and substance involvement/proclivity portend poorer future outcomes than either antisocial or substance involvement/proclivity alone. The implications of these results for development of a comprehensive training model that provides mental health professionals with the skills to properly screen and effectively treat female inmates are discussed, along with the need to clarify the theory behind the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis. PMID:25222110

  13. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  14. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  15. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Is acuity enough? Other considerations in clinical investigations of visual prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepri, Bernard P.

    2009-06-01

    Visual impairing eye diseases are the major frontier facing ophthalmic research today in light of our rapidly aging population. The visual skills necessary for improving the quality of daily function and life are inextricably linked to these impairing diseases. Both research and reimbursement programs are emphasizing outcome-based results. Is improvement in visual acuity alone enough to improve the function and quality of life of visually impaired persons? This perspective summarizes the types of effectiveness endpoints for clinical investigations of visual prostheses that go beyond visual acuity. The clinical investigation of visual prostheses should include visual function, functional vision and quality of life measures. Specifically, they encompass contrast sensitivity, orientation and mobility, activities of daily living and quality of life assessments. The perspective focuses on the design of clinical trials for visual prostheses and the methods of determining effectiveness above and beyond visual acuity that will yield outcomes that are measured by improved function in the visual world and quality of life. The visually impaired population is the primary consideration in this presentation with particular emphases on retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Clinical trials for visual prostheses cannot be isolated from the need for medical rehabilitation in order to obtain measurements of effectiveness that produce outcomes/evidence-based success. This approach will facilitate improvement in daily function and quality of life of patients with diseases that cause chronic vision impairment. The views and opinions are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the US Food and Drug Administration, the US Department of Health and Human Services or the Public Health Service.

  17. Sound localization in common vampire bats: acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°-within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20?kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5?kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60??s. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  18. Visual acuity recovery after late traumatic femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis flap loss.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karin E; Tanzer, David J

    2009-06-01

    We report a case of traumatic flap loss from a fingernail 2 months after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis. On presentation, the patient's uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 20/400 and complete flap avulsion was noted. Irrigation and treatment with mitomycin-C were done immediately, and a bandage contact lens was inserted. The epithelium healed completely over 1 week. One month after the injury, the UCVA was 20/15(-2). This case illustrates an excellent outcome from a potentially devastating event following refractive surgery in a military member. PMID:19465302

  19. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  20. Women's Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To promote good mental health, keep exercising your body and mind. Do activities you enjoy, strengthen friendships, hobbies, and ... alone. Even if you take care of your body and mind, there are no guarantees against mental illness. Even ...

  1. Good Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if: You often have difficulty sleeping and the solutions listed above are not working for you You ... the signs and symptoms of mental illness and solutions for preventing and coping with mental illness. Insomnia ...

  2. Children's Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... families and hear about their experiences living with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette Syndrome Watch the video » Mental health ... emotions. Some examples of childhood mental disorders are: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ... disorders Mood and anxiety disorders Substance ...

  3. Mental Retardation in TSC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... originally identified the triad of mental retardation, intractable epilepsy, and facial angiofibromas as the trademarks of tuberous ... two to three years. Seizures and Mental Retardation Epilepsy often begins in early childhood/infancy. This is ...

  4. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  5. Occupation-related long-term sensory training enhances roughness discrimination but not tactile acuity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S; Winkelmann, C; Krause, F; Grunwald, M

    2014-06-01

    Extensive use of sensorimotor properties has been shown to lead to use-dependent plasticity in the human motor cortex as well as sensory areas. The sensory consequences of these cortical changes, however, remain widely unclear. We were interested whether job-related long-term haptic training is measurable in terms of changes in haptic perception (active touch exploration) in manual physiotherapists (PT). To that end, the haptic thresholds of PT (students and employed) and registered osteopathic manual therapists (OMT; PT with postgraduate specialization) were measured and compared to age- and sex-matched control groups. Additionally, tactile acuity (passive static touch) was assessed using grating domes. PT and OMT had superior mean haptic thresholds compared to the control group, suggesting an increase in sensitivity through use. An age-related decline in haptic perception capacity occurred only in the control group, suggesting that the job-related training of the manual therapist groups may have slowed their age-related decline. Contrary to our expectation, we found significantly poorer mean haptic threshold results in the PT student group than for the controls. No significant differences or changes in tactile acuity were found for any of the groups (students and professional). The present results demonstrate use-dependent plasticity in manual therapists. Furthermore, the results underline the known effect of a superior discrimination ability of haptic as opposed to tactile perception. PMID:24609417

  6. Investigating photoreceptor densities, potential visual acuity, and cone mosaics of shallow water, temperate fish species.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D E; Rawlinson, N J F; Thomas, G A; Cobcroft, J M

    2015-06-01

    The eye is an important sense organ for teleost species but can vary greatly depending on the adaption to the habitat, environment during ontogeny and developmental stage of the fish. The eye and retinal morphology of eight commonly caught trawl bycatch species were described: Lepidotrigla mulhalli; Lophonectes gallus; Platycephalus bassensis; Sillago flindersi; Neoplatycephalus richardsoni; Thamnaconus degeni; Parequula melbournensis; and Trachurus declivis. The cone densities ranged from 38 cones per 0.01 mm(2) for S. flindersi to 235 cones per 0.01 mm(2) for P. melbournensis. The rod densities ranged from 22800 cells per 0.01 mm(2) for L. mulhalli to 76634 cells per 0.01 mm(2) for T. declivis and potential visual acuity (based on anatomical measures) ranged from 0.08 in L. gallus to 0.31 in P. melbournensis. Higher rod densities were correlated with maximum habitat depths. Six species had the regular pattern of four double cones arranged around a single cone in the photoreceptor mosaic, while T. declivis had only rows of double cones. P. melbournensis had the greatest potential ability for detecting fine detail based on eye anatomy. The potential visual acuity estimates and rod densities can be applied to suggest the relative detection ability of different species in a commercial fishing context, since vision is a critical sense in an illuminated environment for perceiving an oncoming trawl. PMID:25872175

  7. Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M.; Fernández, Enrique J.; Artal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes. PMID:25360355

  8. Simulation of thalamic prosthetic vision: reading accuracy, speed, and acuity in sighted humans

    PubMed Central

    Vurro, Milena; Crowell, Anne Marie; Pezaris, John S.

    2014-01-01

    The psychophysics of reading with artificial sight has received increasing attention as visual prostheses are becoming a real possibility to restore useful function to the blind through the coarse, pseudo-pixelized vision they generate. Studies to date have focused on simulating retinal and cortical prostheses; here we extend that work to report on thalamic designs. This study examined the reading performance of normally sighted human subjects using a simulation of three thalamic visual prostheses that varied in phosphene count, to help understand the level of functional ability afforded by thalamic designs in a task of daily living. Reading accuracy, reading speed, and reading acuity of 20 subjects were measured as a function of letter size, using a task based on the MNREAD chart. Results showed that fluid reading was feasible with appropriate combinations of letter size and phosphene count, and performance degraded smoothly as font size was decreased, with an approximate doubling of phosphene count resulting in an increase of 0.2 logMAR in acuity. Results here were consistent with previous results from our laboratory. Results were also consistent with those from the literature, despite using naive subjects who were not trained on the simulator, in contrast to other reports. PMID:25408641

  9. Hearing in alpacas (Vicugna pacos): audiogram, localization acuity, and use of binaural locus cues.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral audiograms and sound localization abilities were determined for three alpacas (Vicugna pacos). Their hearing at a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) (re 20??Pa) extended from 40?Hz to 32.8?kHz, a range of 9.7 octaves. They were most sensitive at 8?kHz, with an average threshold of -0.5?dB SPL. The minimum audible angle around the midline for 100-ms broadband noise was 23°, indicating relatively poor localization acuity and potentially supporting the finding that animals with broad areas of best vision have poorer sound localization acuity. The alpacas were able to localize low-frequency pure tones, indicating that they can use the binaural phase cue, but they were unable to localize pure tones above the frequency of phase ambiguity, thus indicating complete inability to use the binaural intensity-difference cue. In contrast, the alpacas relied on their high-frequency hearing for pinna cues; they could discriminate front-back sound sources using 3-kHz high-pass noise, but not 3-kHz low-pass noise. These results are compared to those of other hoofed mammals and to mammals more generally. PMID:25234886

  10. Development of retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Arimoto, Takafumi

    2000-12-01

    The retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at different stages of development were examined by light microscopy. The resolving power of the retina, the visual axis and the best visual field were estimated based on the distribution of cone cells in the retina. The visual system of the larvae appears poorly developed at hatching. The larvae with total length (TL) of less than 10 mm, have single cones only and the eyes were well pigmented. At 10 11 mm TL, most single cones fused to form double cones, with the single and double cones forming a mosaic pattern. From larvae to early juvenile the retina stretches, the cones increase in diameter and rods increase in number. Based on the highest density of the cones in the ventro-temporal region, the visual axis was orientated upforward. The resolving power of the retina in 40 530 mm TL Japanese flounder was found to range from 25.1 to 11.5 min. The results indicated continual improvements in the visual system of the growing fish towards higher resolving power, visual acuity and sensitivity.

  11. Mechanistic modeling of vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity and acuity at low luminance.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, John R; Wathes, Christopher M

    2012-05-01

    The validity of the Barten theoretical model for describing the vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and acuity at scotopic light levels has been examined. Although this model (which has its basis in signal modulation transfer theory) can successfully describe vertebrate CSF, and its relation to underlying visual neurophysiology at photopic light levels, significant discrepancies between theory and experimental data have been found at scotopic levels. It is shown that in order to describe scotopic CSF, the theory must be modified to account for important mechanistic changes, which occur as cone vision switches to rod vision. These changes are divided into photon management factors [changes in optical performance (for a dilated pupil), quantum efficiency, receptor sampling] and neural factors (changes in spatial integration area, neural noise, and lateral inhibition in the retina). Predictions of both scotopic CSF and acuity obtained from the modified theory were found to be in good agreement with experimental values obtained from the human, macaque, cat, and owl monkey. The last two species have rod densities particularly suited for scotopic conditions. PMID:22569345

  12. Pediatric Primary Care Providers' Relationships with Mental Health Care Providers: Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidano, Anne E.; Honigfeld, Lisa; Bar-Halpern, Miri; Vivian, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As many as 20 % of children have diagnosable mental health conditions and nearly all of them receive pediatric primary health care. However, most children with serious mental health concerns do not receive mental health services. This study tested hypotheses that pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) in relationships with mental

  13. Mental retardation as a Facade Self phenomenon: construct validation.

    PubMed

    Panek, P E; Wagner, E E

    1980-12-01

    Predictions from Wagner's Structural Analysis theory were tested to validate a theoretical explanation of the personality of mentally retarded adults. The Rorschach and Hand Test were administered to 44 medical students and 60 institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Results coincided with predictions based on Structural Analysis. Implications of these results for the diagnosis of mental retardation were discussed. The potential of a special Rorschach Facade Self Index for differential diagnosis of other forms of psychopathology was noted. PMID:7010298

  14. Mental disturbed violent offenders in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Roslund, B; Larson, C A

    1976-01-01

    Among perpetrators of crimes of violence against persons submitted to psychiatric examination, 16 men with severe mental disorder have been examined by standardized psychologic tests and clinical interviews. Objective anamnestic data have been used to assess social background, individual development and onset of mental disorder. Psychotic as well as nonpsychotic men reacted with violence against threat to the offender's physical existence of his self image. In most instances ego weakness or depleted mental energy exaggerated the feeling of threat or stymied the ability to choose alternative solutions. Abuse of alcohol and narcotics and acute inebriation often weakened self-control and triggered of the act of violence. PMID:13326

  15. Measuring Acuity and Patient Progress for Youth With Special Health Care Needs in Transition Care Utilizing Nursing Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Celona, Carol Anne

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of a nursing outcomes classification system (NOC) for youth with special health care needs (YSHCN) to support a transition care program may help describe the acuity and measure effectiveness of outcomes. Legislation mandates that care for YSHCN demonstrates effective coordination of care that is patient centered and age appropriate. Transition programs are recommended by leading authorities. In order to provide fair and equable care a universal rating process needs to be implemented to describe the patients' functional status and progress. NOC has the potential to measure patient acuity and outcomes for YSHCN that potentially may guide care needs. PMID:26028567

  16. Vision Test in Seconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Acuity Systems, Inc. developed an electro-optical instrument under a grant from NASA to measure the visual performance of pilots. Transferred from Ames Research Center, this instrument now allows you to have your eyes tested in seconds by relatively unskilled operators. The device automatically measures refractive error of eye and prints out proper prescription for glasses. The unit also detects cataracts and glaucoma.

  17. Visual acuity changes during pregnancy and postpartum: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadehkashi, Khashayar; Chaichian, Shahla; Mehdizadehkashi, Abolfazl; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Moazzami, Bahram; Pishgahroudsari, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we represent the changes in visual acuity during pregnancy and after delivery. Changes as myopic shift start during second trimester and will be stopped after delivery; however it is obtained that women will have the same refractive error as what they had in the first trimester, after postpartum. So, any change in their spectacle prescription during this period is forbidden. As a result, not only changing in hormones can cause myopic shift in vision, but also overweight has its retributive role. What we are trying to do is to notify gynecologists and optometrists to be aware of these changes, so as to leave spectacle prescription writing to the session after postpartum period. PMID:25328705

  18. The Role of Visual Acuity and Segmentation Cues in Compound Word Identification

    PubMed Central

    Hyönä, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    Studies are reviewed that demonstrate how the identification of compound words during reading is constrained by the foveal area of the eye. When compound words are short, their letters can be identified during a single fixation, leading to the whole-word route dominating word recognition from early on. Hence, marking morpheme boundaries visually by means of hyphens slows down the processing of short words by encouraging morphological decomposition when holistic processing is a feasible option. In contrast, the decomposition route dominates the early stages of identifying long compound words. Thus, visual marking of morpheme boundaries facilitates processing of long compound words, unless the initial fixation made on the word lands very close to the morpheme boundary. The reviewed pattern of results is explained by the visual acuity principle (Bertram and Hyönä, 2003) and the dual-route framework of morphological processing. PMID:22701444

  19. Slanted joint axes of the stick insect antenna: an adaptation to tactile acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujagic, Samir; Krause, André F.; Dürr, Volker

    2007-04-01

    Like many flightless, obligatory walking insects, the stick insect Carausius morosus makes intensive use of active antennal movements for tactile near range exploration and orientation. The antennal joints of C. morosus have a peculiar oblique and non-orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Moreover, this arrangement is known to differ from that in crickets (Ensifera), locusts (Caelifera) and cockroaches (Blattodea), all of which have an orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Our hypothesis was that the situation found in C. morosus represents an important evolutionary trait of the order of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea). If this was true, it should be common to other species of the Phasmatodea. The objective of this comparative study was to resolve this question. We have measured the joint axis orientation of the head scape and scape pedicel joints along with other parameters that affect the tactile efficiency of the antenna. The obtained result was a complete kinematic description of the antenna. This was used to determine the size and location of kinematic out-of-reach zones, which are indicators of tactile acuity. We show that the oblique and non-orthogonal arrangement is common to eight species from six sub-families indicating that it is a synapomorphic character of the Euphasmatodea. This character can improve tactile acuity compared to the situation in crickets, locusts and cockroaches. Finally, because molecular data of a recent study indicate that the Phasmatodea may have evolved as flightless, obligatory walkers, we argue that the antennal joint axis arrangement of the Euphasmatodea reflects an evolutionary adaptation to tactile near range exploration during terrestrial locomotion.

  20. Lingual tactile acuity, taste perception, and the density and diameter of fungiform papillae in female subjects.

    PubMed

    Essick, Greg K; Chopra, Anita; Guest, Steve; McGlone, Francis

    2003-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals who differ in taste perception differ in lingual tactile perception. To address this issue, spatial resolution acuity was estimated for 83 young adult females (52 Asians and 31 Caucasians) by their ability to examine with the tongue and identify embossed letters of the alphabet. Ratings of the magnitude of the bitterness of 0.0032M 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were obtained to characterize subjects' taste perception. The density and diameter of fungiform papillae on the anterior tongues of the Asian subjects were measured also. Subjects who rated the bitterness of PROP as very or intensely strong (supertasters) were found to be about 25% more tactually acute than subjects who rated the bitterness as moderate to strong (medium tasters) and twice as acute as subjects who rated it as nondetectable or weak (non-tasters; P<.0001): The threshold heights for letter recognition averaged 2.8, 3.5 and 5.4 mm, respectively, for the Asian subjects and 2.6, 3.2, and 5.1 mm for the Caucasian subjects. The thresholds correlated highly with subjects' ratings of bitterness (rho=-0.84, P<.0001), and for the Asian subjects with the density (rho=-0.84, P<.0001) and diameter (rho=0.66, P<.0001) of fungiform papillae. Mean densities varied from 54.4 cm(-2) (non-tasters) to 106.5 cm(-2) (medium tasters) to 143.7 cm(-2) (supertasters; P<.0001). These findings confirm that individuals who differ in taste (PROP) sensitivity also differ in lingual tactile acuity. Tactile and taste sensitivities covary and reflect individual differences in the density and diameter of fungiform papillae on the anterior tongue. PMID:14637228

  1. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Anna M; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M; Montoya, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  2. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  3. The neurobiology of mentalizing.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Mentalizing is the capacity to understand ourselves and others in terms of intentional mental states, such as feelings, desires, wishes, attitudes, and goals. It is a fundamental capacity in our complex social environment. This article reviews our current understanding of the neurobiology of mentalizing. We first summarize the key assumptions of the mentalizing approach to normal and disrupted development. This is followed by discussion of the multiple dimensions of mentalizing and our emerging knowledge of the neural circuits that underlie these dimensions. We then consider the neurobiology of attachment and arousal regulation in relation to mentalizing, and summarize relevant studies in this area. Finally, we discuss the limitations of extant research and outline implications for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436580

  4. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  5. MENTAL HOSPITALS IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  6. Do mental speed and musical abilities interact?

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine

    2003-11-01

    The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P <0.01) compared to the reference line of the normal population who did not exhibit any effect of training and practice. This indicates strong interaction between mental speed and music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects. PMID:14681172

  7. Readers' Trust, Socio-Demographic, and Acuity Influences in Citizen Journalism Credibility for Disrupted Online Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Aaron Micah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to evaluate and determine if significant associations and linear correlations exist between reader socio-demographics, levels of trust and affinity in online citizen writer news story article content, brand loyalty, and acuity in newspaper organizations transitioning from print to online in a…

  8. ANS Acuity and Learning Number Words from Number Books and Games James Negen, Meghan C. Goldman, Tanya D. Anaya and Barbara W. Sarnecka

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Kent

    ANS Acuity and Learning Number Words from Number Books and Games James Negen, Meghan C. Goldman ANS acuity (see Set Comparison in Method) learn more number words from simple counting books) ·Counting books (left): Read books where they progressively counted from 1 to 9 objects (control just

  9. Spatial acuity in two-to-three-year-old children with normal acoustic hearing, unilateral cochlear implants and bilateral cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To measure spatial acuity on a right-left discrimination task in 2-to-3-year-old children who use a unilateral cochlear implant (UCI) or bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs); to test the hypothesis that BICI users perform significantly better when they use two CIs than when using a single CI, and that they perform better than the children in the UCI group; to determine how well children with CIs perform compared with children who have normal acoustic hearing; to determine the effect of intensity roving on spatial acuity. Design Three groups of children between 26-to-36 months of age participated in this study: 8 children with normal acoustic hearing (mean age: 30.9 months), 12 children who use a UCI (mean age: 31.9 months), and 27 children who use BICIs (mean age: 30.7 months). Testing was conducted in a large sound-treated booth with loudspeakers positioned on a horizontal arc with a radius of 1.2 m. The observer-based psychophysical procedure was used to measure the children’s ability to identify the hemifield containing the sound source (right vs. left). Two methods were used for quantifying spatial acuity, an adaptive-tracking method and a fixed-angle method. In Experiment 1 an adaptive tracking algorithm was used to vary source angle, and the minimum audible angle (MAA; smallest angle at which right-left discrimination performance is better than chance) was estimated. All three groups participated in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 source angles were fixed at ±50°, and performance was evaluated by computing the number of standard deviations above chance. Children in the UCI and BICI groups participated in Experiment 2. Results In Experiment 1, when stimulus intensity was roved by 8 dB, MAA thresholds were 3.3º to 30.2º (mean = 14.5º) and 5.7º to 69.6º (mean = 30.9º) in children who have normal acoustic hearing and the BICI group, respectively. When the intensity level was fixed for the BICI group, performance did not improve. Within the BICI group, 5/27 children obtained MAA thresholds within one standard deviation of their peers who have normal acoustic hearing; all 5 had greater than 12 months of bilateral listening experience. In Experiment 2, BICIs provided some advantages when the intensity level was fixed. First, the BICI group outperformed the UCI group. Second, children in the BICI group who repeated the task with their first CI alone had statistically significantly better performance when using both devices. In addition, when intensity roving was introduced, a larger percentage of children who had 12 or more months of BICI experience continued to perform above chance than children who had less than 12 months of BICI experience. Taken together, the results suggest that children with BICIs have spatial acuity that is better than when using their first CI alone as well as better than their peers who use UCI. In addition, longer durations of BICI use tend to result in better performance, although this cannot be generalized to all participants. Conclusion This report is consistent with a growing body of evidence that spatial hearing skills can emerge in young children who use BICIs. The observation that these skills are not concomitantly emerging in age- and experience-matched children who use UCIs suggests that BICIs provide cues that are necessary for these spatial hearing skills which UCIs do not provide. PMID:22517185

  10. Mental Abilities in Cross-Cultural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, R.S.

    Discussed are issues involved in testing the mental abilities of nonWestern, nonurban ethnic groups. Within this context the paper reviews conceptions of intelligence and intellectual potential, prediction under fixed and adaptive conditions, the question of environmental influences, and some formal test factors. Examples are drawn from African…

  11. Motion Controllers for Learners to Manipulate and Interact with 3D Objects for Mental Rotation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lin, Po-Han; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is an important spatial processing ability and an important element in intelligence tests. However, the majority of past attempts at training mental rotation have used paper-and-pencil tests or digital images. This study proposes an innovative mental rotation training approach using magnetic motion controllers to allow learners to…

  12. Women athletes' mental rotation under stereotypic threat.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Sheila; Valentine, Stephanie E; Owusu, Alvin

    2008-08-01

    This experiment examined whether nullifying a stereotypic threat about sex-related abilities in mental rotation in women athletes increased facility with rotations. Women athletes and nonathletes (N = 64) were told that they would be performing mental rotation presumed to create an implicit stereotypic threat. Then 32 participants learned that the mental rotation tasks required the same abilities as those mastered by athletes, presumed to nullify the stereotypic threat. Participants completed an 8-item Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotation Test and provided reports of ability, experience, and background. Contrary to the hypothesis, athletes receiving nullified instructions performed more poorly than peers who worked under the implicit stereotypic threat, but nonathletes' scores were not affected by the threat. These findings are consistent with the idea that group identification and concomitant worry about representing a group in a positive manner may contribute to responses to stereotypic threat, and that even with explicit nullification of threat, performance may not change. PMID:18986057

  13. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Child and Adolescent Mental Health Publications Teen Depression Flier for teens ... of development. More What Goes on in the Adolescent Brain? In recognition of National Children’s Mental Health ...

  14. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  15. THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORDAN, THOMAS E.

    THIS BOOK PROVIDES A GUIDE TO THE BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES IN THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. THERE ARE MANY SOURCES OR CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND THE FOLLOWING TYPES ARE EXPLAINED--(1) GENETIC OR CHEMICAL DISORDERS, (2) BIRTH TRAUMA, (3) SUBSEQUENT ACCIDENTS OR DISEASE, AND (4) ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES. IT IS NOTED THAT MOST CASES INVOLVE…

  16. Exploring mental health history.

    PubMed

    2015-10-14

    Caring for people with mental health problems has a colourful past, from the horrors of electroconvulsive therapy to the Handbook for Attendants of the Insane. An exhibition called Out of the Asylum: the History of Mental Health Nursing, which opened at the RCN library and heritage centre last week, brings all this history together. PMID:26463770

  17. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  18. Visual Acuity and Increased Mortality: The Role of Allostatic Load and Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, D. Diane; Christ, Sharon L.; Lam, Byron L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Bokman, Christine L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McClure, Laura A.; Fernandez, Cristina A.; Lee, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Poor vision may detrimentally impact functional status and affect allostatic load (AL), a measure of cumulative physiological wear and tear on the body's regulatory systems. We examined the direct effects of visual acuity (VA) on mortality and its indirect effect on mortality through its impact on functional status and AL in older adults. Methods. Data from 4981 participants (age ? 60 years) from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality linkage through 2006 were analyzed. Functional status was assessed by activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The AL index was composed of 10 biomarkers: systolic and diastolic blood pressures, body mass index (BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and creatinine clearance. Visual acuity was categorized as no (20/20–20/25), mild (20/30–20/40), moderate (20/50–20/80), or severe (?20/200) visual impairment. Structural equation modeling using three mediating variables representing ADL, IADL, and AL examined the effects of VA on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality. Results. Adjusting for all covariates, a one-unit change in VA category increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.32); IADL and AL predicted mortality (HR = 1.15; CI 1.10, 1.20 and HR = 1.13; CI 1.06, 1.20, respectively). Activities of daily living did not predict mortality (HR = 0.98; CI 0.91, 1.05). Worse VA was associated with increased AL (? = 0.11; P = 0.013) and worse IADL (? = 1.06; P < 0.001). Worse VA increased mortality risk indirectly through AL (HR = 1.01; CI 1.00, 1.03) and IADL (HR = 1.16; CI 1.09, 1.23). The total effect of VA on mortality including through IADL and AL was HR = 1.38 (CI 1.23, 1.54). Similar but slightly stronger patterns of association were found when examining CVD-related mortality, but not cancer-related mortality. Conclusions. Allostatic load and particularly IADL may function as mediators between VA impairment and mortality. Older adults with VA impairment could potentially benefit from interventions designed to prevent IADL functional status decline to reduce the risk of mortality. PMID:25061115

  19. Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

  20. Efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in enhancing visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function in adult hypermetropic anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Elvan; Balci, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of neural vision therapy, also termed perceptual vision therapy, in enhancing best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and contrast sensitivity function in amblyopic patients. Methods This prospective study enrolled 99 subjects previously diagnosed with unilateral hypermetropic amblyopia aged 9–50 years. The subjects were divided into two groups, with 53 subjects (53 eyes) in the perceptual vision therapy group and 46 subjects (46 eyes) in the control group. Because the nature of the treatment demands hard work and strict compliance, we enrolled the minimal number of subjects required to achieve statistically significant results. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Study phases included a baseline screening, a series of 45 training sessions with perceptual vision therapy, and an end-of-treatment examination. BCVA and contrast sensitivity function at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies were obtained for statistical analysis in both groups. All subjects had follow-up examinations within 4–8 months. With the exception of one subject from the study group and two subjects from the control group, all subjects had occlusion during childhood. The study was not masked. Results The results for the study group demonstrated a mean improvement of 2.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) lines in visual acuity (from 0.42 to 0.16 logMAR). Contrast sensitivity function improved at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies. The control group did not show any significant change in visual acuity or contrast sensitivity function. None of the treated eyes showed a drop in visual acuity. Manifest refractions remained unchanged during the study. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrate the efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in improving visual acuity. The 2.6 logMAR lines improvement in visual acuity is encouraging, and is consistent with the results of previous studies. However, long-term follow-up and further studies are needed. PMID:24376340

  1. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385

  2. Improvement of visual acuity in diabetic and nondiabetic patients after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Muhammed Tayyab; Khan, Muhammed Anwar; Al-Khairy, Saba; Malik, Samina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study reported here was to compare the improvement of visual acuity (VA) of diabetic and nondiabetic patients after neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 50 age- and sex-matched patients, comprising 25 nondiabetics and 25 diabetics (referred to as Group A and B, respectively), with posterior chamber poly(methyl methacrylate) non-foldable intraocular lens implants attending our clinic at Karachi for capsulotomy had pre- and postoperative measures of VA, posterior pole visibility, and grading of posterior capsular opacity as seen on slit-lamp examination. VA was recorded before and after performing standard capsulotomy. Results The postoperative (mean) VA in nondiabetics was 0.25, 0.23, and 0.21 logMAR as compared with 0.25, 0.25, and 0.24 logMAR in diabetics at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months, respectively. P-values of 0.47, 0.47, and 0.24, respectively, were determined, which were not significant. Preoperative VA improvement was recorded in 92% of diabetics in Group B and 96% of nondiabetics in Group A. Two (8%) diabetic patients developed glaucoma and did not participate in the study further. Conclusion Remarkable improvement in VA was achieved in both Group A and B, but the Group A nondiabetics showed more improvement in best-corrected VA after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. PMID:24143068

  3. Adaptation of the Central Retina for High Acuity Vision: Cones, the Fovea and the Avascular Zone

    PubMed Central

    Provis, Jan M; Dubis, Adam M; Maddess, Ted; Carroll, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Presence of a fovea centralis is directly linked to molecular specification of an avascular area in central retina, before the fovea (or `pit') begins to form. Modeling suggests that mechanical forces, generated within the eye, initiate formation of a pit within the avascular area, and its later remodeling in the postnatal period. Within the avascular area the retina is dominated by `midget' circuitry, in which signals are transferred from a single cone to a single bipolar cell, then a single ganglion cell. Thus in inner, central retina there are relatively few lateral connections between neurons. This renders the region adaptable to tangential forces, that translocate of ganglion cells laterally / centrifugally, to form the fovea. Optical coherence tomography enables live imaging of the retina, and shows that there is greater variation in the morphology of foveae in humans than previously thought. This variation is associated with differences in size of the avascular area and appears to be genetically based, but can be modified by environmental factors, including prematurity. Even when the fovea is absent (foveal hypoplasia), cones in central retina adopt an elongated and narrow morphology, enabling them to pack more densely to increase the sampling rate, and to act as more effective waveguides. Given these findings, what then is the adaptive advantage of a fovea? We suggest that the advantages of having a pit in central retina are relatively few, and minor, but together work to enhance acuity. PMID:23500068

  4. Giving EMS flexibility in transporting low-acuity patients could generate substantial Medicare savings.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Abby; Morganti, Kristy G; Margolis, Gregg S; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2013-12-01

    Some Medicare beneficiaries who place 911 calls to request an ambulance might safely be cared for in settings other than the emergency department (ED) at lower cost. Using 2005-09 Medicare claims data and a validated algorithm, we estimated that 12.9-16.2 percent of Medicare-covered 911 emergency medical services (EMS) transports involved conditions that were probably nonemergent or primary care treatable. Among beneficiaries not admitted to the hospital, about 34.5 percent had a low-acuity diagnosis that might have been managed outside the ED. Annual Medicare EMS and ED payments for these patients were approximately $1 billion per year. If Medicare had the flexibility to reimburse EMS for managing selected 911 calls in ways other than transport to an ED, we estimate that the federal government could save $283-$560 million or more per year, while improving the continuity of patient care. If private insurance companies followed suit, overall societal savings could be twice as large. PMID:24301398

  5. Correlation between Fluorescein Angiographic Findings and Visual Acuity in Behçet Retinal Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min; Kwon, Hee Jung; Choi, Eun Young; Kim, Sung Soo; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify significant fluorescein angiographic (FA) characteristics associated with visual acuity (VA) in Behçet retinal vasculitis. Materials and Methods Retrospective review of 86 eyes of 48 patients (age: 35.6±10.2 years) with Behçet retinal vasculitis were performed. VA and FA findings as well as correlation between them were assessed. Results The mean initial VA of eyes with posterior pole-involved vasculitis (63 eyes; 73.3%) was significantly worse than that of those with peripheral vasculitis (23 eye; 26.7%) (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution VA: 0.554±0.572 vs. 0.078±0.148; p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis revealed a more severe and diffuse pattern of vascular leakage in posterior pole-involved vasculitis compared to peripheral vasculitis (p<0.0001). Retinal vascular leakage (?=0.345; p<0.0001), optic disc hyperfluorescence (?=0.147; p=0.032), and macular leakage (?=0.107; p=0.047) were significantly associated with worse initial VA. During the follow up (mean: 33.3±17.9 months), the change of leakage showed no significant correlation with change of VA in posterior pole-involved vasculitis (?=0.199, p=0.092). Conclusion Posterior pole involvement, the degree of retinal vascular leakage, optic disc hyperfluorescence, and macular leakage are significantly associated with VA in Behçet retinal vasculitis. PMID:26069134

  6. The automatic processing of visual information at different visual acuity levels: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Huanhuan; Ji, Mengmeng; Luo, Bin; Zhang, Mingyang; Gao, Yuan; Ma, Lu; Shen, Xi; Luo, Chengliang; Yang, Xun; Chen, Xiping; Tao, Luyang

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the subjective visual acuity by recording ERPs elicited by task-irrelevant visual changes. Optotypes stimuli were presented in the center of the visual field at three threshold levels (supra-threshold, threshold and sub-threshold) while participants were listening to stories. The results showed that neither vMMN nor P3a component was elicited by optotypes stimuli on the sub-threshold condition, whereas, vMMN was elicited under supra-threshold and threshold conditions, with no significant differences between those vMMN amplitudes of two conditions. The P3a amplitude was larger for supra-threshold condition than that for threshold condition. These data demonstrated that the emergence of vMMN could only reflect the automatic detection of orientation-changes in the supra-threshold and threshold conditions compared to the sub-threshold condition, whereas the P3a amplitude could reflect the difference in processing of supra-threshold and threshold stimuli. PMID:26197089

  7. Ultrananocrystalline diamond-CMOS device integration route for high acuity retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, A; Escudie, M C; Cicione, R; Abeyrathne, C D; Ganesan, K; Fox, K E; Garrett, D J; Stacey, A; Apollo, N V; Lichter, S G; Thomas, C D L; Tran, N; Meffin, H; Prawer, S

    2015-01-01

    High density electrodes are a new frontier for biomedical implants. Increasing the density and the number of electrodes used for the stimulation of retinal ganglion cells is one possible strategy for enhancing the quality of vision experienced by patients using retinal prostheses. The present work presents an integration strategy for a diamond based, high density, stimulating electrode array with a purpose built application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The strategy is centered on flip-chip bonding of indium bumps to create high count and density vertical interconnects between the stimulator ASIC and an array of diamond neural stimulating electrodes. The use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) housing prevents cross-contamination of the biocompatible diamond electrode with non-biocompatible materials, such as indium, used in the microfabrication process. Micro-imprint lithography allowed edge-to-edge micro-scale pattering of the indium bumps on non-coplanar substrates that have a form factor that can conform to body organs and thus are ideally suited for biomedical applications. Furthermore, micro-imprint lithography ensures the compatibility of lithography with the silicon ASIC and aluminum contact pads. Although this work focuses on 256 stimulating diamond electrode arrays with a pitch of 150 ?m, the use of indium bump bonding technology and vertical interconnects facilitates implants with tens of thousands electrodes with a pitch as low as 10 ?m, thus ensuring validity of the strategy for future high acuity retinal prostheses, and bionic implants in general. PMID:25877379

  8. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  9. Change in visual acuity is highly correlated with change in six image quality metrics independent of wavefront error and/or pupil diameter

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Sarver, Edwin J.; Applegate, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the wavefront error (WFE) of the eye varies from individual to individual with pupil diameter (PD) and age. Numerous studies have been proposed evaluating the relationship between visual acuity and WFE, but all these studies were performed with either a fixed or natural PD. It is still not clear if metrics of image quality correlate well with visual acuity independent of PD. Here we investigate the correlation between the change in visual acuity and the change in 30 image quality metrics for a range of optical quality typically established in normal eyes that varies both with age and PD. Visual acuity was recorded for 4 normal subjects using simulated blurred logMAR acuity charts generated from the point spread functions of different scaled WFEs for 6 different PDs (2–7 mm in 1 mm steps). Six image quality metrics (log neural sharpness, log visual Strehl [spatial domain], log visual Strehl [MTF method], log pupil fraction [tessellated], log pupil fraction [concentric area], and log root mean square of WFE slope) accounted for over 80% of variance in change in acuity across all WFEs and all PDs. Multiple regression analysis did not significantly increase the R2. Simple metrics derived from WFE could potentially act as an objective surrogate to visual acuity without the need for complex models. PMID:22984224

  10. Eye Movements Reveal Sustained Implicit Processing of Others' Mental States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Dana; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Becker, Stefanie I.; Dux, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to attribute mental states to others is crucial for social competency. To assess mentalizing abilities, in false-belief tasks participants attempt to identify an actor's belief about an object's location as opposed to the object's actual location. Passing this test on explicit measures is typically achieved by 4 years of age, but…

  11. Expanding the Parameters for Excellence in Patient Assignments: Is Leveraging an Evidence-Data-Based Acuity Methodology Realistic?

    PubMed

    Gray, Joel; Kerfoot, Karlene

    2016-01-01

    Finding the balance of equitable assignments continues to be a challenge for health care organizations seeking to leverage evidence-based leadership practices. Ratios and subjective acuity strategies for nurse-patient staffing continue to be the dominant approach in health care organizations. In addition to ratio-based assignments and acuity-based assignment models driven by financial targets, more emphasis on using evidence-based leadership strategies to manage and create science for effective staffing is needed. In particular, nurse leaders are challenged to increase the sophistication of management of patient turnover (admissions, discharges, and transfers) and integrate tools from Lean methodologies and quality management strategies to determine the effectiveness of nurse-patient staffing. PMID:26636229

  12. Color matches in diseased eyes with good acuity: detection of deficits in cone optical density and in chromatic discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, William H.; Fish, Gary E.

    1995-10-01

    Reduced foveal cone optical density in diseased eyes with normal acuity can affect color matches. Using field diameters of 1 deg, 2 deg, 4 deg, and 8 deg, we measured mean color-match midpoints and match widths in patients who had good acuity and who hereditary macular degeneration ( n=12 ), retinitis pigmentosa ( n=19 ), and glaucoma ( n=18 ). Results were compared with those for normal observers of comparable ages. Mean color-match midpoints were abnormal only for the population with hereditary macular degeneration, indicating a reduction in cone optical density in the central 4 deg. Mean color-match widths were enlarged for both hereditary macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, a result consistent with a reduction in the number of foveal cones. chromatic discrimination, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma.

  13. Mental health consequences of disasters.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    We present in this review the current state of disaster mental health research. In particular, we provide an overview of research on the presentation, burden, correlates, and treatment of mental disorders following disasters. We also describe challenges to studying the mental health consequences of disasters and discuss the limitations in current methodologies. Finally, we offer directions for future disaster mental health research. PMID:24159920

  14. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  15. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  16. Adversity, attachment, and mentalizing.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Bateman, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this special issue offer evidence of personality disorder as a dysfunction of higher-order cognition, which is conceptualized variously as a disorder of mentalizing, metacognition, mindfulness, social cognition and reflective function. While there may be differences in the scope of these concepts, they all imply that higher-order mental processing is at the core of personality function. In this commentary, the authors use mentalizing as an umbrella term for these concepts, and argue that it is the complex interaction of adversity, attachment and mentalizing that leads to the characteristic symptoms of borderline personality disorder and other personality disorders. Evidence is provided from the papers in this special issue, comments made on the findings and further avenues for research are recommended. PMID:26654293

  17. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  18. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information on Depression and Other Medical Illnesses Chronic Illness & Mental Health Order a free hardcopy Depression is ... is clear. Depression is treatable even when other illness is present. Do not dismiss depression as a ...

  19. Burden of Mental Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Burden of Mental Illness Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Depression: According ... management could decrease the financial impact of this illness. 9 Schizophrenia: Worldwide prevalence estimates range between 0. ...

  20. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... email for information and resources 800.273.8255 (crisis line) How can our school take action to ... health Peer mentoring School-based mental health services Crisis response Postvention See SAMHSA’s Preventing Suicide: A Toolkit ...

  1. Mental Health Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people include: Type of mental disorder, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia Age, sex, and body ... information, see the section on medications for treating depression. . Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety medications) The anti-anxiety medications called benzodiazepines can ...

  2. Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

    1986-12-01

    Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners. PMID:3776982

  3. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Brenner, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders. PMID:25386352

  4. Mental workload and driving

    PubMed Central

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  5. Does Assessing Eye Alignment along with Refractive Error or Visual Acuity Increase Sensitivity for Detection of Strabismus in Preschool Vision Screening?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Preschool vision screenings often include refractive error or visual acuity (VA) testing to detect amblyopia, as well as alignment testing to detect strabismus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of combining screening for eye alignment with screening for refractive error or reduced VA on sensitivity for detection of strabismus, with specificity set at 90% and 94%. Methods Over 3 years, 4040 preschool children were screened in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study, with different screening tests administered each year. Examinations were performed to identify children with strabismus. The best screening tests for detecting children with any targeted condition were noncycloplegic retinoscopy (NCR), Retinomax autorefractor (Right Manufacturing, Virginia Beach, VA), SureSight Vision Screener (Welch-Allyn, Inc., Skaneateles, NY), and Lea Symbols (Precision Vision, LaSalle, IL and Good-Lite Co., Elgin, IL) and HOTV optotypes VA tests. Analyses were conducted with these tests of refractive error or VA paired with the best tests for detecting strabismus (unilateral cover testing, Random Dot “E” [RDE] and Stereo Smile Test II [Stereo Optical, Inc., Chicago, IL]; and MTI PhotoScreener [PhotoScreener, Inc., Palm Beach, FL]). The change in sensitivity that resulted from combining a test of eye alignment with a test of refractive error or VA was determined with specificity set at 90% and 94%. Results Among the 4040 children, 157 were identified as having strabismus. For screening tests conducted by eye care professionals, the addition of a unilateral cover test to a test of refraction generally resulted in a statistically significant increase (range, 15%–25%) in detection of strabismus. For screening tests administered by trained lay screeners, the addition of Stereo Smile II to SureSight resulted in a statistically significant increase (21%) in sensitivity for detection of strabismus. Conclusions The most efficient and low-cost ways to achieve a statistically significant increase in sensitivity for detection of strabismus were by combining the unilateral cover test with the autorefractor (Retinomax) administered by eye care professionals and by combining Stereo Smile II with SureSight administered by trained lay screeners. The decision of whether to include a test of alignment should be based on the screening program’s goals (e.g., targeted visual conditions) and resources. PMID:17591881

  6. [Primary Prevention of Mental Disorders in Children of Mentally Ill Parents. The Kanu Programme "Canoe--Moving Jointly Forward"].

    PubMed

    Linthorst, K; Bauer, U; Osipov, I; Pinheiro, P; Rehder, M

    2015-09-01

    Children of parents who suffer from mental health disorders are more likely to develop mental disorders than children of parents not suffering from mental disorders. For children at risk, preventive strategies are hardly available and, if available, rarely supported by a scientific evaluation. "Kanu - Gemeinsam weiterkommen (canoe - moving jointly forward)" is a preventive strategy that was developed within a research project focusing on primary prevention in children who live in families with parents affected by mental disorders. The intervention is characterised by a multi-modular concept and was tested in the adult psychiatric setting. Preliminary results indicate a preventive impact of the intervention programme. PMID:24729380

  7. The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments

    PubMed Central

    Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Lindskog, Marcus; Nilsson, Håkan; Kerimi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahneman and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others. PMID:25140163

  8. Effect of hemodialysis on visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular thickness in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Chelala, Elias; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Slim, Elise; Abdelmassih, Youssef; Fakhoury, Henry; Baz, Patrick; Bejjani, Riad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD) on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and central foveal thickness (CFT) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods Forty-nine eyes from 49 chronic kidney-disease patients were analyzed. Causes of chronic kidney disease included diabetes mellitus (n=9 patients), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n=15 patients), and other causes (n=25 patients). All patients underwent HD in the Dialysis Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital. Best-corrected visual acuity, CFT, and IOP were evaluated before and after HD. CFT was measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Results Neither decimal best-corrected visual acuity (pre-HD 0.71±0.32, post-HD 0.72±0.31; P=0.877) nor CFT (pre-HD 251.39±39.29, post-HD 253.09±39.26; P=0.272) significantly changed after HD. However, mean IOP significantly decreased from 13.99±2.48 before HD to 12.65±2.41 mmHg after HD (P=0.001). IOP change was significantly correlated with serum albumin levels (P=0.008) and weight changes (P=0.047). Conclusion HD can affect various ocular parameters. This is particularly true of IOP, which decreases significantly following HD. PMID:25657575

  9. Experiential factors in sex differences on mental rotation.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Isabelle D; Jagarlamudi, Kavita; Lawrence, Erika; Shimabuku, Nicole

    2003-06-01

    Past research has shown that men score significantly higher than women on mental rotation tests. The present study examined the effects of a prior exposure to a mental rotation task, i.e., adapted Cube Comparison test, and to three-dimensional objects, i.e., Legos, on the performance on the Mental Rotation Test. 113 men and women were randomly divided into three conditions: control, exposure, or detailed instructions. On average, men outperformed women. Further analyses showed that sex differences were significant in the control condition but not in the other two, suggesting that a cuing effect may explain some of the robust sex differences in visuospatial tasks. PMID:12929758

  10. Mental Retardation and MR-related Genes Ch t i ti f l FMRP tCharacterization of novel FMRP partners

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    ) ­ Attentional-organizational dysfunction, autism S h d fi it­ Speech deficit ­ Hyperactivity, seizures, social carry Fragile X800 e ca y ag e 1-3% mentally retarded No cure for mental retardation 1 3% mentally retarded No cure for mental retardation #12;#12;Large Ears and Large TestesLarge Ears and Large Testes Gu

  11. Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

  12. Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

  13. Vision in avian emberizid foragers: maximizing both binocular vision and fronto-lateral visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Bret A; Pita, Diana; Tyrrell, Luke P; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Avian species vary in their visual system configuration, but previous studies have often compared single visual traits between two to three distantly related species. However, birds use different visual dimensions that cannot be maximized simultaneously to meet different perceptual demands, potentially leading to trade-offs between visual traits. We studied the degree of inter-specific variation in multiple visual traits related to foraging and anti-predator behaviors in nine species of closely related emberizid sparrows, controlling for phylogenetic effects. Emberizid sparrows maximize binocular vision, even seeing their bill tips in some eye positions, which may enhance the detection of prey and facilitate food handling. Sparrows have a single retinal center of acute vision (i.e. fovea) projecting fronto-laterally (but not into the binocular field). The foveal projection close to the edge of the binocular field may shorten the time to gather and process both monocular and binocular visual information from the foraging substrate. Contrary to previous work, we found that species with larger visual fields had higher visual acuity, which may compensate for larger blind spots (i.e. pectens) above the center of acute vision, enhancing predator detection. Finally, species with a steeper change in ganglion cell density across the retina had higher eye movement amplitude, probably due to a more pronounced reduction in visual resolution away from the fovea, which would need to be moved around more frequently. The visual configuration of emberizid passive prey foragers is substantially different from that of previously studied avian groups (e.g. sit-and-wait and tactile foragers). PMID:25750415

  14. Sporadic Visual Acuity Loss in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Benjamin J.; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Levy, Nicole E.; Maguire, Maureen G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate transient, large visual acuity (VA) decreases, termed sporadic vision loss, during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Cohort within a randomized clinical trial. Methods Setting Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT). Study Population 1185 CATT patients. Main Outcome Measures incidence of sporadic vision loss and odds ratio (OR) for association with patient and ocular factors. Sporadic vision loss was a decline of ? 15 letters from the previous visit, followed by a return at the next visit to no more than 5 letters worse than the visit before the VA loss. Results There were 143 sporadic vision loss events in 122/1185 (10.3%) patients. Mean VA at two years for those with and without sporadic vision loss was 58.5 (~20/63) and 68.4 (~20/40) letters, respectively (P < 0.001). Among patients treated pro re nata, no injection was given for 27.6% (27/98) of sporadic vision loss events. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that baseline predictors for sporadic vision loss included worse baseline VA (OR 2.92, 95%CI:1.65–5.17 for ? 20/200 compared with ? 20/40), scar (OR 2.21, 95%CI:1.22–4.01), intraretinal foveal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OR 1.80, 95%CI:1.11–2.91), and medical history of anxiety (OR 1.90, 95%CI:1.12–3.24) and syncope (OR 2.75, 95%CI:1.45–5.22). Refraction decreased the likelihood of sporadic vision loss (OR 0.62, 95%CI:0.42–0.91). Conclusions Approximately 10% of CATT patients had sporadic vision loss. Baseline predictors included AMD-related factors and factors independent of AMD. These data are relevant for clinicians in practice and those involved in clinical trials. PMID:24727261

  15. Association between ambient noise exposure, hearing acuity, and risk of acute occupational injury

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the associations between acute workplace injury risk, ambient noise exposure, and hearing acuity, adjusting for reported hearing protection use. Methods In a cohort of 9220 aluminum manufacturing workers studied over six years (33 300 person-years, 13 323 person-jobs), multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of all injuries as well as serious injuries by noise exposure category and hearing threshold level (HTL) adjusting for recognized and potential confounders. Results Compared to noise <82 dBA, higher exposure was associated with elevated risk in a monotonic and statistically significant exposure–response pattern for all injuries and serious injuries with higher risk estimates observed for serious injuries [82–84.99 dBA: RR 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.96–1.64; 85–87.99 dBA: RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.85; ?88 dBA: RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.52–3.47]. Hearing loss was associated with increased risk for all injuries, but was not a significant predictor of risk for the subset of more serious injuries. Compared to those without hearing loss, workers with HTL ?25 dB had 21% increased all injury risk (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09–1.33) while those with HTL 10–24.99 dB had 6% increased risk (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00–1.13). Reported hearing protection type did not predict injury risk. Conclusion Noise exposure levels as low as 85 dBA may increase workplace injury risk. HTL was associated with increased risk for all, but not the subset of serious, injuries. Additional study is needed both to confirm the observed associations and explore causal pathways. PMID:25137556

  16. Mental Representation and Mental Practice: Experimental Investigation on the Functional Links between Motor Memory and Motor Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N?=?52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only. PMID:24743576

  17. Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean…

  18. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  19. Phonological Abstraction in the Mental Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne; Norris, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A perceptual learning experiment provides evidence that the mental lexicon cannot consist solely of detailed acoustic traces of recognition episodes. In a training lexical decision phase, listeners heard an ambiguous [f-s] fricative sound, replacing either [f] or [s] in words. In a test phase, listeners then made lexical decisions to visual…

  20. The Evolution of Children's Mental Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Hamann, Mary Sue

    Students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 were tested in a two-part investigation of simple and complex mental addition (with college students as a reference point). One session involved a normal reaction time task in which children made true/false judgments about a series of addition examples. The other session involved a verbal protocol interview, the…

  1. Mental Rotation and Sequential Ordering in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzi, Alison; Winters, Lynn

    This study examined the relationship between knowledge of sequence relations and the process of mental rotation in four-year-olds. Subjects were 12 preschool children who were tested individually. They were given a State Comparison Task (SCT) in which they were shown pairs of animal pictures, half identical and half mirror images of one another,…

  2. Evidence for the Role of Shape in Mental Representations of Similes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weelden, Lisanne; Schilperoord, Joost; Maes, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    People mentally represent the shapes of objects. For instance, the mental representation of an eagle is different when one thinks about a flying or resting eagle. This study examined the role of shape in mental representations of "similes" (i.e., metaphoric comparisons). We tested the prediction that when people process a simile they…

  3. The Nature of Relationships between Mental Rotation, Math, and Language in Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halper, Elizabeth Blaisdell

    2009-01-01

    Three mental rotation tasks, the Card Rotation Task (CRT), the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test (VMRT), and the Money Road-Map of Direction Sense (MRM), were administered to 60 deaf students from Gallaudet University to determine if mental rotation was predictive of scores on the ACT English or Math subtests. Other predictor variables, such as…

  4. Microcomputer-based tests for repeated-measures: Metric properties and predictive validities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Baltzley, Dennis R.; Dunlap, William P.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

    1989-01-01

    A menu of psychomotor and mental acuity tests were refined. Field applications of such a battery are, for example, a study of the effects of toxic agents or exotic environments on performance readiness, or the determination of fitness for duty. The key requirement of these tasks is that they be suitable for repeated-measures applications, and so questions of stability and reliability are a continuing, central focus of this work. After the initial (practice) session, seven replications of 14 microcomputer-based performance tests (32 measures) were completed by 37 subjects. Each test in the battery had previously been shown to stabilize in less than five 90-second administrations and to possess retest reliabilities greater than r = 0.707 for three minutes of testing. However, all the tests had never been administered together as a battery and they had never been self-administered. In order to provide predictive validity for intelligence measurement, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wonderlic Personnel Test were obtained on the same subjects.

  5. Associations among Visual Acuity and Vision- and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Kempen, John H.; Dunn, James P.; Holland, Gary N.; Latkany, Paul; Rao, Narsing A.; Sen, H. Nida; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Wang, Robert C.; Holbrook, Janet T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the associations between visual acuity and self-reported visual function; visual acuity and health-related quality of life (QoL) metrics; a summary measure of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL; and individual domains of self-reported visual function and health-related QoL in patients with uveitis. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity, vision-related functioning as assessed by the NEI VFQ-25, and health-related QoL as assessed by the SF-36 and EuroQoL EQ-5D questionnaires were obtained at enrollment in a clinical trial of uveitis treatments. Multivariate regression and Spearman correlations were used to evaluate associations between visual acuity, vision-related function, and health-related QoL. Results. Among the 255 patients, median visual acuity in the better-seeing eyes was 20/25, the vision-related function score indicated impairment (median, 60), and health-related QoL scores were within the normal population range. Better visual acuity was predictive of higher visual function scores (P ? 0.001), a higher SF-36 physical component score, and a higher EQ-5D health utility score (P < 0.001). The vision-specific function score was predictive of all general health-related QoL (P < 0.001). The correlations between visual function score and general quality of life measures were moderate (? = 0.29–0.52). Conclusions. The vision-related function score correlated positively with visual acuity and moderately positively with general QoL measures. Cost–utility analyses relying on changes in generic healthy utility measures will be more likely to detect changes when there are clinically meaningful changes in vision-related function, rather than when there are only changes in visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00132691.) PMID:22247489

  6. Personality, Negative Interactions, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that an individual’s personality traits may mediate the relationship between social support and mental health. This study uses two national data sets to test a conceptual model that integrates personality, social support, negative interactions, and psychological distress. Results suggest that, beyond the influence of personality, social support is negatively associated with psychological distress, and negative interactions are positively associated with such distress. The findings also suggest that personality has direct and indirect effects, through social support and negative interactions, on psychological distress. Findings specify how positive and negative facets of relationships and personality influence mental health outcomes. PMID:21151733

  7. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T

    2014-03-01

    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development. PMID:24146093

  8. Males Have Greater "g": Sex Differences in General Mental Ability from 100,000 17- to 18-Year-Olds on the Scholastic Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; Rushton, J. Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In this study we found that 17- to 18-year old males averaged 3.63 IQ points higher than did their female counterparts on the 1991 Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT). We analysed 145 item responses from 46,509 males and 56,007 females (total N = 102,516) using a principal components procedure. We found (1) the "g" factor underlies both the SAT…

  9. Investigation into the mental abilities of the children of Trinidad 

    E-print Network

    Bedell, B. J.

    1955-01-01

    My chief object was to investigate the innate mental abilities of the West Indian child. This I proposed doing by testing a sufficiently large sample of elementary school children from country districts with a large battery ...

  10. Mental energy: Assessing the motivation dimension.

    PubMed

    Barbuto, John E

    2006-07-01

    Content-based theories of motivation may best uti lize the meta-theory of work motivation. Process-based theories may benefit most from adopting Locke and Latham's goal-setting approaches and measures. Decision-making theories should utilize the measurement approach operationalized by Ilgen et al. Sustained effort theories should utilize similar approaches to those used in numerous studies of intrinsic motivation, but the measurement of which is typically observational or attitudinal. This paper explored the implications of the four approaches to studying motivation on the newly estab ished model of mental energy. The approach taken for examining motivation informs the measurement of mental energy. Specific recommendations for each approach were developed and provided. As a result of these efforts, it will now be possible to diagnose, measure, and experimentally test for changes in human motivation, which is one of the three major components of mental energy. PMID:16910217

  11. No Myocardial Vulnerability to Mental Stress in Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Collste, Olov; Tornvall, Per; Sundin, Örjan; Alam, Mahbubul; Frick, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Due to the frequent use of coronary angiography the awareness of Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSC) has increased although the exact pathophysiology of TSC is still largely unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of mental stress on myocardial function, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol (SC) in TSC patients. Design This study is a case-control study and a sub-study of the Stockholm Myocardial Infarction with Normal Coronaries (SMINC) study. Setting Mental stress test was performed more than 6 months after the acute event in TSC patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) - derived time-phases of cardiac cycle were recorded to calculate myocardial performance index (MPI) to assess ventricular function before and during mental stress. Holter-ECG recording was made to estimate HRV before, during and after mental stress. SC was measured at baseline, before and 20 minutes after mental stress. Subjects Twenty-two TSC patients and 22 sex-and age-matched controls were recruited from the SMINC-study and investigated with a mental stress test. All TSC patients had a previous normal cardiovascular magnetic resonance investigation. Results There were no significant differences at rest or during mental stress for left and right ventricular MPI or other standard diastolic variables between TSC patients and controls. HRV did not differ between TSC patients and controls. There was a trend towards less increase in SC after mental stress in TSC patients compared to controls. Conclusion Mental stress did not induce a significant difference in myocardial function or HRV response between TSC and controls. Moreover, no significant difference could be seen in SC response at baseline, during or after mental stress. This study indicates that myocardial vulnerability to mental stress does not persist in TSC patients. PMID:24695370

  12. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  13. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  14. Elderly mental health: needs.

    PubMed

    Parkar, Shubhangi R

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  15. The Effect of Holy Quran Voice on Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Mahjoob, Monireh; Nejati, Jalil; Hosseini, Alireaza; Bakhshani, Noor Mohammad

    2014-01-14

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Quran listening without its musical tone (Tartil) on the mental health of personnel in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast of Iran. The results showed significant differences between the test and control groups in their mean mental health scores after Quran listening (P = 0.037). No significant gender differences in the test group before and after intervention were found (P = 0.806). These results suggest that Quran listening could be recommended by psychologists for improving mental health and achieving greater calm. PMID:24421119

  16. Axial Length/Corneal Radius Ratio: Association with Refractive State and Role on Myopia Detection Combined with Visual Acuity in Chinese Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between the AL/CR ratio and refractive state and explore the effectiveness of this ratio in the assessment of myopia, especially when combined with uncorrected visual acuity in schoolchildren among whom myopia is common. Methods Cross sectional study. 4686 children from 6 primary schools, aged from 6 to 12 years were selected using the clustered-stratified random sampling method. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature (CR), and cycloplegic refraction were tested. Refraction was measured as the spherical equivalent (SE). Results 3922 children were included in the analysis. The mean AL/CR ratio was 2.973±0.002, increased with age, and different in gender. The coefficients of correlations of the SE with the AL/CR ratio, AL, and CR were -0.811, -0.657, and 0.095, respectively. Linear regression showed a 10.72 D shift towards myopia with every 1 unit increase in the AL/CR ratio (P<0.001, r2 = 66.4%). The estimated SE values obtained by substituting the AL/CR ratio and gender back to the regression model that were within a difference of ±0.50 D in ATE/LER (allowable total error and limits for erroneous results) zones compared to the actual measured values was 51%. The area under the ROC curve of the AL/CR ratio, AL, and UCVA for myopia detection were 0.910, 0.822, and 0.889, respectively, and the differences between each pair were statistically significant (P<0.01). At a specificity of 90%, the sensitivities were 72.98%, 50.50%, 71.99%, and 82.96%, respectively, for the AL/CR ratio, AL, UCVA, and the combination of the AL/CR ratio and UCVA. Conclusions The AL/CR ratio was found to explain the total variance in SE better than AL alone. The effectiveness of the AL/CR ratio was statistically significantly better than UCVA for detecting myopia in children, and combining the two produced increased sensitivity without significantly decreasing specificity. PMID:25693186

  17. Latina Mothers' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Conner, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Latina mothers' perceptions of mental health and factors that promote/restore mental health were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mental health. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…

  18. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  19. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major services and service delivery systems in Nevada for persons with mental health disorders, mentally retarded persons, and abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Considered are the following areas of basic service needs: prevention of the mentally handicapping conditions,…

  20. National Institute of Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on the topic. More Coordinated Specialty Care for Mental Illness Watch NIMH expert Dr. Robert Heinssen discuss new ... 2015 Combating Early Death in People with Serious Mental Illness November 4, 2015 Medicaid supports new psychosis treatment ...

  1. Causes and Prognosis of Visual Acuity Loss at the Time of Initial Presentation in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, John J.; Thurtell, Matthew J.; Longmuir, Reid A.; Garvin, Mona K.; Wang, Jui-Kai; Wall, Michael; Kardon, Randy H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the etiology and prognosis of visual acuity loss in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at presentation and to provide objective measures to predict visual outcome. Methods. A retrospective review of 660 patients with IIH (2009–2013) identified 31 patients (4.7%) with 48 eyes having best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/25 or worse on initial presentation. Fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic disc and macula, and perimetry were used to determine the causes and prognosis of vision loss. Segmentation of the macula OCT was performed using the Iowa Reference Algorithm to determine the retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer complex (GCL-IPL) thickness. Results. Outer retinal changes alone caused decreased BCVA at initial presentation in 22 eyes (46%): subretinal fluid in 16, chorioretinal folds in 5, and peripapillary choroidal neovascularization in 1. The vision loss was reversible except for some eyes with chorioretinal folds. Optic neuropathy alone caused decreased BCVA in 10 eyes (21%) and coexisting outer retinal changes and optic neuropathy caused decreased BCVA in 16 eyes (33%). A GCL-IPL thickness less than or equal to 70 ?m at initial presentation or progressive thinning of greater than or equal to 10 ?m within 2 to 3 weeks compared with baseline correlated with poor visual outcome. Conclusions. Visual acuity loss in IIH can be caused by both outer retinal changes and optic neuropathy. Vision loss from outer retinal changes is mostly reversible. The outcome of patients with coexisting outer retinal changes and optic neuropathy or optic neuropathy alone depends on the degree of optic neuropathy, which can be predicted by the GCL-IPL thickness. PMID:26070058

  2. Outcomes of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy: Analysis of dose-volume histograms and prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Azusa . E-mail: azusa@nirs.go.jp; Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Mizota, Atsushi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the tolerance dose for retention of visual acuity in patients with head-and-neck tumors treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: From June 1994 to March 2000, 163 patients with tumors in the head and neck or skull base region were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Analysis was performed on 54 optic nerves (ONs) corresponding to 30 patients whose ONs had been included in the irradiated volume. These patients showed no evidence of visual impairment due to other factors and had a follow-up period of >4 years. All patients had been informed of the possibility of visual impairment before treatment. We evaluated the dose-complication probability and the prognostic factors for the retention of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy, using dose-volume histograms and multivariate analysis. Results: The median age of 30 patients (14 men, 16 women) was 57.2 years. Median prescribed total dose was 56.0 gray equivalents (GyE) at 3.0-4.0 GyE per fraction per day (range, 48-64 GyE; 16-18 fractions; 4-6 weeks). Of 54 ONs that were analyzed, 35 had been irradiated with <57 GyE (maximum dose [D{sub max}]) resulting in no visual loss. Conversely, 11 of the 19 ONs (58%) irradiated with >57 GyE (D{sub max}) suffered a decrease of visual acuity. In all of these cases, the ONs had been involved in the tumor before carbon ion radiotherapy. In the multivariate analysis, a dose of 20% of the volume of the ON (D{sub 2}) was significantly associated with visual loss. Conclusions: The occurrence of visual loss seems to be correlated with a delivery of >60 GyE to 20% of the volume of the ON.

  3. Changes in visual acuity from 4 to 12 years of age in children operated for bilateral congenital cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, G; Abrahamsson, M; Sjöstrand, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the long term effects of age at surgery on the development of visual acuity (VA) by measuring VA from preschool age to puberty. Furthermore, to report the VA levels at 12 years of age in a geographically based cohort of operated congenital bilateral cataracts. Methods: All children born in four western counties of Sweden between January 1980 and December 1993 who were diagnosed with congenital cataracts were included in a longitudinal prospective study. The monocular VA of the better eye in 38 subjects was analysed at 4, 7, 10, and 12 years of age, with 20 total and 18 partial cataracts. The mean follow up time was 9.3 years after surgery. Results: The final value of VA was 0.4 or above for approximately 50% of the subjects at 12 years of age. Visual acuity improved to a considerable extent after school age, especially in children who underwent surgery between the ages of 7 weeks and 1 year. Results for partial cataracts were favourable compared to those for total cataracts, reaching a mean of approximately 0.5 at age 12. The mean VA in the group of total congenital cataracts operated on before 7 weeks of age achieved higher values of VA at 4 years of age compared to children with total cataracts operated on between 7 weeks and 1 year of age. However, no statistically significant difference in VA results among these groups could be proved. Conclusion: Visual acuity improves to a considerable extent after school age in children with delayed visual development caused by congenital cataracts. Surgery within 7 weeks results in a more rapid development of VA, initially. PMID:12446371

  4. MENTAL ILLNESS in the CLASSROOM

    E-print Network

    Health: http://bit.ly/187rK7m · Children's Mental Health Ontario: http://bit.ly/futUt5 · Teen Mental a general population sample: http://1.usa.gov/17d9ZDE 4 Teen Mental Health ­ Educators training programs: http://bit.ly/1b9gJF3 5 Teen Mental Health ­ For educators: http://bit.ly/1cRRg4i 6 Cross

  5. "Far" and "Near" Visual Acuity While Walking and the Collective Contributions of Non-Ocular Mechanisms to Gaze Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; vanEmmerik, Richard E. A.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Gaze stabilization was quantified in subjects (n=11) as they walked on a motorized treadmill (1.8 m/s) and viewed visual targets at two viewing distances. A "far" target was positioned at 4 m (FAR) in front of the subject and the "near" target was placed at a distance of 0.5 m (NEAR). A direct measure of visual acuity was used to assess the overall effectiveness of the gaze stabilization system. The contributions of nonocular mechanisms to the gaze goal were also quantified using a measure of the distance between the subject and point in space where fixation of the visual target would require the least eye movement amplitude (i.e. the head fixation distance (HFD)). Kinematic variables mirrored those of previous investigations with the vertical trunk translation and head pitch signals, and the lateral translation and head yaw signals maintaining what appear as antiphase relationships. However, an investigation of the temporal relationships between the maxima and minima of the vertical translation and head pitch signals show that while the maximum in vertical translation occurs at the point of the minimum head pitch signal, the inverse is not true. The maximum in the head pitch signal lags the vertical translation minimum by an average of greater than 12 percent of the step cycle time. Three HFD measures, one each for data in the sagittal and transverse planes, and one that combined the movements from both planes, all revealed changes between the FAR and NEAR target viewing conditions. This reorganization of the nonocular degrees of freedom while walking was consistent with a strategy to reduce the magnitude of the eye movements required when viewing the NEAR target. Despite this reorganization, acuity measures show that image stabilization is not occurring while walking and viewing the NEAR target. Group means indicate that visual acuity is not affected while walking in the FAR condition, but a decrement of 0.15 logMAR (i.e. 1.5 eye chart lines) exists between the standing and walking acuity measures when viewing the NEAR target.

  6. Educating the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, William O.

    1979-01-01

    A school can be an educational opportunity for mentally retarded citizens only if its teachers and learners can decide together on such things as the purposes toward which activities are directed, the means of reaching them, and the subject matter to be used in stimulating thinking. (Author/NQ)

  7. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  8. Inferences about mental states

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    Human social cognition relies on an ability to predict what others will think, feel or do in novel situations. Research in social neuroscience has consistently observed several brain regions that contribute ubiquitously to these abilities, including medial prefrontal cortex and aspects of lateral and medial parietal cortex. Interestingly, parallel work has suggested that this same network of regions subserves several seemingly distinct phenomena—notably, the abilities to remember the past, imagine the future and visualize spatial layouts—suggesting the existence of a common set of cognitive processes devoted to projecting oneself into worlds that differ mentally, temporally or physically from one's current experience. This use of self-projection to understand others' minds requires perceivers to solve three distinct cognitive challenges: (i) generating a simulated facsimile of one's own hypothetical mental states in a given situation, (ii) suppressing one's own current mental states, and (iii) deciding on the appropriateness of simulated states for understanding a particular other person. The present paper reviews recent psychology and neuroscience research aimed at understanding the underlying mechanisms that allow humans to solve each of these cognitive challenges to use self-projection to predict and understand the mental states of others. PMID:19528012

  9. Mental Retardation Film List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A list of films on mental retardation includes titles, publication information, physical descriptions, language revisions when other than English, series reference, technical description of film content, sale source, and distributor. Films intended for the general public are grouped under the heading Nonprofessional; others are listed as…

  10. Breaking diet mentality.

    PubMed

    Lahmayer, R; Lewis, R D

    1991-01-01

    Commercial diet programs, although numerous throughout the United States, are having little impact on the ever-growing overweight population. Dietitians and clinicians working with overweight clients should focus intervention strategies on the concept of replacing the "diet mentality" with a total life-style approach to weight management through improved eating behavior and regular physical activity. PMID:1802226

  11. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    Described are turn-of-the-century (1900) efforts of E. Johnstone, Vineland Training School for the mentally retarded; H. Goddard, psychologist (also at Vineland); and C. Davenport, Carnegie Foundation biological laboratory, Coldspring Harbor; to identify the roles of genetic heredity and environmental impact, and thus to eradicate or ameliorate…

  12. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. ? Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...

  13. Nutrition and Mental Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crnic, Linda S.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the effects of malnutrition on mental development are reviewed and the complexity of factors (such as alternatives in maternal behavior) surrounding malnutrition in animal studies is noted. Findings are cited which suggest that environmental stimulation may in part reverse the neurological effects and remediate some behavioral effects…

  14. Appalachian Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Susan Emley, Ed.

    In this book, 17 psychologists, anthropologists, social workers and others explore important theoretical and applied issues concerning the mental health of Appalachian people. Rejecting the view of Appalachia as an area dominated by a culture of poverty, these papers portray a strong regional culture based on family, community, and religion. This…

  15. Audiovisuals in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigitte L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes major uses of film, television, and video in mental health field and discusses problems in selection, acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, transfer, care of tapes, patients' rights, and copyright. A sample patient consent form for media recording, borrower's evaluation sheet, sources of audiovisuals and reviews, and 35 references…

  16. Mental Health Program Reports - 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Julius, Ed.

    The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…

  17. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  18. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Child and Adolescent Mental Health www.le.ac.uk/greenwood Greenwood Institute of Child Health #12. Contents Background to the course 2 aims 3 why study child and adolescent Mental health at Leicester? 3 Learning outcomes 4 relevance to child and adolescent Mental health services 4 who will the course Benefit

  19. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL

  20. The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness Edited by Stephen J. Wood Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre The neuropsychology of mental illness / edited by Stephen J. Wood, Nicholas B. Allen, Christos Pantelis. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-521-86289-9 (hardback) 1. Mental illness

  1. In this Issue: National Mental

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Emily

    stressed may have a greater risk of physical illnesses. People dealing with diagnosable mental illness needMay 2014 In this Issue: Ø National Mental Health Month Ø Summer Camp Ø Upcoming Events Ø Resources of the Month Ø Mind Your Health Calendar MAY is NATIONAL MENTAL HEALTH MONTH. Take Care of Your Mind and Body

  2. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  3. Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David J.

    The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…

  4. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  5. Genomic imbalances in mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kriek, M; White, S; Bouma, M; Dauwerse, H; Hansson, K; Nijhuis, J; Bakker, B; van Ommen, G-J B; den Dunnen, J T; Breuning, M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: It has been estimated that cytogenetically visible rearrangements are present in ~1% of newborns. These chromosomal changes can cause a wide range of deleterious developmental effects, including mental retardation (MR). It is assumed that many other cases exist where the cause is a submicroscopic deletion or duplication. To facilitate the detection of such cases, different techniques have been developed, which have differing efficiency as to the number of loci and patients that can be tested. Methods: We implemented multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH) to test areas known to be rearranged in MR patients (for example, subtelomeric/pericentromeric regions and those affected in microdeletion syndromes) and to look for new regions that might be related to MR. Results: In this study, over 30 000 screens for duplications and deletions were carried out; 162 different loci tested in each of 188 developmentally delayed patients. The analysis resulted in the detection of 19 rearrangements, of which ~65% would not have been detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis. A significant fraction (46%) of the rearrangements found were interstitial, despite the fact that only a limited number of these loci have so far been tested. Discussion: Our results strengthen the arguments for whole genome screening within this population, as it can be assumed that many more interstitial rearrangements would be detected. The strengths of MAPH for this analysis are the simplicity, the high throughput potential, and the high resolution of analysis. This combination should help in the future identification of the specific genes that are responsible for MR. PMID:15060096

  6. The genocidal mentality

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future.

  7. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  8. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  9. Mental Representations of Weekdays

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, David A.; Wiseman, Richard; Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Keeping social appointments involves keeping track of what day it is. In practice, mismatches between apparent day and actual day are common. For example, a person might think the current day is Wednesday when in fact it is Thursday. Here we show that such mismatches are highly systematic, and can be traced to specific properties of their mental representations. In Study 1, mismatches between apparent day and actual day occurred more frequently on midweek days (Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday) than on other days, and were mainly due to intrusions from immediately neighboring days. In Study 2, reaction times to report the current day were fastest on Monday and Friday, and slowest midweek. In Study 3, participants generated fewer semantic associations for “Tuesday”, “Wednesday” and “Thursday” than for other weekday names. Similarly, Google searches found fewer occurrences of midweek days in webpages and books. Analysis of affective norms revealed that participants’ associations were strongly negative for Monday, strongly positive for Friday, and graded over the intervening days. Midweek days are confusable because their mental representations are sparse and similar. Mondays and Fridays are less confusable because their mental representations are rich and distinctive, forming two extremes along a continuum of change. PMID:26288194

  10. [Mental Health and relationships].

    PubMed

    Spivacow, Miguel Alejo

    2012-01-01

    After acknowledging that the diversity of cultural, historical and theoretical perspectives has given place to multiple definitions of mental health, the author circumscribes the goal of this article to reflecting on mental health from the viewpoint of human relationships in intersubjective milieux. The basic assumption that guides this paper is that the subject's psychic structure is constituted and developed in a relational matrix. Conceptualized in a relational context, the individual's mental health needs to take into account each member's developmental stage and asymmetrical position in a relationship. In the theoretical and therapeutic approach proposed here, drive renunciation, negative pacts, and intersubjective work are described as basic concepts in the analysis of relational links. Drive renunciation is defined as the operation that excludes certain drives derivatives from explicit relational interchange in order to maintain the structure and stability of the relationship. Negative pacts are defined as the configurations of reciprocal libidinal investments that give form to drive renunciation. The concept of intersubjective work places the emphasis on the interaction of the poles of the relationship, on how what one does influences the other's response. Thus, in the therapeutic context, intersubjective work accounts for each member's processes of symbolization and working through in the interchange and reciprocal impact of each member on the transformation of the relationship. Finally, the complexities around the formulation of therapeutic goals are emphasized and the occasional need of an interdisciplinary therapeutic plan is highlighted. PMID:22880195

  11. Stratified medicine for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Gunter; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holte, Arne; de Kloet, E Ronald; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Robbins, Trevor W; Walker-Tilley, Tom R; Bitter, Istvan; Brown, Verity J; Buitelaar, Jan; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cools, Roshan; Escera, Carles; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang; Flor, Herta; Frith, Chris D; Heinz, Andreas; Johnsen, Erik; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Klingberg, Torkel; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewis, Shon; Maier, Wolfgang; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller, Christian P; Müller, Walter E; Nutt, David J; Persico, Antonio; Perugi, Giulio; Pessiglione, Mathias; Preuss, Ulrich W; Roiser, Jonathan P; Rossini, Paolo M; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sandi, Carmen; Stephan, Klaas E; Undurraga, Juan; Vieta, Eduard; van der Wee, Nic; Wykes, Til; Haro, Josep Maria; Wittchen, Hans Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    There is recognition that biomedical research into the causes of mental disorders and their treatment needs to adopt new approaches to research. Novel biomedical techniques have advanced our understanding of how the brain develops and is shaped by behaviour and environment. This has led to the advent of stratified medicine, which translates advances in basic research by targeting aetiological mechanisms underlying mental disorder. The resulting increase in diagnostic precision and targeted treatments may provide a window of opportunity to address the large public health burden, and individual suffering associated with mental disorders. While mental health and mental disorders have significant representation in the "health, demographic change and wellbeing" challenge identified in Horizon 2020, the framework programme for research and innovation of the European Commission (2014-2020), and in national funding agencies, clear advice on a potential strategy for mental health research investment is needed. The development of such a strategy is supported by the EC-funded "Roadmap for Mental Health Research" (ROAMER) which will provide recommendations for a European mental health research strategy integrating the areas of biomedicine, psychology, public health well being, research integration and structuring, and stakeholder participation. Leading experts on biomedical research on mental disorders have provided an assessment of the state of the art in core psychopathological domains, including arousal and stress regulation, affect, cognition social processes, comorbidity and pharmacotherapy. They have identified major advances and promising methods and pointed out gaps to be addressed in order to achieve the promise of a stratified medicine for mental disorders. PMID:24176673

  12. Adherence to Occlusion Therapy in the First Six Months of Follow-Up and Visual Acuity among Participants in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS)

    PubMed Central

    Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D.; Celano, Marianne; Kruger, Stacey; Hartmann, E. Eugenie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Achieving good vision in infants born with a unilateral cataract is believed to require early surgery and consistent occlusion of the fellow eye. This article examines the relationship between adherence to patching and grating acuity. Methods. Data came from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a randomized clinical trial of treatment for unilateral congenital cataract. Infants were either left aphakic (n = 53) or had an intraocular lens implanted (n = 55). Patching was prescribed 1 hour per day per month of age until 8 months of age and 50% of waking hours thereafter. Adherence was measured as the mean percentage of prescribed patching reported in a 7-day diary completed 2 months after surgery, and 48-hour recall interviews conducted 3 and 6 months after surgery. Grating visual acuity was measured within 1 month of the infant's first birthday (n = 108) using Teller Acuity Cards by a tester masked to treatment. Nonparametric correlations were used to examine the relationship with grating acuity. Results. On average, caregivers reported patching 84.3% (SD = 31.2%) of prescribed time and adherence did not differ by treatment (t = ?1.40, df = 106, p = 0.16). Adherence was associated with grating acuity (rSpearman = ?0.27, p < 0.01), but more so among pseudophakic (rSpearman = ?0.41, p < 0.01) than aphakic infants (rSpearman = ?0.10, p = 0.49). Conclusions. This study empirically has shown that adherence to patching during the first 6 months after surgery is associated with better grating visual acuity at 12 months of age after treatment for unilateral cataract and that implanting an intraocular lens is not associated with adherence. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:22491410

  13. Hydrocephalus and mental retardation in craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Noetzel, M J; Marsh, J L; Palkes, H; Gado, M

    1985-12-01

    We prospectively studied craniosynostosis, regardless of neurologic status, by cranial computed tomography or psychometric testing in 56 children. None of the 27 children with simple craniosynostosis (single or multiple suture involvement) had evidence of hydrocephalus on CT scan. Of the 24 patients with simple craniosynostosis who underwent psychometric testing, 17 were of average intelligence; six were in the low average range. The single mentally retarded child had a history of severe perinatal asphyxia. Hydrocephalus occurred more frequently (five of 23 cases) in children with complex craniosynostosis syndromes, including Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and kleeblattschädel deformity. More striking than hydrocephalus, however, was the finding of dysmorphic ventricular dilation in eight patients, including the three children with Apert syndrome and four with Crouzon syndrome. Nineteen of the 25 children with complex craniosynostosis syndromes receiving psychometric testing were of normal intelligence. Four children with borderline normal intelligence had either hydrocephalus or ventricular dilation. The two children with mental retardation were sisters with Crouzon syndrome whose family included other retarded individuals. This study indicates that the incidence of hydrocephalus and mental retardation in craniosynostosis is lower than reported previously. PMID:4067746

  14. Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…

  15. Mental health and disorders. Editorial.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". PMID:24375538

  16. Mental illness and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brad D; Gulati, Sanjiv

    2014-06-01

    Transinstitutionalization (ie, the criminalization of those with mental illness) is relevant to individuals committing sexual offenses. Mental illness can affect the treatment and risk management of individuals committing sexual offenses. In this article the current literature on mentally disordered sexual offenders is described, including how psychosis, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and dementing disorders may affect treatment and management. PMID:24877705

  17. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  18. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  19. Thailand mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2004-01-01

    Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service. PMID:15276947

  20. Intact 2D-form recognition despite impaired tactile spatial acuity in complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Reiswich, Jana; Krumova, Elena K; David, Marianne; Stude, Philipp; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Tactile acuity measured by 2-point discrimination performance is impaired in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I). This is mirrored by pain-associated shrinkage of the cortical representation of the affected limb. We investigated whether, also, more complex tactile performance assessed by a dynamic 2D-form perception task is disturbed in CRPS-I patients. Therefore, we developed a Braille-like recognition task (BT) for geometrical dot pattern identification by dynamic touch. We studied 47 healthy volunteers (Study I) and compared them to 16 CRPS-I patients (Study II). Besides recognition time and error quote of the BT, we assessed static 2-point discrimination thresholds (TPDT). In healthy subjects, the performance in the BT correlated significantly with age and TPDT. In CRPS patients, TPDT was significantly increased on the affected side compared to sex- and age-matched controls from study I (2.98 ± 0.84 mm vs 2.05 ± 0.82 mm, P<0.01). The performance in the BT was not impaired in CRPS-I patients (compared to sex- and age-matched controls from study I) and was not correlated to the TPDT. The intact 2D-form recognition ability in CRPS-I patients might be explained by intact dynamic tactile and proprioceptive functions, which appear to be uncompromised by the impaired static tactile perception, provided that the spacing of the dot pattern is above the individual tactile acuity. These intact 2D-form perception capacities may also be related to higher sensory integration functions like the visual system and intact semantic understanding, which may be spared by the cortical reorganization phenomena in CRPS-I. PMID:22652386

  1. Effects of advanced surface ablations and intralase femtosecond LASIK on higher order aberrations and visual acuity outcome

    PubMed Central

    AlMahmoud, Tahra; Munger, Rejean; Jackson, W. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background/aims To study the changes in wavefront (ocular) and corneal higher order aberrations (HOAs) and visual acuity (VA) outcome following wavefront-guided advanced surface ablation (ASA) techniques and intralase femtosecond LASIK (iLASIK) in myopia treatment. Methods Ocular aberration and corneal topography of 240 eyes in the ASA techniques (this was equally divided into a flap-on group where the epithelial flap was preserved and reapplied to the photoablated stromal bed and a flap-off group when the epithelial flap was discarded during the procedure), and 138 eyes in the iLASIK group were obtained before and 3 months following treatment. The correlation of aberrations with best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was analyzed. Results At 3 months, there was statistically significant (P < 0.001) surgically induced increase in spherical aberration (SA) in each of the techniques for both ocular and corneal analysis. iLASIK induced significantly less ocular and corneal HOAs (P < 0.001). The mean manifest refractive spherical equivalent was closer to attempted correction compared to other groups (P < 0.001). Eighty-three eyes (70%) of flap-on, 80 (67%) flap-off and 94 eyes (68%) in the iLASIK group achieved 20/20 uncorrected VA. Fifteen eyes (11%) accomplished 20/12.5 or better in iLASIK compared to 4 (3%) for flap-on and 7 (6%) for flap-off ASA group. Only the flap-off treatment showed a consistent correlation between the corrected aberrations and visual performance. Conclusion At 3 months, all procedures resulted in a significant increase in HOAs and SA. All had comparable 20/20 VA and 11% of iLASIK patients achieved 20/12.5 or better level. PMID:23960936

  2. Understanding and Building Mental Health UBC Resources

    E-print Network

    Conati, Cristina

    Understanding and Building Mental Health UBC Resources How do I build my mental health? What do members of the UBC community do to build mental health? How can I access mental health training? Where can I assess my current state of mental health? Where can I find information about mindfulness? Where

  3. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental health... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental health... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section...

  5. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental health... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental health... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental health... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section...

  8. Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Matthew J.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Muller, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3?min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (? = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ?MAP was comparable between groups (? = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %?FVC (?2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %?CVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ?HR and %?CVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ?HR and %?FVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress. PMID:24744859

  9. Teaching Mental Abacus Calculation to Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hong

    2006-01-01

    The abacus is a calculating tool that has been used in Asia for thousands of years. Mental abacus calculation is a skill in which an abacus image in the mind is used without the actual physical manipulation of the abacus. Using this method, people can perform extremely rapid and accurate mental calculations. Research indicates that abacus training…

  10. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  11. Human factors issues in the design of stereo-rendered photorealistic objects: a stereoscopic Turing test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, Collin D.; Clewlow, John C.; Kessel, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We present visual acuity metrics, human factors issues, and technical considerations in the construction of a stereorendered reality test in the spirit of the Turing test, Alan Turing's famous artificial intelligence test designed to explore the boundaries between human and machine interaction. The overall aim of this work is to provide guiding principles in the design of a stereoscopic reality test.

  12. Does gender matter? Exploring mental health recovery court legal and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Catherine L; Butkiewicz, Robert; Williams, Emily R; Jacobson, Caron; Morse, Diane S; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Based upon therapeutic justice principles, mental health courts use legal leverage to improve access and compliance to treatment for defendants who are mentally ill. Justice-involved women have a higher prevalence of mental illness than men, and it plays a greater role in their criminal behavior. Despite this, studies examining whether women respond differently than men to mental health courts are lacking. Study goals were to examine gender-related differences in mental health court participation, and in criminal justice, psychiatric and health-related outcomes. Methods This study utilized a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design without a control group. The data were abstracted from administrative records of Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse agency, the county jail and both county hospitals, 2008 through 2011. Generalized estimating equation regression was used to assess gender-differences in pre-post program outcomes (jail days, psychiatric and medical hospitalization days, emergency department visits) for the 30 women and 63 men with a final mental health court disposition. Results Program-eligible females were more likely than males to become enrolled in mental health court. Otherwise they were similar on all measured program-participation characteristics: treatment compliance, WRAP participation and graduation rate. All participants showed significant reductions in emergency department visits, but women-completers had significantly steeper drops than males: from 6.7 emergency department visits to 1.3 for women, and from 4.1 to 2.4 for men. A similar gender pattern emerged with medical-hospitalization-days: from 2.2 medical hospital days down to 0.1 for women, and from 0.9 days up to 1.8 for men. While women had fewer psychiatric hospitalization days than men regardless of program involvement (2.5 and 4.6, respectively), both genders experienced fewer days after MHRC compared to before. Women and men showed equal gains from successful program completion in reduced jail days. Conclusions Despite similar participation characteristics, findings point to greater health gains by female compared to male participants, and to lower overall psychiatric acuity. Mental-health-court participation was associated with decreased psychiatric hospitalization days and emergency department visits. Successful program completion correlated to fewer jail days for both women and men. PMID:25530934

  13. Deconstructing mental rotation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Axel

    2014-06-01

    A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials, flat RTs on negative trials, false alarms and miss rates, effects of complexity, and for the number of eye movement switches between stimuli as functions of angular difference in orientation. Analysis of eye movements supports key aspects of the model and shows that initial processing time is roughly constant until the first saccade switch between stimulus objects, while the duration of the remaining trial increases approximately linearly as a function of angular discrepancy. The increment results from additive effects of (a) a linear increase in the number of saccade switches between stimulus objects, (b) a linear increase in the number of saccades on a stimulus, and (c) a linear increase in the number and in the duration of fixations on a stimulus object. The fixation duration increment was the same on simple and complex trials (about 15 ms per 60°), which suggests that the critical orientation alignment take place during fixations at very high speed. PMID:24512611

  14. Changes of mental stress biomarkers in ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Agawa, H; Yamada, N; Enomoto, Y; Suzuki, H; Hosono, A; Arakawa, K; Ghadimi, R; Miyata, M; Maeda, K; Shibata, K; Tokudome, M; Goto, C; Tokudome, Y; Hoshino, H; Imaeda, N; Marumoto, M; Suzuki, S; Kobayashi, M; Tokudome, S

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the possible influence of an exhaustive physical exercise on mental stress biomarkers (serotonin, tryptophan, and beta-endorphin) along with dopamine, noradrenaline and free fatty acids in an ultramarathon race in which 45 km was run on the first day and 90 km on the second. We obtained serum samples at 6 different time points during and after the race from 18 Japanese male runners who completed the marathon. Overall changes of serum serotonin and tryptophan concentrations were statistically significant according to ANOVA for repeated measurements (p < 0.05). Serum serotonin levels elevated rapidly on the first day with the post hoc Tukey's test. Tryptophan concentrations inversely decreased during the race, possibly because of utilization for synthesis of serotonin. Levels of beta-endorphin appeared to increase on the first and second days, but were not statistically significant. In conclusion, serum serotonin, tryptophan and beta-endorphin appeared to be used for mental stress markers in physical exercise. PMID:18418810

  15. Impact of Zernike-fit error on simulated high- and low-contrast acuity in keratoconus: implications for using Zernike-based corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsack, Jason D.; Pesudovs, Konrad; Sarver, Edwin J.; Applegate, Raymond A.

    2006-04-01

    This study examines the extent to which a Zernike-based optical correction can restore acuity in keratoconus as a function of disease severity and contrast level. Increasingly complete Zernike corrections in the presence of Zernike-fit error were simulated. Acuity for keratoconic eyes with <60 D maximum corneal power reached 20/13 with a fifth-order Zernike correction under high-contrast conditions and exhibited a loss of 0.1 logMAR (minimum angle of resolution) (from 20/32 to 20/40) for low-contrast conditions. Acuity for keratoconic eyes with >60 D maximum corneal power approached 20/13 with sixth-tenth-order corrections under high-contrast conditions but did not return to similar levels with a tenth-order correction for low-contrast conditions. The results suggest that fit error affects visual performance for more difficult tasks and that restoring high-contrast acuity (20/16 or better) using a fifth-order Zernike correction is not limited by Zernike-fit error for over 88% of keratoconus cases.

  16. Workaholism and mental health among Polish academic workers.

    PubMed

    Bartczak, Monika; Ogi?ska-Bulik, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between workaholism and mental health among 126 Polish academic workers. The participants' mean age was 45.9 years, 51.6% of them were women. The participants completed 2 questionnaires: the work addiction risk test and the general health questionnaire. Even though 66% of the subjects were classified in the group of moderate-to-high risk of workaholism, the overall state of mental health was categorized as average. The results revealed that workaholism was associated with poorer mental health. Employees with higher levels of workaholism had worse state of health, i.e., more somatic symptoms, higher levels of anxiety, insomnia, social dysfunction and symptoms of depression. Emotional arousal/perfectionism was the strongest predictor of the state of general health and was mostly responsible for harmful effects on mental health. However, the general effect of workaholism on health was not as strong as expected. PMID:22429525

  17. Prevalence of mental retardation among children in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, M A F; Al-Swailem, A A; Al-Mosa, N A; Al-Jarallah, A A

    2003-01-01

    This survey determined the prevalence and regional distribution of mental retardation among children in Saudi Arabia. Data were analysed from a population-based national survey conducted during 1996-99, in which 60,630 children aged up to 18 years were screened using IQ tests and questionnaires completed by physicians. The prevalence of mental retardation was 8.9 per 1000 children, a rate similar to that reported in other countries. Moderate or severe retardation was classified in 70.9% of these children. Of the mentally retarded children in the 0-18 years age range, 83.2% were not attending school. Special educational programmes are needed to improve the quality of life of mentally retarded children. PMID:15562727

  18. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

  19. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...capacity; or (2) Committed to a mental health facility. (b) An applicant...An applicant is committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a court,...

  20. Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia. PMID:22954173

  1. Monitoring of mental performance during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Manzey, D

    2000-09-01

    Mental performance of astronauts during spaceflight may suffer from both direct effects of microgravity on perceptual, cognitive, and psychomotor processes, and unspecific stress effects on these functions due to high workload sleep disturbances, or the general burden of adapting to the extreme living conditions in space. Early detection of any signs of mental performance impairments seems to be essential for mission success and to prevent obvious performance decrements in critical mission tasks. One possible approach to this problem is to assess the astronaut's performance on specific screening tests repeatedly during a space mission and to compare the results with a self-referenced baseline established pre-flight. The selection of screening tests for this purpose should be guided by three different criteria: 1) their reliability; 2) their sensitivity (i.e., their power to reveal subtle mental performance changes induced by internal or external stressors during spaceflight); and 3) their diagnosticity (i.e., their capability to reveal the underlying processes that lead to these performance deficits). Based on a discussion of these theoretical issues, first attempts to monitor mental performance of astronauts during spaceflight by means of short-term laboratory tasks are reviewed. The results of these studies suggest that, in particular, perceptual-motor tasks (tracking) and tasks placing comparatively high demands on attentional processes (e.g., dual-tasks) represent sensitive monitoring measures. First studies on the diagnositicity of tracking performance decrements during spaceflight suggest that they reflect both microgravity-related changes in the sensory-motor system as well as unspecific stress-effects, with the former factor reflected primarily in tracking performance decrements during early adaptation to the microgravity environment. PMID:10993313

  2. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  3. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  4. Mental Health, United States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

    In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

  5. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  6. The Nevada mental health courts.

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. PMID:20655596

  7. Mental Health Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent suicides? Where can I find mental health statistics for rural populations? The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ( ... and county type. County type is divided into population data classes: Large metro 1 ... to browse RHIhub’s Finding Statistics and Data Related to Rural Health topic guide ...

  8. Speech of Mentally Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Bruce

    The study summarized in this paper deals with the grammatical analysis of the spontaneous speech of approximately 150 children who are classified as mentally disabled; educable (I.Q. range 50-80). The performance of these mentally disadvantaged children is compared with the performance of 200 normally developing children by using a clinical…

  9. Mental illness and Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Endrawes, Gihane; O'Brien, Louise; Wilkes, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    People from Egypt have cultural belief systems about mental illness and its causes that are at variance from Anglo-Saxon-derived understandings that predominate in Australian psychiatry. These differences in understanding can affect how mental health services are experienced and accepted by this cultural group. This paper is a review of the literature on Egyptians' beliefs about mental illness and how families in Egypt cope with a relative with mental illness. Because of limited literature on Egyptians' experience with mental illness in Australia, this paper will be used to shed some light on the way in which people experience mental illness and communicate this suffering in the Australian context, based on what has been known to occur in Egypt. The Zar cult and related practices focusing on belief in the evil eye, magic, and evil possession will be explored. Historical and contemporary mental health care systems in Egypt, and the influence of education and religion are discussed. In order to provide culturally sensitive care, nurses need to be aware of possible influences on belief systems about mental illness. This paper has the potential of helping nurses to gain a deeper understanding of cultures that differ from theirs and to provide care to clients and their families based on respect for the others' beliefs, values, and practices. PMID:17535163

  10. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reighley, Joan

    A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…

  11. Islamic Values and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassir, Balkis

    Mental well-being is as important as physical well-being for sound life of man, and perhaps even more important, since physical illnesses are related in varying degrees to psychological problems. Modern psychology emphasizes essential criteria for mental health and well-being. These include positive relationships with others, productivity and…

  12. Why Cyclops could not compete with Ulysses: monocular vision and mental images.

    PubMed

    Vecchi, Tomaso; Cattaneo, Zaira; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Cornoldi, Cesare; Pietrini, Pietro

    2006-05-15

    The present research demonstrates that the limitations of congenitally blind people in tasks requiring the processing of mental images are specifically related to the absence of binocular vision and not to the absence of vision per se. We contrasted three different groups of participants: sighted; visually impaired, with reduced binocular vision; monocular, with a normal visual acuity although in one eye only. Visually impaired participants (i.e. blurred vision) show a pattern of performance comparable to that of the sighted. In contrast, monocular participants show a similar pattern of performance to congenitally blind individuals despite being able to see perfectly well. These results shed new light on the relationship between perception and imagery and on the characteristics of sequential and simultaneous processes in the human brain. PMID:16641676

  13. An ancient eye test--using the stars.

    PubMed

    Bohigian, George M

    2008-01-01

    Vision testing in ancient times was as important as it is today. The predominant vision testing in some cultures was the recognition and identification of constellations and celestial bodies of the night sky. A common ancient naked eye test used the double star of the Big Dipper in the constellation Ursa Major or the Big Bear. The second star from the end of the handle of the Big Dipper is an optical double star. The ability to perceive this separation of these two stars, Mizar and Alcor, was considered a test of good vision and was called the "test" or presently the Arab Eye Test. This article is the first report of the correlation of this ancient eye test to the 20/20 line in the current Snellen visual acuity test. This article describes the astronomy, origin, history, and the practicality of this test and how it correlates with the present day Snellen visual acuity test. PMID:18929764

  14. INTELLECTUAL EVALUATION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD--A HANDBOOK. WPS (WESTERN PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES) PROFESSIONAL HANDBOOK SERIES, NUMBER 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, ROBERT M.; ALLEN, SUE P.

    DESIGNED FOR THE PSYCHOLOGIST, THE HANDBOOK DESCRIBES INSTRUMENTS COMMONLY USED FOR INTELLECTUAL EVALUATION OF CHILDREN SUSPECTED OF BEING MENTALLY RETARDED. INFORMATION IS GIVEN CONCERNING DEFIITIONS, IDENTIFICATION, AND CHARACTERISITICS OF MENTAL RETARDATION, TEST SELECTION, AND THE TEST SITUATION. TESTS DESCRIBED AND DISCUSSED INCLUDE…

  15. The effects of ranibizumab injections on fluorescein angiographic findings and visual acuity recovery in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gungel, Hulya; Osmanbasoglu, Ozen Ayranci; Altan, Cigdem; Baylancicek, Deniz Oygar; Pasaoglu, Isil Basgil

    2014-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to evaluate the effect of ranibizumab on retinal circulation times and vessel caliber and to analyze the correlation of these factors with visual acuity (VA) prognosis in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Subjects and methods This prospective cohort study included 52 eyes of 46 patients (mean age 73.5 years [standard deviation 7.7]; 28 males, 18 females). The study parameters were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) (pre- and posttreatment: for 3 months after the last injection), retinal circulation times, diameter of retinal arteriole (DRA), and diameter of retinal vein (DRV) (pre- and posttreatment: after a loading dose of three consecutive injections of ranibizumab with a 4-week interval in the initial phase). The pretreatment, posttreatment measurements, and their differences were recorded for analyses. The injections were repeated when needed. Eyes were grouped into one of two groups according to VA recovery: Group 1, cases showing significant recovery of VA (n=21, 37%), and Group 2, cases showing preservation of VA (n=22, 42%) and deterioration of VA (n=11, 21%). Differences were compared statistically in and between groups. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the correlation of these parameters with VA recovery. Results There was a significant reduction in DRA (P=0.007) and CMT levels (P<0.001) in both study groups after treatment. When the two groups were compared, the differences in pretreatment values of DRA (P=0.001), DRV (P=0.017), CMT (P=0.039), and mean BCVA (P=0.00) were found to be statistically significant. Posttreatment changes in DRA (P=0.013) and mean CMT (P=0.010) were found to be factors related to VA recovery by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Our findings reveal that ranibizumab treatment is associated with decrease in DRA, CMT, and significant improvement in VA recovery. Further, taking into account the cases in which VA was preserved, when needed, ranibizumab should be re-injected after the loading dose. PMID:24899794

  16. Mental health and family planning.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1971-04-01

    It is known that unwanted pregnancies have damaging consequences. Despite the fact that 97% of fecund U.S. women have used or expect to use contraception, more than 1/2 of the births were reported by married couples in 1965 as unplanned. The circular relationship between excess fertility and conditions of poverty and their relevance for mental health has been studied; results have shown that in large families there is a great likelihood that the last-born child is unwanted. It is also true that in families with 4 or more children, those in the last half of the birth order are more likely to develop mental illness than their older siblings. One way to reduce unwanted pregnancies is to enable couples to have children only with their own informed consent. Induced abortion must be among the available alternatives for the women desiring it. The role of unregulated fertility in the etiology of mental disorder is seldon explored. Systematic observations of the mental health consequences of unwanted pregnancies are rare. Similarly, the appropriateness of applying family planning concepts in preventive mental health programs has received little attention. Sex education and contraceptive information should be introduced when a girl reaches menarche. Closer work between mental health association, medical schools, general practitioners, etc., is needed urgently. The author maintains that the prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and the appalling numbers of unwanted births in the U.S today represent a mental health problem of undefined but clearly immense proportions. PMID:5098783

  17. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  18. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  19. FAR and NEAR Target Dynamic Visual Acuity: A Functional Assessment of Canal and Otolith Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Landsness, Eric C.; Black, F. Owen; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2004-01-01

    Upon their return to earth, astronauts experience the effects of vestibular adaptation to microgravity. The postflight changes in vestibular information processing can affect postural and locomotor stability and may lead to oscillopsia during activities of daily living. However, it is likely that time spent in microgravity affects canal and otolith function differently. As a result, the isolated rotational stimuli used in traditional tests of canal function may fail to identify vestibular deficits after spaceflight. Also, the functional consequences of deficits that are identified often remain unknown. In a gaze control task, the relative contributions of the canal and otolith organs are modulated with viewing distance. The ability to stabilize gaze during a perturbation, on visual targets placed at different distances from the head may therefore provide independent insight into the function of this systems. Our goal was to develop a functional measure of gaze control that can also offer independent information about the function of the canal and otolith organs.

  20. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  1. On mental privacy: the having of mental states 

    E-print Network

    Dembitzer, Simon David

    1998-01-01

    In three chapters this thesis seeks to demonstrate that (i) there historically has been no consensus in the use of the term 'mental privacy' and that several problematic doctrines are based on confused accounts of this term; (ii...

  2. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  3. Effects of pellet stove on recovery from mental fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamada, Hiromi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Exposure to a warm environment has been reported to be effective for recovery from mental fatigue. However, there have been no reports examining the effects of a pellet stove on recovery from mental fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a pellet stove on recovery from mental fatigue. Material/Methods In this placebo-controlled, crossover experiment, 16 healthy volunteers were randomized into the pellet stove and control groups. After a 30-min fatigue-inducing mental task session, participants moved to a recovery room with (pellet stove condition) or without (control condition) a pellet stove to see the image of a pellet stove for 30 min. Results After the recovery session, the participants exposed to the pellet stove condition showed lower total error counts of a cognitive test, higher levels of subjective healing, comfort, and warmth, and sympathetic nerve activity and higher parasympathetic nerve activity as compared with the control condition. Conclusions These results provide evidence that improved cognitive function, subjective mental states, and balance of the autonomic nervous activities result from using a pellet stove during the recovery session. Hence, the pellet stove was effective for the recovery from mental fatigue. PMID:22367125

  4. Serial Assessment of Physiological Evaluation Indices for Repetitive Mental Workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Karita, Keita

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of daily repetitive mental workload on physiological indices. Especially, the index derived from the nasal skin temperature(NST) measured by the infrared thermography was focused. The NST was the physiological index representing the sympathetic nervous system activity. The NST declines with the sympathetic nervous system's activation. The mental workload causes sympathetic nervous system's activation, so the mental workload can be measured by NST as a declining temperature. We have found that the relationship between the amount of mental workload and the NST declining under time pressure, even more complex stimuli. However, there's no study on evaluating the NST measured for the repetitive mental workload for certain period of time. In this paper, the NST and other physiological indices, which were Fm? wave component of Electroencephalograms(EEG) and high frequency component(HF) of R-wave interval time series of Electrocardiograms(ECG) were serially measured and evaluated on repetitive mental workload. Significant difference was found between those NST indices in each experiment by paired t-test. A stability of NST as an evaluation index for MWL was proved.

  5. Effects of user mental state on EEG-BCI performance

    PubMed Central

    Myrden, Andrew; Chau, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Changes in psychological state have been proposed as a cause of variation in brain-computer interface performance, but little formal analysis has been conducted to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of three mental states—fatigue, frustration, and attention—on BCI performance. Twelve able-bodied participants were trained to use a two-class EEG-BCI based on the performance of user-specific mental tasks. Following training, participants completed three testing sessions, during which they used the BCI to play a simple maze navigation game while periodically reporting their perceived levels of fatigue, frustration, and attention. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between frustration and BCI performance while the relationship between fatigue and BCI performance approached significance. BCI performance was 7% lower than average when self-reported fatigue was low and 7% higher than average when self-reported frustration was moderate. A multivariate analysis of mental state revealed the presence of contiguous regions in mental state space where BCI performance was more accurate than average, suggesting the importance of moderate fatigue for achieving effortless focus on BCI control, frustration as a potential motivating factor, and attention as a compensatory mechanism to increasing frustration. Finally, a visual analysis showed the sensitivity of underlying class distributions to changes in mental state. Collectively, these results indicate that mental state is closely related to BCI performance, encouraging future development of psychologically adaptive BCIs. PMID:26082705

  6. Adult attachment style modulates neural responses in a mentalizing task.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Kircher, T

    2015-09-10

    Adult attachment style (AAS) is a personality trait that affects social cognition. Behavioral data suggest that AAS influences mentalizing proficiency, i.e. the ability to predict and explain people's behavior with reference to mental states, but the neural correlates are unknown. We here tested how the AAS dimensions "avoidance" (AV) and "anxiety" (ANX) modulate neural correlates of mentalizing. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 164 healthy subjects during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (Prisoner's Dilemma Game). AAS was assessed with the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, including the subscales AV and ANX. Our task elicited a strong activation of the mentalizing network, including bilateral precuneus, (anterior, middle, and posterior) cingulate cortices, temporal poles, inferior frontal gyri (IFG), temporoparietal junctions, superior medial frontal gyri as well as right medial orbital frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and amygdala. We found that AV is positively and ANX negatively correlated with task-associated neural activity in the right amygdala, MFG, midcingulate cortex, and superior parietal lobule, and in bilateral IFG. These data suggest that avoidantly attached adults activate brain areas implicated in emotion regulation and cognitive control to a larger extent than anxiously attached individuals during mentalizing. PMID:26162239

  7. Validity and Reliability of Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) Measurement During Walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    DVA is primarily subserved by the vestibulo-ocular reflex mechanism. Individuals with vestibular hypofunction commonly experience highly debilitating illusory movement or blurring of visual images during daily activities possibly, due to impaired DVA. Even without pathologies, gradual age-related morphological deterioration is evident in all components of the vestibular system. We examined the construct validity to detect age-related differences and test-retest reliability of DVA measurements performed during walking. METHODS: Healthy adults were recruited into 3 groups: 1. young (20-39years, n=18), 2. middle-aged (40-59years, n=14), and 3. older adults (60-80years, n=15). Randomly selected seven participants from each group (n=21) participated in retesting. Participants were excluded if they had a history of vestibular or neuromuscular pathologies, dizziness/vertigo or >1 falls in the past year. Older persons with MMSE scores <29/30 were excluded to minimize cognitive errors. Participants' age, height, weight and normal walking speed were recorded. The binocular DVA was measured while walking on a treadmill at 0.8 m/s, 1.0 m/s and 1.2 m/s speeds. The walking speeds chosen represent a range of slow to moderate walking speeds for adult life span in participants who have no current mobility problems. The monitor that displayed Landolt 'C' optotypes was placed at 50 cm from the eyes for nearDVA (primary compensation by otolith organs) and at 3.0 m for farDVA (primary compensation by semicircular canals). A mixed factor ANOVA (age group x speed) was performed separately for the Near and FarDVA for detecting group differences. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for each condition to determine test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The three age groups were not different in their height, weight and normal walking speed (p>0.05). The post hoc analyses for DVA measurements demonstrated that each group was significantly different from the other two groups for Near as well as FarDVA (p<0.001-p=0.031). The effect of speed was significant for both NearDVA (p=0.012) and FarDVA (p=0.014), however, there was no age group x speed interaction (FarDVA p=0.607, NearDVA p=0.343). The ICCs for Near and FarDVA ranged between 0.85- 0.88 and 0.71-0.87, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in DVA between the three age groups were detected by using both Near and FarDVA protocols irrespective of the walking speed. Therefore, age group-specific reference values should be used for detecting malfunction. Further, consistency in walking speed is critical for comparing between studies. NearDVA at all walking speeds and FarDVA at the speed of 1.2 m/s demonstrated excellent testretest reliability. FarDVA at 0.8 m/s and 1.0 m/s demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICCs 0.71 and 0.77, respectively).

  8. Loss of Visual Acuity after Successful Surgery for Macula-On Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in a Prospective Multicentre Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lauro, Salvatore; Castrejón, Melissa; Fernández, Itziar; Rojas, Jimena; Coco, Rosa M.; Sanabria, María R.; Rodríguez de la Rua, Enrique; Pastor, J. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the frequency of visual loss after successful retinal detachment (RD) surgery in macula-on patients in a multicentric, prospective series of RD. Methods. Clinical variables from consecutive macula-on RD patients were collected in a prospective multicentric study. Visual loss was defined as at least a reduction in one line in best corrected visual acuity (VA) with Snellen chart. The series were divided into 4 subgroups: (1) all macula-on eyes (n = 357); (2) macula-on patients with visual loss at the third month of follow-up (n = 53) which were further subdivided in (3) phakic eyes (n = 39); and (4) pseudophakic eyes (n = 14). Results. Fifty-three eyes (14.9%) had visual loss three months after surgery (n = 39 phakic eyes; n = 14 pseudophakic eyes). There were no statistically significant differences between them regarding their clinical characteristics. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was used in 67.2% of cases, scleral buckle in 57.7%, and scleral explant in 11.9% (36.1% were combined procedures). Conclusions. Around 15% of macula-on RD eyes lose VA after successful surgery. Development of cataracts may be one cause in phakic eyes, but vision loss in pseudophakic eyes could have other explanations such as the effect of released factors produced by retinal ischemia on the macula area. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate this hypothesis. PMID:26640704

  9. Sports can protect dynamic visual acuity from aging: A study with young and older judo and karate martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    A major topic of current research in aging has been to investigate ways to promote healthy aging and neuroplasticity in order to counteract perceptual and cognitive declines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of intensive, sustained judo and karate martial arts training in young and older athletes and nonathletes of the same age for attenuating age-related dynamic visual acuity (DVA) decline. As a target, we used a moving stimulus similar to a Landolt ring that moved horizontally, vertically, or obliquely across the screen at three possible contrasts and three different speeds. The results indicated that (1) athletes had better DVA than nonathletes; (2) the older adult groups showed a larger oblique effect than the younger groups, regardless of whether or not they practiced a martial art; and (3) age modulated the results of sport under the high-speed condition: The DVA of young karate athletes was superior to that of nonathletes, while both judo and karate older athletes showed better DVA than did sedentary older adults. These findings suggest that in older adults, the practice of a martial art in general, rather than the practice of a particular type of martial art, is the crucial thing. We concluded that the sustained practice of a martial art such as judo or karate attenuates the decline of DVA, suggesting neuroplasticity in the aging human brain. PMID:25893472

  10. Modeling peripheral visual acuity enables discovery of gaze strategies at multiple time scales during natural scene search

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Pavan; Fernandes, Hugo; Kording, Konrad; Segraves, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Like humans, monkeys make saccades nearly three times a second. To understand the factors guiding this frequent decision, computational models of vision attempt to predict fixation locations using bottom-up visual features and top-down goals. How do the relative influences of these factors evolve over multiple time scales? Here we analyzed visual features at fixations using a retinal transform that provides realistic visual acuity by suitably degrading visual information in the periphery. In a task in which monkeys searched for a Gabor target in natural scenes, we characterized the relative importance of bottom-up and task-relevant influences by decoding fixated from nonfixated image patches based on visual features. At fast time scales, we found that search strategies can vary over the course of a single trial, with locations of higher saliency, target-similarity, edge–energy, and orientedness looked at later on in the trial. At slow time scales, we found that search strategies can be refined over several weeks of practice, and the influence of target orientation was significant only in the latter of two search tasks. Critically, these results were not observed without applying the retinal transform. Our results suggest that saccade-guidance strategies become apparent only when models take into account degraded visual representation in the periphery. PMID:25814545

  11. “If It’s Not Working, Why Would They Be Testing It?”: mental models of HIV vaccine trials and preventive misconception among men who have sex with men in India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Informed consent based on comprehension of potential risks and benefits is fundamental to the ethical conduct of clinical research. We explored mental models of candidate HIV vaccines and clinical trials that may impact on the feasibility and ethics of biomedical HIV prevention trials among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. Methods A community-based research project was designed and implemented in partnership with community-based organizations serving MSM in Chennai and Mumbai. We conducted 12 focus groups (n?=?68) with diverse MSM and 14 key informant interviews with MSM community leaders/service providers using a semi-structured interview guide to explore knowledge and beliefs about HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Focus groups (60–90 minutes) and interviews (45–60 minutes) were conducted in participants’ native language (Tamil in Chennai; Marathi or Hindi in Mumbai), audio-taped, transcribed and translated into English. We explored focus group and interview data using thematic analysis and a constant comparative method, with a focus on mental models of HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Results A mental model of HIV vaccine-induced seropositivity as “having HIV” resulted in fears of vaccine-induced infection and HIV stigma. Some participants feared inactivated vaccines might “drink blood” and “come alive”. Pervasive preventive misconception was based on a mental model of prevention trials as interventions, overestimation of likely efficacy of candidate vaccines and likelihood of being assigned to the experimental group, with expectations of protective benefits and decreased condom use. Widespread misunderstanding and lack of acceptance of placebo and random assignment supported perceptions of clinical trials as “cheating”. Key informants expressed concerns that volunteers from vulnerable Indian communities were being used as “experimental rats” to benefit high-income countries. Conclusions Evidence-informed interventions that engage with shared mental models among potential trial volunteers, along with policies and funding mechanisms that ensure local access to products that demonstrate efficacy in trials, may support the safe and ethical implementation of HIV vaccine trials in India. PMID:23919283

  12. Inferring mental states from neuroimaging data: From reverse inference to large-scale decoding

    PubMed Central

    Poldrack, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    A common goal of neuroimaging research is to use imaging data to identify the mental processes that are engaged when a subject performs a mental task. The use of reasoning from activation to mental functions, known as “reverse inference”, has been previously criticized on the basis that it does not take into account how selectively the area is activated by the mental process in question. In this Perspective, I outline the critique of informal reverse inference, and describe a number of new developments that provide the ability to more formally test the predictive power of neuroimaging data. PMID:22153367

  13. The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all…

  14. Should Social Workers Use "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle

    2014-01-01

    Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…

  15. Mental Set Shifting in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory and Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocki, Karin C.; Tillman, Carin

    2014-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) and inhibition in mental set shifting was examined from an individual difference perspective in children aged 5-14?years (N?=?117). Using the Hearts and Flowers task the rationale of the present study was to directly test the theoretical assumption that mental set shifiting in childhood primarily builds on WM and…

  16. Conceptual Change in Physical Geography and Environmental Sciences through Mental Model Building: The Example of Groundwater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinfried, Sibylle

    2006-01-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that students' erroneous mental models about groundwater will change towards more valid concepts if they are taught on the basis of a mental model-building strategy that focuses on the clarification of students' misconceptions. To examine the hypothesis a quasi-experimental research design was chosen. The…

  17. Sex Differences in Mental Ability: A Proposed Means to Link Them to Brain Structure and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work with the 42 mental ability tests administered to participants of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) has suggested that there are important dimensions of mental ability that function independently of "g". Two of these dimensions, rotation-verbal and focus-diffusion, appear to involve trade-offs: greater residual rotation…

  18. Reading Minds: The Relation between Children's Mental State Knowledge and Their Metaknowledge about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Zocchi, Silvia; Pagnin, Adriano; Palladino, Paola; Taumoepeau, Mele

    2010-01-01

    The relation between children's mental state knowledge and metaknowledge about reading was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 196 children (mean age = 9 years) were tested for verbal ability (VA), metaknowledge about reading, and mental state words in a story task. In Study 2, the results of Study 1 were extended by using a cross-lagged design and…

  19. Individual Differences in the Mental Rotation Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gender, academic performance and preschool education on mental rotation skills among Turkish prospective teachers. A total of 525 undergraduate students (364 female) from a government university located in western Turkey completed the Mental Rotation Test (MRT). A three-way [2 (gender) × 5 (academic…

  20. Gender-Specific Effects of Artificially Induced Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Men outperform women in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) by about one standard deviation. The present study replicated a gender belief account [Moe, A., & Pazzaglia, F. (2006). Following the instructions! Effects of gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 369-377.] for (part of) this effect. A sample of 300…

  1. Medical Students' Attitudes toward Mental Disorders before and after a Psychiatric Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galka, Steven W.; Perkins, David V.; Butler, Nancy; Griffith, Deborah A.; Schmetzer, Alan D.; Avirrappattu, George; Lafuze, Joan Esterline

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines medical students' attitudes about mental illness before and after a six-week psychiatry rotation. Methods: Six hundred seventy-two third-year students at Indiana University completed pre- and postrotation surveys assessing attitudes about causes and treatments of mental illness. We conducted paired sample t tests to…

  2. The Two Sides of the Mental Clock: The Imaginal Hemispatial Effect in the Healthy Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conson, Massimiliano; Cinque, Fausta; Trojano, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    When subjects are asked to compare the mental images of two analog clocks telling different times (the mental clock test), they are faster to process angles formed by hands located in the right than in the left half of the dial. In the present paper, we demonstrate that this Imaginal HemiSpatial Effect (IHSE) can be also observed in two modified…

  3. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    There have been few research studies to examine the positive mental health of Asian adolescents. The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of a Korean version of the Mental Health Continuum-short form (K-MHC-SF), a newly developed self-report scale for…

  4. Working with Mental Health Advocacy Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenety, Megan; Kiselica, Mark

    There are many factors behind the growing advocacy movement for mentally ill individuals. These factors include the prevalence of mental illness in society, deinstitutionalization, the restrictions of managed care, an increased awareness of the rights of the mentally ill, and empowerment of mentally ill clients. Despite the growing importance of…

  5. Mental Health Education and Information UBC Resources

    E-print Network

    Conati, Cristina

    Mental Health Education and Information UBC Resources Where can I access mental health training and faculty? What are some resources I can share related to building mental health? External Resources How do I recognize a mental health problem in the workplace? Where can I access e-learning modules related

  6. Children's and Adolescents' Mental Health. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This fact sheet addresses the mental health needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mental health problems, that these mental health problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mental health problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…

  7. InvestIng In National Advisory Mental

    E-print Network

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    IMH is to transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving in the brain and behavioral sciences to fuel research on the causes of mental disorders · chart mental illness that incorporate the diverse needs and circumstances of people with mental illnesses · Strengthen the public health

  8. Visual Information Strategies in Mental Model Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renk, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    This paper examines how visual information strategies may be used to facilitate the development of mental models. Topics covered include: definition of mental models; mental models and visual information; mental modeling concepts; power of modeling, including examples related to physical science, mathematics, writing, and depth of processing;…

  9. Behavior Rhythms in Mental Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melbin, Murray

    1969-01-01

    Research supported by a Russell Sage Foundation Residency Fellowship, National Science Foundation grant GL0919, National Institute of Mental Health grant M-5702(A), and National Institutes of Health grant RO2-NU-00251.

  10. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  11. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  12. Mental Health Treatment Program Locator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Facility Locator Buprenorphine Physician Locator Find a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health ... Service . Privacy Policy . Home | About the Locator | Find Facilities Near You | Find Facilities by City, County, State ...

  13. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in personal care Mood changes — Rapid or dramatic shifts in feelings One or two of these symptoms ... clear signs of a diagnosable mental illness, these “red flag” early warning symptoms can be frightening and ...

  14. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-07-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  15. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mental illnesses also carry an increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults Antipsychotics Use Goes Up Among Elderly October 21, 2015 NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on Depression and Older Adults December 11, ...

  16. Mental content, holism and communication 

    E-print Network

    Pollock, Joanna Katharine Mary

    2014-07-01

    In this project, I defend a holistic, internalist conceptual-role theory of mental content (‘Holism’, for short). The account of communicative success which must be adopted by the Holist is generally thought to be ...

  17. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

  18. A gender-informed model to train community health workers in maternal mental health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan V; Kruse-Austin, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The New Haven Mental Health Outreach for MotherS (MOMS) Partnership is a community-academic partnership that works to develop public health approaches to ensure that pregnant and parenting women living in the City of New Haven achieve the highest possible level of mental health. The MOMS Partnership developed a training model for community health workers specializing in maternal mental health. Six community health workers (termed Community Mental Health Ambassadors or CMHAs) were trained on key topics in this gender-informed maternal mental health curriculum. Pre- and post-test questionnaires assessed changes in attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and control using standardized scales. The results indicated preliminary acceptability of the training curriculum in transforming knowledge and attitudes about maternal mental health among community health workers. PMID:25534578

  19. Memory for Patient Information as a Function of Experience in Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    MARSH, JESSECAE K.; AHN, WOO-KYOUNG

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mental health clinicians are tasked to diagnose and treat the millions of people worldwide seeking help for mental health issues. This paper investigates the memory clinicians have for patient information. We hypothesize that clinicians encapsulate mental health knowledge through experience into more abstract concepts, as in other domains changing what clinicians remember about patients compared with non-professionals. We tested memory for realistic patient–therapist interactions in experienced clinicians, intermediately trained graduate students, and laypeople. Clinicians recalled fewer facts than intermediate trainees and as many as laypeople. Furthermore, clinicians reported more abstracted information than all other participants, providing the first empirical demonstration of knowledge encapsulation in the memory of mental health clinicians. We discuss how our results fit into the existing literature on clinical expertise in mental health and the implications of our findings for future research relevant to mental health care. PMID:23105171

  20. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio-vascular diseases and cancers, and due to poverty, poor health prevention and primary health care for these patients. From a system perspective, Australia has been inspired by Canada and created in 2012 its own mental health commission with a similar leading role for patients and families, aboriginal people representatives, but also a surveillance of the system with its own yearly report, like the Quebec Health Commissioner 2012 mental health system performance report. PMID:25120122

  1. The Role of Mental Imagery in Depression: Negative Mental Imagery Induces Strong Implicit and Explicit Affect in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Görgen, Stefanie Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood) and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) and the self-assessment manikin (SAM) to assess implicit (AMP) and explicit (SAM) affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n?=?32) compared to healthy controls (n?=?32). In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures) in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression, such as the promotion of positive imagery. PMID:26217240

  2. Sufism and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  3. Sufism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  4. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

  5. Decreased visual acuity resulting from glistening and sub-surface nano-glistening formation in intraocular lenses: A retrospective analysis of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Mayumi; Katsuki, Yoko; Ota, Ichiro; Miyake, Kensaku; Beiko, George H.H.; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Background To report on five patients with decreased visual acuity due to glistening and severe sub-surface nano-glistening (SSNG) formation within their intraocular lenses (IOLs). Design Case reports and analysis of extracted IOLs. Participants and samples We report improved visual acuity when IOLs with severe glistening and SSNG were exchanged for clear IOLs in five patients. Methods Case reports. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was visual acuity. The secondary outcome measure was light transmission. Explanted IOLs were subjected to investigation. Pre- and postoperative slit lamp images of the anterior eye and microscopic images of the extracted IOLs were taken and compared. Light transmission of the IOL was measured using a double beam type spectrophotometer. An integrated value of the percentage light transmittance in the visible light spectrum was calculated. Results We report on five patients whose visual acuity improved when IOLs were exchanged because of severe glistening and SSNG. All of the affected IOLs were MA60BM (Alcon, Forth Wroth Texas, USA) and the original implantation had occurred over a range of 6–15 years prior to the IOL exchange. Light transmission was decreased in all affected lenses compared to a similar control IOL. Conclusions Although only a few reports of cases in which glistening and SSNG have progressed to the level of decreased visual function have been published, the likelihood is that this phenomena will increase as the severity and incidence of these inclusions have been shown to increase with time. Appropriate evaluations of visual function in such patients are needed and consideration should be given to IOL exchange in symptomatic patients. PMID:26586975

  6. Accuracy of ‘My Gut Feeling:’ Comparing System 1 to System 2 Decision-Making for Acuity Prediction, Disposition and Diagnosis in an Academic Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Daniel; Thomas, Jonathan F.; Wiswell, Jeffrey L.; Walston, James M.; Anderson, Joel R.; Hess, Erik P.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current cognitive sciences describe decision-making using the dual-process theory, where a System 1 is intuitive and a System 2 decision is hypothetico-deductive. We aim to compare the performance of these systems in determining patient acuity, disposition and diagnosis. Methods Prospective observational study of emergency physicians assessing patients in the emergency department of an academic center. Physicians were provided the patient’s chief complaint and vital signs and allowed to observe the patient briefly. They were then asked to predict acuity, final disposition (home, intensive care unit (ICU), non-ICU bed) and diagnosis. A patient was classified as sick by the investigators using previously published objective criteria. Results We obtained 662 observations from 289 patients. For acuity, the observers had a sensitivity of 73.9% (95% CI [67.7–79.5%]), specificity 83.3% (95% CI [79.5–86.7%]), positive predictive value 70.3% (95% CI [64.1–75.9%]) and negative predictive value 85.7% (95% CI [82.0–88.9%]). For final disposition, the observers made a correct prediction in 80.8% (95% CI [76.1–85.0%]) of the cases. For ICU admission, emergency physicians had a sensitivity of 33.9% (95% CI [22.1–47.4%]) and a specificity of 96.9% (95% CI [94.0–98.7%]). The correct diagnosis was made 54% of the time with the limited data available. Conclusion System 1 decision-making based on limited information had a sensitivity close to 80% for acuity and disposition prediction, but the performance was lower for predicting ICU admission and diagnosis. System 1 decision-making appears insufficient for final decisions in these domains but likely provides a cognitive framework for System 2 decision-making. PMID:26587086

  7. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine. PMID:15276949

  8. The improvement effect of limited mental practice in individuals with poststroke hemiparesis: the influence of mental imagery and mental concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Katsuhito; Nagano, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether limited mental practice improves the motor performance of poststroke individuals with hemiparesis. [Subjects] Twenty-three participants with poststroke hemiparesis (40–82?years of age) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were divided into four groups with respect to a dart-throwing task: the no-practice, physical practice only, mental practice only, and mental and physical practice groups. The groups were compared in terms of gains in motor performance, mental imagery vividness, and level of concentration during mental practice. [Results] No statistically significant difference was found for gains in motor performance among groups, and there was no correlation between imagery vividness and motor performance gains. However, a correlation was found between gains in motor performance and mental concentration during mental practice. [Conclusion] The results suggested that limited mental practice for individuals with poststroke hemiparesis may not improve motor performance. However, a higher degree of concentration during mental practice may improve motor performance. PMID:26357451

  9. Mental Health Professional Shortage Areas in Rural Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Context: Research on health disparities in Appalachia has rarely compared Appalachia to other geographic areas in such a way as to isolate possible Appalachian effects. Purpose: This study tests hypotheses that nonmetropolitan Appalachia will have higher levels of mental health professional shortage areas than other nonmetropolitan areas of the…

  10. Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

  11. Language Assessment Tools for Mentally Retarded Adults: Survey and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)

  12. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes physical, intellectual, and psychological characteristics of members of 29 families (N=129) affected either directly or as carriers of fragile X syndrome (a form of mental retardation). Little correlation was found between tested intellect and frequency of fragile sites on the chromosome. (Author/JW)

  13. RECREATION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED--A COMMUNITY BASED PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRENBAUM, ARNOLD; SCHWARTZ, ARTHUR L.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS 3-YEAR RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WAS TO TEST THE FEASIBILITY OF EXTENDING THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMUNITY WORK AGENCIES IN NEW YORK TO INCLUDE THE MENTALLY RETARDED. THE 13 PARTICIPATING GROUP WORK AGENCIES RECEIVED FINANCIAL SUPPORT WAS WELL AS CONSULTATIVE, INTAKE, AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING SERVICES FROM…

  14. The Relationships Between Cerebral Dominance and Different Mental Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Carl; Bartek, Elmer

    Using a sample of 77 10th grade boys, the researchers studied the relationships between the mental abilities measured by the Differential Aptitude Tests and cerebral dominance (CD: the extent to which one hemisphere of the brain dominates the other for control of behavior). The surprise finding was that CD was negatively related to spatial…

  15. Sparing of Spatial Mental Imagery in Patients with Hippocampal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soyun; Borst, Grégoire; Thompson, William L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    In four experiments, we explored the capacity for spatial mental imagery in patients with hippocampal lesions, using tasks that minimized the role of learning and memory. On all four tasks, patients with hippocampal lesions performed as well as controls. Nonetheless, in separate tests, the patients were impaired at remembering the materials that…

  16. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test

  17. Infants' Joint Attention Skills Predict Toddlers' Emerging Mental State Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Thoermer, Claudia; Perst, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    To assess predictive relations between joint attention skills, intention understanding, and mental state vocabulary, 88 children were tested with measures of comprehension of gaze and referential pointing, as well as the production of declarative gestures and the comprehension and production of imperative gestures, at the ages of 7-18 months.…

  18. Revisiting the Strange Stories: Revealing Mentalizing Impairments in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; Hill, Elisabeth; Happe, Francesca; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    A test of advanced theory of mind (ToM), first introduced by F. Happe (1994), was adapted for children (mental, human, animal, and nature stories plus unlinked sentences). These materials were closely matched for difficulty and were presented to forty-five 7- to 12-year-olds with autism and 27 control children. Children with autism who showed ToM…

  19. Following the Instructions! Effects of Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Research has widely demonstrated male superiority in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT). Various explanations have been put forward to account for these differences. We considered gender beliefs and argued that women may fare less well than men partly because they are considered unable to perform this kind of task. Beliefs about spatial ability were…

  20. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.