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Visual acuity test  


The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest letters you can read on a standardized chart (Snellen ... The visual acuity test is a routine part of an eye examination or general physical examination, particularly if there ...


Preschool visual acuity screening tests.  


The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. PMID:754379

Friendly, D S



A Novel Computerized Visual Acuity Test for Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the efficacy of a computerized visual acuity test, the SNU visual acuity test for children. Methods Fifty-six children, ranging from 1 to 5 years of age, were included. In a dark room, children gazed at and followed a circular dot with 50% contrast moving at a fixed velocity of 10 pixels/sec on a computer monitor. Eye movement was captured using a charge coupled device camera and was expressed as coordinates on a graph. Movements of the eye and dot were superimposed on a graph and analyzed. Minimum visualized dot diameters were compared to the Teller visual acuity. Results Ten eyes (8.9%) of six children failed to perform the Teller visual acuity test, and two eyes (1.8%) of one patient failed to perform the SNU visual acuity test. The observed Teller visual acuity and SNU visual acuity were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Visual angle degrees converted from the Teller visual acuity and SNU visual acuity were also significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Conclusion The SNU visual acuity using moving targets correlated well with Teller visual acuity and was more applicable than the Teller acuity test. Therefore, the SNU visual acuity test has potential clinical applications for children.

Shin, Young Joo; Lee, In Bum; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak



The Freiburg Visual Acuity test--automatic measurement of visual acuity.  


The Freiburg Visual Acuity test is an automated procedure for self-administered measurement of visual acuity. Landolt-Cs are presented on a monitor in one of eight orientations. The subject presses one of eight buttons, which are spatially arranged on a response box according to the eight possible positions of the Landolt-Cs' gap. To estimate the acuity threshold, a best PEST (best Parameter Estimation by Sequential Testing) procedure is used in which a psychometric function having a constant slope on a logarithmic acuity scale is assumed. Measurement terminates after a fixed number of trials. With computer monitors, pixel-discreteness artifacts limit the presentation of small stimuli. By using anti-aliasing, i.e., smoothing of contours by multiple gray levels, the spatial resolution was improved by a factor of four. Thus, even the shape of small Landolt-Cs with oblique gaps is adequate and visual acuities from 5/80 (0.06) up to 5/1.4 (3.6) can be tested at a distance of 5 m. PMID:8867682

Bach, M



Application of a portable microcomputer mental acuity battery for fitness-for-duty assessment in power plant operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because a need exists for assessment of fitness-for-duty in power plants, several microcomputer-based mental acuity test batteries are under development for objective assessment of human performance over repeated measures. One of these, the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), has been shown to be sensitive to various environments and treatments and could prove useful for this purpose. The authors review the

Robert S. Kennedy; Janet T. Turnage



Adult Discrimination Performance for Pediatric Acuity Test Optotypes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To compare adult discrimination performance on nine pediatric visual acuity tests to determine the consistency of optotype design. Methods. After their binocular acuity was measured with each test, eight adult observers (mean age, 27 years ± 6.3 SD; three emmetropes and five corrected myopes) were shown isolated single optotypes from the Allen figures, HOTV, Landolt C, Lea Numbers, Lea Symbols, Lighthouse, Patti Pics, Precision Vision numbers, and Tumbling E tests. A one-interval, two-alternative forced-choice protocol was used at a single distance, and each optotype was paired with all optotypes from the same chart. Confusion matrices were generated for each test and Luce's (1963) biased-choice model was fit to each matrix to derive measures of pairwise similarity between the optotypes. Results. The acuities from the Allen figures (P < 0.001) and HOTV (P = 0.029) were the only ones to differ significantly from the reference Landolt C. The choice-model analyses of the confusion matrices revealed that the Allen figures, HOTV, Lighthouse, Patti Pics, and Precision Vision numbers tests all had significant differences in discriminability of optotypes within the test. Conclusions. Pediatric acuity test optotypes are not all equally discriminable to adult observers with normal vision and no ocular disorders. The current data suggest that care must be taken when presenting limited numbers of optotypes, as is done with young patients.

Mishoulam, Sylvia R.; Nosofsky, Robert M.; Dobson, Velma



Stereoacuity Thresholds Before and After Visual Acuity Testing  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare stereoacuity thresholds before and after visual acuity testing in patients with intermittent strabismus and in controls. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants and controls We prospectively enrolled 88 patients (41 with intermittent strabismus and 47 controls) with measurable stereoacuity on their initial stereoacuity test. Methods Stereoacuity was measured prior to and immediately following visual acuity testing using the near Preschool Randot and Distance Randot stereotests. Stereoacuity was transformed to log units for analysis. Main Outcome Measures Change in stereoacuity thresholds (log arcsec). Results There was no overall deterioration in distance stereoacuity or near stereoacuity thresholds in either the intermittent strabismus or control groups. The mean change for patients with intermittent strabismus was 0.02 log arcsec (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02 to 0.06) for near stereoacuity and 0.04 log arcsec (95% CI: -0.01 to 0.09) for distance stereoacuity. Control patients demonstrated a mean change of 0.03 log arcsec (95% CI: -0.01 to 0.06) for near stereoacuity and 0.01 log arcsec (95% CI: -0.06 to 0.08) for distance stereoacuity. These mean changes correspond to less than approximately one eighth of an octave. For individual patients, deterioration in stereoacuity beyond previously reported test-retest variability (0.6 log arcsec or greater) was not observed in patients with intermittent strabismus or controls using either test. Conclusions Stereoacuity thresholds do not deteriorate following visual acuity testing and therefore measurements of stereoacuity do not need to precede visual acuity measurement or other tests that involve short periods of dissociation.

Smith, Stephen J.; Leske, David A.; Hatt, Sarah R; Holmes, Jonathan M.



Bias in Mental Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first eight chapters of this book introduce the topic of test bias. The basic issues involved in criticisms of mental tests and arguments about test bias include: (1) variety of tests and test items; (2) scaling of scores and the form of the distribution of abilities in the population; (3) quantification of subpopulation differences; (4)…

Jensen, Arthur R.


The Handy Eye Chart™: A New Visual Acuity Test for Use in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To design a simple matching acuity test based on hand gestures that is minimally dependent on familiarity with symbols and letters. The visual acuity results obtained from children using the Handy Eye Chart™ were compared with results obtained with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Participants 60 children between 6 and 16 years of age were recruited consecutively from the Pediatric Ophthalmology section of the Emory Eye Center. Methods Monocular visual acuity was tested using both the new eye chart and the ETDRS chart, alternating the order of administration between subjects. Testing was performed on the subject’s eye with the poorest acuity. Main Outcome Measures Outcome measures were monocular logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity scores for each chart. Results The acuities were shown to have a strong linear correlation (r = 0.95) and a mean difference in acuity of ?0.03 (95% confidence interval ?0.05 to ?0.01) logMAR, equivalent to approximately 1.5 letters, with the new eye chart underestimating the vision as determined by the ETDRS chart. The 95% limits of agreement were ±1.6 lines. Conclusion The present study supports the validity of the new eye chart as a measure of visual acuity in pediatric patients ages 6 to 18 with vision ranging from 20/16 to 20/200.

Cromelin, Caroline H.; Candy, T. Rowan; Lynn, Michael J.; Harrington, Cindy Lou; Hutchinson, Amy K.



Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of




Screening for visual impairment in older people: validation of the Cardiff Acuity Test.  


Poor visual acuity (VA) is a risk factor for falls, and a common impediment to rehabilitation, but conventional VA testing is difficult in dysphasic, deaf or confused patients. In the Cardiff acuity test (CAT) observation of the subject's eye movements (preferential looking) indicates if they can see a vanishing optotype on a card. The test is quick, and requires no speech or understanding on the part of the subject. We consider its usefulness in frail, elderly patients. Seventy-three patients aged 47-99 (mean 78) years, were tested in good lighting, wearing their usual spectacles. Cards ordered 'A' to 'K' with increasingly faint targets were sequentially presented at 1 m, until the subject's eye movements indicated the target to be invisible. We then performed conventional Snellen acuity chart testing. Twenty-three were retested by a second observer, and 24 subjects were retested by the same observer on another day. We used correlation coefficients to confirm inter-observer (r=0.95, P<0.01), and test-retest (r=0.97, P<0.01) reliability. Snellen chart measurements of VA were possible in all but six subjects. The results of CAT and Snellen acuity tests showed statistically significant correlation (r=0.35, P<0.01). The World Health Organisation (WHO) define significant impairment as a Snellen test acuity below 6/18, and using the 'G' card as a threshold were able to detect this degree of impairment with a sensitivity of 91.7%, and a specificity of 90.9%. The CAT is reliable, and highly acceptable to elderly patients, and may be useful as a screening tool in clinical practice, and for epidemiological purposes. PMID:12849084

Johansen, Antony; White, Susan; Waraisch, Pervais


An assessment of the iPad as a testing platform for distance visual acuity in adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Visual acuity is a common measurement in general practice, and the advent of new technology such as tablet computers offers a change in the way in which these tests are delivered. The aim of this study was to assess whether measurements of distance visual acuity using LogMAR letter charts displayed on an iPad tablet computer were in agreement with standard clinical tests of visual acuity in adults with normal vision. Design Blinded, diagnostic test study. Setting Single centre (University) in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants University staff and students (n=85). Participants were required to have visual acuity better than 6/60 and wear habitual refractive correction during testing. Participants were excluded if there was any history of ocular pathology. Primary and secondary outcome measures Visual acuity measured under a number of conditions. Results The iPad tablet with its glossy screen was highly susceptible to glare resulting in acuity measurements that were significantly poorer (approximately 2 LogMAR lines) than those made using an ETDRS chart and a standard computerised testing system (n=56). However, fitting the iPad with an antiglare screen and positioning the device away from sources creating reflected (veiling) glare resulted in acuity measurements that were equivalent those made using gold standard charts (n=29). Conclusions Tablet computers are an attractive option for visual acuity measurement due to portability, the ability to randomise letters, automated scoring of acuity and the ability to select from a range of charts. However, these devices are only suitable for use in situations where sources of glare can be eliminated.

Black, J M; Jacobs, R J; Phillips, G; Chen, L; Tan, E; Tran, A; Thompson, B



Brief Report: The Relationship between Visual Acuity, the Embedded Figures Test and Systemizing in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Enhanced performance upon the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has informed psychological theories of the non-social aspects that characterise ASD. The Extreme Male Brain theory of autism proposes that enhanced visual acuity underpins greater attention to detail (assessed by the EFT) which is a…

Brosnan, Mark J.; Gwilliam, Lucy R.; Walker, Ian



Visual discrimination learning in the water maze: a novel test for visual acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning about space, the environment and specific objects comprising three-dimensional arrangements requires processing of visual information. As learning and memory experiments in mammals rely heavily on normal processing of visual cues, drug-induced disruption of acquisition learning or memory formation necessitates the important control for visual acuity. A popular task used frequently for rats is the Morris water maze. However, previously

Lianne Robinson; Holly Bridge; Gernot Riedel



Comparison of the Visual Function Index to the Snellen Visual Acuity Test in Predicting Older Adult Self-Restricted Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this observational study, a modified version of the Visual Function Index (VF-14) and the Snellen Visual Acuity Test were compared in how well they correlated with self-restricted driving habits in older adults. The VF-14 was originally designed to assess vision in cataract patients; however, in this study, a modified version (mVF-14) was evaluated as a tool for predicting

Shahram Lotfipour; Bhakti Harishchandra Patel; Thomas Aaron Grotsky; Craig L. Anderson; Erin M. Carr; Suleman Syed Ahmed; Bharath Chakravarthy; John Christian Fox; Federico E. Vaca



Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure  

PubMed Central

Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity.

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo



Two-point orientation discrimination versus the traditional two-point test for tactile spatial acuity assessment.  


Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal) of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants' psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological assessment. PMID:24062677

Tong, Jonathan; Mao, Oliver; Goldreich, Daniel



Two-Point Orientation Discrimination Versus the Traditional Two-Point Test for Tactile Spatial Acuity Assessment  

PubMed Central

Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal) of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants’ psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological assessment.

Tong, Jonathan; Mao, Oliver; Goldreich, Daniel



A pilot trial of the iPad tablet computer as a portable device for visual acuity testing.  


We evaluated the accuracy of an app for the iPad tablet computer (Eye Chart Pro) as a portable method of visual acuity (VA) testing. A total of 120 consecutive patients (240 eyes) underwent visual acuity test with an iPad 2 and a conventional light-box chart. The logMAR VA results from the iPad were significantly higher than those from the light-box (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean difference (bias) of 0.02 logMAR units between the VA results from the iPad chart and the light-box chart, with 95% limits of agreement of -0.14 to 0.19. Two groups of patients were defined: in Group 1 there were 182 eyes with VA better than 0.1 according to the light-box VA test. The median logMAR VA by the iPad was 0.54 and by the light-box chart it was 0.52; there was no significant difference between them (P = 0.69). In Group 2 there were 58 eyes with VA equal to or worse than 0.1 according to the light-box VA test. The median logMAR VA by the iPad was 1.26 and was 1.10 by the light box; the result from the iPad was significantly lower (P < 0.001). The Eye Chart Pro app installed on the iPad is reliable for VA testing only when the Snellen VA is better than 0.1 (20/200). PMID:23434538

Zhang, Zhao-tian; Zhang, Shao-chong; Huang, Xiong-gao; Liang, Ling-yi



Methods for Equating Mental Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technology for test equating has arisen from the need to make new tests comparable to old ones. The equating of military tests has two objectives: (a) to make scores on different tests forms and on different composites of test forms comparable, and at...

K. A. Gialluca L. I. Crichton C. D. Vale



HIV Testing Policy and Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Using opinion data from experts, we examined the context of the argument for mandatory testing of psychiatric patients. Methods. Vignettes were distributed to experts on HIV and mental illness. Respondents were asked to provide appropriateness ratings for different hypothetical clinical decisions regarding HIV management. Results. Respondents were reluctant to impose testing without informed consent in most circumstances. The presence of risk factors or danger to another increased appropriateness ratings modestly. Conclusions. Despite experts’ tendency to emphasize individual rights, public reluctance to mandate testing is unlikely to extend to people with serious mental illness. No argument for mandatory testing can be persuasive if improved voluntary testing can achieve adequate detection rates. Voluntary testing protocols should be studied to determine which successfully identify infected individuals.

Walkup, James; Satriano, James; Barry, Danielle; Sadler, Pablo; Cournos, Francine



The Sonksen logMAR test of visual acuity: II. Age norms from 2 years 9 months to 8 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS All curves demonstrated an increase in visual acuity with age that was steepest between 2 years 9 months and 5 years 3 months. Equivalent centiles for linear visual acuity were better when viewed binocularly than monocularly; the difference was least between the 95th centiles ( best levels) and greatest between the 5th centiles (worst levels). There were no clinically

Patricia M. Sonksen; Angie M. Wade; Ruth Proffitt; Sally Heavens; Alison T. Salt


One Eye or Two: A Comparison of Binocular and Monocular Low-Contrast Acuity Testing in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To determine the magnitudes of binocular summation for low- and high-contrast letter acuity in a multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort, and to characterize the roles that MS disease, age, interocular difference in acuity, and a history of optic neuritis have on binocular summation. The relation between binocular summation and monocular acuities and vision-specific quality of life (QoL) was also examined. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS Low-contrast acuity (2.5% and 1.25% contrast) and high-contrast visual acuity (VA) were assessed binocularly and monocularly in patients and disease-free controls at 3 academic centers. Binocular summation was calculated as the difference between the binocular and better eye scores. QoL was measured using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and the 10-item neuro-ophthalmic supplement. The relation of the degree of binocular summation to monocular acuity, clinical history of acute optic neuritis, age, interocular acuity difference, and QoL was determined. RESULTS Binocular summation was demonstrated at all contrast levels, and was greatest at the lowest level (1.25%). Increasing age (P < .0001), greater interocular differences in acuity (P < .0001), and prior history of optic neuritis (P = .015) were associated with lower magnitudes of binocular summation; binocular inhibition was seen in some of these patients. Higher magnitudes of summation for 2.5% low-contrast acuity were associated with better scores for the NEI VFQ-25 (P = .02) and neuro-ophthalmic supplement (P = .03). CONCLUSION Binocular summation of acuity occurs in MS but is reduced by optic neuritis, which may lead to binocular inhibition. Binocular summation and inhibition are important factors in the QoL and visual experience of MS patients, and may explain why some prefer to patch or close 1 eye in the absence of diplopia or ocular misalignment.





ERIC Educational Resources Information Center





Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)



Is refraction with a hand-held autorefractometer useful in addition to visual acuity testing and questionnaires in preschool vision screening at 3.5 years in Japan?  


The vision-screening program for 3.5-year-old children in Japan consists of 3 steps:questionnaires and home visual acuity testing, visual acuity testing by nurses and inspection by medical officers at regional Public Health Centers, and examinations by ophthalmologists. In this study, we tested refraction with a hand-held autorefractometer in addition to visual acuity testing and inspection to reveal whether or not autorefraction leads to better detection of eye problems. Autorefraction was performed in 6 consecutive sessions by a single examiner in 265 children at 3.5 years of age who all visited the same center. The children were sent to the third step of examinations by ophthalmologists based on refractive error criteria:3 diopters myopia or 1 diopter hyperopia, and/or 2 diopters astigmatism in either eye, in addition to the current criteria:1) failure in either eye for 0.5 visual acuity at the center, 2) eye-related symptoms revealed by the questionnaires, or 3) eye problems detected by medical officers. Notices to visit ophthalmologists were issued for 64 children (24%), and 37 of those (58%) made the visits, so that documents containing final diagnoses were sent back to the Public Health Office. Of the 64 children, 12 were sent to ophthalmologists based on the current criteria only, 10 based on both the current criteria and the refractive error criteria, and 42 based on the refractive error criteria only. Twelve of the 13 children visiting ophthalmologists by the current criteria had diagnoses such as amblyopia and strabismus. In contrast, 15 of 24 children visiting ophthalmologists by only the refractive error criteria had mainly diagnoses of refractive errors, with no serious problems. In conclusion, autorefraction in addition to visual acuity testing and inspection led to detection of only one additional case of an eye disease at 3.5 years, while tripling the number of children sending to the third-step examination by an ophthalmologist. Thus, from a cost-effectiveness standpoint, autorefraction is not recommended as an additional test when the current system is conducted as designed. PMID:19727204

Matsuo, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Chie; Kio, Keiko; Ichiba, Naofumi; Matsuoka, Hiroaki



Orientation anisotropy in vernier acuity.  


An oblique effect is evident in vernier acuity for abutting lines. In Experiment 1 we show that the oblique effect in vernier acuity exists over a range of contrast levels, and is evident even when the horizontal and oblique lines are equally detectable or discriminable. Since this oblique effect cannot be explained by the lower visibility of oblique vernier lines or of the "dipole" cue, it is unlikely to be a consequence of lower neuronal sensitivity. In Experiment 2 we measured the orientation and spatial frequency tuning characteristics of vernier acuity for horizontal and oblique (45 deg) stimuli using a simultaneous masking paradigm. Our results showed no significant differences between either the orientation or spatial frequency tuning for horizontal and oblique stimuli; thus the oblique effect is unlikely to result from differences in the tuning of neurons sensitive to the oblique meridians. Finally, in Experiment 3, we tested the notion that the oblique effect for vernier judgments might reflect limitations imposed beyond the initial filtering operation by measuring vernier acuity for horizontal and oblique lines with either the observer of the frame tilted at an angle of 45 deg. The oblique effect for vernier followed retinal (rather than gravitational) coordinates, and was unaffected by the orientation of the frame, suggesting a relatively low level cause. By exclusion, we suggest that the dependence of vernier acuity on orientation may result from increased positional uncertainty at oblique orientations, perhaps as a consequence of lower cortical neuronal density and/or increased topographic noise. PMID:8594813

Saarinen, J; Levi, D M



Attention trades off spatial acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covertly attending to a stimulus location increases spatial acuity. Is such increased spatial acuity coupled with a decreased acuity at unattended locations? We measured the effects of exogenous (transient and involuntary) and endogenous (sustained and voluntary) attention on observers’ acuity thresholds for a Landolt gap resolution task at both attended and unattended locations. Both types of attention increased acuity at

Barbara Montagna; Franco Pestilli; Marisa Carrasco



Visual acuity screening of preterm infants.  


Visual acuity was screened in 36 healthy infants born 4 or more weeks prior to term. Preterm infants tested at 8 and 12 weeks of postnatal age showed significantly poorer performances than those shown by 8- and 12-week-old full-term infants. However, no differences in performance were found when the scores of preterm infants tested at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of postterm age (i.e., 4, 8, and 12 weeks from due date) were compared with scores of 4-, 8-, and 12-week-old full-term infants. The results suggest that visual acuity is more closely correlated with age from conception than with age from birth and that visual acuity screening in preterm infants should be carried out with acuity gratings appropriate for the infant's postterm age rather than with acuity gratings appropriate for the infant's postnatal age. PMID:7440104

Dobson, V; Mayer, D L; Lee, C P



Arthur Sinton Otis and the American mental testing movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of Arthur Sinton Otis in the history of the American mental testing movement. Focusing on Otis's endeavors as test developer, statistician, and author from his early days as a student of Lewis Terman at Stanford University through his long-time appointment as Director of Test Service for World Book Company, it traces the full course of

Eleanor Jane Siegel



Visual Acuity Is Associated with Performance on Visual and Non-Visual Neuropsychological Tests in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both vision and cognitive problems are commonplace in multiple sclerosis. Previous research suggests that MS patients with compromised near vision perform more poorly on visually mediated cognitive tests. Consequently it has been recommended that neuropsychologists who evaluate MS patients with poor corrected near vision should rely primarily on auditory neuropsychological tests. However, no research has examined the association between vision

H. Todd Feaster; Jared M. Bruce



Urinary Screening Tests in the Prevention of Mental Deficiency  

PubMed Central

A substantial number of genetically determined biochemical disorders in infants and young children produce mental deficiency and serious ill health in early life. If these diseases are detected promptly, effective therapy can be instituted to prevent the development of mental defect, or, where no treatment is presently available, the parents can be given appropriate genetic counselling so that the birth of further affected children can be prevented. Eight simple urine screening tests are described which have proved useful in the early detection of metabolic disorders in apparently healthy infants. These tests can easily be performed by a physician or nurse without special training or elaborate equipment. The attention of general practitioners, pediatricians and public health physicians is directed to the real possibilities for preventing some forms of mental deficiency through the routine use of screening tests on urine and on blood.

Perry, Thomas L.; Hansen, Shirley; Macdougall, Lynne



The Teller Acuity Cards Are Effective in Detecting Amblyopia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Detection of amblyopia in infants and toddlers is difficult because the current clinical standard for this age group, fixation preference, is inaccurate. Although grating acuity represents an alternative, studies of preschoolers and schoolchildren report that it is not equivalent to the gold standard optotype acuity. Here, we examine whether the Teller Acuity Cards (TAC) can detect amblyopia effectively by testing children old enough (7.8 ± 3.6 years) to complete optotype acuity testing. Methods Grating acuity was assessed monocularly in 45 patients with unilateral amblyopia, 44 patients at risk for amblyopia, and 37 children with no known vision disorders. Each child’s grating acuity was classified as normal/abnormal based on age-appropriate norms. These classifications were compared with formal amblyopia diagnoses. Results Grating acuity was finer than optotype acuity among amblyopic eyes (medians: 0.28 vs. 0.40 logMAR, respectively, p < 0.0001) but not among fellow eyes (medians: 0.03 vs. 0.10 logMAR, respectively, p = 0.36). The optotype acuity-grating acuity discrepancy among amblyopic eyes was larger for cases of severe amblyopia than for moderate amblyopia (means: 0.64 vs. 0.18 logMAR, respectively, p = 0.0001). Nevertheless, most cases of amblyopia were detected successfully by the TAC, yielding a sensitivity of 80%. Furthermore, grating acuity was relatively sensitive to all amblyopia subtypes (69 to 89%) and levels of severity (79 to 83%). Conclusions Although grating acuity is finer than optotype acuity in amblyopic eyes, most children with amblyopia were identified correctly suggesting that grating acuity is an effective clinical alternative for detecting amblyopia.

Drover, James R.; Wyatt, Lauren M.; Stager, David R.; Birch, Eileen E.



Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.



Set shot shooting performance and visual acuity in basketball.  


Common sense suggests that decreasing visual acuity will have a negative effect on basketball shooting performance. To test the hypothesis that basketball shooting performance monotonically decreases with decreasing acuity, 19 subjects attempted 25 set shots from a fixed location at each of 5 different acuity levels: 6/6 or better and vision blurred (by optical defocus) to visual acuities of 6/12, 6/24, 6/48, and 6/75. Our results revealed a small but statistically nonsignificant decrease in shooting performance between the 6/6+ and 6/12 conditions. For visual acuities between 6/12 and 6/75, the number of baskets made remained constant. We conclude that decreases in visual acuity over the range of 6/6+ to 6/75 resulting from defocus do not significantly reduce set shot shooting performance. PMID:1436997

Applegate, R A; Applegate, R A



Vernier acuity in barn owls.  


Vernier acuity thresholds were obtained psychophysically in three adult barn owls with vertical bars and sinusoidal gratings. A minimal displacement threshold of 0.58 arcmin was observed with the bar stimulus under binocular viewing conditions. The mean binocular bar threshold was 2.51 arcmin. Bar thresholds were lower than grating thresholds. Monocular thresholds, obtained in one bird only, were typically higher than binocular thresholds. With grating acuity being about 3.75 arcmin in this species, we conclude that the findings reported here indicate that vernier acuity is hyperacute in the barn owl. The data presented here are the first demonstration of vernier acuity thresholds in birds. PMID:17316738

Harmening, Wolf M; Göbbels, Katrin; Wagner, Hermann



Visual Acuity of Children: United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|National estimates based on the findings from the Health Examination Survey in 1963 to 1965 of uncorrected monocular and binocular visual-acuity levels of children were studied. A nationwide sample of 7,417 children was selected to represent the approximately 24 million noninstitutionalized American children between ages 6 and 11 years. Testing

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.


Hidden visual capabilities in mentally retarded subjects diagnosed as deaf—blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual acuity of twelve multi-handicapped, mentally retarded subjects, diagnosed as deaf-blind, was measured on two occasions with the Teller Acuity Cards (TAC). Eight subjects scored above the criterion for legally blind and the results of six of these indicated various degrees of poor to approaching-normal eyesight. To evaluate high-level vision four subjects were tested with the Fagan Test, assessing

Karl Jacobsen; Svein Magnussen; Lars Smith



Performance of subjects with and without severe mental illness on a clinical test of problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe mental illness is associated with impairments in executive functions, such as conceptual reasoning, planning, and strategic thinking all of which impact problem solving. The present study examined the utility of a novel assessment tool for problem solving, the Rapid Assessment of Problem Solving Test (RAPS) in persons with severe mental illness. Subjects were 47 outpatients with severe mental illness

R. C. Marshall; S. R. McGurk; C. M. Karow; T. J. Kairy; L. A. Flashman



Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine



Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.



Measuring Community Preferences for Public Mental Health Services: Pilot Test of a Mail Survey Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the feasibility of a simple mail survey approach to measuring community preferences for mental health services. A 38 item survey detected statistically significant differences in preferences for four central goals, finding that community members most value Focus on the Severely Mentally III, followed by Community Safety and Environment, Service Quality and Original Community Mental Health Goals. Some

Martha Shumway; George J. Unick; William A. McConnell; Ralph Catalano; Peter Forster



Estado nutricional em zinco e teste de acuidade do paladar em crianças de baixa estatura familiar Zinc nutritional status and taste acuity test in familial short stature children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivos: Avaliar o estado nutricional em zinco e a percepção do paladar (salgado, doce, ácido e amargo) em crianças de baixa estatura familiar. Métodos: Estudo transversal de 30 crianças sem sinais de puberdade, pacientes do ambulatório de crescimento da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A ingestão dietética foi avaliada pelo método do Registro Alimentar. Para o teste de acuidade do

Andréa G. Marques; Luiz A. Lopes; Olga M. S. Amancio



PubMed Central

Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip using passive touch have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have re-examined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts requiring active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to Braille and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind Braille readers and sighted subjects, ranging in age from 12 to 85 years, were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically Braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the lifespan.

Legge, Gordon E.; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N.; Cheong, Allen M.Y.; Miller, Joseph C.



A Study of Mental Ability Testing and Its Implications for the Oklahoma City Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study follows a 1980 moratorium on group mental ability testing called by the district's superintendent when questions relating to the informational value and cost-effectiveness of the Otis Lennon Mental Ability Test (OLMA) were raised by the Oklahoma City Public School District. Criticisms of intelligence tests and relevant issues are…

Hall, Janie L.


A Study of Field Independent Biased Mental Ability Tests in Community College Science Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of mental ability tests for grouping science students. Describes a study which investigated the analytical skill items on the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test for field independent bias. Results indicated that the test is biased in favor of individuals with field independent perceptual orientation. (TW)|

Crow, Linda W.; Piper, Martha Kime



Acuity-driven gigapixel visualization.  


We present a framework for acuity-driven visualization of super-high resolution image data on gigapixel displays. Tiled display walls offer a large workspace that can be navigated physically by the user. Based on head tracking information, the physical characteristics of the tiled display and the formulation of visual acuity, we guide an out-of-core gigapixel rendering scheme by delivering high levels of detail only in places where it is perceivable to the user. We apply this principle to gigapixel image rendering through adaptive level of detail selection. Additionally, we have developed an acuity-driven tessellation scheme for high-quality Focus-and-Context (F+C) lenses that significantly reduces visual artifacts while accurately capturing the underlying lens function. We demonstrate this framework on the Reality Deck, an immersive gigapixel display. We present the results of a user study designed to quantify the impact of our acuity-driven rendering optimizations in the visual exploration process. We discovered no evidence suggesting a difference in search task performance between our framework and naive rendering of gigapixel resolution data, while realizing significant benefits in terms of data transfer overhead. Additionally, we show that our acuity-driven tessellation scheme offers substantially increased frame rates when compared to naive pre-tessellation, while providing indistinguishable image quality. PMID:24051856

Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Kaufman, Arie E



Sensory acuity and reasoning in delusional disorder.  


Systematic research on delusional disorder (DD) is limited. The goal of this study was to assess DD patients in the following areas: sensory capacities, decision-making style, and complex reasoning. Ten DD patients and 10 matched normal controls completed the following (1) smell, taste, and vision testing; (2) a probabilistic inference test in which subjects made probability decisions; and (3) a gambling task assessing complex reasoning. No significant difference was found between DD subjects and normals for taste acuity, olfactory acuity, or olfactory discrimination. No difference in visual acuity was noted, but sample size was limited. In addition, DD subjects required significantly less data to make probability decisions than normal controls. Despite using less data, DD subjects were as certain as controls regarding the accuracy of their decisions. As for complex reasoning, DD subjects performed as well as normal controls, but tended to surmise the purpose of the task sooner than normals, a difference that approached significance. In conclusion, these results suggest no differences between DD and normal subjects regarding olfaction, taste, and vision. The reasoning studies suggest that DD subjects may have a "cognitive set" that predisposes them to make conclusions with significantly less data than normals. Further, the study suggests that this reasoning difference generalizes to events outside the DD subjects' delusional realm and can be evoked in an experimental environment. PMID:11994833

Conway, Charles R; Bollini, Anna M; Graham, Brevick G; Keefe, Richard S E; Schiffman, Susan S; McEvoy, Joseph P


Personality and Sensory Acuity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between human extroversion scores to the assessment of meat texture in the mouth was studied by observing the difference in taste assessments completed on questionnaires and the results of food solution tests given in terms of concentrati...

J. M. Harries



Influence of loupes and age on the near visual acuity of practicing dentists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the near visual acuity of 40 dentists and its improvement by using different magnification devices. The acuity was tested with miniaturized E-optotype tests on a negatoscope under the following conditions: 1. natural visual acuity, 300 mm; 2. single lens loupe, 2×, 250 mm; 3. Galilean loupe, 2.5×, 380 mm; and 4. Keplerian loupe, 4.3×, 400 mm. In part 1, the influence of the magnification devices was investigated for all dentists. The Keplerian loupe obtained the highest visual acuity (4.64), followed by the Galilean loupe (2.43), the single lens loupe (1.42), and natural visual acuity (1.19). For part 2, the dentists were classified according to their age (=40 years). The younger dentists' group achieved a significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices (p<0.001). For part 3, the dentists were grouped according to their natural visual acuity. The group with the higher natural visual acuity achieved significantly higher visual acuity with all magnification devices than did the group of dentists with the lower natural visual acuity (p<0.01). It can be concluded that near visual acuity varies highly between individuals and decreases during the lifetime. Independent of age or natural vision, visual acuity can be significantly improved by using magnification devices.

Eichenberger, Martina; Perrin, Philippe; Neuhaus, Klaus W.; Bringolf, Ueli; Lussi, Adrian



Visual acuity in the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).  


Monodelphis domestica (short-tailed opossum) is an emerging animal model for studies of neural development due to the extremely immature state of the nervous system at birth and its subsequent rapid growth to adulthood. Yet little is known about its normal sensory discrimination abilities. In the present investigation, visual acuity was determined in this species using the optokinetic test (OPT), which relies on involuntary head tracking of a moving stimulus and can be easily elicited using a rotating visual stimulus of varying spatial frequencies. Using this methodology, we determined that the acuity of Monodelphis is 0.58 cycles per degree (cpd), which is similar to the acuity of rats using the same methodology, and higher than in mice. However, acuity in the short-tailed opossum is lower than in other marsupials. This is in part due to the methodology used to determine acuity, but may also be due to differences in diel patterns, lifestyle and phylogeny. We demonstrate that for the short-tailed opossum, the OPT is a rapid and reliable method of determining a baseline acuity and can be used to study enhanced acuities due to cortical plasticity. PMID:22871523

Dooley, J C; Nguyen, H M; Seelke, A M H; Krubitzer, L



Visual Acuity and the Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)|

Beynon, J.



Ultrafine spatial acuity of blind expert human echolocators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echolocating organisms represent their external environment using reflected auditory information from emitted vocalizations. This ability, long known in various non-human species, has also been documented in some blind humans as an aid to navigation, as well as object detection and coarse localization. Surprisingly, our understanding of the basic acuity attainable by practitioners—the most funda- mental underpinning of echoic spatial perception—remains

Santani TengAmrita PuriDavid Whitney



Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.



Mental Exercises: A Study of the Effect of Mental Exercise as a Warm-Up on the Test Scores of Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine if performing mental exercises (thinking skills which activate cognitive mental alertness) before taking a test affected test results, a study examined spelling test results of three ninth-grade English classes instructed by the same teacher. Subjects were of similar educational background and had similar characteristics…

Hogan, Carolyn


Mental health and quality of life after genetic testing for Huntington disease: A long-term effect study in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive genetic testing for Huntington disease (HD) might cause severe short-term psychological reactions in patients with poor mental health. Very few studies exist on the long- term effects of genetic HD testing. The aim of this study was to assess mental health and quality of life in persons who were tested for HD mutation, to compare mental health depending on

Claudia Licklederer; Gerhard Wolff; Jürgen Barth



Quantitative assessment of visual acuity in projective head mounted displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One issue of head mounted display design relates to the tradeoff between field of view (FOV) and resolution, which can lead to reduced visual acuity (VA). Essentially, an increase in FOV causes a decrease in visual acuity, for a given LCD display that has a fixed number of pixels. The effects of enhanced brightness on VA using two different types of retro-reflective material (cubed or beaded) were tested using a 52 deg. FOV projective helmet mounted display with VGA resolution. Three lighting conditions were also tested. Based on the display size, resolution, and FOV, we estimated a maximum visual acuity of 4.1 minutes of arc. In a counter-balanced between measures design, subjects" psychometric acuity functions were determined using a computer-generated 4AFC Landolt C test presented stereoscopically and probit analysis. The results confirmed that the maximum visual acuity possible within the setup was 4.1 arc minutes, the limit imposed by the microdisplay, and not the retroreflective material.

Fidopiastis, Cali M.; Meyer, Catherine; Fuhrman, Christopher A.; Rolland, Jannick P.



Urine Test May Show Risk of Mental Decline in People with Type 2 Diabetes  


... Risk of Mental Decline in People With Type 2 Diabetes Samples consistently containing protein tied to slowed ... August 29, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Type 2 Laboratory Tests Mild Cognitive Impairment THURSDAY, Aug. 29 ( ...


A test for mental capacity to request assisted suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mental competence of people requesting aid-in-dying is a key issue for the how the law responds to cases of assisted suicide. A number of cases from around the common law world have highlighted the importance of competence in determining whether assistants should be prosecuted, and what they will be prosecuted for. Nevertheless, the law remains uncertain about how competence

Cameron Stewart; Carmelle Peisah; Brian Draper



Spatial attention and vernier acuity.  


This study examined whether or not vernier acuity would be improved if the location of a briefly presented vernier stimulus was pre-cued. The vernier target appeared alone, or together with straight lines or ellipses. Effects of spatial pre-cuing were found only when straight line distractors were present. It is suggested that since the straight lines are confusable with the vernier targets, they introduce statistical noise in decision. Precuing the most probable location that contains a target may help by allowing this noise to be excluded. PMID:7892729

Shiu, L P; Pashler, H



Normative pediatric visual acuity using single surrounded HOTV optotypes on the electronic visual acuity tester following the amblyopia treatment study protocol  

PubMed Central

Purpose To provide normative pediatric visual acuity data using HOTV optotypes presented on the Electronic Visual Acuity Tester following the Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS) protocol. Methods Monocular testing was conducted on 384 healthy full-term children ranging from 3 to 10 years of age (mean, 5.4 years; SD = 1.8 years). A total of 373 children completed monocular testing of each eye. In addition, 23 adults (mean, 28.7 years; SD = 4.9 years) were tested for comparison. Both monocular visual acuity and interocular acuity differences were recorded. Results Mean visual acuity improved by slightly more than one line (0.12 logMAR) from 3 years of age to adulthood, increasing from 0.08 logMAR to ?0.04 logMAR (F6,400 = 26.3, p < 2.0 × 10?26). At all ages, mean interocular acuity difference was less than one line on a standard acuity chart (overall mean difference = 0.04 logMAR; SD = 0.06 logMAR). Conclusions These results represent the first normative data reported for HOTV optotypes using the ATS protocol on the Electronic Visual Acuity Tester. These data may play an important role in clinical practice, screening, and clinical research.

Drover, James R.; Felius, Joost; Cheng, Christina S.; Morale, Sarah E.; Wyatt, Lauren; Birch, Eileen E.



Performance of a five-item mental health screening test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the screening accuracy of a short, five-item version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) with that of the 18-item MHI, the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and a 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI-28). Subjects were newly enrolled members of a health maintenance organization (HMO), and the criterion diagnoses were those found through use of the

Donald M. Berwick; Jane M. Murphy; Paula A. Goldman; Ware John E. Jr; Arthur J. Barsky; Milton C. Weinstein



SYSTEMS: School-Years Screening Test for the Evaluation of Mental Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the School-Years Screening Test for Evaluation of Mental Status (SYSTEMS). It was designed to be used by neurologists, pediatricians, and other health professionals assessing children with suspected cognitive problems or changes. SYSTEMS was initially based on the adult Mini-Mental State Examination developed by Folstein, Folstein, and McHugh in 1975. SYSTEMS is a 7- to 12-minute, one-on-one interview

Robert Ouvrier; Julie Hendy; Laurel Bornholt; Fiona H. Black



Standardized Mental Status Testing on the Sideline After Sport-Related Concussion  

PubMed Central

Objective: The effects of concussion on mental status are often difficult to assess on routine clinical examination. I investigated the efficacy of standardized mental status testing on the sport sideline to detect abnormalities that result from concussion and provide an objective measure of postinjury cognitive recovery. Design and Setting: All subjects underwent a standardized preseason baseline mental status evaluation. Standardized testing of injured and uninjured control subjects was repeated on the sideline immediately after concussion and 48 hours after injury. Subjects: Sixty-three high school and collegiate football players with concussion and 55 uninjured control subjects were studied. Measurements: The Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) was administered to evaluate neurocognitive functioning and neurologic status. Results: Immediately after concussion, injured subjects performed significantly below preinjury baseline and below uninjured controls on the SAC. Measurable deficits in orientation, concentration, and memory were evident immediately after concussion. A decline in SAC score at time of injury was 95% sensitive and 76% specific in accurately classifying injured and uninjured subjects on the sideline. Injured subjects demonstrated significant improvements in SAC score 48 hours after injury. Conclusions: Standardized mental status testing can be a valuable tool to assist the sports medicine clinician in detecting the immediate effects of concussion on mental status, tracking resolution of immediate postconcussive mental status abnormalities, and making more informed decisions on return to play after injury.



Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor  


A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)



A Comparison of an Achievement Battery with Two Tests of Ability with Educable Mental Retardates. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To find the concurrent validity of two scholastic aptitude tests when a scholastic achievement test was used as a criterion for use in placement of mentally retarded children, 127 subjects were involved. The California Achievement Test (CAT) was used as a criterion measure, and the Primary Mental Abilities test (PMA) and the Slosson Intelligence…

MacKinnon, Ronald C.; Elliott, Charles


Functional Multijoint Position Reproduction Acuity in Overhead-Throwing Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Baseball players rely on the sensorimotor system to uphold the balance between upper extremity stability and mobility while maintaining athletic performance. However, few researchers have studied functional multijoint measures of sensorimotor acuity in overhead-throwing athletes. Objective: To compare sensorimotor acuity between 2 high-demand functional positions and among planes of motion within individual joints and to describe a novel method of measuring sensorimotor function. Design: Single-session, repeated-measures design. Setting: University musculoskeletal research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball players (age = 20.8 ± 1.5 years, height = 181.3 ± 5.1 cm, mass = 87.8 ± 9.1 kg) with no history of upper extremity injury or central nervous system disorder. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured active multijoint position reproduction acuity in multiple planes using an electromagnetic tracking device. Subjects reproduced 2 positions: arm cock and ball release. We calculated absolute and variable error for individual motions at the scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, elbow, and wrist joints and calculated overall joint acuity with 3-dimensional variable error. Results: Acuity was significantly better in the arm-cock position compared with ball release at the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints. We observed significant differences among planes of motion within the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints at ball release. Scapulothoracic internal rotation and glenohumeral horizontal abduction and rotation displayed less acuity than other motions. Conclusions: We established the reliability of a functional measure of upper extremity sensorimotor system acuity in baseball players. Using this technique, we observed differences in acuity between 2 test positions and among planes of motion within the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints. Clinicians may consider these differences when designing and implementing sensorimotor system training. Our error scores are similar in magnitude to those reported using single-joint and single-plane measures. However, 3-dimensional, multijoint measures allow practical, unconstrained test positions and offer additional insight into the upper extremity as a functional unit.

Tripp, Brady L; Uhl, Timothy L; Mattacola, Carl G; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Shapiro, Robert



The Barbee Doll Mentality and the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author suggests that the scoring criteria for the Draw-A-Woman Scale of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test reflect outmoded images and attitudes of the female. The woman-as-sex-object image is called the "Barbee Doll Mentality." This suggestion was tested in a sample of eleven to thirteen-year old sixth graders. The children--44 boys and 62…

Troll, Enid Williams


Teaching Test-Taking Strategies to Improve the Academic Achievement of Students with Mild Mental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of teaching a test-taking strategy to 4 fourth- and fifth-grade students with mild mental disabilities on reading and math achievement. The intervention consisted of a direct and explicit instructional method using a mnemonic strategy. The participants' acquisition and application of the test-taking strategy on…

Kretlow, Allison G.; Lo, Ya-yu; White, Richard B.; Jordan, LuAnn



The Barbee Doll Mentality and the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author suggests that the scoring criteria for the Draw-A-Woman Scale of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test reflect outmoded images and attitudes of the female. The woman-as-sex-object image is called the "Barbee Doll Mentality." This suggestion was tested in a sample of eleven to thirteen-year old sixth graders. The children--44 boys and 62…

Troll, Enid Williams


Comparison between grating acuity measured by visual tracking and preferential looking in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

background The aim of this study was to compare the visual acuity measured by visual tracking and by preferential looking. methods We examined 51 healthy full-term infants between three and 93 days of age. Visual acuity was tested with two different methods. One method was visual tracking (smooth and saccadic pursuit), recorded with an infrared photo-oculographic technique. For stimu- lation

Dora Lengyel; Irene Gottlob



High School Students' Performance on Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test: Art Ability, Gender, Activities, Academic Performance, Strategies, and Ease of Taking the Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether mental rotation performance of 186 high school students (80 males and 106 females) in grades 9 through 12 in art and nonart classes on Vandenbergs Mental Rotations test (S. Vandenberg and Kuse, 1978) was affected by gender, visual-spatial activities, strategies used while performing the test, and the ease of test taking.…

Gurny, Helen Graham


Technology as an Aid in Assessing Visual Acuity in Severely/Profoundly Retarded Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology has been used to measure visual acuity with the severely or profoundly mentally retarded child. The following categories of technology have been used for assessment: the recording of visual fixation within the habituation paradigm; equipment to measure eye movements and pursuits; operant techniques; and electrodiagnostic techniques…

Longo, Julie; And Others



Degraded time-frequency acuity to time-reversed notes.  


Time-reversal symmetry breaking is a key feature of many classes of natural sounds, originating in the physics of sound production. While attention has been paid to the response of the auditory system to "natural stimuli," very few psychophysical tests have been performed. We conduct psychophysical measurements of time-frequency acuity for stylized representations of "natural"-like notes (sharp attack, long decay) and the time-reversed versions of these notes (long attack, sharp decay). Our results demonstrate significantly greater precision, arising from enhanced temporal acuity, for such sounds over their time-reversed versions, without a corresponding decrease in frequency acuity. These data inveigh against models of auditory processing that include tradeoffs between temporal and frequency acuity, at least in the range of notes tested and suggest the existence of statistical priors for notes with a sharp-attack and a long-decay. We are additionally able to calculate a minimal theoretical bound on the sophistication of the nonlinearities in auditory processing. We find that among the best studied classes of nonlinear time-frequency representations, only matching pursuit, spectral derivatives, and reassigned spectrograms are able to satisfy this criterion. PMID:23799012

Oppenheim, Jacob N; Isakov, Pavel; Magnasco, Marcelo O



Five Decades of Public Controversy over Mental Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chronicle of controversies over testing (heredity-environment, experimenter bias, social class bias, tests as sorters for schools and society) and the difficulties that ensue when the scholar enters the arena of public policy. The thesis is offered that the hearing given to social evidence and issues depends on the times and the audience, with…

Cronbach, Lee J.



Mental Testing and the Expansion of Educational Opportunity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the development and uses of various aptitude tests in higher education from the 1920s through the early 1960s. Although seen as a gateway to educational attainment for returning World War II veterans, intelligence testing faced criticism in the early 1960s as a restrictive practice. (MJP)|

Ackerman, Michael



Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.  


Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores. PMID:16060458

Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J



Do-It-Yourself Testing for Mental Illness: Ethical Issues, Concerns, and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do-it-yourself (DIY) testing for various medical problems has existed for some time and is likely here to stay. However, only relatively recently have such tests been targeted toward mental illness. From the point of view of professional psychology, the development and use of DIY tests for psychological disorders raises numerous ethical issues, including lack of in-person counseling, potential for misuse-abuse,

Frederick J. Kier; Victor Molinari



The Elidice: new instrument for visual acuity self-screening.  

PubMed Central

A compact electronic device which enables the user to determine for himself whether his visual acuity reaches a chosen standard has been constructed at a cost of 25 pounds. The instrument provides a test which requires the observer to respond to the orientation of a sequence of red Landolt-Cs and which takes under five minutes to complete. 'Crowding' effects associated with conventional letter charts are avoided and the test does not discriminate against astigmatic observers. One hundred observers were tested on both the new instrument (the Elidice) and a standard Snellen chart under clinical conditions. The overall agreement between the two tests was 87.8%, with the Elidice having an over-referral level of 10-7% and an under-referral level of 1-5% as compared with the letter chart. This makes the Elidice particularly suitable for the regular screening of laser users for reduced visual acuity due to macular damage. Images

Arundale, K.; Faulkner, D. J.; Weale, R. A.



Test Use and Test Reliability in a Curriculum for Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Working Paper Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of selected applications of new tests developed within the context of a large-scale curriculum for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children, the Social Learning Curriculum (SLC), is presented in this paper which investigates three types of reliability that need to be demonstrated in order to provide a basis of these applications. The…

Smith, Leon I.; Greenberg, Sandra


Six just-noticeable differences in retinal image quality in 1 line of visual acuity: Toward quantification of happy versus unhappy patients with 20/20 acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the number of JND's of wavefront blur necessary to induce a one line loss of best corrected visual acuity (VA). Setting Visual Optics Institute, College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA. Methods The 3mm wavefront error of a well corrected average eye was scaled to yield 9 small steps of blur quantified in units of log Visual Strehl (log VS). For each level of log VS, 10 unique three line acuity charts were convolved with the resulting point spread functions. Using a temporal forced choice paradigm, subjects compared each test chart to a reference test chart indicating which chart was blurrier. The difference between 80% and 50% on the psychometric functions defined a JND. VA was measured for 6 log VS values. The number of JND's necessary to lose one line of acuity was defined as the change in log VS necessary to lose one line of acuity divided by the 1 JND in log VS. Results Linear regression revealed log VS = ?2.98 * (logMAR acuity) - 0.31; R2 = 0.961. The average JND in log VS is 0.049 ±0.012 resulting in an average of 6.1 JND's per line of log MAR acuity. Conclusions The RIQ metric, log VS, is highly correlated with logMAR acuity. The 6 JND's in log VS before 1 line of acuity is lost may provide an objective explanation for the distinction between “20/20 happy” and “20/20 unhappy” and other aberration related clinical complaints when acuity is near normal.

Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Applegate, Raymond A.; Shi, Yue; Bedell, Harold E.



Exploring the Flynn Effect in Mentally Retarded Adults by Using a Nonverbal Intelligence Test for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal…

Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.



Construct Validity of the Abbreviated Mental Test in Older Medical Inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate validity and internal structure of the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT), and to assess the dependence of the internal structure upon the characteristics of the patients examined. Design: Cross-sectional examination using data from the Italian Group of Pharmacoepidemiology in the Elderly (GIFA) database. Setting: Twenty-four acute care wards of Geriatrics or General Medicine. Participants: Two thousand eight hundred

R. Antonelli Incalzi; M. Cesari; C. Pedone; L. Carosella; P. U. Carbonin



Validation of Cardiovascular Fitness Field Tests in Children with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The validity of the 600-yard walk/run, the 20-meter shuttle run, and a modified 16-meter shuttle run was determined to measure aerobic capacity (VO2peak) in 34 children with mental retardation (ages 10-17). All field tests were found to be very reliable, and VO2peak was significantly related to them all. (Author/CR)|

Fernhall, Bo; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Vukovich, Matthew D.; Stubbs, Nancy; Hensen, Terri; Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.



Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form Am) is a valid instrument for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Descriptive information for the validation sample is given to facili tate the use of the conversion table developed in the cross- validation analysis by adult education researchers and evaluators.

Arden Grotelueschen; Duncan McQuarrie



Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.



Night vision in barn owls: visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under dark adaptation.  


Barn owls are effective nocturnal predators. We tested their visual performance at low light levels and determined visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of three barn owls by their behavior at stimulus luminances ranging from photopic to fully scotopic levels (23.5 to 1.5 × 10??). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity decreased only slightly from photopic to scotopic conditions. Peak grating acuity was at mesopic (4 × 10?² cd/m²) conditions. Barn owls retained a quarter of their maximal acuity when luminance decreased by 5.5 log units. We argue that the visual system of barn owls is designed to yield as much visual acuity under low light conditions as possible, thereby sacrificing resolution at photopic conditions. PMID:23220576

Orlowski, Julius; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann



Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura


The role of personality factors and suggestion in placebo effect during mental stress test.  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were first of all to document a placebo effect on systolic blood pressure and heart rate during mental arithmetic induced stress and secondly to assess the role of suggestion in producing this effect. Two types of placebo were used, a simple placebo and a placebo with an implied therapeutic action. Both were compared with alprazolam. A placebo response was seen in just over half of the volunteers when the cardiovascular changes to mental arithmetic induced stress in healthy volunteers were measured. This response appeared to be unaffected by the suggested therapeutic effect. Dominant, independent subjects, identified using the Cattell 16 PF personality test were less likely to respond to placebo. Alprazolam (0.5 mg) did not prevent, to a significantly greater degree than placebo, the systolic blood pressure or heart rate increases provoked by the mental stress.

McCann, C C; Goldfarb, B; Frisk, M; Quera-Salva, M A; Meyer, P



Visual Acuity Performance of Normal and Chronic Focal-Head Irradiated Monkeys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monkeys were tested on each of eight visual acuity problems presented in order of increasing difficulty. The results of the study reflected differences between chronic focal-head irradiated monkeys and normal monkeys with respect to performance on these p...

A. A. McDowell W. L. Brown



Retention of high tactile acuity throughout the life span in blindness.  


Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip, using passive touch, have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have reexamined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts that require active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to braille, and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind braille readers and sighted subjects ranging from 12 to 85 years old were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age-related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age, showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the life span. PMID:19064491

Legge, Gordon E; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N; Cheong, Allen M Y; Miller, Joseph C



The Draw-an-Environment Test Rubric (DAET-R): Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of drawings as representations of personal mental models or images is one method of analyzing personal beliefs. This article discusses the development of the Draw-An-Environment Test and Rubric (DAET-R) for assessing the mental models or images of the environment held by pre-service teachers. It also provides results of preliminary…

Moseley, Christine; Desjean-Perrotta, Blanche; Utley, Julianna



The Draw-an-Environment Test Rubric (DAET-R): Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of drawings as representations of personal mental models or images is one method of analyzing personal beliefs. This article discusses the development of the Draw-An-Environment Test and Rubric (DAET-R) for assessing the mental models or images of the environment held by pre-service teachers. It also provides results of preliminary…

Moseley, Christine; Desjean-Perrotta, Blanche; Utley, Julianna



Falsifying mental models: Testing the predictions of theories of syllogistic reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments are reported that tested the claim, drawn from mental models theory, that reasoners attempt to construct\\u000a alternative representations of problems that might falsify preliminary conclusions they have drawn. In Experiment 1, participants\\u000a were asked to indicate which alternative conclusion( s) they had considered in a syllogistic reasoning task. In Experiments\\u000a 2–4, participants were asked to draw diagrams consistent

Stephen E. Newstead; Simon J. Handley; Ed Buck



Sex Differences on the Mental Rotation Test: An Analysis of Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Replicating a finding now common in the literature, the present study revealed a significant difference between the performance of men (M = 19.66; SD = 5.34; SK = 0.52) and the performance of women (M = 14.85; SD = 6.06; SK = -0.38, Cohen's d = 0.90) on the Mental Rotation Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978). In an attempt to identify determinants of…

Bors, Douglas A.; Vigneau, Francois



Vernier step acuity and bisection acuity for texture-defined form.  


Using as the stimulus a texture pattern of short lines, we compared positional acuity thresholds for an orientation-texture-defined (OTD) boundary and a luminance-defined (LD) boundary. Texture lines had different orientations but the same luminance on either side of the OTD boundary, and different luminances but the same orientation on either side of the LD boundary. For the LD boundary, both vernier step acuity threshold and bisection acuity threshold were inversely proportional to the number of texture lines per degree (i.e., the pattern's spatial sampling frequency) over the entire 1.9-59 samples/deg frequency range investigated, though thresholds were considerably lower than the distance between adjacent lines. For the OTD boundary, both thresholds were inversely proportional to spatial sampling frequency (though thresholds were again considerably less than the distance between adjacent lines) but only for sampling frequencies below 20 samples/deg. For sampling frequencies below 20 samples/deg, the ratio between positional acuity thresholds for OTD and LD boundaries was approximately constant (3.5:1 for vernier acuity and 1.4:1 for bisection acuity). As sampling frequency was increased beyond 20 samples/deg both vernier and bisection acuity thresholds for OTD boundaries rose steeply. Both thresholds fell to a minimum near 20 samples/deg. For vernier step acuity the minimum threshold was 2.3 and 2.4 min arc (two observers), and for bisection acuity 1.7 and 1.9 min arc. We propose that these minimum thresholds approach a physiological limit of positional acuity for an OTD boundary, and that the limit is determined by a balance between the progressive improvement of positional acuity caused by increasing the frequency of spatial sampling vs the progressive reduction in visibility of the OTD boundary caused by the associated reduction in the length of texture lines. These physiological limits are far higher than the corresponding limits for sharp-edged high-contrast LD targets (2-5 and 1-5 sec arc, respectively). For an OTD boundary the effect of orientation contrast on vernier step acuity threshold approximated a square root law, while the effect of orientation contrast on bisection acuity approximated a linear law. Observers can combine positional information carried by texture contrast with positional information carried by luminance contrast. As to the combination rule, our findings are consistent with probability summation between independent channels. PMID:9274758

Gray, R; Regan, D



Why Preoperative Acuity Predicts Postoperative Acuity in Wavefront-Guided LASIK  

PubMed Central

Purpose To critically evaluate the following clinical wisdom regarding custom (wavefront-guided) laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK): that individuals with better-than-average best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before surgery have a greater risk of losing BCVA postoperatively than do individuals with worse-than-average BCVA before surgery. Methods High contrast BCVA was measured once before and 3 months after custom LASIK in one eye of 79 individuals. Preoperative spherical equivalent refractive error ranged between ?1.00 and ?10.38 D. The sample was divided into one of two subsamples: eyes that had better-than-average preoperative BCVA (< ?0.11 logMAR) and eyes that had average or worse-than-average preoperative BCVA (? ?0.11 logMAR). Controls were implemented for retinal magnification and for the statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean of the preoperative acuity measurement. Results On average for the entire sample, moving the correction from the spectacle plane to the corneal plane increased letter acuity 4.7% (1 letter, 0.02 logMAR). For each subsample, the percentage regression to the mean was 57.24%. After correcting for magnification effects and regression to the mean, eyes with better-than-average preoperative acuity had a small but significant gain in acuity (~1 letter, p = 0.040) that was nearly identical to the gain for eyes with worse-than-average preoperative acuity (~1.5 letters, p = 0.002). Conclusions Custom LASIK produced a statistically significant gain in visual acuity after correction for magnification effects. Dividing the sample into two subsamples based on preoperative acuity confirmed the common clinical observation that eyes with better-than-average acuity tend to stay the same or lose acuity whereas eyes with worse-than-average acuity tend to gain acuity. However, when only one acuity measurement is taken at a single time point and the sample is subsampled nonrandomly, this clinical observation is due to a statistical artifact (regression to the mean) and is not attributable to the surgery.

Aaron, Michelle T.; Applegate, Raymond A.; Porter, Jason; Thibos, Larry N.; Schallhorn, Steve C.; Brunstetter, Tyson J.; Tanzer, David J.



The Nursing Home Minimum Data Set for Vision and Its Association with Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the association between the Minimum Data Set's (MDS) Vision Patterns section and near and distance visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in nursing home residents. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Seventeen nursing homes in the Birmingham, Alabama area. Participants 371 nursing home residents ? 55 years old with Mini-mental State Exams of ? 13. Measurements The MDS 2.0 assessment for vision from the date closest to acuity and contrast sensitivity assessment was obtained from the resident's medical record. Acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured by the ETDRS chart and Pelli-Robson chart, respectively. Results The MDS rating of visual status was associated with both distance and near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The MDS performed poorly in distinguishing residents with mild versus moderate visual impairment. For residents who were rated on the MDS as having adequate vision, 45.9% had distance acuity worse than 20/40 in the better eye, 72.8% had near acuity worse than 20/40 in the better eye, and 85.8% had contrast sensitivity < 1.50. Conclusion The MDS 2.0 assessment for vision in nursing home residents is positively associated with visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, but does not adequately distinguish between individuals with mild versus moderate visual impairment and classifies many as having adequate vision who have visual impairment. The validity of the MDS 2.0 as a mechanism for triggering comprehensive eye care for nursing home residents is questionable.

Swanson, Mark W.; McGwin, Gerald; Elliott, Amanda F.; Owsley, Cynthia



Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System \\/VARVS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS) is described. The system does not necessitate a large bandwidth in order to generate a large field of view at eye-limited resolution. A remote viewing link with a field of view of 160 degrees at a 4-MHz bandwidth is supported by an extreme aspheric foveal sensor and projection lens. A demonstration model has

G. Licis



Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems During Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models—The TRAILS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and\\/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents (M age = 11.09, SD = 0.56 at the initial assessment). Childhood family instability was associated with both internalizing problems and externalizing problems

Martin P. Bakker; Johan Ormel; Frank C. Verhulst; Albertine J. Oldehinkel



Androgens and eye movements in women and men during a test of mental rotation ability.  


Eye movements were monitored in 16 women and 20 men during completion of a standard diagram-based test of mental rotation ability to provide measures of cognitive function not requiring conscious, decisional processes. Overall, women and men allocated visual attention during task performance in very similar, systematic ways. However, consistent with previous suggestions that sex differences in attentional processes during completion of the mental rotation task may exist, eye movements in men compared to women indicated greater discrimination and longer processing of correct alternatives during task performance. Other findings suggested that androgens may enhance cognitive processes that are recruited differentially by women and men as a function of the task. Specifically, smaller (i.e., more masculine) digit ratios were associated with men's shorter fixations on distracters, suggesting that perinatal androgen action may influence brain systems that facilitate the identification of relevant task stimuli. In women, higher circulating testosterone levels appeared to contribute to more general processes engaged during task performance, for example higher levels of visual persistence. It is possible that variability in the relative contribution of such hormone sensitive cognitive processes to accuracy scores as a function of different sample characteristics or assessment methods may partially account for the inconsistent findings of previous research on hormonal factors in mental rotation ability. PMID:17509595

Alexander, Gerianne M; Son, Troy



Androgens and eye movements in women and men during a test of mental rotation ability  

PubMed Central

Eye movements were monitored in 16 women and 20 men during completion of a standard diagram-based test of mental rotation ability to provide measures of cognitive function not requiring conscious, decisional processes. Overall, women and men allocated visual attention during task performance in very similar, systematic ways. However, consistent with previous suggestions that sex differences in attentional processes during completion of the mental rotation task may exist, eye movements in men compared to women indicated greater discrimination and longer processing of correct alternatives during task performance. Other findings suggested that androgens may enhance cognitive processes that are recruited differentially by women and men as a function of the task. Specifically, smaller (i.e., more masculine) digit ratios were associated with men’s shorter fixations on distracters, suggesting that perinatal androgen action may influence brain systems that facilitate the identification of relevant task stimuli. In women, higher circulating testosterone levels appeared to contribute to more general processes engaged during task performance, for example higher levels of visual persistence. It is possible that variability in the relative contribution of such hormone sensitive cognitive processes to accuracy scores as a function of different sample characteristics or assessment methods may partially account for the inconsistent findings of previous research on hormonal factors in mental rotation ability.

Alexander, Gerianne M.; Son, Troy



First steps in the development of a psychological test on the effects of food on mental well-being.  


How do you feel after drinking milk or soy milk? The aim of this preliminary study was to find out if it is possible to measure the psychological effects of staple food items using a consumer test (according to DIN 10974), assessing the mental state of the participants. Results of two tests with dairy products and non-dairy milk substitutes, two vegetable tests, and two tests with bakery products are presented and discussed in the context of the further development of a standardized and validated test to measure the effects of food on the human mental state. PMID:22696447

Geier, Uwe; Hermann, Ina; Mittag, Kathrin; Buchecker, Kirsten



Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions.  


Amblyopic vision is thought to be limited by abnormal long-range spatial interactions, but their exact mode of action and relationship to the main amblyopic deficit in visual acuity is largely unknown. We studied this relationship in a group (N=59) of anisometropic (N=21) and strabismic (or combined, N=38) subjects, using (1) a single and multi-pattern (crowded) computerized static Tumbling-E test with scaled spacing of two pattern widths (TeVA), in addition to an optotype (ETDRS chart) acuity test (VA) and (2) contrast detection of Gabor patches with lateral flankers (lateral masking) along the horizontal and vertical axes as well as in collinear and parallel configurations. By correlating the different measures of visual acuity and contrast suppression, we found that (1) the VA of the strabismic subjects could be decomposed into two uncorrelated components measured in TeVA: acuity for isolated patterns and acuity reduction due to flanking patterns. The latter comprised over 60% of the VA magnitude, on the average and accounted for over 50% of its variance. In contrast, a slight reduction in acuity was found in the anisometropic subjects, and the acuity for a single pattern could account for 70% of the VA variance. (2) The lateral suppression (contrast threshold elevation) in a parallel configuration along the horizontal axis was correlated with the VA (R2=0.7), as well as with the crowding effect (TeVA elevation, R2=0.5) for the strabismic group. Some correlation with the VA was also found for the collinear configuration in the anisometropic group, but less suppression and no correlation were found for all the vertical configurations in all the groups. The results indicate the existence of a specific non-local component of the strabismic deficit, in addition to the local acuity deficit in all amblyopia types. This deficit might reflect long-range lateral inhibition, or alternatively, an inaccurate and scattered top-down attentional selection mechanism. PMID:15482798

Bonneh, Yoram S; Sagi, Dov; Polat, Uri



Implementing an obstetric triage acuity scale: interrater reliability and patient flow analysis.  


A 5-category Obstetric Triage Acuity Scale (OTAS) was developed with a comprehensive set of obstetrical determinants. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to test the interrater reliability of OTAS and (2) to determine the distribution of patient acuity and flow by OTAS level. To test the interrater reliability, 110 triage charts were used to generate vignettes and the consistency of the OTAS level assigned by 8 triage nurses was measured. OTAS performed with substantial (Kappa, 0.61 - 0.77, OTAS 1-4) and near perfect correlation (0.87, OTAS 5). To assess patient flow, the times to primary and secondary health care provider assessments and lengths of stay stratified by acuity were abstracted from the patient management system. Two-thirds of triage visits were low acuity (OTAS 4, 5). There was a decrease in length of stay (median [interquartile range], minutes) as acuity decreased from OTAS 1 (120.0 [156.0] minutes) to OTAS 3 (75.0 [120.8]). The major contributor to length of stay was time to secondary health care provider assessment and this did not change with acuity. The percentage of patients admitted to the antenatal or birthing unit decreased from 80% (OTAS 1) to 12% (OTAS 5). OTAS provides a reliable assessment of acuity and its implementation has allowed for triaging of obstetric patients based on acuity, and a more in-depth assessment of the patient flow. By standardizing assessment, OTAS allows for opportunities to improve performance and make comparisons of patient care and flow across organizations. PMID:23535239

Smithson, David S; Twohey, Rachel; Rice, Tim; Watts, Nancy; Fernandes, Christopher M; Gratton, Robert J



Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.  


Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups. PMID:21427270

Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee



Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about

Kaja K Aas; Kristian Tambs; Marit S Kise; Per Magnus; Kjersti S Rønningen



The A-Test: A Symptom Validity Indicator Embedded Within a Mental Status Examination for Social Security Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability evaluations, there is a need for symptom validity measures to validate the findings for claims of disability (Chafetz, 2010). The “A” Random Letter Test of Auditory Vigilance (A-Test) is a simple auditory continuous performance test utilized as part of a comprehensive mental status examination (Strub & Black, 1993). The present

Michael D. Chafetz



'A Mental Test for Every Child': The Use of Intelligence Tests in Progressive School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay shows that the adoption of intelligence tests by the schools was a complex development. Tests were adopted during the 1920s as part of the reform program fashioned by the network of applied psychologists and school people. While the network itself often viewed testing as a means to improve the schools and society, immigrants and blacks…

Chapman, Paul Davis


Defining Lactation Acuity to Improve Patient Safety and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While substantial evidence exists identifying risks factors associated with premature weaning from breastfeeding, there are no previously published definitions of patient acuity in the lactation field. This article defines evidence-based levels of lactation acuity based on maternal and infant characteristics. Patient acuity, matching severity of illness to intensity of care required, is an important determinant of patient safety and outcomes.

Rebecca Mannel



Attitudes towards mental illness: testing the contact hypothesis among Chinese student nurses in Hong Kong.  


This study investigated whether previous contact with mental illness affected the attitudes to mental illness (AMI) of general student nurses in Hong Kong-the contact hypothesis. We employed a quasi-experimental design. We compared the attitudes to mental illness of students who had previous contact with mental illness through having taken a psychiatric secondment with those who had not taken a psychiatric secondment. Also, we compared the AMI of: students who had taken other courses related to mental illness with those who had not; those who had a family history of mental illness with those who had not; and those who lived with a mentally ill relative with those who did not. We found that previous contact with mental illness had no significant effect on the attitudes to mental illness of the students. In other words our findings do not support the contact hypothesis. Our sample expressed positive general attitudes to mental illness when presented with general issues about mental illness. However, their attitudes were less positive when presented with specific issues about mental illness that might impinge upon their daily lives. We discuss the implications of these findings for mental health nursing practice, education and research. PMID:9231275

Callaghan, P; Shan, C S; Yu, L S; Ching, L W; Kwan, T L



Factor structure and validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in a sample of mentally disordered offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the factor structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) have produced conflicting results. The current study assessed the factor structure of the AUDIT for a group of Mentally Disordered Offenders (MDOs) and examined the pattern of scoring in specific subgroups. The sample comprised 2005 MDOs who completed a battery of tests including the AUDIT. Confirmatory factor

Patrick Hallinan; Sinead McGilloway; Martin Dempster; Michael Donnelly



Modeling acuity for optotypes varying in complexity.  


Watson and Ahumada (2008) described a template model of visual acuity based on an ideal-observer limited by optical filtering, neural filtering, and noise. They computed predictions for selected optotypes and optical aberrations. Here we compare this model's predictions to acuity data for six human observers, each viewing seven different optotype sets, consisting of one set of Sloan letters and six sets of Chinese characters, differing in complexity (Zhang, Zhang, Xue, Liu, & Yu, 2007). Since optical aberrations for the six observers were unknown, we constructed 200 model observers using aberrations collected from 200 normal human eyes (Thibos, Hong, Bradley, & Cheng, 2002). For each condition (observer, optotype set, model observer) we estimated the model noise required to match the data. Expressed as efficiency, performance for Chinese characters was 1.4 to 2.7 times lower than for Sloan letters. Efficiency was weakly and inversely related to perimetric complexity of optotype set. We also compared confusion matrices for human and model observers. Correlations for off-diagonal elements ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 for different sets, and the average correlation for the template model was superior to a geometrical moment model with a comparable number of parameters (Liu, Klein, Xue, Zhang, & Yu, 2009). The template model performed well overall. Estimated psychometric function slopes matched the data, and noise estimates agreed roughly with those obtained independently from contrast sensitivity to Gabor targets. For optotypes of low complexity, the model accurately predicted relative performance. This suggests the model may be used to compare acuities measured with different sets of simple optotypes. PMID:23024356

Watson, Andrew B; Ahumada, Albert J



Community mental health services for ethnic minority groups: a test of the cultural responsiveness hypothesis.  


This study investigated services received, length of treatment, and outcomes of thousands of Asian-American, African-American, Mexican-American, and White clients using outpatient services in the Los Angeles County mental health system. It tested the hypothesis that therapist-client matches in ethnicity and language are beneficial to clients. Results indicate that Asian Americans and Mexican Americans underutilized, whereas African Americans overutilized, services. African Americans also exhibited less positive treatment outcomes. Furthermore, ethnic match was related to length of treatment for all groups. It was associated with treatment outcomes for Mexican Americans. Among clients who did not speak English as a primary language, ethnic and language match was a predictor of length and outcome of treatment. Thus, the cultural responsiveness hypothesis was partially supported. PMID:1918557

Sue, S; Fujino, D C; Hu, L T; Takeuchi, D T; Zane, N W



The Effects of Parvocellular Lateral Geniculate Lesions on the Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity of Macaque Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ablating the visual pathway that passes through the parvocellular (dorsal) LGN were tested in 2 macaque monkeys by measuring acuity and both luminance and chro- matic contrast sensitivity. Thresholds were tested monoc- ularly before and after ibotenic acid was used to lesion par- vocellular layers 4 and 6 of the contralateral geniculate. The injections were centered at

William H. Merigan; Laurence M. Katz; John H. Ft. MaunselF



Evaluation of vestibular and dynamic visual acuity in adults with congenital deafness.  


This study compared vestibular and dynamic visual acuity in 19 adult athletes with deafness participating in Deaflympics to those of 25 young adults with normal hearing. Balance capability was evaluated using a one-leg standing test with eyes open and stabilometry. Caloric tests and vestibular evoked myogenic potential tests were conducted to test vestibular function. Visual function was evaluated using a dynamic visual acuity test. No significant difference was found between results of the one-leg standing test with eyes open and stabilometry with eyes open. Athletes with deafness performed better than normal hearing young adults with eyes closed. The caloric test indicated hypofunction of the lateral semicircular canal function in 5 of the 19 athletes with deafness. Balance-function tests showed normal results for both groups. The results for athletes with deafness on visual acuity were better than those of controls. Young Deaflympics athletes with deafness can adjust their balance function as well as or better than normal hearing young adults using dynamic visual acuity. PMID:23265013

Nakajima, Yukinori; Kaga, Kimitaka; Takekoshi, Hideki; Sakuraba, Keisyoku



Defining lactation acuity to improve patient safety and outcomes.  


While substantial evidence exists identifying risks factors associated with premature weaning from breastfeeding, there are no previously published definitions of patient acuity in the lactation field. This article defines evidence-based levels of lactation acuity based on maternal and infant characteristics. Patient acuity, matching severity of illness to intensity of care required, is an important determinant of patient safety and outcomes. It is often used as part of a patient classification system to determine staffing needs and acceptable workloads in health care settings. As acuity increases, more resources, including more skilled clinicians, are needed to provide optimal care. Developing an evidence-based definition of lactation acuity can help to standardize terminology, more effectively distribute health care staff resources, encourage research to verify the validity and reliability of lactation acuity, and potentially improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates. PMID:21527797

Mannel, Rebecca



Visual acuity of snapper Pagrus auratus: effect of size and spectral composition.  


Visual acuity of the commercially important sparid Pagrus auratus was tested using the optomotor response. Juvenile fish were categorized by size as group 1 (50 g), group 2 (100 g), group 3 (150 g), group 4 (300 g), group 5 (500 g) and group 6 (800 g). Group 3 fish demonstrated excellent visual acuity (minimum separable angle, M(SA), 1°), which was improved compared with the smaller fish groups (groups 1 and 2, M(SA), 2°). In the larger fish groups, however, a reduction in visual acuity was observed (groups 4, 5 and 6 M(SA), 4°). Group 2 (100 g) fish displayed positive optomotor responses in long wavelength light (red) but reduced responses in short wavelengths (blue). Red light sensitivity is beneficial for the estuarine lifestyle of these fish, where light is predominantly at long wavelengths. In contrast, group 6 (800 g) fish displayed improved acuity in blue and green light and reduced acuity in red light. Fish of this size move away from the estuary to open oceans, where light is predominantly in the shorter wavelengths (blue-green). These results support the sensitivity hypothesis for the relationship between fish visual systems and the light environment they inhabit. PMID:22141893

Robinson, E; Jerrett, A R; Black, S E; Davison, W



Further Analysis of the Structure of the Revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities for Moderately Mentally Retarded Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two separate studies involving 98 and 59 moderately mentally retarded children (mean ages 12 and 11 years), factor analyses of the Revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) were performed to determine if the subtests corresponded to the theoretical model of communication channels, processes, and levels. In the first study, raw…

Leong, C. K.


Acuity of auditory images in pitch and time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the pitch and temporal acuity of auditory expectations\\/images formed under attentionalcuing and imagery task conditions,\\u000a in order to address whether auditory expectations and auditory images are functionally equivalent. Across three experiments,\\u000a we observed that pitch acuity was comparable between the two task conditions, whereas temporal acuity deteriorated in the\\u000a imagery task. A fourth experiment indicated that the observed

Petr Janata; Kaivon Paroo



Visual acuity in the cathemeral strepsirrhine Eulemur macaco flavifrons.  


Studies of visual acuity in primates have shown that diurnal haplorhines have higher acuity (30-75 cycles per degree (c/deg)) than most other mammals. However, relatively little is known about visual acuity in non-haplorhine primates, and published estimates are only available for four strepsirrhine genera (Microcebus, Otolemur, Galago, and Lemur). We present here the first measurements of visual acuity in a cathemeral strepsirrhine species, the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). Acuity in two subjects, a 3-year-old male and a 16-year-old female, was assessed behaviorally using a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task. Visual stimuli consisted of high contrast square wave gratings of seven spatial frequencies. Acuity threshold was determined using a 70% correct response criterion. Results indicate a maximum visual acuity of 5.1 c/deg for the female (1718 trials) and 3.8 c/deg for the male (846 trials). These values for E. macaco are slightly lower than those reported for diurnal Lemur catta, and are generally comparable to those reported for nocturnal Microcebus murinus and Otolemur crassicaudatus. To examine ecological sources of variation in primate visual acuity, we also calculated maximum theoretical acuity for Cheirogaleus medius (2.8 c/deg) and Tarsius syrichta (8.9 c/deg) using published data on retinal ganglion cell density and eye morphology. These data suggest that visual acuity in primates may be influenced by activity pattern, diet, and phylogenetic history. In particular, the relatively high acuity of T. syrichta and Galago senegalensis suggests that visual predation may be an important selective factor favoring high visual acuity in primates. PMID:19180555

Veilleux, Carrie C; Kirk, E Christopher



Metrics of Retinal Image Quality Predict Visual Performance in Eyes With 20/17 or Better Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of single-value metrics of retinal image quality of the eye to predict visual performance as measured by high (HC) and low (LC) -contrast acuity at photopic (P) and mesopic (M) light levels in eyes with 20/17 and better visual acuity. Methods. Forty-nine normal subjects in good health ranging in age from 21.8 to 62.6 with 20/17 or better monocular high-contrast logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) acuity served as subjects. Wavefront error through the 10th Zernike radial order over a 7-mm pupil was measured on each test eye using a custom-built Shack/Hartmann wavefront sensor. For each eye, 31 different single-value retinal image quality metrics were calculated. Visual acuity was measured using HC (95%) and LC (11%) logMAR at photopic (270 cd/m2) and mesopic (0.75 cd/m2) light levels. To determine the ability of each metric of retinal image quality to predict each type of logMAR acuity (P HC, P LC, M HC, and M LC), each acuity measure was regressed against each optical quality metric. Results. The ability of the metrics of retinal image quality to predict logMAR acuity improved as luminance and/or contrast is lowered. The best retinal image quality metric (logPFSc) accounted for 2.6%, 15.1%, 27.6%, and 40.0% of the variance in P HC, P LC, M HC, and M LC logMAR acuity, respectively. Conclusions. In eyes with 20/17 and better P HC acuity, P HC logMAR acuity is insensitive to variations in retinal image quality compared with M LC logMAR acuity. Retinal image quality becomes increasingly predictive of logMAR acuity as contrast and/or luminance is decreased. Everyday life requires individuals to function over a large range of contrast and luminance levels. Clinically, the impact of retinal image quality as a function of luminance and contrast is readily measurable in a time-efficient manner with M LC logMAR acuity charts.




Differentiating the behavioural profile in autism and mental retardation and testing of a screener  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to differentiate the behavioural profiles in autism and mental retardation and to cross-validate a behavioural autism screen, 84 subjects with autism (64 males and 20 females) with a mean age of 10 years selected from a Swiss national survey were compared to a control group of 84 subjects matched by age and gender with mental retardation, but without

Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Christa Winkler Metzke



Community Mental Health Services for Hispanics: A Test of the Culture Compatibility Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported repeatedly thatHispanics underuse available mental health services because those services were not compatible with Hispanic culture. Data collected and presented in an earlier study were further analyzed to determine whetherHispanic clients remained in treatment longer if they were served by Hispanic staffandlor at an Hispanic community mental health center. These clients were found to have lower

Michael J. OSullivan; Bethsabe Lasso



Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly



Testing a cascade model of linkage between child abuse and negative mental health among battered women in Japan.  


This study examined the following hypotheses: (1) a child abuse history (CAH), domestic violence (DV), and child abuse by an intimate partner might have a crucial and specific influence but act differently on women's negative mental health; (2) CAH, DV, child abuse by an intimate partner, and negative mental health might be predictors of maternal child abuse, with complex interactions. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of mothers (N=304) and their children (N=498) staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV experiences, along with their current mental health problems, including dissociated, depressed, and traumatic symptoms. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was adapted to test whether a complex theoretical model fits the actual relationship among a set of observed measures. Our model confirmed the linkage with broader aspects of violence within the family such as CAH and DV, focusing on women's mental health problems reported by them. In addition, CAH, DV, child abuse by intimate partner, and maternal mental health might have a crucial and specific but act influence on maternal child abuse. PMID:23466104

Matsuura, Naomi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko



Assessing mental flexibility: neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of the Trail Making Test in elderly people.  


The Trail Making Test part B (TMT-B) is highly sensitive to age-related changes in the brain and cognitive function. However, the precise contribution of periventricular hyperintensities (PVH), deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH), and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) to task performance remains unspecified. Similarly, diminished performance may be due to deficient flexibility functions, but also to other age-related cognitive decline (e.g., mental slowing). The aim of the present study was to determine neuroanatomical (PVH, DWMH, MTA) and neuropsychological (working memory, executive function, speed and attention, episodic memory) predictors of TMT-B performance in elderly people. Results showed that MTA was the strongest predictor of TMT-B performance. The predictive value of the neuropsychological scores differed among the various TMT-B variables. For example, all neuropsychological domains predicted the TMT-B total completion time, whereas only executive function predicted the ratio score (TMT-B/A). We conclude that MTA is a very important predictor of TMT-B performance in elderly people. Furthermore, multiple cognitive functions are involved in TMT-B performance and a mild decline in any of these functions may result in diminished TMT-B performance. Therefore it is crucial to use the ratio score when one wishes to examine executive function ability. PMID:20162494

Oosterman, Joukje M; Vogels, Raymond L C; van Harten, Barbera; Gouw, Alida A; Poggesi, Anna; Scheltens, Philip; Kessels, Roy P C; Scherder, Erik J A



Human cortical magnification factor and its relation to visual acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnification factor (M) of the retina is the linear extent of visual striate cortex to which each degree of the retina projects. It has been suggested that magnification factor is directly proportional to visual acuity, but magnification factor measured in monkeys was compared with visual acuity in man. Here we first describe calculation of the magnification factor in man,

A. Cowey; E. T. Rolls



Retinal stretching limits peripheral visual acuity in myopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axial elongation of the myopic eye has the potential to stretch the retina, thereby reducing the sampling density of retinal neurons. Resolution acuity in the peripheral field of normal eyes is known to be sampling-limited, which suggests that retinal stretching in the myopic eye should have a direct effect on resolution acuity everywhere in the visual field except perhaps the

Toco Y. P. Chui; Maurice K. H. Yap; Henry H. L. Chan; Larry N. Thibos



Screening with the FMR1 protein test among mentally retarded males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fragile X syndrome is characterized by X-linked mental retardation with additional features such as a long face with\\u000a large protruding ears, macroorchidism, and eye-gaze avoidance. The disorder is caused by an abnormally expanded CGG repeat\\u000a within the first exon of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene that is associated with shutdown of transcription and absence of the fragile

Bert B. A. de Vries; Serieta Mohkamsing; Ans M. W. van den Ouweland; Dicky J. J. Halley; Martinus F. Niermeijer; Ben A. Oostra; Rob Willemsen




Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 43 publications on tests. The publications of J. R. Angell, W. B. Pillsburg, C. E. Seashore, R. S. Woodworth and F. L. Wells, and R. M. Yerkes and J. B. Watson, presented development of methods of testing single mental processes. The second group of tests dealing with single or groups of mental processes for determining their value as methods

Frank N. Freeman



Visual acuity in pelagic fishes and mollusks.  


In the sea, visual scenes change dramatically with depth. At shallow and moderate depths (<1000m), there is enough light for animals to see the surfaces and shapes of prey, predators, and conspecifics. This changes below 1000m, where no downwelling daylight remains and the only source of light is bioluminescence. These different visual scenes require different visual adaptations and eye morphologies. In this study we investigate how the optical characteristics of animal lenses correlate with depth and ecology. We measured the radius, focal length, and optical quality of the lenses of pelagic fishes, cephalopods, and a gastropod using a custom-built apparatus. The hatchetfishes (Argyropelecus aculeatus and Sternoptyx diaphana) and the barrel-eye (Opisthoproctus soleatus) were found to have the best lenses, which may allow them to break the counterillumination camouflage of their prey. The heteropod lens had unidirectional aberrations that matched its ribbon-shaped retina. We also found that lens angular resolution increased with depth. Due to a similar trend in the angular separation between adjacent ganglion cells in the retinas of fishes, the perceived visual contrast at the retinal cutoff frequency was constant with depth. The increase in acuity with depth allows the predators to focus all the available light bioluminescent prey animals emit and detect their next meal. PMID:23998988

Gagnon, Yakir L; Sutton, Tracey T; Johnsen, Sönke



Diagnosis and Administrative Interventions for Students with Mental Retardation in Australia, France, United States, and Zimbabwe 98 Years after Binet's First Intelligence Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes some prevailing policies and practices important to the assessment of mental retardation in Australia, France, the United States, and Zimbabwe. Discusses international standards for diagnosis and classification of mental disorders and cross-national similarities and differences. Also discusses implications for test development. (SLD)

Oakland, Thomas; Mpofu, Elias; Glasgow, Ken; Jumel, Bernard



Motor Testing at 1 Year Improves the Prediction of Motor and Mental Outcome at 2 Years after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) in 32 surviving children (20 males, 12…

van Schie, Petra Em; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Barkhof, Frederik; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen



Malingering or simulation in ophthalmology-visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of OCT (optical coherence tomography), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology.

Incesu, Ali Ihsan; Sobac?, Gungor



Effects of retinal eccentricity and acuity on global motion processing  

PubMed Central

The present study assessed direction discrimination of moving random dot cinematograms (RDCs) at retinal eccentricities of 0, 8, 22 and 40 deg. In addition, Landolt C acuity was assessed at these eccentricities to determine whether changes in motion discrimination performance covaried with acuity in the retinal periphery. The results of the experiment indicated that discrimination thresholds increased with retinal eccentricity and directional variance (noise) independent of acuity. Psychophysical modeling indicated that the results of eccentricity and noise could be explained by an increase in channel bandwidth and an increase in internal multiplicative noise.

Bower, Jeffrey D.; Bian, Zheng; Andersen, George J.



[Visually evoked potentials and visual acuity of the young child].  


Interest in the development of visual acuity in young infants is increasing. At this age a reliable estimation of visual function is hazardous. This paper highlights the role of flash- and pattern evoked visual potentials. Flash evoked potentials are valuable in following development and/or recovery of visual acuity intra-individually as well as in providing an estimation of sensitiveness to light. Pattern evoked potentials may give an estimation of maturation of the visual system: these potentials also give an objective measurement of visual acuity. PMID:2799799

van Nieuwenhuizen, O



Age-dependent changes in visual acuity and retinal morphology in pigeons.  


The visual acuities of 17 pigeons that ranged in age from 2 to 17 years were tested with high-contrast, square-wave gratings. A systematic decline in visual acuity was observed that was well described by a logarithmic function. Pupillary diameter also declined with age, which decreased retinal illumination, but increased depth of focus. A small amount of presbyopia also was observed. Both the decrease in retinal illumination and the presbyopia accounted for only a trivial proportion of the acuity loss. No relationship between corneal or lenticular density and age was observed. Ophthalmoscopic examination of the optic media revealed no abnormalities associated with age. Microscopic examination of the area dorsalis of the retina (the high-density region specialized for frontal vision) revealed age-related losses of up to 33% of photoreceptors and 23% of cells in the ganglion-cell layer. A study of the photoreceptor layer within area dorsalis indicated that single-cone densities were unaffected by aging whereas the double-cone densities, which are the predominant photoreceptor type in the area dorsalis, were reduced in number by about one third. Calculation of the Nyquist limit both for photoreceptors and ganglion cells suggested that the decreased retinal density together with the decreased retinal illumination and presbyopia could not account for all of the observed acuity loss. PMID:1843769

Hodos, W; Miller, R F; Fite, K V



Normative Monocular Visual Acuity for Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Charts in Emmetropic Children 5 - 12 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide normative data for children tested with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 252 Native American (Tohono O’odham) children 5 years through 12 years of age. Based on cycloplegic refraction conducted on the day of testing, all were emmetropic (myopia ? 0.25 diopter (D) spherical equivalent, hyperopia ? 1.00 D spherical equivalent, and astigmatism ? 0.50 D in both eyes). Methods Monocular visual acuity was tested at 4 m, using one ETDRS chart for the right eye (RE), and another for the left eye (LE). Main Outcome Measure Visual acuity was scored as the total number of letters correctly identified, by naming or by matching to letters on a lap card, and as the smallest letter size for which the child identified 3 of 5 letters correctly. Results Visual acuity results did not differ for the RE vs the LE, so data are reported for the RE only. Mean visual acuity for the 5-year-old group (0.16 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) [20/29]) was significantly worse than for 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds (0.05 logMAR [20/22] or better at each age). The lower 95% prediction limit for determining if a child has visual acuity within the normal range was 0.38 (20/48) for 5-year-olds and 0.30 (20/40) for 6–12-year-olds, which was reduced to 0.32 (20/42) for 5-year-olds and 0.21 (20/32) for 6–12-year-olds when recalculated with outlying data points removed. Mean interocular acuity difference did not vary by age, averaging less than 1 logMAR line at each age, with a lower 95% prediction limit of 0.17 log unit (1.7 logMAR lines) across all ages. Conclusion For monocular visual acuity based on ETDRS charts to be in the normal range, it must be better than 20/50 for 5-year-olds and better than 20/40 for 6–12-year-olds. Normal interocular acuity difference includes values of less than 2 logMAR lines. Normative ETDRS visual acuity values are not as good as norms reported for adults, suggesting that a child’s visual acuity results should be compared with norms based on data from children, not with adult norms.

Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Miller, Joseph M.; Harvey, Erin M.



The Role of Mental Testing in Shaping Special Classes for the Retarded, 1900-1945.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the history of the placement of mentally retarded students during the first half of this century. In 1900, it was generally assumed that custodial care of feebleminded persons was necessary to protect society. Severely retarded students were regularly excluded from public school attendance. Soon school officials began adopting…

Hendrick, Irving G.; MacMillan, Donald L.


The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference in difficulty between modus ponens (if p then q; p; therefore q) and modus tollens (if p then q; not-q; therefore not-p) arguments has been traditionally explained by assuming that the mind contains a rule for modus ponens, but not for modus tollens. According to the mental model theory, modus tollens is a more difficult deduction than modus

Vittorio Girotto; Alberto Mazzocco; Alessandra Tasso



Large State-Level Fluctuations in Mental Retardation Classifications Related to Introduction of Renormed Intelligence Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence…

Scullin, Matthew H.



Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates

Bengt Svensson; Urban Markström; Ulrika Bejerholm; Tommy Björkman; David Brunt; Mona Eklund; Lars Hansson; Christel Leufstadius; Amanda Lundvik Gyllensten; Mikael Sandlund; Margareta Östman



Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant



Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant



Investigation of High Acuity Negative and Positive Continuous Tone Diazofilms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the program was to develop high-acuity diazo-reproduction materials to meet the duplication requirements of aerial reconnaissance films. Initially, the selection of diazofilms for this application is attributed chiefly to their inherent abi...

D. P. Habib E. J. Zabik



Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye's system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.



Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers  

PubMed Central

Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children‘s food texture preferences.

Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.



Tinted windshield and its effects on aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, automobile designers are utilizing tinted glasses for concept cars, specialty models, or to differentiate their vehicles. The objective of this study was to assess whether alternating different tinted windshields would affect aging drivers' visual acuity and glare response. Two commercially available windshields (bluish and greenish with same transmittance) were compared. The tests of visual acuity, contrast threshold, glare detection, and discomfort glare rating were performed to address the windshield effects on both the older and younger populations. Fourteen elderly and seven young individuals participated in the study. The results indicated that alternating between the tested tinted windshields would not affect drivers' visual performance for both age groups. The implications and future research are discussed.

Shi, Wen; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Arbab, Mehran



Taste Acuity of the Morbidly Obese before and after Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese individuals have an increased preference for high caloric foods, such as sweets and fats. However, following gastric\\u000a bypass (GBP) surgery, morbidly obese patients tend to avoid these foods. We hypothesize that this aversion may occur, in part,\\u000a from permutations in taste acuity. To test this hypothesis, taste detection and recognition thresholds for the four basic\\u000a tastes (salt, sweet, sour,

David M. Scruggs; Cynthia Buffington; George S. M. Cowan Jr.



[Amblyopia: reading speed in comparison with visual acuity for gratings, single Landolt Cs and series Landolt Cs].  


In the treatment of amblyopia in preschool children, a means of predicting later reading ability would be helpful. This prediction might be possible using a test for visual acuity where the results correlate with reading ability in adult patients with amblyopia. We measured the following four parameters in 18 experienced readers with strabismic amblyopia: (1) time spent reading ten lines of a standard text in one of three magnifications, (2) visual acuity for gratings, (3) visual acuity for single Landolt Cs, and (4) visual acuity for crowded Landolt Cs (one Landolt C flanked by two full rings on each side each at a distance of 2.6 min of arc). The reading text was presented on paper at a distance of 40 cm; the subject had a choice of three magnifications. The acuity tests were generated by a computer on a VDU at 4.6 m. The relative impairment of the amblyopic eye was defined as the quotient between the performance of the amblyopic and the good eye. In addition, the difference between the times spent reading the ten lines with the amblyopic and with the good eye was calculated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2272583

Bach, M; Strahl, P; Waltenspiel, S; Kommerell, G



The Concept of Visual Acuity Ratio to the Maximum Level of Individual Visual AcuityThe Evaluation Method of Background Luminance and Visual Distance on Visibility Taking into Account of Individual Visual Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the maximum level of individual visual acuity (MVA) as an index for the individual visual ability. Also, we define the concept of the ratio of visual acuity under various environmental conditions for the MVA as Visual Acuity Ratio (VAR), in order to describe differences between individual visibilities. An experiment was carried out using various levels of background luminance

Yuki Akizuki; Youko Inoue



The Impact of Optical Factors on Resolution Acuity in Children with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Down syndrome (DS) is associated with reduced visual acuity that cannot be explained by motivational or at- tentional factors. To isolate the contribution of optical factors to visual performance in DS, two types of resolution acuity were measured: grating resolution acuity, which is limited by optical quality, and interferometric acuity, which effectively bypasses the optics of the eye. METHODS.

Julie-Anne Little; J. Margaret Woodhouse; Jan S. Lauritzen; Kathryn J. Saunders



Sensory acuity and reasoning in delusional disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic research on delusional disorder (DD) is limited. The goal of this study was to assess DD patients in the following areas: sensory capacities, decision-making style, and complex reasoning. Ten DD patients and 10 matched normal controls completed the following (1) smell, taste, and vision testing; (2) a probabilistic inference test in which subjects made probability decisions; and (3) a

Charles R. Conway; Anna M. Bollini; Brevick G. Graham; Richard S. E. Keefe; Susan S. Schiffman; Joseph P. McEvoy



Sensory evaluation of boar loins: trained assessors' olfactory acuity affects the perception of boar taint compounds.  


This study investigated the impact of assessors' varying olfactory acuity on the perceived intensity of androstenone and skatole odour and flavour in boar loins. To discriminate sensitive (SENS) and highly sensitive (SENSHIGH) panellists, two levels of androstenone were used on smell strips. Sensitivity was defined as the correct identification of the androstenone strip in three replicate triangle tests. Judges then assessed loins from boars, castrated pigs and gilts. SENSHIGH assessors scored low-fat boar loins with 1.5 to 2.0?g of androstenone per gram of melted back fat which is significantly different from castrate and gilt loins for androstenone odour and flavour whereas SENS assessors were less discriminating. Panellists' olfactory acuity should thus be considered for selection and training. The presented paper strip system is suggested for objective screening and training purposes and to be used as quantitative references in descriptive analysis. PMID:23357575

Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Sharifi, Ahmad Reza; Tholen, Ernst; Frieden, Luc; Bücking, Mark; Wicke, Michael; Mörlein, Daniel



X inactivation testing for identifying a non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation gene.  


The purpose of this study was to identify a gene causing non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation in an extended family, taking advantage of the X chromosome inactivation status of the females in order to determine their carrier state. X inactivation in the females was determined with the androgen receptor methylation assay; thereafter, the X chromosome was screened with evenly spaced polymorphic markers. Once initial linkage was identified, the region of interest was saturated with additional markers and the males were added to the analysis. Candidate genes were sequenced. Ten females showed skewed inactivation, while six revealed a normal inactivation pattern. A maximal lod score of 5.54 at ??=?0.00 was obtained with the marker DXS10151. Recombination events mapped the disease gene to a 17.4-Mb interval between the markers DXS10153 and DXS10157. Three candidate genes in the region were sequenced and a previously described missense mutation (P375L) was identified in the ACSL4/FACL4 gene. On the basis of the female X inactivation status, we have mapped and identified the causative mutation in a gene causing non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation. PMID:21584729

Yonath, Hagith; Marek-Yagel, Dina; Resnik-Wolf, Haike; Abu-Horvitz, Almogit; Baris, Hagit N; Shohat, Mordechai; Frydman, Moshe; Pras, Elon



Visual Acuity of Simulated Thalamic Visual Prostheses in Normally Sighted Humans  

PubMed Central

Simulation in normally sighted individuals is a crucial tool to evaluate the performance of potential visual prosthesis designs prior to human implantation of a device. Here, we investigated the effects of electrode count on visual acuity, learning rate and response time in 16 normally sighted subjects using a simulated thalamic visual prosthesis, providing the first performance reports for thalamic designs. A new letter recognition paradigm using a multiple-optotype two-alternative forced choice task was adapted from the Snellen eye chart, and specifically devised to be readily communicated to both human and non-human primate subjects. Validation of the method against a standard Snellen acuity test in 21 human subjects showed no significant differences between the two tests. The novel task was then used to address three questions about simulations of the center-weighted phosphene patterns typical of thalamic designs: What are the expected Snellen acuities for devices with varying numbers of contacts, do subjects display rapid adaptation to the new visual modality, and can response time in the task provide clues to the mechanisms of perception in low-resolution artificial vision? Population performance (hit rate) was significantly above chance when viewing Snellen 20/200 optotypes (Log MAR 1.0) with 370 phosphenes in the central 10 degrees of vision, ranging to Snellen 20/800 (Log MAR 1.6) with 25 central phosphenes. Furthermore, subjects demonstrated learning within the 1–2 hours of task experience indicating the potential for an effective rehabilitation and possibly better visual performance after a longer period of training. Response time differences suggest that direct letter perception occurred when hit rate was above 75%, whereas a slower strategy like feature-based pattern matching was used in conditions of lower relative resolution. As pattern matching can substantially boost effective acuity, these results suggest post-implant therapy should specifically address feature detection skills.

Jeffries, Ailsa; Pezaris, John S.



Visual acuity of simulated thalamic visual prostheses in normally sighted humans.  


Simulation in normally sighted individuals is a crucial tool to evaluate the performance of potential visual prosthesis designs prior to human implantation of a device. Here, we investigated the effects of electrode count on visual acuity, learning rate and response time in 16 normally sighted subjects using a simulated thalamic visual prosthesis, providing the first performance reports for thalamic designs. A new letter recognition paradigm using a multiple-optotype two-alternative forced choice task was adapted from the Snellen eye chart, and specifically devised to be readily communicated to both human and non-human primate subjects. Validation of the method against a standard Snellen acuity test in 21 human subjects showed no significant differences between the two tests. The novel task was then used to address three questions about simulations of the center-weighted phosphene patterns typical of thalamic designs: What are the expected Snellen acuities for devices with varying numbers of contacts, do subjects display rapid adaptation to the new visual modality, and can response time in the task provide clues to the mechanisms of perception in low-resolution artificial vision? Population performance (hit rate) was significantly above chance when viewing Snellen 20/200 optotypes (Log MAR 1.0) with 370 phosphenes in the central 10 degrees of vision, ranging to Snellen 20/800 (Log MAR 1.6) with 25 central phosphenes. Furthermore, subjects demonstrated learning within the 1-2 hours of task experience indicating the potential for an effective rehabilitation and possibly better visual performance after a longer period of training. Response time differences suggest that direct letter perception occurred when hit rate was above 75%, whereas a slower strategy like feature-based pattern matching was used in conditions of lower relative resolution. As pattern matching can substantially boost effective acuity, these results suggest post-implant therapy should specifically address feature detection skills. PMID:24086286

Bourkiza, Béchir; Vurro, Milena; Jeffries, Ailsa; Pezaris, John S



[Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) visual acuity].  


Human visual acuity is used as an indicator in everyday clinical work and ophthalmological studies to decide on therapy indications and success. This extensively used parameter needs a very structured workflow in order to preserve validity and prevent bias. Therefore, it should be kept in mind that especially in clinical studies investigators should strictly adhere to the study protocol. The intention of this article is to impart interesting facts about the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) on visual acuity assessment, adhering to the original protocol of the ETDRS dating back to 1979-1989. Furthermore, the history of visual acuity assessment protocols prior to ETDRS, namely those of Snellen and Bailey-Lovie and finally the logMAR system will be discussed. PMID:23779250

Told, R; Baratsits, M; Garhöfer, G; Schmetterer, L



Visual acuity and pupillary reactions after peribulbar anaesthesia.  

PubMed Central

The effect of peribulbar anaesthesia on optic nerve function in 20 patients, before and after cataract surgery, was measured. All the patients had decreased visual acuity. Five (25%) had no perception of light. Seventeen (85%) developed a relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD). No patients saw the operating instruments. Seven (35%) had improved visual acuity immediately postoperatively. Patients should be warned that they may lose vision completely on being given a peribulbar anaesthetic; however their vision will improve, but not necessarily immediately, postoperatively. Examination for an RAPD is a good method of providing reassurance that the operating instruments will not be seen.

Talks, S J; Chong, N H; Gibson, J M; Francis, I R



Fresnel prisms and their effects on visual acuity and binocularity.  

PubMed Central

1. The visual acuity with the Fresnel membrane prism is significantly less than that with the conventional prism of the same power for all prism powers from 12 delta through 30 delata at distance and from 15 delta through 30 delta at near. 2. The difference in the visual acuity between base up and base down, and between base in and base out, is not significantly different for either the Fresnel membrane prism or for the conventional prism. 3. For both Fresnel membrane prism and the conventional prism, the visual acuity when looking straight ahead. 4. Using Fresnel membrane prisms of the same power from different lots, the visual acuity varied significantly. The 30 delta prism caused the widest range in visual acuity. 5. When normal subjects are fitted with the higher powers of the Fresnel membrane prism, fusion and stereopsis are disrupted to such an extent that the use of this device to restore or to improve binocular vision in cases with large-angle deviations is seriously questioned. 6. Moreover, the disruption of fusion and stereopsis is abrupt and severe and does not parallel the decrease in visual acuity. The severely reduced ability to maintain fusion may be related to the optical aberrations, which, in turn, may be due to the molding process and the polyvinyl chloride molding material. 7. Through the flexibility of the membrane prism is a definite advantage, because of its proclivity to reduce visual acuity and increase aberrations its prescription for adults often must be limited to only one eye. 8. For the same reasons in the young child with binocular vision problems, the membrane prism presently available should be prescribed over both eyes only in powers less than 20 delta. When the membrane prism is to be used as a partial occluder (over one eye only), any power can be used. 9. The new Fresnel "hard" prism reduces visual acuity minimally and rarely disrupts binocularity, thus increasing the potential for prismotherapy to establish binocularity. This prism is currently available only for use as a trial set. Since the cosmetic appearance of the Fresnel "hard" prism is similar to that of the Fresnel membrane prism and it is easier to maintain, it would be the prism of choice (over all other types) for bilateral prescriptions in the young patient with emmetropia. The manufacturer is urged to make these prisms available to fit a special round adjustable frame, such as that developed in Europe for use with the wafer prism. Images FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 12

Veronneau-Troutman, S



Taste Acuity in relation to Hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

TASTE thresholds for solutions of l-quinine sulphate have been observed to be associated with food preferences1-3, phases of the menstrual cycle4, age5,6, sex5,6, smoking habits2,6, variations in personality test scales7 and variations in pharmacological effects8-10. Twin studies have shown that individual differences in taste thresholds for bitter tasting quinine do not primarily involve simple genetic factors11. Taste threshold differences for

Arnold R. Kaplan; Wilma Powell



Does Knee Osteoarthritis Differentially Modulate Proprioceptive Acuity in the Frontal and Sagittal Planes of the Knee?  

PubMed Central

Objective Impaired proprioception may alter joint loading and contribute to the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Though frontal plane loading at the knee contributes to OA, proprioception and its modulation with OA in this direction have not been examined. The aim of this study was to assess knee proprioceptive acuity in the frontal and sagittal planes in knee OA and healthy participants. We hypothesized that proprioceptive acuity will be decreased in the OA population in both planes of movement. Methods Thirteen persons with knee OA and fourteen healthy age-matched subjects participated. Proprioceptive acuity was assessed in varus, valgus, flexion, and extension using the threshold to detection of passive movement (TDPM). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in TDPM between subject groups and across movement directions. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation of TDPM between and within planes of movement. Results TDPM was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05), in the knee OA group compared to the control group for all directions tested, indicating reduced proprioceptive acuity. Differences in TDPM between groups were consistent across all movement directions, with mean difference (95% CI) for valgus: 0.94° (0.20°, 1.65°), varus: 0.92° (0.18°, 1.68°), extension: 0.93° (0.19°, 1.66°), and flexion: 1.11° (0.38°, 1.85°). TDPM measures across planes of movement were only weakly correlated, especially in the OA group. Conclusions Consistent differences in TDPM between the OA and control groups across all movement directions suggest a global, not direction-specific, reduction in sensation in knee OA patients.

Cammarata, Martha L; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Dhaher, Yasin Y



Effects of gloves and visual acuity on dexterity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work in many environments with chemical or biological agents requires the use of personal protective equipment such as gloves and respirators. It is well established that glove thickness affects finger dexterity. There is further evidence that visual constraints (e.g., visual acuity) and gender may also impede finger dexterity. Therefore, the personal protection may place a barrier to the agent, but

Mehdi Pourmoghani



Lipemia retinalis - an unusual cause of visual acuity deterioration  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Hyperlipidemia is an identified factor of premature vessel atherosclerosis. Lipemia retinalis is an unusual retinal manifestation of hyperlipidemia and is thought to be directly correlated with the serum triglyceride level. Case Report This paper discusses the case of a 55-year-old patient with lipemia retinalis, which deteriorated his visual acuity. The patient had an extremely high serum cholesterol level (1053 mg/dl) and a very high level of triglycerides (1513 mg/dl). The normalization of serum lipids, reversion of retinal vessels alterations and visual acuity improvement was achieved after an intensive statin lipid-lowering therapy. Pathological changes of the patient’s retina, connected with lipemia retinalis, disappeared completely. Conclusions Hyperlipidemia can cause lipemia retinalis, which is characterized by the hyperlipidemic vascular lesions-whitish color of vessels, lipid infiltration into the retina and decrease of visual acuity. The lipid-lowering therapy may lead to the normalization of the appearance of the fundus and restore the visual acuity.

Rymarz, Ewa; Matysik-WoYniak, Anna; Baltaziak, Lucyna; Prystupa, Andrzej; Sak, Jaroslaw; Grzybowski, Andrzej



On Using Vernier Acuity to Assess Magnocellular Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study [Keri, S., & Benedek, G. (2009). Visual pathway deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers: A potential endophenotype. "Brain and Cognition", 69, 291-295] has found Vernier acuity deficiencies together with contrast sensitivity defects consistent with a magnocellular deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers. This may…

Skottun, Bernt C.; Skoyles, John R.



How well do you see what you hear? The acuity of visual-to-auditory sensory substitution  

PubMed Central

Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) aim to compensate for the loss of a sensory modality, typically vision, by converting information from the lost modality into stimuli in a remaining modality. “The vOICe” is a visual-to-auditory SSD which encodes images taken by a camera worn by the user into “soundscapes” such that experienced users can extract information about their surroundings. Here we investigated how much detail was resolvable during the early induction stages by testing the acuity of blindfolded sighted, naïve vOICe users. Initial performance was well above chance. Participants who took the test twice as a form of minimal training showed a marked improvement on the second test. Acuity was slightly but not significantly impaired when participants wore a camera and judged letter orientations “live”. A positive correlation was found between participants' musical training and their acuity. The relationship between auditory expertise via musical training and the lack of a relationship with visual imagery, suggests that early use of a SSD draws primarily on the mechanisms of the sensory modality being used rather than the one being substituted. If vision is lost, audition represents the sensory channel of highest bandwidth of those remaining. The level of acuity found here, and the fact it was achieved with very little experience in sensory substitution by naïve users is promising.

Haigh, Alastair; Brown, David J.; Meijer, Peter; Proulx, Michael J.



Fundamental Causes of Housing Loss among Persons Diagnosed with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: A Theoretically Guided Test.  


Previous research on housing loss among severely mentally ill persons who have been placed in housing after being homeless has been largely atheoretical and has yielded inconsistent results. We develop a theory of housing loss based on identifying fundamental causes-problems in motives, means and social situation-and test these influences in a longitudinal, randomized comparison of housing alternatives. As hypothesized, individuals were more likely to lose housing if they had a history of alcohol or drug abuse, desired strongly to live independently contrary to clinician recommendations, or were African Americans placed in independent housing. Deficits in daily functioning did not explain these influences, but contributed to risk of housing loss. Our results demonstrate the importance of substance abuse, the value of distinguishing support preferences from support needs, and the necessity of explaining effects of race within a social context and thus should help to improve comparative research. PMID:20161654

Schutt, Russell K; Goldfinger, Stephen M



UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a newly developed organizational skills assessment tool for severely mentally ill adults.  


The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants' organizational skills were measured using our newly developed University of California, San Diego Sorting Test (U-SORT), a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a "junk drawer" into "keep" versus "trash" piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms) were acceptable (mean r = 0.34), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = 0.06 ). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable, and valid measure of functioning for this population. PMID:21135646

Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V; Patterson, Thomas L



The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory.  


The difference in difficulty between modus ponens (if p then q; p; therefore q) and modus tollens (if p then q; not-q; therefore not-p) arguments has been traditionally explained by assuming that the mind contains a rule for modus ponens, but not for modus tollens. According to the mental model theory, modus tollens is a more difficult deduction than modus ponens because people do not represent the case not-q in their initial model of the conditional. On the basis of this theory, we predicted that conditions in which reasoners are forced to represent the not-q case should improve correct performance on modus tollens. In particular, we predicted that the presentation of the minor premise (not-q) as the initial premise should produce facilitation. Experiment 1 showed that this is the case: whereas the inversion of the premise order did not affect modus ponens, it produced a significant increase of valid conclusions for modus tollens. Experiment 2 showed that this facilitation does not depend on the negative form (contrary vs. contradictory) of the minor premise. Experiments 3 and 4 (and/or some of their replications) demonstrated that facilitation also occurs when participants are asked to find the cases compatible with not-q or to evaluate a p conclusion. No premise order effect was found for sentences which make explicit the not-q case right from the start, i.e. p only if q conditionals and biconditionals (Experiments 5 and 6). Finally, Experiments 7 and 8 showed that the conditional fallacies are not significantly affected by the premise order. PMID:9187063

Girotto, V; Mazzocco, A; Tasso, A



Validity of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised with Mentally Retarded Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Administered the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised to mildly retarded adults (N=21). Results indicated that the revised Peabody tended to yield significantly lower estimates of functioning than did the other measures. (Author/LLL)|

Prout, H. Thompson; Schwartz, Julie Favreau



The Tromsø Eye Study: study design, methodology and results on visual acuity and refractive errors.  


Purpose:? To describe the study design and methodology of the Tromsø Eye Study (TES), and to describe visual acuity and refractive error in the study population. Methods:? The Tromsø Eye Study is a sub-study of the Tromsø Study, a population-based multipurpose longitudinal study in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway. The Tromsø Eye Study was a part of the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study, conducted from October 2007 through December 2008. The eye examination included information on self-reported eye diseases, assessment of visual acuity and refractive errors, retinal photography and optical coherence tomography. Retinal images were graded for diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, and with computer-assisted measurements of arteriolar and venular diameters. In addition, TES researchers have access to the large comprehensive Tromsø Study database including physical examination results, carotid artery ultrasound, electrocardiogram, bone densitometry, cognitive tests, questionnaires, DNA, blood and urine samples and more from the present and the five previous surveys. Results:? Visual acuity was assessed in 6459 subjects and refraction in 6566 subjects aged 38-87?years. Snellen visual acuity <20/60 was found in 1.2% (95% CI 0.95-1.5) of the participants and there was no gender difference. Visual impairment increased with age, and in the age group 80-87?years, the overall visual acuity <20/60 was 7.3% (95% CI 3.3-11.2). Spherical equivalent showed an increasing trend with age and there was no clinically relevant difference between men and women. Retinal photography was performed in 6540 subjects. Conclusion:? Prevalence of visual impairment was low but increased with age. There was a trend towards hyperopia with age and no clinically relevant difference in refraction between the sexes. TES aims to provide epidemiological research on several eye and eye-related diseases. Owing to a comprehensive data collection, it has the opportunity to explore issues related to environmental factors, cognition and their interaction with diseases in this community. PMID:22963377

Bertelsen, Geir; Erke, Maja G; von Hanno, Therese; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Peto, Tunde; Sjølie, Anne K; Njølstad, Inger



A Test Battery for Assessing the Vocational Competency of Moderately Mentally Retarded Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study involving 61 moderately retarded Ss (16-41 years old) was designed to develop a battery of tests that would predict the vocational competency of moderately retarded Ss in a sheltered workshop program. (SBH)

Quinones, William A.



Assessing Visual Attention in Young Children and Adolescents with Severe Mental Retardation Utilizing Conditional-Discrimination Tasks and Multiple Testing Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To effectively reduce overselective attention, a fine-grained analysis of the control exhibited by compound training cues is first needed. Computer software was developed in this study to administer two different stimulus control-testing procedures to assess how three young children of normal development and three adolescents with severe mental

Huguenin, Nancy H.



Influence of Stiles-Crawford apodization on visual acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE) of the first kind has often been considered to be important to spatial visual performance in that it ameliorates the influence of defocus and aberrations. We investigated the influence of SCE apodization on visual acuity as a function of defocus (out to +/-2 D) in four subjects. We used optical filters, conjugate with the eye's entrance pupil, that neutralized or doubled the existing SCE. With an illiterate-E task, the influence of the SCE was more noticeable for myopic defocus than for hypermetropic defocus, was generally more noticeable for high-contrast than for low-contrast letters, and increased with increase in pupil size. The greatest influence on visual acuity of neutralizing the SCE, across the subjects and range of conditions, was deterioration of 0.06 (4-mm pupil), 0.16 (6-mm pupil), and 0.29 log unit (7.6-mm pupil).

Atchison, David A.; Scott, Dion H.; Strang, Niall C.; Artal, Pablo



Spatial acuity of honeybee vision and its spectral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In a series of behavioural experiments designed to measure spatial acuity, freely-flying honeybees were trained to discriminate between a horizontal and a vertical grating in a Y-shaped, dual-tunnel apparatus (Fig. 1). Each grating was placed at the entrance to a tunnel, and one of the gratings carried a reward of sugar solution. After training, the spatial frequency of the two

M. V. Srinivasan; M. Lehrer



Acoustic Basis of Directional Acuity in Laboratory Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustic basis of auditory spatial acuity was investigated in CBA\\/129 mice by relating patterns of behavioral errors to\\u000a directional features of the head-related transfer function (HRTF). Behavioral performance was assessed by training the mice\\u000a to lick a water spout during sound presentations from a “safe” location and to suppress the response during presentations\\u000a from “warning” locations. Minimum audible angles

Amanda M. Lauer; Sean J. Slee; Bradford J. May


Pattern visual evoked potentials in cases of ambiguous acuity loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty patients were referred to our visual evoked potential laboratory with complaints of profound acuity loss in one or both eyes. However, the objective ophthalmologic findings were normal, including pupillary reaction, and anterior segment and fundus examinations. Transient visual evoked potentials to a 2.3-c\\/deg sinusoidal grating pattern were found to be present in 26 of these 30 patients. Visual evoked

Phyllis Bobak; Priti Khanna; James Goodwin; Mitchell Brigell



Effect of age on visual acuity after cataract extraction.  


The best Snellen visual acuity in the three months after cataract extraction was found to decline with the age of the patient. The relationship was identical in 111 patients who had extracapsular extraction and a Pearce tripod posterior chamber intraocular lens and in 50 patients who had intracapsular extraction with spectacle correction. Vision after operation varied from a mean value of 6/5 at 50 years to 6/12 at 90 years, a decline of 1 line per 13.4 years. In the intracapsular group, over a mean follow-up period of 14 years, the rate of fall in acuity with increasing age after operation was found to be statistically similar to that of the early postoperative acuity plotted against age for both types of operation. This suggests that the rate of decline with age is unchanged after a prolonged period of aphakia with presumed increased exposure to ultraviolet and blue light. The data were found to be similar to the decline in the neurosensory elements of vision with age measured experimentally in 20 phakic subjects by laser interferometry. This method of assessment of contrast sensitivity threshold effectively bypasses changes in the optical media. The findings indicate that the previously recognised drop in visual acuity with age is not related to changes in the aging crystalline lens and support the view that there is a decline in the neurosensory elements of vision. It is important to recognise this deterioration so that results of surgery or other treatment are adjusted to allow for the age of the patients. PMID:3828263

Jay, J L; Mammo, R B; Allan, D



Relationship among fMRI, contrast sensitivity and visual acuity.  


The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether visual acuity or contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is proportional to visual cortical function based on fMRI volume and level of activation or Z-score. Forced choice procedures were utilized to measure the monocular log minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity and CSF. The CSF data were collapsed into a single index by the use of weighted mean contrast sensitivity (WMCS), being defined as the mean of the products of each spatial frequency multiplied by its corresponding contrast sensitivity. fMRI data had been obtained with a 1.5 T GE Signa scanner with visual stimuli including 1.0 and 2.0 c/deg vertical sinusoidal gratings. Subjects consisted of eight normal adults and five amblyopic patients, with the amblyopic subjects added to gauge whether the outcome was due to a restricted range of scores or the small number of study participants. In normal subjects, the fMRI volume and level of activation exhibited no statistically significant correlation with visual acuity at P<0.05. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between WMCS and fMRI volume (R=0.765, P=0.027) and fMRI level of activation (R=0.645, P=0.007), with right eye stimulation using the 1.0 c/deg grating. On the whole, statistically significant correlations between WMCS and fMRI parameters were maintained when subject age was held constant and when data from the five amblyopic subjects were included to expand the range of values and increase the number of data sets for analysis. fMRI volume and Z-score were more closely associated with the CSF, as defined by WMCS, than visual acuity. The results suggest that the CSF reflects the underlying visual cortical cells responsible for fMRI volume and the level of activation. PMID:21035430

Leguire, L E; Algaze, A; Kashou, N H; Lewis, J; Rogers, G L; Roberts, C



Neural correlates of nonmonotonic temporal acuity for voice onset time.  


Human and chinchilla listeners exhibit nonmonotonic temporal acuity for speech sounds differing in voice onset time (VOT). Characteristics of the neural discharge pattern or of the stimuli themselves that might account for the pattern of temporal acuity have not been described. Responses of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers to syllables from an alveolar VOT continuum were measured. Peak discharge rates and peak response latencies elicited by the syllables with the shortest and longest VOTs were highly variable across groups of neurons with similar characteristic frequencies. For VOTs from the middle of the continuum, peak responses were larger, and response latencies were nearly constant across the same group of neurons. Overall, the magnitude and temporal variability of the responses of populations of primary auditory neurons varied nonmonotonically with VOT, consistent with the pattern of psychophysical temporal acuity for these syllables exhibited by humans and chinchillas. Spectral analyses suggested by the pattern of neural responses indicated that synchronous or correlated spectral cues were available over a wider bandwidth for those syllables from the middle of the continuum for which the neural representation was least variable. PMID:1774413

Sinex, D G; McDonald, L P; Mott, J B




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Limitations in the use of intelligence test performance to detect mental disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler-Bellevue scale was administered to 40 morons and 80 schizophrenics, aged 30-39, and scores were compared with those of 210 controls of the same age range. Comparisons were made in terms of deviation scores expressing the performance of a patient on the individual tests relative to his own general level of performance.\\

A. Magaret; C. Wright



Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University…

University City School District, MO.


Age-Related Differences in Cardiovascular Reactions to Mental Stress Tests in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 84 healthy, sedentary women in the laboratory during performance of difficult and easy problem-solving tasks. They were divided into three age groups: 19 to 32 years, 33 to 43 years, and 44 to 60 years (n = 28 women per group). Baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure increased with age, whereas skin conductance level was lower

Andrew Steptoe; Jennifer Moses; Sara Edwards



Building mental health professionals' decisional models into tests of predictive validity: the accuracy of contextualized predictions of violence.  


To safely manage potentially violent patients in the community, mental health professionals (MHPs) must assess when and under what conditions a patient may be involved in a violent act. This study applies a more ecologically sensitive approach than past research by building the conditions that MHPs believe make patient violence more likely into tests of their predictive validity. In specific, the accuracy of MHPs' predictions that patients were more likely to become violent when they consumed alcohol was assessed based on a sample of 714 patients. The results indicate that MHPs do not discriminate well between patients who are likely to become violent during periods in which they drink from those who are not. MHPs' predictions appear more descriptive of the drinking behavior of a high-risk group than predictive of alcohol-related violent incidents. Thus, even when their apparent decisional processes are considered in tests of accuracy, MHPs' predictions of violence are only moderately more accurate than chance. This paper analyzes the implications of these findings for risk assessment practice and for conducting further clinically relevant research. PMID:11105475

Skeem, J L; Mulvey, E P; Lidz, C W



Impaired Taste Acuity in Patients with Diabetes mellitus on Maintenance Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: It has been reported that taste acuity for the four primary tastes, sour, sweet, salty and bitter, is impaired in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, there have been no studies reported on taste acuity of diabetic HD patients. The present study aimed to quantify and compare the taste acuity of diabetic and non-diabetic HD patients, and further to determine if

Shunya Matsuo; Masahiko Nakamoto; Gakusen Nishihara; Chikao Yasunaga; Taihei Yanagida; Kenzo Matsuo; Takanobu Sakemi



Patient Nutrition Acuity as a Predictor of the Time Required to Perform Medical Nutrition Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine if patient nutrition acuity accurately predicts the time required to perform medical nutrition therapy (MNT).Design Data detailing demographic characteristics, patient nutrition acuity, and time spent performing MNT were collected for 12 consecutive days. Random systematic sampling was used to select 25%, or a minimum of 20 patients, from daily admissions to the hospital. Nutrition acuity was categorized




Neural site of strabismic amblyopia in cats: X-cell acuities in the LGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acuities of X-cells from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) were measured in five cats raised with a convergent strabismus, surgically induced by tenotomy. The acuities of cells driven by the strabismic eye were not significantly different from the acuities of cells driven by the non-deviating eye over the range of eccentricities in the visual field studied (from the

S. Gillard-Crewther; D. P. Crewther



Vibrotactile Spatial Acuity on the Torso: Effects of Location and Timing Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of spatio-temporal vibrotactile patterns by the torso was examined in two experiments. The first investigated the spatial acuity as function of location on the torso. A uniform acuity between 2 and 3 cm was found, except on the body midline where acuity was about 1 cm. This favorable effect was hypothesized to be caused by specific processing characteristics

Jan B. F. Van Erp



The Link Between Mental Health Problems and Youth Violence in Adolescence: A Multilevel Test of DSM-Oriented Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early identification of mental illness in youngsters is an important goal for youth, their families, and society. This study utilized continuous indicators of DSM-oriented psychopathology to explore the link between adolescent mental health and physical violence. Relying on data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) and controlling for various community, friend, family, and individual risk

Jennifer Wareham; Denise Paquette Boots



Prospective Evaluation of Visual Acuity Assessment: A Comparison of Snellen Versus ETDRS Charts in Clinical Practice (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to prospectively compare visual acuity (VA) scores obtained with Snellen charts versus Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts in a “real world” retinal practice, and second, to see if there was a difference in visual acuity measurements obtained with ETDRS charts starting at 4 or 2 meters. Methods: Prospective, consecutive evaluation of patients who underwent best-corrected visual acuity testing of their right eye performed at a single seating by the same experienced, certified vision examiner in the same room with standardized low light conditions using a projected Snellen chart at 20 feet, and two different back-illuminated ETDRS charts placed 4 and 2 meters from the patient. Results: One hundred sixty-three eyes were included in the study. The mean Snellen VA was 0.67 logMAR (20/94), ETDRS VA at 4 meters was 0.54 logMAR (~20/69), and ETDRS VA at 2 meters was 0.51 logMAR (~20/65). The mean difference was 6.5 letters better on the ETDRS chart (P=.000000001). As the VA worsened, there was increased variability between the charts and the mean discrepancy between charts also increased. Subgroup analysis revealed the greatest difference between charts was in the poor vision subgroup (<20/200) with a difference of 0.2 logMAR (10 letters; P=.0000002). Patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) had the greatest disparity on vision testing, but patients with dry AMD and diabetic retinopathy also exhibited significant differences. Conclusions: Visual acuity scores were significantly better on ETDRS charts compared to Snellen charts. The difference was greatest with poor visual acuity (<20/200) and in patients with exudative AMD. Thus, caution should be exercised when comparing data using the different charts.

Kaiser, Peter K.



The Effect of Epiblepharon Surgery on Visual Acuity and With-the-Rule Astigmatism in Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effect of epiblepharon surgery on visual acuity and with-the-rule astigmatism in children compared to patients without surgical treatment. Methods We undertook a retrospective case control study and reviewed the charts of 202 eyes treated with epiblepharon surgery and of 142 eyes without surgery. The surgical procedure for epiblepharon correction used rotating suture techniques. Data regarding age, best corrected visual acuity, and degree of astigmatism were recorded. Baseline and 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative data were collected. The chi-square test, Student's t-test and general linear model analysis for repeated measures were applied. Results The mean astigmatism in the surgical group decreased from 1.10 ± 1.02 diopter (D) preoperatively to 0.84 ± 1.05 D at 3 months after surgery (p < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference compared to the non-surgical group during the first year. The general linear model analysis comparing the mean astigmatism between the two groups over time showed a significant group-time interaction (p < 0.05). Within the surgical group, the higher baseline astigmatic subgroup and the 5- to 8-year-old group demonstrated greater cylinder reduction over time. The change in mean visual acuity was not significant in either group. Conclusions Significant astigmatic reduction was found after surgical correction in epiblepharon patients. Patients with higher baseline astigmatism exhibited greater astigmatic reduction after epiblepharon surgery. These results suggest that, in order to reduce astigmatism, an epiblepharon operation should be considered in patients with a high level of astigmatism.

Kim, Na Mi; Jung, Jae Ho



A study of the relations between mental activity and the circulation of the blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the following: (1) changes in the rate and force of heart beat and the vasomotor fluctuations accompanying sensations and affective states, under conditions of mental acuity and fatigue; (2) these changes as connected with processes of intellection during the progression of a state of mental fatigue; (3) consideration of vasomotor rhythm, indicated by the Traube-Hering waves, in relation to

Frederick G. Bonser



Test-Retest Reliability of Maternal Reports of Lifetime Mental Disorders in Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the test-retest reliability of maternal reports of lifetime psychopathology using DSM-III-R criteria in nonreferred offspring. Sixty-three mothers reported on 79 children, ages 6 to 18 years. Retest intervals were between one and 12 months. The results indicated acceptable reliability for all supraordinate categories (any disorder, any anxiety disorder, any disruptive disorder, externalizing disorders, internalizing disorders) as well

Lisa M. Kentgen; Rachel G. Klein; Salvatore Mannuzza; Mark Davies



Using Computerized Adaptive Testing to Reduce the Burden of Mental Health Assessment  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the combination of item response theory and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for psychiatric measurement as a means of reducing the burden of research and clinical assessments. Methods Data were from 800 participants in outpatient treatment for a mood or anxiety disorder; they completed 616 items of the 626-item Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Scales (MASS) at two times. The first administration was used to design and evaluate a CAT version of the MASS by using post hoc simulation. The second confirmed the functioning of CAT in live testing. Results Tests of competing models based on item response theory supported the scale’s bifactor structure, consisting of a primary dimension and four group factors (mood, panic-agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive, and social phobia). Both simulated and live CAT showed a 95% average reduction (585 items) in items administered (24 and 30 items, respectively) compared with administration of the full MASS. The correlation between scores on the full MASS and the CAT version was .93. For the mood disorder subscale, differences in scores between two groups of depressed patients—one with bipolar disorder and one without—on the full scale and on the CAT showed effect sizes of .63 (p<.003) and 1.19 (p<.001) standard deviation units, respectively, indicating better discriminant validity for CAT. Conclusions Instead of using small fixed-length tests, clinicians can create item banks with a large item pool, and a small set of the items most relevant for a given individual can be administered with no loss of information, yielding a dramatic reduction in administration time and patient and clinician burden.

Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Kupfer, David J.; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Grochocinski, Victoria J.; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Stover, Angela; Bock, R. Darrell; Immekus, Jason C.



Assessing visual attention in young children and adolescents with severe mental retardation utilizing conditional-discrimination tasks and multiple testing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To effectively reduce overselective attention, a fine-grained analysis of the control exhibited by compound training cues is first needed. Computer software was developed in this study to administer two different stimulus control-testing procedures to assess how three young children of normal development and three adolescents with severe mental retardation attended to stimulus compounds when conditional-discrimination tasks were provided. One test

Nancy H. Huguenin



Short-Term Visual Deprivation Does Not Enhance Passive Tactile Spatial Acuity  

PubMed Central

An important unresolved question in sensory neuroscience is whether, and if so with what time course, tactile perception is enhanced by visual deprivation. In three experiments involving 158 normally sighted human participants, we assessed whether tactile spatial acuity improves with short-term visual deprivation over periods ranging from under 10 to over 110 minutes. We used an automated, precisely controlled two-interval forced-choice grating orientation task to assess each participant's ability to discern the orientation of square-wave gratings pressed against the stationary index finger pad of the dominant hand. A two-down one-up staircase (Experiment 1) or a Bayesian adaptive procedure (Experiments 2 and 3) was used to determine the groove width of the grating whose orientation each participant could reliably discriminate. The experiments consistently showed that tactile grating orientation discrimination does not improve with short-term visual deprivation. In fact, we found that tactile performance degraded slightly but significantly upon a brief period of visual deprivation (Experiment 1) and did not improve over periods of up to 110 minutes of deprivation (Experiments 2 and 3). The results additionally showed that grating orientation discrimination tends to improve upon repeated testing, and confirmed that women significantly outperform men on the grating orientation task. We conclude that, contrary to two recent reports but consistent with an earlier literature, passive tactile spatial acuity is not enhanced by short-term visual deprivation. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. On the theoretical side, the findings set limits on the time course over which neural mechanisms such as crossmodal plasticity may operate to drive sensory changes; on the practical side, the findings suggest that researchers who compare tactile acuity of blind and sighted participants should not blindfold the sighted participants.

Wong, Michael; Hackeman, Erik; Hurd, Caitlin; Goldreich, Daniel




PubMed Central

Despite attention to prevention and screening for depression and alcohol use, Healthy People 2010 objectives continue to include goals to increase the detection of depression and decrease the rates of alcohol abuse. These problems remain significant. The overall goal of this study was to develop a computer-based electronic screening tool and to determine the feasibility of implementing computer-based electronic screening technology (eScreening) for rural visitors to a primary care clinic. The study called specifically for an electronic touch screen with voice prompts. This tool, called the eScreening tool, screens for alcohol abuse and depression among rural patients in a primary care setting. The screening was offered to rural adults who are not in acute distress and not at end-of-life, regardless of their stated reason for seeking medical care. Phase one of the pilot was used to determine the perceptions of nurses, other providers and consumers regarding the acceptability and perceived usefulness of an eScreening tool. Phase two involved user testing of the eScreening tool. The longer-term goals of the research program are to work with rural nurses to improve patient outcomes, develop interventions, and for educational, consultation and/or direct clinical care.

Farrell, Sarah P.; Zerull, Lisa M.; Mahone, Irma H.; Guerlain, Stephanie; Akan, Doruk; Hauenstein, Emily; Schorling, John



Determination of myopes' visual acuity using stimuli with different contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of different contrast stimuli on the myopes’ visual acuity (VA) was studied using positive (35.7), negative (-0.97) and low contrast (-0.11) Landolt optotypes. Test subjects were 13 myopes with corrected eyesight and 8 emmetropes, all of them being 20-22 years old. For VA determination the FrACT computer program was employed. In the tests it was found that for emmetropes the positive and negative contrast VA values do not differ significantly, while for myopes the respective values are better with positive than with negative contrast stimuli. These differences were the same in the measurements taken with spectacles or contact lenses. Our results also show that the retinal straylight created by clean spectacles or soft contact lenses is similar in both cases. Dažu autoru p?t?jumi r?da, ka miopijas gad?jum? redzes asums ir lab?ks ar pozit?va V?bera kontrasta stimuliem (balts stimuls uz melna fona) nek? negat?va kontrasta stimuliem (melns stimuls uz balta fona). Šis fenomens tiek saist?tas ar neir?l?m izmai??m ON un OFF ce?os un miopisk?s ac?s. Citi p?t?jumi r?da, ka ar? ac? izklied?t?s gaismas ietekm? lab?ks redzes asums ir ar pozit?viem kontrasta stimuliem nek? negat?va. Miopijas gad?jum? papildus gaismas izkliedi rada bri??u l?cas vai kontaktl?cas. M?s sav? p?t?jum? v?l?j?mies noskaidrot, cik liel? m?r? lab?ks redzes asums ar pozit?va kontrasta stimuliem miopisk?s ac?s ir saist?ms ar optisk?s korekcijas rad?to gaismas izkliedi. P?t?jum? piedal?j?s 21 dal?bnieks - 8 emetropi un 13 miopi ar sf?risko refrakcijas lielumu no -1.25 l?dz -6,25 D. Dal?bnieku vecums bija no 20 l?dz 22 gadi. Izmantojot FrACT datorprogrammu, tika noteiks monokul?rais redzes asums VA ar Landolta gredzeniem pie pozit?va, negat?va un zema kontrasta fotopiskos apst?k?os. V?bera kontrasti stimuliem attiec?gi bija 35.7, -0.97 un -0.11. Miopiem m?r?jumi tika veikti gan ar brill?m, gan kontaktl?c?m. Emetropiem redzes asums pie pozit?va un negat?va kontrasta nav b?tiski atš?ir?gs, savuk?rt kori??tiem miopiem redzes asums bija lab?ks ar pozit?va nek? ar negat?va kontrasta stimuliem. Starp?ba m?r?jumos, veiktos ar kontaktl?c?m, gan brill?m, nebija b?tiski atš?ir?ga. No ieg?tajiem rezult?tiem var secin?t, ka bri??u l?cas un kontaktl?cas rada l?dz?gu ac? 'nokl?duš?s” gaismas daudzumu.

Ikaunieks, G.; Caure, E.; Kassaliete, E.; Meskovska, Z.



Predictors of taste acuity in healthy older Europeans.  


This study aimed to identify factors associated with taste acuity in healthy older European adults aged 55-87 years, employing a factorial independent design to recruit older adults from centres in France, Italy and United Kingdom. Adults aged 70-87 years (N=387) were recruited in Rome (Italy) (n=108) and Grenoble (France) (n=91) and aged 55-70 years in Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) (n=93) and Clermont-Ferrand (C-F) (France) (n=95). A signal detection theory (SDT) approach was used for detection threshold assessment of the four basic tastes (salt; sweet; bitter; and, sour). Trial data were converted to R-indices. Diet was assessed by means of four day food diaries. Dietary data were converted using WISP and then reduced, using a principal components analysis, to four components: Component 1 'high fat and salt'; Component 2 'high vitamins and fibre'; Component 3 'high fat and carbohydrate'; and, Component 4 'high trace elements'. Socio-demographic information was collected by self report survey. Four separate regression analyses were carried out, one for each of the four basic taste qualities (sweet; sour; bitter; salt). Mean ROC scores for each taste quality were the response variables and age, sex, country, social class and dietary components were predictor variables. The main predictors of taste acuity were age, sex, social class and country, which had differential effects for each taste quality. These data suggest that socio-demographic and cultural factors should be taken into account when considering taste acuity in older people. PMID:21986182

Simpson, Ellen E A; Rae, Gordon; Parr, Heather; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Bonham, Maxine; Polito, Angela; Meunier, Nathalie; Andriollo-Sanchez, Maud; Intorre, Federica; Coudray, Charles; Strain, J J; Stewart-Knox, Barbara



Testing the Assumption of Measurement Invariance in the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment.\\u000a This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance\\u000a Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a longitudinal multisite, randomized trial examining two modes of care (Referral\\u000a and Integrated). A

Bellinda L. King-Kallimanis; Frans J. Oort; Nancy Lynn; Lawrence Schonfeld


Hypnosis and Mental Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capability of deep absorption in mental images in highly hypnotizable people was tested. Signal detection data was analyzed for imagery and no-imagery blocks separately and combined. Signal detection sensitivity was significantly lower during imagery ...

G. W. Farthing



Mental Health  


Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...


Factors Influencing the Visual Acuity of Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate correlated factors on final visual acuity in conjunction with fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods Twenty-four patients (36 eyes) with typical findings of chronic CSCR based on medical records, FA and OCT results were enrolled in this study. We investigated demographic findings, initial and final visual acuity (VA), and some typical findings of FA including the type of leakage pattern, the existence of a gravitational tract and an abnormal hyperfluorescent area centered on the fovea. We also investigated OCT findings to examine serous retinal detachment, outer photoreceptor layer (OPRL) preservation, continuity of the inner segment (IS) and the outer segment (OS) of the photoreceptor layer in case of macular attachment, and other typical findings. The converted logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution VA was used to investigate the statistical correlation with these FA and OCT findings. Results An abnormal hyperfluorescent area within 1 macular photocoagulation study disc area on FA and cystoid degeneration on OCT were correlated with poor final VA of less than 20 / 40. However, the preserved OPRL and the continuity of IS / OS junction were correlated with a good final VA of 0.5 or more. Conclusions These specific findings could be associated with recurrent or persistent subretinal fluid and could be important parameters of decision for treatment.

Flaxel, Christina J



A quantitative analysis of head movement behaviour during visual acuity assessment under prosthetic vision simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most current vision prosthesis designs, head movement is the sole director of visual gaze and scanning due to the head-mounted nature of the camera. Study of this unnatural behaviour may provide insight into improved prosthesis designs and rehabilitation procedures. In this paper, we conducted a psychophysical study to investigate the characteristics of head movements of normally sighted subjects undergoing a visual acuity task in simulated prosthetic vision (SPV). In 12 naïve, untrained subjects, we recorded spontaneous changes in the amount of head movements during SPV sessions compared to control (normal vision) sessions. The observed behaviour continued to be refined until five or six sessions of practice. Increased head movement velocity was shown to be correlated to improved visual acuity performance, up to 0.3 logMAR, an equivalent of detecting details at half the physical size compared to complete deprivation of head movements. We postulate that visual scanning can as much as double the spatial frequency information in prosthetic vision. Increased head movement velocity observed when subjects were attempting smaller test items and for low-pass filtering schemes with higher cut-off frequencies may be further evidence that higher frequency content may be available through visual scanning, unconsciously driving subjects to increase head movement velocity.

Chen, S. C.; Hallum, L. E.; Suaning, G. J.; Lovell, N. H.



Comparison of Low-Contrast Visual Acuity Between Eye Black and Maxsight Tinted Contact Lenses.  


OBJECTIVES:: Athletes who participate in outdoor activities seek products to reduce glare and improve contrast. This study compares performance of low-contrast visual acuity (VA) in bright outdoor conditions between the Maxsight Amber contact lens (CLs) and clear CLs with and without Eye Black grease. METHODS:: Seventeen subjects were fitted with clear CLs, clear lenses with Eye Black grease, Maxsight lenses with Eye Black grease, and Maxsight lenses alone. With each modality, the subject demonstrated low-contrast VA assessed and completed a questionnaire. At the end of testing, subjects completed a questionnaire to survey the performance of each modality. RESULTS:: The average low-contrast VA with clear CLs was 20/18.4, which improved to 20/17 with the addition of Eye Black grease (P=0.132). Significant improvement in low-contrast VA was seen with the Maxsight CLs to 20/15.4 (P<0.05), although it was not further improved with the addition of Eye Black grease. The results of the questionnaire showed a preference of the Maxsight CLs throughout the study for low-contrast VA. CONCLUSIONS:: Although Eye Black grease has its place in sport and some sporting environments, the benefit in contrast acuity is insignificant. The better performance of the amber Maxsight lenses in this study demonstrates a visual performance benefit in bright sunlight. PMID:21378576

Horn, Fraser C; Erickson, Graham B; Karben, Brock; Moore, Benjamin



Analysis of visual acuity and motion resolvability as measures for optimal visual perception of the workspace.  


For working tasks with high visual demand, ergonomic design of the working stations requires defining criteria for comparative evaluation and analysis of the visual perceptibility in different regions of the workspace. This paper provides kinematic models of visual acuity and motion resolvability as adopted measures of visual perceptibility of the workspace. The proposed models have been examined through two sets of experiments. The first experiment is designed to compare the models outputs with those from experiments. Time measurements of the participants' response to visual events are employed for calculation of the perceptibility measures. The overall comparison results show similar patterns and moderate statistical errors of the measured and kinematically modeled values of the parameters. In the second experiment, the proposed set of visual perceptibility measures are examined for a simulated industrial task of inserting electronic chips into slots of a working table, resembling a fine assembly line of transponders manufacturing. The results from ANOVA tests for the visual acuity and the motion resolvability justify the postures adopted by the participants using visual perceptibility measures for completing the insertion tasks. PMID:20947063

Janabi-Sharifi, Farrokh; Vakanski, Aleksandar



Prognosis of visual acuity after surgery for detached retina, with special reference to the unaffected eye.  


In 600 patients with successfully operated unilateral retinal detachment, the visual acuity prognosis of the operated eye was studied in relation to that of the normal eye. Within 2 years after operation, most of these patients were in the following three groups: (1) visual acuity worse than 0.5 in the non-detached retina and worse than 0.1 in the reattached one; (2) visual acuity better than 1.0 in the non-detached retina and worse than 0.3 in the reattached one; and (3) visual acuity better than 1.0 in the non-detached retina and better than 0.8 in the reattached one. Some of the patients in group 2 showed greater improvement of the visual acuity in the reattached retina, which occasionally became superior to that in the non-detached one. In spite of possible improvement until 2 years after operation, the visual acuity in the reattached retina was apt to decrease after more than 5 years following operation. The presence of macular detachment was ill for the recovery of visual acuity. About 30% of the patients with a visual acuity of about 1.0 in the non-detached retina showed no improvement of the visual acuity in the reattached retina. About 50% of the patients with successful surgery for retinal detachment had a difference of more than 0.6 in visual acuity between the non-detached and the detached retinas. PMID:7312297

Amemiya, T; Yano, H; Ogura, Y; Harayama, K



Feeding formula without arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid has no effect on preferential looking acuity or recognition memory in healthy full-term infants at 9 mo of age13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preferential looking acuity and novelty prefer- ence (a test of recognition memory) were determined by using Teller Acuity Cards and the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence, respectively, for 399-433 healthy full-term infants at 39 ± 1 wk of age. Duration of breast-feeding and age of infant at introduction and amount and type of formula were determined by questionnaire. Seventy-four infants

Sheila M Innis; Carolanne M Nelson; Dorcas Lwanga


The Army Mental Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the book, Psychological Examining in the United States Army edited by R. M. Yerkes . Much has already been written of the work of psychologists in the United States army during the recent war. Their services were manifold and psychologists were utilized in many different branches of the army. The present volume deals with the work of the group

R. Pintner



Mental Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author explores Andie Knutson's plea for a more appropriate term to describe the positive aspects of mental health and suggest the term mental fitness. She provides the definition of fitness and explains that this concept of mental fitness carries much of the connotation we are groping for. It forms an excellent counterpart for the late President Kennedy's program for

Dorothea McCarthy



Tactile acuity in experienced Tai Chi practitioners: evidence for use dependent plasticity as an effect of sensory-attentional training  

PubMed Central

The scientific discovery of novel training paradigms has yielded better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity, learning and development. This study is a first step in evaluating Tai Chi (TC), the Chinese slow-motion meditative exercise, as a training paradigm that, while not engaging in direct tactile stimulus training, elicits enhanced tactile acuity in long-term practitioners, The rationale for this study comes from the fact that, unlike previously studied direct-touch tactile training paradigms, TC practitioners focus specific mental attention on the body’s extremities including the fingertips and hands as they perform their slow routine. To determine whether TC is associated with enhanced tactile acuity, experienced adult TC practitioners were recruited and compared to age-gender matched controls. A blinded assessor used a validated method (Van Boven, Hamilton, Kauffman, Keenan, & Pascual-Leone, 2000) to compare TC practitioners’ and controls’ ability to discriminate between two different orientations (parallel and horizontal) across different grating widths at the fingertip. Study results showed TC practitioners’ tactile spatial acuity was superior to that of the matched controls (p<.04). There was a trend showing TC may have an enhanced effect on older practitioners (p<.066), suggesting TC may slow age related decline in this measure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate a long-term attentional practice’s effects on a perceptual measure. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether TC initiates or is merely correlated with perceptual changes and whether it elicits long-term plasticity in primary sensory cortical maps. Further studies should also assess whether related somatosensory attentional practices (such as Yoga, mindfulness meditation and Qigong) achieve similar effects.

Kerr, Catherine E.; Shaw, Jessica R; Wasserman, Rachel H.; Chen, Vanessa W; Kanojia, Alok; Bayer, Thomas; Kelley, John M.



Sensitivity to Mental Effort and Test-Retest Reliability of Heart Rate Variability Measures in Healthy Seniors  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine 1) whether heart rate variability (HRV) was a sensitive and reliable measure in mental effort tasks carried out by healthy seniors and 2) whether non-linear approaches to HRV analysis, in addition to traditional time and frequency domain approaches were useful to study such effects. Methods Forty healthy seniors performed two visual working memory tasks requiring different levels of mental effort, while ECG was recorded. They underwent the same tasks and recordings two weeks later. Traditional and 13 non-linear indices of HRV including Poincaré, entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were determined. Results Time domain (especially mean R-R interval/RRI), frequency domain and, among nonlinear parameters- Poincaré and DFA were the most reliable indices. Mean RRI, time domain and Poincaré were also the most sensitive to different mental effort task loads and had the largest effect size. Conclusions Overall, linear measures were the most sensitive and reliable indices to mental effort. In non-linear measures, Poincaré was the most reliable and sensitive, suggesting possible usefulness as an independent marker in cognitive function tasks in healthy seniors. Significance A large number of HRV parameters was both reliable as well as sensitive indices of mental effort, although the simple linear methods were the most sensitive.

Mukherjee, Shalini; Yadav, Rajeev; Yung, Iris; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Oken, Barry S.



Comparison of the performance of the CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION bleeding risk scores in STEMI undergoing primary PCI: insights from a cohort of 1391 patients  

PubMed Central

Aims: To compare the performance of the CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION risk models in the ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Methods: We studied all consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI at our institution between 2006 and 2010 (n=1391). The CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION risk scores were calculated based on the patients’ clinical characteristics. The occurrence of in-hospital major bleeding (defined as the composite of intracranial or intraocular bleeding, access site haemorrhage requiring intervention, reduction in haemoglobin ?4 g/dl without or ?3g/dl with overt bleeding source, reoperation for bleeding, or blood transfusion) reached 9.8%. Calibration and discrimination of the three risk models were evaluated by the Hosmer?Lemeshow test and the C-statistic, respectively. We compared the predictive accuracy of the risk scores by the DeLong non-parametric test. Results: Calibration of the three risk scores was adequate, given the non-significant results of Hosmer?Lemeshow test for the three risk models. Discrimination of CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION models was good (C-statistic 0.77, 0.70, and 0.78, respectively). The CRUSADE and ACTION risk scores had a greater predictive accuracy than the ACUITY-HORIZONS risk model (z=3.89, p-value=0.0001 and z=3.51, p-value=0.0004, respectively). There was no significant difference between the CRUSADE and ACTION models (z=0.63, p=0.531). Conclusions: The CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION scores are useful tools for the risk stratification of bleeding in STEMI treated by PPCI. Our findings favour the CRUSADE and ACTION risk models over the ACUITY-HORIZONS risk score.

Couto-Mallon, D; Rodriguez-Garrido, J; Garcia-Guimaraes, M; Gargallo-Fernandez, P; Pinon-Esteban, P; Aldama-Lopez, G; Salgado-Fernandez, J; Calvino-Santos, R; Vazquez-Gonzalez, N; Castro-Beiras, A



Sweep Pattern Visual Evoked Potential Acuity in Children during Their Periods of Visual Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the clinical usage of sweep pattern visual evoked potential (SPVEP) acuity in children’s visual development periods and compare the amplitude-spatial frequency (A-SP) function regression method with the amplitude-logarithm of the visual angle (A-logVA) function regression method in evaluating the SPVEP acuity of children, especially those who have poor visual acuities. Methods: Twenty-six eyes of 26 amblyopic children

Lu Li; Yu Su; Chang-zheng Chen; Chao Feng; Hong-mei Zheng; Yi-qiao Xing



Critique of claims of improved visual acuity after hypnotic suggestion.  


Psychological approaches to improving vision present an enticing alternative to invasive procedures and corrective lenses; hypnotic suggestion is one such technique. During the past 60 years, multiple studies have documented improvements in the vision of myopic individuals after hypnotic interventions. Given the increasing interest in behavioral and alternative approaches, we have reviewed the pertinent studies to evaluate their validity. We delineate various shortcomings in these reports, including potential methodological caveats, problems with experimental controls, and controversial data interpretation. Overall, the data do not seem to support hypnosis as a viable option for significant long-term improvement of myopia. However, hypnosis can increase one's subjective feeling of enhanced visual acuity by affecting higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memorization, and perceptual learning, which could influence performance on visual tasks. PMID:15545814

Raz, Amir; Zephrani, Zohar R; Schweizer, Heather R; Marinoff, Gerald P



Improving documentation of visual acuity in patients suffering facial fractures.  


Failure to identify eye injuries associated with facial fractures can lead to life-altering morbidity. Oral and maxillofacial surgery teams receiving referrals of patients with these injuries have a vital role in ensuring that visual acuity (VA) is recorded at the time of presentation. We present a clinical audit of documentation of VA in 126 patients who sustained orbital floor and zygoma fractures. Our intervention involved a focussed teaching session for trainees responsible for taking such referrals. VA was appropriately documented in 16.5% before the session and 57.1% afterwards. This study shows that education of junior trainees gives rise to an increase in the proportion of patients where VA is properly documented. We suggest this teaching should occur routinely at junior doctor departmental inductions. PMID:23184919

Tahim, Arpan Singh; Bryant, Catherine; Greaney, Lisa; Rashid, Arif; Fan, Kathleen



HIV Risk Reduction for Substance Using Seriously Mentally Ill Adults: Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills (IMB) Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (Fisher & Fisher, 1992) was used as the theoretical framework for predicting unprotected sexual behavior among substance abusing men and women diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (n = 320; 150 men and 170 women, primarily of minority ethnicity). In a structural equation model, gender, HIV transmission knowledge, and motivational variables of pro-condom norms and attitudes,

Seth Kalichman; Robert Malow; Jessy Dévieux; Judith A. Stein; Fred Piedman



Testing the Assumption of Measurement Invariance in the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment in Older Adults.  


This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a longitudinal multisite, randomized trial examining two modes of care (Referral and Integrated). A sample of 1,198 adults over the age of 65 who screened positive for depression, anxiety, and/or at-risk drinking was used. Structural equation modeling was used to assess measurement invariance in a two-factor measurement model (Perceived Stigma, Comfort Level). Irrespective of their stigma level, one bias indicated that with time, respondents find it easier to acknowledge that it is difficult to start treatment if others know they are in treatment. Other biases indicated that sex, mental quality of life and the subject of stigma had undue influence on respondents' feeling people would think differently of them if they received treatment and on respondents' comfort in talking to a mental health provider. Still, in the present study, these biases in response behavior had little effect on the evaluation of group differences and changes in stigma. Stigma decreased for patients of both the Referral and Integrated care groups. PMID:23193355

King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; Oort, Frans J; Lynn, Nancy; Schonfeld, Lawrence



Environment, social class, and mental abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed an interview schedule measuring the learning environment of the home to examine the relationship between the environment of children and mental ability test performance. 185 11-yr-old boys were given the California Test of Mental Maturity and subtests of the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Tests. The boys parents were then given the environment interview. It was found that the environment

Kevin Marjoribanks



The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences  

PubMed Central

Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way.

Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo



Influence of Sine, and Random, Whole-Body Vibration on Visual Acuity Einfluss Sinusfoermiger und Regelloser Ganzkoerperschwingungen Auf die Visuelle Informationsaufnahme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The far, visual acuity of people subjected to vertical whole-body vibration (different vibration types and loads) was tested. A total of 110 subjects of both sexes, either exposed to sine vibration in the range from 2 to 18 cycles/sec or to random vibrati...

N. May



A Gender Difference in Visual-Spatial Ability in 4-Year-Old Children: Effects on Performance of a Kinesthetic Acuity Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared male and female four-year-olds' performance on a kinesthetic acuity test (KAT) with or without extra visual-spatial cues and on a measure of visual-spatial ability. Found that all children performed better on the KAT with extra cues and that boys scored higher on visual-spatial ability and performed better on the KAT only with extra…

Livesey, David J.; Intili, Daniela



Adding the Female Condom to HIV Prevention Interventions for Women with Severe Mental Illness: A Pilot Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the efficacy of a gender-specific intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors by introducing female-initiated\\u000a methods to urban women with severe mental illness. Seventy-nine women received 10 sessions of an HIV prevention intervention\\u000a or a control intervention. The primary outcome was unprotected oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse, expressed using the Vaginal\\u000a Episode Equivalent (VEE) score. Knowledge and use of

Pamela Y. CollinsHella; Hella von Unger; Susan Putnins; Natalie Crawford; Ragini Dutt; Marcela Hoffer



49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data...this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet...corrective lenses and distant binocular acuity of at least 20/40...lenses; (2) A field of vision of at least 70 degrees in...



49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data...this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet...corrective lenses and distant binocular acuity of at least 20/40...lenses; (2) A field of vision of at least 70 degrees in...



Effects of low stereo acuity on performance, presence and sickness within a virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effect of stereo vision on performance, presence and oculomotor disturbances within a virtual environment (VE), two groups of 23 participants (good stereo acuity\\/low stereo acuity) were evaluated. Groups were matched in terms of gender, age and VE design factors (the latter were accounted for to ensure a similar VE experience between groups). Participants were immersed in a

Kelly S. Hale; Kay M. Stanney



The practical near acuity chart (PNAC) and prediction of visual ability at near1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objective: To improve on present reading chart designs, providing a quick and accurate method to measure the near acuity threshold, of particular importance with low vision patients. Design: The Practical Near Acuity Chart (PNAC) uses a single paragraph with 3 simple re- lated words on each line (12 lower case letters). The line print size decreases in a logMAR

James S. Wolffsohn; Anthea L. Cochrane



Vernier Acuity and the Magnocellular System Revisited: Response to Skottun and Skoyles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skottun and Skoyles (2009) recently presented a comment on Vernier acuity and magnocellular dysfunctions in fragile X premutation carriers (Keri & Benedek, 2009). The authors concluded that our finding that the magnocellular deficit, as revealed by luminance-contrast sensitivity measurements, is associated with impaired Vernier acuity for…

Keri, Szabolcs; Benedek, Gyorgy



The optokinetic response as a quantitative measure of visual acuity in zebrafish.  


Zebrafish are a proven model for vision research, however many of the earlier methods generally focused on larval fish or demonstrated a simple response. More recently adult visual behavior in zebrafish has become of interest, but methods to measure specific responses are new coming. To address this gap, we set out to develop a methodology to repeatedly and accurately utilize the optokinetic response (OKR) to measure visual acuity in adult zebrafish. Here we show that the adult zebrafish's visual acuity can be measured, including both binocular and monocular acuities. Because the fish is not harmed during the procedure, the visual acuity can be measured and compared over short or long periods of time. The visual acuity measurements described here can also be done quickly allowing for high throughput and for additional visual procedures if desired. This type of analysis is conducive to drug intervention studies or investigations of disease progression. PMID:24145465

Cameron, Donald Joshua; Rassamdana, Faydim; Tam, Peony; Dang, Kathleen; Yanez, Carolina; Ghaemmaghami, Saman; Dehkordi, Mahsa Iranpour



Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence today indicates that the causes of mental retardation are biological, psychological, and social in origin and that a combination of these causes frequently occur in a single individual. Mental retardation is identified clinically by the presence of several signs that include, but are not limited to, a significant impairment of…

Purpura, Dominick P.; And Others


Mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental disorders are diseases that affect cognition, emotion, and behavioral control and substantially interfere both with the ability of children to learn and with the ability of adults to function in their families, at work, and in the broader society. Mental disorders tend to begin early in life and often run a chronic recurrent course. They are common in all

Shepherd Ivory Franz; Dan Chisholm; Ronald Kessler; Vikram Patel; Harvey Whiteford



Rhythms of Mental Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions…

Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim



Parvocellular neurons limit motion acuity in human peripheral vision.  


It is generally believed that the perception of moving targets is mediated by the magnocellular (M) pathway in primate vision, but evidence is emerging that the parvocellular (P) pathway may also play a role in motion perception. Human peripheral vision is susceptible to anomalous motion perception because of spatial aliasing, and in this study we used this fact to determine if the P pathway can mediate information about low- and high-velocity stimuli. Psychometric functions relating visual performance to stimulus spatial frequency were measured for the directional discrimination of drifting sinusoidal gratings presented at 40 degrees eccentricity. Applying the sampling theorem to our results, we estimated that the Nyquist frequency of the limiting sampling array for directional discrimination is 1.7 cycles per degree. This result was compared with the Nyquist limit and spatial filtering properties of M and P ganglion cells in the human peripheral retina, calculated from histological data on their density and dendritic field size. Our results provide evidence to suggest that the reversed motion illusion in human peripheral vision is due to spatial aliasing by the P ganglion cell mosaic. We conclude that the sampling density of P ganglion cells limits veridical motion acuity in human peripheral vision, even for high-velocity targets. This provides further evidence that the P pathway is involved in processing information about motion. PMID:7644544

Anderson, S J; Drasdo, N; Thompson, C M



The visual acuity of the pigeon for distant targets1  

PubMed Central

The acuity of six pigeons was measured in an apparatus that required the birds to make visual discriminations at a distance of 28.75 in. (73 cm) from the stimulus targets. The stimuli were black and white gratings of varying stripe width. A forced choice procedure was used, and both the Method of Constant Stimuli and a descending series technique determined the order of stimulus presentation. Thresholds, obtained by interpolating at the 25% error point on the psychometric functions, ranged from 1.16 to 4.0 min of arc. Thresholds measured in the same apparatus for two human observers were 0.79 and 0.82 min of arc. The descending series design produced lower per cent error rates at the widest stripe value, but otherwise there appeared to be no difference between psychophysical methods. Position preferences occurred in most of the birds; differential per cent error functions and differential latency functions to the two keys illustrate these. Retinal histology revealed shallow, centrally located foveae in the three pigeon breeds used. ImagesFig. 6. AFig. 6. B

Blough, Patricia M.



The visual acuity of the pigeon for distant targets.  


The acuity of six pigeons was measured in an apparatus that required the birds to make visual discriminations at a distance of 28.75 in. (73 cm) from the stimulus targets. The stimuli were black and white gratings of varying stripe width. A forced choice procedure was used, and both the Method of Constant Stimuli and a descending series technique determined the order of stimulus presentation. Thresholds, obtained by interpolating at the 25% error point on the psychometric functions, ranged from 1.16 to 4.0 min of arc. Thresholds measured in the same apparatus for two human observers were 0.79 and 0.82 min of arc. The descending series design produced lower per cent error rates at the widest stripe value, but otherwise there appeared to be no difference between psychophysical methods. Position preferences occurred in most of the birds; differential per cent error functions and differential latency functions to the two keys illustrate these. Retinal histology revealed shallow, centrally located foveae in the three pigeon breeds used. PMID:5547284

Blough, P M



Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity.  


Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa. PMID:23382193

Böröczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby



Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.  


Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination. PMID:23346066

Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R



[History of instrumental measuring of hearing acuity: the first acumeter].  


The necessity of measuring the acuity of hearing in a reproducible way arose for the first time when the invention of Volta's pile in 1800 seemed to present the opportunity of curing deafness. For this purpose Chr. H. Wolke in Jever, Northern Germany, in 1802 devised two instruments which he called "acumeter". Details of these instruments were hardly known, and Wolke's publication was believed to be lost. The author has now succeeded in tracing Wolke's publication and another associated paper by J. J. A. Sprenger. Hence, the circumstances of Wolke's and Sprenger's work and details of these first acumeters are now being published together with original figures and the correct dimensions of the instruments. The acumeters had a pendulum-like hammer that would strike against a plate swinging down from varying heights that could be read in degrees of angle from a scale. One of the instruments was made of wood. It was 1.50 m high, with the pendulum raised to the maximal position 2.70 m. The other instrument of similar construction was made of metal and about half the size of the first one, with a height of 0.70 m or 1.30 m respectively. For comparison Itard's acumeter is presented which was published in 1821. It worked on the same principle, and it is likely that Itard had been inspired by Wolke's paper. The development of mechanical acumeters after Wolke's and Itard's instruments is outlined briefly. PMID:1388477

Feldmann, H



Adolescent Mental Health Facts  


... Mental Health Adolescent Health Topics Mental Health States Adolescent Mental Health Facts Click a state below to ... Care Positive Mental Health: Resilience In the States Adolescent Health Topics Reproductive Health Mental Health Physical Health ...


[Effect of faulty refraction and artificial media opacities on visual acuity perimetry].  


For resolution perimetry according to Frisén, 50 test locations in the central visual field are examined. Compared with conventional perimetry the test time is rather short: 5-10 min per eye. For routine application of this new perimetric technique it is important to know to what extent the threshold values are affected by refractive defocus or media opacities. To answer this, 20 eyes of 20 normal subjects were tested both with a refractive defocus (0, +1, +3, +6, +9 and +12 dpt sph) and with artificial media opacities, using occluders according to Bangerter to reduce visual acuity to average values of 0.61, 0.27, 0.14 and 0.07. The results of the present study show that even a slight refractive defocus or a slight artificial media opacity induces a marked increase in threshold values. Mean Ring score MR and defocus are quadratically correlated (MR2/defocus: r = 0.9973, p less than 0.001), and MR is linearly correlated with the Reduced Luminance Factor 1(15) (MR/1(15): r = 0.9978, p less than 0.001). Clinical evaluation of the test results of the ring perimeter thus has to take into account the influence of refractive defocus and media opacities. PMID:1794825

Hölzl, M J; Lachenmayr, B J; Vivell, P M



Visual acuity in northern China in an urban and rural population: the Beijing Eye Study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate prevalence and demographic associations of visual impairment in an urban and rural population in northern China. Methods: In the Beijing Eye Study, a population based cohort study in northern China, visual acuity was assessed for 8876 eyes (4438 subjects) according to a response rate of 83.4%. The study was divided into a rural part (1972 subjects) and an urban part (n?=?2466). Mean age was 56.20 (SD 10.59) years (median 56 years; range 40–101 years). Results: Mean uncorrected visual acuity measured 0.72 (0.32) (median, 0.80), and mean best corrected visual acuity measured 0.91 (0.21) (median, 1.0). In a multiple regression analysis, best corrected visual acuity was significantly correlated with age (p<0.001), degree of nuclear cataract (p<0.001), amount of cortical cataract (p?=?0.014), amount of subcapsular cataract (p<0.001), educational background (p<0.001), and refractive error (p<0.001). Rural region versus urban region (p?=?0.34) and sex (p?=?0.053) were not statistically significantly associated with best corrected visual acuity. Conclusions: In northern China, determinants of a low degree of best corrected visual acuity are age, cataract, low educational background, and myopia. Despite marked differences in educational background and family income, sex, and rural area versus urban area are not markedly associated with best corrected visual acuity.

Xu, L; Li, J; Cui, T; Hu, A; Zheng, Y; Li, Y; Sun, B; Ma, B; Jonas, J B



Clinical vision characteristics of the congenital achromatopsias. I. Visual acuity, refractive error, and binocular status.  


Visual acuity, refractive error, and binocular status were determined in 43 autosomal recessive (AR) and 15 X-linked (XL) congenital achromats. The achromats were classified by color matching and spectral sensitivity data. Large interindividual variation in refractive error and visual acuity was present within each achromat group (complete AR, incomplete AR, and XL). However, the number of individuals with significant interocular acuity differences is very small. Most XLs are myopic; ARs show a wide range of refractive error from high myopia to high hyperopia. Acuity of the AR and XL groups was very similar. With-the-rule astigmatism of large amount is very common in achromats, particularly ARs. There is a close association between strabismus and interocular acuity differences in the ARs, with the fixating eye having better than average acuity. The large overlap of acuity and refractive error of XL and AR achromats suggests that these measures are less useful for differential diagnosis than generally indicated by the clinical literature. PMID:8843124

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G; Schneck, M E; Verdon, W A; Hewlett, S E



Mental Illness  


... conditions, and insurance companies use it to reimburse for treatment. To be diagnosed with a particular mental illness, ... mentalhealthsurveillance/fact_sheet.html. Accessed July 23, 2012. Treatment approaches for drug addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http:// ...


Visual acuity testability and comparability in Australian preschool children: The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To establish standardised protocols for vision screening, testability and comparability of three different vision tests were examined in a population-based, cross-sectional sample of preschool children (Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study). Methods Measurement of presenting monocular distance visual acuity (VA) using the Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS) HOTV protocol, was attempted by all (1774) children aged?24 months. In addition, in children aged?60 months (576), VA was also tested using the logMAR retro-illuminated HOTV or Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) linear charts (CSV 1000). Children able to have both eyes tested monocularly were considered. Results Testability significantly increased with age for all VA tests. The ATS HOTV with an overall testability of 80% (females: 82%, males: 78%) was the most testable of the VA tests (P<0.0001). In children aged <3 years testability was low (?47%) rising to?80% in children aged?3. In children?60 months, testability was higher for the HOTV (94%) than the ETDRS (59%) chart. In those that did two VA tests, mean difference of the ATS HOTV compared with the HOTV(CSV) was ?0.1, and compared with ETDRS was ?0.12 (P<0.0001). Conclusions Children aged <3 years had poor VA testability, whereas those 3 years and above were highly testable using the ATS HOTV. The HOTV (CSV) retro-illuminated test was appropriate for children aged >5 years, and may be possible in younger children with early educational exposure. When comparing VA measures using these tests, the higher VA attained using the ATS HOTV, needs to be taken into account.

Leone, J F; Gole, G A; Mitchell, P; Kifley, A; Pai, A S-I; Rose, K A



A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Contact Lens to Intraocular Lens Correction of Monocular Aphakia During Infancy: Grating Acuity and Adverse Events at Age 1 Year  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the visual outcomes and adverse events of contact lens to primary intraocular lens (IOL) correction of monocular aphakia during infancy. Methods In a randomized, multicenter (12 sites) clinical trial, 114 infants with a unilateral congenital cataract were assigned to undergo cataract surgery between 1 to 6 months of age either with or without primary IOL implantation. Contact lenses were used to correct aphakia in patients who did not receive IOLs. Grating visual acuity was tested at 1 year of age by a masked traveling examiner Main Outcome Measures Grating visual acuity at 1 year of age. Results The median logMAR visual acuity was not significantly different between the treated eyes in the two groups (CL = 0.80, IOL = 0.97, p =.20). More patients in the IOL group underwent one or more additional intraocular surgeries than patients in the CL group (63% vs 12%; p <.0001). Most of these additional surgeries were performed to clear lens reproliferation and pupillary membranes from the visual axis. Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference in grating visual acuity at age 1 year between the IOL and CL groups; however, additional intraocular surgeries were performed more frequently in the IOL group. Application to Clinical Practice Until longer term follow-up data are available, caution should be exercised when performing IOL implantation in children 6 months of age or younger given the higher incidence of adverse events and the absence of an improved short-term visual outcome compared to contact lens use.



A study of the Kent and Buck screen tests of mental ability in relation to Otis and Stanford Achievement Test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

100 first offenders admitted to a federal correctional institution for boys were given the Kent Oral Emergency Test, the Buck Time Appreciation Test, the Otis Group Intelligence Scale, Advanced Examination, and the Stanford Achievement Test. The screen tests were highly related to each other and to the Otis. Of the 2 screen tests, the Kent test (Scale D) seemed less

Charles N. Cofer; Mark M. Biegel



Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: Localization Acuity Measured with Minimum Audible Angle  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate sound localization acuity in a group of children who received bilateral (BI) cochlear implants in sequential procedures and to determine the extent to which BI auditory experience affects sound localization acuity. In addition, to investigate the extent to which a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear can also provide benefits on this task. Design Two groups of children participated, 13 with BI cochlear implants (cochlear implant + cochlear implant), ranging in age from 3 to 16 yrs, and six with a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear (cochlear implant + hearing aid), ages 4 to 14 yrs. Testing was conducted in large sound-treated booths with loudspeakers positioned on a horizontal arc with a radius of 1.5 m. Stimuli were spondaic words recorded with a male voice. Stimulus levels typically averaged 60 dB SPL and were randomly roved between 56 and 64 dB SPL (±4 dB rove); in a few instances, levels were held fixed (60 dB SPL). Testing was conducted by using a “listening game” platform via computerized interactive software, and the ability of each child to discriminate sounds presented to the right or left was measured for loudspeakers subtending various angular separations. Minimum audible angle thresholds were measured in the BI (cochlear implant + cochlear implant or cochlear implant + hearing aid) listening mode and under monaural conditions. Results Approximately 70% (9/13) of children in the cochlear implant + cochlear implant group discriminated left/right for source separations of ?20° and, of those, 77% (7/9) performed better when listening bilaterally than with either cochlear implant alone. Several children were also able to perform the task when using a single cochlear implant, under some conditions. Minimum audible angle thresholds were better in the first cochlear implant than the second cochlear implant listening mode for nearly all (8/9) subjects. Repeated testing of a few individual subjects over a 2-yr period suggests that robust improvements in performance occurred with increased auditory experience. Children who wore hearing aids in the nonimplanted ear were at times also able to perform the task. Average group performance was worse than that of the children with BI cochlear implants when both ears were activated (cochlear implant + hearing aid versus cochlear implant + cochlear implant) but not significantly different when listening with a single cochlear implant. Conclusions Children with sequential BI cochlear implants represent a unique population of individuals who have undergone variable amounts of auditory deprivation in each ear. Our findings suggest that many but not all of these children perform better on measures of localization acuity with two cochlear implants compared with one and are better at the task than children using the cochlear implant + hearing aid. These results must be interpreted with caution, because benefits on other tasks as well as the long-term benefits of BI cochlear implants are yet to be fully understood. The factors that might contribute to such benefits must be carefully evaluated in large populations of children using a variety of measures.

Litovsky, Ruth Y.; Johnstone, Patti M.; Godar, Shelly; Agrawal, Smita; Parkinson, Aaron; Peters, Robert; Lake, Jennifer



A new X linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome with short stature, small testes, muscle wasting, and tremor localises to Xq24-q25  

PubMed Central

METHODS—A large family is described in which mental retardation segregates as an X linked trait. Six affected males in three generations were studied by linkage and clinical examination.?RESULTS—Characteristic clinical features include short stature, prominent lower lip, small testes, muscle wasting of the lower legs, kyphosis, joint hyperextensibility, abnormal gait, tremor, and decreased fine motor coordination. Affected subjects also had impaired speech and decreased attention span. A carrier female was mildly affected. A similar disorder was not found on review of our XLMR Database of 124 syndromes. Linkage analysis of 37 markers resulted in a lod score of 2.80 at DXS1212 and 2.76 at DXS425. The limiting markers were DXS424 and DXS1047. Ten of 124 XLMR syndromes and eight of 58 MRX families overlap this region.?CONCLUSIONS—In summary, this family appears to have a new XLMR syndrome localising to Xq24-q25.???Keywords: X linked mental retardation; Xq24-q25; syndrome

Cabezas, D.; Slaugh, R.; Abidi, F.; Arena, J; Stevenson, R.; Schwartz, C.; Lubs, H.



The average mental age of adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the average mental age of adults by comparing the average intelligence of 9500 native whites, 3700 foreign-born men and 3300 Negroes. The intelligence of the former was judged on the basis of Army Mental Tests and that of the two latter groups was on the basis of the Surgeon General's report. The average mental age of adults was found

Edgar A. Doll



Recovery of Upper Extremity Sensorimotor System Acuity in Baseball Athletes After a Throwing-Fatigue Protocol  

PubMed Central

Context: Research indicates that upper extremity fatigue hampers sensorimotor system acuity. However, no investigators have observed recovery of upper extremity acuity after fatigue. Objective: To observe recovery of active position reproduction acuity in overhead throwers after a throwing-fatigue protocol. Design: Single-session, repeated-measures design. Setting: University musculoskeletal laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen healthy collegiate baseball players (age = 21.0 ± 1.6 years, height = 175.8 ± 10.2 cm, mass = 82.8 ± 4.3 kg). Intervention(s): Subjects threw a baseball with maximum velocity (every 5 seconds) from a single knee. Every 20 throws, subjects rated their upper extremity exertion on a Borg scale until reporting a level of more than 14. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used an electromagnetic tracking system to measure active multijoint position reproduction acuity at 5 intervals: prefatigue; immediately postfatigue; and after 4, 7, and 10 minutes of recovery. Blindfolded subjects reproduced their arm-cocked and ball-release positions. Dependent variables were 3-dimensional variable errors of scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, elbow, and wrist joints; endpoint (ie, hand) position error represented overall upper extremity acuity. The independent variable was time (measured prefatigue and at 4 postfatigue intervals). Results: Fatigue significantly affected acuity of scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, and elbow joints and endpoint error for both positions (P < .001). Fatigue significantly affected wrist acuity only for ball release (P < .001). For arm-cocked reproduction, each measure of acuity, except that of the glenohumeral joint, recovered by 7 minutes; for ball release, each measure of acuity recovered within 4 minutes (P > .05). Conclusions: The sensorimotor system deficits that we observed after fatigue recovered within 7 minutes in most upper extremity joints. Glenohumeral arm-cocked position reproduction acuity failed to recover within 10 minutes. Research indicates that overhead throwers are vulnerable in this position to the capsulolabral injuries commonly observed in throwing athletes. Future researchers should explore this relationship and the effectiveness of exercises aimed at enhancing sensorimotor system acuity and endurance.

Tripp, Brady L; Yochem, Eric M; Uhl, Timothy L



Changes in functional visual acuity and ocular wavefront aberration after administration of eye ointment.  


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of an eye ointment on functional visual acuity (FVA) and ocular wavefront aberration. Methods: In 11 healthy volunteers (6 men and 5 women), visual function parameters, such as FVA, visual maintenance ratios (VMR), and minimal visual acuity (minVA), were assessed by the FVA measurement system before and 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240?min after administration of ofloxacin eye ointment. Ocular aberration was also measured, and the root mean square (RMS) of second-, third-, fourth-, and total higher-order aberrations was determined. The time course of changes in each parameter was statistically analyzed by using repeated-measures analysis of variance and the Dunnett post hoc test, and relationships between visual function and ocular aberration parameters were also analyzed by the Pearson correlation test. Results: FVA, VMR, and minVA showed significant deteriorations at 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20?min after administration of eye ointment compared with the baseline values (P<0.05). All components of ocular wavefront aberration such as second-, third-, fourth-, and total higher-order RMS significantly increased at 2- and 5?min after the administration of eye ointment compared with the baseline values (P<0.05). In addition, deteriorations of these visual function parameters were significantly correlated with reduced blink numbers (Pearson's correlation coefficient; r=-?0.76, P=0.017 for FVA, r=0.79, P=0.013 for VMR, and r=-0.62, P=0.040 for minVA), and VMR was significantly related with changes in second-order RMS (r=-0.60, P=0.049). Conclusions: Eye ointment significantly reduced visual function for at least 20?min. Especially, minVA was worse than 0.155 logMAR, which is legally required for driving, for 3?h after the administration. In addition, increases in lower-order aberration and low blink rates were associated with the degradation of visual function. PMID:23808568

Hiraoka, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Okamoto, Fumiki; Oshika, Tetsuro



Influence of Local Cooling on Proprioceptive Acuity in the Quadriceps Muscle  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the influence of cooling on proprioceptive acuity as reflected in the ability to discriminate weights. Design and Setting: Participants were trained to perform a weight-discrimination task. Their ability to correctly report small increments in weight was compared before and after local cooling (a 20-minute application of a crushed-ice pack) of the quadriceps muscle group. Data were collected at a university research laboratory. Subjects: Twenty young, physically active adults (undergraduate students; 14 men, 6 women; mean age, 22.1 ± 2.6 years). Measurements: We calculated overall performance in the weight-discrimination task (percentage of discrimination correct) for each participant to estimate the differential threshold (ie, minimal increment in weight that yields a probability of 75% correct responses). Results: Before local cooling, participants discriminated increments in the order of 4% to 10% from the standard weight (mean threshold, 0.17 ± 0.06 kg). After local cooling, the discriminative performance remained, on average, very similar to that seen before cooling (mean threshold, 0.17 ± 0.08 kg; paired t test: t = 0.24, P = .81). Only a small group of participants (n = 5) showed evidence of a decreased ability to discriminate weight after cooling. Conclusions: The perception of force signals required for weight discrimination does not appear to be affected by local cooling of the quadriceps muscle group. This finding provides additional evidence for the relative safety of cold applications and their effect on proprioceptive perceptual abilities.

Estephan, Lorein; Legendre, Martine; Sulpher, Stephanie



Influence of Local Cooling on Proprioceptive Acuity in the Quadriceps Muscle.  


OBJECTIVE: To test the influence of cooling on proprioceptive acuity as reflected in the ability to discriminate weights. DESIGN AND SETTING: Participants were trained to perform a weight-discrimination task. Their ability to correctly report small increments in weight was compared before and after local cooling (a 20-minute application of a crushed-ice pack) of the quadriceps muscle group. Data were collected at a university research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty young, physically active adults (undergraduate students; 14 men, 6 women; mean age, 22.1 +/- 2.6 years). MEASUREMENTS: We calculated overall performance in the weight-discrimination task (percentage of discrimination correct) for each participant to estimate the differential threshold (ie, minimal increment in weight that yields a probability of 75% correct responses). RESULTS: Before local cooling, participants discriminated increments in the order of 4% to 10% from the standard weight (mean threshold, 0.17 +/- 0.06 kg). After local cooling, the discriminative performance remained, on average, very similar to that seen before cooling (mean threshold, 0.17 +/- 0.08 kg; paired t test: t = 0.24, P =.81). Only a small group of participants (n = 5) showed evidence of a decreased ability to discriminate weight after cooling. CONCLUSIONS: The perception of force signals required for weight discrimination does not appear to be affected by local cooling of the quadriceps muscle group. This finding provides additional evidence for the relative safety of cold applications and their effect on proprioceptive perceptual abilities. PMID:12937450

Tremblay, François; Estephan, Lorein; Legendre, Martine; Sulpher, Stéphanie



Changes in Patients’ Taste Acuity after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Clinically Severe Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for clinically severe obesity often report an aversion to sweet foods and meat. This study was designed to determine whether changes in taste acuity occur after RYGB.Design This prospective, repeated measures trial evaluated acuity for sweet (sucrose) and bitter (urea) tastes, zinc status, and reported changes in taste perceptions in patients




Visual acuity and quality of life outcomes in patients with cataract in Shunyi County, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To measure visual acuity and vision-related quality of life in individuals in rural China operated on for cataract.METHODS: Five thousand fifty-two persons age 50 years and older, 90.9% (5,052\\/5,555) of a randomly selected population in Shunyi County, were examined in the fall of 1996. Visual functioning and quality of life questionnaires were administered to those with presenting visual acuity

Jialiang Zhao; Ruifang Sui; Lijan Jia; Astrid E Fletcher; Leon B Ellwein



Longitudinal Relationships among Visual Acuity and Tasks of Everyday Life: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To study the relationships among visual and physical function trajectories of aging adults. Methods. The community-based random sample consists of 2520 adults who were aged 65 to 84 years in 1993 to 1995 and reassessed 2, 6, and 8 years later. Presenting and best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity were obtained. Activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) were evaluated through survey instruments. Growth curve models were used to simultaneously estimate health trajectories and obtain associations among the trajectories while controlling for relevant covariates. Results. Best-corrected acuity (logMAR) worsened by an average of 0.013 (?1 letter) annually. ADL difficulties increased by 0.22 standard deviations (SD) and IADL difficulties increased by 0.28 SD annually. Controlling for demographic and health covariates, visual acuity rates of decline correlated with rates of increase in ADL difficulties (r = 0.15, P = 0.05) and IADL difficulties (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Acuity loss was significantly related to increases in ADLs for men (b = 0.039, P < 0.01), but not for women (b = 0.001, P > 0.9). The direct effects of acuity loss were strongest for IADLs where a 1-unit decline in acuity (logMAR) was associated with a 0.067 SD increase in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) at baseline, and a 1-unit acuity decline (logMAR) per year resulted in a 0.10 SD unit increase in the rate of change in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) per year. Conclusions. Over time, increases in visual acuity loss were related to increased IADL difficulties in men and women and increases in ADL difficulties for men only. The findings support the importance of maintaining vision in older adults.

Lam, Byron L.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zheng, D. Diane; West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Lee, David J.



Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is mental health? Mental health is a goal for all people, including those with mental retardation, not just those having difficulties. Mental health is an essential ingredient in the quality of life. The two main aspects of mental health are emotional well-being and rewarding social and interpersonal relationships. Emotional well-being is an important part of the gift of human

Steven Reiss; Ruth Ryan


Proprioceptive acuity in the frontal and sagittal planes of the knee: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Though the knee experiences three-dimensional loading during everyday tasks, assessment of proprioceptive acuity has typically been limited to the primary direction of movement, knee flexion and extension. While loading in the constrained directions (varus/valgus and internal/external rotation) may contribute to injury and joint disease, little information is available regarding proprioceptive acuity in these planes of movement. The primary aim of this study was to characterize proprioceptive acuity in the frontal plane (varus/valgus) and to compare it with sagittal plane (flexion/extension) proprioceptive acuity in healthy subjects. Proprioception was assessed in 17 young, healthy subjects (11 females, 6 males, ages 21–33 years) using the threshold to detection of passive movement (TDPM). TDPM was found to be significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the frontal plane [valgus: mean (SD) 0.60 (0.20)° and varus: 0.58 (0.23)°] compared with the sagittal plane [extension: 0.78 (0.34)°, flexion: 0.82 (0.48)°]; however, no significant differences were noted within the same plane of movement. Results from this preliminary study may suggest more accurate proprioceptive acuity in the frontal plane compared with the sagittal plane. While further examination is necessary to confirm this relationship, more accurate frontal plane acuity may reflect a protective neural mechanism which enables more precise neuromuscular control of the joint in this constrained plane of movement.

Dhaher, Yasin Y.



Visual acuity in the pigeon II: effects of target distance and retinal lesions1  

PubMed Central

Visual acuity thresholds for grating targets were determined for three pigeons at target distances ranging from 13 to 73 cm. These measurements were made both while the birds were wearing goggles restricting vision to the frontal field of view and when vision was unrestricted. Using a slightly different method, performance was also compared for target distances of 6 and 13 cm while the goggles were in place. For a second group of three pigeons, acuity data were obtained before and after laser lesions of the retina's foveal region. The findings suggested that acuity was relatively poor for targets at the intermediate distances and that it improved as distance both increased and decreased from these intermediate values. The acuity improvement with increasing distance did not occur, however, when the birds were wearing frontal goggles. The data appear to be consistent with Catania's 1964 suggestion that the pigeon has separate frontal and lateral visual systems that differ in their refractive characteristics. Foveal lesions did not appear to affect acuity for distant targets, and it was concluded that, while the fovea serves the lateral field of view, its presence is not necessary to the static acuity characteristics of this system.

Blough, Patricia M.



Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: Results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth

Natalie Durbeej; Anne H. Berman; Clara H. Gumpert; Tom Palmstierna; Marianne Kristiansson; Charlotte Alm



Adding the Female Condom to HIV Prevention Interventions for Women with Severe Mental Illness: A Pilot Test  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the efficacy of a gender-specific intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors by introducing female-initiated methods to urban women with severe mental illness. Seventy-nine women received 10 sessions of an HIV prevention intervention or a control intervention. The primary outcome was unprotected oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse, expressed using the Vaginal Episode Equivalent (VEE) score. Knowledge and use of the female condom were also assessed. Women in the HIV prevention intervention showed a three-fold reduction in the VEE score at the 3-month follow-up compared to the control group, but the difference was not significant. These women were significantly more likely to know about female condoms, have inserted one and used it with a sexual partner at the 3-month follow-up and to have inserted it at 6 months compared to controls. The female condom may be a useful addition, for a subset of women with SMI, to comprehensive HIV prevention programs.

Collins, Pamela Y.; von Unger, Hella; Putnins, Susan; Crawford, Natalie; Dutt, Ragini; Hoffer, Marcela



Adding the female condom to HIV prevention interventions for women with severe mental illness: a pilot test.  


We evaluated the efficacy of a gender-specific intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors by introducing female-initiated methods to urban women with severe mental illness. Seventy-nine women received 10 sessions of an HIV prevention intervention or a control intervention. The primary outcome was unprotected oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse, expressed using the Vaginal Episode Equivalent (VEE) score. Knowledge and use of the female condom were also assessed. Women in the HIV prevention intervention showed a three-fold reduction in the VEE score at the 3-month follow-up compared to the control group, but the difference was not significant. These women were significantly more likely to know about female condoms, have inserted one and used it with a sexual partner at the 3-month follow-up and to have inserted it at 6 months compared to controls. The female condom may be a useful addition, for a subset of women with SMI, to comprehensive HIV prevention programs. PMID:20336486

Collins, Pamela Y; von Unger, Hella; Putnins, Susan; Crawford, Natalie; Dutt, Ragini; Hoffer, Marcela



A randomized controlled trial undertaken to test a nurse-led weight management and exercise intervention designed for people with serious mental illness who take second generation antipsychotics  

PubMed Central

Aim To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background Weight gain and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population with the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome reaching 20–25% of the global population. People with serious mental illness are at even higher risk, particularly those taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Design An experimental randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Method The control group received a 12-week healthy lifestyle booklet. In addition to the booklet, the intervention group received weekly nutrition and exercise education, exercise sessions, and nurse support. Participants (n = 101) were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Data were collected between March 2008–December 2010. Seven outcome measures were used: body measurements included girth (cm), weight (kg), height (cm), and body mass index (kg/m2); questionnaires included the medication compliance questionnaire, the Drug Attitude Inventory, the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36. Differences in primary outcome measures between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were compared between intervention and control groups using standard bi-variate statistical tests. The study was conducted between 2008–2010. Results The analysis of outcome measures for the control group (n = 50) and intervention group (n = 51) was not statistically significant. There was a mean weight change of ?0·74 kg at 12 weeks for the intervention group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 50) had a mean weight change of ?0·17 kg at 12 weeks. Conclusion The results were not statistically significant.

Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Foster, Kim; Buettner, Petra



Florida Mental Health Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida Mental Health Institute, dedicated to research, training and program development for improving psychological wellbeing, has four main divisions: Aging and Mental Health, Child and Family Studies, Community Mental Health, and Mental Health Law and Policy.


Laboratory Vision Tests of Military Aircrewmen. Part 1. 1966 Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A battery of vision tests was administered to 232 military aircrewmen who were participating in flight tests being conducted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Measures of foveal and peripheral visual acuity, eye dominance, auditory- and visual-response time, ...

R. A. Erickson C. G. Burge



Racial Discrimination Through Mental Testing: A Social Critic's Point of View. IRCD Bulletin, No. 42, May 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, based on a book on the assessment of minority students, is a critical review of the research done heretofore on intelligence testing. It deals with such issues as: the social criticism of testing through numerous lawsuits, court rulings, and in the positions taken by the Association of Black Psychologists and the American Personnel and…

Samuda, Ronald J.


Origins of Superior Dynamic Visual Acuity in Baseball Players: Superior Eye Movements or Superior Image Processing  

PubMed Central

Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions), whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions). The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina.

Uchida, Yusuke; Kudoh, Daisuke; Murakami, Akira; Honda, Masaaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru



Effect of Cataract Type and Severity on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the effect of cataract type and severity in eyes with pure types of age-related lens opacities on visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity in the presence and absence of glare conditions. Methods Sixty patients with senile cataracts aged 40 years or older with no other ocular pathologies were evaluated for VA and contrast sensitivity with and without glare. Lens opacities were classified according to the Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) III. VA was measured using the Snellen chart. Contrast sensitivity was measured with the Vector Vision CSV-1000E chart in the presence and absence of glare by calculating the area under log contrast sensitivity (log CS) function (AULCSF). Results Cataracts were posterior subcapsular in 26 eyes, cortical in 19 eyes and nuclear in 15 eyes. VA significantly decreased with increasing cataract severity and there was significant loss of contrast sensitivity at all spatial frequencies with increasing cataract severity. AULCSF significantly decreased with increasing cataract severity in the presence and absence of glare conditions. Contrast sensitivity was significantly reduced at high spatial frequency (18 cpd) in cortical cataracts in the presence of glare in day light and at low spatial frequency (3 cpd) in night light. Conclusion Increased cataract severity is strongly associated with a decrease in both VA and AULCSF. Contrast sensitivity scores may offer additional information over standard VA tests in patients with early age-related cataracts.

Shandiz, Javad Heravian; Derakhshan, Akbar; Daneshyar, Ameneh; Azimi, Abbas; Moghaddam, Hadi Ostadi; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Yazdi, Seyed Hosein Hoseini; Esmaily, Habibollah



Mental Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biographies of great achievers, in science as well as other disciplines, suggest that those of genius caliber possess, in addition to their intellectual gift or gifts, an extraordinary abundance of mental energy. They can focus their attention on some task for long periods without tiring or becoming distracted from the problem at hand. It is…

Lykken, D.T.



UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a Newly Developed Organizational Skills Assessment Tool for Severely Mentally Ill Adults  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants’ organizational skills were measured using our newly developed UCSD Sorting Test (U-SORT); a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a “junk drawer” into “keep” vs. “trash” piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms), were acceptable (mean r = |.34|), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = |.06|). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable and valid measure of functioning for this population.

Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T.; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.



Mental Rotation: Cross-Task Training and Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that performance on standard mental rotation tasks improves with training (Peters et al., 1995), but thus far there is little consensus regarding the degree of transfer to other tasks which also involve mental rotation. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of mental rotation training on participants' Mental Rotation Test

Stransky, Debi; Wilcox, Laurie M.; Dubrowski, Adam



Concurrent and Predictive Validity of the Cognitive Adaptive Test\\/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT\\/CLAMS) and the Mental Developmental Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cognitive Adaptive Test\\/ Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT\\/CLAMS) was designed for use by primary pediatric health care providers to identify children with developmental delays. This study assesses the concurrent and predictive validity of CAT\\/CLAMS developmental quotient (DQ) scores and the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in healthy children without risk factors

Robert G. Voigt; Frank R. Brown; J. Kennard Fraley; Antolin M. Liorente; Judith Rozelle; Marie Turcich; Craig L. Jensen; William C. Heird



Community Mental Health Centers and the decreasing use of state mental hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the success of the Community Mental Health Centers Program goal of reducing state hospital utilization, changes in state mental hospital resident and admission rates were calculated, using 16 states, for counties wholly within or outside of catchment areas served by operating, federally funded community mental health centers. There was no consistent relationship between the opening of centers and

Charles Windle; Diana Scully



A comparison of the clinical effectiveness and costs of mental health nurse supplementary prescribing and independent medical prescribing: a post-test control group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Supplementary prescribing for mental health nurses was first introduced in the UK in 2003. Since then, a number of studies have reported stakeholders' perceptions of the success of the initiative. However, there has been little experimental research conducted into its effectiveness. This paper reports findings from the first known study to compare the cost and clinical impact of mental

Ian J Norman; Samantha Coster; Paul McCrone; Andrew Sibley; Cate Whittlesea



Rapid Recovery of Visual Acuity after Lumboperitoneal Shunt Operation in Malignant Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension can cause rapid deterioration of visual acuity in some severe cases, and these cases are usually thought to have “malignant” form of this disease. Case. In this paper, we report on a 16-year-old girl who is a typical example for malignant idiopathic intracranial hypertension with a rapid recovery of visual acuity after lumboperitoneal shunt operation. Observations and Conclusions. Malignant form of idiopathic intracranial hypertension must be kept in mind in selected patients to avoid irreversible visual loss.

Bir, Levent Sinan; Degirmenci, Eylem; Erdogan, Cagdas; Bilgin, Selma; Coskun, Erdal



Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person’s life should be positively correlated with that person’s level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate all the six categories of incompatibility described by S. Kaplan:

Thomas R. Herzog; Lauren J. Hayes; Rebecca C. Applin; Anna M. Weatherly



Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge



Item and Scale Differential Functioning of the Mini-Mental State Exam Assessed Using the Differential Item and Test Functioning (DFIT) Framework  

PubMed Central

Objectives To illustrate the application of the Differential Item and Test Functioning (DFIT) method using English and Spanish versions of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects Study participants were 65 years of age or older and lived in North Manhattan, New York. Of the 1578 study participants who were administered the MMSE 665 completed it in Spanish. Measures The MMSE contains 20 items that measure the degree of cognitive impairment in the areas of orientation, attention and calculation, registration, recall and language, as well as the ability to follow verbal and written commands. Research Design After assessing the dimensionality of the MMSE scale, item response theory person and item parameters were estimated separately for the English and Spanish sample using Samejima’s 2-parameter graded response model. Then the DFIT framework was used to assess differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF). Results Nine items were found to show DIF; these were items that ask the respondent to name the correct season, day of the month, city, state, and 2 nearby streets, recall 3 objects, repeat the phrase no ifs, no ands, no buts, follow the command, “close your eyes,” and the command, “take the paper in your right hand, fold the paper in half with both hands, and put the paper down in your lap.” At the scale level, however, the MMSE did not show differential functioning. Conclusions Respondents to the English and Spanish versions of the MMSE are comparable on the basis of scale scores. However, assessments based on individual MMSE items may be misleading.

Morales, Leo S.; Flowers, Claudia; Gutierrez, Peter; Kleinman, Marjorie; Teresi, Jeanne A.



Assessment of Visual Acuity, Refraction Changes, and Proptosis in Different Ages of Patients with Thyroid Diseases  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of the study was to assess visual acuity, refractive status, and eye proptosis in children and young adults with Graves' disease. Material and Methods. We have done investigations of visual acuity, refraction, and eye proptosis in 16 children, 14 teenagers, and 49 adults with Graves' disease at Eye Clinic of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Medical Academy. Data were compared with 14 children, 14 teenagers, and 35 adults of similar age without the same diseases (control group). Results. In the present study we observed a significant decrease of visual acuity in teenagers (0.73 ± 0.18, P = 0.001) and adults (0.7 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) with Graves' disease. Myopia was ascertained more frequent in teenagers (42.8 percent) and adults (44.9 percent) with Graves' disease. In our study exophthalmometer values were higher in children (15.94 ± 1.98?mm, P = 0.003), teenagers (17.28 ± 2.99?mm, P = 0.01), and adults (18.05 ± 2.91?mm, P = 0.001) in comparison with the controls. Conclusions. The data we have found suggest that Graves' disease in children, teenagers, and adults has influence on vision acuity, refraction, and eye proptosis.

Jankauskiene, J.; Jarusaitiene, D.



Acute and chronic exposure to ammonia and olfactory acuity for n-butanol in the pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An associative learning method (using a food reward) was developed to measure pigs’ olfactory acuity for n-butanol, a standard odourant in human olfactometry. The pig could press two operant paddles but it only received a food reward when it pressed the one over which n-butanol was released. Once each pig had reached a training criterion (10 consecutive roots on the

Jonathan B Jones; Christopher M Wathes; Krishna C Persaud; Rodger P White; R. Bryan Jones



The acuity of echolocation: Spatial resolution in the sighted compared to expert performance  

PubMed Central

Compared with the echolocation performance of a blind expert, sighted novices rapidly learned size and position discrimination with surprising precision. We use a novel task to characterize the population distribution of echolocation skill in the sighted and report the highest known human echolocation acuity in our expert subject.

Teng, Santani; Whitney, David



Association between integrity of foveal photoreceptor layer and visual acuity in branch retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To study the correlation between integrity of the photoreceptor layer after resolution of macular oedema (MO) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and final visual acuity (VA), and to determine prognostic factors for visual outcome. Methods: We retrospectively studied 46 eyes from 46 patients with resolved MO secondary to BRVO, the foveal thickness of which was less than

Masafumi Ota; Akitaka Tsujikawa; Tomoaki Murakami; Mihori Kita; Kazuaki Miyamoto; Atsushi Sakamoto; Noritatsu Yamaike; Nagahisa Yoshimura



Initial Visual Acuity Is an Important Prognostic Factor in Patients with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the role of initial visual acuity (VA) as a potential prognostic factor for final VA in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: A retrospective data analysis involving 163 patients with macular edema secondary to BRVO treated according to the recommendations of the Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression

Jiri Rehak; Ladislav Dusek; Oldrich Chrapek; Evzen Fric; Matus Rehak



Lingual tactile acuity, taste perception, and the density and diameter of fungiform papillae in female subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals who differ in taste perception differ in lingual tactile perception. To address this issue, spatial resolution acuity was estimated for 83 young adult females (52 Asians and 31 Caucasians) by their ability to examine with the tongue and identify embossed letters of the alphabet. Ratings of the magnitude of the bitterness of

Greg K. Essick; Anita Chopra; Steve Guest; Francis McGlone



Analysis of visual acuity and motion resolvability as measures for optimal visual perception of the workspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

For working tasks with high visual demand, ergonomic design of the working stations requires defining criteria for comparative evaluation and analysis of the visual perceptibility in different regions of the workspace. This paper provides kinematic models of visual acuity and motion resolvability as adopted measures of visual perceptibility of the workspace. The proposed models have been examined through two sets

Farrokh Janabi-Sharifi; Aleksandar Vakanski



Visual acuity measurements in a national sample of British elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDDespite the fact that visual function has an important role in the quality of life in later years, very few studies have measured visual acuity in population based nationwide samples of British elderly people. Such measurements were carried out in the context of the national diet and nutrition survey of people aged 65 years or over (NDNS).METHODSNDNS participants, who were

J C van der Pols; C J Bates; P V McGraw; J R Thompson; M Reacher; A Prentice; S Finch



Development of an Acuity-Based Nurse Staffing System for the Post Anesthesia Care Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of the study were (a) to provide an acuity-based method of determining nurse staffing needs for post anesthesia care units (PACUs) in the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) and (b) to provide a method of analyzing PACU workload variation. This m...

J. K. Zadinsky



Visual acuity in northern China in an urban and rural population: the Beijing Eye Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate prevalence and demographic associations of visual impairment in an urban and rural population in northern China.Methods: In the Beijing Eye Study, a population based cohort study in northern China, visual acuity was assessed for 8876 eyes (4438 subjects) according to a response rate of 83.4%. The study was divided into a rural part (1972 subjects) and an

L Xu; J Li; T Cui; A Hu; Y Zheng; Y Li; B Sun; B Ma; J B Jonas



A Close Eye on the Eagle-Eyed Visual Acuity Hypothesis of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP).…

Bolte, Sven; Schlitt, Sabine; Gapp, Volker; Hainz, Daniela; Schirman, Shella; Poustka, Fritz; Weber, Bernhard; Freitag, Christine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik



Evaluation of the Paediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale in a pediatric ED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the Paediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (Paed CTAS) to a previous triage tool with respect to the percentage of admissions, the diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and the mean pediatric risk of admission (PRISA) score in a pediatric tertiary center emergency department. Data were prospectively collected for 4 months

Serge Gouin; Jocelyn Gravel; Devendra K. Amre; Sylvie Bergeron



Methods of visual acuity determination with the spatial frequency sweep visual evoked potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The spatial frequency sweep visual evoked potential (sVEP) is used to rapidly determine visual acuity in children or non-responsive patients. Two techniques have been used to separate signal from noise: (1) the 95% confidence interval for the signal amplitude (95% CI) or (2) the amplitude of a Fourier frequency adjacent to 2· the signal frequency (DFT). The purpose of

William H. Ridder



[Visual acuity perimetry. Detection of glaucomatous visual field defects].  


50 eyes of 50 patients with different types of glaucoma (27 eyes with POAG, 14 eyes with glaucoma due to pseudoexfoliation, 8 eyes with chronic narrow-angle glaucoma, 1 eye with normal-tension glaucoma) were examined with light-sense perimetry (Humphrey-Field-Analyzer, program 30-2) and resolution perimetry according to Frisén [2-7]. As the field area tested by Frisén's ring perimeter is smaller than that of the HFA, the comparison was restricted to the area of the ring perimeter, so that 50 out of 77 test locations of the HFA were included. In addition to a quantitative comparison with statistical criteria based on age-corrected normal values, a subjective qualitative assessment was established. The quantitative comparison of all hemifields showed good agreement in 61% of eyes, the ring perimeter indicating moderately and markedly increased numbers of defects in 13% and 4% of eyes and the HFA in 18% and 4% of eyes, respectively. Qualitative comparison of the entire fields revealed good agreement in 46% of eyes, with moderately and markedly more defects in 18% and 10% for the ring perimeter and 12% and 14% for the HFA, respectively. The average time needed for examination was 6.0 +/- 1.1 min for the ring perimeter and 17.2 +/- 2.7 min for the HFA. The Global Deviation of the ring perimeter correlates linearly with the Mean Deviation of the HFA (r = 0.4824, P < 0.001). PMID:1486263

Reiser, E M; Lachenmayr, B J; Vivell, P M



Mental Labels and Tattoos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)|

Hyatt, I. Ralph



Mental health in men.  


Mental and physical health are intrinsically linked to a person's ability to maintain good physical health determined, in part, by his or her mental wellbeing. Similarly, poor physical health can lead to mental health problems. PMID:24063488

Morrow, Abby



Teen Mental Health  


... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...


Comparison of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity between deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate postoperative visual acuity and contrast sensitivity results following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with keratoconus (KC). METHODS All the patients' records with KC who had PK or DALK surgery between May 2010 and May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty patients who underwent successful corneal transplantation for KC: 30 eyes underwent DALK and 30 eyes underwent PK were included in this study. Preoperative and postoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), logMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Contrast sensitivity tests (CS) were done preoperative and 2 months after all sutures had removed. All surgeries were performed under regional anesthesia (retrobulbar anesthesia) by 1 surgeon (B.K.) who was experienced in penetrating and lamellar keratoplasty techniques. RESULTS The mean age of the DALK group was 29.67±4.95 (range 18-40) years and the PK group was 28.7±3.53 (range 18-39) years. Preoperatively there was no significant difference in the logMAR UCVA, logMAR BSCVA and IOP between the DALK (1.281±0.56; 0.97±0.85; 12.07±2.12mmHg) and PK (1.34±0.21; 0.98±0.21; 13±2.12mmHg) groups. One-year after surgery there was no significant difference in the mean logMAR UCVA and IOP between the DALK (0.46±0.37; 11.73±2.1mmHg) and PK (0.38±0.21; 12±2.12mmHg) groups. The mean contrast sensitivity was evaluated by CC-100 Topcon LCD at 1.5, 2.52, 4.23, 7.10 and 11.91 cycles per degree (cs/deg) spatial frequencies before and 2 months after the all sutures had removed. CONCLUSION All patients with keratoconus in both DALK and PK groups performed good visual function postoperatively. The mean contrast sensitivity increased considerably at all spatial frequencies compared with preoperative levels in the DALK and PK groups. The mean post-operative evaluation of contrast sensitivity measurements was not significantly different between the two groups.

Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Kandemir, Baran; Sayman, Isil Bahar; Selvi, Cem; Kamil Dogan, Omer



[Hearing acuity in otitis media with effusion and adhesive otitis media].  


The relationship between findings established by the photograph of the tympanic membrane and hypacusia was determined by pure-tone audiometry. Subjects were 352 ears of 267 patients diagnosed as otitis media with effusion (OME) or adhesive otitis media (AdOM). These two diseases were evaluated on the basis of photographs of the tympanic membrane taken from 1983 to 1988. The results were as follows; 1) The effect of aging process on hearing acuity was noted in patients with these diseases, i.e., values of hearing acuity by air and bone conduction were, in descending order, early-, mature-, and advanced-age groups, with significant differences (p less than 0.01). 2) Greater loss of acuity by air conduction in the middle to high frequency ranges was found in patients with OME than with AdOM. In bone conduction, a decrease in low frequency range in the early--and mature--age groups was larger in patients with AdOM than with OME and a significant decrease in 2000-6000 Hz in the advanced-age group was more marked in patients with OME than with AdOM (p less than 0.05). 3) Among patients with AdOM, those with retained fluid in the middle ear showed a significant decrease in air conduction values and a significant increase in air-bone gap compared with those without fluid (p less than 0.05). 4) The degrees of adhesion correlated well with a decrease in hearing acuity. 5) Hearing acuity was not influenced by attic retraction, white plaque, scar and atrophy of their tympanic membranes. PMID:2352052

Akachi, Y



Visual acuity and retinal function in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a genetic, multisystem disorder that causes severe visual impairment. This condition is characterized by retinal dystrophy, obesity, digit anomalies, renal disease, and hypogonadism. The purpose of this study was to analyze visual acuity and full-field electroretinogram findings in patients with the Bardet-Biedl syndrome phenotype. METHODS: The visual acuity of a group of 23 patients (15 males) with ages ranging from 6-36 years (mean?=?15.8±6.4; median?=?14.7) was assessed. Retinal function was evaluated by full-field electroretinography, and dark-adapted thresholds were assessed. RESULTS: Visual acuity in the better-seeing eye was 20/40 or better in 5 patients (21.7%), 20/50-20/150 in 13 (56.5%) patients, 20/200-20/400 in 2 (8.7%) patients and worse than 20/400 in one (4.3%) patient. The mean acuity in the better-seeing eye was 0.7±0.6 logMAR (20/100, Snellen equivalent). Scotopic rod and maximal responses were non-detectable in 21 (91.3%) patients, and cone responses were non-detectable in 15 (65.2%) patients. Elevated dark-adapted visual thresholds were observed in all 19 patients who were able to be assessed, with 10 (52.6%) patients having thresholds greater than 30 dB. CONCLUSIONS: In a relatively young cohort of patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, only 21% had 20/40 or better vision. ERG scotopic responses were absent in the majority of cases, with cone responses being observed in less than half of cases. These findings showed the early deleterious effects in retinal function and visual acuity caused by this condition.

Berezovsky, Adriana; Rocha, Daniel Martins; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Watanabe, Sung Song; Cavascan, Nivea Nunes; Salomao, Solange Rios



Preparation for high-acuity clinical placement: confidence levels of final-year nursing students  

PubMed Central

Aim To measure final-year nursing students’ preparation for high-acuity placement with emphasis on clinical skill performance confidence. Background Self-confidence has been reported as being a key component for effective clinical performance, and confident students are more likely to be more effective nurses. Clinical skill performance is reported to be the most influential source of self-confidence. Student preparation and skill acquisition are therefore important aspects in ensuring students have successful clinical placements, especially in areas of high acuity. Curriculum development should aim to assist students with their theoretical and clinical preparedness for the clinical environment. Method A modified pretest/posttest survey design was used to measure the confidence of third-year undergraduate nursing students (n = 318) for placement into a high-acuity clinical setting. The survey comprised four questions related to clinical placement and prospect of participating in a cardiac arrest scenario, and confidence rating levels of skills related to practice in a high-acuity setting. Content and face validity were established by an expert panel (? = 0.90) and reliability was established by the pilot study in 2009. Comparisons were made between confidence levels at the beginning and end of semester. Results Student confidence to perform individual clinical skills increased over the semester; however their feelings of preparedness for high-acuity clinical placement decreased over the same time period. Reported confidence levels improved with further exposure to clinical placement. Conclusion There may be many external factors that influence students’ perceptions of confidence and preparedness for practice. Further research is recommended to identify causes of poor self-confidence in final-year nursing students.

Porter, Joanne; Morphet, Julia; Missen, Karen; Raymond, Anita




PubMed Central

Purpose To compare corneal high-order aberrations and visual acuity after LASIK with the flap created by a femtosecond laser (bladeless) to LASIK with the flap created by a mechanical microkeratome. Design Prospective, randomized, paired-eye study. Methods Fellow eyes of 21 patients with myopia or myopic astigmatism were randomized by ocular dominance. Corneal topography and visual acuity were measured before and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 months after LASIK. Wavefront errors from the anterior corneal surface were calculated from the topography data over 4- and 6-mm-dimater pupils and decomposed into Zernike polynomials to the 6th order. Results There were no differences in corneal total high-order aberrations, spherical aberration, coma or trefoil between methods of flap creation at any examination over 4-and 6-mm-diameter pupils. Over a 6 mm pupil, total high-order aberrations increased by 1 month after LASIK with both treatments (p?0.001) and remained increased through 36 months (p?0.001). Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity did not differ between methods at any examination and remained stable postoperatively through 3 years; the minimum detectable difference in visual acuity between treatments was ?0.1 logMAR (?1 line of vision, ?=0.05/6, ?=0.20, n=21). Conclusions The planar configuration of the femtosecond laser flap did not offer any advantage in corneal high-order aberrations or visual acuity through 3 years after LASIK. Corneal high-order aberrations remain stable through 3 ears after LASIK.

Calvo, Ramon; McLaren, Jay W.; Hodge, David O.; Bourne, William M.; Patel, Sanjay V.



Prevalence of visual acuity anomalies among pupils in age 7 and 8 years in Westpomeranian Region (Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Evaluation of visual acuity anomalies among 7 and 8 year olds pupils in Westpomeranian Region in the aspect of school nurses health services quality in that mat- ter. Material and methods: Representative sample (n=141) from the whole population of 7 and 8 years old pupils of Westpomeranian schools were screened for visual acuity with the use of Snellen standard

Walczak A; Wysiecki P



Acuity-adaptable patient room improves length of stay and cost of patients undergoing renal transplant: a pilot study.  


The acuity-adaptable patient room concept is an emerging care model where patient is cared for in the same room from admission through discharge regardless of the patient level of acuity. After implementation of the care cluster strategy to support the implementation of an acuity-adaptable patient room, a descriptive study was conducted looking at so whether there will be a decreased length of stay and cost on patient cared for in the acuity-adaptable patient room compared to patients cared for in a transitional care process. Result of the study showed decreased length of stay of kidney transplant patients from 9.6 (11.0) days (before acuity-adaptable patient room) to 4.1 (1.3) days (acuity-adaptable patient room). Not only that the acuity-adaptable patient room improves patient outcome and cost but with the nursing competency preparation to support the implementation of the acuity-adaptable patient room, a hybrid nurse was created who possessed both critical care and medical-surgical skills. This can be a potential trend in the professional nurse model to address the health care challenges we face today in terms of nursing shortage, abbreviated plan of care, and facility operation efficiency. PMID:23470704

Bonuel, Nena; Degracia, Alma; Cesario, Sandra


Taste acuity of obese adolescents and changes in food neophobia and food preferences during a weight reduction session  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between taste acuity and food neophobia, food familiarity and liking has been studied in the context of a residential weight reduction session (WRS; mean duration: 10 months) in 39 obese adolescents. Taste acuity was assessed using recognition thresholds for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride and 6-n propylthiouracil (PROP) and supra-threshold perceived intensities for sucrose, sodium chloride and PROP.

Marie-Odile Monneuse; Natalie Rigal; Marie-Laure Frelut; Claude-Marcel Hladik; Bruno Simmen; Patrick Pasquet



The effect of limited English proficiency on admission rates from a pediatric ED: Stratification by triage acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) visits and acuity status on admission rates from a pediatric ED. A retrospective cohort study was performed using a fully computerized medical record, which includes information on language spoken, triage acuity, and disposition. Data was collected on all patient visits from July 2002 to November

Alexander J. Rogers; Carlos A. Delgado; Harold K. Simon



Impact of cataract surgery on visual acuity and subjective functional outcomes: A population-based study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose First, to determine the effects of cataract surgery on subjectively experienced visual function and visual acuity in a defined population, at a specific frequency of surgery. Secondly, to validate questionnaire data regarding the visual function of cataract patients.Methods A prospective population-based investigation of the subjective visual functional and visual acuity outcomes of cataract surgery over a 1 year time

Eva Mönestam; Lillemor Wachtmeister



Geriatric Mental Health Foundation  


... Geriatric Psychiatry to raise awareness of psychiatric and mental health disorders affecting the elderly, eliminate the stigma of mental illness and treatment, promote healthy aging strategies, and ...


Prognostic value of mental stress testing in coronary artery disease ? ? The opinions and assertions expressed herein are those of the authors and are not to be construed as reflecting the views of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, or the US Department of Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the prognostic value of mental stress-induced ischemic left ventricular wall motion abnormalities and hemodynamic responses in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Seventy-nine patients (76 men and 3 women) with prior positive exercise test results were exposed to mental arithmetic and a simulated public speech stress in 2 prior studies. Ischemic wall motion abnormalities were monitored

David S Krantz; Helen T Santiago; Willem J Kop; C. Noel Bairey Merz; Alan Rozanski; John S Gottdiener



Spatial uncertainty and sampling efficiency in amblyopic position acuity.  


Spatial uncertainty and undersampling are two of the major hypotheses for the losses of amblyopic spatial vision. To test these two hypotheses, equivalent spatial uncertainty and spatial integration efficiency in spatial position judgments were quantified with a spatial perturbation paradigm. Specifically, three-line bisection thresholds were measured for the amblyopic eyes of two strabismic and two anisometropic amblyopes, and for normal controls. The horizontal stimulus lines comprised discrete dark dots distributed randomly around the mean line position according to a gaussian function. Line separation, the number of dots on each line (N), stimulus contrast (C), and the vertical standard deviation (sigma e) of the dot distribution were varied. An ideal observer analysis quantified the magnitude of equivalent spatial uncertainty (sigma s), the effective number of dots used (k), and spatial integration efficiency (k/N). At the optimal separation, equivalent spatial uncertainty (sigma s) is approximately ten-fold higher in both types of amblyopic visual systems than in control observers, even when stimulus visibility is accounted for. This apparent increase in sigma s is largely due to a shift in spatial scale of analysis in the amblyopic eye. Integration efficiency (k/N) increases in proportion to stimulus contrast or visibility (in units of detection threshold). Unlike sigma s, k/N is different between the two types of amblyopia. For the anisometropic observers, k/N is quantitatively similar to that of control observers. For the strabismic observers, on the other hand, k/N is reduced even after taking stimulus visibility into account. The decreased spatial integration efficiency in the strabismic visual system suggests that spatial undersampling may occur at a secondary stage of visual processing, beyond the detection stage. PMID:9666992

Wang, H; Levi, D M; Klein, S A



Mental Illness in the Elderly Mentally Retarded  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life expectancy of mentally retarded citizens has increased significantly in recent decades. At the same time, we have learned that this special population is nearly twice as likely as the general population to develop severe mental illness. These facts, coupled with the psychological and physiological changes that accompany aging in general, are increasingly challenging the mental health professionals of

Frank J. Menolascino; Jane F. Potter



Defining mental health and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key featuresDiscussion of the terminological confusion that exists in relation to issues associated with mental health.  The scale of individual suffering from mental health problems and illness among young people.  The worldwide phenomenon of the stigmatization of mental illness, originating during childhood.

Sharon Leighton; Nisha Dogra



Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper addresses the relationship between gender and mental health. First, the field of mental health and the concept of gender is introduced. This is followed by a discussion of the forms of gender bias implicated in mental health research. Next, gender differences in mental health outcomes are described, including differences in the prevalence and course of conditions. Evidence

Jill Astbury


General Mental Ability: From Psychometrics to Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes empirical findings of research on a theory of general mental ability, based on laboratory studies of the relationship between measurements of individual differences on conventional psychometric tests and in speed and efficiency of information processes. The paper covers characteristics of "g" (general mental ability),…

Jensen, Arthur R.



Changes in smell acuity induced by radiation exposure of the olfactory mucosa  

SciTech Connect

The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two odorants (amyl acetate and eugenol) were determined before the start of radiation therapy, within a week of termination of therapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. The results show clearly that smell acuity is profoundly affected by therapeutic irradiation. Thresholds had increased in all 12 patients by the end of treatment and were still high one month later. Varying degrees of recovery were noted in most patients three to six months after cessation of treatment. The fate of the sense of smell deserves more attention when considering the disability caused by irradiation to certain head and neck tumors.

Ophir, D.; Guterman, A.; Gross-Isseroff, R.



Do poor nutrition and display screens affect visual acuity in children?  


Two studies conducted in Scotland have shown an increase in visual acuity (VA) screening failure among primary school-aged children in recent years. Two other trends were observed during the same period - an increase in children bringing packed lunches to school, and increased access to display screen equipment (DSE) including television, computers and hand-held computer games. This study set out to assess if either DSE use of poor diet could be linked with visual acuity screening failure in Scottish primary school children. Information was collected on diet and DSE use from 1384 children who had received VA screening in eight primary schools in Glasgow. After controlling for deprivation, DSE use other than watching television was associated with an increased risk of VA screening failure, as was a 'poor' diet. If these findings are confirmed by other studies and a causal link can be made, then health education at school could be designed to prevent VA screening failure. PMID:11865216

Kerr, Catriona M; Tappin, David M



Reduced sampling efficiency causes degraded Vernier hyperacuity with normal aging: Vernier acuity in position noise  

PubMed Central

Vernier acuity, a form of visual hyperacuity, is amongst the most precise forms of spatial vision. Under optimal conditions Vernier thresholds are much finer than the inter-photoreceptor distance. Achievement of such high precision is based substantially on cortical computations, most likely in the primary visual cortex. Using stimuli with added positional noise, we show that Vernier processing is reduced with advancing age across a wide range of noise levels. Using an ideal observer model, we are able to characterize the mechanisms underlying age-related loss, and show that the reduction in Vernier acuity can be mainly attributed to the reduction in efficiency of sampling, with no significant change in the level of internal position noise, or spatial distortion, in the visual system.

Li, Roger W.; Brown, Brian; Edwards, Marion H.; Ngo, Charlie V.; Chat, Sandy W.; Levi, Dennis M.



Environmental Enrichment Promotes Plasticity and Visual Acuity Recovery in Adult Monocular Amblyopic Rats  

PubMed Central

Loss of visual acuity caused by abnormal visual experience during development (amblyopia) is an untreatable pathology in adults. In some occasions, amblyopic patients loose vision in their better eye owing to accidents or illnesses. While this condition is relevant both for its clinical importance and because it represents a case in which binocular interactions in the visual cortex are suppressed, it has scarcely been studied in animal models. We investigated whether exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) is effective in triggering recovery of vision in adult amblyopic rats rendered monocular by optic nerve dissection in their normal eye. By employing both electrophysiological and behavioral assessments, we found a full recovery of visual acuity in enriched rats compared to controls reared in standard conditions. Moreover, we report that EE modulates the expression of GAD67 and BDNF. The non invasive nature of EE renders this paradigm promising for amblyopia therapy in adult monocular people.

Bonaccorsi, Joyce; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto



[Decreased visual acuity and loss of field of vision after inguinal hernia surgery].  


A 60-year-old patient reported a slight decrease in visual acuity with loss of field of vision. He also noted a mild sense of vertigo and a feeling of "pressure in his head". He had undergone laparoscopic bilateral hernia repair 3 days before on an outpatient basis. Diagnostic work-up revealed shock-induced anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) of the left eye. Without special treatment measures the head pressure and feeling of weakness subsided considerably in a spontaneous course within 24 h. Three months later partial optic atrophy of the affected eye was observed with stable visual acuity of 0.8 and unchanged loss of field of vision. PMID:19018540

Stoffelns, B M



Correlation between Ocular Manifestations and Their Complications as Opposed to Visual Acuity and Treatment in Behcet's Disease  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze ocular manifestations, their complications, and treatment in a sample of 40 patients with confirmed Behcet's disease. Results. Serofibrinous iridocyclitis was the most common form of uveitis (60%). Retinal periphlebitis manifested in 92.5% of cases, and periphlebitis in conjunction with periarteritis was diagnosed in 72.5% of cases. Macular edema was the most frequent complication on the posterior segment (60%) and it correlated with periphlebitis (P = 0.45) and periphlebitis associated with periarteritis (P = 0.51). Cyclosporine A and corticosteroids were used in the majority of cases (67%). Following six months of therapy, a significant improvement of visual acuity occurred in patients with initial visual acuity >0.5 on both eyes. Level of visual acuity before and after treatment had a strong significant correlation coefficient with various ocular complications. Previously proven significant increase of visual acuity in patients with macular edema depicts effectiveness of treatment in these types of ocular manifestations of Behcet's disease. Conclusions. Significant improvement of visual acuity occurred in patients with initial visual acuity >0.5 on both eyes. The highest increase in visual acuity was achieved by laser photocoagulation in combination with triamcinolone acetonide P = 0.038 < 0.050.

Paovic, Predrag



Temporal order and processing acuity of visual, auditory, and tactile perception in developmentally dyslexic young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the temporal acuity of 16 developmentally dyslexic young adults in three perceptual modalities. The control group\\u000a consisted of 16 age- and IQ-matched normal readers. Two methods were used. In the temporal order judgment (TOJ) method, the\\u000a stimuli were spatially separate fingertip indentations in the tactile system, tone bursts of different pitches in audition,\\u000a and light flashes in vision.

Marja Laasonen; Elisabet Service; Vei Jo Virsu



A Simple Neural Network for Enhancement of Image Acuity by Fixational Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by biological findings, this paper proposes a neural network model for achieving higher image acuity by introducing\\u000a random eye movement. Statistical analysis and comparison study of the image quality in the presence and absence of random\\u000a eye movement are carried out using the model. It is revealed that, as a noise source to a stationary image, the random eye

Daqing Yi; Ping Jiang; Jin Zhu



Performance of HAWK-I: the new high acuity wide-field K-band imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAWK-I is the newly commissioned High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager at the ESO Very Large Telescope. It is a 0.9-2.5 micron imager with a field of view of 7.5×7.5 arcmin sampled at 106 mas with four Hawaii2RG detectors. It has a full reflective design that was optimised for image quality and throughput.We present an overview of its performance as measured

M. Kissler-Patig; N. Ageorges; C. Alves de Oliveira; L. R. Bedin; E. Bendek; M. Casali; R. Dorn; R. Esteves; G. Finger; D. Gojak; Y. Jung; M. Kiekebusch; A. Moorwood; J.-L. Lizon; M. Petr-Gotzens; J. F. Pirard; J. Pritchard; F. Selman



Patient Acuity Study Description and Model to Predict Staffing for Delivery of Medical Nutrition Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe that a predictive staffing model, based on the patient's need for Medical Nutrition Therapy, has been developedDemographic data from the Patient Acuity Study, conducted by the Clinical Nutrition Management Dietetic Practice Group of the American Dietetic Association, and funded by Ross Laboratories, are described. Of the 7,289 patients from 93 facilities, a sample of 3,321 acute

M. L. Simmons



Visual Acuity Measures Do Not Reliably Detect Childhood Refractive Error - an Epidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the utility of uncorrected visual acuity measures in screening for refractive error in white school children aged 6-7-years and 12-13-years. Methods The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit children from schools in Northern Ireland. Detailed eye examinations included assessment of logMAR visual acuity and cycloplegic autorefraction. Spherical equivalent refractive data from the right eye were used to classify significant refractive error as myopia of at least 1DS, hyperopia as greater than +3.50DS and astigmatism as greater than 1.50DC, whether it occurred in isolation or in association with myopia or hyperopia. Results Results are presented from 661 white 12-13-year-old and 392 white 6-7-year-old school-children. Using a cut-off of uncorrected visual acuity poorer than 0.20 logMAR to detect significant refractive error gave a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 92% in 6-7-year-olds and 73% and 93% respectively in 12-13-year-olds. In 12-13-year-old children a cut-off of poorer than 0.20 logMAR had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91% in detecting myopia and a sensitivity of 41% and a specificity of 84% in detecting hyperopia. Conclusions Vision screening using logMAR acuity can reliably detect myopia, but not hyperopia or astigmatism in school-age children. Providers of vision screening programs should be cognisant that where detection of uncorrected hyperopic and/or astigmatic refractive error is an aspiration, current UK protocols will not effectively deliver.

O'Donoghue, Lisa; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; McClelland, Julie F.; Logan, Nicola S.; Saunders, Kathryn J.



Prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity in Singaporean Chinese preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo describe the prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity (VA) in Singaporean Chinese children.MethodsA population-based survey of Singaporean Chinese children aged 6 to 72 months was conducted. Participants underwent an orthoptic evaluation, cycloplegic refraction and biometric measurements. A sub-group of children aged 30 to 72 months with presenting logMAR VA were included in this analysis. Retesting was performed on

M. Dirani; B. Zhou; D. Hornbeak; B. C. Chang; G. Gazzard; A. Chia; Y. Ling; P. Selvaraj; T. L. Young; R. Varma; T. Y. Wong; S. M. Saw



The Relationship of Age-Related Maculopathy, Cataract, and Glaucoma to Visual Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To investigate the relationship of age-related maculopathy, cataract, and glaucoma to visual acuity in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed in people 43 through 86 years of age residing in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, who were identified between 1987 and 1988 and examined (n = 4926) between 1988 and 1990. Of those who

Ronald Klein; Qin Wang; Barbara E. K. Klein; Scot E. Moss; Stacy M. Meuer



Mental Rotation Test Performance in Four Cross-Cultural Samples (N = 3367): Overall Sex Differences and the Role of Academic Program in Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two meta-analyses (Linn and Petersen, 1985; Voyer et al., 1995) discuss variables that affect mental rotation performance but they do not mention a potentially important variable, the Academic Program in which students are enrolled. Sex differences in brain size have been related to sex differences in spatial performance (e.g., Falk et al., 1999) and thus it is important to know

Michael Peters; Wolfgang Lehmann; Sayuri Takahira; Yoshiaki Takeuchi; Kirsten Jordan



Mental health interventions for children in adversity: Pilot-testing a research strategy for treatment selection in low-income settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to develop a research strategy to make informed decisions for intervention selection, especially for low- and middle-income countries, as a response to the urgent need to scale-up mental health care for children globally. With this study we address the critical lack of translation of research findings into policy and practice. The research strategy was piloted for development

M. J. D. Jordans; W. A. Tol; I. H. Komproe



Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

Palmer, Glen A.



Measuring Shared Team Mental Models: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although shared team mental models are believed to be important to team functioning, substantial interstudy differences in the manner in which mental models are operationalized has impeded progress in this area. We use meta-analysis to cumulate 23 independent studies that have empirically examined shared mental models (SMMs) in relation to team process and performance and test three aspects of measurement

Leslie A. DeChurch; Jessica R. Mesmer-Magnus



Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

Bowen, Peter


Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.



Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

Bowen, Peter


Defining 'Mental Illness' In Mental Health Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Mental health policy is shaped,fundamentally,by the definition of mental,ill- ness associated,with the policy. Changing policies reflect changing,definitions. At various times, the definition may be narrow or broad with respect to the scope of conditions cov- ered by a specific policy. The priority accorded,to impairment,severity is the most crucial and enduring policy issue related to the definition of mental illness

Howard H. Goldman; Gerald N. Grob



Symptoms of common mental disorder and cognitive associations with seropositivity among a cohort of people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of research on HIV/AIDS and mental health has been carried out among clinical populations: the time of onset of comorbid depression and the mechanisms for this are therefore unclear. Although there is evidence to suggest that asymptomatic people living with HIV/AIDS exhibit some cognitive deficits, the prevalence of poor cognitive functioning among people in low income settings at an early, pre-clinical stage has not yet been investigated. Methods We used a cross-sectional survey design to test the hypotheses that symptoms of Common Mental Disorder (CMD) and low scores on cognitive tests would be associated with seropositivity among participants coming for testing for HIV/AIDS. Participants were recruited at the time of coming for testing for HIV/AIDS; voluntary informed consent was sought for participation in research interviews and data linkage with HIV test results. Baseline questionnaires including sociodemographic variables and measures of mental health (PHQ-9, GAD-7, panic disorder questions, AUDIT and delayed word list learning and recall and animal naming test of verbal fluency) were administered by trained interviews. HIV status data was extracted from clinical records. Results CMD and scoring below the educational norm on the test of verbal fluency were associated with testing positive for HIV/AIDS in bivariate analysis (OR?=?2.26, 1.31-3.93; OR?=?1.77, 1.26-2.48, respectively). After controlling for the effects of confounders, the association between CMD and seropositivity was no longer statistically significant (AOR?=?1.56, 0.86-2.85). After adjusting for the effects of confounders, the association between low scores on the test of verbal fluency and seropositivity was retained (AOR?=?1.77, 1.27-2.48). Conclusions Our findings provide tentative evidence to suggest that low cognitive test scores (and possibly depressive symptoms) may be associated with HIV status among people who have yet to receive their HIV test results. Impaired cognitive functioning and depression-like symptoms may be the result of the same underlying neurological damage. CMD and cognitive impairment may overlap to a greater extent than previously assumed. If replicated, this may have implications for the way in which we measure and treat CMD and cognitive functioning among people living with HIV/AIDS.



Mental health care in the community: An analysis of contemporary public attitudes towards, and public representations of, mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public tolerance of, and non-discrimination towards, people with mental health problems are key factors on which success in achieving the goal of community-based mental health care depends. This paper revisits Thomas Scheff' s (1966) sociological theory of mental illness, and tests elements of this thorough critical review of recent UK literature relating to public attitudes towards, and media representations, of

Ben Hannigan



Effect of Incompatible Light on Modified Class B Night Vision Goggle-Aided Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MIL-L-85762A, Lighting, Aircraft, Interior, Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) Compatible, defines criteria for assessing night vision goggle (NVG) compatibility of cockpit lighting. As part of the assessment procedures, NVG aided visual acuity (VA) is me...

R. W. Gibb J. D. Reising



A Pilot Test of the HOPE Intervention to Explore Employment and Mental Health Among African American Gay Men Living With HIV/AIDS: Results From a CBPR Study.  


The Helping Overcome Problems Effectively (HOPE) intervention was developed by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership to improve mental health and employment outcomes of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The intervention blended locally collected formative data, social cognitive theory, hope theory, and the lived experiences of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The HOPE intervention included 7 weekly 3-hour group sessions, with participant assessment at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. A total of 7 African American men, who self-identified as gay and unemployed, participated. Mean age was 46.1 (range = 37-57) years. Throughout the intervention, participants developed goal-setting skills, problem-solving skills, health-promoting behaviors, and employment seeking behaviors. The results suggest that the HOPE intervention may be promising in improving mental health and employment outcomes. PMID:24059878

Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Geishecker, Steve; Clark, Glenn; Rhodes, Scott D



Integrating family nursing into a mental health urgent care practice framework: ladders for learning.  


Integrating family nursing into a busy mental health urgent care setting is a challenge given the high acuity of patients and the demands of delivering service 7 days/week, 14 hours/day. In this article, the authors describe the development of a Mental Health Urgent Care Practice Framework that incorporates four elements: mental health/psychiatric assessment, physical health assessment, family nursing, and integrated behavioral health care. Sample family nursing skills and ladders for mental health urgent care practice are highlighted.The framework and ladders have implications for recruitment and hiring, orientation, peer mentoring, performance appraisals, and continuing education and supervision. A clinical vignette illustrates sample conceptual/ perceptual and executive skills used to apply the framework and ladders in practice. Family nursing is conceptualized as an integral component of nursing care provided to individual and families in this unique setting. PMID:20407001

Leahey, Maureen; Harper-Jaques, Sandy



A catalase promoter variant rs1001179 is associated with visual acuity but not with primary angle closure glaucoma in Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Background To Investigate whether the g.4760C>T polymorphism in the promoter region of the catalase gene (CAT) is a risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in the Saudi population. Methods 138 unrelated PACG patients and 403 unrelated control subjects from Saudi Arabia were genotyped for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1001179; g.4760C>T) utilizing Taq-Man® assay. The association between different genotypes and various clinical indices important for PACG was also investigated. Results The distribution of different genotypes was comparable between both study groups. The genotype “C/C” was predominant among cafses; 94 (68.1%) and controls; 289 (71.7%). Heterozygous genotype “C/T”, was present in 41 (29.7%) of cases and 103 (25.6%) of controls, where the homozygous variant genotype was present in only 3 (2.2%) of cases and 11 (2.7%) of the controls. The distribution of variant allele was similar in both study groups (p= 0.568). Interestingly, there was a trend of association between the type of the variant (homozygous variant, heterozygous and wildtype genotype) and one important parameter for PACG, which is visual acuity. The visual acuity increase was; 0.62 (±0.74), 0.88 (±0.88) and 1.27 (±0.95) in patients carrying the “C/C”, “C/T” and “T/T” genotypes respectively, which was statistically significant in both ANOVA and pairwise individual T tests (p = 0.022, 0.031 and 0.039) when compared to controls. Conclusions This variant is possibly associated with visual acuity in PACG patients and thus had the potential to be used as a parameter for assessing PACG severity.



Structural and Functional Measures of Inner Retinal Integrity Following Visual Acuity Improvement in a Patient with Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy Type VI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report measures of inner retinal integrity following improvement in visual acuity and visual fields in a patient with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type VI (HMSN VI). Case Report The patient is a Caucasian male with HMSN VI (type 2A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and associated optic atrophy) and a c.1090C?T (p.R364W) mutation in the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene. The patient’s best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/200 (OD) and 20/400 (OS) at the initial visit to 20/25 in each eye when tested seven years later. The visual field defects in both eyes that were present at the initial visit were absent at the follow-up visit. The structural integrity of the inner retina was assessed by an evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the functional integrity was assessed by the amplitude of the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the electroretinogram (ERG). At the follow-up visit, the patient’s RNFLT was less than the 5th percentile for control subjects in the superior and inferior quadrants OD and in one sector of the temporal quadrant OS, but was within normal limits elsewhere. The PhNR amplitude of each eye was below the lower limit of the normal range. Conclusion The abnormally low PhNR amplitudes and abnormally thin RNFL in certain quadrants of the retina following improvement of visual acuity and visual fields to near-normal values illustrates the potential usefulness of assessing the structure and function of the inner retina in HMSN VI patients.

Gowrisankaran, Sowjanya; Anastasakis, Anastasios; Fishman, Gerald A.; Alexander, Kenneth R.



"If It's Not Working, Why Would They Be Testing It?": mental models of HIV vaccine trials and preventive misconception among men who have sex with men in India  

PubMed Central

Background Informed consent based on comprehension of potential risks and benefits is fundamental to the ethical conduct of clinical research. We explored mental models of candidate HIV vaccines and clinical trials that may impact on the feasibility and ethics of biomedical HIV prevention trials among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. Methods A community-based research project was designed and implemented in partnership with community-based organizations serving MSM in Chennai and Mumbai. We conducted 12 focus groups (n?=?68) with diverse MSM and 14 key informant interviews with MSM community leaders/service providers using a semi-structured interview guide to explore knowledge and beliefs about HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Focus groups (60–90 minutes) and interviews (45–60 minutes) were conducted in participants’ native language (Tamil in Chennai; Marathi or Hindi in Mumbai), audio-taped, transcribed and translated into English. We explored focus group and interview data using thematic analysis and a constant comparative method, with a focus on mental models of HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Results A mental model of HIV vaccine-induced seropositivity as “having HIV” resulted in fears of vaccine-induced infection and HIV stigma. Some participants feared inactivated vaccines might “drink blood” and “come alive”. Pervasive preventive misconception was based on a mental model of prevention trials as interventions, overestimation of likely efficacy of candidate vaccines and likelihood of being assigned to the experimental group, with expectations of protective benefits and decreased condom use. Widespread misunderstanding and lack of acceptance of placebo and random assignment supported perceptions of clinical trials as “cheating”. Key informants expressed concerns that volunteers from vulnerable Indian communities were being used as “experimental rats” to benefit high-income countries. Conclusions Evidence-informed interventions that engage with shared mental models among potential trial volunteers, along with policies and funding mechanisms that ensure local access to products that demonstrate efficacy in trials, may support the safe and ethical implementation of HIV vaccine trials in India.



Childhood mental ability and lifetime psychiatric contact A 66-year follow-up study of the 1932 Scottish Mental Ability Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test the hypothesis that intelligence is related to the risk of mental illness by linking childhood mental ability data to registers of psychiatric contact within a stable population in northeast Scotland. Data from a validated mental ability test administered to all 1921 born Scottish schoolchildren on June 1, 1932 were transformed into age-adjusted IQs. About 52.1% of those tested

Nicholas P. Walker; Pauline M. McConville; David Hunter; Ian J. Deary; Lawrence J. Whalley


Mental Health 3: Mental Health Through Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, examines how mental illness has been portrayed in the arts while highlighting for students a more insightful way to further develop their ideas about human behavior. This lesson is the third of three lessons on mental health and human behavior.

Science Netlinks;



Child Mental Health  


... your child has a fever. A child's mental health problem may be harder to identify, but you ... or hurting or destroying things. Some common mental health problems in children are Depression Anxiety Behavior disorders ...


Seeing Steps and Ramps with Simulated Low Acuity: Impact of Texture and Locomotion  

PubMed Central

Purpose Detecting and recognizing steps and ramps is an important component of the visual accessibility of public spaces for people with impaired vision. The present study, which is part of a larger program of research on visual accessibility, investigated the impact of two factors that may facilitate the recognition of steps and ramps during low-acuity viewing. Visual texture on the ground plane is an environmental factor that improves judgments of surface distance and slant. Locomotion (walking) is common during observations of a layout, and may generate visual motion cues that enhance the recognition of steps and ramps. Methods In two experiments, normally sighted subjects viewed the targets monocularly through blur goggles that reduced acuity to either approx. 20/150 Snellen (mild blur) or 20/880 (severe blur). The subjects judged whether a step, ramp or neither was present ahead on a sidewalk. In the texture experiment, subjects viewed steps and ramps on a surface with a coarse black-and-white checkerboard pattern. In the locomotion experiment, subjects walked along the sidewalk toward the target before making judgments. Results Surprisingly, performance was lower with the textured surface than with a uniform surface, perhaps because the texture masked visual cues necessary for target recognition. Subjects performed better in walking trials than in stationary trials, possibly because they were able to take advantage of visual cues that were only present during motion. Conclusions We conclude that under conditions of simulated low acuity, large, high-contrast texture elements can hinder the recognition of steps and ramps while locomotion enhances recognition.

Bochsler, Tiana M.; Legge, Gordon E.; Kallie, Christopher S.; Gage, Rachel



Near-field visual acuity of pigeons: effects of head location and stimulus luminance.  

PubMed Central

Two pigeons were trained to discriminate a grating stimulus from a blank stimulus of equivalent luminance in a three-key chamber. The stimuli and blanks were presented behind a transparent center key. The procedure was a conditional discrimination in which pecks on the left key were reinforced if the blank had been present behind the center key and pecks on the right key were reinforced if the grating had been present behind the center key. The spatial frequency of the stimuli was varied in each session from four to 29.5 lines per millimeter in accordance with a variation of the method of constant stimuli. The number of lines per millimeter that the subjects could discriminate at threshold was determined from psychometric functions. Data were collected at five values of stimulus luminance ranging from--0.07 to 3.29 log cd/m2. The distance from the stimulus to the anterior nodal point of the eye, which was determined from measurements taken from high-speed motion-picture photographs of three additional pigeons and published intraocular measurements, was 62.0 mm. This distance and the grating detection thresholds were used to calculate the visual acuity of the birds at each level of luminance. Acuity improved with increasing luminance to a peak value of 0.52, which corresponds to a visual angle of 1.92 min, at a luminance of 2.33 log cd/m2. Further increase in luminance produced a small decline in acuity. Images Fig. 1.

Hodos, W; Leibowitz, R W; Bonbright, J C



Presenting Visual Acuities in a Referral Eye Center in an Oil-Producing Area of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the pattern of presenting visual acuities at an eye center in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Study Design: Retrospective chart review Methods: A retrospective review of patient records attending a private referral eye center providing services for company patients and the general public in the region. Information was obtained from computerized medical records of 6533 patients who attended the center for various eye concerns in a 5-year period (January 1998 to December 2002). Results: A total of 6533 patients were seen in this 5-year period of which 2472 (37.8%) were company patients and 4061 (62.2%). were private patients. There were 3879 males (59.4%) and 2654 females (40.6%). A visual acuity of 6/6 or better was seen in 50.8% of the patients. In 76.6% of patients, a visual acuity of 6/18 or better was recorded. There were 21.4% of patients in the low vision group. Bilateral blindness occurred in 2.1% of patients. Monocular blindness occurred in 3.7% of patients. Low vision occurred in 16.9% of company patients and 24.1% of private patients. Bilateral blindness occurred in 0.9% of company patients and 2.7% of private patients, while monocular blindness occurred in 1.2% of company patients and 5.2% of private patients. The main ocular problems were refractive error, glaucoma, conjunctivitis, headaches, ocular trauma, retina and related pathologies, cataract, uveitis, pterygium and corneal problems. Conclusion: The incidence of low vision and blindness is high in the oil-producing area of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Low vision and blindness were more common in private patients than in company patients.

Waziri-Erameh, Joseph M.; Omoti, Afekhide E.



Automating a Patient Acuity System: Application Development on a Personal Computer  

PubMed Central

Nursing represents the largest single component of a medical center's total expenses. However, with few exceptions, there is very little automated support for nursing management functions. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: 1) It will describe an alternative approach to implementing automated systems to meet the diverse needs of Nursing. This approach combines the power of personal computer technology with fourth generation development software; 2) This paper will also describe the use of a multidisciplinary project team in the systems analysis and development process. In 1983, the Moses Division of the Montefiore Medical Center (MMC) successfully automated its patient acuity and staffing system utilizing this new approach.

Kogut, Gary G.; Hazen, Elizabeth B.; Heffner, Roy E.



Subjective evaluation of intraocular lenses by visual acuity measurement using adaptive optics.  


We present a new method for subjectively evaluating intraocular lenses (IOLs) without implantation surgery. To illustrate the method, three types of single-piece IOL (equispherical monofocal, rotational symmetric aspheric monofocal, and diffractive bifocal) were assembled into a model eye and evaluated using an ocular adaptive optics system by a single subject. To separate the spherical aberration of the crystalline lens, the subject's corneal topography and wavefront aberrations were measured and modeled. Three levels of Zernike spherical aberration were generated and superposed on the IOLs and the subject's eye. The corrected distance visual acuity was measured by psychophysical visual procedure. PMID:22739863

Guo, Huanqing; Fallah, Hamid R; Dainty, Chris; Goncharov, Alexander V



Visual acuity and perimetry as measures of visual function in diabetic macular oedema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We examined to what extent visual acuity and perimetric sensitivity as measures of central and paracentral visual function\\u000a would be useful for evaluating the presence and severity of diabetic macular oedema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We evaluated 59 eyes of 59 diabetic patients by identifying the presence (n=20) or absence (n=39) of macular oedema on stereo fundus photographs. The area of oedema

E. Agardh; H. Stjernquist; A. Heijl; B. Bengtsson




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




The Last Mental Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public mental hospital system was created in part because many mentally ill people were being held in prisons and jails. Support for those hospitals waned over time, however, and by the time they had degenerated into “snake pits” a consensus was reached to close them down. Unfortunately, they were not replaced with adequate community mental health resources, so as

James Gilligan



Community Mental Health Journal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Psychiatric Practice is a special section within Community Mental Health Journal devoted to issues relating to psychiatrists who practice in community mental health centers and similar settings. The intent of the section is to stimulate interaction and involve community psychiatrists and other community mental health professionals in a dialogue analogous to the collaborative situation in the community men- tal

Robert E. Drake



Mental Health 2: Bedlam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mental health and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mental health asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.

Science Netlinks;



Neural Correlates in Exceptional Mental Arithmetic--About the Neural Architecture of Prodigious Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prodigies are individuals with exceptional mental abilities. How is it possible that some of these people mentally calculate exponentiations with high accuracy and speed? We examined CP, a mental calculation prodigy, and a control group of 11 normal calculators for moderate mental arithmetic tasks. CP has additionally been tested for…

Fehr, Thorsten; Weber, Jochen; Willmes, Klaus; Herrmann, Manfred



Discrepancies in the Concordance of Self-Reported Vision Status and Visual Acuity in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between self-rated vision and distance visual acuity by race and other factors. Design Cross-sectional analysis within a longitudinal, population-based cohort study. Participants and Controls Two thousand five hundred and twenty individuals, aged 65 to 84, including 666 Black participants and 1854 White participants. Methods All participants reported their self-rated vision score. Binocular distance visual acuity was assessed. Based on the level of visual acuity and the self-reported vision score, participants were placed into concordant and discrepant groups. Main Outcome Measures Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the characteristics associated with concordant and discrepant groups. Results Black participants were more likely to be represented in the discordant group that reported good vision but had acuity worse than 20/40. In the multivariate analysis, a per year decrement in years of education received increased the odds of being in both discrepant groups, one that reported good vision but had a visual acuity worse than 20/40 (odds ratio, 1.21; P<0.0001) and the other discrepant group that reported bad vision but had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better (odds ratio, 1.04; P<0.0001). A per year decrement in years of education received also appeared to explain the excess risk of Black race in the discrepant group that reported good vision but had a visual acuity worse than 20/40. Conclusions Given the socioeconomically driven discrepancies in self-reported vision status, self-reported vision status should be used cautiously in surveillance surveys especially when assessing vision inequalities between socioeconomic groups.

El-Gasim, Mahmood; Munoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K.; Scott, Adrienne W.



Ocular Inflammation in Beh?et's Disease: Incidence of Ocular Complications and of Loss of Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate the risk of structural ocular complications and loss of visual acuity in cases of Behçet’s Disease (BD); to evaluate potential risk and protective factors for these events Design Retrospective cohort study Methods Setting Five academic center ocular inflammation subspecialty practices Study Population A total of 168 consecutive patients with BD-associated ocular inflammation Procedures Clinical data on these patients were ascertained by standardized chart review Outcome Measures Visual acuity, structural ocular complications of inflammation, intraocular pressure (IOP) Results Over a median follow-up of 1.05 years, the incidence of specific structural complications and IOP disturbances were common: the incidence rate of any ocular complication was 0.45/eye-year (EY). Rates of loss of visual acuity to 20/50 or worse and to 20/200 or worse were 0.12/EY and 0.09/EY respectively. Risk factors for loss of visual acuity during follow-up were persistent inflammatory activity, presence of posterior synechiae, presence of hypotony, and presence of elevated IOP. In a time-dependent analysis, current activity of ocular inflammation was associated with an increased risk of loss of visual acuity to 20/50 or worse (RR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.1–5.5, p = 0.03) and to 20/200 or worse (RR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.2–5.8, p = 0.01). Conclusions Loss of visual acuity and occurrence of ocular complications were common in patients with ocular inflammation associated with Behçet’s Disease, even with aggressive therapy. Ongoing inflammation during follow-up, presence/occurrence of posterior synechiae, hypotony, and elevated IOP were associated with an increased risk of loss of visual acuity.

Kacmaz, R. Oktay; Kempen, John H.; Newcomb, Craig; Gangaputra, Sapna; Daniel, Ebenezer; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Foster, C. Stephen



Mechanistic modeling of vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity and acuity at low luminance.  


The validity of the Barten theoretical model for describing the vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and acuity at scotopic light levels has been examined. Although this model (which has its basis in signal modulation transfer theory) can successfully describe vertebrate CSF, and its relation to underlying visual neurophysiology at photopic light levels, significant discrepancies between theory and experimental data have been found at scotopic levels. It is shown that in order to describe scotopic CSF, the theory must be modified to account for important mechanistic changes, which occur as cone vision switches to rod vision. These changes are divided into photon management factors [changes in optical performance (for a dilated pupil), quantum efficiency, receptor sampling] and neural factors (changes in spatial integration area, neural noise, and lateral inhibition in the retina). Predictions of both scotopic CSF and acuity obtained from the modified theory were found to be in good agreement with experimental values obtained from the human, macaque, cat, and owl monkey. The last two species have rod densities particularly suited for scotopic conditions. PMID:22569345

Jarvis, John R; Wathes, Christopher M



Monocular deprivation in adult mice alters visual acuity and single-unit activity  

PubMed Central

It has been discovered recently that monocular deprivation in young adult mice induces ocular dominance plasticity (ODP). This contradicts the traditional belief that ODP is restricted to a juvenile critical period. However, questions remain. ODP of young adults has been observed only using methods that are indirectly related to vision, and the plasticity of young adults appears diminished in comparison with juveniles. Therefore, we asked whether the newly discovered adult ODP broadly reflects plasticity of visual cortical function and whether it persists into full maturity. Single-unit activity is the standard physiological marker of visual cortical function. Using a more optimized protocol for recording single-units, we find evidence of adult ODP of single-units and show that it is most pronounced in deep cortical layers. Furthermore, using visual evoked potentials (VEP), we find that ODP is equally robust in young adults and mature adults and is observable after just one day of monocular deprivation. Finally, we find that monocular deprivation in adults changes spatial frequency thresholds of the VEP, decreasing the acuity of the deprived pathway and improving the acuity of the non-deprived pathway. Thus, in mice, the primary visual cortex is capable of remarkable adaptation throughout life.

Fischer, Quentin S.; Graves, Aundrea; Evans, Scott; Lickey, Marvin E.; Pham, Tony A.



The Effect of Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity following LASIK  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate visual outcome and the changes of contrast sensitivity (CS) after diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK). Methods Using retrospective chart review, 48 eyes of 25 patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with Visx S4 (VISX Inc., Santa Clara, CA) and M2 (Moria, France) and who were followed for at least six months were included. They were divided into two groups: DLK and non-DLK, by diagnosis of DLK or its absence after LASIK. Postoperative logMAR visual acuities and logCS measured using the VCTS® 6500 (Vistech Consultants, Inc., Dayton, OH) were compared with preoperative values in the DLK and non-DLK groups at three and six months after LASIK. Results There was no difference in logMAR visual acuity between the DLK and non-DLK groups until the sixth postoperative month. However, CS was significantly decreased at 12 and 18 cycle/degree compared with preoperative values (p=0.043 and p=0.045, respectively) in the DLK group, whereas CS was significantly increased at 12 cycle/degree in the non-DLK group (p=0.042) at six months. Conclusions DLK seemed to be strongly associated with a postoperative decrease of CS.

Han, Eui Seok; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak



Magnitude Representations in Williams Syndrome: Differential Acuity in Time, Space and Number Processing  

PubMed Central

For some authors, the human sensitivity to numerosities would be grounded in our ability to process non-numerical magnitudes. In the present study, the developmental relationships between non numerical and numerical magnitude processing are examined in people with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder known to associate visuo-spatial and math learning disabilities. Twenty patients with WS and 40 typically developing children matched on verbal or non-verbal abilities were administered three comparison tasks in which they had to compare numerosities, lengths or durations. Participants with WS showed lower acuity (manifested by a higher Weber fraction) than their verbal matched peers when processing numerical and spatial but not temporal magnitudes, indicating that they do not present a domain-general dysfunction of all magnitude processing. Conversely, they do not differ from non-verbal matched participants in any of the three tasks. Finally, correlational analyses revealed that non-numerical and numerical acuity indexes were both related to the first mathematical acquisitions but not with later arithmetical skills.

Rousselle, Laurence; Dembour, Guy; Noel, Marie-Pascale



Use of Formal and Informal Mental Health Resources by Cancer Survivors: Differences Between Rural and Nonrural Survivors and a Preliminary Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective Previous research has identified rural residence as a risk factor for poorer mental health (MH) outcomes in cancer survivors. This may be due to less use of various MH resources due to poorer access and less favorable attitudes and social norms related to MH resource utilization. The present study sought to examine use of MH resources in rural and nonrural survivors and identify factors associated with MH resource use. Methods Cancer survivors (n=113, 1 to 5 years post-diagnosis) completed a questionnaire packet and telephone interview. Accessibility and post-diagnosis use of various formal and informal MH resources was assessed along with constructs potentially linked to use of MH resources by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; personal attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control). Results Results indicated no widespread differences between rural and nonrural cancer survivors in MH resource use although some evidence suggested poorer accessibility and less use of mental health professionals and cancer support groups among rural survivors. In general, rural survivors reported less favorable personal attitudes and social norms regarding MH resource use. TPB constructs accounted for a significant portion of variance in use of most MH resources with personal attitudes generally being the strongest predictor of MH resource use. Conclusions Additional research is needed to expand the search for factors, particularly modifiable factors, which might account for disparities in MH outcomes between rural and nonrural survivors.

Andrykowski, Michael A.; Burris, Jessica L.



Baseline Predictors of Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness Outcomes in Patients with Retinal Vein Occlusion. SCORE Study Report 10  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate baseline factors significantly associated with visual acuity and central retinal thickness outcomes in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion in the Standard Care versus COrticosteroid for REtinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) Study. Design Two multicenter, randomized clinical trials: one evaluating participants with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and the other evaluating participants with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Participants Participants with ?1 year follow-up data, including 238 with CRVO and 367 with BRVO. Methods Visual acuity was measured by the electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) method and central retinal thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Logistic and ordinary least squares regression related these outcomes to 20 baseline measures. Multiple p-values were adjusted to control the false discovery rate. Main Outcome Measures Outcome measures of visual acuity letter score included absolute change from baseline, a gain of ?15 from baseline, and a loss of ?15 from baseline. Outcome measures of center point thickness included absolute change from baseline, a measurement of ?250 microns, and a measurement of ?500 microns. Outcomes were assessed at 1 and 2 years. Results For CRVO and BRVO, younger age was significantly associated with improved visual acuity and central retinal thickness outcomes. For CRVO, treatment with triamcinolone and less severe anatomical abnormalities of the retina (center point thickness and areas of retinal hemorrhage, thickening, and fluorescein leakage) were predictive of better visual acuity outcomes. For BRVO, lack of a history of coronary artery disease was predictive of improved visual acuity outcomes. For center point thickness outcomes based on OCT, shorter duration of macular edema was significantly associated with improvement in both disease entities. For CRVO, higher baseline visual acuity letter score, and for BRVO, lower baseline visual acuity letter score, presence of dense macular hemorrhage and no prior grid photocoagulation were predictive of favorable OCT outcomes. Conclusions Several factors were predictive of better visual acuity outcomes, including younger age, and predictive of more favorable OCT outcomes, including shorter duration of macular edema. These baseline factors may assist clinicians in predicting the course of disease for patients with CRVO and BRVO.

Scott, Ingrid U.; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C.; Oden, Neal L.; Ip, Michael S.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Cohen, Geoff



[The age-related characteristics of human mental work capacity].  


The aim of investigation was to study the ageing peculiarities of human mental working capacity with mathematical models. Were examined 150 women and 125 men in five aged groups: 13-18, 19-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-60. The human mental activity was presented with special computer's tests. The regression ageing models for assessment of mental working capacity is proposed. The study showed that high level of human mental working capacity is determined with the decreasing of mental experience variation and the increasing of speed of remaking the information. PMID:10687072

Korobe?nikov, H V



Do state mental health plans address the New Freedom Commission's goals for children's mental health?  


The latest initiative to address mental health needs of the nation, including those of children and youth, is the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (NFC). The NFC formulated a benchmark of six goals and related recommendations toward which the U.S. should strive, including the recommendation that each state develop a comprehensive mental health plan. It is not clear, however, whether the states' developed plans address the goals established by the NFC and to what degree. This project provides a summary of 50 state mental health plans regarding children and youth in the U.S. by examining components that address each of the six NFC goals and is a test of federal leadership on a state issue. Results indicate that state mental health plans addressed the NFC goals to differing degrees with specific attention to children and youth mental health services. Overall, the NFC goal of eliminating disparities in mental health services was addressed most completely, while the NFC goal of understanding that mental health and physical health are associated was addressed least often. The information provided by this analysis represents a first step in gaining a comprehensive picture about public policies for the mental health of children, adolescents, and their families. PMID:19475508

Gould, Sara R; Roberts, Michael C; Beals, Sarah E



Mental disturbed violent offenders in Sweden.  


Among perpetrators of crimes of violence against persons submitted to psychiatric examination, 16 men with severe mental disorder have been examined by standardized psychologic tests and clinical interviews. Objective anamnestic data have been used to assess social background, individual development and onset of mental disorder. Psychotic as well as nonpsychotic men reacted with violence against threat to the offender's physical existence of his self image. In most instances ego weakness or depleted mental energy exaggerated the feeling of threat or stymied the ability to choose alternative solutions. Abuse of alcohol and narcotics and acute inebriation often weakened self-control and triggered of the act of violence. PMID:13326

Roslund, B; Larson, C A



Mini-mental state examination in neurological patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mini-Mental State examination has been found to be a quick and valuable test for simple bedside screening, and for serial assessment of cognitive function in a population of 126 neurological patients. Amongst those with cognitive impairment, there was a close relation between the Mini-Mental State examination and the conventional Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). However, the Mini-Mental test was

J P Dick; R J Guiloff; A Stewart; J Blackstock; C Bielawska; E A Paul; C D Marsden



Mental Training in Surgical Education  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the impact of a cognitive training method on the performance of simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy in laparoscopic training courses. Summary Background Data: Surgeons are like professional sportsmen in that they have to be able to perform complicated, fine-motor movements under stressful conditions. Mental training, systematically and repeatedly imagining a movement's performance, is a well-established technique in sports science, and this study aimed to determine its value in training surgeons. Methods: A total of 98 surgeons undergoing basic laparoscopic training participated in a randomized controlled trial; 31 received additional mental training, 32 additional practical training, and 35 received no additional training (control group). All used a Pelvi-Trainer simulator to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy at baseline and follow-up, after any additional intervention. We used a modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) instrument to assess performance. Principle outcome variables were the OSATS task-specific checklist (11 procedural steps, scored as correctly [1] or wrongly [0] performed) and the global rating scale (an overall performance evaluation, scored 1–5). Results: Improvement in the task-specific checklist score between baseline and follow-up differed significantly between groups (P = 0.046 on ANOVA). Least significant difference tests yielded differences between the mental and practical training groups (P = 0.024) and between the mental training and control groups (P = 0.040), but not between the practical training and control groups (P = 0.789). Paired Student t test showed that performance at follow-up was significantly better in the mental training and control groups (mental training group, P = 0.001; control group, P = 0.018) but not the practical training group (P = 0.342). There were no significant intergroup differences in global rating scale results. Conclusion: Additional mental training is an effective way of optimizing the outcomes of further training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It is associated with fewer costs and with better outcomes in some crucial assessment scales than additional practical training.

Immenroth, Marc; Burger, Thomas; Brenner, Jurgen; Nagelschmidt, Manfred; Eberspacher, Hans; Troidl, Hans



Functional Fatigue and Upper Extremity Sensorimotor System Acuity in Baseball Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: The sensorimotor system controls the balance between upper extremity stability and mobility during athletic performance. Research indicates that fatigue hampers sensorimotor system function; however, few investigators have studied functional fatigue or multijoint, multiplanar measures. Objective: To examine the effect of functional fatigue on upper extremity position reproduction in overhead throwing athletes. Design: Single-session, repeated-measures design. Setting: University musculoskeletal laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen healthy collegiate baseball players (age = 21.0 ± 1.6 years, height = 175.8 ± 10.2 cm, mass = 82.8 ± 4.3 kg). Intervention(s): Subjects threw a baseball from a single knee with maximum velocity (every 5 seconds) and rated their level of upper extremity exertion after every 20 throws. Subjects stopped after reporting above level 14 on the Borg scale and began posttests immediately. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured active multijoint reproduction of 2 positions: arm cock and ball release. Dependent variables were absolute and variable error for 10 joint motions: scapulothoracic internal-external rotation, upward rotation, and posterior tilt; glenohumeral internal-external rotation, horizontal abduction-adduction, and flexion-extension; elbow pronation-supination and flexion-extension; and wrist ulnar-radial deviation and flexion-extension. We calculated acuity for each joint and the entire upper extremity using 3-dimensional variable error. Results: Fatigue occurred after an average of 62 ± 28 throws and increased 3-dimensional variable error scores (ie, decreased acuity) of the entire upper extremity and all joints in both positions (P < .05) except for the wrist in arm cock. Fatigue increased errors (ranging from 0.6° to 2.3°) at arm cock for scapulothoracic internal-external rotation, upward rotation, and posterior tilt; glenohumeral internal-external rotation and flexion-extension; elbow flexion-extension; and wrist ulnar-radial deviation and at ball release for scapulothoracic internal-external rotation and upward rotation, glenohumeral horizontal abduction-adduction, elbow pronation-supination, and wrist ulnar-radial deviation and flexion-extension (P < .05). Conclusions: Functional fatigue affects the acuity of the entire upper extremity, each individual joint, and multiple joint motions in overhead throwers. Clinicians should consider the deleterious effects of upper extremity fatigue when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs and should incorporate multijoint and multiplanar endurance exercises. Compromised neuromuscular control of the scapulohumeral relationship may hold pathologic implications for this population as well.

Tripp, Brady L; Yochem, Eric M; Uhl, Timothy L



Drug Dependence, Mental Impairment and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the mental conditions of cocaine-dependent individuals and school commitment\\/attachment. We evaluated 50 patients referred to the psychiatry emergency room due to mental disorders from chemical dependence. After clinical diagnosis, clinical interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Hamilton Scale for Depression and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were applied. The Spearman and Mann-Whitney nonparametric tests, as well

Florindo Stella; Célia Regina Rossi; José Sílvio Govone



Mental retardation and inborn errors of metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In countries where clinical phenylketonuria is detected by newborn screening inborn errors of metabolism are rare causes of\\u000a isolated mental retardation. There is no international agreement about what type of metabolic tests must be applied in patients\\u000a with unspecific mental retardation. However, and although infrequent, there are a number of inborn errors of metabolism that\\u000a can present in this way.

A. García-Cazorla; N. I. Wolf; M. Serrano; U. Moog; B. Pérez-Dueñas; P. Póo; M. Pineda; J. Campistol; G. F. Hoffmann



Visual Acuity's Association with Levels of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the affect of reduced vision on physical activity in older adults. This study evaluates the association of visual acuity level, self-reported vision and ocular disease conditions with leisure-time physical activity and calculated caloric expenditure. A cross sectional study of 911 subjects 65 yr and older from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging (SOA) cohort was conducted evaluating the association of vision-related variables to weekly kilocalorie expenditure calculated from the 17-item Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate possible associations controlling for potential confounders. In multivariate analyses, each lower step in visual acuity category below 20/50 was significantly associated with reduced odds of having a higher level of physical activity OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67, 0.97. Reduced visual acuity appears to be independently associated with lower levels of physical activity among community-dwelling adults.

Swanson, Mark W; Bodner, Eric; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard



[Mental illness and media].  


Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency. PMID:15248412

Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria



Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes.  


Studies on formula-fed infants indicate a beneficial effect of dietary DHA on visual acuity. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between breast-milk DHA levels and visual acuity in breast-fed infants. The objective in this study was to evaluate the biochemical and functional effects of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (OO). The intervention started within a week after delivery and lasted 4 mon. Mothers with habitual high fish intake and their infants were included as a reference group. Ninety-seven infants completed the trial (44 OO-group, 53 FO-group) and 47 reference infants were followed up. The primary outcome measures were: DHA content of milk samples (0, 2, and 4 mon postnatal) and of infant red blood cell (RBC) membranes (4 mon postnatal), and infant visual acuity (measured by swept visual evoked potential at 2 and 4 mon of age). FO supplementation gave rise to a threefold increase in the DHA content of the 4-mon milk samples (P < 0.001). DHA in infant RBC reflected milk contents (r = 0.564, P < 0.001) and was increased by almost 50% (P < 0.001). Infant visual acuity was not significantly different in the randomized groups but was positively associated at 4 mon with infant RBC-DHA (P = 0.004, multiple regression). We concluded that maternal FO supplementation during lactation did not enhance visual acuity of the infants who completed the intervention. However, the results showed that infants with higher RBC levels of n-3 LCPUFA had a better visual acuity at 4 mon of age, suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA may influence visual maturation. PMID:15233397

Lauritzen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Mikkelsen, Tina B; Skovgaard, lb M; Straarup, Ellen-Marie; Olsen, Sjúrdur F; Høy, Carl-Erik; Michaelsen, Kim F



Obesity and mental health.  


Mental health factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obese status in children, adolescents, and adults. Binge eating disorder (BED), body image, self-esteem, mood disorders, and social and family factors affect individuals in different ways and contribute to weight gain and failure in weight loss management. Assessment of these mental health factors and treatment by 1 of several mental health treatment models may not only improve self-worth but also weight loss and maintenance. PMID:19501244

Talen, Mary R; Mann, Misty M



Mental Health in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States federal government has a vested interest in the mental health of children and adolescents. It considers\\u000a the current state of mental health care for children a public crisis (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000). Approximately 21%\\u000a of children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 17 have a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder that causes at least

Trina Menden Anglin


Theorizing Mental Health Courts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, no scholarly article has analyzed the theoretical basis of mental health courts, which currently exist in forty-three states. This Article examines the two utilitarian justifications proposed by mental health court advocates—therapeutic jurisprudence and therapeutic rehabilitation—and finds both insufficient. Therapeutic jurisprudence is inadequate to justify mental health courts because of its inability, by definition, to resolve significant normative conflict.

Lea Johnston



Theorizing Mental Health Courts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, no scholarly article has analyzed the theoretical basis of mental health courts, which currently exist in forty-three states. This Article examines the two utilitarian justifications proposed by mental health court advocates—therapeutic jurisprudence and therapeutic rehabilitation—and finds both insufficient. Therapeutic jurisprudence is inadequate to justify mental health courts because of its inability, by definition, to resolve significant normative conflict.

E. Lea Johnston



Performance of HAWK-I: the new high acuity wide-field K-band imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HAWK-I is the newly commissioned High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager at the ESO Very Large Telescope. It is a 0.9-2.5 micron imager with a field of view of 7.5×7.5 arcmin sampled at 106 mas with four Hawaii2RG detectors. It has a full reflective design that was optimised for image quality and throughput.We present an overview of its performance as measured during the commissioning and first science runs. In particular, we describe a detector read-out mode that allows us to increase the useful dynamic range of the detector, and a distortion calibration resulting in <5mas relative astrometry across the field.

Kissler-Patig, M.; Ageorges, N.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Bedin, L. R.; Bendek, E.; Casali, M.; Dorn, R.; Esteves, R.; Finger, G.; Gojak, D.; Jung, Y.; Kiekebusch, M.; Moorwood, A.; Lizon, J.-L.; Petr-Gotzens, M.; Pirard, J. F.; Pritchard, J.; Selman, F.



Implications for dynamic visual acuity with changes in aged and sex.  


Using a Landolt ring with a gap of 40' of arc which moved at a decreasing velocity until the gap was discriminated, we measured the dynamic visual acuity of 826 subjects, males and females ages 5 to 92 years, and found rapid development between the ages of 5 and 15 years. This experiment showed that dynamic discrimination peaked at age 15 and then declined at a constant rate from age 20 on. The discrimination of male subjects was superior to that of female subjects at most ages, but a significant sex difference was observed only at age 5. We speculate that males may have better discrimination than females but variability is substantial. PMID:8022663

Ishigaki, H; Miyao, M



Mental Health of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random sample of college sophomores was studied regarding their mental health status, mental health service use, and attitudes toward mental health professionals. Data were collected through home interviews and a search of the students' service records at the university. Mental health status was measured by the 22-item Midtown Mental Health Scale.Religious affiliation and performance satisfaction were both found to

Jeffrey O. Whitley



The Postoperative Visual Acuity in Fuchs' Dystrophy Patients Undergoing DSAEK Does Not Correlate With the Severity of Histologic Changes  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate a correlation between the severity of histologic changes of Descemet’s membrane in patients with Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy and the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity following Descemet’s membrane stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Methods In a retrospective study design, a histologic grading system was created based on common characteristics observed histologically among 92 DSAEK specimens sent to the UW Eye Pathology Laboratory with a clinical diagnosis of Fuchs’ dystrophy from three separate corneal surgeons. Cases were graded as mild, moderate, or severe based on four characteristics including guttae dispersion, presence of a laminated Descemet’s membrane, presence of embedded guttae, and density of guttae. Regression models were built to study the relationship between preoperative visual acuity, histological findings and best corrected visual acuity six months, 1 year, and 2 years after DSAEK surgery. Results No correlation was found between the severity of histologic changes of Descemet’s membrane and preoperative visual acuity. A correlation exists, however, between the preoperative visual acuity and final visual acuity. Cases with a laminated Descemet’s membrane but no embedded guttae (n=8) appear less responsive to DSAEK surgery. Otherwise, the severity of histologic changes of Descemet’s membrane observed in patients with Fuchs’ corneal dystrophy following DSAEK did not show a statistically significant correlation with final visual acuity. Conclusions Our analysis fails to show an inverse relationship between the severity of histologic changes of Descemet’s membrane and the best-corrected visual acuity of ? 20/40 following DSAEK for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy. However, in a subset of Fuchs’ dystrophy patients, those who develop a laminated Descemet’s membrane without embedded guttae, the visual recovery following DSAEK is less than expected. The laminated architecture of Descemet’s membrane without embedded guttae may facilitate the separation between the layers of Descemet’s and, thus, incomplete removal of the recipient’s Descemet’s membrane during DSAEK, which may then limit the postoperative visual outcome.

Happ, Dorrie M.; Lewis, David A.; Eng, Kevin H.; Potter, Heather A.D.; Neekhra, Aneesh; Croasdale, Christopher R.; Hardten, David R.; Nehls, Sarah; Eide, Michael; Rowe, Jocelyn; Khedr, Sherif; Albert, Daniel M.



Compensatory responses to age-related decline in odor quality acuity: cholinergic neuromodulation and olfactory enrichment  

PubMed Central

The perceptual differentiation of odors can be measured behaviorally using generalization gradients. The steepness of these gradients defines a form of olfactory acuity for odor quality that depends on neural circuitry within the olfactory bulb and is regulated by cholinergic activity therein as well as by associative learning. Using this system as a reduced model for age-related cognitive decline, we show that aged mice, while maintaining almost the same baseline behavioral performance as younger mice, are insensitive to the effects of acutely elevated acetylcholine, which sharpens generalization gradients in young adult mice. Moreover, older mice exhibit evidence of chronically elevated acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb, suggesting that their insensitivity to further elevated levels of acetylcholine may arise because the maximum capacity of the system to respond to acetylcholine has already been reached. We propose a model in which an underlying, age-related, progressive deficit is mitigated by a compensatory cholinergic feedback loop that acts to retard the behavioral effects of what would otherwise be a substantial age-related decline in olfactory plasticity. We also treated mice with ten-day regimens of olfactory environmental enrichment and/or repeated systemic injections of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. Each treatment alone sharpened odor quality acuity, but administering both treatments together had no greater effect than either alone. Age was not a significant main effect in this study, suggesting that some capacity for acetylcholine-dependent plasticity is still present in aged mice despite their sharply reduced ability to respond to acute increases in acetylcholine levels. These results suggest a dynamical framework for understanding age-related decline in neural circuit processing in which the direct effects of aging can be mitigated, at least temporarily, by systemic compensatory responses. In particular, a decline in cholinergic efficacy can precede any breakdown in cholinergic production, which may help explain the limited effectiveness of cholinergic replacement therapies in combating cognitive decline.

Mandairon, Nathalie; Peace, Shane T.; Boudadi, Karim; Boxhorn, Christine E.; Narla, Venkata Anupama; Suffis, Sara D.; Cleland, Thomas A.



Biosocial variables and auditory acuity as risk factors for non-fatal childhood injuries in Greece.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether biosocial variables and auditory acuity are risk factors for injuries among children. SETTING: Children with injuries who presented at the emergency clinics of one of the two university hospitals for children in Athens, Greece between December 1993 and April 1994. METHODS: 144 children aged 5-14 years, residents of Athens, were brought to the emergency clinics for a moderate to severe injury. For each of these children one hospital control, matched for age and sex, and one classmate control similarly matched were identified. A standard interview form was completed for all 432 children and acouometric and tympanometric examinations were performed in each of them. Analysis was done through conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The likelihood of an accident was higher in children of younger fathers (odds ratio (OR) = 0.7, p = 0.04), children of mothers with non-professional jobs (OR = 1.9, p = 0.03) as well as in children of higher birth order (OR = 1.7, p = 0.01), in those with predominantly other than parental daily supervision (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), and those with a history of previous accident (OR = 1.3, p = 0.002). Somatometric factors, school performance, use of corrective eyeglasses and subnormal auditory acuity were not found to be risk factors, but auditory imbalance and abnormal tympanograms were positively related to the risk of childhood injury (OR = 2.6, p = 0.02; and OR = 2.3, p = 0.08 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: the findings of this study underline the importance of attentive supervision and safety training of children living in modern cities; they also suggest that children with auditory imbalance and history of an accident are at higher injury risk and they should be targeted with specific intervention programs.

Petridou, E.; Zervos, I.; Christopoulos, G.; Revinthi, K.; Papoutsakis, G.; Trichopoulos, D.



Slanted joint axes of the stick insect antenna: an adaptation to tactile acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many flightless, obligatory walking insects, the stick insect Carausius morosus makes intensive use of active antennal movements for tactile near range exploration and orientation. The antennal joints of C. morosus have a peculiar oblique and non-orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Moreover, this arrangement is known to differ from that in crickets (Ensifera), locusts (Caelifera) and cockroaches (Blattodea), all of which have an orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Our hypothesis was that the situation found in C. morosus represents an important evolutionary trait of the order of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea). If this was true, it should be common to other species of the Phasmatodea. The objective of this comparative study was to resolve this question. We have measured the joint axis orientation of the head scape and scape pedicel joints along with other parameters that affect the tactile efficiency of the antenna. The obtained result was a complete kinematic description of the antenna. This was used to determine the size and location of kinematic out-of-reach zones, which are indicators of tactile acuity. We show that the oblique and non-orthogonal arrangement is common to eight species from six sub-families indicating that it is a synapomorphic character of the Euphasmatodea. This character can improve tactile acuity compared to the situation in crickets, locusts and cockroaches. Finally, because molecular data of a recent study indicate that the Phasmatodea may have evolved as flightless, obligatory walkers, we argue that the antennal joint axis arrangement of the Euphasmatodea reflects an evolutionary adaptation to tactile near range exploration during terrestrial locomotion.

Mujagic, Samir; Krause, André F.; Dürr, Volker



Visual acuity after Ruthenium{sup 106} brachytherapy of choroidal melanomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on conservation of visual acuity after Ruthenium{sup 106} (Ru-106) brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. Methods and materials: This study was a noncomparative interventional case series of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma treated at a single center between January 1993 and December 2001. The intervention consisted of Ru-106 brachytherapy delivering minimum scleral and apex doses of 300 Gy and 80 Gy, respectively, using a 15-mm or 20-mm plaque. For discrete, posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin. To ensure correct plaque positioning, any overlying extraocular muscles were dis-inserted, and the locations of both tumor and plaque edges were confirmed by transillumination and indentation. The main outcome measures were conservation of vision of 20/40 or better, 20/200 or better, and Counting Fingers or better, according to baseline variables. Results: The actuarial rate of conservation of 20/40 or better was 55% at 9 years, loss of such vision correlating with posterior tumor extension (p < 0.001), temporal tumor location (p = 0.001), increased tumor height (p = 0.01), and older age (p < 0.01) (Cox multivariate analysis). Similar analyses showed conservation of 20/200 or better in 57% of eyes at 9 years, loss correlating with reduced initial visual acuity (p < 0.001), posterior tumor extension (p < 0.001), and temporal tumor location (p = 0.006). Counting Fingers or better vision was conserved in 83% of patients at 9 years, loss correlating with increased tumor height (p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence occurred in 9 patients (actuarial rate, 3% at 9 years). Conclusion: Ruthenium{sup 106} brachytherapy of posterior choroidal melanoma achieves good conservation of vision if the tumor does not extend close to the optic nerve or fovea.

Damato, Bertil [Ocular Oncology Service, St. Paul's Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Patel, Imran M. [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Campbell, Ian R. [IC Statistical Services, Wirral (United Kingdom); Mayles, Helen M. [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Errington, R. Douglas [Radiotherapy Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Bebington, Wirral (United Kingdom)




PubMed Central

This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses.

Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.



The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the influence of juggling training on mental rotation performance in children. Material and methods: Two groups of girls aged 6-14 years were studied: experimental (EG; n = 26) and control (CG; n = 24). All girls solved a mental rotation task with 3-D block figures on computer screen (pre-test). After the initial test, EG…

Jansen, Petra; Lange, Leonie F.; Heil, Martin



Dissociation between mental imagery and object recognition in a brain-damaged patient.  


Visual imagery is the creation of mental representations that share many features with veridical visual percepts. Studies of normal and brain-damaged people reinforce the view that visual imagery and visual perception are mediated by a common neural substrate and activate the same representations. Thus, brain-damaged patients with intact vision who have an impairment in perception should have impaired visual imagery. Here we present evidence to the contrary from a patient with severely impaired object recognition (visual object agnosia) but with normal mental imagery. He draws objects in considerable detail from memory and uses information derived from mental images in a variety of tasks. In contrast, he cannot identify visually presented objects, even those he has drawn himself. He has normal visual acuity and intact perception of equally complex material in other domains. We conclude that rich internal representations can be activated to support visual imagery even when they cannot support visually mediated perception of objects. PMID:1406994

Behrmann, M; Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M



Older Adults and Mental Health  


... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Older Adults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a normal part of ... Research Clinical Trials: Current Studies on Older Adults Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General/Older Adults ...


Prism adaptation by mental practice.  


The prediction of our actions and their interaction with the external environment is critical for sensorimotor adaptation. For instance, during prism exposure, which deviates laterally our visual field, we progressively correct movement errors by combining sensory feedback with forward model sensory predictions. However, very often we project our actions to the external environment without physically interacting with it (e.g., mental actions). An intriguing question is whether adaptation will occur if we imagine, instead of executing, an arm movement while wearing prisms. Here, we investigated prism adaptation during mental actions. In the first experiment, participants (n = 54) performed arm pointing movements before and after exposure to the optical device. They were equally divided into six groups according to prism exposure: Prisms-Active, Prisms-Imagery, Prisms-Stationary, Prisms-Stationary-Attention, No Conflict-Prisms-Imagery, No Prisms-Imagery. Adaptation, measured by the difference in pointing errors between pre-test and post-test, occurred only in Prisms-Active and Prisms-Imagery conditions. The second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment and further showed that sensorimotor adaptation was mainly due to proprioceptive realignment in both Prisms-Active (n = 10) and Prisms-Imagery (n = 10) groups. In both experiments adaptation was greater following actual than imagined pointing movements. The present results are the first demonstration of prism adaptation by mental practice under prism exposure and they are discussed in terms of internal forward models and sensorimotor plasticity. PMID:23276397

Michel, Carine; Gaveau, Jérémie; Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos



Mental Health Diagnoses and Utilization of VA Non-Mental Health Medical Services Among Returning Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Over 35% of returned Iraq and Afghanistan veterans in VA care have received mental health diagnoses; the most prevalent is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about these patients’ use of non-mental health medical services and the impact of mental disorders on utilization. OBJECTIVE To compare utilization across three groups of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: those without mental disorders, those with mental disorders other than PTSD, and those with PTSD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS National, descriptive study of 249,440 veterans newly utilizing VA healthcare between October 7, 2001 and March 31, 2007, followed until March 31, 2008. MEASUREMENTS We used ICD9-CM diagnostic codes to classify mental health status. We compared utilization of outpatient non-mental health services, primary care, medical subspecialty, ancillary services, laboratory tests/diagnostic procedures, emergency services, and hospitalizations during veterans’ first year in VA care. Results were adjusted for demographics and military service and VA facility characteristics. MAIN RESULTS Veterans with mental disorders had 42–146% greater utilization than those without mental disorders, depending on the service category (all P?mental disorders (all P?mental disorders, those with mental disorders other than PTSD had 55% higher utilization of all non-mental health outpatient services; those with PTSD had 91% higher utilization. Female sex and lower rank were also independently associated with greater utilization. CONCLUSIONS Veterans with mental health diagnoses, particularly PTSD, utilize significantly more VA non-mental health medical services. As more veterans return home, we must ensure resources are allocated to meet their outpatient, inpatient, and emergency needs.

Gima, Kris; Bertenthal, Daniel; Kim, Sue; Marmar, Charles R.; Seal, Karen H.



Mental state decoding and mental state reasoning in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals.  


Impaired social cognition has been associated with interpersonal problems and with the development of and relapse into alcohol abuse. In the present study, self-reported trait empathy, decoding of complex mental states and cognitive and affective mental state reasoning were assessed in alcohol-dependent participants, and the association with executive function and psychopathological characteristics was investigated. Twenty recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 20 matched healthy controls were assessed with an abbreviated German version of the interpersonal reactivity index, the revised reading the mind in the eyes test, the faux pas story test, the trail making test and the letter-number-sequencing test. Patients were impaired relative to controls with regard to mental state decoding on the eyes test and showed reduced faux pas detection and impaired mental state reasoning reflected by lower faux pas understanding and faux pas empathy scores. There were no group differences regarding self-reported trait empathy. Performance on the sociocognitive measures was related to executive functioning and the severity of depressive symptoms. Although self-report measures might not always reliably detect impairments of social cognition, behavioural measures suggest pronounced impairments of mental state decoding and mental state reasoning in association with alcohol dependence. Findings ought to be incorporated into current treatment strategies. PMID:22995039

Thoma, Patrizia; Winter, Natalia; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik



Mental contamination: the perpetrator effect.  


In order to test the proposition that imagining carrying out an unacceptable non-consensual act can evoke contamination-related feelings in the perpetrator, 4 connected experiments were carried out involving male students. The effects of the experimental procedure were enhanced by the introduction of a theme of betrayal which boosted the feelings of contamination and urges to wash. The non-consensual scenarios were followed by substantial increases in negative emotions, notably shame, disgust and guilt, and these increases were boosted over successive enhancements of the procedure. Overall the results show that perpetrators of (imagined) unacceptable acts report a range of negative emotions and feelings of dirtiness. The main conclusion of this research is that imagining an unacceptable, non-consensual act can produce feelings of contamination. It is an experimental illustration of mental contamination, that is, contamination which is evoked by a mental event without any contact with a tangible contaminant. PMID:21888871

Rachman, S; Radomsky, Adam S; Elliott, Corinna M; Zysk, Eva



Mental Health Act Commission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to promote a clearer under standing of the Mental Health Commission's develop ment, structure and function. Over recent years, mental health professionals and patients have become more aware of the organisation and its work, although some may remain uncertain about its function and how it fits into the overall care of detained patients. The

L. Blom-Cooper; William Bingley



Mental activity during sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since remote antiquity humankind has believed in the supernatural origin of dreaming. The scientific approach to mental activity during sleep dates back to the eighteenth century. One hundred years ago, psychoanalysis introduced dream analysis for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Only 50 years ago psychophysiology made it possible to collect mental sleep activity by means of experimental awakenings while monitoring physiological

Igino Fagioli



BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises. BEATCALC will wake up your brain on Monday morning with a mental math exercise that will stimulate those gray cells. Each Monday you will receive instructions for an exercise that will enable you to do math computations mentally faster than a friend can do them on a calculator. For example, how about learning to square 65 or 95 mentally in quick time? You can beat that calculator! These exercises are designed for : (1) Foggy heads at work on Monday morning who need a mental jump-start for the week. (2) People who say "I never could do math" and need some math confidence. (3) Calculator cripples. Kids (and big kids) who need a calculator to do 8 times 9. (4) Individuals who have refused to think about numbers since fifth grade. Was it long division that did it? (5) Braggarts who would like to show up a colleague by doing math mentally faster than he/she can do it using a calculator. (6) Seniors who want to keep mentally alert by routinely exercising the noggin. (7) And other hardy and adventurous souls who can use a little mental stimulation. send email to in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE BEATCALC yourfirstname yourlastname




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Children's Mental Health Surveillance  


Children’s Mental Health Surveillance National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Division of Human Development and Disability What are ... gov CDC issues first comprehensive report on children’s mental health in the United States A new report from ...


Mental Rotation Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most popular tasks used in measuring individual differences in spatial ability is a mental rotation task introduced by Shepard and Metzler (1971). This page provides information about use of a spatial ability task to illustrate the prinicple of mental rotation.


Topography of the retina and striate cortex and its relationship to visual acuity in rhesus monkeys and squirrel monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density of cones and ganglion cells was studied in horizontal sections of retina in the rhesus monkey (Macaca, mulatta) and the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The lower angular density of cones in the fovea of Saimiri correlates with its visual acuity, which is poorer than that of Macaca (0.74 and 0.65 min of arc respectively). Cone density falls more steeply

E. T. Rolls; A. Cowey



Association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity and hand symptoms reported by operators of power tools.  


An association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and symptoms of reduced manipulative function, as established by responses to a questionnaire, was demonstrated in a population of 81 manual workers from the mining industry (62 power-tool operators and 19 nonusers). Mechanoreceptor-specific vibrotactile thresholds were determined for the slowly adapting type I (SAI) and fast-adapting types I and II (FAI and FAII) receptors at the fingertip of the third digit of each hand. Statistically significant threshold shifts in SAI and/or FAII acuity were found in persons responding affirmatively to questions concerning finger/hand numbness, blanching, and difficulty buttoning clothing. The best predictors of a quantitative change in tactile acuity were questions relating to difficulty manipulating small objects and buttoning clothing, yielding positive predictive values of from 90% to 100% and false positive rates of from 0% to 2.8%. The demonstration of an association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and some symptom reports, obtained by means of a questionnaire, provides the basis for the development of a screening procedure for persons at risk of such disturbances in hand function. PMID:9330148

Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Brammer, A J; Piercy, J E



Visual Acuity of Youths 12-17 Years, United States. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, No. 127.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are the findings of a national health examination survey of uncorrected and corrected monocular and binocular visual acuity of 7,514 noninstitutionalized youth 12 to 17 years of age analyzed with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, size of place of residence, and annual family income. Among findings reported are that 70 0/0 of…

Roberts, Jean; Slaby, David


Clinical Mental Health Counselor Handbook & Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook and study guide were developed as a textbook to be used as a review course for preparation for the clinical licensing examination. It presents a summary of a graduate level academic program in clinical mental health counseling. It contains 17 chapters on clinical information; 4 chapters on test taking; 2 types of sample tests; and 3…

Bullard, Bonnie; Lawless, Linda; Williams, Midge; Bergstrom, Deborah


Evaluation of the Colorado Clinical Psychology/Expanded Mental Health Benefits Experiment. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Colorado Clinical Psychology/Expanded Mental Health Benefits Experiment tested two alterations in the Medicare Program: (1) decreasing the copayment rate for outpatient mental health services from 50% to 20%, and (2) recognizing clinical psychologists...

N. McCall T. Rice B. Steinhardt



Evaluation of the Colorado Clinical Psychology/Expanded Mental Health Benefits Experiment. Volume II: Process Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Colorado Clinical Psychology/Expanded Mental Health Benefits Experiment tested two alterations in the Medicare Program: (1) decreasing the copayment rate for outpatient mental health services from 50% to 20%, and (2) recognizing clinical psychologists...

N. McCall T. Rice M. Swenson



Recidivism Outcomes for Suburban Mental Health Court Defendants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health courts have recently emerged as one means to reduce the number of persons with mental illness in the criminal\\u000a justice system. Using a post-test only comparison group design, this study examined rearrest rates for 1 year post discharge\\u000a among three groups meeting admission criteria for a municipal mental health court. The rearrest rate of defendants who successfully\\u000a completed the

P. Ann Dirks-Linhorst; Donald M. Linhorst


Breaking new ground in the mind: an initial study of mental brittle transformation and mental rigid rotation in science experts.  


The current study examines the spatial skills employed in different spatial reasoning tasks, by asking how science experts who are practiced in different types of visualizations perform on different spatial tasks. Specifically, the current study examines the varieties of mental transformations. We hypothesize that there may be two broad classes of mental transformations: rigid body mental transformations and non-rigid mental transformations. We focus on the disciplines of geology and organic chemistry because different types of transformations are central to the two disciplines: While geologists and organic chemists may both confront rotation in the practice of their profession, only geologists confront brittle transformations. A new instrument was developed to measure mental brittle transformation (visualizing breaking). Geologists and organic chemists performed similarly on a measure of mental rotation, while geologists outperformed organic chemists on the mental brittle transformation test. The differential pattern of skill on the two tests for the two groups of experts suggests that mental brittle transformation and mental rotation are different spatial skills. The roles of domain general cognitive resources (attentional control, spatial working memory, and perceptual filling in) and strategy in completing mental brittle transformation are discussed. The current study illustrates how ecological and interdisciplinary approaches complement traditional cognitive science to offer a comprehensive approach to understanding the nature of spatial thinking. PMID:23440527

Resnick, Ilyse; Shipley, Thomas F



I AIN’T BEEN READING WHILE ON PAROLE: Experts, Mental Tests, and Eugenic Commitment Law in Illinois, 1890–1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes professional challenges to the 1915 commitment law and the ultimate demise of eugenic institutionalization in Illinois. It reveals the pivotal role of psychologists and intelligence testing in the debate over the necessity and viability of a state-sponsored system of eugenic commitment. It focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on a specific group of young female test subjects and

Michael A. Rembis



Changes over time in the black–white difference on mental tests: Evidence from the children of the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for three Peabody achievement tests and for the Peabody picture vocabulary test administered to children of women in the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that the black–white difference did not diminish for this sample of children born from the mid 1970s through the mid 1990s. This finding persists after entering covariates for the child's

Charles Murray



A Contralateral Eye Study Comparing Apodized Diffrative and Full Diffrative Lenses: Wavefront Analysis and Distance and Near Uncorrected Visual Acuity  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To evaluate intraindividual visual acuity, wavefront errors and modulation transfer functions in patients implanted with two diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. METHODS: This prospective study examined 40 eyes of 20 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a spherical multifocal ReSTOR intraocular lens in one eye and an aspheric Tecnis ZM900 multifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. The main outcome measures, over a 3-month follow-up period, were the uncorrected photopic distance and near visual acuity and the defocus curve. The visual acuity was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis and is presented in decimal scale. The wavefront error and modulation transfer function were also evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: At the 3-month postoperative visit, the mean photopic distance uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 0.74 ± 0.20 in the ReSTOR group and 0.76 ± 0.22 in the Tecnis group (p=0.286). The mean near UCVA was 0.96 ± 0.10 in the ReSTOR group and 0.93 ± 0.14 in the Tecnis group (p=0.963). The binocular defocus curve showed measurements between the peaks better than 0.2 logMAR. The total aberration, higher-order aberration and coma aberration were not significantly different between the groups. The spherical aberration was significantly lower in the Tecnis group than in the ReSTOR group. (p=0.004). Both groups performed similarly for the modulation transfer function. CONCLUSION: The ReSTOR SN60D3 and Tecnis ZM 900 intraocular lenses provided similar photopic visual acuity at distance and near. The diffractive intraocular lenses studied provided a low value of coma and spherical aberrations, with the Tecnis intraocular lens having a statistically lower spherical aberration compared to the ReSTOR intraocular lens. In the 5 mm pupil diameter analyses, both intraocular lens groups showed similar modulation transfer functions.

de Santhiago, Marcony Rodrigues; Netto, Marcelo Vieira; Barreto, Jackson; de Abreu Fiuza Gomes, Beatriz; Schaefer, Arthur; Kara-Junior, Newton



Spatial acuity in two-to-three-year-old children with normal acoustic hearing, unilateral cochlear implants and bilateral cochlear implants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To measure spatial acuity on a right-left discrimination task in 2-to-3-year-old children who use a unilateral cochlear implant (UCI) or bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs); to test the hypothesis that BICI users perform significantly better when they use two CIs than when using a single CI, and that they perform better than the children in the UCI group; to determine how well children with CIs perform compared with children who have normal acoustic hearing; to determine the effect of intensity roving on spatial acuity. Design Three groups of children between 26-to-36 months of age participated in this study: 8 children with normal acoustic hearing (mean age: 30.9 months), 12 children who use a UCI (mean age: 31.9 months), and 27 children who use BICIs (mean age: 30.7 months). Testing was conducted in a large sound-treated booth with loudspeakers positioned on a horizontal arc with a radius of 1.2 m. The observer-based psychophysical procedure was used to measure the children’s ability to identify the hemifield containing the sound source (right vs. left). Two methods were used for quantifying spatial acuity, an adaptive-tracking method and a fixed-angle method. In Experiment 1 an adaptive tracking algorithm was used to vary source angle, and the minimum audible angle (MAA; smallest angle at which right-left discrimination performance is better than chance) was estimated. All three groups participated in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 source angles were fixed at ±50°, and performance was evaluated by computing the number of standard deviations above chance. Children in the UCI and BICI groups participated in Experiment 2. Results In Experiment 1, when stimulus intensity was roved by 8 dB, MAA thresholds were 3.3º to 30.2º (mean = 14.5º) and 5.7º to 69.6º (mean = 30.9º) in children who have normal acoustic hearing and the BICI group, respectively. When the intensity level was fixed for the BICI group, performance did not improve. Within the BICI group, 5/27 children obtained MAA thresholds within one standard deviation of their peers who have normal acoustic hearing; all 5 had greater than 12 months of bilateral listening experience. In Experiment 2, BICIs provided some advantages when the intensity level was fixed. First, the BICI group outperformed the UCI group. Second, children in the BICI group who repeated the task with their first CI alone had statistically significantly better performance when using both devices. In addition, when intensity roving was introduced, a larger percentage of children who had 12 or more months of BICI experience continued to perform above chance than children who had less than 12 months of BICI experience. Taken together, the results suggest that children with BICIs have spatial acuity that is better than when using their first CI alone as well as better than their peers who use UCI. In addition, longer durations of BICI use tend to result in better performance, although this cannot be generalized to all participants. Conclusion This report is consistent with a growing body of evidence that spatial hearing skills can emerge in young children who use BICIs. The observation that these skills are not concomitantly emerging in age- and experience-matched children who use UCIs suggests that BICIs provide cues that are necessary for these spatial hearing skills which UCIs do not provide.

Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.



Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra



Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.


Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.


Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation  

SciTech Connect

Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

Miller, R.W.



The prevalence of mental subnormality*†  

PubMed Central

The criteria of mental subnormality are complex, uncertain, and not self-consistent. Confusion arises because of errors of measurement, faulty standardization of tests and measurements, differences in growth patterns, environmental influences, and lack of agreement between the different criteria for diagnosis. Fluctuations in the threshold of community tolerance make the term “mental subnormality” only a relative one, useful mainly for administrative purposes. There is evidence to suggest that mild subnormality is not an irreversible condition. Surveys of prevalence have been of three main sorts: psychometric, clinical, and follow-up. Some of the main findings from each of these are summarized. Since mild subnormality is to a large extent a culturally determined disability, it follows that cultural changes can do much to diminish its occurrence. In particular, better maternal and child health services, more adequate educational provision, social welfare, vocational guidance and training services, and a condition of full employment would together greatly reduce the prevalence of this, the commonest form of mental subnormality.

Tizard, J.



NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mental health topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mental health, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mental health field.



Mental Health Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mental Health Matters is a collection of various mental health articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.



Determination of the foveal cone spacing by ocular speckle interferometry: limiting factors and acuity predictions.  


We have developed a high-resolution imaging technique, based on speckle interferometry, for the objective determination of the cone spacing in the living human fovea. The spatial resolution attained with this technique is theoretically diffraction limited by the pupil size. However, the highest frequency that we measure varies greatly among subjects, especially for fully dilated pupils. We have conducted several experiments (determination of the cutoff frequency of ocular speckle interferometry, the double-pass modulation transfer function, and the Stiles-Crawford effect) that indicate that, as expected, the resolution is not limited by the incoherent modulation transfer function. We found, though, a high correlation between the cutoff frequency and the width of the eye's Stiles-Crawford function. This implies that the resolution depends on the structural properties of the cone mosaic itself. In addition, we have compared the Nyquist frequency of the cone mosaic, determined objectively by our technique, with the grating visual acuity measured in the same eyes at the same foveal eccentricities. For our subjects, visual resolution nearly matches the Nyquist frequency within the fovea, except at the foveal center, where the optical transfer function of the eye attenuates the contrast of frequencies close to the Nyquist limit to a value below threshold. PMID:9088086

Marcos, S; Navarro, R



Improvement of visual acuity in diabetic and nondiabetic patients after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the study reported here was to compare the improvement of visual acuity (VA) of diabetic and nondiabetic patients after neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 50 age- and sex-matched patients, comprising 25 nondiabetics and 25 diabetics (referred to as Group A and B, respectively), with posterior chamber poly(methyl methacrylate) non-foldable intraocular lens implants attending our clinic at Karachi for capsulotomy had pre- and postoperative measures of VA, posterior pole visibility, and grading of posterior capsular opacity as seen on slit-lamp examination. VA was recorded before and after performing standard capsulotomy. Results The postoperative (mean) VA in nondiabetics was 0.25, 0.23, and 0.21 logMAR as compared with 0.25, 0.25, and 0.24 logMAR in diabetics at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months, respectively. P-values of 0.47, 0.47, and 0.24, respectively, were determined, which were not significant. Preoperative VA improvement was recorded in 92% of diabetics in Group B and 96% of nondiabetics in Group A. Two (8%) diabetic patients developed glaucoma and did not participate in the study further. Conclusion Remarkable improvement in VA was achieved in both Group A and B, but the Group A nondiabetics showed more improvement in best-corrected VA after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy.

Awan, Muhammed Tayyab; Khan, Muhammed Anwar; Al-Khairy, Saba; Malik, Samina



Activity of daily living and its associated factors in war survivors with no visual acuity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: War is a known cause of tremendous physical injuries to different body organs, and eyes are not exceptions. War-related no visual acuity (NVA) affects both the victim and the family. Activity of daily living (ADL) can display personal life independency and is considered as a morbidity index. This study was designed to investigate the ADL profile of war survivors with NVA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Iran. In this study, 500 Iranian people with war related NVA were invited to take part in a camp in Mashhad city. ADL was evaluated using Barthel Index and demographic data were collected using a data sheet. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the associates of ADL. RESULTS: The overall response rate to the invitation was 50%. From the total 250 participants 96.5% were male with a mean age of 43 ± 8 years. Only 8.3% had no dependency in ADL and other 91.7% had some ranges of dependency in at least one of the daily living activities. ADL score was higher in highly educated participants, those younger than 50 years old, those with less co-morbid physical problems (hearing loss) and those with regular physical exercises. According to regression analysis, age and duration of war related NVA were significant predictors of ADL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, both age and the time passed from war related NVA increase the dependency of people with war related NVA.

Amini, Reza; Haghani, Hamid; Masoomi, Mehdi; Assari, Shervin



Preoperative visual acuity among cataract surgery patients and countries' state of development: a global study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the preoperative surgical case mix among patients undergoing cataract extraction and explore associations between case mix, country level of development (as measured by the Human Development Index, HDI) and cataract surgery rates (CSRs). Methods Ophthalmologists in 50 countries were invited to join the newly-established International Eye Research Network and asked to complete a web-based questionnaire about their eye hospitals. Those who complied received a data collection form for recording demographic and clinical data on 100 consecutive patients about to undergo cataract surgery. Countries were ranked into five HDI categories and multivariable regression was used to explore associations. Findings Ophthalmologists at 112 eye hospitals (54% of them nongovernmental) in 50 countries provided data on 11?048 cataract procedures over 9 months in 2008. Patients whose visual acuity (VA) before surgery was

Gilbert, Claire E; Razavi, Hessom; Turner, Elizabeth L; Lindfield, Robert J



Mental health training for law enforcement professionals.  


The purpose of this pilot study was to determine topics of interest and preferred modalities of training for police officers in their work with persons with mental illness. Police officers across Massachusetts attending in-service mental health training were asked to rate the importance of potential mental health topics and the effectiveness of potential training modalities on a Likert-type scale. Additional data collected included the officer's experience, level of education, motivation for attendance, previous attendance of post-academy mental health training, and preferences for length, frequency, training site, and trainer qualifications. A t test was used to determine if there were significant differences (p < .05) between those who volunteered and those who were mandated to attend the training. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there were significant differences (p < .05) between mental health topics and lecture formats and to determine the effect of education and experience on the results. Although all topics suggested were rated, primarily, as fairly important, the topics of Dangerousness, Suicide by Cop, Decreasing Suicide Risk, Mental Health Law, and Your Potential Liability for Bad Outcomes were given the highest ratings. Role-playing was rated significantly lower than other training modalities, while Videos and Small Group Discussion had the highest mean scores. Level of prior education had no significant effect on the ratings, but officers with more experience rated the importance of mental illness as a training topic significantly higher than officers with less experience. This survey suggests that police officers are interested in learning more about working with persons with mental illness and view it as an important aspect of the job. PMID:15809237

Vermette, Heidi S; Pinals, Debra A; Appelbaum, Paul S



Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others


The Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.



Is Dementia a Mental Illness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether dementia is a mental illness.Method: An analysis of decisions in the Supreme Court of New South Wales that dementia per se was not a mental illness in terms of the 1958 Mental Health Act. A brief review of the extrusion of other diseases from psychiatry.Results: Concepts in legislation are based on a dichotomy between mental infirmity

Stephen Ticehurst



Does mental practice enhance performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental practice is the cognitive rehearsal of a task prior to performance. Although most researchers contend that mental practice is an effective means of enhancing performance, a clear consensus is precluded because (a) mental practice is often denned so loosely as to include almost any type of mental preparation and (b) empirical results are inconclusive. A meta-analysis of the literature

James E. Driskell; Carolyn Copper; Aidan Moran



Stereopsis testing in a preschool vision screening program.  


We conducted a preschool vision screening study using stereopsis testing with the Random Dot E and Lang stereotests as a complement to visual acuity measurement. Over 6000 children were screened. Stereopsis testing at a threshold of 600 seconds of arc was cognitively easier for the children than visual acuity measurement. At this threshold there was no effect on reducing the rate of visual acuity overreferrals, but ten children with abnormal binocular vision were detected who were not referred by visual acuity criteria. Though a large number of children passed only one of the two stereotests, there was no significant difference in their degree of difficulty. Stereopsis testing with these two stereotests may be a useful adjunct to preschool vision screening programs though further studies are required. PMID:3454373

Ruttum, M S; Bence, S M; Alcorn, D


Good Mental Health  


... selenium, zinc, and omega-3 — may contribute to depression in new mothers. Ask your doctor or another health care professional for more information. Return to top Exercise and mental health Learn more in the fitness and ...


Domains of Mental Workload.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important concept when designing and evaluating man-machine systems (MMS) is the mental workload (MWL) of the operator. MWL is the operator's 'psychological cost' to maintain a certain standard of performance. Unfortunately, MWL is not directly measura...

B. Bergstroem



Mental Health for Men  


... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...


Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.


Mental Math Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-page document (pdf) offers numerous strategies that children can use to perform addition, subtraction, and multiplication mentally. These strategies help develop fact fluency, number sense, operation sense, and use of patterns.



[Mental illness and pregnancy].  


Pregnancy was once thought a period of bliss devoid of mental illness. We now know this is not so. It is well documented that pregnancy and the peripartum are not only a time when preexisting mental illness will persist but that it is also a high-risk period for renewed episodes of mental illness, whether de novo or relapse. In this paper, we will describe the three main axis of management of maternal mental illness during the peripartum: maternal psychiatric illness, fetal, neonatal and infant development and future mother-infant relationship. We will give an overview of how to organize care for mothers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Good practice management of psychotropic medication during this period will be described. Finally the importance of networking and multidisciplinary management of these situations will be underlined. PMID:23236865

Apter, Gisèle; Garez, Valérie; Medjkane, François




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




College students' social anxiety associated with stress and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. METHODS: 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEO), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self Consciousness Scale. RESUTL AND ANALYSIS: The college students' stressors were related to social anxiety and mental health.

Shi Kan; Jiang Nan; Chen Xuefeng; Wang Zhen; Gao Jing; Hu Weipeng



On developmental mental architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computational theory of developmental mental architectures for artificial and natural systems, motivated by neuroscience. The work is an attempt to approximately model biological mental architectures using mathematical tools. Six types of architecture are presented, beginning with the observation-driven Markov decision process as Type-1. From Type-1 to Type-6, the architecture progressively becomes more complete toward the necessary

Juyang Weng



How mental systems believe  

Microsoft Academic Search

tance. In this view, the mental representation of abstract ideas is quite similar to the mental representation of phys- ical objects: People believe in the ideas they comprehend, as quickly and automatically as they believe in the objects they see. Research in social and cognitive psychology sug- gests that Spinoza's model,may,be a more,accurate ac- count of human,belief than is that

Daniel T. Gilbert



Neuroimaging in mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : To determine the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging ina cohort of children with mental retardation of unknown origin.Methods: Neuroimaging was performed in a total of 47 patients with developmental delay\\/mental retardation, where no etiologic diagnosis\\u000a could be made following clinical examination and preliminary investigations.Results : Thirty (63.82%) children had abnormal neuroimaging findings of which 19 (42.42%) were specific abnormalities

Amita Pandey; Shubha R. Phadke; Neerja Gupta; R. V. Phadke



Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin



Mental activity during sleep.  


Since remote antiquity humankind has believed in the supernatural origin of dreaming. The scientific approach to mental activity during sleep dates back to the eighteenth century. One hundred years ago, psychoanalysis introduced dream analysis for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Only 50 years ago psychophysiology made it possible to collect mental sleep activity by means of experimental awakenings while monitoring physiological variables; this approach encouraged investigation into the relationship between the features of sleep activity and sleep state (REM versus NREM). Advances in neurophysiology, in neurochemistry, and recently in brain imaging techniques, have shed light on the roles played by the different cerebral structures in determining specific characteristics of mental activity during sleep. The development of cognitive psychology has enabled investigation of dream generation in terms of output from a complex multilevel system of information processing. In addition to sleep state, other factors, such as the time of the night and the sequence of the NREM-REM cycles, have been shown to influence the characteristics of mental activity. The usefulness of investigation of mental sleep activity as a clinical tool is controversial. The psychophysiological approach to mental sleep activity in clinical contexts has enabled the exploration of adaptation processes and contributed to neuropsychological studies on focal and systemic brain pathology. PMID:12531134

Fagioli, Igino