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1

Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety.

Turnage, J. J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Smith, M. G.; Baltzley, D. R.; Lane, N. E.

1992-01-01

2

Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests for repeated-measures studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to detail the development of the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), a computer battery of mental acuity tests that can be used to assess human performance in the presence of toxic elements and environmental stressors. There were four objectives in the development of APTS. First, the technical requirements for developing APTS followed the tenets of the classical theory of mental tests which requires that tests meet set criteria like stability and reliability (the lack of which constitutes insensitivity). To be employed in the study of the exotic conditions of protracted space flight, a battery with multiple parallel forms is required. The second criteria was for the battery to have factorial multidimensionality and the third was for the battery to be sensitive to factors known to compromise performance. A fourth objective was for the tests to converge on the abilities entailed in mission specialist tasks. A series of studies is reported in which candidate APTS tests were subjected to an examination of their psychometric properties for repeated-measures testing. From this work, tests were selected that possessed the requisite metric properties of stability, reliability, and factor richness. In addition, studies are reported which demonstrate the predictive validity of the tests to holistic measures of intelligence.

Kennedy, R. S.; Wilkes, R. L.; Baltzley, D. R.; Fowlkes, J. E.

1990-01-01

3

Preschool visual acuity screening tests.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

Friendly, D S

1978-01-01

4

Influences of multiple memory systems on auditory mental image acuity.  

PubMed

The influence of different memory systems and associated attentional processes on the acuity of auditory images, formed for the purpose of making intonation judgments, was examined across three experiments using three different task types (cued-attention, imagery, and two-tone discrimination). In experiment 1 the influence of implicit long-term memory for musical scale structure was manipulated by varying the scale degree (leading tone versus tonic) of the probe note about which a judgment had to be made. In experiments 2 and 3 the ability of short-term absolute pitch knowledge to develop was manipulated by presenting blocks of trials in the same key or in seven different keys. The acuity of auditory images depended on all of these manipulations. Within individual listeners, thresholds in the two-tone discrimination and cued-attention conditions were closely related. In many listeners, cued-attention thresholds were similar to thresholds in the imagery condition, and depended on the amount of training individual listeners had in playing a musical instrument. The results indicate that mental images formed at a sensory/cognitive interface for the purpose of making perceptual decisions are highly malleable. PMID:21117767

Navarro Cebrian, Ana; Janata, Petr

2010-05-01

5

Astronauts Cooper and Conrad prepare cameras during visual acuity tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini 5 space flight, prepare their cameras while aboard a C-130 aircraft flying near Laredo. The two astronauts are taking part in a series of visual acuity experiments to aid them in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

1965-01-01

6

Visual Vestibular Interaction in the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test during Voluntary Head Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although intact vestibular function is essential in maintaining spatial orientation, no good screening tests of vestibular function are available to the aviation community. High frequency voluntary head rotation was selected as a vestibular stimulus to isolate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from visual influence. A dynamic visual acuity test that incorporates voluntary head rotation was evaluated as a potential vestibular function screening tool. Twenty-seven normal subjects performed voluntary sinusoidal head rotation at frequencies from 0.7-4.0 Hz under three different visual conditions: visually-enhanced VOR, normal VOR, and visually suppressed VOR. Standardized Baily-Lovie chart letters were presented on a computer monitor in front of the subject, who then was asked to read the letters while rotating his head horizontally. The electro-oculogram and dynamic visual acuity score were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in gain or phase shift among three visual conditions in the frequency range of 2.8 to 4.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity score shifted less than 0.3 logMAR at frequencies under 2.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity test at frequencies a round 2.0 Hz can be recommended for evaluating vestibular function.

Lee, Moo Hoon; Durnford, Simon; Crowley, John; Rupert, Angus

1996-01-01

7

Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools  

PubMed Central

Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ‘Unable to test’ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes (P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or “matching” approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities. PMID:24008790

Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong

2014-01-01

8

Normative Scores for the NIH Toolbox Dynamic Visual Acuity Test from 3 to 85?Years  

PubMed Central

As part of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative, a computerized test of dynamic visual acuity (cDVA) was developed and validated as an easy-to-administer, cost- and time-efficient test of vestibular and visual function. To establish normative reference values, 3,992 individuals, aged 3–85?years, without vestibular pathology underwent cDVA testing at multiple clinical research testing facilities across the United States. Test scores were stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. cDVA was worse in males (p?acuity across age groups binned from 3 to 49?years. Furthermore, we used these normative cDVA data as a criterion reference to compare both the long (validated) and short versions of the test. Both versions can distinguish between those with and without vestibular pathology (p?=?0.0002 long; p?=?0.0025 short). The intraclass correlation coefficient between long- and short-cDVA tests was 0.86. PMID:25400618

Li, Carol; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Rine, Rose Marie; Slotkin, Jerry; Schubert, Michael C.

2014-01-01

9

Mentality Tests: A Symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the need to reconsider the principles upon which a scale of mental development should be formulated. Also talks about the problem of whether retardation should be expressed in terms of years, mental quotients, proportion of average scores, or percentile deviations, and what steps should be taken to correct the problem.

J. B. Miner

1916-01-01

10

The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The performance of some subjects nicely parallels the stereotypical recovery curve observed in the group mean data. Others show dramatic changes in DVA from one test day to another. These changes may be indicative of a re-adaptation process that is not characterized by a steady improvement with the passage of time, but is instead a dynamic search for appropriate coordinative strategy to achieve the desired gaze stabilization goal. Ground-based data have been collected in our lab using DVA with one of the goals being to improve the DVA test itself. In one of these studies, the DVA test was repeated using a visual target viewing distance of 0.5 meters. While walking, the relative contributions of the otoliths and semi-circular canals that are required to stabilize gaze are affected by visual target viewing distance. It may be possible to exploit this using the current treadmill DVA test to differentially assess changes in these vestibular subsystems. The postflight DVA evaluations currently used have been augmented to include the near target version of the test. Preliminary results from these assessments, as well as the results from the ground-based tests will also be reported. DVA provides a direct measure of a subject's ability to see clearly in the presence of self-motion. The use of the current tests for providing a functionally relevant metric is evident. However, it is possible to expand the scope of DVA testing to include scenarios other than walking. A facility for measuring DVA in the presence of passive movements is being created. Using a mechanized platform to provide the perturbation, it should be possible to simulate aircraft and automobile vibration profiles. Used in conjunction with the far and near visual displays this facility should be able to assess a subject s ability to clearly see distant objects as well as those that appear on the dashboard or instrument control panel during functionally relevant situations.

Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2006-01-01

11

Learning, Mental Health, and Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Achievement and intelligence tests have been criticized for their adverse effects on the mental health and intellectual development of children. The fault is not with the testing, but with the instructional program. Reforms in testing must be accomplished as part of a revolution in the total instructional program encompassing: (1) a shift from a…

Heathers, Glen

12

MTF testing for the assessment of spectacle lens image quality and the relationship to visual acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical quality assessment of spectacle lenses has changed very little over the past 50 years, usually consisting of simple power and astigmatism measurements at a few points on the lens. In the past, this was satisfactory since lenses were either single-vision or bifocal where the image quality varies little over the lens. Recently, more complicated lens forms, such as progressive addition lenses (PALs), have gained in popularity. The old testing methods are not adequate to assess the optical quality of such lenses. In a PAL, the power changes continuously from the upper to the lower part of the lens, leading to zones with large amounts of aberration. A means of objectively and accurately measuring the image quality across the aperture of such lenses was required. The modulation transfer function (MTF) has been used for some time in the precision optics field as a reliable measure of optical system image quality. MTF testing was selected as the basis for a fully-automated, lens measurement instrument. The Spectacle Lens Image Mapper (SLIM) measures and maps the power, astigmatism, prism, MTF, and a new quantity named the maximum predicted visual acuity (MPVA) over the aperture of a spectacle lens. The MTF is obtained thru the Fourier transform of the point spread function produced by the test lens using a high-resolution camera. Since the MTF is not well understood in the ophthalmic community, a quantitative relationship between the MTF and wearer visual acuity (VA) was desirable. Thus, the MPVA, a measure of the VA reduction that would be experienced by a wearer looking through a given point on a lens, was developed. A clinical study of VA was conducted on four PALs in order to provide validation of the MPVA. Over 80% of the MPVAs were within 2 lines of the measured VA on a standard eye chart and two-thirds were within 1 line, with a number of avenues for improvement already identified. Many studies using the SLIM have been completed on commercially available PALs. The wide variation in lens quality seen in these studies confirms the effectiveness of and the need for the SLIM.

Hadaway, James Benjamin

13

Visual discrimination learning in the water maze: a novel test for visual acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning about space, the environment and specific objects comprising three-dimensional arrangements requires processing of visual information. As learning and memory experiments in mammals rely heavily on normal processing of visual cues, drug-induced disruption of acquisition learning or memory formation necessitates the important control for visual acuity. A popular task used frequently for rats is the Morris water maze. However, previously

Lianne Robinson; Holly Bridge; Gernot Riedel

2001-01-01

14

Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure  

PubMed Central

Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

2013-01-01

15

Two-Point Orientation Discrimination Versus the Traditional Two-Point Test for Tactile Spatial Acuity Assessment  

PubMed Central

Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal) of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants’ psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological assessment. PMID:24062677

Tong, Jonathan; Mao, Oliver; Goldreich, Daniel

2013-01-01

16

Tactile spatial acuity differs between fingers: A study comparing two testing paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tactile spatial acuity (TSA) is a reliable and reproducible measure of somatosensory system function that has been used to\\u000a study a broad range of subject populations. Although TSA is most often assessed at the fingertip, published studies employing\\u000a identical stimuli disagree on whether TSA differs between the fingers of neurologically normal subjects. Using a validated\\u000a grating orientation discrimination task, we

Arthur C. Grant; Raquel Fernandez; Parastou Shilian; Elizabeth Yanni; Mary Ann Hill

2006-01-01

17

Tactile Acuity Charts: A Reliable Measure of Spatial Acuity  

PubMed Central

For assessing tactile spatial resolution it has recently been recommended to use tactile acuity charts which follow the design principles of the Snellen letter charts for visual acuity and involve active touch. However, it is currently unknown whether acuity thresholds obtained with this newly developed psychophysical procedure are in accordance with established measures of tactile acuity that involve passive contact with fixed duration and control of contact force. Here we directly compared tactile acuity thresholds obtained with the acuity charts to traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds in a group of young healthy adults. For this purpose, two types of charts, using either Braille-like dot patterns or embossed Landolt rings with different orientations, were adapted from previous studies. Measurements with the two types of charts were equivalent, but generally more reliable with the dot pattern chart. A comparison with the two-point and grating orientation task data showed that the test-retest reliability of the acuity chart measurements after one week was superior to that of the passive methods. Individual thresholds obtained with the acuity charts agreed reasonably with the grating orientation threshold, but less so with the two-point threshold that yielded relatively distinct acuity estimates compared to the other methods. This potentially considerable amount of mismatch between different measures of tactile acuity suggests that tactile spatial resolution is a complex entity that should ideally be measured with different methods in parallel. The simple test procedure and high reliability of the acuity charts makes them a promising complement and alternative to the traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds. PMID:24504346

Bruns, Patrick; Camargo, Carlos J.; Campanella, Humberto; Esteve, Jaume; Dinse, Hubert R.; Roder, Brigitte

2014-01-01

18

Olfactory Acuity after Total Laryngectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olfactory acuity of 29 patients receiving laryngectomy was prospectively studied. The olfactory acuity was evaluated by Jet Stream Olfactometer (JSO) and Alinamin® test preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The findings of nasal\\/olfactory mucosae were also observed by rigid endoscope. Based on the results of JSO, the averages of detection\\/ recognition thresholds tended to increase 3

Megumi Fujii; Keijiro Fukazawa; Chihiro Hatta; Hiroki Yasuno; Masafumi Sakagami

2002-01-01

19

Low contrast visual acuity testing is associated with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive impairment and visual deterioration are two key clinical symptoms in MS and affect 50 to 80% of patients. Little is known about the influence of cognitive impairment on visual tests recommended for MS such as low contrast sensitivity testing. Our objective was to investigate whether low contrast sensitivity testing is influenced by cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Cross-sectional study including 89 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. All patients received cognitive evaluation using Rao’s Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Testing (BRB-N). Visual assessments included low contrast sensitivity (CS) by functional acuity contrast testing and high contrast visual acuity (VA) using ETDRS charts. Retinal morphology as visual impairment correlate was measured using retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography. Results In combined analyses using generalized estimating equation models, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and RNFL as well as and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and RNFL predicted CS. To further control for a potential influence of the anterior visual system we performed partial correlation analyses between visual function and cognitive function test results but controlling for RNFL. Even when controlling for RNFL, CS was associated with PASAT performance and SDMT performance. Conclusion Our data show that: a) cognitive impairment and performance in visual function tests such as low contrast sensitivity testing are associated; b) the main cognitive domains correlating with visual test performance are information processing speed and, to a lesser degree, memory; This preliminary data needs to be substantiated in further studies investigating patients with a higher cognitive burden, healthy controls and in longitudinal settings. PMID:24206900

2013-01-01

20

Development of a Test of Suprathreshold Acuity in Noise in Brazilian Portuguese: A New Method for Hearing Screening and Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: “a hearing check is recommended” (red light), “a hearing check would be advisable” (yellow light), and “no hearing difficulties” (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention.

Vaez, Nara; Desgualdo-Pereira, Liliane; Paglialonga, Alessia

2014-01-01

21

HIV Testing Policy and Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Using opinion data from experts, we examined the context of the argument for mandatory testing of psychiatric patients. Methods. Vignettes were distributed to experts on HIV and mental illness. Respondents were asked to provide appropriateness ratings for different hypothetical clinical decisions regarding HIV management. Results. Respondents were reluctant to impose testing without informed consent in most circumstances. The presence of risk factors or danger to another increased appropriateness ratings modestly. Conclusions. Despite experts’ tendency to emphasize individual rights, public reluctance to mandate testing is unlikely to extend to people with serious mental illness. No argument for mandatory testing can be persuasive if improved voluntary testing can achieve adequate detection rates. Voluntary testing protocols should be studied to determine which successfully identify infected individuals. PMID:12453811

Walkup, James; Satriano, James; Barry, Danielle; Sadler, Pablo; Cournos, Francine

2002-01-01

22

A user-operated test of suprathreshold acuity in noise for adult hearing screening: The SUN (Speech Understanding in Noise) test.  

PubMed

A novel, user-operated test of suprathreshold acuity in noise for use in adult hearing screening (AHS) was developed. The Speech Understanding in Noise test (SUN) is a speech-in-noise test that makes use of a list of vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) stimuli in background noise presented in a three-alternative forced choice (3AFC) paradigm by means of a touch sensitive screen. The test is automated, easy-to-use, and provides self-explanatory results (i.e., 'no hearing difficulties', or 'a hearing check would be advisable', or 'a hearing check is recommended'). The test was developed from its building blocks (VCVs and speech-shaped noise) through two main steps: (i) development of the test list through equalization of the intelligibility of test stimuli across the set and (ii) optimization of the test results through maximization of the test sensitivity and specificity. The test had 82.9% sensitivity and 85.9% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening, and 83.8% sensitivity and 83.9% specificity to identify individuals with disabling hearing impairment. Results obtained so far showed that the test could be easily performed by adults and older adults in less than one minute per ear and that its results were not influenced by ambient noise (up to 65dBA), suggesting that the test might be a viable method for AHS in clinical as well as non-clinical settings. PMID:25016290

Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Grandori, Ferdinando

2014-09-01

23

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2014-07-01

24

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2011-07-01

25

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2013-07-01

26

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...visual acuity for distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent...acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central...when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer eye differs by more...

2012-07-01

27

Using a Mental Measurements Yearbook Review to Evaluate a Test  

E-print Network

1 Using a Mental Measurements Yearbook Review to Evaluate a Test Anthony J. Nitko Professor, University of Arizona Introduction Once you have located a test, you will want to read its Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) review. You need to use the review to make judgments about the quality of the test

Abolmaesumi, Purang

28

Testing the Validity of the Colonial Mentality Implicit Association Test and the Interactive Effects of Covert and Overt Colonial Mentality on Filipino American Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonial mentality (CM) has been found to be an important factor for Filipino American mental health. However, the link between CM and mental health may be more complex and might be influenced by whether Filipino American individuals hold covert CM, overt CM, or both. Relatedly, although the Implicit Association Test has been used to capture the covert and automatic aspect

E. J. R. David

2010-01-01

29

Mental testing in the early twentieth century: internationalizing the mental testing story.  

PubMed

This article suggests a possible approach to analyzing the global history of intelligence testing in light of some recent work in the history of science and science studies. In particular, it uses work in metrology and subaltern studies to develop possible models for the dissemination, appropriation, and transformation of mental testing in the early 20th century. It draws on the accounts presented in the other articles in this collection to substantiate its claims. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150810

Carson, John

2014-08-01

30

Color improves “visual” acuity via sound  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution devices (SSDs) convey visual information via sound, with the primary goal of making visual information accessible to blind and visually impaired individuals. We developed the EyeMusic SSD, which transforms shape, location, and color information into musical notes. We tested the “visual” acuity of 23 individuals (13 blind and 10 blindfolded sighted) on the Snellen tumbling-E test, with the EyeMusic. Participants were asked to determine the orientation of the letter “E.” The test was repeated twice: in one test, the letter “E” was drawn with a single color (white), and in the other test, with two colors (red and white). In the latter case, the vertical line in the letter, when upright, was drawn in red, with the three horizontal lines drawn in white. We found no significant differences in performance between the blind and the sighted groups. We found a significant effect of the added color on the “visual” acuity. The highest acuity participants reached in the monochromatic test was 20/800, whereas with the added color, acuity doubled to 20/400. We conclude that color improves “visual” acuity via sound.

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Riemer, Dar; Amedi, Amir

2014-01-01

31

Stimulus Features and Sex Differences in Mental Rotation Test Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex differences in spatial ability were examined in 410 Israeli college students using standard tests of mental rotation. On related abilities tests, males performed better than females on a numerical skills test, and females performed better on an associative memory test. No significant sex differences were found on other ability tests. (SLD)

Birenbaum, Menucha; And Others

1994-01-01

32

Visual acuity norms in young children.  

PubMed

There are no universally accepted standards for visual acuity tests or norms in young (3-6-year-old) children, although acuity measurement is important in both clinical and screening settings. This review outlines the requirements for such standards. Although more research is needed, available data suggest that a standard test should meet the following requirements. It should utilize a letter optotype (tumbling E, Landolt C, or HOTV variant of the STYCAR), and single optotype with contour interaction bar surround. It should permit nonverbal pointing responses in younger children and verbal responses in older children. If an orientation-specifying method is followed, as with the E or Landolt C, the test should use a three-alternative choice--up, down, and sideways with a nondifferentiated left-right--rather than the traditional four alternative choice. A C-like O pseudo-optotype should be considered in a paired-comparison test format when the Landolt C is utilized, with a similar format for the tumbling E if a suitable pseudo-optotype can be derived. The optical grating test, which is widely used in infant testing, may underestimate acuity deficits and so is not a test of choice for determination of Snellen-equivalent acuity. A letter-based variant of the grating test may hold promise. Reduction in testing distance from 6 to 3 or 4 meters is recommended. PMID:6359515

Simons, K

1983-01-01

33

The Mental Testing Community and Validity: A Prehistory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before World War I, American testers of intelligence and mental ability did not enjoy the benefits of having their own research community. They began to compare notes on their various objects, subjects, and techniques but lacked a standard vocabulary and system for evaluating the accuracy of tests. This article examines the different conceptions of accuracy evaluation in the published testing

Richard T. von Mayrhauser

1992-01-01

34

Urinary Screening Tests in the Prevention of Mental Deficiency  

PubMed Central

A substantial number of genetically determined biochemical disorders in infants and young children produce mental deficiency and serious ill health in early life. If these diseases are detected promptly, effective therapy can be instituted to prevent the development of mental defect, or, where no treatment is presently available, the parents can be given appropriate genetic counselling so that the birth of further affected children can be prevented. Eight simple urine screening tests are described which have proved useful in the early detection of metabolic disorders in apparently healthy infants. These tests can easily be performed by a physician or nurse without special training or elaborate equipment. The attention of general practitioners, pediatricians and public health physicians is directed to the real possibilities for preventing some forms of mental deficiency through the routine use of screening tests on urine and on blood. PMID:5945986

Perry, Thomas L.; Hansen, Shirley; Macdougall, Lynne

1966-01-01

35

Confidence and gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in favor of men were obtained. Results also indicated a

Amanda Cooke-Simpson; Daniel Voyer

2007-01-01

36

Confidence and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in…

Cooke-Simpson, Amanda; Voyer, Daniel

2007-01-01

37

Approximation Methods for the Item Parameters of Mental Test Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equations are derived to enable the graphic approximation of the item parameters of the stochastic mental test models, i.e., the generalized normal ogive and logistic models. The item parameters for the models are discriminatory power, difficulty, and probability of chance success. Suggested uses for the approximations were to provide a basis for…

Urry, Vern W.

38

Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

2010-01-01

39

Separating "Rotators" from "Nonrotators" in the Mental Rotations Test: A Multigroup Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Items of mental rotation tests can not only be solved by mental rotation but also by other solution strategies. A multigroup latent class analysis of 24 items of the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) was conducted in a sample of 1,695 German pupils and students to find out how many solution strategies can be identified for the items of this test. The…

Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

2006-01-01

40

Psychophysical measures of visual acuity in autism spectrum conditions.  

PubMed

Previously reported superior visual acuity (VA) in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may have resulted from methodological settings used (Ashwin, Ashwin, Rhydderch, Howells, & Baron-Cohen, 2009). The current study re-tested whether participants with (N=20) and without (N=20) ASC differ on psychophysical measures of VA. Participants' vision was corrected before acuity measurement, minimising refractive blur. VA was assessed with an ETDRS chart as well as the Freiburg Visual Acuity and Contrast Test (FrACT). FrACT testing was undertaken at 4m (avoiding limitations of pixel-size), using 36 trials (avoiding fatigue). Best corrected VA was significantly better than the initial habitual acuity in both groups, but adults with and without ASC did not differ on ETDRS or FrACT binocular VA. Future research should examine at which level of visual processing sensory differences emerge. PMID:21704058

Tavassoli, Teresa; Latham, Keziah; Bach, Michael; Dakin, Steven C; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2011-08-01

41

Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine

2012-01-01

42

Performance of brain-injured and familial mental defectives on the Bender Gestalt Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 2 groups: 161 brain-injured mental defectives and a like number of mental defectives having a familial or hereditary etiology. The familial group was more accurate in its reproductions. Correlations for accuracy and mental age ranged from .64 to .80. Reversals, parts repeated, and the use of lines instead of dots occurred more frequently

Gerard J. Bensberg

1952-01-01

43

Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor  

DOEpatents

A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

44

Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

2013-01-01

45

The Mental Cutting Test "Schnitte" and the Picture Rotation Test--Two New Measures to Assess Spatial Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two new measures to assess spatial ability are presented: the mental cutting test "Schnitte" (Fay & Quaiser-Pohl, 1999; English version: Fay, Quaiser-Pohl, & Ronicke, 2003), a test for selecting people with extraordinary spatial abilities, and the Picture Rotation Test (Hinze, 2002; Hinze & Quaiser-Pohl, 2003), a mental rotation test for preschool…

Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia

2003-01-01

46

Dynamic visual acuity using "far" and "near" targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CONCLUSIONS: DVA may be useful for assessing the functional consequences of an impaired gaze stabilization mechanism or for testing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation paradigm. Because target distance influences the relative contributions of canal and otolith inputs, the ability to measure DVA at near and far viewing distances may also lead to tests that will independently assess canal and otolith function. OBJECTIVE: To present and test a methodology that uses dynamic visual acuity (DVA) to assess the efficacy of compensatory gaze mechanisms during a functionally relevant activity that differentially measures canal and otolith function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of treadmill walking at a velocity of 1.79 m/s on subjects' visual acuity was assessed at each of two viewing distances. A custom-written threshold determination program was used to display Landolt C optotypes on a laptop computer screen during a "far" (4 m) target condition and on a micro-display for a "near" (50 cm) target condition. The walking acuity scores for each target distance were normalized by subtracting a corresponding acuity measure obtained while standing still on the treadmill belt. RESULTS: As predicted by subjective reports of relative target motion, the decrease in visual acuity was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) for the near compared to the far condition.

Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2005-01-01

47

Relationship between visual acuity and observation distance.  

PubMed

The visual acuities of 17 young emmetropes and corrected ametropes were measured over the range of 7.5-0.19 m using a Bailey-Lovie chart. Accommodation stimulus-response measures were also taken over this range using retinoscopy to establish whether variations in visual acuity with observation distance could be attributed to accommodation behaviour. Tonic accommodation was recorded using the Canon R1 autorefractor and was compared with visual acuity and stimulus-response results. In general, visual acuity was found to be dependent on stimulus distance, being significantly reduced for most observers for the closest targets. There were three categories of observer performance for visual acuity as a function of observation distance; one group showing no change in visual acuity with distance, a second showing a flat function for distances 7.55-0.5 m, and then a decrease in visual acuity for shorter distances; and a third category that showed a maximum visual acuity in the 1.2-1.6 m region. This behaviour was unrelated to individual stimulus-response characteristics and there was no significant relationship between tonic accommodation and the distance where acuity was best for the third category observers. PMID:7724215

Heron, G; Furby, H P; Walker, R J; Lane, C S; Judge, O J

1995-01-01

48

Dynamic Visual Acuity during Passive Head Thrusts in Canal Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA

Michael C. Schubert; Americo A. Migliaccio; Charles C. Della Santina

2006-01-01

49

The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

2003-01-01

50

Bayesian model of Snellen visual acuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Bayesian model of Snellen visual acuity (VA) has been developed that, as far as we know, is the first one that includes the three main stages of VA: (1) optical degradations, (2) neural image representation and contrast thresholding, and (3) character recognition. The retinal image of a Snellen test chart is obtained from experimental wave-aberration data. Then a subband image decomposition with a set of visual channels tuned to different spatial frequencies and orientations is applied to the retinal image, as in standard computational models of early cortical image representation. A neural threshold is applied to the contrast responses to include the effect of the neural contrast sensitivity. The resulting image representation is the base of a Bayesian pattern-recognition method robust to the presence of optical aberrations. The model is applied to images containing sets of letter optotypes at different scales, and the number of correct answers is obtained at each scale; the final output is the decimal Snellen VA. The model has no free parameters to adjust. The main input data are the eyes optical aberrations, and standard values are used for all other parameters, including the StilesCrawford effect, visual channels, and neural contrast threshold, when no subject specific values are available. When aberrations are large, Snellen VA involving pattern recognition differs from grating acuity, which is based on a simpler detection (or orientation-discrimination) task and hence is basically unaffected by phase distortions introduced by the optical transfer function. A preliminary test of the model in one subject produced close agreement between actual measurements and predicted VA values. Two examples are also included: (1) application of the method to the prediction of the VA in refractive-surgery patients and (2) simulation of the VA attainable by correcting ocular aberrations. 2003 Optical Society of America

Nestares, Oscar; Navarro, Rafael; Antona, Beatriz

2003-07-01

51

Tactile acuity is enhanced in blindness  

E-print Network

Functional imaging studies in blind subjects have shown tactile activation of cortical areas that normally subserve vision, but whether blind people have enhanced tactile acuity has long been controversial. We compared the passive tactile acuity of blind and sighted subjects on a fully automated grating orientation task and used multivariate Bayesian data analysis to determine predictors of acuity. Acuity was significantly superior in blind subjects, independently of the degree of childhood vision, light perception level, or Braille reading. Acuity was strongly dependent on the force of contact between the stimulus surface and the skin, declined with subject age, and was better in women than in men. Despite large intragroup variability, the difference between blind and sighted subjects was highly significant: the average blind subject had the acuity of an average sighted subject of the same gender but 23 years younger. The results suggest that crossmodal plasticity may underlie tactile acuity enhancement in blindness. Key words: tactile acuity; crossmodal plasticity; blind; Braille; grating orientation; somatosensory psychophysics; sensory compensation

Daniel Goldreich; Ingrid M. Kanics

52

Visual Acuity Assessment in Persons with Dementia. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies of vision in persons with Alzheimer's disease either exclude those with advanced dementia or are unable to assess their vision adequately, and therefore, improperly report these persons' visual acuity status. In this study, visual acuity was assessed using the ETDRS Snellen-type acuity chart and Teller Acuity Cards. The Teller Acuity

Morse, Alan R.; Teresi, Jeanne; Rosenthal, Bruce; Holmes, Douglas; Yatzkan, Elaine S.

2004-01-01

53

Driver mental workload requirements on horizontal curves based on occluded vision test measurements  

E-print Network

This thesis documents an evaluation of driver mental workload requirements on horizontal curves based on occluded vision test measurements. Driver workload is an important concept in the design of highway systems. A successful highway design...

Shafer, Mark Anthony

2012-06-07

54

Effects of Training and Practice on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds significant differences for males and females on the "Mental Rotation Test" within and across trials, but does not show a differential response to training and practice by females, as was hypothesized. (RL)

McGee, Mark G.

1978-01-01

55

A test for mental capacity to request assisted suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mental competence of people requesting aid-in-dying is a key issue for the how the law responds to cases of assisted suicide. A number of cases from around the common law world have highlighted the importance of competence in determining whether assistants should be prosecuted, and what they will be prosecuted for. Nevertheless, the law remains uncertain about how competence

Cameron Stewart; Carmelle Peisah; Brian Draper

2010-01-01

56

Information Dynamics in Cardiorespiratory Time Series during Mental Stress Testing  

E-print Network

-- In this study, we assessed the information dy- namics of respiration and heart rate variability during mental of cardiorespiratory data reveal new information that could not be obtained with traditional heart rate variability this risk, the autonomic control of the cardiac system has been studied by means of heart rate variability

57

A Multisite Study of the Prevalence of HIV With Rapid Testing in Mental Health Settings.  

PubMed

Objectives. We estimated HIV prevalence and risk factors among persons receiving mental health treatment in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, January 2009 to August 2011. Methods. We used a multisite, cross-sectional design stratified by clinical setting. We tested 1061 individuals for HIV in university-based inpatient psychiatric units (n?=?287), intensive case-management programs (n?=?273), and community mental health centers (n?=?501). Results. Fifty-one individuals (4.8%) were HIV-infected. Confirmed positive HIV tests were 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?3.7%, 9.4%) for inpatient units, 5.1% (95% CI?=?3.1%, 8.5%) for intensive case-management programs, and 4.0% (95% CI?=?2.6%, 6.1%) for community mental health centers. Characteristics associated with HIV included Black race, homosexual or bisexual identity, and HCV infection. Conclusions. HIV prevalence for individuals receiving mental health services was about 4 times as high as in the general population. We found a positive association between psychiatric symptom severity and HIV infection, indicating that engaging persons with mental illness in appropriate mental health treatment may be important to HIV prevention. These findings reinforce recommendations for routine HIV testing in all clinical settings to ensure that HIV-infected persons receiving mental health services are identified and referred to timely infectious disease care. PMID:24524493

Blank, Michael B; Himelhoch, Seth S; Balaji, Alexandra B; Metzger, David S; Dixon, Lisa B; Rose, Charles E; Oraka, Emeka; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Thompson, William W; Heffelfinger, James D

2014-12-01

58

Spatial contrast sensitivity and grating acuity of barn owls.  

PubMed

The eyes of barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola) display very little aberrations, and have thus excellent optical quality. In a series of behavioral experiments, we tested whether this presumably beneficial feature is also reflected at a perceptual level in this species. As fundamental indicators for visual performance, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and grating acuity were measured in two barn owls with psychophysical techniques. Stimulus luminance was 2.7 cd/m(2). The CSF found here renders the typical band-limited, inverted U-shaped function, with a low maximum contrast sensitivity of 8-19 at a spatial frequency of 1 cyc/deg. Grating acuity was estimated from the CSF high frequency cut-off and yielded 3.0-3.7 cyc/deg. In a second experiment, in which contrast was held constant and spatial frequency was varied, grating acuity was measured directly (2.6-4.0 cyc/deg). These results put barn owls at the very low end of the visual acuity spectrum of birds, and demonstrate that visual resolution and sensitivity cannot be predicted by optical considerations alone. PMID:19761328

Harmening, Wolf M; Nikolay, Petra; Orlowski, Julius; Wagner, Hermann

2009-01-01

59

Performance of a five-item mental health screening test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the screening accuracy of a short, five-item version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) with that of the 18-item MHI, the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and a 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI-28). Subjects were newly enrolled members of a health maintenance organization (HMO), and the criterion diagnoses were those found through use of the

Donald M. Berwick; Jane M. Murphy; Paula A. Goldman; Ware John E. Jr; Arthur J. Barsky; Milton C. Weinstein

1991-01-01

60

Night vision in barn owls: visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under dark adaptation.  

PubMed

Barn owls are effective nocturnal predators. We tested their visual performance at low light levels and determined visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of three barn owls by their behavior at stimulus luminances ranging from photopic to fully scotopic levels (23.5 to 1.5 × 10??). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity decreased only slightly from photopic to scotopic conditions. Peak grating acuity was at mesopic (4 × 10?² cd/m²) conditions. Barn owls retained a quarter of their maximal acuity when luminance decreased by 5.5 log units. We argue that the visual system of barn owls is designed to yield as much visual acuity under low light conditions as possible, thereby sacrificing resolution at photopic conditions. PMID:23220576

Orlowski, Julius; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann

2012-01-01

61

A study of field independent biased mental ability tests in community college science classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many schools use mental ability test scores as a basis for grouping students and planning their educational needs. The widespread use of these test scores throughout public and private schools demands that test items be unbiased. One way in which tests could be biased, that has not been thoroughly investigated, is the inadvertent use of analytical skill items favoring one perceptual orientation over another. This study investigated analytical skill items on the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test for field independent bias. Using as analysis of variance and discriminant analysis, the results indicated that the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test was biased in favor of individuals with a field of independent perceptual orientation.

Crow, Linda W.; Kime Piper, Martha

62

The development and testing of the Mental Health Problems Perception Questionnaire.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development and psychometric testing of the Mental Health Problems Perception Questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed to measure the therapeutic commitment, role support and role competency of non-mental health specialist nurses (generalists) to working with patients with mental health problems who live in rural communities. The instrument was demonstrated to be valid and reliable in this population. The questionnaire was underpinned by an explicit theoretical model which facilitates an understanding of the factors that influence effective psychosocial nursing interventions with this client group. PMID:11249315

Lauder, W; Reynolds, W; Reilly, V; Angus, N

2000-06-01

63

Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

2010-01-01

64

A new measure of nystagmus acuity  

PubMed Central

AIM To construct a new visual acuity measuring function for congenital nystagmus (CN) patients by studying the relationships between acuity, velocities and positions of the eye. METHODS After assessing the relationship between acuity, movement velocities and positions of the eye separately, a new function, which we call the automated nystagmus acuity function (ANAF), was constructed to measure the visual acuity of CN patients. Using a high-speed digital video system working at 500 frames per second, each eye was calibrated during monocular fixation. Twenty-six recorded nystagmus data were selected randomly. Using nystagmus waveforms, the best vision position (foveation period) and visual acuity were analyzed in three groups of subjects, and then all outputs were compared with the well-known expanded nystagmus acuity function (NAFX) and ANAF. Standard descriptive statistics were used to summarize the outputs of the two programs. RESULTS Foveation periods were brief intervals in the CN waveform when the image was on or near the fovea and eye velocity was relatively slow. Results showed good visual acuity happened during the period when velocity was low and the eye position was near the zero position, which fitted the foveation periods. The data analyzed with NAFX and ANAF had a correlation coefficient of 0.934276, with an average error of -0.00973. CONCLUSION The results from ANAF and NAFX analyses showed no significant difference. The NAFX manually identifies foveation eye positions and produces accurate measurements. The ANAF, however, can be calculated simply using the factors eye position and velocity, and it automatically calculates the ANAF without the need to manually identify foveation eye positions. PMID:24634871

Yao, Jun-Ping; Tai, Zheng; Yin, Zheng-Qin

2014-01-01

65

Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first\\u000a grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher-\\u000a and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist\\u000a (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about

Maria Paz Guzman; Michael Jellinek; Myriam George; Marcela Hartley; Ana Maria Squicciarini; Katia M. Canenguez; Karen A. Kuhlthau; Recai Yucel; Gwyne W. White; Javier Guzman; J. Michael Murphy

66

A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening  

PubMed Central

Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions—anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia—each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to accommodate this newly discovered independence of acuity and crowding. PMID:24799622

Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M.; Pelli, Denis G.

2014-01-01

67

The Performance of Individuals with Mental Retardation on Cognitive Tests Assessing Effort and Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine which tests of effort and motivation would be appropriate for use with patients with mental retardation when feigning of cognitive deficits is suspected. The seven measures evaluated included the WMS-III Rarely Missed Index Test, forced-choice recognition portion of the California Verbal Learning Test-II, Reliable Digit Span test, Rey 15-Item Test, Rey Dot

Paul Marshall; Maggie Happe

2007-01-01

68

The common factors in fifty-two mental tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis by Thurstone's centroid method of the intercorrelations of fifty-two tests was carried to ten factors. Included were tests of social intelligence, Philip's attention tests, and Seashore's tests of musical ability. After rotation of axes, the most important factors appeared to pertain to operations conventionally alluded to by the following terms: verbal facility; spatial ability; numerical ability; attention; musical

Herbert Woodrow

1939-01-01

69

A Redrawn Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test - Different Versions and Factors That Affect Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available versions of the Vendenberg and Kuse (1978) Mental Rotations Test (MRT) have physically deteriorated because only copies of copies are available. We report results from a redrawn version of the MRT and for alternate versions of the test. Males perform better than females, and students drawn from the physical sciences perform better than students drawn from the social

M. Peters; B. Laeng; K. Latham; M. Jackson; R. Zaiyouna; C. Richardson

1995-01-01

70

Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

Moore, William E.

71

Innovations and Practice: Standardised Tests and the Clerical Mentality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cautions against using standardized tests to make simplistic judgments about students' reading comprehension. Suggests two approaches to testing that teachers might use to devise testing procedures that represent their own views of the important reading strategies and skills that students need to acquire. (AEA)

Kemp, Max

1980-01-01

72

High School Students' Performance on Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test: Art Ability, Gender, Activities, Academic Performance, Strategies, and Ease of Taking the Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether mental rotation performance of 186 high school students (80 males and 106 females) in grades 9 through 12 in art and nonart classes on Vandenbergs Mental Rotations test (S. Vandenberg and Kuse, 1978) was affected by gender, visual-spatial activities, strategies used while performing the test, and the ease of test taking.…

Gurny, Helen Graham

73

'Visual' Acuity of the Congenitally Blind Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution  

PubMed Central

Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) convey visual information through sounds or touch, thus theoretically enabling a form of visual rehabilitation in the blind. However, for clinical use, these devices must provide fine-detailed visual information which was not yet shown for this or other means of visual restoration. To test the possible functional acuity conveyed by such devices, we used the Snellen acuity test conveyed through a high-resolution visual-to-auditory SSD (The vOICe). We show that congenitally fully blind adults can exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) blindness acuity threshold using SSDs, reaching the highest acuity reported yet with any visual rehabilitation approach. This demonstrates the potential capacity of SSDs as inexpensive, non-invasive visual rehabilitation aids, alone or when supplementing visual prostheses. PMID:22438894

Striem-Amit, Ella; Guendelman, Miriam; Amedi, Amir

2012-01-01

74

The Mental Testing Community and Validity: A Prehistory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines accuracy evaluation in published testing programs of the following: J. M. Cattell; C. Spearman; A. Binet; L. M. Terman; R. M. Yerkes; E. L. Thorndike; and W. D. Scott. Developing community and consensus on testing required convergence between theorists and practitioners. (SLD)

von Mayrhauser, Richard T.

1992-01-01

75

Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.  

PubMed

Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores. PMID:16060458

Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

2005-06-01

76

The MISTRA Data: Forty-Two Mental Ability Tests in Three Batteries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) was initiated in 1979 and continued until 2000. It consisted of 139 pairs of twins who had been separated in early childhood and not re-united until adulthood, and members of their families. As part of a broader assessment, these participants completed 42 mental ability tests from three well-known…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

2011-01-01

77

Validation of Cardiovascular Fitness Field Tests in Children with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the 600-yard walk/run, the 20-meter shuttle run, and a modified 16-meter shuttle run was determined to measure aerobic capacity (VO2peak) in 34 children with mental retardation (ages 10-17). All field tests were found to be very reliable, and VO2peak was significantly related to them all. (Author/CR)

Fernhall, Bo; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Vukovich, Matthew D.; Stubbs, Nancy; Hensen, Terri; Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.

1998-01-01

78

Migration and Mental Health: An Empirical Test of Depression Risk Factors Among Immigrant Mexican Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical issues and methodological problems concerning migration and mental health are examined. A model for determining predictor variables of depression in immigrant Mexican women is tested. Demographic, economic, and interpersonal factors are isolated as a subset of depression predictors within the model. (VM)

Vega, William A.; And Others

1987-01-01

79

Socioeconomic status and mental illness: tests of the social causation and selection hypotheses.  

PubMed

This study tests several hypotheses about the underlying causal structure of the inverse correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and mental illness. It does this through the analysis of a longitudinal statewide database on acute psychiatric hospitalization in Massachusetts for the fiscal years 1994-2000 as well as supplemental census data. The modeling strategy used techniques of structural equation modeling and found that SES impacted directly on rates of mental illness as well as indirectly through the impact of economic hardship on low and middle income groups. PMID:15709846

Hudson, Christopher G

2005-01-01

80

38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(2) Provided that he or she customarily wears contact lenses, evaluate the visual acuity of any individual affected by a corneal disorder that results in severe irregular astigmatism that can be improved more by contact lenses than by eyeglass lenses, as corrected by contact...

2010-07-01

81

Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

2012-01-01

82

The mental age concept and the standardization of group tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author answers the question raised by Thurstone: which regression line, age on score or score on age, are we to use in standardizing a test? The conclusions reached are that there are not two regression lines in the ordinary sense and that Thurstone's logical worries on this particular point are groundless. In practice one can fairly readily find the average

G. H. Thomson

1928-01-01

83

Large state-level fluctuations in mental retardation classifications related to introduction of renormed intelligence test.  

PubMed

Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence test norms may be a countervailing force, increasing placement rates. An analysis of longitudinal data on state and national level placement rates reveals that a lengthy and steep 12-year decline in students receiving mental retardation services reversed shortly after the introduction of the WISC-III in 1991. This phenomenon has relevance for death-penalty cases, because this historical pattern may affect the ability to establish whether an adult meets the developmental period onset criterion for mental retardation. PMID:16968141

Scullin, Matthew H

2006-09-01

84

The role of personality factors and suggestion in placebo effect during mental stress test.  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were first of all to document a placebo effect on systolic blood pressure and heart rate during mental arithmetic induced stress and secondly to assess the role of suggestion in producing this effect. Two types of placebo were used, a simple placebo and a placebo with an implied therapeutic action. Both were compared with alprazolam. A placebo response was seen in just over half of the volunteers when the cardiovascular changes to mental arithmetic induced stress in healthy volunteers were measured. This response appeared to be unaffected by the suggested therapeutic effect. Dominant, independent subjects, identified using the Cattell 16 PF personality test were less likely to respond to placebo. Alprazolam (0.5 mg) did not prevent, to a significantly greater degree than placebo, the systolic blood pressure or heart rate increases provoked by the mental stress. PMID:1540479

McCann, C C; Goldfarb, B; Frisk, M; Quera-Salva, M A; Meyer, P

1992-01-01

85

Uptake of genetic testing and pre-test levels of mental distress in Norwegian families with known BRCA1 mutations.  

PubMed

232 family members from 27 Norwegian families with BRCA1 mutations were offered genetic testing. 180/232 (78%) chose to be tested, 14/232 (6%) have not yet decided and 38/232 (16%) declined. All 232 persons were invited to fill in the following questionnaires when offered testing: Impact of Event Scale (IES), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). 207/232 (89%) responded to the questionnaires. Of those declining to be tested 23/38 (61%) answered the questionnaires compared to 170/180 (94%) of those wanting the test (p < 0.0001). A higher proportion of females with a history of cancer than females without such a history had abnormal scores on the IES-intrusion and GHQ questionnaires (p < 0.001). Healthy females who were deciding on predictive testing had the same or lower prevalence of mental distress compared to the general population, between 4.3% and 18.0% as measured by the different questionnaires. Males did not differ from healthy females on any of the measures. According to their HADS scores, women without a history of cancer deciding on predictive testing for breast-ovarian cancer had lower or equal levels of mental distress compared to the general population. The high uptake of genetic testing combined with the lower than normal prevalence of mental distress indicates that the activity may continue as practised, awaiting longitudinal data concerning the levels of mental distress after genetic testing. PMID:10595268

Reichelt, J G; Dahl, A A; Heimdal, K; Møller, P

1999-10-01

86

21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a...

2010-04-01

87

21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a...

2012-04-01

88

21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a...

2011-04-01

89

21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a...

2014-04-01

90

21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a...

2013-04-01

91

Binocular training reduces amblyopic visual acuity impairment.  

PubMed

Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual impairment. Patching, which is modestly effective, is the current treatment of amblyopia in children. There is no clinically approved treatment for adults. The present study is a clinical trial (non-sham controlled and non-randomized) that assessed the efficacy of binocular training for improvement of the visual acuity in children and adults with amblyopia. Twenty-two amblyopic subjects ranging in age from 5 to 73 (mean: 36.2) years for whom patching and/or surgical treatments did not correct their visual impairment completed an average of 14.5 sessions of binocular training over a period of 4 to 6 weeks. Random dot kinematograms were presented dichoptically to the two eyes and the participants' task was to identify the direction of motion of the targets. Mean visual acuity improvement was 0.34 LogMAR (range: 0.1-0.58 LogMAR) and was shown to persist 6 months following the cessation of binocular training. Our study provides results in a large number of patients that confirm the clinical effectiveness of binocular training as a treatment for amblyopia in improving visual acuity in both children and adults. Moreover, this study is the first to demonstrate that the improvements in visual function were maintained for 6 months in the absence of any additional treatment. PMID:24564723

Mansouri, B; Singh, P; Globa, A; Pearson, P

2014-03-01

92

The neural correlates of learned motor acuity.  

PubMed

We recently defined a component of motor skill learning as "motor acuity," quantified as a shift in the speed-accuracy trade-off function for a task. These shifts are primarily driven by reductions in movement variability. To determine the neural correlates of improvement in motor acuity, we devised a motor task compatible with magnetic resonance brain imaging that required subjects to make finely controlled wrist movements under visual guidance. Subjects were imaged on day 1 and day 5 while they performed this task and were trained outside the scanner on intervening days 2, 3, and 4. The potential confound of performance changes between days 1 and 5 was avoided by constraining movement time to a fixed duration. After training, subjects showed a marked increase in success rate and a reduction in trial-by-trial variability for the trained task but not for an untrained control task, without changes in mean trajectory. The decrease in variability for the trained task was associated with increased activation in contralateral primary motor and premotor cortical areas and in ipsilateral cerebellum. A global nonlocalizing multivariate analysis confirmed that learning was associated with increased overall brain activation. We suggest that motor acuity is acquired through increases in the number of neurons recruited in contralateral motor cortical areas and in ipsilateral cerebellum, which could reflect increased signal-to-noise ratio in motor output and improved state estimation for feedback corrections, respectively. PMID:24848466

Shmuelof, Lior; Yang, Juemin; Caffo, Brian; Mazzoni, Pietro; Krakauer, John W

2014-08-15

93

Sex Differences on the Mental Rotation Test: An Analysis of Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating a finding now common in the literature, the present study revealed a significant difference between the performance of men (M = 19.66; SD = 5.34; SK = 0.52) and the performance of women (M = 14.85; SD = 6.06; SK = -0.38, Cohen's d = 0.90) on the Mental Rotation Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978). In an attempt to identify determinants of…

Bors, Douglas A.; Vigneau, Francois

2011-01-01

94

Wavefront coherence area for predicting visual acuity of post-PRK and post-PARK refractive surgery patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many current corneal topography instruments (called videokeratographs) provide an `acuity index' based on corneal smoothness to analyze expected visual acuity. However, post-refractive surgery patients often exhibit better acuity than is predicted by such indices. One reason for this is that visual acuity may not necessarily be determined by overall corneal smoothness but rather by having some part of the cornea able to focus light coherently onto the fovea. We present a new method of representing visual acuity by measuring the wavefront aberration, using principles from both ray and wave optics. For each point P on the cornea, we measure the size of the associated coherence area whose optical path length (OPL), from a reference plane to P's focus, is within a certain tolerance of the OPL for P. We measured the topographies and vision of 62 eyes of patients who had undergone the corneal refractive surgery procedures of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and photorefractive astigmatic keratectomy (PARK). In addition to high contrast visual acuity, our vision tests included low contrast and low luminance to test the contribution of the PRK transition zone. We found our metric for visual acuity to be better than all other metrics at predicting the acuity of low contrast and low luminance. However, high contrast visual acuity was poorly predicted by all of the indices we studied, including our own. The indices provided by current videokeratographs sometimes fail for corneas whose shape differs from simple ellipsoidal models. This is the case with post-PRK and post-PARK refractive surgery patients. Our alternative representation that displays the coherence area of the wavefront has considerable advantages, and promises to be a better predictor of low contrast and low luminance visual acuity than current shape measures.

Garcia, Daniel D.; van de Pol, Corina; Barsky, Brian A.; Klein, Stanley A.

1999-06-01

95

The effects of time, luminance, and high contrast targets: revisiting grating acuity in the domestic cat.  

PubMed

Based on optical clarity and retinal cone density, the cat has a potential acuity of 20-30 cycles per degree (cpd), yet most behavioral studies estimate feline acuity between 3 and 9 cpd. Those studies, however, were limited by restrictive experimental conditions that may have inadvertently lowered the estimated grating acuity. Two domestic cats previously trained on a two-choice visual discrimination task were retrained on a grating detection/discrimination task with unlimited time, high luminance, high contrast targets, and adequate space to prevent poor accommodation from affecting the results. Initially, vertical gratings of increasing cpd were tested until failure. Then, horizontal gratings of increasing cpd were tested until failure. Finally, the finest horizontal grating resolved was confirmed with a third test requiring 24 correct out of 36 consecutive trials, yielding a binomial probability less than 0.02 of non-random occurrence. M1, a 7-year-old male gray tabby with +2.00 OU refraction, tested for a grating detection acuity of 15 cpd for both vertical and horizontal gratings (binomial probability = 0.009). F1, a 2-year-old female gray tabby with +0.25 OU refraction, tested for a grating orientation discrimination acuity of 20 cpd for both vertical and horizontal gratings (binomial probability = 0.004). These results demonstrate that a young cat with good focus is capable of discriminating 20 cpd, in close agreement with the physiologic maximum. Uncorrected focusing errors appear to degrade visual performance. Optimum experimental conditions resulted in better grating acuity measurements than previously reported, emphasizing the importance of environmental factors in feline behavioral testing. PMID:23978601

Clark, Daria L; Clark, Robert A

2013-11-01

96

Modeling acuity for optotypes varying in complexity.  

PubMed

Watson and Ahumada (2008) described a template model of visual acuity based on an ideal-observer limited by optical filtering, neural filtering, and noise. They computed predictions for selected optotypes and optical aberrations. Here we compare this model's predictions to acuity data for six human observers, each viewing seven different optotype sets, consisting of one set of Sloan letters and six sets of Chinese characters, differing in complexity (Zhang, Zhang, Xue, Liu, & Yu, 2007). Since optical aberrations for the six observers were unknown, we constructed 200 model observers using aberrations collected from 200 normal human eyes (Thibos, Hong, Bradley, & Cheng, 2002). For each condition (observer, optotype set, model observer) we estimated the model noise required to match the data. Expressed as efficiency, performance for Chinese characters was 1.4 to 2.7 times lower than for Sloan letters. Efficiency was weakly and inversely related to perimetric complexity of optotype set. We also compared confusion matrices for human and model observers. Correlations for off-diagonal elements ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 for different sets, and the average correlation for the template model was superior to a geometrical moment model with a comparable number of parameters (Liu, Klein, Xue, Zhang, & Yu, 2009). The template model performed well overall. Estimated psychometric function slopes matched the data, and noise estimates agreed roughly with those obtained independently from contrast sensitivity to Gabor targets. For optotypes of low complexity, the model accurately predicted relative performance. This suggests the model may be used to compare acuities measured with different sets of simple optotypes. PMID:23024356

Watson, Andrew B; Ahumada, Albert J

2012-01-01

97

A new Gujarati language logMAR visual acuity chart: Development and validation  

PubMed Central

Aims: Gujarati is the main spoken language of a large proportion of the population of India. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) visual acuity chart in the Gujarati language. Materials and Methods: A new Gujarati visual acuity chart was designed to logMAR specifications using Gujarati optotypes experimentally selected to have similar relative letter legibility under spherical and cylindrical defocus. The chart validation study was carried out using 153 adult subjects in a large clinical setting in India. Subjects who were literate in English and Gujarati participated in the study. Visual acuity was measured with the new Gujarati logMAR chart and a modified Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study-(m-ETDRS) logMAR chart. The method of presentation was randomized between the charts. Repeat visual acuity was measured on a subsequent day with a second version of the Gujarati logMAR chart. Results: The Gujarati chart correlated highly with the m-ETDRS logMAR chart (r2 = 0.974). The mean visual acuity difference (Gujarati – m-ETDRS logMAR) was equal to three letters (–0.06 logMAR). The Gujarati logMAR chart also proved to be highly repeatable (r2 = 0.994, test-retest) with 95% CI of ± 0.04 logMAR. Conclusions: The new Gujarati logMAR visual acuity chart provides a valid and repeatable tool for the measurement of visual acuity in native Gujarati language speakers. PMID:24212306

Sailoganathan, Ananth; Siderov, John; Osuobeni, Ebi

2013-01-01

98

Visual Acuity Using Head-fixed Displays During Passive Self and Surround Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to read head-fixed displays on various motion platforms requires the suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflexes. This study examined dynamic visual acuity while viewing a head-fixed display during different self and surround rotation conditions. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to report the orientation of Landolt C optotypes presented on a micro-display fixed to a rotating chair at 50 cm distance. Acuity thresholds were determined by the lowest size at which the subjects correctly identified 3 of 5 optotype orientations at peak velocity. Visual acuity was compared across four different conditions, each tested at 0.05 and 0.4 Hz (peak amplitude of 57 deg/s). The four conditions included: subject rotated in semi-darkness (i.e., limited to background illumination of the display), subject stationary while visual scene rotated, subject rotated around a stationary visual background, and both subject and visual scene rotated together. Visual acuity performance was greatest when the subject rotated around a stationary visual background; i.e., when both vestibular and visual inputs provided concordant information about the motion. Visual acuity performance was most reduced when the subject and visual scene rotated together; i.e., when the visual scene provided discordant information about the motion. Ranges of 4-5 logMAR step sizes across the conditions indicated the acuity task was sufficient to discriminate visual performance levels. The background visual scene can influence the ability to read head-fixed displays during passive motion disturbances. Dynamic visual acuity using head-fixed displays can provide an operationally relevant screening tool for visual performance during exposure to novel acceleration environments.

Wood, Scott J.; Black, F. Owen; Stallings, Valerie; Peters, Brian

2007-01-01

99

Identifying student mental models from their response pattern to a physics multiple-choice test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has shown that students present different misconceptions across different but similar physical situations, but the cause of these differences is still not clear. In this study, a novel analysis method was introduced to help to gain a better understanding of how different physical situations affect students' responses and learning. This novel analysis groups students into mental model groups (MMG) by similarities in their responses to multiple-choice test items, under the assumption that they have similar mental models. The Mass and Energy Conservation test was developed to probe the common misconception that objects with greater mass fall faster than objects with lesser mass across four physical situations and four knowledge sub-domains: information, dynamics, work, and energy. The test was applied before and after energy instruction to 144 college students in a large Midwestern university attending a calculus-based introductory physics course. Test time along with instruction and physical situation were the two factors. It was found that physical situation did not have a significant effect on mental models: The number of MMGs identified and the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG were not significantly different (p > .05) across physical situations. However, there was a significant effect of test time on mental models (p < .05): the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG changed from the pretest to the posttest, in that the MMG representing higher performance became predominant than the MMG with lower performance for the posttest results. A MANOVA for the average scores for each sub-domain and physical situation combination was applied to validate the previous results. It was found that a significant effect (p < .01) by physical situation resulted due to a lower average dynamics sub-domain score for the friction physical-situation attribute when compared to the no-friction physical-situation attribute. A significant effect (p < .01) was found for test time. This was due to an increase of the average energy sub-domain score from the pretest to the posttest. No significant interaction effect ( p > .05) was found. The MANOVA results obtained can be explained through the change in proportion of the MMGs present in the sample.

Montenegro Maggio, Maximiliano Jose

100

Evaluation of vernier acuity near healed retinal laser lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven Cynomolgus fasciculata who had graded laser lesions placed in own eye 6 years previously were evaluated for their vernier acuity by electrophysiologic recording techniques. In these experiments, 95 percent contrast vernier acuity targets were presented at high luminance levels to anesthetized primates. Visual evoked potentials were recorded by conventional means form scalp electrodes through hospital grade amplifiers. All animal testing was performed under IACUC approved protocols. The single q-switched pulses form a neodymium-YAG laser had produced lesions of 4 types: no visible change, minimal visible lesions, 'white dot' lesions and 'red dot' lesions in the eye at the time of placement. Single exposures had been made in four locations: 5 degrees superior, inferior and temporal to the fovea, and one foveally. Vernier recording proved somewhat successful in smaller animals with less than contained retinal hemorrhage lesions in the fovea. Initial analyses demonstrated a significant decrease of the pattern response signal/noise in the experimental eye overall, and an apparent relative loss of vernier signal in some lesioned eyes. Animals with the more severe lesions have somewhat degraded small patten responses and no recordable vernier response. Apparent lesser losses produced less effect.

Schmeisser, Elmar T.

1997-05-01

101

Factors Accounting for the Four Year Change in Acuity in Patients between 50 and 80 Years  

PubMed Central

Purpose It is well known acuity slowly decreases in later decades of life. We wish to determine the extent 4 year longitudinal acuity changes can be accounted for by changes in optical quality, or combination of optical quality metrics and age between 50 and 80. Methods High contrast logMAR acuity, 35 image quality metrics, 4 intraocular scatter metrics, and 4 Lens Opacification Classification System-III metrics and entry age were measured on one eye of each of 148 subjects. Acuity change between baseline and the last visit was regressed against change in each metric for all eyes and a faster changing subset of 50 eyes with a gain or loss of 4 or more letters. Results Average change across 148 subjects was a 1.6 ± 4 letter loss (t148 = 4.31, p < 0.001) and loss for the faster changing subset was 3.4 ± 6.1 letters (t50 = 2.73, p = 0.008). The multiple-regression model for faster changing eyes included change in point spread function entropy, posterior subcapsular cataract, and trefoil and baseline age (sequential r2-adj values 0.19, 0.27, 0.32, 0.34 respectively p = 1.48×10?4 for the full 4 factor model). The same variables entered the multiple-regression model for the full 148 data set where the majority of the acuity measurements were within test re-test error and accounted for less of the variance (r2-adj = 0.15, p = 2.37×10?5). Conclusions Despite being near noise levels for the measurement of acuity, change in optical quality metrics were the most important factors in eyes that lost or gained 4 or more letters of acuity. These findings should be generalizable given our four year acuity change is essentially identical to other studies, and indicate these optical quality markers can be used to help identify those on a faster track to an acuity change. PMID:23708925

Koenig, Darren E.; Nguyen, Lan Chi; Parker, Katrina E.; Applegate, Raymond A.

2013-01-01

102

Stream segregation with high spatial acuity  

PubMed Central

Spatial hearing is widely regarded as helpful in recognizing a sound amid other competing sounds. It is a matter of debate, however, whether spatial cues contribute to “stream segregation,” which refers to the specific task of assigning multiple interleaved sequences of sounds to their respective sources. The present study employed “rhythmic masking release” as a measure of the spatial acuity of stream segregation. Listeners discriminated between rhythms of noise-burst sequences presented from free-field targets in the presence of interleaved maskers that varied in location. For broadband sounds in the horizontal plane, target-masker separations of ?8° permitted rhythm discrimination with d????1; in some cases, such thresholds approached listeners’ minimum audible angles. Thresholds were the same for low-frequency sounds but were substantially wider for high-frequency sounds, suggesting that interaural delays provided higher spatial acuity in this task than did interaural level differences. In the vertical midline, performance varied dramatically as a function of noise-burst duration with median thresholds ranging from >30° for 10-ms bursts to 7.1° for 40-ms bursts. A marked dissociation between minimum audible angles and masking release thresholds across the various pass-band and burst-duration conditions suggests that location discrimination and spatial stream segregation are mediated by distinct auditory mechanisms. PMID:23231120

Middlebrooks, John C.; Onsan, Zekiye A.

2012-01-01

103

First steps in the development of a psychological test on the effects of food on mental well-being.  

PubMed

How do you feel after drinking milk or soy milk? The aim of this preliminary study was to find out if it is possible to measure the psychological effects of staple food items using a consumer test (according to DIN 10974), assessing the mental state of the participants. Results of two tests with dairy products and non-dairy milk substitutes, two vegetable tests, and two tests with bakery products are presented and discussed in the context of the further development of a standardized and validated test to measure the effects of food on the human mental state. PMID:22696447

Geier, Uwe; Hermann, Ina; Mittag, Kathrin; Buchecker, Kirsten

2012-11-01

104

Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement  

E-print Network

tests, extending all the way back to kindergarten. Moreover, this correlation remains significant when whether early differences in number sense acuity affect later maths learning, whether maths education of mathematical and more general cognitive tasks had been measured longitudinally, starting in kind- ergarten15

Cai, Long

105

'A Mental Test for Every Child': The Use of Intelligence Tests in Progressive School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay shows that the adoption of intelligence tests by the schools was a complex development. Tests were adopted during the 1920s as part of the reform program fashioned by the network of applied psychologists and school people. While the network itself often viewed testing as a means to improve the schools and society, immigrants and blacks…

Chapman, Paul Davis

106

Mental stress test is an effective inducer of vasospastic angina pectoris: comparison with cold pressor, hyperventilation and master two-step exercise test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cold pressor, hyperventilation and exercise stress tests were usually used for inducing an angina attack in patients with vasospastic angina pectoris. We induced vasospastic angina attack using the mental calculation stress test, and compared the results with those using other stress tests. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 29 patients with vasospastic angina pectoris. Their ages were 60.8±8.4 years. Coronary

Kazuyo Yoshida; Toshinori Utsunomiya; Toshifumi Morooka; Miyuki Yazawa; Keiko Kido; Toshihiro Ogawa; Toshihiro Ryu; Toru Ogata; Shinsuke Tsuji; Takashi Tokushima; Shuzo Matsuo

1999-01-01

107

Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

Albrecht, Matthew A.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Falkmer, Marita; Ordqvist, Anna; Leung, Denise; Foster, Jonathan K.; Falkmer, Torbjorn

2014-01-01

108

Hearing-Impaired Students: Options for Far Visual Acuity Screening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comparison of Orthorater vision tester and Snellen chart far visual acuity results for 261 National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) students. Results indicated that a rear illuminated Snellen chart is an acceptable alternative to the Orthorater for screening postsecondary, hearing impaired students' far visual acuity. (Author)

Johnson, Donald D.; Caccamise, Frank

1983-01-01

109

Visual Acuity, Balance Control, and Walking Automaticity in Older Women  

E-print Network

Visual Acuity, Balance Control, and Walking Automaticity in Older Women Rachel J. Kralian, Erica D and walking automaticity in older adult women A decrease in visual acuity increases the variability of gait. Millett, Dain P. LaRoche Department of Kinesiology University of New Hampshire #12;· Gait changes in older

New Hampshire, University of

110

A new specialized visual acuity chart for amblyopic children aged 3-5 years old: development and its clinical applications  

PubMed Central

AIM To introduce a new specialized visual acuity chart for amblyopic children aged 3-5 years old and its clinical applications. METHODS The new visual acuity chart and notations were designed based on Weber-Fechner law. The optotypes were red against a white background and were specially shaped four basic geometric symbols: circle, square, triangle, and cross. A regular geometric progression of the optotype sizes and distribution was employed to arrange in 14 lines. The progression rate of the optotype size between two lines was 1.2589 and the testing distance was 3m. Visual acuity score could be recorded as logMAR notation or decimal notation. Age-stratified diagnostic criteria for amblyopia established by consensus statement on diagnosis of amblyopia (2011) among members of the Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology Group, Ophthalmology Society, Chinese Medical Association (SPOGOSCMA) were illustrated in the new visual acuity chart. RESULTS When assessing visual acuity in children aged 3-5 years old, this new visual acuity chart that consists of four symmetrical shapes (triangle, square, cross, and circle) overcame an inability to recognize the letters of the alphabet and difficulties in designating the direction of black abstract symbols such as the tumbling ‘E’ or Landolt ‘C’, which the subjects were prone to lose interest in. The visual acuity score may be recorded in different notations: decimal acuity and logMAR. These two notations can be easily converted each other in the new eye chart. The measurements of this new chart not only showed a significant correlation and a good consistency with the international standard logarithmic visual acuity chart (r=0.932, P<0.01), but also indicated a high test-retest reliability (89% of retest scores were within 0.1logMAR units of the initial test score). CONCLUSION The results of this study support the validity and reliability of distance visual acuity measurements using the new eye chart in children aged 3 to 5 years over a wide range of visual acuities, and the new eye chart is great for early detection of amblyopia. It can be applied in various clinical settings. PMID:24392335

Huang, Yang-Qing; Huang, He; Huang, Rong-Zhi

2013-01-01

111

The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity  

PubMed Central

Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity. PMID:24904478

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

2014-01-01

112

The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity.  

PubMed

Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity. PMID:24904478

Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

2014-01-01

113

The temporal acuity for processing interaural cues.  

PubMed

It was during a three month visit of the first author to his Lab in 1998 that Tino pointed out an elegant study on detecting changes in Interaural Cross Correlation of stimuli that were roved in baseline Interaural Time Delay and Interaural Level Difference (Bernstein and Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1113). This study showed that, even though ICC can only change due to the presence of dynamically varying ITDs and ILDs, the ICC can be perceived as a separate cue in certain conditions. This articulate notion of three perceptually independent binaural cues, ITD and ILD, relating to perceived laterality, and ICC, related to perceived width, is applied in low bit-rate audio coding where these cues are used to encode the spatial image of stereo sound recordings. The entanglement of these cues on a signal basis raises the question of the time scale at which these three cues are perceptually evaluated. Some recent findings will be discussed that show that the ITD and ICC can be evaluated with a high temporal acuity of less than 10 (ms) in stimuli where these cues alternate periodically, and that these patterns of alternating binaural cues give rise to a modulation percept. PMID:25235438

van de Par, Steven; Reed, Darrin

2014-04-01

114

Blocks and Bodies: Sex Differences in a Novel Version of the Mental Rotations Test  

PubMed Central

A novel version of the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) that alternated the standard block figures with three-dimensional human figures was administered to 99 men and 129 women. Women and men differed predictably in their retrospective reports of childhood play and digit ratios, a putative measure of prenatal androgen action. Compared to the block figure items, human figure items on the modified MRT were associated with an improvement in performance in both sexes. However, consistent with the study hypothesis, the enhancing effect of the human figure condition on performance as measured by conventional scores was smaller in men compared to women and not at all evident in men when performance was measured by ratio scores. A closer inspection of the human figures effects on test scores showed performance in women improved for both male and female figure items. In contrast, relative to scores on block figure items, performance in men improved when stimuli were male figures but did not improve when stimuli were female figures. These results add to the evidence that the magnitude of sex differences in scores on the MRT may vary according to the test content and item properties. The findings suggest that online measures of cognitive processing in response to different classes of test stimuli (e.g., animate vs. inanimate objects, self-relevant vs. neutral stimuli) may prove useful in research aimed at understanding the hormonal and social factors contributing to the sex difference in performance on the MRT. PMID:18036595

Alexander, Gerianne M.; Evardone, Milagros

2009-01-01

115

Malingering or simulation in ophthalmology-visual acuity.  

PubMed

Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of OCT (optical coherence tomography), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology. PMID:22553721

Incesu, Ali Ihsan; Sobac?, Güngör

2011-01-01

116

Malingering or simulation in ophthalmology-visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of OCT (optical coherence tomography), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology. PMID:22553721

Incesu, Ali Ihsan; Sobac?, Gungor

2011-01-01

117

Effects of retinal eccentricity and acuity on global motion processing  

PubMed Central

The present study assessed direction discrimination of moving random dot cinematograms (RDCs) at retinal eccentricities of 0, 8, 22 and 40 deg. In addition, Landolt C acuity was assessed at these eccentricities to determine whether changes in motion discrimination performance covaried with acuity in the retinal periphery. The results of the experiment indicated that discrimination thresholds increased with retinal eccentricity and directional variance (noise) independent of acuity. Psychophysical modeling indicated that the results of eccentricity and noise could be explained by an increase in channel bandwidth and an increase in internal multiplicative noise. PMID:22382583

Bower, Jeffrey D.; Bian, Zheng; Andersen, George J.

2012-01-01

118

On the Myth and the Reality of the Temporal Validity Degradation of General Mental Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims of changes in the validity coefficients associated with general mental ability (GMA) tests due to the passage of time (i.e., temporal validity degradation) have been the focus of an on-going debate in applied psychology. To evaluate whether and, if so, under what conditions this degradation may occur, we integrate evidence from multiple…

Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

2011-01-01

119

Building Mental Health Professionals' Decisional Models into Tests of Predictive Validity: The Accuracy of Contextualized Predictions of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To safely manage potentially violent patients in the community, mental health professionals (MHPs) must assess when and under what conditions a patient may be involved in a violent act. This study applies a more ecologically sensitive approach than past research by building the conditions that MHPs believe make patient violence more likely into tests of their predictive validity. In specific,

Jennifer L. Skeem; Edward P. Mulvey; Charles W. Lidz

2000-01-01

120

A Detailed Analysis of Group Differences on the California Short-Form Test of Mental Maturity Between 1956 and 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares scores of 3,443 third graders in 1956 and 4,378 third graders in 1977 on the California Short Form Test of Mental Maturity. Examines differences in factoral structure and differences in ability level between groups for factors (64 items related to 7 components) apparently measuring consistent abilities. (SB)

Dash, Udaya; Maguire, Thomas

1984-01-01

121

Time limits and gender differences on paper-and-pencil tests of mental rotation: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to summarize research relevant to the influence of time limits on gender differences in paper-and-pencil tasks of mental rotation by means of a meta-analysis. Thirty-six effect sizes from published and unpublished studies examining the influence of time constraints were retrieved. Results showed that gender differences in mental rotation are significantly larger when the task is administered with time constraints compared to when such constraints are absent. In addition, the magnitude of gender differences was linearly related to the amount of time available for test completion. These findings were not related to the age or the year of birth of participants in the retrieved studies. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for explanations of gender differences in mental rotation and cognitive abilities in general. PMID:21327340

Voyer, Daniel

2011-04-01

122

A Cross-Sectional Test of the Similar-Trajectory Hypothesis among Adults with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The similar-sequence and the similar-structure hypotheses are the two mainstays of the developmental approach to mental retardation. In the present study, a third way, the similar-trajectory hypothesis, is described and illustrated using the WAIS-R results of adults with and without mental retardation aged from 20 to 54 years. The whole sample (N…

Facon, Bruno

2008-01-01

123

Testing a cascade model of linkage between child abuse and negative mental health among battered women in Japan.  

PubMed

This study examined the following hypotheses: (1) a child abuse history (CAH), domestic violence (DV), and child abuse by an intimate partner might have a crucial and specific influence but act differently on women's negative mental health; (2) CAH, DV, child abuse by an intimate partner, and negative mental health might be predictors of maternal child abuse, with complex interactions. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of mothers (N=304) and their children (N=498) staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV experiences, along with their current mental health problems, including dissociated, depressed, and traumatic symptoms. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was adapted to test whether a complex theoretical model fits the actual relationship among a set of observed measures. Our model confirmed the linkage with broader aspects of violence within the family such as CAH and DV, focusing on women's mental health problems reported by them. In addition, CAH, DV, child abuse by intimate partner, and maternal mental health might have a crucial and specific but act influence on maternal child abuse. PMID:23466104

Matsuura, Naomi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

2013-04-01

124

Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

2009-08-01

125

Acoustic basis of directional acuity in laboratory mice.  

PubMed

The acoustic basis of auditory spatial acuity was investigated in CBA/129 mice by relating patterns of behavioral errors to directional features of the head-related transfer function (HRTF). Behavioral performance was assessed by training the mice to lick a water spout during sound presentations from a "safe" location and to suppress the response during presentations from "warning" locations. Minimum audible angles (MAAs) were determined by delivering the safe and warning sounds from different locations in the inter-aural horizontal and median vertical planes. HRTFs were measured at the same locations by implanting a miniature microphone and recording the gain of sound energy near the ear drum relative to free field. Mice produced an average MAA of 31° when sound sources were located in the horizontal plane. Acoustic measures indicated that binaural inter-aural level differences (ILDs) and monaural spectral features of the HRTF change systematically with horizontal location and therefore may have contributed to the accuracy of behavioral performance. Subsequent manipulations of the auditory stimuli and the directional properties of the ear produced errors that suggest the mice primarily relied on ILD cues when discriminating changes in azimuth. The MAA increased beyond 80° when the importance of ILD cues was minimized by testing in the median vertical plane. Although acoustic measures demonstrated a less robust effect of vertical location on spectral features of the HRTF, this poor performance provides further evidence for the insensitivity to spectral cues that was noted during behavioral testing in the horizontal plane. PMID:21717290

Lauer, Amanda M; Slee, Sean J; May, Bradford J

2011-10-01

126

Olfactory acuity in theropods: palaeobiological and evolutionary implications  

PubMed Central

This research presents the first quantitative evaluation of the olfactory acuity in extinct theropod dinosaurs. Olfactory ratios (i.e. the ratio of the greatest diameter of the olfactory bulb to the greatest diameter of the cerebral hemisphere) are analysed in order to infer the olfactory acuity and behavioural traits in theropods, as well as to identify phylogenetic trends in olfaction within Theropoda. A phylogenetically corrected regression of olfactory ratio to body mass reveals that, relative to predicted values, the olfactory bulbs of (i) tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids are significantly larger, (ii) ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids are significantly smaller, and (iii) ceratosaurians, allosauroids, basal tyrannosauroids, troodontids and basal birds are within the 95% CI. Relative to other theropods, olfactory acuity was high in tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids and therefore olfaction would have played an important role in their ecology, possibly for activities in low-light conditions, locating food, or for navigation within large home ranges. Olfactory acuity was the lowest in ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids, suggesting a reduced reliance on olfaction and perhaps an omnivorous diet in these theropods. Phylogenetic trends in olfaction among theropods reveal that olfactory acuity did not decrease in the ancestry of birds, as troodontids, dromaeosaurids and primitive birds possessed typical or high olfactory acuity. Thus, the sense of smell must have remained important in primitive birds and its presumed decrease associated with the increased importance of sight did not occur until later among more derived birds. PMID:18957367

Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Therrien, François; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

2008-01-01

127

Visual acuity following cataract surgeries in relation to preoperative appropriateness ratings.  

PubMed

The authors initiated this study to consider if the formal preoperative assessment of appropriate or inappropriate utilization of cataract surgery by an expert panel could predict postoperative improvement or decline in visual acuity. They evaluated the association between ratings of appropriateness, as determined by the RAND-UCLA method, and measurements of postoperative visual acuity using Fisher's exact tests for tables greater than 2 x 2. For 768 patients, improvement of at least 2 Snellen chart lines occurred in 89% of surgeries rated as appropriate or appropriate and crucial, 68% rated as uncertain, and 36% rated as inappropriate (P < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). These results provide evidence supporting the validity of the RAND-UCLA method to assess the appropriateness of surgery. PMID:12693874

Tobacman, Joanne K; Zimmerman, Bridget; Lee, Paul; Hilborne, Lee; Kolder, Hansjoerg; Brook, Robert H

2003-01-01

128

Dynamic visual acuity during passive head thrusts in canal planes.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA (htDVA) performance in 19 healthy control subjects, five patients before and six patients after plugging of one superior SCC for treatment of superior canal dehiscence, and two subjects with unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD) by vestibular neurectomy. We compared htDVA results for each SCC to vestibulo-ocular reflex gains measured using 3-D scleral coil recordings during a passive head-thrust-test paradigm. Individuals with normal vestibular function had similar htDVA scores for each of the six directions (canals) tested (mean 0.058 +/- 0.050 LogMAR). Individuals tested after surgical plugging of one superior SCC were similar to normal for all SCCs except the plugged SCC, which had significantly worse htDVA scores (mean 0.270 +/- 0.08 LogMAR). Individuals with UVD had significantly worse htDVA scores for head rotations maximally exciting any of the ipsilesional SCC (mean 0.317 +/- 0.129 LogMAR) and scores similar to normal subjects for contralesional rotations (0.063 +/- 0.051 LogMAR). These findings suggest that the htDVA test, which does not require scleral coil placement, magnetic field coils, or expensive oculography equipment, can provide a useful quantitative measure of individual SCC function. PMID:16810569

Schubert, Michael C; Migliaccio, Americo A; Della Santina, Charles C

2006-12-01

129

Do 18-months-olds really attribute mental states to others? A critical test  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated whether 18-months-olds attribute opaque mental states when they solve false belief tests, or simply rely on behavioural cues available in the stimuli. Infants experienced either a trick blindfold that looked opaque but could be seen through, or an opaque blindfold. Then both groups of infants observed an actor wearing the same blindfold that they had themselves experienced, whilst a puppet removed an object from its location. Anticipatory eye movements revealed that infants who experienced the opaque blindfold expected the actor’s action in accord with her having a false belief about the object’s location, but infants who experienced the trick blindfold did not. The results suggest that 18-months-olds used self-experience with the blindfold to assess the actor’s visual access, and updated her knowledge/belief state accordingly. These data constitute compelling evidence that 18-months-olds infer perceptual access and appreciate its causal role in altering epistemic states of others. PMID:21642553

Senju, Atsushi; Southgate, Victoria; Snape, Charlotte; Leonard, Mark; Csibra, Gergely

2013-01-01

130

Pilot test of cooperative learning format for training mental health researchers and black community leaders in partnership skills.  

PubMed Central

To support reduction of racial disparities in mental health diagnosis and treatment, mental health researchers and black community-based organization (CBO) leaders need training on how to engage in collaborative research partnerships. In this study, we pilot tested a series of partnership skills training modules for researchers and CBO leaders in a collaborative learning format. Two different sets of three modules, designed for separate training of researchers and CBO leaders, covered considering, establishing and managing mental health research partnerships and included instructions for self-directed activities and discussions. Eight CBO leaders participated in 10 sessions, and six researchers participated in eight sessions. The effectiveness of the training content and format was evaluated through standardized observations, focus group discussions, participant evaluation forms and retrospective pre-/posttests to measure perceived gains in knowledge. Participants generally were satisfied with the training experience and gained new partnership knowledge and skills. Although the CBO leaders were more engaged in the cooperative learning process, this training format appealed to both audiences. Pilot testing demonstrated that: 1) our modules can equip researchers and CBO leaders with new partnership knowledge and skills and 2) the cooperative learning format is a well-received and suitable option for mental health research partnership training. PMID:18229772

Laborde, Danielle J.; Brannock, Kristen; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Parrish, Theodore

2007-01-01

131

Effect of ethanol on dynamic visual acuity during vertical body oscillation in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual orientation is the most important sensory input during locomotion (e.g. walking, driving a car, riding a bicycle).\\u000a We investigated dynamic visual acuity (DVA) during vertical body-oscillations (amplitude 5 cm; frequency 1.5 Hz) in 12 healthy\\u000a subjects before and twice after ethanol consumption. During oscillation, vertical eye movements were recorded under two test\\u000a conditions: with eyes closed (EC) and during

Frank Schmäl; R. Kunz; C. Ortmann; W. Stoll; M. Nieschalk; G. Fechner

2000-01-01

132

The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel ( Falco sparverius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was used to measure the visual acuity and refractive state of nine American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Visual acuity was determined from psychometric functions of PERG amplitude vs. spatial frequency. Refractive state was measured by finding the trial lens that resulted in the highest acuity. All nine kestrels were found to be emmetropic. Their median visual acuity

Matthew F. Gaffney; William Hodos

2003-01-01

133

Prevalence of refractive error in mentally retarded students of Kathmandu Valley.  

PubMed

Mental retardation also known as 'mentally handicap' means a delay or insufficient development of mental capacities. The prevalence of mental retardation in Nepal is 4.1%. Vision being the best sense for their education and daily activities, a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to find out the refractive error among the students in the schools for mentally retarded people. A total of 134 clinically diagnosed cases of mentally retarded students from three different schools of Kathmandu Valley were examined. Distance visual acuity was taken with the help of Cat Ford Vision Drum, SG chart and Kay Picture Test method but first preference was given to SG chart. Cyclo-retinoscopy and fundus examination under mydriasis were done in all the cases. Examination revealed that more than half of the examined had one or more ocular disorders with refractive error being the most common type of ocular morbidity followed by ocular motility disorders. Refractive errors were found in 34.4% in which the most common type of refractive error was simple hypermetropia. In conclusion refractive error was seen commonly among mentally retarded people of Kathmandu Valley. PMID:18298017

Ghising, R; Shakya, S; Rizyal, A; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S; Wang-Harris, S

2007-12-01

134

The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).  

PubMed

The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was used to measure the visual acuity and refractive state of nine American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Visual acuity was determined from psychometric functions of PERG amplitude vs. spatial frequency. Refractive state was measured by finding the trial lens that resulted in the highest acuity. All nine kestrels were found to be emmetropic. Their median visual acuity was 29 c/deg. The PERG, however, underestimates behaviorally determined visual acuity by approximately 37%. When adjusted for this underestimation, the median kestrel acuity was 46 c/deg. The visual acuity of American kestrels is compared to reports in the literature of 17 other species of birds. PMID:12842158

Gaffney, Matthew F; Hodos, William

2003-09-01

135

An Advanced Test of Theory of Mind: Understanding of Story Characters' Thoughts and Feelings by Able Autistic, Mentally Handicapped, and Normal Children and Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testing with a battery of naturalistic stories found that the 24 subjects with autism were impaired (compared to normal and mentally disabled controls) at providing context-appropriate mental state explanations for the story characters' nonliteral utterances. Even those autistic subjects who performed well on standard Theory of Mind tasks showed…

Happe, Francesca G. E.

1994-01-01

136

Motor Testing at 1 Year Improves the Prediction of Motor and Mental Outcome at 2 Years after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) in 32 surviving children (20 males, 12…

van Schie, Petra Em; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Barkhof, Frederik; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen

2010-01-01

137

A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

2013-01-01

138

Preschool acuity of the approximate number system correlates with school math ability.  

PubMed

Previous research shows a correlation between individual differences in people's school math abilities and the accuracy with which they rapidly and nonverbally approximate how many items are in a scene. This finding is surprising because the Approximate Number System (ANS) underlying numerical estimation is shared with infants and with non-human animals who never acquire formal mathematics. However, it remains unclear whether the link between individual differences in math ability and the ANS depends on formal mathematics instruction. Earlier studies demonstrating this link tested participants only after they had received many years of mathematics education, or assessed participants' ANS acuity using tasks that required additional symbolic or arithmetic processing similar to that required in standardized math tests. To ask whether the ANS and math ability are linked early in life, we measured the ANS acuity of 200 3- to 5-year-old children using a task that did not also require symbol use or arithmetic calculation. We also measured children's math ability and vocabulary size prior to the onset of formal math instruction. We found that children's ANS acuity correlated with their math ability, even when age and verbal skills were controlled for. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the primitive sense of number and math ability starting early in life. PMID:22010889

Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

2011-11-01

139

Sensory acuity and reasoning in delusional disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic research on delusional disorder (DD) is limited. The goal of this study was to assess DD patients in the following areas: sensory capacities, decision-making style, and complex reasoning. Ten DD patients and 10 matched normal controls completed the following (1) smell, taste, and vision testing; (2) a probabilistic inference test in which subjects made probability decisions; and (3) a

Charles R. Conway; Anna M. Bollini; Brevick G. Graham; Richard S. E. Keefe; Susan S. Schiffman; Joseph P. McEvoy

2002-01-01

140

Human Time-Frequency Acuity Beats the Fourier Uncertainty Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-frequency uncertainty principle states that the product of the temporal and frequency extents of a signal cannot be smaller than 1/(4?). We study human ability to simultaneously judge the frequency and the timing of a sound. Our subjects often exceeded the uncertainty limit, sometimes by more than tenfold, mostly through remarkable timing acuity. Our results establish a lower bound for the nonlinearity and complexity of the algorithms employed by our brains in parsing transient sounds, rule out simple “linear filter” models of early auditory processing, and highlight timing acuity as a central feature in auditory object processing.

Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

2013-01-01

141

Mental health disparities research: The impact of within and between group analyses on tests of social stress hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Social stress models are the predominant theoretical frame for studies of the relationship between social statuses and mental health (Horwitz 1999; Dressler, Oths, Gravlee 2005). These models propose that prejudice, discrimination and related social ills exert an added burden on socially disadvantaged populations (populations subjected to stigma, prejudice and discrimination) that can generate mental health problems. Researchers have used a variety of methodological approaches to study this hypothesis. In this paper we argue that researchers have not paid sufficient attention to the implications of this methodological variability, particularly the distinction between studies of within-group and studies of between-groups variation, in interpreting empirical tests of social stress theory. To fully evaluate the evidence, we need to carefully consider the convergence and divergence of results across diverse methodologies. PMID:20100631

2013-01-01

142

Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant

2012-01-01

143

Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant

2011-01-01

144

Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates

Bengt Svensson; Urban Markström; Ulrika Bejerholm; Tommy Björkman; David Brunt; Mona Eklund; Lars Hansson; Christel Leufstadius; Amanda Lundvik Gyllensten; Mikael Sandlund; Margareta Östman

2011-01-01

145

The Patient Acuity Rating: Quantifying clinical judgment regarding inpatient stability  

PubMed Central

Background New resident work-hour restrictions are expected to result in further increases in the number of handoffs between inpatient care providers, a known risk factor for poor outcomes. Strategies for improving the accuracy and efficiency of provider sign-outs are needed. Objective To develop and test a judgment-based scale for conveying the risk of clinical deterioration. Design Prospective observational study. Setting University teaching hospital. Subjects Internal medicine clinicians and patients. Measurement The Patient Acuity Rating (PAR), a 7-point Likert score representing the likelihood of a patient experiencing a cardiac arrest or ICU transfer within the next 24 hours, was obtained from physicians and midlevel practitioners at the time of sign-out. Cross-covering physicians were blinded to the results, which were subsequently correlated with outcomes. Results Forty eligible clinicians consented to participate, providing 6034 individual scores on 3419 patient-days. Seventy four patient-days resulted in cardiac arrest or ICU transfer within 24 hours. The average PAR was 3±1 and yielded an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0.82. Provider-specific AUROC values ranged from 0.69 for residents to 0.85 for attendings (p=0.01). Interns and midlevels did not differ significantly from the other groups. A PAR of 4 or higher corresponded to a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 68% for predicting cardiac arrest or ICU transfer in the next 24 hours. Conclusions Clinical judgment regarding patient stability can be reliably quantified in a simple score with the potential for efficiently conveying complex assessments of at-risk patients during handoffs between healthcare members. PMID:21853529

Edelson, Dana P.; Retzer, Elizabeth; Weidman, Elizabeth K.; Walsh, Deborah; Woodruff, James; Cua, Jefferson L.; Schmitz, Amanda; Davis, Andrew M.; Minsky, Bruce D.; Meadow, William; Vanden Hoek, Terry L.; Meltzer, David O.

2012-01-01

146

Monocular and binocular low-contrast visual acuity and optical coherence tomography in pediatric multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Low-contrast letter acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) capture visual dysfunction and axonal loss in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been proposed as secondary outcome metrics for therapeutic trials. Clinical trials will soon be launched in pediatric MS, but such outcome metrics have not been well-validated in this population. Objectives To determine whether MS onset during childhood and adolescence is associated with measurable loss of visual acuity and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), whether such features are noted only in the context of clinical optic nerve inflammation (optic neuritis, ON) or are a feature of MS even in the absence of optic nerve relapses, and to define the optimal methods for such detection. Study design Cross-sectional study Methods Monocular and binocular high- and low-contrast letter acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed in a cross-sectional cohort of children (ages 5 to 17 years) with MS (N=22 patients, 44 eyes; 8 patients with a history of ON) and disease-free controls (N=29 patients; 58 eyes) from three academic centers. Binocular summation was determined by calculating the number of letters correctly identified using the binocular score minus the better eye score for each visual test. RNFL thickness was measured using OCT (Stratus OCT-3). Results were analyzed in terms of “eyes” as: MS ON+, MS ON?, and control eyes. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to compare patients to controls. Results Traditional high-contrast visual acuity scores did not differ between MS ON+, MS ON?, and controls eyes. MS ON+ eyes had decreased monocular (p<0.001) and decreased binocular (p=0.007) low-contrast letter acuity (Sloan 1.25% contrast charts) scores. Monocular visual acuity did not differ when comparing MS ON? and control eyes. The magnitude of binocular summation using low-contrast charts was similar for pediatric MS participants and controls and was not diminished in children with a history of ON. While the mean RNFL thickness for all MS eyes (103±17 ?m) trended lower when compared to corresponding measures in control eyes (109±9 ?m, p=0.085), we confirmed a highly significant reduction in mean RNFL thickness in MS eyes with a history of ON (86±22 ?m, p<0.001). RNFL thickness of MS ON? eyes in pediatric MS patients (109±11 ?m) did not differ from controls (p=0.994). Conclusions Low-contrast letter acuity detects subtle visual loss in MS patients with prior ON, consistent with incomplete recovery, a finding further supported by RNFL loss in ON affected eyes. In MS patients with prior unilateral ON, binocular acuity is decreased; however, the magnitude of binocular summation is preserved, unlike adult-onset MS who exhibit a reduced capacity for visual compensation in the context of unilateral injury. Also unlike findings in adult-onset MS, we did not demonstrate RNFL thinning in ON? eyes of children and adolescents with MS. Further validation is required to confirm whether neurodegeneration of visual pathways occurs in the absence of relapse, and thus whether OCT will serve as a sensitive metric for such pathology in the pediatric and adolescent MS context. PMID:24683535

Waldman, Amy T.; Hiremath, Girish; Avery, Robert A.; Conger, Amy; Pineles, Stacy L.; Loguidice, Michael J.; Talman, Lauren S.; Galetta, Kristin M.; Shumski, Michael J.; Wilson, James; Ford, E'tona; Lavery, Amy M.; Conger, Darrel; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Frohman, Elliot M.; Balcer, Laura J.; Calabresi, Peter A.

2014-01-01

147

[Improvement of hearing acuity using ergomyogenic blood autoserum].  

PubMed

Biological activity of ergomyogenic autoserum (EAS) is attributed to the presence of natural hormonal-neuropeptide complex. Its administration to 25 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with neurosensory hypoacusis stage I-II resulted in improvement of hearing acuity in all the subjects with normal hearing and in 75% of the patients. The autoserum usage instructions are provided. PMID:8009765

Bogomil?ki?, M R; Shestakov, V A; Sapozhnikov, Ia M; Marchuk, A I

1993-01-01

148

Astronaut Charles Conrad during visual acuity experiments over Laredo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., pilot for the prime crew on the Gemini 5 space flight, takes pictures of predetermined land areas during visual acuity experiments over Laredo, Texas. The experiments will aid in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

1965-01-01

149

Metabolic acuity score: effect on major complications after bariatric surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCo-morbid conditions in obese patients contribute to the incidence and severity of major complications after bariatric surgery and significantly increase the cost of the procedure. Previous publications have validated the patient factors that increase the risk of mortality; however, it is currently a rare event. The development of a metabolic acuity score (MAS) to augment the body mass index might

Robin P. Blackstone; Melisa C. Cortés

2010-01-01

150

How well do you see what you hear? The acuity of visual-to-auditory sensory substitution  

PubMed Central

Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) aim to compensate for the loss of a sensory modality, typically vision, by converting information from the lost modality into stimuli in a remaining modality. “The vOICe” is a visual-to-auditory SSD which encodes images taken by a camera worn by the user into “soundscapes” such that experienced users can extract information about their surroundings. Here we investigated how much detail was resolvable during the early induction stages by testing the acuity of blindfolded sighted, naïve vOICe users. Initial performance was well above chance. Participants who took the test twice as a form of minimal training showed a marked improvement on the second test. Acuity was slightly but not significantly impaired when participants wore a camera and judged letter orientations “live”. A positive correlation was found between participants' musical training and their acuity. The relationship between auditory expertise via musical training and the lack of a relationship with visual imagery, suggests that early use of a SSD draws primarily on the mechanisms of the sensory modality being used rather than the one being substituted. If vision is lost, audition represents the sensory channel of highest bandwidth of those remaining. The level of acuity found here, and the fact it was achieved with very little experience in sensory substitution by naïve users is promising. PMID:23785345

Haigh, Alastair; Brown, David J.; Meijer, Peter; Proulx, Michael J.

2013-01-01

151

New method of screening young children for defects in visual acuity.  

PubMed

The methods used at present for screening young children's vision have disadvantages, such as that the child's intelligence can affect the result. In a new method three white cards are used; these are printed with one, two, or three black blocks arranged so that if a child can correctly state the number of blocks at 6 metres the visual acuity is at least 6/9. When tested on 186 children the new method gave better results than conventional tests; eight children with defective vision were picked up only by the new method and none were missed. PMID:5681052

Withnell, A; Wilson, H E

1968-10-19

152

The high cost of low-acuity ICU outliers.  

PubMed

Direct variable costs were determined on each hospital day for all patients with an intensive care unit (ICU) stay in four Phoenix-area hospital ICUs. Average daily direct variable cost in the four ICUs ranged from $1,436 to $1,759 and represented 69.4 percent and 45.7 percent of total hospital stay cost for medical and surgical patients, respectively. Daily ICU cost and length of stay (LOS) were higher in patients with higher ICU admission acuity of illness as measured by the APACHE risk prediction methodology; 16.2 percent of patients had an ICU stay in excess of six days, and these LOS outliers accounted for 56.7 percent of total ICU cost. While higher-acuity patients were more likely to be ICU LOS outliers, 11.1 percent of low-risk patients were outliers. The low-risk group included 69.4 percent of the ICU population and accounted for 47 percent of all LOS outliers. Low-risk LOS outliers accounted for 25.3 percent of ICU cost and incurred fivefold higher hospital stay costs and mortality rates. These data suggest that severity of illness is an important determinant of daily resource consumption and LOS, regardless of whether the patient arrives in the ICU with high acuity or develops complications that increase acuity. The finding that a substantial number of long-stay patients come into the ICU with low acuity and deteriorate after ICU admission is not widely recognized and represents an important opportunity to improve patient outcomes and lower costs. ICUs should consider adding low-risk LOS data to their quality and financial performance reports. PMID:23297608

Dahl, Deborah; Wojtal, Greg G; Breslow, Michael J; Holl, Randy; Huguez, Debra; Stone, David; Korpi, Gloria

2012-01-01

153

Test Response Patterns which Differentiate between Two Levels of Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interrelations between mental age (MA), IQ, and mediation were studied in 72 retardates in special classes. Subjects were selected to fall into sexually balanced groups of six in 12 MA-IQ categories (IQ 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80-89; MA 4-0 to 5-11, 6-0 to 7-11, and 8-0 to 9-11). The apparatus alternately displayed two pairs of stimuli, and…

Boswell, James D.

154

Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping  

SciTech Connect

In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects.

Bosimini, E.; Galli, M.; Guagliumi, G.; Giubbini, R.; Tavazzi, L. (Centro Medico di Riabilitazione, Veruno (Italy))

1991-04-01

155

A revalidation of the Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness as a brief measure of intelligence through comparison with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III.  

PubMed

In earlier research, Rossini, Wygonik, Barrett, and Friedman (1994) demonstrated that the Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness (TMA) is a valid, brief measure of intelligence by comparing it to the Wechsler Scale of Adult Intelligence-Revised, which was at that time the "gold standard" of IQ assessment. Since that study, the WAIS has again been revised and reissued in a third edition, the WAIS-III. We assessed the relationship between scores on the Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness and this latest WAIS test to see if there is still a predictive relationship between the two tests. Correlations between the two tests and the accuracy of TMA point estimates of IQ indicate that the Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness remains a viable brief measure of adult intelligence. PMID:11351908

Kvaal, S A; Wygonik, E; Spanos, A; Landsberger, S

2001-04-01

156

Visual acuity and visual skills in Malaysian children with learning disabilities  

PubMed Central

Background: There is limited data in the literature concerning the visual status and skills in children with learning disabilities, particularly within the Asian population. This study is aimed to determine visual acuity and visual skills in children with learning disabilities in primary schools within the suburban Kota Bharu district in Malaysia. Methods: We examined 1010 children with learning disabilities aged between 8–12 years from 40 primary schools in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia from January 2009 to March 2010. These children were identified based on their performance in a screening test known as the Early Intervention Class for Reading and Writing Screening Test conducted by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. Complete ocular examinations and visual skills assessment included near point of convergence, amplitude of accommodation, accommodative facility, convergence break and recovery, divergence break and recovery, and developmental eye movement tests for all subjects. Results: A total of 4.8% of students had visual acuity worse than 6/12 (20/40), 14.0% had convergence insufficiency, 28.3% displayed poor accommodative amplitude, and 26.0% showed signs of accommodative infacility. A total of 12.1% of the students had poor convergence break, 45.7% displayed poor convergence recovery, 37.4% showed poor divergence break, and 66.3% were noted to have poor divergence recovery. The mean horizontal developmental eye movement was significantly prolonged. Conclusion: Although their visual acuity was satisfactory, nearly 30% of the children displayed accommodation problems including convergence insufficiency, poor accommodation, and accommodative infacility. Convergence and divergence recovery are the most affected visual skills in children with learning disabilities in Malaysia. PMID:23055674

Muzaliha, Mohd-Nor; Nurhamiza, Buang; Hussein, Adil; Norabibas, Abdul-Rani; Mohd-Hisham-Basrun, Jaafar; Sarimah, Abdullah; Leo, Seo-Wei; Shatriah, Ismail

2012-01-01

157

College student personnel problems. I. Individual mental testing at the college-adult level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work has been in progress at the University of Pennsylvania; some of the tests used are three Ausfrage tests, distribution of attention, memory span for digits, syllables and ideas, difference and likeness, definitions, opposites, language ability, memory, arithmetic achievement; Downey test, Pressey X-O test, Brotemarkle test for ideational content of moral concepts; Princeton and International intelligence tests; combined social

R. A. Brotemarkle

1927-01-01

158

Patient Nutrition Acuity as a Predictor of the Time Required to Perform Medical Nutrition Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine if patient nutrition acuity accurately predicts the time required to perform medical nutrition therapy (MNT).Design Data detailing demographic characteristics, patient nutrition acuity, and time spent performing MNT were collected for 12 consecutive days. Random systematic sampling was used to select 25%, or a minimum of 20 patients, from daily admissions to the hospital. Nutrition acuity was categorized

MARGARET LAU SIMMONS; LINDA A VAUGHAN

1999-01-01

159

Infant Accommodation and Acuity Threshold as a Function of Viewing Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether the acuity threshold for distant targets is elevated for infants ranging in age from 24 to 63 days. Using square wave gratings and a modified staircase procedure, acuity thresholds for each of 331 infants were determined for one or more of the distances 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm and 150 cm. Acuity threshold was defined as…

Salapatek, Philip; And Others

160

Visual acuity and spatial contrast sensitivity in tree squirrels.  

PubMed

The visual sensitivity of tree squirrels from three different species (two western gray squirrels, Sciurus griseus; three fox squirrels, Sciurus niger; and an eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) was measured for spatial patterns defined by luminance differences. Spatial contrast sensitivity functions were determined in behavioral discrimination experiments in which the stimuli were sinusoidally-modulated gratings. At an average luminance level of 3.4 cd/m(2) these squirrels were maximally sensitive to spatial frequencies of about 0.5 cycles/degree (c/d). These experiments, in conjunction with additional measurements involving discrimination of square-wave grating patterns, also indicate that the finest gratings these squirrels can discriminate average 2.2 c/d (SD = 0.42 c/d). There are no obvious differences in resolution acuity among the three species. Grating acuity also was measured at a much higher luminance level (340 cd/m(2)). The results of this experiment indicate that the spatial acuity of the tree squirrel increases with luminance level, reaching a maximum of 3.9 c/d at 340 cd/m(2). PMID:24923501

Jacobs, G H; Birch, D G; Blakeslee, B

1982-12-01

161

Organizational justice and mental health: a multi-level test of justice interactions.  

PubMed

We examine main and interaction effects of organizational justice at the individual and the organizational levels on general health in a Kenyan sample. We theoretically differentiate between two different interaction patterns of justice effects: buffering mechanisms based on trust versus intensifying explanations of justice interactions that involve psychological contract violations. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model with responses from 427 employees in 29 organizations, only interpersonal justice at level 1 demonstrated a significant main effect. Interactions between distributive and interpersonal justice at both the individual and the collective levels were found. The intensifying hypothesis was supported: the relationship between distributive justice and mental health problems was strongest when interpersonal justice was high. This contrasts with buffering patterns described in Western samples. We argue that justice interaction patterns shift depending on the economic conditions and sociocultural characteristics of employees studied. PMID:24811881

Fischer, Ronald; Abubakar, Amina; Arasa, Josephine Nyaboke

2014-04-01

162

Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.  

PubMed

Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth. PMID:18680639

Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

2009-05-01

163

Short-Term Visual Deprivation Does Not Enhance Passive Tactile Spatial Acuity  

PubMed Central

An important unresolved question in sensory neuroscience is whether, and if so with what time course, tactile perception is enhanced by visual deprivation. In three experiments involving 158 normally sighted human participants, we assessed whether tactile spatial acuity improves with short-term visual deprivation over periods ranging from under 10 to over 110 minutes. We used an automated, precisely controlled two-interval forced-choice grating orientation task to assess each participant's ability to discern the orientation of square-wave gratings pressed against the stationary index finger pad of the dominant hand. A two-down one-up staircase (Experiment 1) or a Bayesian adaptive procedure (Experiments 2 and 3) was used to determine the groove width of the grating whose orientation each participant could reliably discriminate. The experiments consistently showed that tactile grating orientation discrimination does not improve with short-term visual deprivation. In fact, we found that tactile performance degraded slightly but significantly upon a brief period of visual deprivation (Experiment 1) and did not improve over periods of up to 110 minutes of deprivation (Experiments 2 and 3). The results additionally showed that grating orientation discrimination tends to improve upon repeated testing, and confirmed that women significantly outperform men on the grating orientation task. We conclude that, contrary to two recent reports but consistent with an earlier literature, passive tactile spatial acuity is not enhanced by short-term visual deprivation. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. On the theoretical side, the findings set limits on the time course over which neural mechanisms such as crossmodal plasticity may operate to drive sensory changes; on the practical side, the findings suggest that researchers who compare tactile acuity of blind and sighted participants should not blindfold the sighted participants. PMID:21966478

Wong, Michael; Hackeman, Erik; Hurd, Caitlin; Goldreich, Daniel

2011-01-01

164

Normal taste acuity and preference in female adolescents with impaired 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the relationship between 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity and taste characteristics in female students at Nara Women's University. Participants (n=135) were screened for 6-npropylthiouracil sensitivity using a taste test with 0.56 mM 6-n-propylthiouracil solution, and the sensitivity was confirmed by an assay for the bitter-taste receptor gene, TAS2R38. Based on the screening results, 33 6-npropylthiouracil tasters and 21 non-tasters were enrolled. The basic characteristics that are thought to influence taste acuity, including body mass index, saliva volume and serum micronutrient concentrations (iron, zinc and copper), were similar between the two groups. In an analysis using a filter-paper disc method, there were no differences in the acuity for four basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour and bitter) between 6-n-propylthiouracil tasters and non-tasters. In addition, the taste preference for the four basic tastes as measured by a visual analogue scale was also comparable between the two groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that 6-n-propylthiouracil nontasters have taste sensitivity for the four basic tastes similar to that in 6-n-propylthiouracil tasters, at least in female adolescents, as measured by the gustatory test using a filter-paper disc method. PMID:25164453

Nagai, Ayako; Kubota, Masaru; Sakai, Midori; Higashiyama, Yukie

2014-01-01

165

Psychiatrists' views of the genetic bases of mental disorders and behavioral traits and their use of genetic tests.  

PubMed

We examined how 372 psychiatrists view genetic aspects of mental disorders and behaviors and use genetic tests (GTs). Most thought that the genetic contribution was moderate/high for bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's, intelligence, creativity, anxiety, and suicidality. In the past 6 months, 14.1% ordered GTs, 18.3% discussed prenatal testing with patients, 36.0% initiated discussions about other GTs, 41.6% had patients ask about GTs, and 5.3% excluded GT results from patient records. Many thought that GTs; were available for schizophrenia (24.3%) and major depression (19.6%). Women were more likely to report that patients asked about GTs; and were less certain about the degree of genetic contribution to several disorders. Psychiatrists perceive strong genetic bases for numerous disorders and traits, and many have discussed and ordered tests for GTs, but have relatively limited knowledge about available tests. These data suggest possible sex differences in psychiatrists' beliefs about genetic contributions to disorders and have implications for future research, education, policy, and care. PMID:24933415

Klitzman, Robert; Abbate, Kristopher J; Chung, Wendy K; Marder, Karen; Ottman, Ruth; Taber, Katherine Johansen; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Appelbaum, Paul S

2014-07-01

166

Linkages of biomarkers of zinc with cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study (n?=?403) was conducted to examine the relationship of plasma zinc (PZ) and erythrocyte zinc (EZ) levels with cognitive performance and taste acuity for salt in Indian adolescent girls. PZ, EZ and hemoglobin were estimated in schoolgirls (10-16 years). Cognitive performance was assessed by simple-reaction-time (SRT), recognition-reaction-time (RRT), visual-memory, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Taste acuity was determined by recognition-thresholds-for-salt (RTS) using 10 different salt concentrations. Low PZ (<0.7?mg/l) and EZ (<8?µg/g of packed cells) were observed in 72% and 23.6% of girls, respectively. PZ and EZ were negatively associated with SRT (r?=?-0.41, -0.34), RRT (r?=?-0.49, -0.4), and positively with Memory (r?=?0.43, 0.34) and RPM (r?=?0.39, 0.31; p?

Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Kawade, Rama

2014-06-01

167

Visual Acuity Development and Plasticity in the Absence of Sensory Experience  

PubMed Central

Visual circuits mature and are refined by sensory experience. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding how deprivation influences the development of visual acuity in mice. Here, we perform a longitudinal study assessing the effects of chronic deprivation on the development of the mouse subcortical and cortical visual circuits using a combination of behavioral optomotor testing, in vivo visual evoked responses (VEP) and single-unit cortical recordings. As previously reported, orientation tuning was degraded and onset of ocular dominance plasticity was delayed and remained open in chronically deprived mice. Surprisingly, we found that the development of optomotor threshold and VEP acuity can occur in an experience-independent manner, although at a significantly slower rate. Moreover, monocular deprivation elicited amblyopia only during a discrete period of development in the dark. The rate of recovery of optomotor threshold upon exposure of deprived mice to light confirmed a maturational transition regardless of visual input. Together our results revealed a dissociable developmental trajectory for visual receptive-field properties in dark-reared mice suggesting a differential role for spontaneous activity within thalamocortical and intracortical circuits. PMID:24198369

Kang, Erin; Durand, Severine; LeBlanc, Jocelyn J.; Hensch, Takao K.

2013-01-01

168

Changes in brain morphology in albinism reflect reduced visual acuity.  

PubMed

Albinism, in humans and many animal species, has a major impact on the visual system, leading to reduced acuity, lack of binocular function and nystagmus. In addition to the lack of a foveal pit, there is a disruption to the routing of the nerve fibers crossing at the optic chiasm, resulting in excessive crossing of fibers to the contralateral hemisphere. However, very little is known about the effect of this misrouting on the structure of the post-chiasmatic visual pathway, and the occipital lobes in particular. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness in a large cohort of subjects with albinism showed an increase in cortical thickness, relative to control subjects, particularly in posterior V1, corresponding to the foveal representation. Furthermore, mean cortical thickness across entire V1 was significantly greater in these subjects compared to controls and negatively correlated with visual acuity in albinism. Additionally, the group with albinism showed decreased gyrification in the left ventral occipital lobe. While the increase in cortical thickness in V1, also found in congenitally blind subjects, has been interpreted to reflect a lack of pruning, the decreased gyrification in the ventral extrastriate cortex may reflect the reduced input to the foveal regions of the ventral visual stream. PMID:23039995

Bridge, Holly; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Davies, George; Chambers, Claire; Gouws, Andre; Hoffmann, Michael; Morland, Antony B

2014-07-01

169

Differential associative training enhances olfactory acuity in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Training can improve the ability to discriminate between similar, confusable stimuli, including odors. One possibility of enhancing behaviorally expressed discrimination (i.e., sensory acuity) relies on differential associative learning, during which animals are forced to detect the differences between similar stimuli. Drosophila represents a key model organism for analyzing neuronal mechanisms underlying both odor processing and olfactory learning. However, the ability of flies to enhance fine discrimination between similar odors through differential associative learning has not been analyzed in detail. We performed associative conditioning experiments using chemically similar odorants that we show to evoke overlapping neuronal activity in the fly's antennal lobes and highly correlated activity in mushroom body lobes. We compared the animals' performance in discriminating between these odors after subjecting them to one of two types of training: either absolute conditioning, in which only one odor is reinforced, or differential conditioning, in which one odor is reinforced and a second odor is explicitly not reinforced. First, we show that differential conditioning decreases behavioral generalization of similar odorants in a choice situation. Second, we demonstrate that this learned enhancement in olfactory acuity relies on both conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition. Third, inhibitory local interneurons in the antennal lobes are shown to be required for behavioral fine discrimination between the two similar odors. Fourth, differential, but not absolute, training causes decorrelation of odor representations in the mushroom body. In conclusion, differential training with similar odors ultimately induces a behaviorally expressed contrast enhancement between the two similar stimuli that facilitates fine discrimination. PMID:24478363

Barth, Jonas; Dipt, Shubham; Pech, Ulrike; Hermann, Moritz; Riemensperger, Thomas; Fiala, André

2014-01-29

170

Evaluation of OAE-recording as a complementary test method for adults with moderate to profound mental retardation.  

PubMed

The recording of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) was evaluated as a complementary test method for adults with moderate to profound mental retardation (MR). A portable apparatus, ILO 288 Echoport linked to a Compaq LTE 5100 notebook with software ILO 88 V 4.2, was used. Otoscopy and tympanometry were also performed. Criteria for emissions were S/N 3 dB or more and reproducibility 60% or more for at least three frequency-bands. The criteria for partial emissions were the same, but for only one or two frequencies. Two examiners were needed: one to keep the tested person calm and quiet and the other to handle the keyboard. Thirty-eight people with different degrees of MR in connection with other disabilities were included. They had all exhibited incomplete results in a previous hearing screening of more than 1,000 adults with MR. Reproducible transiently evoked OAEs (TEOAE) were recorded from 11 ears (7 people), partial TEOAEs from 6 ears (4 people) and no emissions from 15 ears (10 people). Registration from 24 ears (13 people) could not be evaluated because of too much external and internal noise. Eight people rejected the examination. Only four people showed emissions in both ears. Accordingly, 34 people (89.5%) had to be re-tested or referred for further investigation, 21 of them (55%) because of noisy recordings or no co-operation. It is concluded that the TEOAE-test in its present form cannot fulfil the demands for a functioning test method for this population. In single cases, however, TEOAE-recording can complement other audiological tests. PMID:10888349

Andersson, E; Arlinger, S; Jacobsson, S

2000-01-01

171

Two-stage optics - High-acuity performance from low-acuity optical systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of two-stage optics, developed under a program to enhance the performance, lower the cost, and increase the reliability of the 20-m Large Deployable Telescope, is examined. The concept permits the large primary mirror to remain as deployed or as space-assembled, with phasing and subsequent control of the system done by a small fully assembled optical active element placed at an exit pupil. The technique is being applied to correction of the fabrication/testing error in the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror. The advantages offered by this concept for very large space telescopes are discussed.

Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

1992-01-01

172

Comparison of the performance of the CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION bleeding risk scores in STEMI undergoing primary PCI: insights from a cohort of 1391 patients  

PubMed Central

Aims: To compare the performance of the CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION risk models in the ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Methods: We studied all consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI at our institution between 2006 and 2010 (n=1391). The CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION risk scores were calculated based on the patients’ clinical characteristics. The occurrence of in-hospital major bleeding (defined as the composite of intracranial or intraocular bleeding, access site haemorrhage requiring intervention, reduction in haemoglobin ?4 g/dl without or ?3g/dl with overt bleeding source, reoperation for bleeding, or blood transfusion) reached 9.8%. Calibration and discrimination of the three risk models were evaluated by the Hosmer?Lemeshow test and the C-statistic, respectively. We compared the predictive accuracy of the risk scores by the DeLong non-parametric test. Results: Calibration of the three risk scores was adequate, given the non-significant results of Hosmer?Lemeshow test for the three risk models. Discrimination of CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION models was good (C-statistic 0.77, 0.70, and 0.78, respectively). The CRUSADE and ACTION risk scores had a greater predictive accuracy than the ACUITY-HORIZONS risk model (z=3.89, p-value=0.0001 and z=3.51, p-value=0.0004, respectively). There was no significant difference between the CRUSADE and ACTION models (z=0.63, p=0.531). Conclusions: The CRUSADE, ACUITY-HORIZONS, and ACTION scores are useful tools for the risk stratification of bleeding in STEMI treated by PPCI. Our findings favour the CRUSADE and ACTION risk models over the ACUITY-HORIZONS risk score. PMID:24062930

Couto-Mallon, D; Rodriguez-Garrido, J; Garcia-Guimaraes, M; Gargallo-Fernandez, P; Pinon-Esteban, P; Aldama-Lopez, G; Salgado-Fernandez, J; Calvino-Santos, R; Vazquez-Gonzalez, N; Castro-Beiras, A

2013-01-01

173

Effect of water turbidity on the visual acuity of harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underwater visual acuity (the angle subtended by the minimal resolvable line width of high contrast square wave gratings at a viewing distance of 2m) of two male harbor seals was determined at different levels of water turbidity. Starting with visual acuity angles of 5.5? and 12.7? in clear water we found visual acuity to decrease rapidly with increasing turbidity

Michael Weiffen; Bettina Möller; Björn Mauck; Guido Dehnhardt

2006-01-01

174

Cortical Magnification within Human Primary Visual Cortex Correlates with Acuity Thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured linear cortical magnification factors in V1 with fMRI, and we measured visual acuity (Vernier and grating) in the same observers. The cortical representation of both Vernier and grating acuity thresholds in V1 was found to be roughly constant across all eccentricities. We also found a within-observer correlation between cortical magnification and Vernier acuity, further supporting claims that Vernier

Robert O. Duncan; Geoffrey M. Boynton

2003-01-01

175

Visual acuity of the midland banded water snake estimated from evoked telencephalic potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual acuity of seven midland banded water snakes was measured by recording evoked responses from telencephalon to temporally\\u000a modulated square wave grating patterns. Using conventional electrophysiological techniques and signal averaging, high contrast\\u000a square wave gratings of different spatial frequencies were presented. Acuity was estimated by extrapolating relative response\\u000a amplitude\\/log10 spatial frequency functions which yielded an average acuity of 4.25 cycles\\/degree.

Robert A. Baker; Timothy J. Gawne; Michael S. Loop; Sheena Pullman

2007-01-01

176

Sound Localization Acuity and its Relation to Vision in Large and Small Fruit-eating Bats: I. Echolocating Species, Phyllostomus hastatus and Carollia perspicillata  

PubMed Central

Passive sound-localization acuity for 100-msec noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of bats: Phyllostomus hastatus, a large bat that eats fruit and vertebrates, and Carollia perspicillata, a small species that eats fruit and nectar. The mean minimum audible angle for two P. hastatus was 9°, and that for two C. perspicillata was 14.8°. This places their passive sound-localization acuity near the middle of the range for mammals. Sound localization varies widely among mammals and the best predictor of a species’ acuity remains the width of the field of best vision (r = .89, p < .0001). The five echolocating bats that have been tested do not deviate from this relationship suggesting that despite their specialization for echolocation, the use of hearing to direct the eyes to the source of a sound still serves as an important selective factor for sound localization. PMID:17630232

Heffner, R.S.; Koay, G.; Heffner, H.E.

2007-01-01

177

ANXIETY, PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY MEASURED, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON MENTAL TEST PERFORMANCE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH (1) EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ANXIETY INFLUENCES ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE AND (2) THE VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS WERE ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING MEASURES OF ANXIETY--(1) S-R INVENTORY OF ANXIOUSNESS, (2) AFFECT ADJECTIVE…

CHAMBERS, ALMA C.; HOPKINS, KENNETH D.

178

Age-Related Differences in Cardiovascular Reactions to Mental Stress Tests in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 84 healthy, sedentary women in the laboratory during performance of difficult and easy problem-solving tasks. They were divided into three age groups: 19 to 32 years, 33 to 43 years, and 44 to 60 years (n = 28 women per group). Baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure increased with age, whereas skin conductance level was lower

Andrew Steptoe; Jennifer Moses; Sara Edwards

1990-01-01

179

Limitations in the use of intelligence test performance to detect mental disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler-Bellevue scale was administered to 40 morons and 80 schizophrenics, aged 30-39, and scores were compared with those of 210 controls of the same age range. Comparisons were made in terms of deviation scores expressing the performance of a patient on the individual tests relative to his own general level of performance.\\

A. Magaret; C. Wright

1943-01-01

180

Mental rotation test performances and familial sinistrality in dextrals, with special reference to the bent twig theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, in this journal, Casey 1995 and McKeever (1996) noted that they have reached opposite conclusions regarding the effect of familial sinistrality on mental rotation ability in dextral females. Casey and colleagues concluded that those dextral women with a family history of left handedness (the FS+) are comparable to men in mental rotation ability and that the overall male superiority

Louis J. Cerone; Walter F. McKeever

1998-01-01

181

The Relationship between OCT-measured Central Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal thickness and visual acuity in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) both before and after macular laser photocoagulation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Participants 210 subjects (251 eyes) with DME enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of laser techniques. Methods Retinal thickness was measured with OCT and visual acuity was measured with the electronic-ETDRS procedure. Main Outcome Measures OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity Results The correlation coefficients for visual acuity versus OCT center point thickness were 0.52 at baseline and 0.49, 0.36, and 0.38 at 3.5, 8, and 12 months post-laser photocoagulation. The slope of the best fit line to the baseline data was approximately 4.4 letters (95% C.I.: 3.5, 5.3) better visual acuity for every 100 microns decrease in center point thickness at baseline with no important difference at follow-up visits. Approximately one-third of the variation in visual acuity could be predicted by a linear regression model that incorporated OCT center point thickness, age, hemoglobin A1C, and severity of fluorescein leakage in the center and inner subfields. The correlation between change in visual acuity and change in OCT center point thickening 3.5 months after laser treatment was 0.44 with no important difference at the other follow-up times. A subset of eyes showed paradoxical improvements in visual acuity with increased center point thickening (7–17% at the three time points) or paradoxical worsening of visual acuity with a decrease in center point thickening (18%–26% at the three time points). Conclusions There is modest correlation between OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity, and modest correlation of changes in retinal thickening and visual acuity following focal laser treatment for DME. However, a wide range of visual acuity may be observed for a given degree of retinal edema and paradoxical increases in center point thickening with increases in visual acuity as well as paradoxical decreases in center point thickening with decreases in visual acuity were not uncommon. Thus, although OCT measurements of retinal thickness represent an important tool in clinical evaluation, they cannot reliably substitute as a surrogate for visual acuity at a given point in time. This study does not address whether short-term changes on OCT are predictive of long-term effects on visual acuity. PMID:17123615

2008-01-01

182

Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

1989-01-01

183

Water-Induced Finger Wrinkles Do Not Affect Touch Acuity or Dexterity in Handling Wet Objects  

PubMed Central

Human non-hairy (glabrous) skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n?=?40) in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects. PMID:24416318

Frenzel, Henning; Gross, Manfred; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

184

The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences  

PubMed Central

Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17?-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

2009-01-01

185

Hypnosis and Mental Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capability of deep absorption in mental images in highly hypnotizable people was tested. Signal detection data was analyzed for imagery and no-imagery blocks separately and combined. Signal detection sensitivity was significantly lower during imagery ...

G. W. Farthing

1980-01-01

186

Mental Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

187

Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

188

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

2012-10-01

189

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

2013-10-01

190

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation...Process § 240.207 Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to...

2011-10-01

191

Vernier Acuity and the Magnocellular System Revisited: Response to Skottun and Skoyles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skottun and Skoyles (2009) recently presented a comment on Vernier acuity and magnocellular dysfunctions in fragile X premutation carriers (Keri & Benedek, 2009). The authors concluded that our finding that the magnocellular deficit, as revealed by luminance-contrast sensitivity measurements, is associated with impaired Vernier acuity for…

Keri, Szabolcs; Benedek, Gyorgy

2010-01-01

192

The visual acuity variability during physical efforts in low vision athletes from the athletics Brazilian team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and objective: This study had as an objective to evaluate the visual acuity behavior in athletes with low vision, du- ring a continuous effort protocol. Researches point out that visual acuity presents performance varieties when submitted to physical efforts in subjects without visual impairment. Method: The studi- ed population was composed by six peoples, who practiced athle- tics and

Keila Miriam; Monteiro de Carvalho; Luiz Eduardo; Barreto Martins

193

Current Depression, Lifetime History of Depression, and Visual Acuity in Hispanic Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined associations between bilateral visual acuity and depression among 391 Cuban Americans, 1,514 Mexican Americans, and 527 Puerto Ricans. Among Mexicans, depression was higher for those with moderate and greater impairment. Among Cubans, depression was higher for those with a distance visual acuity worse than 20/50. (Contains…

Lee, David J.; Gomez-Marin, Orlando; Lam, Byron L.

2000-01-01

194

Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

2011-01-01

195

Is the Male Advantage in Mental-Rotation Performance Task Independent? On the Usability of Chronometric Tests and Paper-and-Pencil Tests in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a reanalysis of the data of 862 second and fourth graders collected in two previous studies, focusing on the influence of method (psychometric vs. chronometric) and stimulus type on the gender difference in mental-rotation accuracy. The children had to solve mental-rotation tasks with animal pictures, letters, or cube…

Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea

2014-01-01

196

Testing the Assumption of Measurement Invariance in the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment.\\u000a This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance\\u000a Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a longitudinal multisite, randomized trial examining two modes of care (Referral\\u000a and Integrated). A

Bellinda L. King-Kallimanis; Frans J. Oort; Nancy Lynn; Lawrence Schonfeld

197

Dynamic Visual Acuity Associated With Eye Movements And Pupillary Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectively was evaluate dynamic visual acuity (DVA), using moving optotypes, while monitoring eye movements and pupillary responses. Under controlled conditions of luminance and contrast the viewers were asked to look carefully at a moving alphabetic letter. The letter was moved in the horizontal plane at a determined speed by a sinusoidal frequency generator. The initial frequency was gradually incremented until the viewer reported was not able to distinguish the object. Objective measures of DVA were obtained using video-oculography (VOG) in which, pupillary images and eye movements were analyzed by image processing. We found that when a large dilatation of the pupil is presented coincided with a pause eye movement (0.1s). It was when the viewer leaves to see clearly the letter of Snellen. The changes of pupil diameter of the five viewers were found averages to nasal trajectory from 3.58 mm (0 Hz) to 3.85 mm (1Hz), and to temporal trajectory from 3.54 mm (0 Hz) to 3.96 mm (1 Hz). Also, the bandwidth since 0.6 to 1.2 Hz, of the viewers due to the response at the stimulus (letter of Snellen) with 20° of amplitude, was obtained.

Suaste, Ernesto; García, Nadia; Rodríguez, Dolores; Zúñiga, Arturo

2004-09-01

198

Face Context Advantage Explained by Vernier and Separation Discrimination Acuity  

PubMed Central

Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber’s law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination. PMID:23346066

Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R.

2013-01-01

199

Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity.  

PubMed

Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa. PMID:23382193

Böröczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby

2013-02-26

200

Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity  

PubMed Central

Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa. PMID:23382193

Boroczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby

2013-01-01

201

Mental status testing  

MedlinePLUS

... appearance, including: Age Clothing General level of comfort Gender Grooming Height/weight ORIENTATION The health care provider ... 5 numbers in reverse order. RECENT AND PAST MEMORY The provider will ask questions related to recent ...

202

Clinical vision characteristics of the congenital achromatopsias. I. Visual acuity, refractive error, and binocular status.  

PubMed

Visual acuity, refractive error, and binocular status were determined in 43 autosomal recessive (AR) and 15 X-linked (XL) congenital achromats. The achromats were classified by color matching and spectral sensitivity data. Large interindividual variation in refractive error and visual acuity was present within each achromat group (complete AR, incomplete AR, and XL). However, the number of individuals with significant interocular acuity differences is very small. Most XLs are myopic; ARs show a wide range of refractive error from high myopia to high hyperopia. Acuity of the AR and XL groups was very similar. With-the-rule astigmatism of large amount is very common in achromats, particularly ARs. There is a close association between strabismus and interocular acuity differences in the ARs, with the fixating eye having better than average acuity. The large overlap of acuity and refractive error of XL and AR achromats suggests that these measures are less useful for differential diagnosis than generally indicated by the clinical literature. PMID:8843124

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G; Schneck, M E; Verdon, W A; Hewlett, S E

1996-07-01

203

Omega-3 Intake and Visual Acuity in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa on Vitamin A  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated whether a diet high in long chain omega-3 fatty acids can slow the rate of visual acuity loss among patients with retinitis pigmentosa on vitamin A palmitate. Methods We calculated dietary intake from questionnaires completed annually by 357 adult patients who were all receiving vitamin A 15,000 IU/day for 4–6 years. Rates of visual acuity decline were compared between those with high (? 0.20 g/day) versus low (<0.20 g/day) omega-3 intake. Analyses took age into account. Results Mean rates of decline of acuity were slower among those with high omega-3 intake; ETDRS distance acuity: high =0.59 letter/year, low=1.00 letter/year, p=0.001; Snellen retinal acuity: high = 1.5%/year; low = 2.8%/year, p=0.030. Conclusions We conclude that mean annual rates of decline in distance and retinal visual acuities in adults with retinitis pigmentosa taking vitamin A 15,000 IU/day are slower over 4–6 years among those consuming a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids. To our knowledge this is the first report that nutritional intake can modify the rate of decline of visual acuity in retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:22332205

Berson, Eliot L.; Rosner, Bernard; Sandberg, Michael A.; Weigel-DiFranco, Carol; Willett, Walter C.

2013-01-01

204

Amniotic membrane covering promotes healing of cornea epithelium and improves visual acuity after debridement for fungal keratitis  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the effect of amniotic membrane covering (AMC) on the healing of cornea epithelium and visual acuity for fungal keratitis after debridement. METHODS Twenty fungal keratitis patients were divided into two groups randomly, the AMC group and the control group, ten patients each group. Both debridement of the infected cornea tissue and standard anti-fungus drugs treatments were given to every patients, monolayer amniotic membrane were sutured to the surface of the entire cornea and bulbar conjunctiva with 10-0 nylon suture for patients in the AMC group. The diameter of the ulcer was determined with slit lamp microscope and the depth of the infiltration was determined with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was tested before surgery and three month after healing of the epithelial layer. The healing time of the cornea epithelium, visual acuity (VA) was compared between the two groups using t-test. RESULTS There was no statistical difference of the diameter of the ulcer, depth of the infiltration, height of the hypopyon and VA between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05). The average healing time of the AMC group was 6.89±2.98d, which was statistically shorter than that of the control group (10.23±2.78d) (P<0.05). The average UCVA of the AMC group was 0.138±0.083, which was statistically better than that of the control group (0.053±0.068) (P<0.05). CONCLUSION AMC surgery could promote healing of cornea epithelium after debridement for fungal keratitis and lead to better VA outcome. PMID:25349793

Zeng, Bo; Wang, Ping; Xu, Ling-Juan; Li, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Hong; Li, Gui-Gang

2014-01-01

205

Specifying and Testing a Multi-Dimensional Model of Publicness: An Analysis of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities  

E-print Network

, 1987), as well as its level of: social equity; engagement with external enterprises that compel "morally governed behavior" (e.g., accreditation agencies); and openness. Data on public and private (for-profit and non-profit) mental health and substance...

Merritt, Cullen

2014-05-31

206

Effect of methylphenidate on neurocognitive test battery: an evaluation according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, subtypes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the neuropsychological characteristics of the restrictive (R) subtype according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined (CB) type and predominantly inattentive (PI) type subtypes and to evaluate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects neurocognitive test battery scores according to these subtypes. This study included 360 children and adolescents (277 boys, 83 girls) between 7 and 15 years of age who had been diagnosed with ADHD and compared the neuropsychological characteristics and MPH treatment responses of patients with the R subtype-which has been suggested for inclusion among the ADHD subtypes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-with those of patients with the PI and CB subtypes. They did not differ from the control subjects in the complex attention domain, which includes Continuous Performance Test, Stroop test, and Shifting Attention Test, which suggests that the R subtype displayed a lower level of deterioration in these domains compared with the PI and CB subtypes. The patients with the CB and PI subtypes did not differ from the control subjects in the Continuous Performance Test correct response domain, whereas those with the R subtype presented a poorer performance than the control subjects. The R subtype requires a more detailed evaluation because it presented similar results in the remaining neuropsychological evaluations and MPH responses. PMID:24875071

Durak, Sibel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Yuce, Deniz; Ercan, Elif; Ipci, Melis

2014-08-01

207

49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to visual acuity; and (2) A licensed or certified audiologist or a technician responsible to that person may perform the portion of the examination that pertains to hearing...

2010-10-01

208

Spatial visual acuity of the eagle Aquila audax: a behavioural, optical and anatomical investigation.  

PubMed

Behavioural acuity of the wedge-tailed eagle was determined across a range of luminance. Maximum acuity is between 132 and 143 c/deg and with decreasing luminance acuity declines sharply. The maximum anatomical resolving power of the eagle's deep fovea was calculated as 140 c/deg. This calculation was based upon ophthalmoscopic measurement of posterior nodal distance and estimates of photoreceptor spacings made from fixed foveal tissue and corrected for shrinkage. Maximum behavioural acuity and anatomical resolving power correspond closely and approach the highest frequency (157 c/deg) transmitted by the minimum pupil diameter of the eye. These findings are discussed with reference to current theories of visual functioning. PMID:4090282

Reymond, L

1985-01-01

209

EN FACE SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OUTER RETINAL ANALYSIS AND RELATION TO VISUAL ACUITY  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe a method of en face visualization and quantification of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction area, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and association with visual acuity. Methods Case series of 74 eyes in 53 patients. Central 1-mm and 400-mm en face areas were analyzed with a computer algorithm. Results The presence or absence of inner segment/outer segment junction was visible on both spectral-domain optical coherence tomography en face and retinal cross sections. Thirty eyes (40.6%) had no retinal pathology and an average logMAR visual acuity of 0.116. Twenty-five eyes (33.8%) had intraretinal edema, with visual acuity of 0.494. Nineteen eyes had nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration (dry age-related macular degeneration, 25.6%), with visual acuity of 0.392. In all eyes, central 1-mm and 400-µm en face areas were 58.3 ± 25.0% and 56.4 ± 26.0%, which showed significant correlation with visual acuity (Pearson correlation, r = ?0.66 and ?0.56, both P < 0.001). This correlation was greater than correlation of visual acuity with central subfield thickness (r = 0.39, P < 0.001), macular volume (r = 0.36, P = 0.002), and average macular thickness (r = 0.37, P = 0.001). However, no variables were significantly correlated with dry age-related macular degeneration eyes. Conclusion Central en face inner segment/outer segment junction areas are significantly correlated with visual acuity in most eyes. This may correlate better with visual acuity than other spectral-domain optical coherence tomography values, as a reflection of photoreceptor integrity. Dry age-related macular degeneration may disrupt the plane used to formulate the en face display. Advancements in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography may provide routine en face visualization analysis. PMID:22466459

Kiernan, Daniel F.; Zelkha, Ruth; Hariprasad, Seenu M.; Lim, Jennifer I.; Blair, Michael P.; Mieler, William F.

2013-01-01

210

Longitudinal Relationships among Visual Acuity and Tasks of Everyday Life: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To study the relationships among visual and physical function trajectories of aging adults. Methods. The community-based random sample consists of 2520 adults who were aged 65 to 84 years in 1993 to 1995 and reassessed 2, 6, and 8 years later. Presenting and best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity were obtained. Activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) were evaluated through survey instruments. Growth curve models were used to simultaneously estimate health trajectories and obtain associations among the trajectories while controlling for relevant covariates. Results. Best-corrected acuity (logMAR) worsened by an average of 0.013 (?1 letter) annually. ADL difficulties increased by 0.22 standard deviations (SD) and IADL difficulties increased by 0.28 SD annually. Controlling for demographic and health covariates, visual acuity rates of decline correlated with rates of increase in ADL difficulties (r = 0.15, P = 0.05) and IADL difficulties (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Acuity loss was significantly related to increases in ADLs for men (b = 0.039, P < 0.01), but not for women (b = 0.001, P > 0.9). The direct effects of acuity loss were strongest for IADLs where a 1-unit decline in acuity (logMAR) was associated with a 0.067 SD increase in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) at baseline, and a 1-unit acuity decline (logMAR) per year resulted in a 0.10 SD unit increase in the rate of change in IADL difficulties (P < 0.001) per year. Conclusions. Over time, increases in visual acuity loss were related to increased IADL difficulties in men and women and increases in ADL difficulties for men only. The findings support the importance of maintaining vision in older adults. PMID:23221066

Lam, Byron L.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zheng, D. Diane; West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Lee, David J.

2013-01-01

211

Visual acuity and quality of life outcomes in patients with cataract in Shunyi County, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To measure visual acuity and vision-related quality of life in individuals in rural China operated on for cataract.METHODS: Five thousand fifty-two persons age 50 years and older, 90.9% (5,052\\/5,555) of a randomly selected population in Shunyi County, were examined in the fall of 1996. Visual functioning and quality of life questionnaires were administered to those with presenting visual acuity

Jialiang Zhao; Ruifang Sui; Lijan Jia; Astrid E Fletcher; Leon B Ellwein

1998-01-01

212

Capitation financing of public mental health services for the chronically mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 30 years since deinstitutionalization began the public mental health system has experimented with a variety of financing and management models in the delivery of care to the chronically mentally ill. Currently, capitation methods of payment for public mental health services to the chronically mentally ill are being tested as an alternative to fee-for-service reimbursement. Proponents suggest that capitation

T. R. Hadley; A. P. Schinnar; A. B. Rothbard; M. S. Kinosian

1989-01-01

213

Comparison of three night vision intensification tube technologies on resolution acuity: results from grating and Hoffman ANV-126 tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several methodologies have been used to determine resolution acuity through Night Vision Goggles. The present study compared NVG acuity estimates derived from the Hoffman ANV-126 and a standard psychophysical grating acuity task. For the grating acuity task, observers were required to discriminate between horizontal and vertical gratings according to a method of constant stimuli. Psychometric functions were generated from the performance data, and acuity thresholds were interpolated at a performance level of 70% correct. Acuity estimates were established at three different illumination levels (0.06-5X10-4 lux) for both procedures. These estimates were then converted to an equivalent Snellen value. The data indicate that grating acuity estimates were consistently better (i.e. lower scores) than acuity measures obtained from the Hoffman ANV-126. Furthermore significant differences in estimated acuity were observed using different tube technologies. In keeping with previous acuity investigations, although the Hoffman ANV-126 provides a rapid operational assessment of tube acuity, it is suggested that more rigorous psychophysical procedures such as the grating task described here be used to assess the real behavioural resolution of tube technologies.

Macuda, Todd; Allison, Robert S.; Thomas, Paul; Truong, Long; Tang, Denis; Craig, Greg; Jennings, Sion

2005-05-01

214

Rhythms of Mental Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions to…

Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

2008-01-01

215

Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals' experience of interacting with the healthcare system has significant impact on their overall health and well-being. To relate patients' experiences to a common set of standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of health system responsiveness. This study aimed to assess if the WHO responsiveness concept reflected the non-medical expectations of mental healthcare users in Teheran. Methods In this qualitative study, four mixed focus group discussions were formed, comprising 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Content analysis was performed for data analysis. Responses were examined in relation to the eight domains of the WHO's responsiveness model. Results There were many commonalities between the findings of this study and the eight domains of the WHO responsiveness model, although some variations were found. Effective care was a new domain generated from our findings. In addition, the domain of prompt attention was included in two new labelled domains: attention and access to care. Participants could not differentiate autonomy from choice of healthcare provider, believing that free choice is part of autonomy. Therefore these domains were unified under the name of autonomy. The domains of quality of basic amenities, access to social support, dignity and confidentiality were considered to be important for the responsiveness concept. Some differences regarding how these domains should be defined were observed, however. Conclusions The results showed that the concept of responsiveness developed by the WHO is applicable to mental health services in Iran. These findings might help policy-makers' better understanding of what is useful for the improvement of mental health services. PMID:22115499

2011-01-01

216

Early Quick Acuity Score Provides More Complete Data on Emergency Department Walkouts  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many prior studies have compared the acuity of Emergency Department (ED) patients who have Left Without Being Seen (LWBS) against non-LWBS patients. A weakness in these studies is that patients may walk out prior to the assignment of a triage score, biasing comparisons. We report an operational change whereby acuity was assessed immediately upon patient arrival. We hypothesized more patients would receive acuity scores with EQAS. We also sought to compare LWBS and non-LWBS patient characteristics with reduced bias. Methods Setting: urban, academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study, electronic chart review, collecting data on all ED patients presenting between 4/1/2010 and 10/31/2011 (“Traditional Acuity Score” period, TAS) and from 11/1/2011 to 3/31/2012 (“Early Quick Acuity Score” period, EQAS). We recorded disposition (LWBS versus non-LWBS), acuity and demographics. For each subject during the EQAS period, we calculated how many prior ED visits and how many prior walkouts the subject had had during the TAS period. Results Acuity was recorded in 92,275 of 94,526 patients (97.6%) for TAS period, and 25,577 of 25,760 patients (99.3%) for EQAS period, a difference of 1.7% (1.5%, 1.8%). LWBS patients had acuity scores recorded in 5,180 of 7,040 cases (73.6%) during TAS period, compared with 897 of 1,010 cases (88.8%) during the EQAS period, a difference of 15.2% (14.8%, 15.7%). LWBS were more likely than non-LWBS to be male, were younger and had lower acuity scores. LWBS averaged 5.3 prior ED visits compared with 2.8 by non-LWBS, a difference of 2.5 (1.5, 3.5). LWBS averaged 1.3 prior ED walkouts compared with 0.2 among non-LWBS, a difference of 1.1 (0.8, 1.3). Conclusions EQAS resulted in a higher proportion of patients receiving acuity scores, particularly among LWBS. This offers more complete data when comparing LWBS and non-LWBS patient characteristics. The comparison reinforced findings from prior studies. PMID:24465699

Lovett, Paris B.; Kahn, J. Akiva; Greene, Stuart E.; Bloch, Matthew A.; Brandt, Daniel R.; Minckler, Michael R.

2014-01-01

217

Effect of Cataract Type and Severity on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the effect of cataract type and severity in eyes with pure types of age-related lens opacities on visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity in the presence and absence of glare conditions. Methods Sixty patients with senile cataracts aged 40 years or older with no other ocular pathologies were evaluated for VA and contrast sensitivity with and without glare. Lens opacities were classified according to the Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) III. VA was measured using the Snellen chart. Contrast sensitivity was measured with the Vector Vision CSV-1000E chart in the presence and absence of glare by calculating the area under log contrast sensitivity (log CS) function (AULCSF). Results Cataracts were posterior subcapsular in 26 eyes, cortical in 19 eyes and nuclear in 15 eyes. VA significantly decreased with increasing cataract severity and there was significant loss of contrast sensitivity at all spatial frequencies with increasing cataract severity. AULCSF significantly decreased with increasing cataract severity in the presence and absence of glare conditions. Contrast sensitivity was significantly reduced at high spatial frequency (18 cpd) in cortical cataracts in the presence of glare in day light and at low spatial frequency (3 cpd) in night light. Conclusion Increased cataract severity is strongly associated with a decrease in both VA and AULCSF. Contrast sensitivity scores may offer additional information over standard VA tests in patients with early age-related cataracts. PMID:22454703

Shandiz, Javad Heravian; Derakhshan, Akbar; Daneshyar, Ameneh; Azimi, Abbas; Moghaddam, Hadi Ostadi; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Yazdi, Seyed Hosein Hoseini; Esmaily, Habibollah

2011-01-01

218

Origins of Superior Dynamic Visual Acuity in Baseball Players: Superior Eye Movements or Superior Image Processing  

PubMed Central

Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions), whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions). The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina. PMID:22384033

Uchida, Yusuke; Kudoh, Daisuke; Murakami, Akira; Honda, Masaaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

2012-01-01

219

Changes in Near Visual Acuity of Over Time in the Astronaut Corps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We hypothesized that visual impairment due to intracranial pressure (VIIP) would increase the rate of which presbyopia would occur in the astronaut population, with long durations flyers at an especially high risk. Presbyopia is characterized as the gradual loss of near visual acuity overtime due to a loss in ability to accommodate. It generally develops in the mid-40s and progresses until about age 65. This analysis considered annual vision exams conducted on active NASA astronauts with spaceflight experience currently between the ages of 40 to 60 years of age. Onset of presbyopia was characterized as a shift of at least 20 units on the standard Snellen test from one annual exam to the next. There were 236 short duration and 48 long duration flyers, the majority of whom did experience onset of presbyopia between age 40 and 60. This shift however, did not necessarily come after spaceflight. In comparing the short and long duration flyers the mean age of onset was 47 years old (SD+/-3.7). The mean of onset within the general population is 45 to 47 years old [1, 2]. The mean age of the onset of presbyopia as compared to the general population indicates that space flight does not induce early development of presbyopia.

Taiym, Wafa; Wear, Mary L.; Locke, James; Mason, Sara; VanBaalen, Mary

2014-01-01

220

Perceptual acuity and production distinctness in child speech: Data from American English /r/.  

PubMed

Previous work has shown that some adult listeners have more sharply defined perceptual categories than others, and listeners who have the most precise auditory targets also tend to produce more robust contrasts (e.g., Newman, 2003; Perkell et al., 2004; Ghosh et al., 2010). While it is likely that this relationship also holds in child/adolescent speakers, the hypothesis has not been directly tested. This study compared perception and production of the English /r-w/ contrast in 20 typically developing children aged 9-14. Two 10-step rake-wake continua were synthesized using rake tokens elicited from two child speakers (8-year-old male, 10-year-old female). Items were presented 8 times each in random order in a forced-choice identification task. Participants also produced rake and wake in a carrier phrase in casual and careful speech. Perceptual sensitivity was evaluated with a logistic function fitted over the number of wake responses at each step in the continuum. Preliminary results show considerable across-participant variation in the slope of the best-fit logistic function, the location of the perceptual boundary, and the acoustic distinctness of /r-w/ in production. We expect to demonstrate a relationship between perceptual acuity and production distinctness similar to that seen in adults. [Work supported by NIH.]. PMID:25235696

McAllister Byun, Tara; Tiede, Mark

2014-04-01

221

Effect of Target Location on Dynamic Visual Acuity During Passive Horizontal Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates eye rotation to compensate for potential retinal slip in the specific plane of head movement. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been utilized as a functional measure of the VOR. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in accuracy and reaction time when performing a DVA task with targets offset from the plane of rotation, e.g. offset vertically during horizontal rotation. Visual acuity was measured in 12 healthy subjects as they moved a hand-held joystick to indicate the orientation of a computer-generated Landolt C "as quickly and accurately as possible." Acuity thresholds were established with optotypes presented centrally on a wall-mounted LCD screen at 1.3 m distance, first without motion (static condition) and then while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (DVA, peak velocity 60 deg/s). The effect of target location was then measured during horizontal rotation with the optotypes randomly presented in one of nine different locations on the screen (offset up to 10 deg). The optotype size (logMar 0, 0.2 or 0.4, corresponding to Snellen range 20/20 to 20/50) and presentation duration (150, 300 and 450 ms) were counter-balanced across five trials, each utilizing horizontal rotation at 0.8 Hz. Dynamic acuity was reduced relative to static acuity in 7 of 12 subjects by one step size. During the random target trials, both accuracy and reaction time improved proportional to optotype size. Accuracy and reaction time also improved between 150 ms and 300 ms presentation durations. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements when acquiring vertical targets. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of motion. Both reaction time and accuracy are functionally relevant DVA parameters of VOR function.

Appelbaum, Meghan; DeDios, Yiri; Kulecz, Walter; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott

2010-01-01

222

Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media News & Events Awareness ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

223

Olfactory acuity is associated with mood and function in a pilot study of stable bipolar disorder patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives Olfactory dysfunction is described in several neuropsychiatric disorders but there is little research on olfactory processing in bipolar disorder. Methods We assessed odor detection threshold (sensitivity) and smell identification test scores along with symptoms, cognition, and social function in 20 DSM-IV bipolar disorder patients and 44 control subjects. Results The patient and control groups had similar demographic measures, intelligence, and mean olfaction scores, but significantly differed in social domains, including adjustment, function, and anxiety. Odor detection sensitivity showed significantly opposite correlations for the depressive and manic mood domains in bipolar disorder (r to z = 2.83, p = 0.005). Depressive symptoms were related to increased sensitivity (the ability to detect odors at a lower concentration) and mania symptoms were related to decreased sensitivity for odor detection. Increased sensitivity for odor detection also predicted significantly better employment (r = ?0.642, p = 0.024), whereas less sensitivity was associated with social avoidance (r = 0.702, p = 0.024) and social fear (r = 0.610, p = 0.046). Conclusions Diminished odor detection sensitivity predicted mania and social avoidance, whereas more sensitive odor detection predicted more depressive symptoms but better employment functioning in bipolar disorder patients. Odor acuity may be an illness state marker of mood syndromes in bipolar disorder. Alternatively, differences in odor acuity may identify heterogeneous subgroups within the bipolar spectrum. Longitudinal assessments in a large, sex-stratified sample are needed to understand the implications of odor sensitivity in patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:22329478

Hardy, Caitlin; Rosedale, Mary; Messinger, Julie W; Kleinhaus, Karine; Aujero, Nicole; Silva, Hanna; Goetz, Raymond R; Goetz, Deborah; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Malaspina, Dolores

2012-01-01

224

Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?  

PubMed Central

Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

2014-01-01

225

Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

2011-01-01

226

Expectation and Entropy in Spoken Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Hearing Acuity  

PubMed Central

Background/Study Context Older adults, especially those with reduced hearing acuity, can make good use of linguistic context in word recognition. Less is known about the effects of the weighted distribution of probable target and non-target words that fit the sentence context (response entropy). The present study examined the effects of age, hearing acuity, linguistic context, and response entropy on spoken word recognition. Methods Participants were 18 older adults with good hearing acuity (M age = 74.3 years), 18 older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (M age = 76.1 years) and 18 young adults with age-normal hearing (M age = 19.6 years). Participants heard sentence-final words using a word-onset gating paradigm, in which words were heard with increasing amounts of onset information until they could be correctly identified. Degrees of context varied from a neutral context to a high context condition. Results Older adults with poor hearing acuity required a greater amount of word onset information for recognition of words when heard in a neutral context compared to older adults with good hearing acuity and young adults. This difference progressively decreased with an increase in words’ contextual probability. Unlike the young adults, both older adult groups’ word recognition thresholds were sensitive to response entropy. Response entropy was not affected by hearing acuity. Conclusions Increasing linguistic context mitigates the negative effect of age and hearing loss on word recognition. The effect of response entropy on older adults’ word recognition is discussed in terms of an age-related inhibition deficit. PMID:23607396

Lash, Amanda; Rogers, Chad S.; Zoller, Amy; Wingfield, Arthur

2013-01-01

227

Tactile acuity training for patients with chronic low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain can disrupt the cortical representation of a painful body part. This disruption may play a role in maintaining the individual’s pain. Tactile acuity training has been used to normalise cortical representation and reduce pain in certain pain conditions. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of this intervention for chronic low back pain (CLBP). The primary aim of this study was to inform the development of a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) by providing preliminary data on the effect of tactile acuity training on pain and function in individuals with CLBP. The secondary aim was to obtain qualitative feedback about the intervention. Methods In this mixed-methods pilot RCT 15 individuals were randomised to either an intervention (tactile acuity training) or a placebo group (sham tactile acuity training). All participants received 3 sessions of acuity training (intervention or sham) from a physiotherapist and were requested to undertake daily acuity home training facilitated by an informal carer (friend/relative). All participants also received usual care physiotherapy. The primary outcome measures were pain (0-100visual analogue scale (VAS)) and function (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ)). Participants and their informal carers were invited to a focus group to provide feedback on the intervention. Results The placebo group improved by the greatest magnitude for both outcome measures, but there was no statistically significant difference (Mean difference (95%CI), p-value) between groups for change in pain (25.6 (-0.7 to 51.9), p?=?0.056) or function (2.2 (-1.6 to 6.0), p?=?0.237). Comparing the number of individuals achieving a minimally clinically significant improvement, the placebo group had better outcomes for pain with all participants achieving ?30% improvement compared to only a third of the intervention group (6/6 vs. 3/9, p?=?0.036). Qualitatively, participants reported that needing an informal carer was a considerable barrier to the home training component of the study. Conclusions This pilot RCT found tactile acuity training to be no more effective than sham tactile acuity training for function and less effective for pain in individuals with CLBP. That the intervention could not be self-applied was a considerable barrier to its use. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN98118082 PMID:24571855

2014-01-01

228

Florida Mental Health Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida Mental Health Institute, dedicated to research, training and program development for improving psychological wellbeing, has four main divisions: Aging and Mental Health, Child and Family Studies, Community Mental Health, and Mental Health Law and Policy.

2007-03-16

229

Child Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your ... often Repeated thoughts of death To diagnose mental health problems, the doctor or mental health specialist looks ...

230

Women and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... About Us Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and ... olearyk@mail.nih.gov Share Science News About Women's Mental Health Bundling HIV Prevention with Prenatal Care ...

231

Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

232

Macular pigment and visual acuity in Stargardt macular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To test the hypothesis that macular pigment reflects foveal cone function and possibly the presence of foveal cones in recessive Stargardt macular dystrophy. Methods. Sixteen patients (32 eyes) diagnosed to have Stargardt macular dystrophy by clinical criteria were studied with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) comparing argon laser blue (488 nm), green (514), helium-neon laser red (633 nm) and

Xinyuan Zhang; János Hargitai; Jaana Tammur; Amy Hutchinson; Rando Allikmets; Stanley Chang; Peter Gouras

2002-01-01

233

Impacting patient outcomes through design: acuity adaptable care/universal room design.  

PubMed

To succeed in today's challenging healthcare environment, hospitals must examine their impact on customers--patients and families--staff and physicians. By using competitive facility design and incorporating evidence-based concepts such as the acuity adaptable care delivery model and the universal room, the hospital will realize an impact on patient satisfaction that will enhance market share, on physician satisfaction that will foster loyalty, and on staff satisfaction that will decrease turnover. At the same time, clinical outcomes such as a reduction in mortality and complications and efficiencies such as a reduction in length of stay and minimization of hospital costs through the elimination of transfers can be gained. The results achieved are dependent on the principles used in designing the patient room that should focus on maximizing patient safety and improving healing. This article will review key design elements that support the success of an acuity adaptable unit such as the use of a private room with zones dedicated to patients, families, and staff, healing environment, technology, and decentralized nursing stations that support the success of the acuity adaptable unit. Outcomes of institutions currently utilizing the acuity adaptable concept will be reviewed. PMID:17063100

Brown, Katherine Kay; Gallant, Dennis

2006-01-01

234

Relationship of Visual Cortex Function and Visual Acuity in Anisometropic Amblyopic Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To detect the functional deficit of the visual cortex in anisometropic amblyopia children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique, and investigate the relationship between visual acuity and visual cortex function. Methods: Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI (BOLD-fMRI) was performed in ten monocular anisometropic amblyopia children and ten normal controls. fMRI images were acquired in two runs with visual stimulation delivered separately through the sound and amblyopic eyes. Measurements were performed in cortical activation of striate and extrastriate areas at the occipital lobe. The relationship between cortex function and visual acuity was analyzed by Pearson partial analysis. Results: The activation areas of both the striate and extrastriate cortices in the amblyopic eyes were significantly lower than that of the sound fellow eyes. No relationship was found between the striate and extrastriate cortex activation. No relationship was found between the visual cortical activation of striate, extrastriate areas and visual acuity of anisometropic amblyopes. Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI revealed the independent striate and extrastriate cortical deficits in anisometropic amblyopes. In addition, the visual acuity lesion and the striate and extrastriate cortical deficits were not parallel, and results of fMRI examination have much potential value in the evaluation of amblyopia. PMID:22211099

Li, Chuanming; Cheng, Lin; Yu, Qiongwu; Xie, Bing; Wang, Jian

2012-01-01

235

Older adults, diabetes mellitus and visual acuity: a community-based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main objectives: to screen for impaired distance visual acuity in older adults living at home, both with and without diabetes mellitus to determine whether diabetes increases the likelihood of visual impairment and to identify associated factors. Design: case-control study. Settings: three districts of Wales: North Clwyd, Powys and South Glamorgan, with assessments in subjects' homes. Subjects: 385 with diabetes mellitus

ALAN J. SINCLAIR; ANTONY J. BAYER; A LAN J. GIRLING; K EN W. WOODHOUSE

236

Relationships between measures of muscular performance, proprioceptive acuity, and aging in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: OA is a multifactorial condition, which predisposes elderly individuals to disabilities. Therefore, aging, especially in women, is considered to be a risk factor for the development and progression of this disease. The aging process and the presence of degenerative diseases lead to losses of strength and proprioceptive acuity. However, studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationships between these

Jennifer Granja Peixoto; João Marcos Domingues Dias; Rosângela Corrêa Dias; Sérgio Teixeira da Fonseca; Luci Fuscaldi Teixeira-Salmela

2011-01-01

237

Short-Term Visual Deprivation, Tactile Acuity, and Haptic Solid Shape Discrimination  

PubMed Central

Previous psychophysical studies have reported conflicting results concerning the effects of short-term visual deprivation upon tactile acuity. Some studies have found that 45 to 90 minutes of total light deprivation produce significant improvements in participants' tactile acuity as measured with a grating orientation discrimination task. In contrast, a single 2011 study found no such improvement while attempting to replicate these earlier findings. A primary goal of the current experiment was to resolve this discrepancy in the literature by evaluating the effects of a 90-minute period of total light deprivation upon tactile grating orientation discrimination. We also evaluated the potential effect of short-term deprivation upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination using a set of naturally-shaped solid objects. According to previous research, short-term deprivation enhances performance in a tactile 2-D shape discrimination task – perhaps a similar improvement also occurs for haptic 3-D shape discrimination. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that not only does short-term visual deprivation not enhance tactile acuity, it additionally has no effect upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination. While visual deprivation had no effect in our study, there was a significant effect of experience and learning for the grating orientation task – the participants' tactile acuity improved over time, independent of whether they had, or had not, experienced visual deprivation. PMID:25397327

Crabtree, Charles E.; Norman, J. Farley

2014-01-01

238

Visual acuity screening versus noncycloplegic autorefraction screening for astigmatism in Native American preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Visual acuity screening (VAS) is less reliable in preschoolers than in school-aged children as a means of detecting significant refractive error. We wished to compare the effectiveness of VAS with the effectiveness of an objective method, noncycloplegic autorefraction screening (NCARS), in detecting the presence of significant astigmatism warranting spectacle correction. Methods: We examined 245 Native American Head Start registrants

Joseph M. Miller; Erin M. Harvey; Velma Dobson

1999-01-01

239

The need for cataract surgery: projections based on lens opacity, visual acuity, and personal concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo assess the projected needs for cataract surgery by lens opacity, visual acuity, and patient concern.METHODSData were collected as part of the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project, a population based study of age related eye disease in a representative sample of Melbourne residents aged 40 and over. Participants were recruited by a household census and invited to attend a local screening

Cathy A McCarty; Jill E Keeffe; Hugh R Taylor

1999-01-01

240

Comparison of Three Night Vision Intensification Tube Technologies on Resolution Acuity: Results from Grating and Hoffman ANV-126  

E-print Network

Comparison of Three Night Vision Intensification Tube Technologies on Resolution Acuity: Results through Night Vision Goggles.1, 2, 3 The present study compared NVG acuity estimates derived from here be used to assess the real behavioural resolution of tube technologies. Keywords: night vision

Allison, Robert

241

Visual acuity and acute angle-closure glaucoma in Split-Dalmatia County.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute angle-closure glaucoma in Split-Dalmatia County and correlation between visual acuity and time (days) elapsed from the disease onset to hospital admission. Twenty-nine cases were retrospectively analyzed. There were 19 female patients aged 36-91 (median age 68) years and 10 male patients aged 35-88 (median age 70) years, with attacks of acute closure glaucoma treated at University Department of Ophthalmology, Split University Hospital Center from January 2002 until December 2005. Annual incidence was 1.6 cases per 100,000. The time elapsed from the disease onset to hospital admission was 1-21 (median 2) days. Visual acuity before and after treatment was reversely proportional to the number of days to hospital admission (d = -0.466; p = 0.011). Visual acuity was found to depend on age as well (z = 1.999; p = 0.044). The best visual acuity was obtained in those cases that were admitted within two days (z = 2.014; p = 0.044). There was no significant sex difference in the incidence of angle-closure glaucoma (t = 0.389; p = 0.699). No statistically significant association was found between acute angle-closure glaucoma and seasonal variation (chi2 = 5; p = 0.167). In conclusion, earlier recognition of the symptoms of acute angle-closure glaucoma and initiation of treatment within two days of the disease onset were associated with better visual acuity. PMID:19175061

Kljaji?, Zlatko; Boji?, Lovro

2008-09-01

242

The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.  

PubMed

To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity. PMID:24528223

Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

2014-01-01

243

Diagnosing Students' Mental Models via the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental models play an important role in science education research. To extend the effectiveness of conceptual change research and to improve mental model identi?cation and diagnosis, the authors developed and tested the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis (WMMD) system. In this article, they describe their WMMD system, which goes beyond the…

Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Lin, Jing-Wen; Chou, Chin-Cheng

2013-01-01

244

Mental Imagery and Creative Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between imagery and creative thinking were evaluated in a sample of 560 high school students. The Spatial Test of Primary Mental Abilities (Thurstone & Thurstone, 1989) was used to evaluate imaging ability; the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control (Richardson, 1969) was used to evaluate image control; and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Torrance & Ball, 1992) was

Marí Angeles González; Alfredo Campos; María José Pérez

1997-01-01

245

The use of wide-scale mental agility testing to identify people at risk of dementia: crucial or harmful?  

PubMed

The prevalence of dementia in the UK is rising rapidly and is predicted to double over the next 30 years. The NHS in England has been told to push for a rapid rise in dementia diagnosis rates, so that by 2015, two out of three cases are identified. The Prime Minister has raised the 'dementia challenge' as a priority for the NHS. While there is agreement on the need for action, debate arises over the nature of that intervention. Some, including Professor Alessi, argue that tools exist to support the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and they should be used because the disease is amenable to interventions. He believes that we need a shift in knowledge and attitude from thresholds to a continuum of cognitive impairment, from late to early stages and from effects to causes. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa) should become part of the routine NHS Health Check after people reach age 40. Dr Fox argues on the other hand that widespread testing could lead to unnecessary anxiety and panic among those at risk and that funding should be focused on learning more about the early stages of dementia. While the concept of early testing is appealing, there is a large knowledge gap; instruments in use have not been tested in pre-dementia patients and have limited validity. While there is debate over the approach, we can agree that the economic and social impacts of this condition need to be addressed sooner rather than later. PMID:24995445

Fox, C; Alessi, C; Ahluwalia, S; Hachinski, V

2014-01-01

246

Binocular visual acuity for the correction of spherical aberration in polychromatic and monochromatic light.  

PubMed

Correction of spherical (SA) and longitudinal chromatic aberrations (LCA) significantly improves monocular visual acuity (VA). In this work, the visual effect of SA correction in polychromatic and monochromatic light on binocular visual performance is investigated. A liquid crystal based binocular adaptive optics visual analyzer capable of operating in polychromatic light is employed in this study. Binocular VA improves when SA is corrected and LCA effects are reduced separately and in combination, resulting in the highest value for SA correction in monochromatic light. However, the binocular summation ratio is highest for the baseline condition of uncorrected SA in polychromatic light. Although SA correction in monochromatic light has a greater impact monocularly than binocularly, bilateral correction of both SA and LCA may further improve binocular spatial visual acuity which may support the use of aspheric-achromatic ophthalmic devices, in particular, intraocular lenses (IOLs). PMID:24520150

Schwarz, Christina; Cánovas, Carmen; Manzanera, Silvestre; Weeber, Henk; Prieto, Pedro M; Piers, Patricia; Artal, Pablo

2014-01-01

247

Changes in smell acuity induced by radiation exposure of the olfactory mucosa  

SciTech Connect

The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two odorants (amyl acetate and eugenol) were determined before the start of radiation therapy, within a week of termination of therapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. The results show clearly that smell acuity is profoundly affected by therapeutic irradiation. Thresholds had increased in all 12 patients by the end of treatment and were still high one month later. Varying degrees of recovery were noted in most patients three to six months after cessation of treatment. The fate of the sense of smell deserves more attention when considering the disability caused by irradiation to certain head and neck tumors.

Ophir, D.; Guterman, A.; Gross-Isseroff, R.

1988-08-01

248

A close eye on the eagle-eyed visual acuity hypothesis of autism.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP). Participants with ASD did not show higher VA than those with SCH and TYP. There were no substantial correlations of VA with clinical severity in ASD or SCH. This study could not confirm the eagle-eyed acuity hypothesis of ASD, or find evidence for a connection of VA and clinical phenotypes. Research needs to further address the origins and circumstances associated with altered sensory or perceptual processing in ASD. PMID:21660498

Bölte, Sven; Schlitt, Sabine; Gapp, Volker; Hainz, Daniela; Schirman, Shella; Poustka, Fritz; Weber, Bernhard; Freitag, Christine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik

2012-05-01

249

Temporal order and processing acuity of visual, auditory, and tactile perception in developmentally dyslexic young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the temporal acuity of 16 developmentally dyslexic young adults in three perceptual modalities. The control group\\u000a consisted of 16 age- and IQ-matched normal readers. Two methods were used. In the temporal order judgment (TOJ) method, the\\u000a stimuli were spatially separate fingertip indentations in the tactile system, tone bursts of different pitches in audition,\\u000a and light flashes in vision.

Marja Laasonen; Elisabet Service; Vei Jo Virsu

2001-01-01

250

Visual acuity versus field of view and light level for night vision goggles (NVGs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual acuity (resolution) and field of view are two significant parameters used to characterize night vision goggles (NVGs). It is well established that these two parameters are coupled together in an inverse relationship: an increase in field of view results in a reduction in visual acuity and vice versa. An experiment was conducted to determine how visual acuity through NVGs changes as a function of NVG field of view and ambient scene illumination level. A total of three trained observers were used for this study who ranged in age from 33 to 42 years of age. The NVGs used in the study had fields of view of 40, 47, and 52 degrees, respectively. Five levels of ambient scene illumination (corresponding to NVG output luminance levels of 0.01, 0.03, 0.08, 0.26, and 1.9 fL) were provided by a 2856k light source which ranged from overcast starlight to quarter moon. The targets used in the study were approximately 95+% contrast square wave targets ranging in size from 45 cycles/degree to 5 cycles per degree. The method of adjustment was employed by having the trained observer start at a distance of 30 feet and determine the highest spatial frequency target which was clearly discernable. The subject was then directed to walk back slowly from the target until it was just out of focus, and then walk forward until the target was barely discernable. The distance from the target was recorded and used to calculate the angular spatial frequency (and equivalent Snellen acuity). The results indicate that the simple geometric model of the inverse relationship between resolution and field of view is adequate for characterizing this design trade-off for the quality of image intensifier tubes currently available.

Donohue-Perry, Mary M.; Task, H. Lee; Dixon, Sharon A.

1994-06-01

251

Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suffer not only from impairment in central visual acuity (VA), but also from reduction in contrast sensitivity (CS). We examined VA and CS changes over time in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularizations (CNV) as well as the correlation between the two parameters.MethodsVA was determined according to a standardized protocol with the Early Treatment

Caren Bellmann; Kristina Unnebrink; Gary S. Rubin; Daniel Miller; Frank G. Holz

2003-01-01

252

Transthyretin levels in the vitreous correlate with change in visual acuity after vitrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aim:Little is known about biochemical markers related to change in visual acuity after vitrectomy. The potential use of transthyretin (TTR), a carrier of the retinol\\/retinol-binding protein, as a biochemical marker protein, was investigated.Methods:TTR was measured using immunonephelometry in a group of patients (n = 77) in longstanding (>1 week) retinal detachment (n = 29), fresh (<1 week) retinal detachment (n

E Van Aken; E A De Letter; M Veckeneer; L Derycke; T van Enschot; I Geers; S Delanghe; J R Delanghe

2009-01-01

253

THE RELATION BETWEEN FOVEAL VISUAL ACUITY AND ILLUMINATION UNDER REDUCED OXYGEN TENSION  

PubMed Central

1. The foveal visual acuity of eleven subjects was studied in relation to illumination under normal atmospheric conditions and at simulated altitudes of 10,000 feet (14.3 per cent O2) and 18,000 feet (10.3 per cent O2). A mask was used to administer the desired mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen. At the end of each experiment, measurements were made while inhaling 100 per cent oxygen from a cylinder. A red filter (No. 70 Wratten) was used so as to study only the behavior of the cones of the retina. 2. The logarithm of illumination was plotted horizontally (abscissa) and the logarithm of visual acuity vertically (ordinate). The reduced oxygen tensions resulted in a shift of the curve to the right, along the intensity axis, the extent of the change being 0.24 of a log unit at 14.3 per cent O2 and 0.47 of a log unit at 10.3 per cent O2. These effects were completely counteracted within a few minutes by inhaling oxygen. 3. As a consequence of the shape of the curve, such a shift to the right resulted in a relatively large decrease of visual acuity at low illuminations. At increasing light intensities anoxia produced less and less change, until at very high illuminations the decrease was negligible. Thus with 10.34 per cent O2 the visual acuity at 0.144 photons decreased an average of 0.344 of a log unit, to 45 per cent of its normal value. At 1320 photons, however, it decreased only 0.026 of a log unit, to 94 per cent of its normal value for that intensity. PMID:19873178

McFarland, R. A.; Halperin, M. H.

1940-01-01

254

Auditory spatial acuity approximates the resolving power of space-specific neurons.  

PubMed

The relationship between neuronal acuity and behavioral performance was assessed in the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal raptor renowned for its ability to localize sounds and for the topographic representation of auditory space found in the midbrain. We measured discrimination of sound-source separation using a newly developed procedure involving the habituation and recovery of the pupillary dilation response. The smallest discriminable change of source location was found to be about two times finer in azimuth than in elevation. Recordings from neurons in its midbrain space map revealed that their spatial tuning, like the spatial discrimination behavior, was also better in azimuth than in elevation by a factor of about two. Because the PDR behavioral assay is mediated by the same circuitry whether discrimination is assessed in azimuth or in elevation, this difference in vertical and horizontal acuity is likely to reflect a true difference in sensory resolution, without additional confounding effects of differences in motor performance in the two dimensions. Our results, therefore, are consistent with the hypothesis that the acuity of the midbrain space map determines auditory spatial discrimination. PMID:17668055

Bala, Avinash D S; Spitzer, Matthew W; Takahashi, Terry T

2007-01-01

255

Population-based visual acuity in the presence of defocus well predicted by classical theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to classical theory, visual acuity (VA) can be modeled using the intersection of the eye's modulation transfer function with a retinal threshold function. To date, there have been limited attempts to validate this methodology by comparing theory with actual measured data. We use the methodology to predict the visual acuity in the presence of defocus of a population of cataract patients implanted with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. For the prediction, we used a set of physiological eye models that include chromatic and higher order aberrations. We found that the simulations correlated strongly to the clinical outcomes (R2=0.93). While the simulated VA of the eye models was systematically 0.05 logMAR units lower (better acuity) than the clinical results, this difference was independent of defocus (p=0.98). These results show that when the simple and straightforward classical theory is applied using physiological eye models, accurate predictions of the VA, and through-focus VA of a population can be made. This method may be suited for predicting visual performance of new cataract and refractive treatments.

Weeber, Henk A.; Featherstone, Kristen A.; Piers, Patricia A.

2010-07-01

256

Population-based visual acuity in the presence of defocus well predicted by classical theory.  

PubMed

According to classical theory, visual acuity (VA) can be modeled using the intersection of the eye's modulation transfer function with a retinal threshold function. To date, there have been limited attempts to validate this methodology by comparing theory with actual measured data. We use the methodology to predict the visual acuity in the presence of defocus of a population of cataract patients implanted with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. For the prediction, we used a set of physiological eye models that include chromatic and higher order aberrations. We found that the simulations correlated strongly to the clinical outcomes (R(2)=0.93). While the simulated VA of the eye models was systematically 0.05 logMAR units lower (better acuity) than the clinical results, this difference was independent of defocus (p=0.98). These results show that when the simple and straightforward classical theory is applied using physiological eye models, accurate predictions of the VA, and through-focus VA of a population can be made. This method may be suited for predicting visual performance of new cataract and refractive treatments. PMID:20799776

Weeber, Henk A; Featherstone, Kristen A; Piers, Patricia A

2010-01-01

257

Habitual plate-waste of 6- to 9-year-olds may not be associated with lower nutritional needs or taste acuity, but undesirable dietary factors.  

PubMed

Efforts to reduce plate-waste (PW) are limited to those by a dietitian who serves the entire school rather than a better characterization of individuals who are served. We tested the hypothesis that children reporting habitual PW would have different physical or dietary characteristics compared with children without PW. Participants were 407 children aged 6 to 9 years in elementary schools in Kyeonggi, Korea. Information on eating behavior and food preference was collected using a questionnaire administered by parents. Among them, 91 students participated further in anthropometry, step counting, taste acuity tests, and nutrition intake from school lunches. Participants were divided into tertiles according to total frequency of leaving PW from each meal on a typical day: no PW, moderate PW, and habitual PW. Children with habitual PW showed several undesirable characteristics: consuming less of various vegetables, eating only what they like, poor table manners, and frequent consumption of street foods and cookies/beverages/fast foods. Whereas height, weight, and obesity index as well as taste acuity and daily steps in the habitual PW group were not significantly different, intakes of potassium, niacin, and folate were significantly lower compared with the other groups. Therefore, habitual PW did not seem to result from having a lower energy requirement or different taste acuity, or result in observed slowed growth, but it could place children at a risk for insufficient nutritional intake, consequently impairing growth and general health. The results emphasize the parental role in shaping children's diet and provide information for developing strategies to reduce PW of individual children. PMID:19963155

Baik, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Hongmie

2009-12-01

258

Mental Labels and Tattoos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

Hyatt, I. Ralph

1977-01-01

259

Teen Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

260

Mental health nursing and stress: maintaining balance.  

PubMed

The recruitment and retention of mental health nurses within acute inpatient mental health facilities continues to be an ongoing issue. Literature and current research highlight an environment fraught with pressure and stress, identifying several key factors contributing to job dissatisfaction. These factors include greater patient acuity, unpredictable and challenging workspaces, violence, increased paperwork, and reduced managerial support. This qualitative, critical, feminist exploration investigated the lived experiences of 13 female mental health nurses working in inpatient services. They were asked about their practice and perceptions of workplace culture, and they shared their thoughts on stress management and professional well-being. Positive workplace practice was highlighted, and the participants revealed an environment they were proud to be a part of. Individual interviews, focus groups, and reflective practice were all used to collect data. The findings from the investigation unanimously support current literature that clearly confirms mental health nursing to be stressful. Interestingly, however, the findings also clearly identified that the way in which the nurse participants managed their stress was intrinsically linked to their job satisfaction. The major theme identified throughout the present study revealed that the female participants' ability to manage an at times complex workspace through the notions of teamwork, diversity, and creativity. All of the participants considered these elements as significant to providing a high standard in patient care. This research might provide an opportunity for others to view mental health nursing from a different perspective, and through the lived experiences of the participants, embrace the positive and rewarding aspects of the role. PMID:21371222

Ward, Louise

2011-04-01

261

Bethany Smith, FULD Fellow Cohort II The Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28) is an acuity scoring tool  

E-print Network

) is an acuity scoring tool used in the Neuroscience Critical Care Unit (NCCU) at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Under a nurse manager. I plan to utilize my professional nursing experience with my leadership skills to make

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

262

Defining mental health and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key featuresDiscussion of the terminological confusion that exists in relation to issues associated with mental health.  The scale of individual suffering from mental health problems and illness among young people.  The worldwide phenomenon of the stigmatization of mental illness, originating during childhood.

Sharon Leighton; Nisha Dogra

263

A catalase promoter variant rs1001179 is associated with visual acuity but not with primary angle closure glaucoma in Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Background To Investigate whether the g.4760C>T polymorphism in the promoter region of the catalase gene (CAT) is a risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in the Saudi population. Methods 138 unrelated PACG patients and 403 unrelated control subjects from Saudi Arabia were genotyped for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1001179; g.4760C>T) utilizing Taq-Man® assay. The association between different genotypes and various clinical indices important for PACG was also investigated. Results The distribution of different genotypes was comparable between both study groups. The genotype “C/C” was predominant among cafses; 94 (68.1%) and controls; 289 (71.7%). Heterozygous genotype “C/T”, was present in 41 (29.7%) of cases and 103 (25.6%) of controls, where the homozygous variant genotype was present in only 3 (2.2%) of cases and 11 (2.7%) of the controls. The distribution of variant allele was similar in both study groups (p= 0.568). Interestingly, there was a trend of association between the type of the variant (homozygous variant, heterozygous and wildtype genotype) and one important parameter for PACG, which is visual acuity. The visual acuity increase was; 0.62 (±0.74), 0.88 (±0.88) and 1.27 (±0.95) in patients carrying the “C/C”, “C/T” and “T/T” genotypes respectively, which was statistically significant in both ANOVA and pairwise individual T tests (p = 0.022, 0.031 and 0.039) when compared to controls. Conclusions This variant is possibly associated with visual acuity in PACG patients and thus had the potential to be used as a parameter for assessing PACG severity. PMID:23961996

2013-01-01

264

Correlation Between the Findings of Optical Coherent Retinal Tomography (OCT), Stereo Biomicroscopic Images from Fundus of an Eye and Values from Visual Acuity of Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Diabetic maculopathy is the major cause of reduced visual acuity in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and occurs on average in 29% of patients who have diabetes for 20 or more years. Aim: The aim of this study is to re examine the correlation between the findings of optical coherence retinal tomography, stereo bio-microscopic images from fundus of an eye and values from visual acuity of diabetic macular edema. In addition, the aim is to show the importance of various ophthalmic tests for establishing diagnosis in time. Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 90 subjects-patients from Cabinet for photographic documentation, fluorescein angiography and laser photocoagulation in Department of Ophthalmology at the University Clinical Centre in Sarajevo. The study was a one-year long, prospective, clinical study. Results: Research has shown a positive correlation between the various tests that are applied for the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema. Accurate and early diagnosis is of great importance for the treatment in time of this disease by applying laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injections of Anti-VEGF drugs or surgical treatment by Pars Plana Vitrectomy. PMID:25395723

Nisic, Faruk; Turkovic, Samir; Mavija, Milka; Jovanovic, Nina; Alimanovic, Emina Halilovic-

2014-01-01

265

Prognostic value of mental stress testing in coronary artery disease ? ? The opinions and assertions expressed herein are those of the authors and are not to be construed as reflecting the views of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, or the US Department of Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the prognostic value of mental stress-induced ischemic left ventricular wall motion abnormalities and hemodynamic responses in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Seventy-nine patients (76 men and 3 women) with prior positive exercise test results were exposed to mental arithmetic and a simulated public speech stress in 2 prior studies. Ischemic wall motion abnormalities were monitored

David S Krantz; Helen T Santiago; Willem J Kop; C. Noel Bairey Merz; Alan Rozanski; John S Gottdiener

1999-01-01

266

Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

2012-01-01

267

PERSPECTIVE: Is acuity enough? Other considerations in clinical investigations of visual prostheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual impairing eye diseases are the major frontier facing ophthalmic research today in light of our rapidly aging population. The visual skills necessary for improving the quality of daily function and life are inextricably linked to these impairing diseases. Both research and reimbursement programs are emphasizing outcome-based results. Is improvement in visual acuity alone enough to improve the function and quality of life of visually impaired persons? This perspective summarizes the types of effectiveness endpoints for clinical investigations of visual prostheses that go beyond visual acuity. The clinical investigation of visual prostheses should include visual function, functional vision and quality of life measures. Specifically, they encompass contrast sensitivity, orientation and mobility, activities of daily living and quality of life assessments. The perspective focuses on the design of clinical trials for visual prostheses and the methods of determining effectiveness above and beyond visual acuity that will yield outcomes that are measured by improved function in the visual world and quality of life. The visually impaired population is the primary consideration in this presentation with particular emphases on retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Clinical trials for visual prostheses cannot be isolated from the need for medical rehabilitation in order to obtain measurements of effectiveness that produce outcomes/evidence-based success. This approach will facilitate improvement in daily function and quality of life of patients with diseases that cause chronic vision impairment. The views and opinions are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the US Food and Drug Administration, the US Department of Health and Human Services or the Public Health Service.

Lepri, Bernard P.

2009-06-01

268

Seeing Steps and Ramps with Simulated Low Acuity: Impact of Texture and Locomotion  

PubMed Central

Purpose Detecting and recognizing steps and ramps is an important component of the visual accessibility of public spaces for people with impaired vision. The present study, which is part of a larger program of research on visual accessibility, investigated the impact of two factors that may facilitate the recognition of steps and ramps during low-acuity viewing. Visual texture on the ground plane is an environmental factor that improves judgments of surface distance and slant. Locomotion (walking) is common during observations of a layout, and may generate visual motion cues that enhance the recognition of steps and ramps. Methods In two experiments, normally sighted subjects viewed the targets monocularly through blur goggles that reduced acuity to either approx. 20/150 Snellen (mild blur) or 20/880 (severe blur). The subjects judged whether a step, ramp or neither was present ahead on a sidewalk. In the texture experiment, subjects viewed steps and ramps on a surface with a coarse black-and-white checkerboard pattern. In the locomotion experiment, subjects walked along the sidewalk toward the target before making judgments. Results Surprisingly, performance was lower with the textured surface than with a uniform surface, perhaps because the texture masked visual cues necessary for target recognition. Subjects performed better in walking trials than in stationary trials, possibly because they were able to take advantage of visual cues that were only present during motion. Conclusions We conclude that under conditions of simulated low acuity, large, high-contrast texture elements can hinder the recognition of steps and ramps while locomotion enhances recognition. PMID:22863792

Bochsler, Tiana M.; Legge, Gordon E.; Kallie, Christopher S.; Gage, Rachel

2012-01-01

269

[Mental health problems].  

PubMed

This paper describes current issues in occupational mental health, occupational mental health activities currently underway, and priorities to improve the situation in Japan. A new tool to support these activities is then discussed. The incidence of employee mental health problems is rising, despite efforts to promote occupational mental health activities. The adoption of such activities is lagging behind in medium and small-sized enterprises. Priorities to improve occupational mental health include motivating business operators to address mental health issues, focusing more on prevention, and promoting mental health initiatives in medium and small-sized enterprises. Mental-Rosai, a web-based mental health check system, is a useful tool for the prevention of mental health problems and can provide support for medium and small-sized enterprises. PMID:24605529

Momotani, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Haruyoshi

2014-02-01

270

Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

Sarah Peters

2010-01-01

271

Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay  

PubMed Central

Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes.

Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M.; Fernandez, Enrique J.; Artal, Pablo

2014-01-01

272

Simulation of thalamic prosthetic vision: reading accuracy, speed, and acuity in sighted humans  

PubMed Central

The psychophysics of reading with artificial sight has received increasing attention as visual prostheses are becoming a real possibility to restore useful function to the blind through the coarse, pseudo-pixelized vision they generate. Studies to date have focused on simulating retinal and cortical prostheses; here we extend that work to report on thalamic designs. This study examined the reading performance of normally sighted human subjects using a simulation of three thalamic visual prostheses that varied in phosphene count, to help understand the level of functional ability afforded by thalamic designs in a task of daily living. Reading accuracy, reading speed, and reading acuity of 20 subjects were measured as a function of letter size, using a task based on the MNREAD chart. Results showed that fluid reading was feasible with appropriate combinations of letter size and phosphene count, and performance degraded smoothly as font size was decreased, with an approximate doubling of phosphene count resulting in an increase of 0.2 logMAR in acuity. Results here were consistent with previous results from our laboratory. Results were also consistent with those from the literature, despite using naive subjects who were not trained on the simulator, in contrast to other reports. PMID:25408641

Vurro, Milena; Crowell, Anne Marie; Pezaris, John S.

2014-01-01

273

Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay.  

PubMed

Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes. PMID:25360355

Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Fernández, Enrique J; Artal, Pablo

2014-10-01

274

Magnitude Representations in Williams Syndrome: Differential Acuity in Time, Space and Number Processing  

PubMed Central

For some authors, the human sensitivity to numerosities would be grounded in our ability to process non-numerical magnitudes. In the present study, the developmental relationships between non numerical and numerical magnitude processing are examined in people with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder known to associate visuo-spatial and math learning disabilities. Twenty patients with WS and 40 typically developing children matched on verbal or non-verbal abilities were administered three comparison tasks in which they had to compare numerosities, lengths or durations. Participants with WS showed lower acuity (manifested by a higher Weber fraction) than their verbal matched peers when processing numerical and spatial but not temporal magnitudes, indicating that they do not present a domain-general dysfunction of all magnitude processing. Conversely, they do not differ from non-verbal matched participants in any of the three tasks. Finally, correlational analyses revealed that non-numerical and numerical acuity indexes were both related to the first mathematical acquisitions but not with later arithmetical skills. PMID:24013906

Rousselle, Laurence; Dembour, Guy; Noel, Marie-Pascale

2013-01-01

275

Teaching the Educable Mentally Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text discusses the behavior, evaluation, and education of mentally retarded children. Harold D. Love presents an overview of the retarded, a description of intelligence and personality tests, and a historical survey of retardation; Virginia Cantrell reviews the educational philosophies and methods of Itard, Seguin, and Montessori. Shirley K.…

Love, Harold D.

276

Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

Palmer, Glen A.

2006-01-01

277

Measuring Shared Team Mental Models: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although shared team mental models are believed to be important to team functioning, substantial interstudy differences in the manner in which mental models are operationalized has impeded progress in this area. We use meta-analysis to cumulate 23 independent studies that have empirically examined shared mental models (SMMs) in relation to team process and performance and test three aspects of measurement

Leslie A. DeChurch; Jessica R. Mesmer-Magnus

2010-01-01

278

Experiences of the transplant nurses caring for renal transplant patients in an acuity-adaptable patient room.  

PubMed

This article describes transplant nurses' experiences in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room using Husserl's descriptive phenomenology. The setting was a twice-redesignated magnet urban tertiary center in the Southwest United States with 14 acuity-adaptable patient rooms. Audiotaped interviews were analyzed using Colaizzi's method and a purposive sample of 10 transplant nurses. Three theme clusters emerged that described the essence of the transplant nurses' experiences in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room: Patient and family comfort: "...I think their anxiety of just not knowing what's going on-that need is being met." Nurse empowerment: "...Her urine output was going down to the 40s and so I had to call the surgeon recommending that we maybe change the normal saline to half normal for replacement." Acuity-adaptable patient room future potential: "I wish that all patients had this kind of access." The nurses felt empowered in caring for renal transplant patients in the acuity-adaptable patient room thereby creating a healing environment for the patient and the family. PMID:23470705

Bonuel, Nena; Cesario, Sandra K

2013-01-01

279

Mental health care in the community: An analysis of contemporary public attitudes towards, and public representations of, mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public tolerance of, and non-discrimination towards, people with mental health problems are key factors on which success in achieving the goal of community-based mental health care depends. This paper revisits Thomas Scheff' s (1966) sociological theory of mental illness, and tests elements of this thorough critical review of recent UK literature relating to public attitudes towards, and media representations, of

Ben Hannigan

1999-01-01

280

Mental Rotation, Mental Representation, and Flat Slopes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental rotation studies examine how subjects determine whether two stimuli differing in orientation have the same-handedness. Handedness recognition tasks require the subject to determine whether forms are identical, differing only in degree of angular displacement. Four experiments involving 160 undergraduates demonstrate that mental

Cohen, Dale; Kubovy, Michael

1993-01-01

281

Mental Health 3: Mental Health Through Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, examines how mental illness has been portrayed in the arts while highlighting for students a more insightful way to further develop their ideas about human behavior. This lesson is the third of three lessons on mental health and human behavior.

Science Netlinks;

2002-07-27

282

Symptoms of common mental disorder and cognitive associations with seropositivity among a cohort of people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of research on HIV/AIDS and mental health has been carried out among clinical populations: the time of onset of comorbid depression and the mechanisms for this are therefore unclear. Although there is evidence to suggest that asymptomatic people living with HIV/AIDS exhibit some cognitive deficits, the prevalence of poor cognitive functioning among people in low income settings at an early, pre-clinical stage has not yet been investigated. Methods We used a cross-sectional survey design to test the hypotheses that symptoms of Common Mental Disorder (CMD) and low scores on cognitive tests would be associated with seropositivity among participants coming for testing for HIV/AIDS. Participants were recruited at the time of coming for testing for HIV/AIDS; voluntary informed consent was sought for participation in research interviews and data linkage with HIV test results. Baseline questionnaires including sociodemographic variables and measures of mental health (PHQ-9, GAD-7, panic disorder questions, AUDIT and delayed word list learning and recall and animal naming test of verbal fluency) were administered by trained interviews. HIV status data was extracted from clinical records. Results CMD and scoring below the educational norm on the test of verbal fluency were associated with testing positive for HIV/AIDS in bivariate analysis (OR?=?2.26, 1.31-3.93; OR?=?1.77, 1.26-2.48, respectively). After controlling for the effects of confounders, the association between CMD and seropositivity was no longer statistically significant (AOR?=?1.56, 0.86-2.85). After adjusting for the effects of confounders, the association between low scores on the test of verbal fluency and seropositivity was retained (AOR?=?1.77, 1.27-2.48). Conclusions Our findings provide tentative evidence to suggest that low cognitive test scores (and possibly depressive symptoms) may be associated with HIV status among people who have yet to receive their HIV test results. Impaired cognitive functioning and depression-like symptoms may be the result of the same underlying neurological damage. CMD and cognitive impairment may overlap to a greater extent than previously assumed. If replicated, this may have implications for the way in which we measure and treat CMD and cognitive functioning among people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23497308

2013-01-01

283

Smoking and Mental Illness  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Mental Illness February 5, 2013 The mental illness estimates presented in this publication may differ ... in the 2010 Surgeon General’s report that cigarette smoking causes disease and that no level of cigarette ...

284

Adolescent Mental Health Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Care Positive Mental Health: Resilience In the States Adolescent Health Topics Reproductive Health Mental Health Physical Health and ... Insurance Marketplace Scroll Left Scroll Right Office of Adolescent Health 1101 Wootton Parkway, Suite 700 Rockville, MD 20852 ...

285

HUMAN SERVICES Mental Health Services  

E-print Network

procedures. Federal government, Departments of Health and Human Services Justice Veterans AdministrationPSYCHOLOGY HUMAN SERVICES Counseling Advocacy Mental Health Services STRATEGIESAREAS EMPLOYERS State government, Departments of Human Services Mental Health & Mental Retardation Community mental

Escher, Christine

286

A comparison of three army chemical-biological protective masks: their effects on field of view and visual acuity  

E-print Network

A COMPARISON OF THREE ARMY CHEMICAL-BIOLOGICAL PROTECTIVE MASKS: THEIR EFFECTS ON FIELD OF VIEW AND VISUAL ACUITY A Thesis by MARSHA JANE MCCORD TAKAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering A COMPARISON OF THREE ARMY CHEMICAL-BIOLOGICAL PROTECTIVE MASKS: THEIR EFFECTS ON FIELD OF VIEW AND VISUAL ACUITY A Thesis by MARSHA JANE MCCORD TAKAO...

Takao, Marsha Jane McCord

2012-06-07

287

Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.  

PubMed

People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

2014-09-01

288

Mental accounting matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental accounting is the set of cognitive operations used by individuals and households to organize, evaluate, and keep track of financial activities. Making use of research on this topic over the past decade, this paper summarizes the current state of our knowledge about how people engage in mental accounting activities. Three components of mental accounting receive the most attention. This

Richard H. Thaler

1999-01-01

289

Mental Health 2: Bedlam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mental health and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mental health asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.

Science Netlinks;

2002-07-28

290

Visual Acuity Changes during Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran  

PubMed Central

In this research, we represent the changes in visual acuity during pregnancy and after delivery. Changes as myopic shift start during second trimester and will be stopped after delivery; however it is obtained that women will have the same refractive error as what they had in the first trimester, after postpartum. So, any change in their spectacle prescription during this period is forbidden. As a result, not only changing in hormones can cause myopic shift in vision, but also overweight has its retributive role. What we are trying to do is to notify gynecologists and optometrists to be aware of these changes, so as to leave spectacle prescription writing to the session after postpartum period. PMID:25328705

Chaichian, Shahla; Mehdizadehkashi, Abolfazl; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Moazzami, Bahram; Pishgahroudsari, Mohaddeseh

2014-01-01

291

Stigmatizing Attitudes About Mental Illness and Allocation of Resources to Mental Health Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a social psychological model (Skitka & Tetlock, 1992). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 491–522; [1993]. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 1205–1223 stating that policy maker decisions regarding the allocation of resources to mental health services are influenced by their attitudes towards people with mental illness and treatment efficacy. Fifty four individuals participated in a

Patrick W. Corrigan; Amy C. Watson; Amy C. Warpinski; Gabriela Gracia

2004-01-01

292

"If It's Not Working, Why Would They Be Testing It?": mental models of HIV vaccine trials and preventive misconception among men who have sex with men in India  

PubMed Central

Background Informed consent based on comprehension of potential risks and benefits is fundamental to the ethical conduct of clinical research. We explored mental models of candidate HIV vaccines and clinical trials that may impact on the feasibility and ethics of biomedical HIV prevention trials among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. Methods A community-based research project was designed and implemented in partnership with community-based organizations serving MSM in Chennai and Mumbai. We conducted 12 focus groups (n?=?68) with diverse MSM and 14 key informant interviews with MSM community leaders/service providers using a semi-structured interview guide to explore knowledge and beliefs about HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Focus groups (60–90 minutes) and interviews (45–60 minutes) were conducted in participants’ native language (Tamil in Chennai; Marathi or Hindi in Mumbai), audio-taped, transcribed and translated into English. We explored focus group and interview data using thematic analysis and a constant comparative method, with a focus on mental models of HIV vaccines and clinical trials. Results A mental model of HIV vaccine-induced seropositivity as “having HIV” resulted in fears of vaccine-induced infection and HIV stigma. Some participants feared inactivated vaccines might “drink blood” and “come alive”. Pervasive preventive misconception was based on a mental model of prevention trials as interventions, overestimation of likely efficacy of candidate vaccines and likelihood of being assigned to the experimental group, with expectations of protective benefits and decreased condom use. Widespread misunderstanding and lack of acceptance of placebo and random assignment supported perceptions of clinical trials as “cheating”. Key informants expressed concerns that volunteers from vulnerable Indian communities were being used as “experimental rats” to benefit high-income countries. Conclusions Evidence-informed interventions that engage with shared mental models among potential trial volunteers, along with policies and funding mechanisms that ensure local access to products that demonstrate efficacy in trials, may support the safe and ethical implementation of HIV vaccine trials in India. PMID:23919283

2013-01-01

293

Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

2007-01-01

294

Pediatric Primary Care Providers' Relationships with Mental Health Care Providers: Survey Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As many as 20 % of children have diagnosable mental health conditions and nearly all of them receive pediatric primary health care. However, most children with serious mental health concerns do not receive mental health services. This study tested hypotheses that pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) in relationships with mental

Pidano, Anne E.; Honigfeld, Lisa; Bar-Halpern, Miri; Vivian, James E.

2014-01-01

295

Bodies and Occlusion: Item Types, Cognitive Processes, and Gender Differences in Mental Rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to re-examine previous findings in which the magnitude of the male advantage in mental rotation abilities increased when participants mentally rotated occluded versus non-occluded items, and decreased when participants mentally rotated human figures versus blocks. Mainly, the study aimed to address methodological issues noted on previous human figure mental rotations tests as the

Randi A. Doyle; Daniel Voyer

2012-01-01

296

Association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity and hand symptoms reported by operators of power tools.  

PubMed

An association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and symptoms of reduced manipulative function, as established by responses to a questionnaire, was demonstrated in a population of 81 manual workers from the mining industry (62 power-tool operators and 19 nonusers). Mechanoreceptor-specific vibrotactile thresholds were determined for the slowly adapting type I (SAI) and fast-adapting types I and II (FAI and FAII) receptors at the fingertip of the third digit of each hand. Statistically significant threshold shifts in SAI and/or FAII acuity were found in persons responding affirmatively to questions concerning finger/hand numbness, blanching, and difficulty buttoning clothing. The best predictors of a quantitative change in tactile acuity were questions relating to difficulty manipulating small objects and buttoning clothing, yielding positive predictive values of from 90% to 100% and false positive rates of from 0% to 2.8%. The demonstration of an association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and some symptom reports, obtained by means of a questionnaire, provides the basis for the development of a screening procedure for persons at risk of such disturbances in hand function. PMID:9330148

Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Brammer, A J; Piercy, J E

1997-09-01

297

Colour Vision and Distant Visual Acuity of Elite and Junior Cricketers: Educational and Sporting Implications for Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

vidence suggests male children and adolescents spend increasingly more of their leisure time engaged in indoor activities such as the viewing of computer or television screens. Consequently, time spent on outdoor activities that require distant visual acuity or acute, sharp vision is considerably less. Furthermore, 8% of the male population are known to have colour vision problems. A study was

Afaf Tourky; Brendan Bartlett; Vikki Hill; Michael Jeh

298

Wavefront Coherence Area for Predicting Visual Acuity of Post-PRK and Post-PARK Refractive Surgery Patients  

E-print Network

, Berkeley CA 94720-2020 ABSTRACT Many current corneal topography instruments (called videokeratographs for P. We measured the topographies and vision of 62 eyes of patients who had undergone the corneal: visual acuity, ray tracing, corneal topography, scientific visualization, refractive surgery 1

Klein, Stanley

299

Visual function impairments in relation to gender, age, and visual acuity in patients who undergo cataract surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis study aimed to determine the relationship between visual function impairment in 776 patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation and gender, age, preoperative visual acuity (VA) of both the operative and the contralateral eye, and presence of other ocular disease in the operative eye.

Joanne K Tobacman; Bridget Zimmerman; Paul Lee; Lee Hilborne; Hansjoerg Kolder; Robert H Brook

1998-01-01

300

Comparative study of visual acuity and aberrations after intralase femtosecond LASIK: small corneal flap versus big corneal flap  

PubMed Central

AIM To study the effect of different flap sizes on visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and aberrations after femtosecond laser for laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS In each of the forty patients enrolled, 1 eye was randomly assigned to receive treatment with a 8.1mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the small flap, while the other eye was treated with a 8.6mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the big flap. Refractive errors, visual acuity, and higher-order aberrations were compared between the two groups at week 1, month 1 and 3 postoperatively. RESULTS The postoperative refractive errors and visual acuity all conformed to the intended goal. Postoperative higher-order aberrations were increased, especially in spherical aberration (Z12) and vertical coma (Z7). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of postoperative refractive errors, visual acuity, root mean square of total HOAs (HO-RMS), trefoil 30° (Z6), vertical coma (Z7), horizontal coma (Z8), trefoil 0° (Z9), and spherical aberration (Z12) at any point during the postoperative follow-up. CONCLUSION Both the small and big flaps are safe and effective procedures to correct myopia, provided the exposure stroma meets the excimer laser ablations. The personalized size corneal flap is feasible, as we can design the size of corneal flap based on the principle that the corneal flap diameter should be equal to or greater than the sum of the maximum ablation diameter and apparatus error. PMID:24195040

Zhang, Ya-Li; Liu, Lei; Cui, Chang-Xia; Hu, Ming; Li, Zhao-Na; Cao, Li-Jun; Jing, Xiu-Hua; Mu, Guo-Ying

2013-01-01

301

Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery in Elderly People over 70 Years Old: Visual Acuity, Quality of Life, and Cost-Utility Values  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To evaluate the influence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery on elderly patients in terms of visual acuity, vision-related quality of life and its cost-effectiveness. Methods Elderly patients over 70 years old, who were diagnosed and underwent RRD surgery at Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013. The participants received scleral buckling surgery and vitreous surgery with or without scleral buckling under retrobulbar anesthesia. We followed the patients for 1 year and collected best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), vision-related quality of life, and direct medical costs data. Utility values elicited by time-trade-off were analyzed to determine the quality of life. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in life expectancy were calculated and discounted at 3% annually. Costs per QALY gained were reported using the bootstrap method. Further analyses were made for two age groups, age 70–79 and age over 80 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test stability of the results. Results 98 patients were included in the study. The BCVA significantly improved by 0.53±0.44 (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR)) at the 1-year postoperative time point (p<0.001). Utility values increased from 0.77 to 0.84 (p<0.001), and an average of 0.4 QALYs were gained in the life expectancy. Costs per QALY gained from the RRD surgery were 33,186 Chinese Yuan (CNY) (5,276 US dollars (USD))/QALY; 24,535 CNY (3,901 USD)/QALY for the age group of 70–79 years and 71,240 CNY (11,326 USD)/QALY for the age group over 80 years. Conclusions RRD surgery improved the visual acuity and quality of life in the elderly patients over 70 years old. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, at a threshold of willingness to pay of 115,062 CNY (18,293 USD)/QALY, RRD surgery is cost effective in the elderly patients. PMID:25330168

Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Haiyun; Bai, Lin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

2014-01-01

302

What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... four of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. By ... society are staggering: unnecessary disability, unemployment, substance abuse, ... each year in the United States. The best treatments for serious ...

303

Wound center facility billing: A retrospective analysis of time, wound size, and acuity scoring for determining facility level of service.  

PubMed

Outpatient wound center facility reimbursement for Medicare beneficiaries can be a challenge to determine and obtain. To compare methods of calculating facility service levels for outpatient wound centers and to demonstrate the advantages of an acuity-based billing system (one that incorporates components of facility work that is non-reimbursable by procedure codes and that represents an activity-based costing approach to medical billing), a retrospective study of 5,098 patient encounters contained in a wound care-specific electronic medical record database was conducted. Approximately 500 patient visits to the outpatient wound center of a Texas regional hospital between April 2003 and November 2004 were categorized by service level in documentation and facility management software. Visits previously billed using a time-based system were compared to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' proposed three-tiered wound size-based system. The time-based system also was compared to an acuity-based scoring system. The Pearson correlation coefficient between billed level of service by time and estimated level of service by acuity was 0.442 and the majority of follow-up visits were billed as Level 3 and above (on a time level of 1 to 5) , confirming that time is not a surrogate for actual work performed. Wound size also was found to be unrelated to service level (Pearson correlation = 0.017) and 97% of wound areas were < 100 cm2. The acuity-based scoring system produced a near-normal distribution of results, producing more mid-range billings than extremes; no other method produced this distribution. Hospital-based outpatient wound centers should develop, review, and refine acuity score-based models on which to determine billed level of service. PMID:17264354

Fife, Caroline E; Walker, David; Farrow, Wade; Otto, Gordon

2007-01-01

304

Correlation between histological and behavioral measures of visual acuity in a zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis).  

PubMed

Estimates of visual acuity in a pelagic freshwater zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Centrarchidae), were made using a behavioral measure, the maximum observed prey pursuit distance (MxPD), and a histological measure, the density of cone cells in the retina. The greatest number of pursuits occurs in the 0-30 degrees wedge of the visual field; 87% of all pursuits occur in the first 40 degrees. The longest pursuits (200 mm) also occur in this area and generally get shorter from 0 to 180 degrees (from forward-directed) in the visual field. Consistent with the behavioral results, the largest number of cone photoreceptors (13,000/mm2) is found in the far temporal retina along the eye's horizontal meridian. Cone cell densities in the corresponding region of the nasal retina are approximately half this value. The number of cones decreases dorsally and ventrally from the horizontal meridian. Although the absolute values of visual acuity calculated from cone cell topography (i.e. MxPDs of 500 mm) are 2-3 times greater than those observed behaviorally (i.e. MxPDs of 200 mm), the trends in visual acuity across the visual field obtained from both measures are consistent. We suggest that overestimates of visual acuity obtained from cone cell counts alone result from this measure's not accounting for, among other properties of the nervous system, cone cell convergence onto ganglion cells and higher brain centers. Behavioral measures of visual acuity are, therefore, likely to yield a more accurate estimate of an animal's visual abilities. PMID:2354354

Browman, H I; Gordon, W C; Evans, B I; O'Brien, W J

1990-01-01

305

Contribution of ocular examination to the diagnosis of foetal alcohol syndrome in mentally retarded children.  

PubMed

An ophthalmological study was conducted on a series of 28 Swedish children suffering from mild mental retardation without an obvious aetiological diagnosis. The eye examination supported a diagnosis of foetal alcohol syndrome in five out of six suspected cases and revealed two additional not previously suspected (25%). Eye anomalies were observed in 16 patients (57%) with fundus abnormalities (optic nerve hypoplasia, retinal dystrophy) being most frequent, occurring in 11 cases (39%). Four patients had substantially reduced visual acuity in both eyes. Eight children had abnormal features of the face and outer eye region. Ocular motility disturbances (strabismus or nystagmus) were seen in five patients. The ophthalmological study disclosed that at least 10% of this group of children with mild mental retardation suffered from the foetal alcohol syndrome. It is concluded that, in children with mental retardation, an ocular examination is a valuable diagnostic tool for revealing prenatal origin. PMID:2266551

Strömland, K

1990-10-01

306

Vision Test in Seconds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acuity Systems, Inc. developed an electro-optical instrument under a grant from NASA to measure the visual performance of pilots. Transferred from Ames Research Center, this instrument now allows you to have your eyes tested in seconds by relatively unskilled operators. The device automatically measures refractive error of eye and prints out proper prescription for glasses. The unit also detects cataracts and glaucoma.

1976-01-01

307

Use of Formal and Informal Mental Health Resources by Cancer Survivors: Differences Between Rural and Nonrural Survivors and a Preliminary Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective Previous research has identified rural residence as a risk factor for poorer mental health (MH) outcomes in cancer survivors. This may be due to less use of various MH resources due to poorer access and less favorable attitudes and social norms related to MH resource utilization. The present study sought to examine use of MH resources in rural and nonrural survivors and identify factors associated with MH resource use. Methods Cancer survivors (n=113, 1 to 5 years post-diagnosis) completed a questionnaire packet and telephone interview. Accessibility and post-diagnosis use of various formal and informal MH resources was assessed along with constructs potentially linked to use of MH resources by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; personal attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control). Results Results indicated no widespread differences between rural and nonrural cancer survivors in MH resource use although some evidence suggested poorer accessibility and less use of mental health professionals and cancer support groups among rural survivors. In general, rural survivors reported less favorable personal attitudes and social norms regarding MH resource use. TPB constructs accounted for a significant portion of variance in use of most MH resources with personal attitudes generally being the strongest predictor of MH resource use. Conclusions Additional research is needed to expand the search for factors, particularly modifiable factors, which might account for disparities in MH outcomes between rural and nonrural survivors. PMID:20017114

Andrykowski, Michael A.; Burris, Jessica L.

2009-01-01

308

Patient's Self-recognition of Reduced Visual Acuity Due to Recurrence of Macular Edema and Prompt Visitation to the Hospital in Retinal Vein Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate patients' self-recognition of reduced visual acuity due to recurring macular edema in retinal vein occlusion. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of patients who were diagnosed with recurring macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion was performed. The proportion of patients who recognized reduced visual acuity due to the recurrence of macular edema and who visited the hospital before the scheduled follow-up date was determined. Parameters including age, sex, diagnosis, visual acuity before recurrence of macular edema, and extent of visual acuity reduction due to recurrence of macular edema were compared in patients who recognized a reduction in visual acuity and those who did not. The proportion of patients who visited the hospital promptly was also determined. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients were included in the analysis. Sixteen and 24 patients were diagnosed with central retinal vein occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion, respectively. Twenty-one patients (52.5%) recognized reduced visual acuity due to recurring macular edema. These patients were younger (59.2 ± 7.6 vs. 64.8 ± 9.4 years, p = 0.046), had better visual acuity before recurrence of macular edema (0.52 ± 0.48 vs. 1.02 ± 0.46, p = 0.002), and exhibited a greater reduction in visual acuity after recurrence of macular edema (0.34 ± 0.24 vs. 0.14 ± 0.13, p = 0.003). Only four patients visited the hospital before the scheduled follow-up date, and all of these patients lived relatively close to the hospital. Conclusions For prompt treatment of recurring macular edema, more intensive education about the self-estimation of visual acuity is necessary, particularly for elderly patients who have relatively poor visual acuity. In addition, a simple and easy way to identify the recurrence of macular edema at the local clinic should be established for patients who live relatively far from the hospital. PMID:24882954

Jeong, Seong Hun; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Tae Gon; Kim, Chul Gu; Yoo, Su Jin; Choi, Mun Jung

2014-01-01

309

Mental patients in prisons  

PubMed Central

Mental conditions usually affect cognitive, emotional and volitional aspects and functions of the personality, which are also functions of interest in law, as they are essential at the time of adjudicating guilt, labeling the accused a criminal, and proffering a sentence. A relationship between mental illness and criminality has, thus, been described and given as one of the reasons for the large number of mental patients in prisons. Whether this relationship is one of causality or one that flows through many other variables is a matter of debate, but there is no debating that prisons have become a de facto part, and an important one, of mental health systems in many countries. This paper deals with the issue of the relationship and provides estimates of prevalence of mental patients in prisons culled from many studies in different countries. It also provides some direction for the management of mental patients as they crowd correctional systems. PMID:19812758

ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

2009-01-01

310

Knowledge and attitudes about personalized mental health genomics: narratives from individuals coping with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

The present qualitative study examined the personal accounts, elicited via semi-structured interview, of nine United States military veterans with serious mental illness to describe their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about psychiatric genetics, genetic testing and counseling for mental illness. The aim of the research was to elucidate issues from the perspective of adults with mental illness that may inform the education and training of mental health providers on basic genetic counseling. Findings suggest that participants had some basic knowledge about genetics, were interested in psychiatric genetic testing, and had an awareness of both positive and negative aspects of genetic test results. Participants tended to have overly optimistic ideas about current advances in psychiatric genetics and were motivated to undergo genetic testing for the good of their families and to benefit society. Implications of findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21394471

Potokar, Danielle N; Stein, Catherine H; Darrah, Olivia A; Taylor, Brent C; Sponheim, Scott R

2012-10-01

311

Measure of the ability to rotate mental images.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to design an innovative test to measure the ability to rotate mental images. An unfolded cube was designed, which participants had to reassemble mentally, prior to mentally rotating the image, and answering 23 questions concerning the cube. The Measure of the Ability to Rotate Mental Images (MARMI) test was administered to 354 participants. Cronbach alpha was .90, and high correlations between this test and other image rotation and spatial image tests were found. However, poor correlations were observed between test scores and the responses to the visual imagery vividness questionnaire. Both test reliability and validity underscore that it is a good instrument for measuring the ability to rotate mental images. PMID:22748736

Campos, Alfredo

2012-01-01

312

What Is Mental Health?  

MedlinePLUS

... positive Getting physically active Helping others Getting enough sleep Developing coping skills Learn More About Mental Health The importance of prevention and wellness What communities can do ...

313

Imitation and mental adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses various definitions of imitation, in relation to learning theory and mental adjustment. The concept is considered from the perspectives of abnormal psychology and social psychology.

Joseph Peterson

1922-01-01

314

Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. Methods All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision. The relationship between VA and SRV and self-rated falls was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, chronic disease, medication use and grip strength. Results Of 8317 participants, 26.7% (95% CI 25.7% to 27.7%) had fallen in the past 12?months. Worse VA and poorer SRV were associated with one or more falls in multivariable analysis (OR for falls=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66 and OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.61, respectively). Poorer SRV was significantly associated with falls even after adjusting for VA (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57). Conclusions SRV was associated with falls independently of VA and could be used as a simple proxy measure for other aspects of visual function to detect people requiring vision-related falls interventions. PMID:24338086

Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

2014-01-01

315

Effect of Passive Horizontal Rotations and Vertical Oscillations on Dynamic Visual Acuity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances after long duration space flight. These crewmembers may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons in various sea state conditions following a water landing. Exposure to even low frequency motions induced by sea conditions surrounding a vessel can cause significant fine and gross motor control problems affecting critical functions. The objective of this study was to document human motor and visual performance during simulated wave motion in the 0.1 to 2.0 Hz range. We examined in 12 healthy subjects the changes in accuracy when performing a seated visual target acquisition task in which the location of target was offset vertically during horizontal full body rotation at an oscillating frequency of 0.8 Hz (peak velocity of 160 deg/s). The main finding was that the accuracy of performance degraded in 7 of 12 subjects when acquiring vertical targets at perturbing frequencies of 0.8 Hz in the horizontal plane by one step size. We also examined in a separate study on 12 healthy subjects seated dynamic visual acuity (DVA) task performance during vertical full body oscillations at perturbing frequencies of 2 Hz (peak to peak motion of 5 cm). The main finding was that DVA was significantly reduced when acquiring targets at perturbing oscillations at frequencies of 2 Hz in the vertical plane by approximately 1 chart line. Thus low frequencies of perturbations in the horizontal and vertical planes can cause decrement in visual performance.

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Kulecz, Walter B.; Miller, Chris; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

2010-01-01

316

Do mental speed and musical abilities interact?  

PubMed

The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P <0.01) compared to the reference line of the normal population who did not exhibit any effect of training and practice. This indicates strong interaction between mental speed and music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects. PMID:14681172

Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine

2003-11-01

317

The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the influence of juggling training on mental rotation performance in children. Material and methods: Two groups of girls aged 6-14 years were studied: experimental (EG; n = 26) and control (CG; n = 24). All girls solved a mental rotation task with 3-D block figures on computer screen (pre-test). After the initial test, EG…

Jansen, Petra; Lange, Leonie F.; Heil, Martin

2011-01-01

318

The Development of a Computerized Version of Vandenburg's Mental Rotation Test and the Effect of Visuo-spatial Working Memory Loading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a test designed to allow meaningful and widespread computerized testing of various spatial factors. Examines the differences between traditional paper and pencil and computerized versions of the same test. Compares an interactive test designed to measure a working memory factor to the computerized version of…

Strong, Shawn; Smith, Roger

2002-01-01

319

Change in visual acuity is highly correlated with change in six image quality metrics independent of wavefront error and/or pupil diameter  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the wavefront error (WFE) of the eye varies from individual to individual with pupil diameter (PD) and age. Numerous studies have been proposed evaluating the relationship between visual acuity and WFE, but all these studies were performed with either a fixed or natural PD. It is still not clear if metrics of image quality correlate well with visual acuity independent of PD. Here we investigate the correlation between the change in visual acuity and the change in 30 image quality metrics for a range of optical quality typically established in normal eyes that varies both with age and PD. Visual acuity was recorded for 4 normal subjects using simulated blurred logMAR acuity charts generated from the point spread functions of different scaled WFEs for 6 different PDs (2–7 mm in 1 mm steps). Six image quality metrics (log neural sharpness, log visual Strehl [spatial domain], log visual Strehl [MTF method], log pupil fraction [tessellated], log pupil fraction [concentric area], and log root mean square of WFE slope) accounted for over 80% of variance in change in acuity across all WFEs and all PDs. Multiple regression analysis did not significantly increase the R2. Simple metrics derived from WFE could potentially act as an objective surrogate to visual acuity without the need for complex models. PMID:22984224

Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Sarver, Edwin J.; Applegate, Raymond A.

2012-01-01

320

Women Veterans and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...

321

Mental Health and Minorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter includes 12 brief articles or news items concerning mental health among minority groups. These address: (1) cultural considerations in treating Asians (reasons why Asians tend not to use mental health services); (2) coping with racial stress (responses to a questionnaire on dealing with racial stress); (3) minority health…

Meadows, Michelle, Ed.

1997-01-01

322

Mental Retardation in Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

Horvath, Michael; And Others

323

Mental Rotation Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most popular tasks used in measuring individual differences in spatial ability is a mental rotation task introduced by Shepard and Metzler (1971). This page provides information about use of a spatial ability task to illustrate the prinicple of mental rotation.

324

Women athletes' mental rotation under stereotypic threat.  

PubMed

This experiment examined whether nullifying a stereotypic threat about sex-related abilities in mental rotation in women athletes increased facility with rotations. Women athletes and nonathletes (N = 64) were told that they would be performing mental rotation presumed to create an implicit stereotypic threat. Then 32 participants learned that the mental rotation tasks required the same abilities as those mastered by athletes, presumed to nullify the stereotypic threat. Participants completed an 8-item Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotation Test and provided reports of ability, experience, and background. Contrary to the hypothesis, athletes receiving nullified instructions performed more poorly than peers who worked under the implicit stereotypic threat, but nonathletes' scores were not affected by the threat. These findings are consistent with the idea that group identification and concomitant worry about representing a group in a positive manner may contribute to responses to stereotypic threat, and that even with explicit nullification of threat, performance may not change. PMID:18986057

Brownlow, Sheila; Valentine, Stephanie E; Owusu, Alvin

2008-08-01

325

Neurodynamics of mental exploration  

PubMed Central

Thinking allows an animal to take an effective action in a novel situation based on a mental exploration of possibilities and previous knowledge. We describe a model animal, with a neural system based loosely on the rodent hippocampus, which performs mental exploration to find a useful route in a spatial world it has previously learned. It then mentally recapitulates the chosen route, and this intent is converted to motor acts that move the animal physically along the route. The modeling is based on spiking neurons with spike-frequency adaptation. Adaptation causes the continuing evolution in the pattern of neural activity that is essential to mental exploration. A successful mental exploration is remembered through spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. The system is also an episodic memory for an animal chiefly concerned with locations. PMID:20080534

2009-01-01

326

Retinal mosaics of the principal eyes of some jumping spiders ( Salticidae: Araneae ): Adaptations for high visual acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Retinal mosaics of the four tiers of receptors (layers I–IV) in the principal eyes of two species of salticid spider known to exhibit high visual acuity are described at the ultrastructural level. The four tiers of receptors have been previously classified byLand (1969 a) andBlestet al. (1981). Only the tier (layer I) farthest from the dioptric system has a

A. D. Blest; G. D. Price

1984-01-01

327

Assessment of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutritional supplementation on infant neurobehavioral development and visual acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this paper are (i) to consider how best to examine effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutritional\\u000a supplementation or deficiency on infant neurobehavioral development, after controlling for other factors that might influence\\u000a outcome, including maternal demographic, intellectual, and personality characteristics, and (ii) to present new findings on\\u000a the relation between visual acuity and processing speed and the

Sandra W. Jacobson

1999-01-01

328

Correlation between Histological and Behavioral Measures of Visual Acuity in a Zooplanktivorous Fish, the White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of visual acuity in a pelagic freshwater zooplanktivorous fish, the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Centrarchidae), were made using a behavioral measure, the maximum observed prey pursuit distance (MxPD), and a histological measure, the density of cone cells in the retina. The greatest number of pursuits occurs in the 0–30° wedge of the visual field; 87% of all pursuits occur

Howard I. Browman; William C. Gordon; Barbara I. Evans; W. John OBrien

1990-01-01

329

Effects of filtering of harmonics from biosonar echoes on delay acuity by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

Big brown bats emit FM biosonar sounds containing two principal harmonics (FM1 approximately 55-22 kHz;FM2 approximately 105-45 kHz). To examine the role of harmonics, they were selectively filtered from stimuli in electronic-echo delay discrimination experiments. Positive stimuli were delayed by 3.16 ms (55 cm simulated target range); negative stimuli were by delayed by 3.96 ms (68 cm). This large 800-micros delay difference (nearly 14 cm) was easily discriminated for echoes containing equal-strength FM1 and FM2. Performance gradually decreased as highpass filters removed progressively larger segments from FM1. For echoes with FM2 alone, performance collapsed to chance, but performance remained good for lowpass echoes containing FM1 alone. Attenuation of FM2 by 3 dB relative to FM1 also decreased performance, but shortening electronic delay of the attenuated FM2 by 48 micros counteracted amplitude-latency trading and restored performance. Bats require the auditory representations of FM1 and FM2 to be in temporal register for high delay acuity. Misalignment of neuronal responses degrades acuity, but outright removal of FM2, leaving only FM1, causes little loss of acuity. Functional asymmetry of harmonics reflects lowpass effects from beaming and atmospheric propagation, which leave FM1 intact. It may cooperate with latency shifts to aid in suppression of clutter. PMID:20707464

Bates, Mary E; Simmons, James A

2010-08-01

330

The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahneman and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others. PMID:25140163

Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Lindskog, Marcus; Nilsson, Håkan; Kerimi, Neda

2014-01-01

331

Recidivism Outcomes for Suburban Mental Health Court Defendants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health courts have recently emerged as one means to reduce the number of persons with mental illness in the criminal\\u000a justice system. Using a post-test only comparison group design, this study examined rearrest rates for 1 year post discharge\\u000a among three groups meeting admission criteria for a municipal mental health court. The rearrest rate of defendants who successfully\\u000a completed the

P. Ann Dirks-Linhorst; Donald M. Linhorst

332

Hierarchical Structure of Abilities: Factorial Validation of Higher Order Constructs in Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thurstone's primary mental abilities (1938/1968) involving 57 tests were factor analyzed to produce a comprehensive hierarchical model. Kaiser's varimax solution for primary mental abilities served as the raw data for this study. (Author/GK)

Paden, Patricia

1981-01-01

333

Breaking new ground in the mind: an initial study of mental brittle transformation and mental rigid rotation in science experts.  

PubMed

The current study examines the spatial skills employed in different spatial reasoning tasks, by asking how science experts who are practiced in different types of visualizations perform on different spatial tasks. Specifically, the current study examines the varieties of mental transformations. We hypothesize that there may be two broad classes of mental transformations: rigid body mental transformations and non-rigid mental transformations. We focus on the disciplines of geology and organic chemistry because different types of transformations are central to the two disciplines: While geologists and organic chemists may both confront rotation in the practice of their profession, only geologists confront brittle transformations. A new instrument was developed to measure mental brittle transformation (visualizing breaking). Geologists and organic chemists performed similarly on a measure of mental rotation, while geologists outperformed organic chemists on the mental brittle transformation test. The differential pattern of skill on the two tests for the two groups of experts suggests that mental brittle transformation and mental rotation are different spatial skills. The roles of domain general cognitive resources (attentional control, spatial working memory, and perceptual filling in) and strategy in completing mental brittle transformation are discussed. The current study illustrates how ecological and interdisciplinary approaches complement traditional cognitive science to offer a comprehensive approach to understanding the nature of spatial thinking. PMID:23440527

Resnick, Ilyse; Shipley, Thomas F

2013-05-01

334

Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

335

Twisting space: are rigid and non-rigid mental transformations separate spatial skills?  

PubMed

Cognitive science has primarily studied the mental simulation of spatial transformations with tests that focus on rigid transformations (e.g., mental rotation). However, the events of our world are not limited to rigid body movements. Objects can undergo complex non-rigid discontinuous and continuous changes, such as bending and breaking. We developed a new task to assess mental visualization of non-rigid transformations. The Non-rigid Bending test required participants to visualize a continuous non-rigid transformation applied to an array of objects by asking simple spatial questions about the position of two forms on a bent transparent sheet of plastic. Participants were to judge the relative position of the forms when the sheet was unbent. To study the cognitive skills needed to visualize rigid and non-rigid events, we employed four tests of mental transformations--the Non-rigid Bending test (a test of continuous non-rigid mental transformation), the Paper Folding test and the Mental Brittle Transformation test (two tests of non-rigid mental transformation with local rigid transformations), and the Vandenberg and Kuse (Percept Motor Skills 47:599-604, 1978) Mental Rotation test (a test of rigid mental transformation). Performance on the Mental Brittle Transformation test and the Paper Folding test independently predicted performance on the Non-rigid Bending test and performance on the Mental Rotation test; however, mental rotation performance was not a unique predictor of mental bending performance. Results are consistent with separable skills for rigid and non-rigid mental simulation and illustrate the value of an ecological approach to the analysis of the structure of spatial thinking. PMID:23423639

Atit, Kinnari; Shipley, Thomas F; Tikoff, Basil

2013-05-01

336

MentalHealth.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mental health topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mental health, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mental health field.

2007-08-23

337

Mental Health Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mental Health Matters is a collection of various mental health articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.

2007-08-13

338

The Effect of Level of Patient Acuity, Critical Care Experience, and ACLS Certification on Clinical Decision Making: Implications for Computer Decision Support Systems  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of patient acuity, critical care experience, and ACLS certification on clinical decision making. Each subject (N=68) completed two computerized clinical simulations. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) represented the high acuity situation and atrial flutter (AF) the lower acuity situation. Clinical decision making was measured by proficiency score, patient outcome (cure/die), and amount of data collected. In the AF simulation, proficiency scores were higher (p=.000), more dysrhythmias were cured (p<.005), and more data were collected (p=.040) than in the VT simulation. Experienced and inexperienced nurses did not differ on proficiency score, however, inexperienced nurses collected more data (p=.048) and cured fewer atrial flutter simulations (p=.04). ACLS certified nurses had higher proficiency scores (p=.033) and collected less data (p=.048). Clinical decision making on two simulations was affected by patient acuity, critical care experience, and ACLS certification. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of clinical decision support systems.

Henry, Suzanne Bakken

1990-01-01

339

Does Assessing Eye Alignment along with Refractive Error or Visual Acuity Increase Sensitivity for Detection of Strabismus in Preschool Vision Screening?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Preschool vision screenings often include refractive error or visual acuity (VA) testing to detect amblyopia, as well as alignment testing to detect strabismus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of combining screening for eye alignment with screening for refractive error or reduced VA on sensitivity for detection of strabismus, with specificity set at 90% and 94%. Methods Over 3 years, 4040 preschool children were screened in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study, with different screening tests administered each year. Examinations were performed to identify children with strabismus. The best screening tests for detecting children with any targeted condition were noncycloplegic retinoscopy (NCR), Retinomax autorefractor (Right Manufacturing, Virginia Beach, VA), SureSight Vision Screener (Welch-Allyn, Inc., Skaneateles, NY), and Lea Symbols (Precision Vision, LaSalle, IL and Good-Lite Co., Elgin, IL) and HOTV optotypes VA tests. Analyses were conducted with these tests of refractive error or VA paired with the best tests for detecting strabismus (unilateral cover testing, Random Dot “E” [RDE] and Stereo Smile Test II [Stereo Optical, Inc., Chicago, IL]; and MTI PhotoScreener [PhotoScreener, Inc., Palm Beach, FL]). The change in sensitivity that resulted from combining a test of eye alignment with a test of refractive error or VA was determined with specificity set at 90% and 94%. Results Among the 4040 children, 157 were identified as having strabismus. For screening tests conducted by eye care professionals, the addition of a unilateral cover test to a test of refraction generally resulted in a statistically significant increase (range, 15%–25%) in detection of strabismus. For screening tests administered by trained lay screeners, the addition of Stereo Smile II to SureSight resulted in a statistically significant increase (21%) in sensitivity for detection of strabismus. Conclusions The most efficient and low-cost ways to achieve a statistically significant increase in sensitivity for detection of strabismus were by combining the unilateral cover test with the autorefractor (Retinomax) administered by eye care professionals and by combining Stereo Smile II with SureSight administered by trained lay screeners. The decision of whether to include a test of alignment should be based on the screening program’s goals (e.g., targeted visual conditions) and resources. PMID:17591881

2007-01-01

340

Individual differences in spatial mental imagery.  

PubMed

In this article, we report a new image-scanning paradigm that allowed us to measure objectively individual differences in spatial mental imagery--specifically, imagery for location. Participants were asked to determine whether an arrow was pointing at a dot using a visual mental image of an array of dots. The degree of precision required to discriminate "yes" from "no" trials was varied. In Experiment 1, the time to scan increasing distances, as well as the number of errors, increased when greater precision was required to make a judgement. The results in Experiment 2 replicated those results while controlling for possible biases. When greater precision is required, the accuracy of the spatial image becomes increasingly important--and hence the effect of precision in the task reflects the accuracy of the image. In Experiment 3, this measure was shown to be related to scores on the Paper Folding test, on the Paper Form Board test, and on the visuospatial items on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices--but not to scores on questionnaires measuring object-based mental imagery. Thus, we provide evidence that classical standardized spatial tests rely on spatial mental imagery but not object mental imagery. PMID:20521213

Borst, Grégoire; Kosslyn, Stephen M

2010-10-01

341

Retinal mosaics of a primitive jumping spider, Spartaeus (Salticidae: Araneae) : A transition between principal retinae serving low and high spatial acuities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Previous papers (Blest andPrice 1984,Blest andSigmund 1984) have described the receptor mosaics in the tiered principal retinae of jumping spiders with high and low visual acuities, respectively. The latter paper offers a phylogenetic model for the later stages in the evolution of high acuity retinae in which layer I, farthest from the dioptrics, is alone required to sustain fine

A. D. Blest; Claudia Sigmund

1985-01-01

342

The Stigma of Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

2008-01-01

343

Mental Health Economics and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As evidenced by the European Commission's recent Mental Health Pact, mental health has moved up the policy agenda in many countries. There is much more attention now on promoting general mental wellbeing in the population, and addressing the needs of people with mental health problems. Particular concerns are: human rights abuses; rebalancing community and institutional care; coordinating action across multiple

Martin Knapp; David McDaid; Jennifer Beecham; Derek King; Roshni Mangalore; A-La Park; Andres Roman; Monique Smith; Cicely Thomas; Fayaz Aziz

2009-01-01

344

Mental Health and Mass Violence  

E-print Network

Mental Health and Mass Violence Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims Institute of Mental Health (2002). Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological are available through: The National Institute of Mental Health Office of Communications and Public Liaison 6001

Baker, Chris I.

345

Student Mental Health Final Report  

E-print Network

1 Student Mental Health Committee Final Report University of California Office of the President: Report of the University of California Student Mental Health Committee On behalf of the Student Mental in December 2005, and was given a charge to assess 1) trends in student mental health, 2) how these trends

O'Toole, Alice J.

346

Cannabis Use and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors aecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dy- namics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the likelihood of mental health problems, with current use having a larger eect than

Carol Propper; Tue Gørgens; Chikako Yamauchi

347

Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

348

Benchmarking Adult Mental Health Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper describes the adult mental health forums that were conducted as part of the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP).Method: Eight adult mental health forums were attended by staff from eight adult mental health services from around the country. The forums provided an avenue for these participants to document their organizations’ performances against previously agreed key performance indicators

Tim Coombs; Tania Geyer; Jane Pirkis

2011-01-01

349

Inequality, privacy, and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state's mental health power is standardly understood in terms of the state's power to intervene with persons or populations to address mental health problems. This article advances a more expansive view of the state's mental health power, one which seeks to capture those exercises of state power that do not directly concern mental health but that nevertheless can have

Andrew W. Siegel

2008-01-01

350

Correlation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in acute central serous chorioretinopathy with visual acuity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the structural changes in the acute phase of central serous chorioretinopathy and after its resolution, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, to correlate these tomographic changes with visual acuity (VA). Method This was a prospective study of 100 consecutive patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy. It was based on presenting the best-corrected VA, divided into three groups (Group 1, n = 36, VA 6/6; Group 2, n = 49, VA 6/9–6/18; Group 3, n = 15, VA > 6/18). All patients underwent fundus evaluation followed by fluorescein angiography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results The mean age of the patients was 40 ± 7.17 years. The mean log MAR VA was 0.176 ± 0.0185. Single pigment epithelial detachment (PED), and multiple discrete and multiple confluent PEDs were seen in 21%, 17%, and 32% of the eyes, respectively. The location of the PED was subfoveal in 35% of the eyes. The presence of subretinal fibrin and a rough undersurface of the neurosensory retina were noted in 61% and 64% of the eyes, respectively. On en-face scanning, a break in the walls of the PED and overlying fibrin were seen in 32.8% and 45% of the eyes, respectively. The mean subretinal fluid height at the fovea was 279.11 ± 148.78 ?. The mean outer nuclear layer thickness during the active stage was 95.10 ? and during the resolved stage, it was 77.69 ? (P = 0.012). The average photoreceptor lengths were 73.1 ?, 84.6 ?, and 94.9 ? in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, in the acute phase; and 69.5 ?, 70.8 ?, and 61.6 ?, respectively, after resolution (P = 0.013, P = 0.010, and P = 0.011). Conclusion In the acute phase of the disease, poorer VA showed statistically significant association with greater dimensions of subretinal fluid – particularly, greater subretinal fluid height and thinning of the outer nuclear layer at the fovea. The presence of fibrin, subretinal precipitates, subfoveal location, or type of PED did not have any association with poor VA. In resolved central serous chorioretinopathy, poorer VA was associated with a persistently thinner outer nuclear layer, shorter photoreceptor lengths, and inner and outer segment junction atrophy. PMID:23225998

Nair, Unnikrishnan; Ganekal, Sunil; Soman, Manoj; Nair, KGR

2012-01-01

351

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

352

Imagining predictions: mental imagery as mental emulation  

PubMed Central

We argue that the primary function of mental imagery is to allow us to generate specific predictions based upon past experience. All imagery allows us to answer ‘what if’ questions by making explicit and accessible the likely consequences of being in a specific situation or performing a specific action. Imagery is also characterized by its reliance on perceptual representations and activation of perceptual brain systems. We use this conception of imagery to argue that all imagery is simulation—more specifically, it is a specific type of simulation in which the mental processes that ‘run’ the simulation emulate those that would actually operate in the simulated scenario. This type of simulation, which we label emulation, has benefits over other types of simulations that merely mimic the content of the simulated scenario. PMID:19528008

Moulton, Samuel T.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

353

Coagulation and Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders. PMID:25386352

Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Brenner, Benjamin

2014-01-01

354

How mental systems believe  

Microsoft Academic Search

tance. In this view, the mental representation of abstract ideas is quite similar to the mental representation of phys- ical objects: People believe in the ideas they comprehend, as quickly and automatically as they believe in the objects they see. Research in social and cognitive psychology sug- gests that Spinoza's model,may,be a more,accurate ac- count of human,belief than is that

Daniel T. Gilbert

1991-01-01

355

Mental health in Egypt.  

PubMed

The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances. PMID:16342608

Okasha, Ahmed

2005-01-01

356

A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE HISTORY OF SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN FARGO IS FOLLOWED BY A DEFINITION OF THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES COVERS SCREENING, EVALUATION, AND PLACEMENT PROCEDURES, TYPES OF TESTS USED, CLASS SIZE AND ORGANIZATION, AND AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM. SUBJECT…

STORDAHL, ELWOOD; AND OTHERS

357

Quantitative and Qualitative Change in Children's Mental Rotation Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated quantitative and qualitative changes in mental rotation performance and solution strategies with a focus on sex differences. German children (N = 519) completed the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in the 5th and 6th grades (interval: one year; age range at time 1: 10-11 years). Boys on average outperformed girls on both…

Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Corth, Martin; Eid, Michael

2008-01-01

358

A Parametric Study of Mental Spatial Transformations of Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two classes of mental spatial transformation can be distinguished: Object-based spatial transformations are imagined movements of objects; and egocentric perspective transformations are imagined movements of one's point of view. The hypothesis that multiple neural systems contribute to these mental imagery operations was tested with functional MRI. Participants made spatial judgments about pictures of human bodies, and brain activity was analyzed

Jeffrey M. Zacks; John M. Ollinger; Margaret A. Sheridan; Barbara Tversky

2002-01-01

359

Improvement of Mental Rotation in Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of spatial capacities poses a challenge to science and education. Mental rotation is an important component of this intellectual potential. In this study, we examined the effect of an intervention program on the performance of a mental-rotation task and the transfer of learning to a visualization test. As gender differences in spatial abilities are decreasing, we expected that

M. L. Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga; J. M. García Ganuza

2003-01-01

360

College students' social anxiety associated with stress and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. METHODS: 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEO), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self Consciousness Scale. RESUTL AND ANALYSIS: The college students' stressors were related to social anxiety and mental health.

Shi Kan; Jiang Nan; Chen Xuefeng; Wang Zhen; Gao Jing; Hu Weipeng

2010-01-01

361

Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

2010-01-01

362

Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

2012-07-01

363

Changes in visual acuity from 4 to 12 years of age in children operated for bilateral congenital cataracts  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the long term effects of age at surgery on the development of visual acuity (VA) by measuring VA from preschool age to puberty. Furthermore, to report the VA levels at 12 years of age in a geographically based cohort of operated congenital bilateral cataracts. Methods: All children born in four western counties of Sweden between January 1980 and December 1993 who were diagnosed with congenital cataracts were included in a longitudinal prospective study. The monocular VA of the better eye in 38 subjects was analysed at 4, 7, 10, and 12 years of age, with 20 total and 18 partial cataracts. The mean follow up time was 9.3 years after surgery. Results: The final value of VA was 0.4 or above for approximately 50% of the subjects at 12 years of age. Visual acuity improved to a considerable extent after school age, especially in children who underwent surgery between the ages of 7 weeks and 1 year. Results for partial cataracts were favourable compared to those for total cataracts, reaching a mean of approximately 0.5 at age 12. The mean VA in the group of total congenital cataracts operated on before 7 weeks of age achieved higher values of VA at 4 years of age compared to children with total cataracts operated on between 7 weeks and 1 year of age. However, no statistically significant difference in VA results among these groups could be proved. Conclusion: Visual acuity improves to a considerable extent after school age in children with delayed visual development caused by congenital cataracts. Surgery within 7 weeks results in a more rapid development of VA, initially. PMID:12446371

Magnusson, G; Abrahamsson, M; Sjostrand, J

2002-01-01

364

Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.  

PubMed

Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N?=?52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only. PMID:24743576

Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

2014-01-01

365

"Far" and "Near" Visual Acuity While Walking and the Collective Contributions of Non-Ocular Mechanisms to Gaze Stabilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gaze stabilization was quantified in subjects (n=11) as they walked on a motorized treadmill (1.8 m/s) and viewed visual targets at two viewing distances. A "far" target was positioned at 4 m (FAR) in front of the subject and the "near" target was placed at a distance of 0.5 m (NEAR). A direct measure of visual acuity was used to assess the overall effectiveness of the gaze stabilization system. The contributions of nonocular mechanisms to the gaze goal were also quantified using a measure of the distance between the subject and point in space where fixation of the visual target would require the least eye movement amplitude (i.e. the head fixation distance (HFD)). Kinematic variables mirrored those of previous investigations with the vertical trunk translation and head pitch signals, and the lateral translation and head yaw signals maintaining what appear as antiphase relationships. However, an investigation of the temporal relationships between the maxima and minima of the vertical translation and head pitch signals show that while the maximum in vertical translation occurs at the point of the minimum head pitch signal, the inverse is not true. The maximum in the head pitch signal lags the vertical translation minimum by an average of greater than 12 percent of the step cycle time. Three HFD measures, one each for data in the sagittal and transverse planes, and one that combined the movements from both planes, all revealed changes between the FAR and NEAR target viewing conditions. This reorganization of the nonocular degrees of freedom while walking was consistent with a strategy to reduce the magnitude of the eye movements required when viewing the NEAR target. Despite this reorganization, acuity measures show that image stabilization is not occurring while walking and viewing the NEAR target. Group means indicate that visual acuity is not affected while walking in the FAR condition, but a decrement of 0.15 logMAR (i.e. 1.5 eye chart lines) exists between the standing and walking acuity measures when viewing the NEAR target.

Peters, Brian T.; vanEmmerik, Richard E. A.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2006-01-01

366

A Bilingual Word-Length Effect: Implications for Intelligence Testing and the Relative Ease of Mental Calculation in Welsh and English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments demonstrate that in bilingual subjects, Welsh digits take longer to articulate than their English equivalents, explaining why norms for Welsh children on the digit span test of the Welsh Children's Intelligence Scale are less than those for the same age American children. (Author/KC)

Ellis, N. C.; Hennelly, R. A.

1980-01-01

367

Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

Crissey, Marie Skodak

1975-01-01

368

Substance Use Motives and Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to validate the construct validity of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R), and to test the hypothesis that coping motives for using substances will vary directly with alcohol use, drug use and substance use problems when controlling for psychiatric symptoms of severe mental illness. Methods: Data from this survey of 120 people with severe

Thomas O’Hare; Ce Shen

2012-01-01

369

What are Mental Disorders? What is Addiction?  

E-print Network

Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Tobacco Suicide: Following the Warning Signs Treatments for Mental Disorders AlternativeTreatments for Mental Disorders Treatments for Addictions Recovery from Mental Disorders

370

Atheism and mental health.  

PubMed

The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood. PMID:20415634

Whitley, Rob

2010-01-01

371

The Nature of Relationships between Mental Rotation, Math, and Language in Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three mental rotation tasks, the Card Rotation Task (CRT), the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test (VMRT), and the Money Road-Map of Direction Sense (MRM), were administered to 60 deaf students from Gallaudet University to determine if mental rotation was predictive of scores on the ACT English or Math subtests. Other predictor variables, such as…

Halper, Elizabeth Blaisdell

2009-01-01

372

Evidence for the Role of Shape in Mental Representations of Similes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People mentally represent the shapes of objects. For instance, the mental representation of an eagle is different when one thinks about a flying or resting eagle. This study examined the role of shape in mental representations of "similes" (i.e., metaphoric comparisons). We tested the prediction that when people process a simile they…

Weelden, Lisanne; Schilperoord, Joost; Maes, Alfons

2014-01-01

373

Males Have Greater "g": Sex Differences in General Mental Ability from 100,000 17- to 18-Year-Olds on the Scholastic Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we found that 17- to 18-year old males averaged 3.63 IQ points higher than did their female counterparts on the 1991 Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT). We analysed 145 item responses from 46,509 males and 56,007 females (total N = 102,516) using a principal components procedure. We found (1) the "g" factor underlies both the SAT…

Jackson, Douglas N.; Rushton, J. Philippe

2006-01-01

374

An analysis of capacities for performance of mental defectives skilled in lacemaking. II. Performance pattern in selected non-standardized tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

11 lace-makers and 7 failures at lace-making, whose IQ's were 56 or below, performed five tasks: braiding (given only to the lace-makers) and mirror drawing, which were preliminary to marking, card sorting, and tapping. These tests consisted of a basic performance which was interfered with by the performance of a slightly different task, following which the basic task was resumed.

T. M. Abel; R. Hamlin

1938-01-01

375

Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.  

PubMed

Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development. PMID:24146093

Tran, Alisia G T T

2014-03-01

376

Sex differences in mental arithmetic, digit span, and g defined as working memory capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of .11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean male advantage of .47d; (3) the digit

Richard Lynn; Paul Irwing

2008-01-01

377

Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean…

Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

2008-01-01

378

Microcomputer-based tests for repeated-measures: Metric properties and predictive validities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A menu of psychomotor and mental acuity tests were refined. Field applications of such a battery are, for example, a study of the effects of toxic agents or exotic environments on performance readiness, or the determination of fitness for duty. The key requirement of these tasks is that they be suitable for repeated-measures applications, and so questions of stability and reliability are a continuing, central focus of this work. After the initial (practice) session, seven replications of 14 microcomputer-based performance tests (32 measures) were completed by 37 subjects. Each test in the battery had previously been shown to stabilize in less than five 90-second administrations and to possess retest reliabilities greater than r = 0.707 for three minutes of testing. However, all the tests had never been administered together as a battery and they had never been self-administered. In order to provide predictive validity for intelligence measurement, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wonderlic Personnel Test were obtained on the same subjects.

Kennedy, Robert S.; Baltzley, Dennis R.; Dunlap, William P.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

1989-01-01

379

FRAXE and mental retardation.  

PubMed Central

Mental impairment and instability of the CCG repeat at FRAXE is described in six kindreds. Cosegregation of FRAXA and FRAXE was found within one of these kindreds. Cytogenetic expression of FRAXE was shown to skip a generation when associated with a reduction in size of the CCG expansion when transmitted through a male; however, in general, transmission occurred through females and a copy number increased from one generation to the next. In these respects the behaviour of FRAXE paralleled that of FRAXA. A relationship between FRAXE and non-specific mental impairment is strongly suggested by the occurrence in these families of more mentally impaired male and female carriers, after removal of index cases, than could reasonably be expected by chance. PMID:7783162

Mulley, J C; Yu, S; Loesch, D Z; Hay, D A; Donnelly, A; Gedeon, A K; Carbonell, P; Lopez, I; Glover, G; Gabarron, I

1995-01-01

380

Violence and Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

2008-01-01

381

The Cataract National Dataset electronic multi-centre audit of 55 567 operations: risk indicators for monocular visual acuity outcomes  

PubMed Central

Aims To report risk factors for visual acuity (VA) improvement and harm following cataract surgery using electronically collected multi-centre data conforming to the Cataract National Dataset (CND). Methods Routinely collected anonymised data were remotely extracted from the electronic patient record systems of 12 participating NHS Trusts undertaking cataract surgery. Following data checks and cleaning, analyses were performed to identify risk indicators for: (1) a good acuity outcome (VA 6/12 or better), (2) the pre- to postoperative change in VA, and (3) VA loss (doubling or worse of the visual angle). Results In all, 406 surgeons from 12 NHS Trusts submitted data on 55?567 cataract operations. Preoperative VA was known for 55?528 (99.9%) and postoperative VA outcome for 40?758 (73.3%) operations. Important adverse preoperative risk indicators found in at least 2 of the 3 analyses included older age (3), short axial length (3), any ocular comorbidity (3), age-related macular degeneration (2), diabetic retinopathy (3), amblyopia (2), corneal pathology (2), previous vitrectomy (2), and posterior capsule rupture (PCR) during surgery (3). PCR was the only potentially modifiable adverse risk indicator and was powerfully associated with VA loss (OR=5.74). Conclusion Routinely collected electronic data conforming to the CND provide sufficient detail for identification and quantification of preoperative risk indicators for VA outcomes of cataract surgery. The majority of risk indicators are intrinsic to the patient or their eye, with a notable exception being PCR during surgery. PMID:22441022

Sparrow, J M; Taylor, H; Qureshi, K; Smith, R; Birnie, K; Johnston, R L

2012-01-01

382

The Effect of 3D Visual Simulator on Children's Visual Acuity - A Pilot Study Comparing Two Different Modalities  

PubMed Central

Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of two non-surgical interventions of vision improvement in children. Methods : A prospective, randomized, pilot study to compare fogging method and the use of head mounted 3D display. Subjects were children, between 5 to 15 years old, with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and up to -3D myopia. Subjects played a video game as near point work, and received one of the two methods of treatments. Measurements of uncorrected far visual acuity (UCVA), refraction with autorefractometer, and subjective accommodative amplitude were taken 3 times, at the baseline, after the near work, and after the treatment. Results : Both methods applied after near work, improved UCVA. Head mounted 3D display group showed significant improvement in UCVA and resulted in better UCVA than baseline. Fogging group showed improvement in subjective accommodative amplitude. While 3D display group did not show change in the refraction, fogging group’s myopic refraction showed significant increase indicating the eyes showed myopic change of eyes after near work and treatment. Discussion : Despite our lack of clear knowledge in the mechanisms, both methods improved UCVA after the treatments. The improvement in UCVA was not correlated to measured refraction values. Conclusion : UCVA after near work can be improved by repeating near and distant accommodation by fogging and 3D image viewing, although at the different degrees. Further investigation on mechanisms of improvements and their clinical significance are warranted. PMID:24222810

Ide, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Mariko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Miyao, Masaru

2013-01-01

383

Spontaneous mentalizing predicts the fundamental attribution error.  

PubMed

When explaining the reasons for others' behavior, perceivers often overemphasize underlying dispositions and personality traits over the power of the situation, a tendency known as the fundamental attribution error. One possibility is that this bias results from the spontaneous processing of others' mental states, such as their momentary feelings or more enduring personality characteristics. Here, we use fMRI to test this hypothesis. Participants read a series of stories that described a target's ambiguous behavior in response to a specific social situation and later judged whether that act was attributable to the target's internal dispositions or to external situational factors. Neural regions consistently associated with mental state inference-especially, the medial pFC-strongly predicted whether participants later made dispositional attributions. These results suggest that the spontaneous engagement of mentalizing may underlie the biased tendency to attribute behavior to dispositional over situational forces. PMID:24168220

Moran, Joseph M; Jolly, Eshin; Mitchell, Jason P

2014-03-01

384

No Myocardial Vulnerability to Mental Stress in Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Due to the frequent use of coronary angiography the awareness of Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSC) has increased although the exact pathophysiology of TSC is still largely unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of mental stress on myocardial function, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol (SC) in TSC patients. Design This study is a case-control study and a sub-study of the Stockholm Myocardial Infarction with Normal Coronaries (SMINC) study. Setting Mental stress test was performed more than 6 months after the acute event in TSC patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) - derived time-phases of cardiac cycle were recorded to calculate myocardial performance index (MPI) to assess ventricular function before and during mental stress. Holter-ECG recording was made to estimate HRV before, during and after mental stress. SC was measured at baseline, before and 20 minutes after mental stress. Subjects Twenty-two TSC patients and 22 sex-and age-matched controls were recruited from the SMINC-study and investigated with a mental stress test. All TSC patients had a previous normal cardiovascular magnetic resonance investigation. Results There were no significant differences at rest or during mental stress for left and right ventricular MPI or other standard diastolic variables between TSC patients and controls. HRV did not differ between TSC patients and controls. There was a trend towards less increase in SC after mental stress in TSC patients compared to controls. Conclusion Mental stress did not induce a significant difference in myocardial function or HRV response between TSC and controls. Moreover, no significant difference could be seen in SC response at baseline, during or after mental stress. This study indicates that myocardial vulnerability to mental stress does not persist in TSC patients. PMID:24695370

Collste, Olov; Tornvall, Per; Sundin, Örjan; Alam, Mahbubul; Frick, Mats

2014-01-01

385

Modelling of Human Low Frequency Sound Localization Acuity Demonstrates Dominance of Spatial Variation of Interaural Time Difference and Suggests Uniform Just-Noticeable Differences in Interaural Time Difference  

PubMed Central

Sound source localization is critical to animal survival and for identification of auditory objects. We investigated the acuity with which humans localize low frequency, pure tone sounds using timing differences between the ears. These small differences in time, known as interaural time differences or ITDs, are identified in a manner that allows localization acuity of around 1° at the midline. Acuity, a relative measure of localization ability, displays a non-linear variation as sound sources are positioned more laterally. All species studied localize sounds best at the midline and progressively worse as the sound is located out towards the side. To understand why sound localization displays this variation with azimuthal angle, we took a first-principles, systemic, analytical approach to model localization acuity. We calculated how ITDs vary with sound frequency, head size and sound source location for humans. This allowed us to model ITD variation for previously published experimental acuity data and determine the distribution of just-noticeable differences in ITD. Our results suggest that the best-fit model is one whereby just-noticeable differences in ITDs are identified with uniform or close to uniform sensitivity across the physiological range. We discuss how our results have several implications for neural ITD processing in different species as well as development of the auditory system. PMID:24558468

Smith, Rosanna C. G.; Price, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

386

Change in visual acuity is well correlated with change in image-quality metrics for both normal and keratoconic wavefront errors  

PubMed Central

We determined the degree to which change in visual acuity (VA) correlates with change in optical quality using image-quality (IQ) metrics for both normal and keratoconic wavefront errors (WFEs). VA was recorded for five normal subjects reading simulated, logMAR acuity charts generated from the scaled WFEs of 15 normal and seven keratoconic eyes. We examined the correlations over a large range of acuity loss (up to 11 lines) and a smaller, more clinically relevant range (up to four lines). Nine IQ metrics were well correlated for both ranges. Over the smaller range of primary interest, eight were also accurate and precise in estimating the variations in logMAR acuity in both normal and keratoconic WFEs. The accuracy for these eight best metrics in estimating the mean change in logMAR acuity ranged between ±0.0065 to ±0.017 logMAR (all less than one letter), and the precision ranged between ±0.10 to ±0.14 logMAR (all less than seven letters). PMID:24281244

Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Marsack, Jason D.; Bedell, Harold E.; Shi, Yue; Applegate, Raymond A.

2013-01-01

387

Community Mental Health Model for Campus Mental Health Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University and college mental health services have historically modeled themselves after a traditional clinic model. Few delivery systems have been influenced by the community mental health model. The major reason for this lack of influence appears to be the "in loco parentis" stance of colleges and universities. A campus mental health service…

Banning, James H.

388

School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2013-01-01

389

Attitudes Toward Mental Illness Among Mental Health Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research efforts have demonstrated relationships between the experience of mental health volunteers and their attitudes toward mental illness. Questionnaire surveys were completed by adult volunteers in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric programs in order to assess general attitudes toward mental patients and to control for the potential effects…

Wahl, Otto F.; And Others

390

The influence of juggling on mental rotation performance in children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all participants completed the mental rotation test again. Children of the EG showed a significant decrease in reaction time and an increase in mental rotation speed compared to the control group. This indicates that juggling improves the rotation in the mental rotation process in children with spina bifida. PMID:22929606

Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

2012-11-01

391

Musical Ability and Mental Subnormality: An Experimental Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research among mentally and educationally retarded children found that retardation in general ability was associated with retardation in musical ability. Factor analyses of musical tests identified a factor of musical ability, independent of intelligence, for this group. (Author/MJL)

McLeish, J.; Higgs, G.

1982-01-01

392

Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... mutation, and must be identified through further testing. Prenatal Testing Prenatal testing is used to determine if a fetus has ... used: In amniocentesis , the most common form of prenatal testing, a very fine needle is inserted into the ...

393

Supporting medical students with mental  

E-print Network

-to-moderate mental health conditions 23­24 15 Severe mental illnesses 25 16 Eating disorders 26­27 17 Substance. Medical schools must not treat students themselves or manage the treatment that students receive

Heinke, Dietmar

394

Mental Health Treatment Program Locator  

MedlinePLUS

... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Mental Health Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health treatment programs nearest you, find your State on ...

395

Disasters and Mental Health Research  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 1 Item) Populations Children and Adolescents (18 Items) Military Service Members (2 Items) Women’s Mental Health (1 ... 1 Item) Populations Children and Adolescents (18 Items) Military Service Members (2 Items) Women’s Mental Health (1 ...

396

Vulnerability and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of children has long been recognized in terms of their development needs and the importance of protecting their physical health. The extent, severity and impact of their mental health problems, including the particular vulnerabilities associated with such problems in both childhood and through to adult life, have been less of a public health priority. Vulnerabilities come in many

Beverley Raphael; Garry Stevens; Keirsten Pedersen

2006-01-01

397

Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

Towns, Kathryn; And Others

398

Lifestyle and Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

Walsh, Roger

2011-01-01

399

Lifestyle and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized despite considerable evidence of their effectiveness in both clinical and normal populations. TLCs are sometimes as effective as

Roger Walsh

2011-01-01

400

Seniors (Mental Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... also is possible that depression is an early symptom of Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia. Conclusion Having good mental health ... life does not ensure immunity from severe depression, Alzheimer’s disease, ... could be symptoms of conditions for which help is available. Seniors ...

401

Nutrition and Mental Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies on the effects of malnutrition on mental development are reviewed and the complexity of factors (such as alternatives in maternal behavior) surrounding malnutrition in animal studies is noted. Findings are cited which suggest that environmental stimulation may in part reverse the neurological effects and remediate some behavioral effects…

Crnic, Linda S.

1984-01-01

402

Migration and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings have moved from place to place since time immemorial. The reasons for and the duration of these migrations put extraordinary stress on individuals and their families. Such stress may not be related to an increase in mental illness for all conditions or to the same extent across all migrant groups. In this paper, we provide an overview of

Ben Z. Locke; Henrietta J. Duvall

1964-01-01

403

Mental simulation and argument  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how opinion on a controversial real-world issue shifts as a function of reading relevant arguments and engaging in a specific mental simulation about a future, fictional state of affairs involving the target issue. Individuals thought either counterfactually about a future event (“if only X had not happened …”) or semifactually about it (“even if X had not happened

David W. Green; Ronit Applebaum; Simon Tong

2006-01-01

404

Counseling Mentally Retarded Couples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an experimental group model developed for counseling mentally retarded couples. The selection of the group counseling format is explained, group composition and eligibility requirements are described, and initial assessment of individuals and couples is presented. Preliminary sessions, geared toward orienting the couple to the…

Spragg, Paul A.; Miller, Cheryl

405

Mom, Let Me Play More Computer Games: They Improve My Mental Rotation Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how 3-D and 2-D computer game practice and delivery as well as individual differences affect performance\\u000a on two tests of mental rotation (Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test and Card Rotation Test). Sixty-one US undergraduates from\\u000a the Midwest completed 4 h of either massed or distributed practice. While computer game practice improved mental rotation\\u000a scores in general, women’s gains were

Isabelle D. Cherney

2008-01-01

406

What Is Infant Mental Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

2012-01-01

407

Mental Health and the Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces special issue on the topic of mental health and the media. States that there is no single answer about the impact of the media. Suggests that articles attempt to encourage counselors to think critically about the role of the media in influencing individual mental health and in shaping public perceptions of mental health issues.…

Wilson, Nona L.

1999-01-01

408

Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation  

E-print Network

Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation in Florida Final Summary of Survey, with the Program Office of Substance Abuse and Mental Health in Florida's Department of Children and Families (DCF). Background Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) is an effective prevention and early

McQuade, D. Tyler

409

Chicano Aging and Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

410

Mental Health of Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children constitute nearly 40% of India's population, a significant portion of whom suffer mental ailments. Ways to sensitize those who work with children to various aspects associated with child mental health are explored in this book. The focus is not on mental handicap but on the internal or external distress which warps the psychosocial…

Kapur, Malavika

411

The HIV mental health spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing mental health needs that are related to HIV are immense and diverse. The HIV mental health spectrum is a model that identifies and characterizes populations in need of HIV-related services which can be offered by Community Mental Health Centers. The spectrum describes the specialized service requirements for each of these populations, the challenges in providing these services, and

Michael D. Knox; Maryann Davis; Martha A. Friedrich

1994-01-01

412

Mental health and housing.  

PubMed

With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and political organizations, (3) leisure-time clubs and (4) societies and institutions for promoting social integration, including educational, advisory and assistance bodies. The study of satiation processes offers an interesting approach to the relationship between housing and mental health. Man requires new stimuli to motivate him. Boredom and satiation serve to induce passivity and may provoke destructive behaviour and escapism. Finland has the highest percentage of dwellings constructed in the immediate post-war period of any country in Europe, and in respect of the functions of housing many aspects are still apparent which are detrimental to mental health. PMID:1273551

Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

1976-01-01

413

Confidence mediates the sex difference in mental rotation performance.  

PubMed

On tasks that require the mental rotation of 3-dimensional figures, males typically exhibit higher accuracy than females. Using the most common measure of mental rotation (i.e., the Mental Rotations Test), we investigated whether individual variability in confidence mediates this sex difference in mental rotation performance. In each of four experiments, the sex difference was reliably elicited and eliminated by controlling or manipulating participants' confidence. Specifically, confidence predicted performance within and between sexes (Experiment 1), rendering confidence irrelevant to the task reliably eliminated the sex difference in performance (Experiments 2 and 3), and manipulating confidence significantly affected performance (Experiment 4). Thus, confidence mediates the sex difference in mental rotation performance and hence the sex difference appears to be a difference of performance rather than ability. Results are discussed in relation to other potential mediators and mechanisms, such as gender roles, sex stereotypes, spatial experience, rotation strategies, working memory, and spatial attention. PMID:22130691

Estes, Zachary; Felker, Sydney

2012-06-01

414

Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?  

PubMed Central

Background A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. Methods A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a ‘total difficulties score’ and by classification as a ‘probable clinical case’. Results A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11–13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005–06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Conclusions Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage found among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and some Black African male students and female Indian students. PMID:22366123

Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie

2012-01-01

415

Presbyopia: a pilot investigation of the barriers and benefits of near visual acuity correction among a rural Filipino population  

PubMed Central

Background Presbyopia is the age-related decline in accommodation that diminishes the ability of the eye to focus on near objects. Presbyopia is common and easy to correct; however, many communities lack access to basic eye care. The purpose of this project was to assess the burden of uncorrected presbyopia in a rural Filipino population and to pilot an intervention aimed at increasing access to reading glasses in the community. Methods Individuals above the age of 40 who presented to a health outreach in the Philippines were invited to undergo a near vision exam to detect the presence of functional presbyopia and be fitted with ready-made, single-vision glasses. The change in stereoacuity was used as a surrogate measure of functional improvement after near vision correction. A questionnaire was administered to assess this population’s perceived barriers and benefits to correcting near vision. Results The average age of the participants was 57 ± 11 years, with 87.6% of participants having an uncorrected near visual acuity of <20/50. Reading glasses improved near vision to 20/40 or better in 77.7% of participants having near-vision impairment (uncorrected near visual acuity of <20/40). Over 75% of participants also showed improvement in stereoacuity. Cost, rather than availability, was perceived to be the greater barrier to the procurement of glasses, and 84% of participants reported that the glasses dispensed would greatly improve their ability to earn a living. Conclusions Dispensing ready-made, single-vision glasses is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve near vision and enhance depth perception. A greater understanding of the barriers and benefits to correcting near vision will inform the design and execution of a sustainable program to correct presbyopia in developing countries. PMID:24467667

2014-01-01

416

Mental health in the tropics.  

PubMed

Although problems in mental health constitute 14% of the global burden of disease, mental health has been largely missing from the international health agenda. The burden from mental illness is largely attributable to the chronically disabling nature of depression and other common mental disorders, alcohol-use and substance-use disorders, and psychoses. The last decade has seen some progress in addressing this gap. In 2001, the World Health Report, Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope, drew attention to the situation, with an appeal from the World Health Organization's Director General that 'mental health - neglected for far too long - is crucial to the overall well-being of individuals, societies and countries and must be universally regarded in a new light.' In September 2007, the journal Lancet launched the global mental health series, which highlighted the public-health dimension of mental health, identified barriers to receiving treatment, and gave a call for action to the nations of the world, to make a major commitment to upgrade the quality of mental-health services, to develop evidence-based treatment and preventive measures, to provide support for research in mental health, and to develop indicators to monitor progress. In October 2008, the World Health Organization launched the Mental Health Gap Action Programme, with the aim of scaling up the services for mental, neurological and substance-use disorders in all countries but especially those with low and middle incomes. The programme aims to develop evidence-based packages of care, psycho-social interventions and pharmacotherapy for tens of millions who could be treated for depression, schizophrenia and epilepsy, prevented from suicide, and begin to lead normal lives - even in very poor countries. While there is cause for optimism, much remains to be done. Most of all, there needs to be awareness amongst health providers and planners that mental health is an integral part of general health concerns, and that there can be no health without mental health. PMID:19208294

Rahman, A; Prince, M

2009-03-01

417

Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston  

PubMed Central

In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

Szasz, T

2001-01-01

418

Contemporary mental health rehabilitation.  

PubMed

In the United Kingdom, contemporary mental health rehabilitation services evolved during the period of deinstitutionalisation. They focus on people with complex psychosis, a "low volume, high needs" group which is at risk of social exclusion. Without these specialist services, this group is at risk of becoming stuck in a hospital or in other facilities that do not enable them to achieve their optimal level of autonomy. When a "whole system" of rehabilitative care is provided, including specialist inpatient facilities and supported accommodation, the majority are able to progress in their recovery and live successfully in the community. Rehabilitation is a complex intervention; current and further research is needed to identify the specific aspects of treatment and support it delivers that are most effective in enabling recovery and social inclusion for those with the most complex and long-term mental health needs. PMID:25316799

Killaspy, H

2014-09-01

419

WAR & Military Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

2007-01-01

420

The genocidal mentality  

SciTech Connect

Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future.

Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.

1990-01-01

421

'Can he have the test for bipolar, doctor? His dad's got it': exploring the potential of general practitioners to work with children and young people presenting in primary care with common mental health problems - a clinical initiative  

PubMed Central

Background General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in assessing and managing adult mental health problems, but this input is not seen in their management of child and adolescent mental health. Mental health problems in 5–19-year-olds are common, yet detection rates in primary care are low. The symptoms of most adult diagnoses of mental health problems are present by mid-adolescence, yet the typical time from onset to diagnosis is 5–15 years. The role of general practice in this area has been underexplored. Aim This pilot study explores the potential of GPs to respond to common mental health problems in children and adolescents. Design Children and young people who would have ordinarily been referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) were seen in a GP setting. In a UK general practice surgery serving a disadvantaged population. Method Children and young people were seen for an initial biopsychosocial assessment and formulation of the presenting concerns. GP-based interventions were offered as appropriate or referred to CAMHS. Results Data from the first 50 children (2–19 years) are presented. Twenty younger children (10 years and under) and 30 older children (11 years and above) were seen. Eighteen referrals were made to CAMHS. GP interventions included watchful waiting, brief behavioural interventions, non-directive counselling, brief cognitive– behavioural therapy (CBT) and liaison with colleagues in education, CAMHS and the voluntary sector. Conclusion This clinical pilot demonstrates that with adequate time, access to supervision and practice support, children and young people experiencing emotional and behavioural problems associated with common mental health issues can be helped in primary care. PMID:23730336

2012-01-01

422

Mental health promotion system.  

PubMed

Mental activity promotion system is presented that analyzes, quantifies, trains and prescribes based on analysis of logical, memorizing, concentrative, decisive, in conditions where time and space is involved, possibility of dementia, and on evaluation of lifestyle of subjects. Special consideration has been made to make the system motivational, persuasive, attractive and fun to use. The system has been successfully deployed in Bitgeoul Senior health town, Gwangju, South Korea. PMID:22255530

Farooq, Umar; Jang, Dae-Geun; Jang, Jae-Keun; Park, Seung-Hun

2011-01-01

423

Mental Health and Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. ...

Falconer, Mrs.

2007-03-18

424

Mentally disordered firesetters.  

PubMed

Research on firesetters suggests that the majority are mentally disordered. Schizophrenics are slightly over-represented but most arsonists are characterised by abnormal personalities. While motives for firesetting are usually mixed, anger and revenge are the commonest. Arsonists tend to be underassertive individuals with poor interpersonal skills who are unable to deal effectively with conflict, anger and frustration. This perhaps explains their choice of fire as a weapon. PMID:7735661

Smith, J; Short, J

425

Australian Indigenous mental health.  

PubMed

Understanding the complexity of another culture's health concerns is fraught with difficulty, yet 'ways forward' abound. Many researchers, including Indigenous people, have recorded cultural understandings of health, and made recommendations that have influenced the planning of Indigenous peoples' mental health care. Indeed, there is anticipation with vision for the future. Australian Indigenous people have suffered many losses, which have resulted in much social unrest, and mental and spiritual sorrow. The difficulty of belonging and adjusting to two different cultural contexts has led to particular physical health and mental health concerns for some. Health for Indigenous people is viewed within a holistic and community lifestyle framework, which is related to both past and present issues, and it is not necessarily individualized or compartmentalized. A closer liaison between the health traditions of both cultures, working together with education, good will and understanding of each other's health business, and working together within mainstream health services may assist with healing, reconciliation and improved Aboriginal holistic health. PMID:11421971

Brown, R

2001-03-01

426

Familiarity with Speech Affects Cortical Processing of Auditory Distance Cues and Increases Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several acoustic cues contribute to auditory distance estimation. Nonacoustic cues, including familiarity, may also play a role. We tested participants’ ability to distinguish the distances of acoustically similar sounds that differed in familiarity. Participants were better able to judge the distances of familiar sounds. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings collected while participants performed this auditory distance judgment task revealed that several cortical

Matthew G. Wisniewski; Eduardo Mercado; Klaus Gramann; Scott Makeig

2012-01-01

427

Effects of mental practice in novice learners in a serial positioning skill acquisition.  

PubMed

Summary.-The effects of mental practice in novices were investigated. University students (N = 60) performed a serial aiming task, distributed in 5 groups of 12: mental practice, physical practice, mental-physical practice (first mental then physical practice), physical-mental practice (first physical then mental practice), and a control group that only performed the tests. Participants transported three tennis balls among six containers in a pre-established sequence in a target time. In the acquisition phase and retention test (24 hr. later), the task was the same; in the transfer test, 5 min. after the acquisition phase, sequence and time changed. Six trials were performed in the acquisition phase, and each test consisted of 9 trials. The performance measures were absolute error, constant error, and variable error; a t test and a two-way ANOVA were used to compare the acquisition phase and tests, respectively. Physical practice and both groups of combined conditions presented better performance in tests than the mental practice and control groups. Mental practice without motor experience in the task did not improve motor learning. Prior physical performance is desirable before conducting mental practice. PMID:25202997

Gomes, Thábata V B; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Marinho, Nádia; Shea, John B; Raisbeck, Louisa D; Benda, Rodolfo N

2014-10-01

428

Emotional Intelligence in Siblings of Patients Diagnosed With a Mental Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The current study assessed the ability of siblings of patients diagnosed with a mental disorder on a measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer et al., 2002. Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT): User's Manual. Multi-Health Systems, Inc., Toronto, Ontario).Method: 30 siblings of patients diagnosed with a mental disorder by a mental health professional (mostly schizophrenia and

Avihay Sanders; Kate Szymanski

2012-01-01

429

Effect on prosthetic vision visual acuity by filtering schemes, filter cut-off frequency and phosphene matrix: a virtual reality simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual acuity of prosthetic vision was examined under virtual reality simulation. Prosthetic vision was simulated by first filtering an image using circular mean filters or Gaussian smoothing filters of different cut-off frequencies. Pixel values at 100 fixed sites of the filtered image were taken, sampling either with a regular rectangular or hexagonal matrix. Each pixel value was transformed into a

S. C. Chen; N. H. Lovell; G. J. Suaning

2004-01-01

430

Effect on Prosthetic Vision Visual Acuity by Filtering Schemes, Filter Cut-off Fre- quency and Phosphene Matrix: A Virtual Reality Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual acuity of prosthetic vision was examined under virtual reality simulation. Prosthetic vision was simulated by first filtering an image using circular mean filters or Gaussian smoothing filters of different cut-off frequencies. Pixel values at 100 fixed sites of the filtered image were taken, sampling either with a regular rectangular or hexagonal matrix. Each pixel value was transformed into a

S. C. Chen; N. H. Lovell; G. J. Suaning

431

Visual Acuity for High-Contrast Tri-bar Targets Illuminated with Spectra Simulating Night Vision Goggle (NVG) Displays and the No-moon Night Sky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents two studies that measured unaided visual acuity using a 50-in square high-contrast U.S. Air Force (USAF) 1951 Tri-Bar chart viewed from 12 ft at luminance levels ranging from 0.00046 fL (much darker than a night vision goggle NVG) dis...

E. Bender, J. Merritt, J. Smoot, V. G. CuQlock-Knopp

2010-01-01

432

The Relationship of the Purpose in Life (PIL) Test to the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test Scores, and Grade Point Averages of High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It appears that a positive relationship exists between certain attributes of a self-actualizing person and the life style of the person who scores high on the Purpose in Life Test. Perhaps self-actualization and strong purpose in life are related secondarily through separate relationships with other variables. (Author/JKS)

Martin, John D.; Martin, Elinor M.

1977-01-01

433

Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven short articles on the use of standardized tests in the United States are presented. Topics include: (1) the effects on school restructuring during the 1990's of the backlash against standardized tests; (2) the movement to replace multiple-choice standardized testing and its relationship with curricular goals; (3) the influence of…

McCurdy, Jack, Ed.; Speich, Don

1991-01-01

434

Custody and Access Evaluations: Issues for Mental Health Professionals Conducting Assessments withMentally Disordered or Mentally Retarded Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health professionals are increasingly beingcalled upon by the courts to offer their expertise inchild custody and access disputes. This paperaddresses the specialized role mental healthprofessionals have in custody and access hearings,particularly in cases wherein one or both parents havereceived a mental diagnosis (i.e., of mental disorderor mental retardation). The focus upon thispopulation of parents is warranted, as there is

Joti Samra-Grewal

1999-01-01

435

Mental health and disorders. Editorial.  

PubMed

Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". PMID:24375538

Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

2014-01-01

436

Marital transitions and mental health.  

PubMed

Most research identifies marital disruption as a precursor for poor mental health but is generally unable to discount the potential selection effect of poor mental health leading to marital disruption. We use data from nine annual waves of the British Household Panel Survey to examine social selection and social causation as competing explanations. Mental health is measured using the general health questionnaire. We examine mental health at multiple time points prior to and after a marital transition through separation or divorce and compare this process to those who experience widowhood. All groups transitioning out of marriage have a higher prevalence of poor mental health afterwards but for those separated or divorced, poor mental health also precedes marital disruption, lending support to both social-causation and social-selection processes. The processes both preceding and after the transition to widowhood differ, with increased prevalence of disorder centering around the time surrounding the death itself PMID:15305757

Wade, Terrance J; Pevalin, David J

2004-06-01

437

Cognitive adaptation and mental health: A motivational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested a motivational model where the beneficial impact that processes of cognitive adaptation have on mental health takes place through self-determined motivation. The model proposes that the components of cognitive adaptation theory (positive self-perceptions, perceptions of control, and optimism) foster a self-determined motivation. In turn, self-determined motivation predicts positive indices of mental health. In addition, the model

Catherine F. Ratelle; Robert J. Vallerand; Yves Chantal; Pierre Provencher

2004-01-01

438

ASSESSMENT OF MENTAL RETARDATION : NEED FOR NEWER APPROACHES*  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mental retardation is a complex, multifaceted condition. It is not a simple condition based primarily on intellectual capacities. Assessment of a retarded child should not be limited to intellectual functioning alone. It should give an idea of the individual?s strength and weaknesses globally. Unfortunately, in India, assessment of mental retardation is still primarily based on intelligence tests. There is a need to understand the limitations of such an approach. PMID:21927406

Nizamie, Alka; Nizamie, S. Haque; James, M.X.; Shukla, T.R.

1989-01-01

439

Changing Middle Schoolers' Attitudes About Mental Illness Through Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field test of The Science of Mental Illness curriculum supplement for middle school (grades 6–8) children provided an opportunity to assess knowledge and attitudes about mental illness in more than 1,500 middle school students throughout the United States and to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on stigma-related attitudes. Two primary questions were examined: (1) what are the

Amy C. Watson; Emeline Otey; Anne L. Westbrook; April L. Gardner; Theodore A. Lamb; Patrick W. Corrigan; Wayne S. Fenton

2004-01-01

440

Changing Middle Schoolers' Attitudes About Mental Illness Through Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field test of The Science of Mental Illness cur- riculum supplement for middle school (grades 6-8) children provided an opportunity to assess knowledge and attitudes about mental illness in more than 1,500 middle school students throughout the United States and to evaluate the impact of an educational interven- tion on stigma-relate d attitudes. Two primary ques- tions were examined:

Amy C. Watson; Emeline Otey; April L. Qardner; Theodore A. Lamb; Patrick W. Corrigan; Wayne S. Fenton

441

Epigenetic Mechanisms of Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mental retardation is a common form of cognitive impairment affecting ~3% of the population in industrialized countries. The\\u000a mental retardation syndrome incorporates a highly diverse group of mental disorders characterized by the combination of cognitive\\u000a impairment and defective adaptive behavior. The genetic basis of the disease is strongly supported by identification of the\\u000a genetic lesions associated with impaired cognition, learning,

Anne Schaefer; Alexander Tarakhovsky; Paul Greengard

442

Brazil's mental health adventure.  

PubMed

This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1997, I've spent my vacations traveling and working in Brazil as an Outside Consultant on mental health projects with colleagues in Rio and Sao Paulo. In my travels I've been befriended and supported by adherents of a social movement, not unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, that has struggled for many years to close Brazil's long-term psychiatric hospitals, create community-based services and expand the rights of mental patients. Now I see my Brazilian connection as part of my ongoing recovery. I see myself as having the opportunity to be a link between the mental health worlds of the U.S. and Brazil. I believe the two countries have much to offer each other when it comes to mental health. PMID:12653451

Weingarten, Richard

2003-01-01

443

Implementing new routines in adult mental health care to identify and support children of mentally ill parents  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. This knowledge has led to changes in Norwegian legislation, making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, and to provide necessary support for the children of mentally ill patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the process of implementing new routines in adult mental health services to identify and support children of mentally ill parents. Methods The design was a pre-test post-test study. The sample (N = 219 at pre-test and N = 185 at post-test) included mental health professionals in the largest hospital in the region, who responded to a web-based survey on the routines of the services, attitudes within the workforce capacity, worker’s knowledge on the impact of parental mental illness on children, knowledge on legislation concerning children of patients, and demographic variables. Results The results of this study indicated that some changes are taking place in clinical practice in terms of increased identification of children. Adult mental health services providing support for the children was however not fully implemented as a new practice. Conclusion The main finding in this study is that the identification frequency had increased significantly according to self-reported data since the Family Assessment Form was implemented. The increase in self-reported identification behavior is however taking place very slowly. Three years after the legislation was changed to making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, it was still not fully incorporated in the routines of the entire workforce. In terms of support for the families affected by parental mental illness, the changes are not yet significant. PMID:24507566