In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete. PMID:23909439
Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf
Integrating health education and health promotion into practice is routinely done by nurses. According to a national survey, the need for mental health services has increased in over two thirds of school districts. This article describes the screening of 193 adolescents in Rural Western Pennsylvania's 9th, 10th, and 11th graders for depressive symptoms. Ten percent (N=19) of students had depressive
Kathryn R. Puskar; Kirsti H. Stark; Carl I. Fertman; Lisa Marie Bernardo; Richard A. Engberg; Richard S. Barton
1 Beliefs and attitudes of French family practitioners towards depression: the impact of training (FPs), beliefs and attitudes toward depression and how they vary according to training received in mental health. Methods: The Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) was completed by 468 FPs from all
Background Compared with graduate students and young adults in the general population, depression is more prevalent among training physicians, yet physicians are often reluctant to seek mental health treatment. The purpose of this study is to identify perceived barriers to mental health treatment among depressed training physicians. Methods Subjects for this study were drawn from intern classes during the 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 academic years from 6 and 13 participating community and university hospitals, respectively. At 3-month intervals throughout the intern year, participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire regarding current depressive symptoms and questions regarding current mental health treatment. We explored potential barriers to mental health treatment at the end of the intern year and determined the proportion of subjects screening positive for depression and seeking treatment through analysis of subject responses. Stepwise binary logistic regression was conducted to compare baseline characteristics among depressed interns who sought mental health treatment and those that did not. Results Of the 42.5% (278 of 654) of interns who screened positive for depression, 22.7% (63 of 278) reported receiving treatment during the intern year. The most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment were time (91.5%), preference to manage problems on their own (75.1%), lack of convenient access (61.8%), and concerns about confidentiality (57.3%). Interns who had previously sought treatment for depression were more likely to seek treatment during internship. Conclusions Despite high rates of depression, few interns appear to seek mental health treatment due to time constraints, lack of convenient access, concerns about confidentiality, and a preference to manage problems on their own. By identifying barriers to mental health treatment we can begin to remove obstacles to the delivery of evidence-based treatments and implement prevention, screening, and early detection programs to improve the mental health of physicians in training. PMID:21975622
Guille, Constance; Speller, Heather; Laff, Rachel; Epperson, C. Neill; Sen, Srijan
Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241
McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch
Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241
McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M.; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch
Objective Stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a significant barrier to help seeking, leading to negative attitudes about mental health treatment and deterring individuals who need services from seeking care. This study examined the impact of public stigma (negative attitudes held by the public) and internalized stigma (negative attitudes held by stigmatized individuals about themselves) on racial differences in treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors among older adults with depression. Method Random digit dialing was utilized to identify a representative sample of 248 African American and White adults older adults (over the age of 60) with depression (symptoms assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Telephone based surveys were conducted to assess their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors, and the factors that impacted these behaviors. Results Depressed older adult participants endorsed a high level of public stigma and were not likely to be currently engaged in, nor did they intend to seek mental health treatment. Results also suggested that African American older adults were more likely to internalize stigma and endorsed less positive attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment than their White counterparts. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma partially mediated the relationship between race and attitudes toward treatment. Conclusion Stigma associated with having a mental illness has a negative influence on attitudes and intentions toward seeking mental health services among older adults with depression, particularly African American elders. Interventions to target internalized stigma are needed to help engage this population in psychosocial mental health treatments. PMID:20220602
Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy K.; Koeske, Gary; Rosen, Daniel; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brown, Charlotte
Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…
Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.
Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…
Price, Sarah Kye
Objective: To identify the growing significance of depression as a global leading cause of years lost to disability and its role as a major independent risk factor in many chronic illnesses. The distinct effects of depression on morbidity and mortality in cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke are investigated, including behavioral factors and plausible biological mechanisms (psychoneuroimmunology of depression). Data Sources: PubMed articles in English were searched from 1992 to 2012 (20-year span) using the following search criteria: psychoneuroimmunology of depression, immune-mediated inflammation, depression treatment recommendations, depression screening, years lost to disability, underserved populations and depression, chronic illnesses and depression, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and immune system. Data Synthesis: Evidence of the robust bidirectional relationship between depression and individual chronic diseases is presented and discussed. A brief overview of currently recommended psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment approaches in regard to depression in chronic diseases is provided. Results: Discordance between mental health and primary care within the US public health system is a systematic problem that must be addressed. This situation leads to a potentially high hidden prevalence of underdiagnosed and undertreated depression, especially in the underserved populations. Conclusion: Measures must be implemented across the communities of mental health and primary care practitioners in order to achieve a synergistic approach to depression. PMID:23930236
Richie, William D.; Bailey, Rahn K.
This study aims to explore mental health literacy, specifically focusing on depression, among Southeast Asian (SEA) elderly refugees residing in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Three focus groups were held with nine mental health professionals who work with SEA elders. Jorm's mental health literacy framework guided the…
Lee, Hee Yun; Lytle, Kathy; Yang, Pa Nhia; Lum, Terry
The authors examined the relationship among trauma, coping, depression, and mental health service seeking in a probability sample of sheltered homeless and low-income housed women. Results highlight the diversity of trauma. In a longitudinal analysis, women who lived in shelters or experienced major violence had a twofold increase in their risk of…
Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Elliott, Marc N.; Hambarsoomians, Katrin; Marshall, Grant N.; Tucker, Joan S.
Objectives: To study (a) the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (b) the utilization of mental health treatment in an ethnoracially diverse sample consisting primarily of Asian Americans, European Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Participants: Five hundred eighty-nine college students. Method: A questionnaire packet that…
Herman, Steve; Archambeau, Olga G.; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Chiu, Pearl H.; Frueh, B. Christopher
As primary caregivers of children with mental health problems, mothers face challenges that put them at risk for depression, which is rarely identified or addressed. The aims of this paper were to (a) identify mean differences among demographic, stressor, threat, and resource variables specified in a theoretical model and thought to be associated…
Gerkensmeyer, Janis E.; Perkins, Susan M.; Day, Jennifer; Austin, Joan K.; Scott, Eric L.; Wu, Jingwei
For the vast majority of persons of all ages who suffer from major depression, it is recurrent. A traditional wisdom has been that elderly persons respond more poorly to treatment for serious depression than younger persons. The psychiatric status of 127 elderly persons hospitalized for an episode of major depression was systematically assessed…
Hinrichsen, Gregory A.
Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention and is considered to be an important determinant of help-seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, as depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidality, has been the target of…
Chamberlain, Peter N.; Goldney, Robert D.; Taylor, Anne W.; Eckert, Kerena A.
This study examined racial/ethnic differences in self-reported depressive symptoms in a clinical population at a northeastern community mental health center. Two hundred eighty-two individuals presenting for mental health intake completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II in either English or Spanish. Latinas reported higher severity of depressive symptoms compared to both African Americans and non-Latina whites. Latinas showed higher levels on both the somatic and the affective/cognitive scales of the BDI-II. These findings differ somewhat from previous reports, some of which suggest that Latinas exhibit elevation specifically in somatic symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for assessment and treatment. PMID:24193296
Liefland, Linda; Roberts, David L; Ford, Ralph; Stevens, B Jamie
The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for the promotion of mental health and prevention of depression among older people. A systematic review of prospective controlled trials was conducted including 69 studies. The studies were divided into physical exercise, skill training, reminiscence, social activities, group support and multicomponent interventions. Data from 44 trials contributed to a meta-analysis of effectiveness. Overall, psychosocial interventions had a positive effect on quality of life and positive mental health. The pooled interventions also had a statistically significant effect on reduction in depressive symptoms. Social activities significantly improved positive mental health, life satisfaction and quality of life and reduced depressive symptoms. Based on the results of this study, duration of interventions is of importance, since interventions lasting for >3 months exhibited more positive effects compared with shorter interventions. Meaningful social activities, tailored to the older individual's abilities and preferences should be considered in aiming to improve mental health among older people. PMID:22079938
Forsman, Anna K; Nordmyr, Johanna; Wahlbeck, Kristian
Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…
Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae
One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359
Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena
Objective To examine the association between parent reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms within the first 3 years of a child’s life with subsequent mental health conditions and psychotropic drug treatment. Design Prospective cohort study linking parental IPV and depression with subsequent billing and pharmacy data. Setting 4 pediatric clinics between November 2004 and June 2012 Patients/Participants 2,422 children Main Exposure Any report of IPV and/or parental depressive symptoms from birth to 3 years of age. Main Outcome Measures ICD-9 mental health diagnoses and any psychotropic drug treatment between 3 and 6 years of age. Results 2.4% of caregivers (n=58) reported both IPV and depressive symptoms before their children were 3 years of age, 3% (n=69) of caregivers reported IPV only, 29% (n=704) reported depressive symptoms only, and 65.7% (n=1,591) reported neither exposure. Children of parents reporting both IPV and depressive symptoms were more likely to have a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (AOR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.5–10.9), even after adjusting for child gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance type. Children whose parents reported depressive symptoms were more likely to have been prescribed psychotropic medication (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0–3.4). Conclusions Exposure to both IPV and depression before 3 years is associated with preschool-onset ADHD; and early exposure to parental depression is associated with being prescribed psychotropic medication. PMID:23381234
Bauer, Nerissa S.; Gilbert, Amy L.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.
Abstract Purpose: to present clinical guidelines for exercise therapy in depressed patients derived from recent meta-analyses. Method: four meta-analyses on effects of physical exercise on mental and physical in depression were analysed. Results: For mild to moderate depression the effect of exercise may be comparable to antidepressant medication and psychotherapy; for severe depression exercise seems to be a valuable complementary therapy to the traditional treatments. Depression is associated with a high incidence of co-morbid somatic illnesses, especially cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Exercise is extremely powerful in preventing and treating these diseases. Physical exercise is an outstanding opportunity for the treatment of patients who have a mix of mental and physical health problems. Exercise therapy also improves body image, patient s coping strategies with stress, quality of life and independence in activities of daily living in older adults. Conclusions: Physical therapists should be aware, that several characteristics of major depression (e.g. loss of interest, motivation and energy, generalised fatigue, a low self-worth and self-confidence, fear to move, and psychosomatic complaints) and physical health problems interfere with participation in exercise. Therefore, motivational strategies should be incorporated in exercise interventions to enhance the patients' motivation and adherence in exercise programs. Implications for Rehabilitation For mild to moderate depression, the effect of exercise may be comparable with antidepressant medication and psychotherapy; for severe depression, exercise seems to be a valuable complementary therapy to the traditional treatments. Exercise therapy also improves physical health, body image, patient's coping strategies with stress, quality of life, and independence in activities of daily living in older adults. Motivational strategies should be incorporated in exercise interventions to enhance the patients' motivation. PMID:25342564
Knapen, Jan; Vancampfort, Davy; Moriën, Yves; Marchal, Yannick
Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish oil and folic acid supplements each have been used to treat depression successfully. Folate deficiency reduces the response to antidepressants. Deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, and selenium tend to be more common among depressed than nondepressed persons. Dietary antioxidants have not been studied rigorously in relation to depression. Childbearing-aged women are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of poor nutrition on mood because pregnancy and lactation are major nutritional stressors to the body. The depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and a lack of recovery postpartum may increase a woman’s risk of depression. Prospective research studies are needed to clarify the role of nutrition in the pathophysiology of depression among childbearing-aged women. Greater attention to nutritional factors in mental health is warranted given that nutrition interventions can be inexpensive, safe, easy to administer, and generally acceptable to patients. PMID:16040007
Bodnar, Lisa M.; Wisner, Katherine L.
1 The role of family history in mental health service utilization for major depression. Elena family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and mental health service utilization for MDD. Methods history. Mental health service utilization among participants with lifetime MDD was studied. Data were
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
Objective To identify the factors associated with 12-month mental health service use in primary care patients with depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional followed by 12-month cohort study. Setting and participants 10?179 adult patients were recruited from the waiting rooms of 59 primary care clinics across Hong Kong to complete a questionnaire which screened for depression. 518 screened-positive participants formed the cohort and were telephoned at 3, 6 and 12?months to monitor mental health service use. Primary and secondary outcomes ??Help-seeking preferences; ??Intention to seek help from a healthcare professional; ? 12-month mental health service use. Results At baseline, when asked who they would seek help from if they thought they were depressed, respondents preferred using friends and family (46.5%) over a psychiatrist (24.9%), psychologist (22.8%) or general practitioner (GP; 19.9%). The presence of depressive symptoms was associated with a lower intention to seek help from family and friends but had no effect on intention to seek help from a healthcare professional. Over 12?months, 24.3% of the screened-positive cohort reported receiving services from a mental health professional. Factors associated with service use included identification of depression by the GP at baseline, having a past history of depression or other mental illness, and being a public sector patient. Having a positive intention to seek professional help or more severe depressive symptoms at baseline was not associated with a greater likelihood of receiving treatment. Conclusions Mental health service use appears to be very low in this setting with only one in four primary care patients with depressive symptoms receiving treatment from a psychiatrist, GP or psychologist over a year. To help reduce the burden of illness, better detection of depressive disorders is needed especially for patients who may be undertreated such as those with no prior diagnosis of depression and those with more severe symptoms. PMID:25631313
Chin, Weng Yee; Chan, Kit T Y; Lam, Cindy L K; Lam, T P; Wan, Eric Y F
Background While it is recognized that psychosocial factors are important in the development and progression of musculoskeletal pain and disability, no systematic review has specifically focused on examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and knee pain. We aimed to systematically review the evidence to determine whether psychosocial factors, specifically depression, anxiety and poor mental health, are risk factors for knee pain. Methods Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO were performed to identify relevant studies published up to August 2012 using MESH terms and keywords. We included studies that met a set of predefined criteria and two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a best evidence synthesis was performed. Results Sixteen studies were included in the review, of which 9 were considered high quality. The study populations were heterogeneous in terms of diagnosis of knee pain. We found a strong level of evidence for a relationship between depression and knee pain, limited evidence for no relationship between anxiety and knee pain, and minimal evidence for no relationship between poor mental health and knee pain. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of the included studies, these data show that depression plays a significant role in knee pain, and that a biopsychosocial approach to the management of this condition is integral to optimising outcomes for knee pain. PMID:24405725
Objective: To determine and compare rates of homotypic continuity of childhood- and adolescent-onset depression into adulthood. Method: This was a naturalistic, prospective cohort study of children and adolescents receiving psychiatric care at all community mental health centers in Madrid, Spain, from January 1986 to December 2007. Data were obtained from a regional registry wherein all psychiatric visits to public mental health centers are recorded. Patients received their first diagnosis of an ICD-10 F32 or F33 depressive disorder between 6 and 17 years of age and were at least 20 years old at the time of their last visit. Subjects whose first diagnosis was in childhood (aged 6–12 years: depressed-child group) and subjects whose first diagnosis was in adolescence (aged 13–17 years: depressed-adolescent group) were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and rates of homotypic continuity in adulthood. Results: Five hundred twenty-eight patients with depressive disorders met inclusion criteria. The depressed-adolescent group had a higher proportion of girls (60.3%) compared to the depressed-child group, but did not differ on other demographic or clinical variables. Most subjects who later received treatment in adult mental health facilities (n = 243; 57.2%; 95% CI, 50.9–57.2) continued to be diagnosed with a depressive disorder. High rates of anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, and psychotic disorders in adulthood were observed among subjects from both groups. The absence of psychiatric comorbidity prior to age 18 years was associated with homotypic continuity of depressive disorder into adulthood. Conclusions: Subjects with adolescent-onset depression and subjects without comorbid psychiatric disorders in youth appear to have a higher level of homotypic continuity into adulthood. Both children and adolescents with depressive disorders are at risk for other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. PMID:22295270
Carballo, Juan J.; Muńoz-Lorenzo, Laura; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Dervic, Kanita; Oquendo, Maria A.
Background A minority of people suffering from depression seek professional help for themselves. Stigmatizing attitudes are assumed to\\u000a be one of the major barriers to help seeking but there is only limited evidence of this in large general population data sets.\\u000a The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between mental health attitude statements and depression and their links
Esa Aromaa; Asko Tolvanen; Jyrki Tuulari; Kristian Wahlbeck
African American adolescent boys underutilize mental health service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mental health needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to care. Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined the influence of mental health stigma and social support on depressive symptoms among African American adolescent boys. Findings indicated the protective effects of social support in decreasing depressive symptoms, especially when participants experienced mental health stigma. Results also revealed the pivotal role of family social support over both professional and peer support for participants who struggled with depressive symptoms. The primacy of family support among the sample, combined with the frequent distrust of professionals and peer networks, would indicate that working with families may improve initial identification of depression among African American adolescent boys and decrease their barriers to care. PMID:20953336
Lindsey, Michael A.; Joe, Sean; Nebbitt, Von
Background Mental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mental health service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC’s). Methods Post-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mental health among populations living in conflict. Political terror ratings and intensity of exposure to traumatic events were used in predictive models. Prevalence of severe cases was applied to chosen populations along with uncertainty ranges. Six populations deemed to be affected by the conflict were chosen for modelling: Misrata (population of 444,812), Benghazi (pop. 674,094), Zintan (pop. 40,000), displaced people within Tripoli/Zlitan (pop. 49,000), displaced people within Misrata (pop. 25,000) and Ras Jdir camps (pop. 3,700). Proposed targets for service coverage, resource utilisation and full-time equivalent staffing for management of severe cases of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on a published model for LMIC’s. Findings Severe PTSD prevalence in populations exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events was estimated at 12.4% (95%CI 8.5–16.7) and was 19.8% (95%CI 14.0–26.3) for severe depression. Across all six populations (total population 1,236,600), the conflict could be associated with 123,200 (71,600–182,400) cases of severe PTSD and 228,100 (134,000–344,200) cases of severe depression; 50% of PTSD cases were estimated to co-occur with severe depression. Based upon service coverage targets, approximately 154 full-time equivalent staff would be required to respond to these cases sufficiently which is substantially below the current level of resource estimates for these regions. Discussion This is the first attempt to predict the mental health burden and consequent service response needs of such a conflict, and is crucially timed for Libya. PMID:22808201
Charlson, Fiona J.; Steel, Zachary; Degenhardt, Louisa; Chey, Tien; Silove, Derrick; Marnane, Claire; Whiteford, Harvey A.
The goal of the current article is to present the results of a randomized pilot investigation of a brief dynamic psychotherapy compared with treatment-as-usual (TAU) in the treatment of moderate-to-severe depression in the community mental health system. Forty patients seeking services for moderate-to-severe depression in the community mental health system were randomized to 12 weeks of psychotherapy, with either a community therapist trained in brief dynamic psychotherapy or a TAU therapist. Results indicated that blind judges could discriminate the dynamic sessions from the TAU sessions on adherence to dynamic interventions. The results indicate moderate-to-large effect sizes in favor of the dynamic psychotherapy over the TAU therapy in the treatment of depression. The Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24 showed that 50% of patients treated with dynamic therapy moved into a normative range compared with only 29% of patients treated with TAU. PMID:22962971
Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Thompson, Sarah M; Scott, Kelli; Schauble, Lindsay A; Mooney, Tessa; Thompson, Donald; Green, Patricia; MacArthur, Mary Jo; Crits-Christoph, Paul
Age differences and relationships between occupational stressors, work environment, depressed mood, and propensity to leave were examined among 263 case managers (CMs) in community-based mental health agencies. For younger CMs, satisfaction with the supervisor, perceived job pressure and lack of organizational support were significant predictors of propensity to leave the job. Older CMs who reported lower satisfaction with financial rewards, the type of work they did, and greater use of avoidance/resignation and help seeking coping strategies, were more likely to rate themselves higher on the depressed mood scale. PMID:15529475
Gellis, Zvi D; Kim, Jong Chun
Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mental health promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (??70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mental health promotion intervention in improving client outcomes, reducing use of expensive health services, and improving clinical practice behaviours of home care providers. Future research should evaluate its efficacy using a randomized clinical trial design, in different settings, with an adequate sample of older home care recipients with depressive symptoms. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01407926. PMID:24886344
Web Sites Related to Mental Health Web Sites Related to Mental Health American Academy of Child://www.psychologicalscience.org/ Canadian Mental Health Association http://www.cmha.ca/ Center for Mental Health Services Research http://gwbweb.wustl.edu/Users/cmhsr/ Depression and Related Affective Disorders Association http://www.drada.org/ Disaster Mental Health http
de Lijser, Peter
Florida Mental Health Institute, dedicated to research, training and program development for improving psychological wellbeing, has four main divisions: Aging and Mental Health, Child and Family Studies, Community Mental Health, and Mental Health Law and Policy.
Exploration of the influence of neighbourhood social context on supportive relationships and social cohesion is on the rise. Positive social contexts may be less stressful for residents, resulting in mental wellbeing and calmness; whereas negative contexts may increase stress and deleterious mental health. To examine this, we measured the relationship between an Index of Neighbourhood Social Fragmentation and overall mental well-being in New Zealand. Then we examined the influence of fragmentation on two components of mental health: depression and calmness. Increased fragmentation was significantly associated with lower mental health scores for the entire population and for females, with similar but insignificant trends for males. Increased fragmentation was associated with increased depression in both sexes, but not calmness. Depression rather than calmness may contribute to the observed association between fragmentation and overall mental health. Groups vulnerable to stressful social contexts may be prone to depression in fragmented neighbourhoods. Further examination of the specific aspects of living in fragmented neighbourhoods which increase depressive feelings is warranted. PMID:24317391
Pearson, Amber L; Ivory, Vivienne; Breetzke, Gregory; Lovasi, Gina S
The goal of this investigation was to explore changes in psychotherapy utilization for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated in community mental health agencies across two cohorts. We used a Medicaid claims database including approximately 300,000 public sector clients. Although the use of psychotherapy alone showed a small decrease, there was a large increase in the use of combined medication and psychotherapy as a treatment for MDD. Race was a significant predictor of both treatment type received and length of treatment. African American consumers were more likely to receive psychotherapy alone than combined treatment and attended significantly fewer psychotherapy sessions. PMID:21298475
Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth; Rothbard, Aileen; Farris, Kimberly D; Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Thompson, Sarah M; Scott, Kelli; Heintz, Laura E; Gallop, Robert; Crits-Christoph, Paul
BACKGROUND: Australian General Practitioners have been beneficiaries of extensive training in mental health care delivery over the last few years but less so other workers who support those with mental illness. Training is needed as it is widely recognised that the most effective interventions to prevent and treat mental disorders are often not readily available. The Mental Health Aptitudes into
Annette L Graham; John Julian; Graham Meadows
The objective of this study is to examine gender and ethnic differences in Veterans Affairs (VA) health services utilization among Iraq and Afghanistan military Veterans diagnosed with depression. With VA administrative data, sociodemographics, utilization of outpatient primary care, specialty mental health and mental health treatment modalities (psychotherapy and antidepressant prescriptions) were collected from electronic medical records of 1,556 depressed Veterans treated in one VA regional network from January 2008 to March 2009. Health care utilization patterns were examined 90 days following being diagnosed with depression. ?(2) and t-tests were used to evaluate unadjusted differences in VA service use by gender and ethnicity. Logistic regression was used to fit study models predicting VA service utilization. Study results indicate no ethnic or gender differences in the use of specialty mental health services or in the use of mental health treatments. However, women Veterans, especially those from ethnic minority groups, were less likely to use primary care than white and nonwhite male Veterans. Collectively, these findings signal a decrease in historically documented disparities within VA health care, especially in the use of mental health services. PMID:24806496
Davis, Teri D; Deen, Tisha L; Fortney, John C; Sullivan, Greer; Hudson, Teresa J
The aim of the current article was to compare stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with stigma toward another weight-related condition (obesity) and a non-weight-related mental disorder (major depressive disorder [MDD]). Participants (N = 447) read five vignettes describing a woman with AN, BN, BED, obesity, or MDD and responded to questionnaires examining stigmatizing attitudes. The targets with EDs were blamed more for their condition than the targets with MDD, whereas persons with obesity were held more responsible for their condition than any other target. On the other hand, the target with MDD was perceived as more impaired than any other target. Lack of self-discipline was attributed more to the development of BED and obesity than to any other condition. Stigmatizing attitudes vary across mental health disorders, and future research should aim to specifically target stigmatizing beliefs to reduce and prevent discrimination toward mental health disorders and obesity. PMID:23538972
Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D
The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances. PMID:16342608
Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…
Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn
Objective: This study aimed to determine the impact of lifetime physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence (IPV) on the mental health of women, after controlling for the contribution of lifetime victimization. The comorbidity of depressive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their relation to state anxiety and suicide were also assessed. Methods: Physically\\/psychologically (n ? 75) and
Maria A. Pico-Alfonso; M. Isabel Garcia-Linares; Nuria Celda-Navarro; Concepcion Blasco-Ros; Enrique Echeburua; Manuela Martinez
Objective Although there has been growing evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for different clinical populations, its effectiveness as a public mental health intervention has not been studied. The present study evaluates a community-based MBCT intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Method The participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the MBCT intervention (n?=?76) or to a waiting list control group (n?=?75). Participants completed measures before and after the intervention. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. Results In the experimental condition significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance, and improvements in mindfulness and emotional- and psychological mental health were found, compared to the waiting list (effect sizes Cohen's d?=?0.31–0.56). These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher for the MBCT group [odds ratio (OR) 3.026, p<0.01 at post-treatment; NNT?=?5.10]. Discussion MBCT as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms seems effective and applicable in a natural setting. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR2096 PMID:25333885
Pots, Wendy T. M.; Meulenbeek, Peter A. M.; Veehof, Martine M.; Klungers, Jorinde; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.
1 STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY Revised January 2013 #12;2 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Context Widening with a notable increase in the numbers of students with significant mental health difficulties entering HE the continuum from promoting positive mental well-being to working with students with severe mental health
Martin, Ralph R.
Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system. Emerging research is establishing an association between omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic) and major depressive disorder. Evidence from epidemiological, laboratory and clinical studies suggest that dietary lipids and other associated nutritional factors may influence vulnerability and outcome in depressive disorders. Research in
Alan C Logan
BACKGROUND This study examined the effects of brief daily yogic meditation on mental health, cognitive functioning, and immune cell telomerase activity in family dementia caregivers with mild depressive symptoms. METHODS Thirty-nine family dementia caregivers (mean age 60.3 years old (SD=10.2)) were randomized to practicing Kirtan Kriya or listening to relaxation music for 12 minutes per day for eight weeks. The severity of depressive symptoms, mental and cognitive functioning were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) was examined in peripheral PBMC pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS The meditation group showed significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater improvement in mental health and cognitive functioning compared to the relaxation group. In the meditation group, 65.2% showed 50% improvement on the Hamilton Depression Rating scale and 52% of the participants showed 50% improvement on the Mental Health Composite Summary score (MCS) of the SF-36 scale; compared to 31.2% and 19% respectively in the relaxation group (pp<0.05). The meditation group showed 43% improvement in telomerase activity compared to 3.7% in the relaxation group (p=0.05). CONCLUSION This pilot study found that brief daily meditation practices by family dementia caregivers can lead to improved mental and cognitive functioning, and lower levels of depressive symptoms. This improvement is accompanied by an increase in telomerase activity suggesting improvement in stress-induced cellular aging. These results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. PMID:22407663
Lavretsky, H.; Siddarth, P.; Nazarian, N.; St. Cyr, N.; Khalsa, D.S.; Lin, J.; Blackburn, E.; Epel, E.S.; Irwin, M. R.
Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1) estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Haitian immigrant students; and 2) examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends) and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood). Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services may improve educational attainment and psychosocial health outcomes among Haitian immigrant youth. PMID:20028506
Developed as a public service by the National Institute of Mental Health, this Web site contains a wealth of materials that will be very useful to mental health practitioners, parents, and those who work with young people in any capacity. First-time visitors will want to read the brief notes on the mental health of children and adolescents, as well as the section dealing with the treatment of children with mental disorders, which answers some basic questions about various disorders and psychotropic medicines commonly prescribed to treat these conditions. The Educational Materials section provides a number of booklets, fact sheets, and additional Web sites on such conditions as autism, depression, learning disabilities, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Researchers and health care professionals will want to examine the sections devoted to current research reports and multi-center collaborations, including the Child and Adolescent Research Consortium and the Child Abuse and Neglect Working Group.
This study investigated the relationships among dysfunctional career thoughts and career indecision with respect to symptoms of depression. Such information could be useful to counselors in identifying individuals at the outset of career counseling who may be experiencing emotional distress from life stressors in addition to career stress.…
Walker, Jerry V., III; Peterson, Gary W.
Student Services Department. Helping Students With Mental Health Difficulties. #12;#12;This document has been produced to assist staff in their dealings with students with mental health difficulties.1 It aims to: If a student is experiencing mental health difficulties there will often be warning
leaflets Alcohol and depression Anorexia and Bulimia Anxiety, panic and phobias Bereavement Bipolar disorder Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Depression Depression in older adults Feeling on the Edge in pregnancy Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Personality disorders Physical illness and mental health Post
This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mental health and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mental health asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.
... Makers Â National Center Homepage Children's Mental Health Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Share Compartir Childrenâ€™s Mental Disorders: A ... Developmental Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Â Language: English Espańol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...
This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1997, I've spent my vacations traveling and working in Brazil as an Outside Consultant on mental health projects with colleagues in Rio and Sao Paulo. In my travels I've been befriended and supported by adherents of a social movement, not unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, that has struggled for many years to close Brazil's long-term psychiatric hospitals, create community-based services and expand the rights of mental patients. Now I see my Brazilian connection as part of my ongoing recovery. I see myself as having the opportunity to be a link between the mental health worlds of the U.S. and Brazil. I believe the two countries have much to offer each other when it comes to mental health. PMID:12653451
Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. PMID:25457687
Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation Stough, Laura M;Baker, Lynn Teaching Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; Pro...
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation Stough, Laura M;Baker, Lynn Teaching Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; Pro...
In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253
Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.
Background Psychiatric patients have the right to strive for well-being and not only be confined to symptom reduction. Studies are needed\\u000a to assess global well-being during recovery from depression by comparing the assessments of patients and clinicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method A 6-year natural follow-up of 185 depressive out-patients was carried out with health questionnaires at baseline, 0.5, 1,\\u000a 2 and 6 years, including scales on
Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen; Timo K. Tuovinen; Kirsi Honkalampi; Risto Antikainen; Jukka Hintikka; Kaisa Haatainen; Heimo Viinamäki
It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mental health outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks
Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman
Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…
Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.
, eatingDepression, anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorders, and other serious mental healthdisorders%), and suicidal thoughts (10%) that highlight the need for adequate(10%) that highlight the need for adequate mental health caremental health care #12;Connecting the DotsConnecting the Dots Different people may have
Rainforth, Emma C.
Proposed changes to the Mental Health legislation in England and Wales have been identified as having significant impact upon both mental health service delivery and professional roles. The authors explore how changes to mental health law translate to clinical practice. Additionally, this presentation aims to inform not only clinicians but also health organizations and educational institutes providing mental health law
John Hurley; Paul Linsley
This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mental health topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mental health, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mental health field.
Mental Health and Mass Violence Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims Institute of Mental Health (2002). Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological are available through: The National Institute of Mental Health Office of Communications and Public Liaison 6001
Baker, Chris I.
This document contains statistics on mental illness and organized mental health service delivery systems. Data sources cited include the National Institute of Mental Health, state mental health agencies, universities in the Epidemiological Catchment Area program, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Association of State…
Taube, Carl A., Ed.; Barrett, Sally A., Ed.
Mental Health Matters is a collection of various mental health articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.
Many theories of mental health agree on the important role played by cognition. They differ however in how and by what process cognition influences mental health. Research in cognitive neuroscience directs our attention to 4 major points as relevant to theories of mental health: (1) monism as a framework, (2) issue of neural plasticity, (3) connection between mental operation and action system (i.e., the control of cognitive and motor activity is shared by the same neural connection.), (4) the issue of the unconscious. On the other hand, research in cross-cultural psychology indicates that cognitive process is strongly influenced by cultural values and norms. Thus, a valid mental health theory should account for all these components. The paper discusses cross-cultural differences in information processing, particularly contrasting East Asian and Western cultural contexts, which may have implications for understanding of mental health and suggests the doctrine of Morita Therapy as a possible integrated theory. It also critiques some therapy techniques on the grounds of both cultural psychology and cognitive science. PMID:12875224
The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224
Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis
Students & Mental Health Resource Pack Produced by - www.rethink.org/at-ease/ SHEFFIELD EARLY is severe mental illness? 1.4 Treatment and prognosis What is mental health awareness? 2.1 Introduction 2 for students with experience of mental health problems 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Pre-entry guidance for students 5
1 Student Mental Health Committee Final Report University of California Office of the President: Report of the University of California Student Mental Health Committee On behalf of the Student Mental in December 2005, and was given a charge to assess 1) trends in student mental health, 2) how these trends
O'Toole, Alice J.
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
Providing affordable and comprehensive metal health services for those who need these services is a tremendous challenge for the helping professions. The demand for services across the nation exceeds the ability of the mental health community to provide them. This is especially true for rural communities. DeLeon (2000) reported that even though 25% of the citizens of the United States
DAVID L. FENELL; ALAN J. HOVESTADT
Located at the National Institutes of Health, NIMH is focused on mental health: Depression, Anxiety Disorders, Alzheimer's Disease, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Schizophrenia, etc. The site contains items of interest to the researcher (news & events, grants, contracts, & committees, and research activities) as well as the lay person (the public information section provides specifics on "mental disorders, diagnosis and treatment," as well as links to other NIMH programs such as D/ART, the Depression Awareness Recognition Treatment Program). Additionally, NIMH organizational and directory information is available. The site can be searched, through either a simple or an advanced search interface.
Little information is available concerning community-based interventions to treat the growing number older persons with severe mental illness. This study examined treatment efficacy of a specialized interdisciplinary geriatric mental health team (mental health geriatric interdisciplinary teams or MHGITs) for 69 older clients with severe mental disorders. Depression, life satisfaction, health, and psychiatric and medical hospitalization data were gathered. A decrease
Sherry M. Cummings
... emotional health can sometimes have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause, such as a ... with family, work or school can sometimes trigger mental illness or make it worse. However, people who are ...
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…
The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure
Evelyn J Bromet
Researchers indicate that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the Arab region is similar to that found in other parts of the world. Women, in particular, are more likely to suffer various disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, somatization, and eating disorders. In this article, the author highlights some of the research on the mental health needs of Arab women. Consideration
Most inequality research on the relationship between inequality and mental health has focused on cross-country variation. Findings from within-country data are mixed. We examined whether changes in municipal Gini index or in the share of people living in relative poverty were linked to changes in the use of antidepressants in several Finnish municipalities between 1995 and 2010. We found that more young adult females used antidepressants in municipalities where relative poverty had increased. Changes in municipal-level Gini index were not positively associated with changes in the use of antidepressants in the municipalities between 1995 and 2010. However, fewer elderly females used antidepressants in municipalities where the Gini index increased. In addition, more young adults used antidepressants in municipalities where the number of those not being educated or trained had also increased. An increase in the number of persons over 65 years of age living alone was positively associated with an increase in the use of antidepressants among elderly females. PMID:24676058
MENTAL HEALTH and INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: What Educators Need to Know Ingle International cares about you and your students www.studyinsured.com #12;www.studyinsured.comMental Health and International Students: What Educators Need to Know Mental Health and International Students: What Educators Need to Know
Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation in Florida Final Summary of Survey, with the Program Office of Substance Abuse and Mental Health in Florida's Department of Children and Families (DCF). Background Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) is an effective prevention and early
McQuade, D. Tyler
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
BACKGROUND: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional\\/behavioral problems. METHODS: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and adolescents. Strategies for systematic planning for mental health screening in schools are presented.
Mark D. Weist; Marcia Rubin; Elizabeth Moore; Steven Adelsheim; Gordon Wrobel
The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…
Segal, Julius, Ed.
Problem-solving therapy for depression and common mental disorders in Zimbabwe: piloting a task-shifting primary mental health care intervention in a population with a high prevalence of people living with HIV
Background There is limited evidence that interventions for depression and other common mental disorders (CMD) can be integrated sustainably into primary health care in Africa. We aimed to pilot a low-cost multi-component 'Friendship Bench Intervention' for CMD, locally adapted from problem-solving therapy and delivered by trained and supervised female lay workers to learn if was feasible and possibly effective as well as how best to implement it on a larger scale. Method We trained lay workers for 8 days in screening and monitoring CMD and in delivering the intervention. Ten lay workers screened consecutive adult attenders who either were referred or self-referred to the Friendship Bench between July and December 2007. Those scoring above the validated cut-point of the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) for CMD were potentially eligible. Exclusions were suicide risk or very severe depression. All others were offered 6 sessions of problem-solving therapy (PST) enhanced with a component of activity scheduling. Weekly nurse-led group supervision and monthly supervision from a mental health specialist were provided. Data on SSQ scores at 6 weeks after entering the study were collected by an independent research nurse. Lay workers completed a brief evaluation on their experiences of delivering the intervention. Results Of 395 potentially eligible, 33 (8%) were excluded due to high risk. Of the 362 left, 2% (7) declined and 10% (35) were lost to follow-up leaving an 88% response rate (n = 320). Over half (n = 166, 52%) had presented with an HIV-related problem. Mean SSQ score fell from 11.3 (sd 1.4) before treatment to 6.5 (sd 2.4) after 3-6 sessions. The drop in SSQ scores was proportional to the number of sessions attended. Nine of the ten lay workers rated themselves as very able to deliver the PST intervention. Conclusion We have found preliminary evidence of a clinically meaningful improvement in CMD associated with locally adapted problem-solving therapy delivered by lay health workers through routine primary health care in an African setting. There is a need to test the effectiveness of this task-shifting mental health intervention in an appropriately powered randomised controlled trial. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN25476759 PMID:22029430
The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention
Linda Rose; Jeanne Alhusen; Shreya Bhandari; Karen Soeken; Kristen Marcantonio; Linda F. C. Bullock; Phyllis W. Sharps
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. ...
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…
Vail, David J.
... or natural disasters such as hurricanes, are at risk of developing mental health issues. Dr. Sandro Galea : But we also know that people who are isolated- socially isolated- are at great risk of mental illness after these events. We know ...
Mental health problems--and depression in particular--have been rising internationally. The link between poor mental health and poor educational outcomes is particularly interesting in the case of the UK which has a low international ranking both on measures of child wellbeing and the probability of early drop-out from the labour market and…
Cornaglia, Francesca; Crivellaro, Elena; McNally, Sandra
Fifty looked after young people and their carers were interviewed to elicit whether, intuitively, they considered the young person to have a mental health problem and when they would seek professional help. This intuitive judgement of need was compared with responses to a mental health screen, and specific depression and conduct disorder scales. The results suggest that carers perceived 70%
Jenny Mount; Andrew Lister; Ian Bennun
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that people living with depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions are twice as likely to have tried e-cigarettes and three times as likely to be current users of the controversial battery-powered nicotine-delivery devices, as people without mental health disorders.
In a study of a stratified random sample of 356 Canadian women, stress, anxiety and depression were among the most frequently reported health problems. The first part of this paper outlines the different social characteristics of those who reported stress, anxiety and depression. Women experienced mental health problems differently depending on their socio-economic status, ethnicity, family structure, the quality of
Mental health is becoming a central issue for public health complex emergencies. In this review we present a culturally valid mental health action plan based on scientific evidence that is capable of addressing the mental health effects of complex emergencies. A mental health system of primary care providers, traditional healers, and relief workers, if properly trained and supported, can provide cost-effective, good mental health care. This plan emphasises the need for standardised approaches to the assessment, monitoring, and outcome of all related activities. Crucial to the improvement of outcomes during crises and the availability to future emergencies of lessons learned from earlier crises is the regular dissemination of the results achieved with the action plan. A research agenda is included that should, in time, fill knowledge gaps and reduce the negative mental health effects of complex emergencies. PMID:15582064
Mollica, R F; Cardozo, B Lopes; Osofsky, H J; Raphael, B; Ager, A; Salama, P
Mental health and mental illness are mounting concerns in the United States. It is estimated that by 2020, mental illness will be the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. These rising rates have been attributed to a lack of access to mental health care, lack of knowledge regarding mental health treatment options, and stigma concerning mental health
Elvin Thomaseo Burton
The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. High-rise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer's patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms. Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple environmental risk exposure. PMID:14709704
Evans, Gary W
Background The recent adoption of China's new national mental health law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mental health literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mental health literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mental health promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mental health literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mental health literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments used to assess mental health literacy (MHKQ and CAQ) have not been adequately assessed so this result must be considered preliminary. Further work, preferably including both qualitative and quantitative components, is needed to revise these instruments before they can be used to assess the effectiveness of mental health promotion campaigns. PMID:24991160
Wang, Jingyi; He, Yanling; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Jun; Wang, Weiling; Zeng, Qingzhi; Miao, Juming; Qi, Xuejun; Chen, Jianxin; Bian, Qian; Cai, Chun; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Ziqing; Zhang, Mingyuan
Perspectives, provided by Mental Health Net, is a quarterly online magazine devoted to mental health. It features short (usually less than 2,000 word) articles about all aspects of its topic. The Vol. 1, No. 4 issue contains articles on Prozac, loneliness, and managed care, among others. It also includes a regular column on "Being Human." Archives are available at the site, as are submission guidelines. Mental Health Net is a well known "comprehensive guide to mental health online," with pointers to resources in the field, arranged by topic and resource type.
Objective: To identify the prevalence of three mental disorders (Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder), the prevalence of mental health problems, the health-related quality of life of those with problems, and patterns of service utilisation of those with and without mental health problems, among 4–17-year-olds in Australia. To identify rates of health-risk behaviours among adolescents with mental health problems.Method:
M. G Sawyer; F. M. Arney; P. A. Baghurst; J. J. Clark; B. W. Graetz; R. J. Kosky; B Nurcombe; G. C. Patton; M. R. Prior; B Raphael; J. M. Rey; L. C Whaites; S. R Zubrick
A large body of evidence shows that a bidirectional relationship exists between mental disorders, such as depression, and medical illnesses, which has a negative impact on the prognosis and treatment of either the former or latter condition. An adequate collaboration among primary health care professionals, specialist physicians, and psychiatrists is required. Various mental health care models, including multidisciplinary collaborative care model, as well as guidelines for depressive disorders have been developed in the primary care setting. In these models, patients have a much better guarantee of accessing integrated care than patients referred to a second-line mental health care setting, which is currently a common practice in Japan. PMID:22413488
Nishimura, Katsuji; Ishigooka, Jun
This paper reviews the epidemiological research evidence on the role of socio-economic factors in the origins and disease experience of schizophrenia and major depression. The studies were conducted in different countries over many years. Although their findings are divided in their support of either the social causation or the drift hypothesis, all of them agree that persons with these disorders are at high disadvantage in society. Several factors for this have been identified. These studies provide the rationale for community-based interventions that have to be guided by principles of equity in the distribution of resources and grounded in biopsychosocial models of care that comprehensively answer the needs of the affected populations. PMID:16633546
SARACENO, BENEDETTO; LEVAV, ITZHAK; KOHN, ROBERT
For people who are living with a mental health condition, it can be most helpful to have access to high-quality and authoritative information. The National Institute of Mental Health provides such information on the publications area of their website, and visitors can make their way through fact sheets, booklets, and Spanish-language versions of these documents here. The topical fact sheets are quite good, and they include titles such as "Suicide in the U.S.: Statistics and Prevention" and "Depression: A Treatable Illness". Moving on, the "Booklets" area includes "Eating Disorders", "Depression", and ten other offerings. Finally, the right-hand side of the site includes news about recent research findings from the Institute.
Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938
Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pĺl-Řrjan
Quality and relevance of domain-specific search: a case study in mental health Thanh Tin Tang.firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Kathy Griffiths and Helen Christensen Centre for Mental Health Research, ANU crawl- ing, mental health, depression 1 Introduction Searching for health information is a common activ
In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…
Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.
Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and
Barbara W. Posthuma
This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…
What Is Why Is It Important? ? #12;What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health? What is infant mental health? Does the term "infant mental health" make you think of a baby on a couch telling his problems to a psychiatrist? So what is infant mental health? Infant mental health reflects
McQuade, D. Tyler
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257
Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.
Background While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) predict all cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55?years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. Scores were calculated for HADS depression (HADS-D), HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and GHQ-30. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality. Results After adjusting for serious physical illness, smoking, social class, alcohol, obesity, pulse rate and living alone, HRs (95% CI) per SD increase in score for all-cause mortality were: 1.15 (1.07 to 1.25) for HADS-D; 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) for GHQ-30 and 1.05 (0.96 to 1.14) for HADS-A. After the same adjustments, cardiovascular disease mortality was also related to HADS-D (HR 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)), to GHQ-30 (HR 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)) and to HADS-A (HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32)); respiratory mortality to GHQ-30 (HR 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55)) and mortality from other causes, excluding injuries, to HADS-D (HR 1.28 (1.05 to 1.55)). Conclusions There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators. PMID:23543730
Hannah, Mary Kathleen; Batty, G David; Benzeval, Michaela
Public health systems have relied on public health surveillance to plan health programs, and extensive sur- veillance systems exist for health behaviors and chronic disease. Mental health has used a separate data collection system that emphasizes measurement of disease preva- lence and health care use. In recent years, efforts to inte- grate these systems have included adding chronic disease measures
Elsie J. Freeman; Lisa J. Colpe; Tara W. Strine; Satvinder Dhingra; Lisa C. McGuire; Laurie D. Elam-Evans; Geraldine S. Perry
Cognition November, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://www.intranet2.capitalhealth.ca/regional%2. #12;Cognition November, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation
The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health. PMID:15276942
Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail
This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171
Butts, Hugh F.
in the definition and maintenance of mental health and "mental illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different
Summary \\u000a Domestic violence is a major public health problem throughout the world. Domestic violence against women is perpetrated by\\u000a intimate male partners on family members, and may give rise to both physical and mental health sequelae. Mental health consequences\\u000a include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorder, somatization,\\u000a and self-harm behaviours. Psychiatrists may be called upon to
D. E. Stewart; G. Erlick Robinson
School Mental Health: A Federal Perspective David Esquith Director for the Office of Safe Ingrid Donato Branch Chief, Mental Health Promotion, Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) #12;Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal
Weber, David J.
While more than 800,000 people die from suicide globally each year, the median amount of the health budget allocated to mental health in 2011 was 2.8%. In Afghanistan, six out of every 100,000 men committed suicide. In the United States, that number was 19. These and other data can be gleaned from the age-standardized suicide rates interactive graph on the World Health OrganizationĂ˘ÂÂs Global Health Observatory website dedicated to issues of Mental Health. Additionally, the page provides links to reports on Policy and financing of mental health, Human resources (in terms of the number of psychiatrists available per 100,000 people in a given country), and Mental health care delivery.
As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) remains the countryâ??s oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mental health and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The â??Need Info?â?ť area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mental health news coverage.
awareness of online e therapies for depression. Co-I 3. RESEARCH STUDENT SUPERVISION Postgraduate research is recommended as an Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT)anxiety and depression self-help resource, and usedPSYSTAR CV Institute/ Group Institute of Health and Wellbeing / Mental Health and Wellbeing group
... A Guide for Latinos and their families. Latino Mental Health Video - English View the Video in Spanish Cultural ... Latinos with mental illness often go without professional mental health treatment. At-Risk Groups Studies have shown that ...
Rural schools often can not provide the same access to mental health service as schools in larger population areas can.. Understanding the implications of these sometimes limited services is important in overcoming barriers to adequate services...
Lee, Steven W.; Lohmeier, Jill H.; Niileksela, Christopher Robert; Oeth, Jessica
Although there have been growing concerns about stress in nursing over recent years, research has primarily focused on general nurses. This paper reports on stress in mental health nursing. The data were obtained, via questionnaires, from mental health nurses at the end of their training. Four-hundred and forty-seven questionnaires were returned, an 80% response rate. Open-ended questions were asked about
C. J Kipping
This fact sheet addresses the mental health needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mental health problems, that these mental health problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mental health problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine. PMID:15276949
Parameshvara Deva, M
Objectives We examined whether Black Americans and Hispanic Americans experienced greater mental health benefits from religious involvement than White Americans, and whether these benefits would be mediated through three psychosocial factors—social support, meaning and forgiveness. Methods Utilizing data from a probability sample of Chicago-based adults (n=3103), ethnicity-stratified multivariate regression models estimated the association of religiosity with depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Models controlled for potential confounders and psychosocial mediators. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, religiously involved Black Americans and Hispanic Americans did not experience greater mental health benefits than their White counterparts. For White Americans alone, service attendance was inversely related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Religious saliency was consistently associated with worse mental health for Hispanic Americans only. However, both meaning and forgiveness conferred mental health benefits for all three groups. Conclusions The benefits of specific aspects of religious involvement vary across ethnicity. Caution is necessary in any effort to bring religion into the health domain. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that initiatives that facilitate a sense of purpose or forgiveness are likely to prove promising in improving mental health, regardless of race or ethnicity. PMID:22296590
Sternthal, Michelle J.; Williams, David R.; Musick, Marc A.; Buck, Anna C.
Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE that having a psychiatric disorder is associated with a 25 percent lower likelihood of working. Mental health
New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Bureau of Mental Health (BMH) or Bureau of Children, Youth and Families (CYF). Individuals
One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…
Chen, Martin K.
A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105
Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael
E-mental health refers to the use of telecommunication and information technology in mental health services. In Greece, ordinary telephone communications have been used to provide mental health services, such as a psychiatric crisis intervention line (METB). E-psychiatry is a relatively new approach to delivering psychiatric services through the Internet. We have developed an e-psychiatry Website, Glaucopis-net. The main objective is to provide information on a broad range of psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, depression and anxiety. Email mental health services will be offered as an alternative way of accessing help. Confidentiality issues concerning patient records and personal data will be treated in accordance with Greek legislation. Glaucopis-net will integrate new telecommunication and information services with classical mental health services. PMID:12217134
Lambousis, E; Politis, A; Markidis, M; Christodoulou, G N
The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. PMID:20655596
Palermo, George B
This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ? 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ? 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment. PMID:24939314
Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun
This study assessed depression, anxiety, and relevant cognitions in 46 adults with borderline, mild, or moderate mental retardation. Consistent with research on other groups, self-reports of depression and anxiety were highly correlated and cognitions were strong predictors of negative affect. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses offered…
Glenn, Elizabeth; Bihm, Elson M.; Lammers, William J.
Background: This study aimed to examine the patterns of association between cannabis use, and anxiety and affective disorders, in the\\u000a general population. Method: Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being, a representative survey of Australians aged 18\\u000a years and over, were analysed to address the following questions: (1) is there an association between cannabis use, DSM-IV
L. Degenhardt; W. Hall; M. Lynskey
Objective: We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of obesity in individuals with a mood disorder (MD) (that is, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder), compared with the general population. We further aimed to examine the likelihood of an association between obesity and MD, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic variables. Method: The analysis was based on data from Statistics
Roger S McIntyre; Jakub Z Konarski; Kathryn Wilkins; Joanna K Soczynska; Sidney H Kennedy
Counseling and Mental Health Services Page 1 OUR MISSION The mission of Counseling and Mental Disclosure and Confidentiality The privacy of your mental health information, including all written of all disciplines involved in your treatment. Uses and Disclosures of Your Mental Health Information
Alpay, S. Pamir
The privacy and security of patients' medical records continue to challenge mental health practitioners in an ever-increasing electronic environment. Although practitioners were to be in compliance of the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) by April 20, 2006, many practitioners still struggle to understand the nuances of the regulations. This article will cover the areas of HIPAA that
Timothy D. Letzring; Marilyn S. Snow
Seminar in Health and Mental Health Economics Spring 2012 Profs. John topics in health and mental health economics. The main objectives into several major topical modules: (1) comparative effectiveness; (2) health
&Treatment," " Children, Youth & Families," or "Mental Retardation and Developmental DisabilitiesNew York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the Bureau of Mental Health. Individuals
Noting that the physical and mental growth of children are influenced by many environmental and familial factors, this paper explores improving the well being of children. The first part of the paper discusses child rearing, emphasizing three fundamental themes: creating an environment where children are born healthy and wanted; helping children…
Albee, George W.
... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. ? Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...
Background Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859]. Results The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health Significance for public health The present study is an original study on the self rated physical, mental and overall health measures. Because of the wide range of associations with other health indicators, and the simplicity with which they are collected, self-rated health measures are widely used in large population surveys. The present study questions the automatic assumption that the self rated mental health functions as a proxy measure of psychiatric morbidity, and suggests that the self rated mental health is more closely related to subjective well-being. The results show that self rated mental health predicts self rated general health better than self rated physical health. PMID:25553310
Levinson, Daphna; Kaplan, Giora
Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders
Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1) Watchful waiting, (2) Guided self-help, (3) Problem Solving Treatment and (4) Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia), generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610. PMID:19500346
Seekles, Wike; van Straten, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan; van Marwijk, Harm; Cuijpers, Pim
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for the largest burden of early mortality and are predicted to cost the global community more than US $30 trillion over the next 20 years. Unhealthy dietary habits, in large part driven by substantial changes to global food systems, are recognised as major contributors to many of the common NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Recent evidence now indicates that unhealthy diets are also risk factors for mental disorders, particularly depression and dementia. This affords substantial scope to leverage on the established and developing approaches to the nutrition-related NCDs to address the large global burden of these mental disorders and reinforces the imperative for governments take substantial actions in regards to improving the food environment and consequent population health via policy initiatives. PMID:24884515
Medical school is a stressful and challenging time in the academic career of physicians. Because of the psychological pressure inherent to this process, all medical schools should have easily accessible medical student mental health services. Some schools of medicine provide these services through departments of psychiatry or other associated training programs. Since this stressful lifestyle often continues through residency training and life as a physician, this is a critical period in which to develop and utilize functional and effective coping strategies. When psychiatrists provide the mental health treatment to medical students, it is important to consider transference and countertransference issues, over intellectualization, and instances of strong idealization and identification. PMID:19724734
Mental health problems in women, children, and adolescents are a significant public health issue. Given current barriers to the effective treatment of these problems, researchers are looking to the field of nutrition for potential alternatives to better understand and address mental health issues. The purpose of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between zinc and mental health disorders with a focus on 2 mental health problems that commonly affect women and children: depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search of the databases Medline and PsychInfo was conducted with the use of key terms. The review included articles from 1975 to May 2008, but focused on articles published in recent years. Relations between zinc concentrations and behavior in animals; the relation between zinc deficiency, depression, and ADHD in patient and community samples; and the potential biological mechanisms for these relations were explored. The data support a relation between low concentrations of zinc and mental health problems, especially in at-risk populations. Evidence for the potential use of zinc in treating mental health problems comes mainly from patient populations and is strongest when zinc is given in combination with pharmacologic treatment. Less conclusive evidence exists for the effectiveness of zinc alone or in general community samples. Recommendations for further research in this area are provided. PMID:19176735
DiGirolamo, Ann M; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel
Excellence in Mental HealthCare: PuttingEvidence intoPractice Health Service and Population and improving the quality of life of people with mental health problems and their families throughout the world. We passionately believe that people with mental health problems should be treated with dignity
Internalising problems such as depression and anxiety are the most common of childhood and adolescent mental health problems in Australia. Recent surveys of mental heath problems in children and adolescents have found that 13% of 4-17 year olds show clinical levels of internalising problems (Sawyer et al., 2000), while 18% of adolescents report clinically significant levels of anxiety and\\/or depression
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of academic success (Adelman & Taylor, 2002).
Decia Nicole Dixon
AIM: To examine the psychological, self-esteem (SE), family function, marital satisfaction, life satisfaction and degree of agreement with the practice of polygamy among polygamous women with a control group from monogamous women in Syria. METHODS: Convenience sample of 136 women, 64 of whom were wives in polygamous marriages and 72 were wives in monogamous marriages participated in this study. A snowball method of sampling was used, conducted by undergraduate local female students trained to collect data according to culturally competent methods. The following research instruments were deployed: the symptoms checklist-90, the Rosenberg SE, the Life Satisfaction, family function and marital satisfaction. RESULTS: Findings revealed that women in polygamous marriages experienced lower SE, less life satisfaction, less marital satisfaction and more mental health symptomatology than women in monogamous marriages. Many of the mental health symptoms were different; noteworthy were elevated somatization, depression, hostility and psychoticism and their general severity index was higher. Furthermore, “first wife syndrome” was examined in polygamous families, comparing first with second and third wives in polygamous marriages. Findings indicated that first wives reported on more family problems, less SE, more anxiety, more paranoid ideation, and more psychoticism than second and third wives. CONCLUSION: These results are best understood through consideration of the socio-cultural and economic realities facing these women. Implications for mental health practice, policy and further research are discussed. PMID:24175180
BACKGROUND: Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a) examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b) identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c) identify associations
Henrik D Zachrisson; Kjetil Rödje; Arnstein Mykletun
Background Prior studies on the depression-heart disease association have not usually used diagnostic measures of depression, nor taken other mental disorders into consideration. As a result, it is not clear whether the association between depression and heart disease onset reflects a specific association, or the comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders. Additionally, the relative magnitude of associations of a range of mental disorders with heart disease onset is unknown. Methods Face-to-face household surveys were conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095; person years=2,141,194). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Heart disease was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis, or self-report of heart attack, together with their timing (year). Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset. Results After comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders were associated with heart disease onset (ORs 1.3–1.6). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with heart disease in a dose-response fashion. Mood disorders and alcohol abuse were more strongly associated with earlier onset than later onset heart disease. Associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions Depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with heart disease onset; depression was the weakest predictor. If confirmed in future prospective studies, the breadth of psychopathology’s links with heart disease onset has substantial clinical and public health implications. PMID:23993321
Scott, Kate M.; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia E.; Hu, Chiyi; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José A.; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Conclusion While the extent of linkages and the patterning of the relationships between career development and mental health is yet to be fully studied and articulated, this paper has argued that such connections do exist. Given such a premise, it has been contended that career counseling does serve as a therapeutic modality as it provides dislocated, unhappy, maladjusted or underemployed
Edwin L. Herr
... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...
This lesson, from Science NetLinks, provides students with a sound introduction and historical overview of the important figures and discoveries that have greatly advanced the study of human behavior since the early 1900s. This lesson is the first of three lessons on mental health and human behavior.
Cognition December, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://www.intranet2.capitalhealth.ca/regional%2, Addictions and Related Disorders conference in Richmond, BC. http://conference2013.jackhirose
... Engagement Training Resources The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act Contents Introduction Summary of MHPAEA Protections ... Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA) is a federal ...
... Word! Depression Bipolar Disorder Talking to Parents About Depression Stress & Coping Center Seasonal Affective Disorder Going to a Therapist Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care 5 Ways to Fight Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Cutting Death and Grief Depression ...
... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...
... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...
Many research efforts have demonstrated relationships between the experience of mental health volunteers and their attitudes toward mental illness. Questionnaire surveys were completed by adult volunteers in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric programs in order to assess general attitudes toward mental patients and to control for the potential effects…
Wahl, Otto F.; And Others
Recent research on the mental health of college students conducted by Daniel Eisenberg, principal investigator in the multiyear Healthy Minds study, indicates that as many as one in five college students may suffer from depression, generalized anxiety disorder, or a panic disorder. Although it's too early to assess the effect of the economic…
Speer, Nicole; McFaul, Mimi; Mohatt, Dennis
Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive…
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade
This paper reviews the literature on various mental health problems and their impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders related to substance abuse were identified as key role-players influencing adherence. The severity of symptoms related to these disorders was found to be inversely related to ART adherence, with the possible exception of post-traumatic stress disorder
Adriaan Nel; Ashraf Kagee
Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit. PMID:25413804
Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah
BACKGROUND: While the mental health situation for most people in low and middle-income countries is unsatisfactory, there is a renewed commitment to focus attention on the mental health of populations and on the scaling up of mental health services that have the capacity to respond to mental health service needs. There is general agreement that scaling up activities must be
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…
Mental Health Screenings in Juvenile Detention Centers: Predictors of Mental Health Service provide mental health services for juveniles in need. As a result, juvenile adolescents have low rates months post-detention. Methods: 2089 adolescents held in a detention center completed a mental health
Reforming mental health care is a focus of many ongoing initiatives in the United States, both at the national and state levels. Access to adequate mental health care services is one of the identified problems. Telepsychiatry and e-mental health services could improve access to mental health care in rural, remote and underserved areas. The authors discuss the required technology, common
Kaye L. McGinty; Sy Atezaz Saeed; Scott C. Simmons; Yilmaz Yildirim
Johnson & Johnson Â Dartmouth Community Mental Health Program Program Description Mission The mission of the Johnson & Johnson - Dartmouth Community Mental Health Program is to increase access-based guidelines, initially in a small number of sites (typically 3-4 community mental health centers
Myers, Lawrence C.
STAFF GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH DIFFICULTIES MARCH 2007 #12;1 1. INTRODUCTION This document seeks to give basic advice to staff who may encounter students with mental health difficulties and guidance mechanisms in respect of mental health. These guidelines do not give detailed medical advice
Postdoctoral Fellowships National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program Bethesda, Maryland, USA The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Section on Neuroadaptation and Protein; National Institute of Mental Health; 10 Center Drive, Room 2D54; Bethesda, MD 20892-1298, USA or via e
Bandettini, Peter A.
A PROFILE OF KENTUCKY MEDICAID MENTAL HEALTH DIAGNOSES, 2000-2010 #12; #12; i A Profile of Kentucky Medicaid Mental Health Diagnoses, 20002010 BY Michael T. Childress have received a mental or behavioral health diagnosis from 2000 to 2010. A Profile of Kentucky
Hayes, Jane E.
Mental Health Consultation in Child Care and Early Childhood Settings Opportunities to Expand Department of Children & Families Children's Mental Health Program June 30, 2006 Florida State University-922-1300 Â· www.cpeip.fsu.edu #12;Mental Health Consultation in Child Care and Early Childhood Settings
McQuade, D. Tyler
By addressing common reasons that schools and mental health partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mental health services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mental health collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage…
Kilkenny, Robert; Katz, Nechama; Baron, Lisa
The last decade has brought important advances in the area of children's mental health, including a concerted focus on building a scientific base for un- derstanding the mental health difficulties that our most vulnerable members of society experience and examining the impact of services that potentially reduce child mental health needs (1,2). Serious concern remains, however, as to whether the
Mary M. McKay; William M. Bannon Jr
Insomnia is strongly associated with certain mental health problems in the general population. However, there is little research examining this relation in young adults—an age group where many mental health problems first present. This study examined relations between insomnia and mental health symptoms in a college population (N = 373; 60.9% women; mean age of 21 years). Insomnia was assessed
Daniel J. Taylor; Christie E. Gardner; Adam D. Bramoweth; Jacob M. Williams; Brandy M. Roane; Emily A. Grieser; Jolyn I. Tatum
Cognition October, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://firstname.lastname@example.org #12;Cognition October, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation
Cognition April, 2014 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://insite.albertahealthservices.ca/9250.asp Contact Daniel://edmonton.cmha.ca/programs_services/asist-tuneup/ Provided by CMHA #12;Cognition April, 2014 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information
The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…
Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.
Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…
Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley
This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…
Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.
Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…
Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt
Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health problems, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and complicated grief. Therefore, improving access to community and mental health resources is critical for this population. The atuhors sought to examine barriers to accessing services and service satisfaction among 47 homicide survivors. Over half of the sample met criteria for a mental disorder, with depression being the most prevalent problem. Frequently endorsed barriers to care included financial barriers, inadequate information, and health-related problems. However, participants who engaged in services were generally satisfied with those services. Only depression was uniquely associated with worse overall service satisfaction. PMID:24766188
Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A
Depression is among the most common psychiatric disorders seen in mental health practices. Although effective treatments for the condition exist, managed care pressures providers to utilize empirically supported, cost-effective treatments. Behavioral activation (BA) treatment for depression has emerged in recent years as a promising, cost-effective intervention for major depressive disorder. If its effectiveness could be established, BA delivered through a
Jeffrey F. Porter; C. Richard Spates; Sean Smitham
The purpose of this study was to identify if health professionals report an increase in mental health preparedness abilities with having only two mental health components as part of a 2-day preparedness training conference. At each of three...
Ablah, Elizabeth; Hawley, Suzanne; Konda, Kurt M.; Wolfe, Deborah; Cook, David J.
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and its public health institutes are collaborating with Asia Australia Mental Health on an innovative community mental health development project designed to enhance initiatives under the District Mental Health Program and increase accessibility of essential community mental health services. The project is an exciting opportunity to create positive change in meeting the challenges of community mental health care in India. It recognizes that no one single model of care can be applied to all the community in the country and that locally appropriate models working in close partnership with local communities is required. Targeted and skill-based training programs are useful to build local leadership capacity in implementing quality and culturally appropriate community mental health services. PMID:25316931
Ng, Chee; Chauhan, Ajay P.; Chavan, Bir Singh; Ramasubramanian, Chellamuthu; Singh, Amool R.; Sagar, Rajesh; Fraser, Julia; Ryan, Brigid; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Sujeet; Das, Jayanta; Isaac, Mohan
Historically, the specialty of urology has focused on single-system diseases. In recent years, however, there has been increasing recognition of the interconnectivity between the various systems, such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, erectile dysfunction and prostate cancer. This constellation of disease/syndrome and dysfunction may place urologists at the centre of men's overall health concerns. As urologists considering taking on a leadership role in men's health, they should also consider their potential in helping men suffering from the significant burden of a mental health disorder. Urologists may have a unique opportunity to identify mental health issues in their male patients, influence healthy behaviour change, and successfully refer men, who might otherwise not seek help, to appropriate medical/psychological care. PMID:25243041
Matthew, Andrew; Elterman, Dean
Reforming mental health care is a focus of many ongoing initiatives in the United States, both at the national and state levels. Access to adequate mental health care services is one of the identified problems. Telepsychiatry and e-mental health services could improve access to mental health care in rural, remote and underserved areas. The authors discuss the required technology, common applications and barriers associated with the implementation of telepsychiatry and e-mental health services. PMID:16927161
McGinty, Kaye L; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Simmons, Scott C; Yildirim, Yilmaz
Depression and anxiety are of the most commonly occurring mental health disorders in the United States. Despite a variety of efficacious interventions for depression and anxiety, it is clear that ethnic minorities experience mental health care disparities in their access to mental health services and the quality of treatment they receive. Research indicates that Latino heterogeneity impacts access to depression and anxiety treatment. In addition, Brazilians are becoming an increasingly visible minority within the United States and are often depicted as Latinos. The current study sought to understand the role of acculturation and stigma in mental health symptom endorsement and treatment seeking among Puerto Ricans, immigrant Latinos, and Brazilians. A total of 250 self-identified Latinos and Brazilians were interviewed about their mental health symptom and treatment experience, acculturation, and stigma toward mental illness. Results indicated considerable variability across the three groups, with Puerto Ricans endorsing higher rates of depression and anxiety, as well as higher rates of treatment seeking, than either the immigrant Latinos or the Brazilians. Acculturation played a differential role in the endorsement of anxiety treatment seeking for Brazilians. Finally, although the three groups differed in the extent to which they experienced stigma about mental health issues, stigma did not predict symptom endorsement or treatment-seeking behavior for any of the three groups. These findings underscore the importance of attending to both between-groups and within-group differences in the mental health and mental health treatment experiences of different ethnic groups. PMID:24491125
Sánchez, Mónica; Cardemil, Esteban; Adams, Sara Trillo; Calista, Joanne L; Connell, Joy; Depalo, Alexandra; Ferreira, Juliana; Gould, Diane; Handler, Jeffrey S; Kaminow, Paula; Melo, Tatiana; Parks, Allison; Rice, Eric; Rivera, Ismael
Mental health problems, in general, and major depression in particular, are prevalent among incarcerated men. It is estimated that 23% of state inmates report experiencing symptoms of major depression. Despite the high rates of depressive symptoms, there is little understanding about the psychosocial factors that are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms of incarcerated men. One factor relevant to the mental health of incarcerated men is their adherence to traditional masculine norms. We investigated the role of masculine norms and informal support on depressive and anxiety symptoms among 123 incarcerated men. The results revealed that adherence to the masculine norm of emotional control were negatively associated with depressive symptoms while heterosexual presentation and informal support were related to both depressive and anxiety symptoms. High levels of reported informal support moderated the effects of heterosexual presentation on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Public health and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23139638
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Gordon, Derrick; Oliveros, Arazais; Perez-Cabello, Arturo; Brabham, Tamika; Lanza, Steve; Dyson, William
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation. PMID:11249401
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different cultures define it differently? What is meant by culture
illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different cultures define it differently? What is meant by culture
Background: Farmers experience one of the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. This article provides an overview of the literature examining mental health issues experienced by farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States and
C. E. Fraser; K. B. Smith; F. Judd; J. S. Humphreys; L. J. Fragar; A. Henderson
New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167
Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.
Part of a much larger meta-resource, this site contains annotated, rated resources in over 25 subject categories, as well as associations, academic departments, employment, mailing lists, and newsgroups, among other resources. MHN has a rating system (one to four stars), based on content, presentation, ease of use, and overall experience. Interestingly, users are also allowed to interactively vote thumbs up or down on annotated resources. Mental Health Net and CMHC Systems maintain this site.
Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…
Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.
Social networks, social capital, and mental health While traditionally most studies of the effects networks are relevant to the epidemiology of mental health, and found that depressive symptoms can spread individuals. In this project we adopt and further extend this network- based perspective on mental health
An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation
Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167
Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule
Eight cases of early onset bipolar affective disorder in adolescents with mental impairment are described, focusing on age of onset; common characteristics such as rapid cycling, mixed affective states, and lithium resistance; and the likelihood that cerebral dysfunction might cause a secondary form of bipolar disorder. (JDD)
Berney, T. P.; Jones, P. M.
Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…
Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.
We evaluated the impact of brief structured suicidal ideation (SI) assessments on mental health care among new-to-care Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. National datasets provided military, demographic, and clinical information. For all new-to-care OEF/OIF veterans administered depression screens (PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and structured SI assessments in primary care or ambulatory mental health settings of three Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers between April 2008 and September 2009 (N=465), generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between SI and number of subsequent-year specialty mental health visits and antidepressant prescriptions. Approximately one-third of the veterans reported SI. In multivariate models, PTSD and anxiety diagnoses, severe depression symptoms, being married, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with more mental health visits in the subsequent year. Depression, PTSD, and anxiety diagnoses, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with receiving antidepressants. Presence of SI did not significantly affect subsequent year mental health utilization when adjusting for diagnostic and clinician variables, but inaugural visits involving mental health clinicians were consistently associated with subsequent mental health care. PMID:24726814
Denneson, Lauren M; Corson, Kathryn; Helmer, Drew A; Bair, Matthew J; Dobscha, Steven K
Mental Health Resources on UAA Campus Student Health and Counseling Center Psychological Services Health Education YES YES YES Mental Health Screening Events YES NO YES Situational Crisis Management YES Counseling YES YES YES Children and Adolescent Counseling NO YES NO Medication Management YES NO NO Mental
Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…
Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne
The Mental Health Act (1983) and the Mental Capacity Act (2005) (both amended by the Mental Health Act (2007)) together provide a comprehensive framework for the care and treatment of people with a mental disorder in England and Wales. The Mental Health Act relates solely to the treatment of mental disorders whilst the Mental Capacity Act has much wider applicability
Daniel P. Herlihy; Frank Holloway
Mental Health Continuum Healthy Reacting Injured Illness Calm, steady Normal mood fluctuations Fit, fed, rested In control (physically, mentally, emotionally) Performing well Behaving ethically or withdrawing Neglecting hygiene Healthy Reacting Injured Illness Get to know your staff Foster healthy work
Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60%) are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study) and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study). DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for spreading HIV. It is also more often diagnosed in HIV-infected homosexual men with a lifetime depression or dysthymic disorder than in the non-infected population. Untreated mental health problems, such as depressive symptoms and use of drugs can have serious repercussions. Therefore, general practitioners and internists should be trained to recognize mental health problems in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23343356
Suicide rates are higher among those who own or live in a household with a hand gun. This article examines the association between hand gun ownership and mental health, another risk factor for suicide. Data from the General Social Survey, a series of surveys of U.S. adults, are analyzed to compare general emotional and mental health, sadness and depression, functional
Susan B. Sorenson; Katherine A. Vittes
A clear link exists between domestic violence and mental health problems for women. Depression, trauma symptoms, and suicide attempts are issues that seriously undermine the emotional well-being of women who have been subjected to violence and abuse from their partner or ex-partner. This paper draws on a research project that highlighted the mental health issues for women using domestic violence
A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women?s increased risk for sexual assault and increased
Thema Bryant-Davis; Sarah E. Ullman; Yuying Tsong; Shaquita Tillman; Kimberly Smith
This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition. PMID:21376129
Marin, Marie-France; Lord, Catherine; Andrews, Julie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sindi, Shireen; Arsenault-Lapierre, Genevičve; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Lupien, Sonia J
Depression is widely prevalent among women in the child-bearing age, especially during the antenatal and postnatal period. Globally, post-partum depression has been reported in almost 10% to 20% of mothers, and it can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. The presence of depression among women has gained a lot of attention not only because of the rising incidence or worldwide distribution, but also because of the serious negative impact on personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Realizing the importance of maternal depression on different aspects-personal, child, and familial life, there is a crucial need to design a comprehensive public health policy (including a mental health strategy), to ensure that universal psychosocial assessment in perinatal women is undertaken within the primary health care system. To conclude, depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a serious public health issue, which essentially requires continuous health sector support to eventually benefit not only the woman, but also the family, the community, and health care professionals. PMID:25552868
Shrivastava, Saurabh R; Shrivastava, Prateek S; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh
Depression is widely prevalent among women in the child-bearing age, especially during the antenatal and postnatal period. Globally, post-partum depression has been reported in almost 10% to 20% of mothers, and it can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. The presence of depression among women has gained a lot of attention not only because of the rising incidence or worldwide distribution, but also because of the serious negative impact on personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Realizing the importance of maternal depression on different aspects-personal, child, and familial life, there is a crucial need to design a comprehensive public health policy (including a mental health strategy), to ensure that universal psychosocial assessment in perinatal women is undertaken within the primary health care system. To conclude, depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a serious public health issue, which essentially requires continuous health sector support to eventually benefit not only the woman, but also the family, the community, and health care professionals. PMID:25552868
Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Shrivastava, Prateek S.; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh
There is growing awareness of the mental health impact of all types of mass violence. The exposure of large population groups, mostly having no mental health problems prior to the exposure, and the subsequent development, in a significant proportion of the population, of a variety of psychiatric symptoms and disorders represent both a challenge and an opportunity for psychiatrists. There is sufficient evidence from the variety of mass violence/conflict situations, that a significant proportion of the exposed population develop different mental disorders. There are vulnerable groups like women, children, widows, orphans, elderly, disabled, those exposed to severe pain and loss of body parts. There is also a consistent finding of the dose-response to the amount of trauma and the prevalence of mental disorders. There is growing recognition that there is need to consider a variety of syndromes, in addition to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) like acute stress disorder (ASD), depression, complicated bereavement reactions, substance use disorders, poor physical health, fear, anxiety, physiological arousal, somatisation, anger control, functional disability and arrest or regression of childhood developmental progression. The challenge is to reach all of the ill persons and provide mental health services. The opportunity provided by this field is to develop a better understanding of issues of resilience, recovery and effectiveness of public health approaches to mental health care. PMID:17566896
Murthy, R Srinivasa
This cross sectional study assessed the physical and mental health, health literacy and social support of the uninsured utilizing a free clinic to develop intervention programs and research projects to improve the health of free clinic patients. Free clinics are nonprofit organizations that provide underserved and uninsured individuals access to a broad array of free or low cost healthcare services. English or Spanish speaking patients (N = 187) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical, mental and oral health, health literacy, and social support were measured using standardized instruments. Eighty-two participants (45 US born and 37 non-US born) chose the English version of the survey (English speakers) while 105 participants (2 US born and 103 non-US born) chose the Spanish version (Spanish speakers). Overall, both the physical and mental health functioning of the participants was lower than that of the US general population. The participants reported being moderately depressed. US-born English speakers reported the poorest physical and mental health while Spanish speakers reported the best physical health and the lowest level of depression. A higher level of health literacy was associated with better physical health functioning, whereas reporting higher social support was associated with better mental health functioning and less severe depression. Because most free clinics have limited resources, developing services and programs that fit free clinics' circumstances are needed. Our study finding indicates that health literacy education, mental health services, and social support are key services needed by free clinic patients to achieve better health. PMID:23463329
Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Tabler, Jennifer; Ashby, Jeanie; Olson, Lenora M
To estimate the convergent validity of the Arabic Scale of Mental Health, three convenience separate samples (ns = 162, 168, 138) of volunteer Kuwaiti college students, ages 19 to 32 years, responded anonymously to several scales measuring psychopathology. Analyses showed total ratings for the scale correlated negatively with those of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, Factorial Arabic Neuroticism Scale, Somatic Symptoms Inventory, Arabic Scale of Insomnia, the nine subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-R, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the seven subscales of the General Health Questionnaire. Three separate correlation matrices were subjected to principal components analyses for which a single bipolar factor, Mental health versus psychopathology, was retained in all three matrices. Loadings for the Arabic Scale of Mental Health were -.76, -.64, and -.76. It was concluded that this scale has suitable convergent validity. PMID:22489374
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M
Objective: This paper reports a study performed to investigate and assess the mental health as well as the demographic characteristics of nurses to examine their mental health status based on four physical, anxiety, social-function and depression items. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was accomplished on 86 nurses working at three hospitals, affiliated to Iranian health ministry, in Ilam city(western Iran) all the cases were selected by purposeful sampling method. Data was collected by a two-part questionnaire containing individual data and GHQ -28 Standardized Questionnaire. The GHO-28 was developed by Goldberg, in 1978, as a screening tool to detect those likely to have or be at risk of developing psychiatric disorders. The GHQ-28 is a 28-item measure of emotional distress in medical settings. Analysis was done by SPSS 18 software. Results: The majority of participants were females(50.6 vs.49.4) of 35-40 years old(27.2% ), 84 percent were married(vs.16%), 35.8 percent with 10-15 years of record(vs.33.3% less than 5), 22.2% with 5-10, and 8.6% with more than 15-years of work record. The majority of participants have worked in surgical wards of hospitals. The analysis of GHQ results showed that 43.2%(n=35) of participants were suspected to suffer from mental disorders(vs.56.8% n=46 healthy participants); of all the suspected cases, 12.3% were supposed to have physical symptoms, 16% anxiety symptoms, 42% social dysfunction, and 6.2% symptoms of depression. In general, the participants demonstrated a Mean±SD of mental health score equal to 23.65±9.43. Conclusion: Research results showed that the high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among nurses is alarming. It was concluded that providing efficient adequate and appropriate support services for this group can result in more healthy nurses as well as promotion of public health. PMID:25386506
Taghinejad, Hamid; Kikhavani, Sattar; Jaafarpour, Molouk; Azadi, Arman
The relationship between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome was examined for depressed outpa- tients who received interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, imipramine with clinical management, or placebo with clinical management. Clinical raters scored videotapes of early, middle, and late therapy sessions for 225 cases (619 sessions). Outcome was assessed from patients' and clinical evaluators' perspectives and from depressive symptomatology. Therapeutic alliance
Janice L. Krupnick; Stuart M. Sotsky; Sam Simmens; Janet Moyer
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…
Keyes, Corey L. M.
public interest and scientific investigation, reflecting an increased public awareness of mental illness plus incidence of mental illness (due in part to our aging population). The proposed programsNeuroscience and Mental Health Page 1 New program proposal: Neuroscience and Mental Health Â· B
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To reduce criminal justice involvement of persons with mental disorders, many communities have created mental health courts. Early mental health courts were restricted to persons charged with nonviolent misdemeanors. Recently mental health courts have begun to accept persons charged with felonies and violent crimes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the process and outcomes of a mental health court that accepts persons charged with more serious offenses from the perspective of stakeholders in the court. Data come from semi-structured interviews with 43 professionals involved with the mental health court, including judges, attorneys, probation officers, case managers, mental health professionals, and agency administrators. The stakeholders endorsed mental health court compared to traditional court for reducing criminal justice involvement of individuals with mental disorders with a history of repeated arrests. The observations of stakeholders revealed important themes to consider in research evaluating mental health courts, including selection mechanisms, supervision processes, treatment access, use of sanctions, competency, indicators of effectiveness, participant characteristics associated with better or worse outcomes, and mechanisms of change. PMID:20655110
McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
book on Tibetan medicine. That book was a major breakthrough and has been very important. So, thank you very much, Miss Winder. Now the top:: for my talk this morning is Tibetan psychiatry and mental health. I must teU you that when I first started... fortune to meet was Mr. Gene Smith, whom many of you may know as one of the greatest scholars of Tibetan literature. He immediately told me that there were actu ally three whole chapters of the rGyud-bii exclusively devoted to the subject of psychiatry...
This article sought to determine the extent to which the number of self-reported mentally unhealthy days (MUDs) in the past 30 days estimates depressive symptoms in older adults. The sample of 4,321 community-dwelling residents aged 65 and above originated from an ongoing population-based study of older Blacks and Whites. Participants’ data from 1993 through 2005 included the single MUD question and questions from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D). Fourteen percent of participants had four or more depressive symptoms at baseline; of these, only 52% reported one or more MUD. Thirty-eight percent of those with one or more MUDs had four or more depressive symptoms. The results illustrate an interesting association regarding the measurements of two distinct, but related, mental health constructs. Although the number of MUDs was associated with having more depressive symptoms over time, the single-question MUD measure does not fully capture depressive symptomatology. PMID:21760659
Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Zack, Matthew M.; Bienias, Julia L.; Scherr, Paul A.; Evans, Denis A.
This article sought to determine the extent to which the number of self-reported mentally unhealthy days (MUDs) in the past 30 days estimates depressive symptoms in older adults. The sample of 4,321 community-dwelling residents aged 65 and above originated from an ongoing population-based study of older Blacks and Whites. Participants' data from 1993 through 2005 included the single MUD question and questions from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D). Fourteen percent of participants had four or more depressive symptoms at baseline; of these, only 52% reported one or more MUD. Thirty-eight percent of those with one or more MUDs had four or more depressive symptoms. The results illustrate an interesting association regarding the measurements of two distinct, but related, mental health constructs. Although the number of MUDs was associated with having more depressive symptoms over time, the single-question MUD measure does not fully capture depressive symptomatology. PMID:21760659
Skarupski, Kimberly A; Zack, Matthew M; Bienias, Julia L; Scherr, Paul A; Evans, Denis A
Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mental health, exercises have been developed to increase students’ awareness of their own coping strategies. Finally, several books and movies are incorporated to provide additional points of view of the topics discussed in the course. PMID:23494100
Lambert, Kelly G.
Resolution of some of the issues identified by communities in planning comprehensive community mental health services is critical to movement from the planning stage to program development and operation. These issues relate both to the relationship of the local mental health system and to other major community systems: e.g., the general health system, the anti-poverty program and multijurisdictional political systems,
Elizabeth Reichert Smith
Objective To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Study design Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child rash and wheeze categories were ‘none’; ‘early onset transient’ (infancy/preschool only); ‘persistent’ (infancy/preschool and at school age); and ‘late onset’ (school age only). Maternal anxiety and depression were reported during pregnancy and when child was 8 years old. Results Persistent wheezing symptoms were associated with high externalizing (OR 1.74, 95% CI, 1.41-2.15) and internalizing (1.67, 1.35-2.06) problems compared with never wheeze. Maternal anxiety and depression, and disrupted child sleep, attenuated these associations. Persistent rash (externalizing: 1.74, 1.40-2.15; internalizing: 1.42, 1.16-1.74) and late onset rash (externalizing: 1.62, 1.17-2.25; internalizing: 1.46, 1.07-1.99) symptoms were associated with poorer mental well-being compared with no rash at any age. Maternal anxiety and depression, particularly when child was aged 8 years rather than during pregnancy, accounted for the association with internalizing symptoms and partly for externalizing symptoms. Sleep disruption did not mediate the association. Conclusions Maternal anxiety and depression may mediate the association between child rash and wheeze and child mental well-being. PMID:24952709
Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John
This article introduces the reader to mental health in the Middle East with an Egyptian perspective, from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance, up until the current state. During Pharaonic times, mental illness was not known as such, as there was no separator between Soma and Psyche. Actually, mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterine diseases, as stated in Eber's and Kahoun's papyri. In spite of the mystical culture, mental disorders were attributed and treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were never subjected to any torture or maltreatment because of the inherited belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. The first mental hospital in Europe was located in Spain, following the Arab invasion, and from then on it propagated to other European countries. The 14th century Kalawoon Hospital in Cairo had four departments, including medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, and mental disorders. Six centuries earlier, psychiatry in general hospitals was recognized in Europe. The influence of Avicenna and Elrazi and their contributions to European medicine is well-known. This article discusses further the current state of the mental health services in Egypt and the transcultural studies of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion, and obsessive compulsive disorders. An outline of psychiatric disorders in children is discussed. The problem of drug abuse is also addressed, especially that in Egypt after 1983, where drugs like heroine replaced the common habit of hashish. PMID:10547710
The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…
Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries with primary psychiatric impairments comprise the largest, fastest growing, and most costly population in the SSDI program. The Mental Health Treatment Study provides a comprehensive test of the hypothesis that access to evidence-based employment services and behavioral health treatments, along with insurance coverage, can enable SSDI beneficiaries with psychiatric impairments to return to competitive employment. It will also examine which beneficiaries choose to enter an employment study under such conditions. Currently in the field in 22 cities across the U.S., the MHTS aims to recruit 3,000 SSDI beneficiaries with psychiatric impairments into a randomized controlled trial. This paper describes the MHTS, its background, and its process and outcome assessments. PMID:18407880
Frey, William D; Azrin, Susan T; Goldman, Howard H; Kalasunas, Susan; Salkever, David S; Miller, Alexander L; Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E
This article introduces and defines the concept of primary mental health care, a model for the delivery of community-based, comprehensive psychiatric-mental health nurs ing care. The primary mental health care model incorporates professional role re sponsibilities, role functions, and intervention activities for psychiatric-mental health nurses at the basic and advanced levels of practice. Use of this model will enable psychiatric
Judith Haber; Carolyn V. Billings
Despite mandates for Head Start programs to provide mental health services to families and children, considerable variability remains in the level and type of services provided by mental health consultants. A qualitative study was conducted to explore staff perceptions about the role of mental health consult- ants and, in particular; the ways in…
Green, Beth L.; Simpson, Jennifer; Everhart, Maria C.; Vale, Elizabeth; Gettman, Maria Garcia
There is a critical need for research to examine the changing mental health services system, to evaluate major innovations in the provision of mental health treatment, and to remove existing barriers to comprehensive and cost-effective care. To achieve these aims, collaboration is needed among government agencies, mental health services programs, academic institutions, and the private sector. The National Institute of Mental Health supports research and research training on the mental health services system primarily through the Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences. This article focuses on the division's three priority research areas of the mental health services system: the provision of mental health care in the primary care sector, the organization and delivery of care for the chronically mentally ill, and financing and reimbursement of care. The various mechanisms of research support are also highlighted. PMID:2831177
Taube, C A; Burns, B J
Background Integrating mental health into primarily health care and studying risk for mental health particularly depression needs assessment of different factors including those that impede diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. But so far the numbers of literature for local context to analyze risk factors for depression and its treatment are scare. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors and health service attendance for depression among adults, in Ethiopia. Methods For this analysis, data from the Ethiopian National health survey was used. The Ethiopian national health survey studied 4,925 adults aged 18 years and older to obtain among other things, data on depression episodes, socio-demographic, chronic diseases, life style factors and treatment receiving for depression episodes in the past twelve months using questionnaire from world health organization (WHO). Prevalence of Depression in respondents based on ICD-10 criteria was estimated and logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression and treatment receiving. Results The prevalence of depressive episode was 9.1% (95% CI: 8.39-9.90). In a Univariate analysis, residence, age, marital status, educational status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases (heart diseases, diabetic mellitus and arthritis) and alcohol drinking status were associated with depression. After full adjustment for possible confounding, odds ratios for depression were significantly higher only for older age, divorced and widowed, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol drinking status. The proportion of attending health service among those with depression episodes was 22.9%. After full control for all socio-demographic variables the only predictor variable was educational status, being in grade 5–8 had a higher odds (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.23-5.43) and 9–12 grade (OR=1.8 95% CI: 1.45-6.12) of attending service for depressive episodes. Conclusions Age, marital status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors for depressive episodes. Generally there was lower use of health service for depressive episodes and low educational status was found to be barriers for service use. There is a need to formulate policy for mental health and training of primary health care workers in mental health to early identify and treat cases with depression episodes, so as to decrease prevalence of depression episodes and to improve accessibility of service use. PMID:23098320
Hundreds of thousands of Darfur people affected by the Sudanese genocide have fled to Cairo, Egypt, in search of assistance. Collaborating with Africa and Middle East Refugee Assistance (AMERA), the authors conducted a mental health care needs assessment among Darfur refugees in Cairo. Information was collected using individual and focus group interviews to identify gaps in mental health care and develop understandings of emotional and relationship problems. The refugee mental health care system has a piecemeal structure with gaps in outpatient services. There is moderate to severe emotional distress among many Darfur refugees, including symptoms of depression and trauma, and interpersonal conflict, both domestic violence and broader community conflict, elevated relative to pregenocide levels. Given the established relationships between symptoms of depression/traumatic stress and interpersonal violence, improving mental health is important for both preventing mental health decompensation and stemming future cycles of intra- and intergroup conflict. PMID:18945917
Meffert, Susan M; Marmar, Charles R
This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…
Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew
Insomnia is strongly associated with certain mental health problems in the general population. However, there is little research examining this relation in young adults-an age group where many mental health problems first present. This study examined relations between insomnia and mental health symptoms in a college population (N = 373; 60.9% women; mean age of 21 years). Insomnia was assessed via self-report and sleep diaries, and mental health was assessed via the Symptom Check List-90. Analyses revealed insomnia was prevalent (9.4%), and these young adults had significantly more mental health problems than those without insomnia, although some significant results were lost after controlling for comorbid health problems. PMID:21491233
Taylor, Daniel J; Gardner, Christie E; Bramoweth, Adam D; Williams, Jacob M; Roane, Brandy M; Grieser, Emily A; Tatum, Jolyn I
On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations. PMID:24558743
Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon
This study examines longitudinal mental health service use patterns of a school-based sample of adolescents. Based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores, a stratified sample of middle-school students was interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children: cycle one (n = 579; mean age 12.83) and cycle two (n = 490; mean age
Steven P. Cuffe; Jennifer L. Waller; Cheryl L. Addy; Robert E. McKeown; Kirby L. Jackson; Jamaluddin Moloo; Carol Z. Garrison
We examined the influence of mental health service use on outpatient health service use among female veterans. We conducted a retrospective and correlational study of treatment-seeking women and their pattern of health service use and the relationship between mental health and somatoform symptoms and service use. Data were obtained from a self-report measure designed to screen for mental and somatoform symptoms and from a federally maintained database of all outpatient contacts. Women who used mental health services were more likely to have a greater number of non-mental health visits than women who did not. The most commonly endorsed somatoform symptoms were feeling tired or having low energy and pain in extremities and joints. These symptoms were correlated with non-mental health service use, as were back pain, menstrual pain or problems, and trouble sleeping. We conclude that a history of somatoform symptoms might increase rates of health service use despite treatment for mental problems. PMID:11799806
Forneris, Catherine A; Bosworth, Hayden B; Butterfield, Marian I
Presented is a speech by Bertram Brown, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, on the effects of decreased federal funding of mental health research. Brown notes that there has been a 56% slash in the purchasing power of the research grant program when inflation is accounted for. It is suggested that causes of the dwindling support…
Brown, Bertram S.
0 Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Clinical Courses Student Preceptor Guide Revised 1..............................................................................................................................................28 #12;2 TO: Psychiatric Mental Nurse Practitioner (PMH) Students, Preceptors, and Clinical Faculty Concentration Coordinator, Department of Advanced Practice & Doctoral Studies The University of Tennessee Health
As someone who has been involved in college mental health in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mental health centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic…
The author, a superintendent of schools, discusses a rising tide of social and emotional needs among school children as educators struggle with the issue of whether to deal with students' mental health issues. Readers are asked to consider this statement from "Children's Mental Health: Developing a National Action Agenda," a report prepared by the…
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…
DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis
In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mental health, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mental health issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…
The report contains summaries of 176 pilot projects demonstrating new and innovative approaches for training mental health personnel. Projects were conducted under grants awarded by the Experimental and Special Training Branch of the Division of Manpower and Training Programs, National Institute of Mental Health. The projects have been developed…
Simon, Ralph, Ed.; And Others
As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind
Advance directives are designed to establish a person's preferences for treatment if the person becomes incompetent in the future or unable to communicate those preferences to treatment providers. Mental health advance directives are similar to the more commonly used directives for end-of-life medical decisions. A patient must be competent to execute a mental health advance directive, and the directive must
Debra S. Srebnik; John Q. La Fond
The Center for Studies of Child and Family Mental Health has made an assessment of national programs during the last decade, and found that the Nation took the course of child-centered intervention programs for mental health. There were many startling and promising programs developed during that time such as Head Start. However, many of the…
Nichols, Edwin J.; And Others
Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Methods: Participants were one hundred and fifty Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers who screened positive for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder or alcohol abuse disorder on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing beliefs about mental health treatment and treatment-seeking behavior. Results: Beliefs related to symptom reduction and work were significantly related to mental health treatment-seeking behavior. Conclusions: Interventions developed to engage veterans into care must be directed toward cognitive factors that motivate treatment seeking in addition to traditionally targeted structural barriers. PMID:20390058
Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek
In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mental health. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts. PMID:16633458
Released on December 13, the first Surgeon General's report on mental health reveals that nearly half of all Americans who have a severe mental illness fail to seek treatment. The 500-page publication was developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) under the guidance of the Surgeon General. It notes that "disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders are real illnesses that, if untreated, can be as disabling and serious as cancer and heart disease in terms of premature death and lost productivity." The report takes a life-span approach, considering vulnerability to distinct forms of mental and behavioral disorders at different stages of life as well as the impact of gender, culture, and age on the diagnosis, course, and treatment of mental illness. Users can read the full text of the report and the accompanying tables and figures in HTML or .pdf formats at the Virtual Office of the Surgeon General or one of three mirror sites. For more on the report, please see the In The News section from this week's Scout Report for Social Sciences.
Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…
Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol
We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mental health survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom…
Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Saile, Regina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank
Quality improvement programs promoting depression screening and appropriate treat- ment can significantly reduce racial and ethnic disparities in mental-health care and out- comes. However, promoting the adoption of quality-improvement strategies requires more than the simple knowledge of their potential benefits. To better understand depression issues in racial and ethnic minority communi- ties and to discover, refine, and promote the adoption
Ricky N. Bluthenthal; Loretta Jones; Nicole Fackler-Lowrie; Marcia Ellison; Theodore Booker; Felica Jones; Sharon McDaniel; Moraya Moini; Kamau R. Williams; Ruth Klap; Paul Koegel; Kenneth B. Wells
Background The objective of this international comparative study is to describe and compare the mental health policies in seven countries of Eastern Europe that share their common communist history: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Methods The health policy questionnaire was developed and the country-specific information was gathered by local experts. The questionnaire includes both qualitative and quantitative information on various aspects of mental health policy: (1) basic country information (demography, health, and economic indicators), (2) health care financing, (3) mental health services (capacities and utilisation, ownership), (4) health service purchasing (purchasing organisations, contracting, reimbursement of services), and (5) mental health policy (policy documents, legislation, civic society). Results The social and economic transition in the 1990s initiated the process of new mental health policy formulation, adoption of mental health legislation stressing human rights of patients, and a strong call for a pragmatic balance of community and hospital services. In contrast to the development in the Western Europe, the civic society was suppressed and NGOs and similar organizations were practically non-existent or under governmental control. Mental health services are financed from the public health insurance as any other health services. There is no separate budget for mental health. We can observe that the know-how about modern mental health care and about direction of needed reforms is available in documents, policies and programmes. However, this does not mean real implementation. Conclusions The burden of totalitarian history still influences many areas of social and economic life, which also has to be taken into account in mental health policy. We may observe that after twenty years of health reforms and reforms of health reforms, the transition of the mental health systems still continues. In spite of many reform efforts in the past, a balance of community and hospital mental health services has not been achieved in this part of the world yet. PMID:24467832
...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...
Master of Education Degree Program Clinical Mental Health Counseling information about field experiences in the clinical mental health counseling program students develop requisite counseling skills and direct knowledge of mental health
Duchowski, Andrew T.
...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...
...2012-10-01 false Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. 410...Benefits § 410.155 Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. (a...liability amounts for outpatient mental health services subject to the...
REPORT OF THE PROVOSTIAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH October 2014 The University of Toronto Student Mental Health Strategy and Framework #12;Report of the Provostial Advisory Committee on Student Mental Health 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary
...2011-10-01 false Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. 410...Benefits § 410.155 Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. (a...liability amounts for outpatient mental health services subject to the...
...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...
...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...
...2013-10-01 false Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. 410...Benefits § 410.155 Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. (a...liability amounts for outpatient mental health services subject to the...
The number of students on university and college campuses that are struggling with depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and psychosis across North America is rising (Gallagher, 2008). This intensification of students' psychological needs has become a mental health crisis. The age at which many mental disorders manifest themselves is…
Kruisselbrink Flatt, Alicia
BACKGROUND: Mental health literacy is a prerequisite for early recognition and intervention in mental disorders. The aims of this paper are to determine whether a sample of university students recognise different symptoms of depression and schizophrenia and to reveal factors influencing correct recognition. METHODS: Bivariate and correspondence analyses of the results from an online survey among university students (n =
Christoph Lauber; Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross; Nadja Fritschi; Niklaus Stulz; Wulf Rössler
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
Objectives The goals of this study were to uncover the criteria by which centenarians, proxy/caregivers, and interviewers rated centenarians' mental health. Often proxy and interviewer reports are obtained in studies of the oldest-old and become a primary source of information. Methods Data were from a population-based sample of mentally competent US centenarians in northern Georgia. The dependent variables were based on alternative reports for the centenarians' mental or emotional health. Regression analysis was used to predict each source's rating of mental health separately with the same set of variables. These variables included information obtained from the centenarians and proxies about their distal experiences, demographics, and proximal resources including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), health, personality, socioeconomic resources, and coping behaviors. Results Examination of mean-level differences between sources revealed similarity across mental health ratings. For centenarians and proxies, perceived economic status was a very important predictor of mental health. For centenarians and interviewers, personality (neuroticism and extraversion) was an important common predictor. The interviewer and proxy mental health ratings were strongly associated with MMSE, but that was not the case for centenarians. Conclusion Mean-level findings and the comparative regression results provide corroborating evidence that centenarians' self-reports of mental health are similar based on average ratings and presence of common associations with other raters (i.e., perceived economic status and personality). Implications of differences across rater pairs are discussed as guidance about the comparative value of substitution of proxies as informants for addressing specific influences on mental health. PMID:19888703
MacDonald, Maurice; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; Poon, Leonard W.
This selective review describes recent literature and the author's experience with mental illness and mental health care, and the impact of cultural transformation on mental health in some Arab Islamic cultures, particularly in Egypt, Qatar and Kuwait. Traditional extended Arab families provide a structure for their members that may sometimes prevent and or compensate for the effects of parental loss and mental disability. The role of traditional families in the care of members and in medical decision-making is discussed. The impact of cultural change on Arab culture is also examined, as is the effect of intergenerational conflict in traditional families. PMID:19091731
Fakhr El-Islam, M
An approach to health education placing individual emotional development at the core of the curriculum is presented in the belief that mental health is the key to successfully transmitting good health attitudes. (MB)
Swisher, John D.
The impact of diatheses, stress, and their interaction on depressed mood was evaluated to determine the appropriateness of cognitive diathesis-stress models of depression for adults with mental retardation. We also tested hopelessness as a mediator in the prediction of depressed mood to evaluate the hopelessness theory of depression. Seventy-three…
Esbensen, Anna J.; Benson, Betsey A.
This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897
Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa
This paper is based on a presentation by Dr Oguisso to the First Hamburg World Forum on Mental Health, 11 June 1994, for the Standing Committee of Presidents of International Non-Governmental Organizations Concerned with Mental Health Issues. Over recent years, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) has been concerned that health providers are sometimes not adequately prepared to give quality care and that resources are often well below those targeted for other sectors of the health care system. In 1991 the ICN chose 'Mental Health--Nurses in Action' as the theme for International Nurses Day on 12 May. With the help of the ICN-provided educational kits, national nurses' associations updated nurses on the problems and informed the public that nurses as a group can provide many of the mental health services to people and answer their families needs. PMID:7773704
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to develop mental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. PMID:22335181
Immigration status is a likely deterrent of mental health care utilization in the United States. Using the Medical Expenditure\\u000a Panel Survey and National Health Interview survey from 2002 to 2006, multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate\\u000a the effects of immigration status on mental health care utilization among patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Multivariate\\u000a regressions showed that immigrants were
Jie Chen; Arturo Vargas-Bustamante
According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Latino population in the United States is growing at an exponential rate. As a medically underserved population, Latinos experience many health disparities, including those related to mental health. Current research suggests that Latinos in the United States are at high risk for problems such as anxiety, depression, somatization disorders, and substance abuse, yet, often these health needs go unmet.
Elaine Willerton; Mary E. Dankoski; Javier F. Sevilla Martir
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults—individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing—reported the fewest missed days of work, the fewest half-day or greater work cutbacks, the healthiest
Corey L. M. Keyes
Purpose To assess the impact of mental health visits (MHV) on the cost of care for Veterans with diabetes and comorbid mental health conditions. Methods A national cohort of 120,852 Veterans with diabetes and at least one mental health diagnosis (i.e., substance abuse, depression or psychoses) in 2002 was followed through 2006. Outcomes were pharmacy, inpatient and outpatient costs in 2012 dollars. Results Least-square covariate adjusted estimates from the joint model of total VA costs of the number of MHV using December 31, 2012 value dollars indicate that relative to those with fewer MHV, those with 3+ MHV had the lowest mean inpatient cost ($21,406), but the highest mean outpatient and pharmacy cost ($9,727 and $2,015, respectively). If all Veterans who received zero MHV actually received 3+ MHV, we estimate through simulated scenarios that between $32,272,329 and $181,460,247 in inpatient costs would be saved. However, these savings would be offset by additional expenditures of between $1,166,017,547 and $1,166,224,787 in outpatient costs and between $151,604,683 and $161,439,632 in pharmacy costs. Conclusions Among Veterans with diabetes and comorbid mental disorders having three or more mental health visits is associated with marginally decreased inpatient cost, but these potential savings seem to be offset by increased outpatient and pharmacy costs. PMID:25083903
Egede, Leonard E.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Zhao, Yumin; Dismuke, Clara E.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Hunt, Kelly J.; Axon, R. Neal
Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357
Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S
OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.
Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simőes; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefčvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
Seven models for conceptualizing positive mental health are reviewed: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV’s Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health. PMID:22654934
VAILLANT, GEORGE E.
Despite substantial attention in the past decade to the co-morbidity of mental health problems among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), these problems remain a significant barrier to maintaining health and secondary prevention. To address these issues, program staff from the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the NIMH convened a meeting on 19th and 20th July 2007 to discuss the intersection of mental health and HIV. The conveners brought together leaders in the fields of mental illness and HIV to discuss current gaps in the research related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders among PLWHA, and how attention to mental health can affect a variety of health outcomes. Attendees were asked to discuss key questions that, if addressed through empirical investigation, could move the field toward the aim of reducing or alleviating the burden of mental illness for those living with HIV disease. The purpose of this brief report is to summarize this meeting's proceedings, overview key points of discussion, and outline areas that may be useful to consider for clinical researchers in the field. PMID:19057989
Grossman, Cynthia I; Gordon, Christopher M
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181
Analysis of a 1,090-household survey in metropolitan Toronto, Ontario, shows that community mental health facilities generate externality fields that include such effects as fears of the negative impact on property values, traffic volumes, and residential satisfaction. There are also strongly neutral respondents who do not anticipate any impact on their neighborhoods. The spatial extent of the externality effect of mental
MICHAEL DEAR; S. MARTIN TAYLOR; G. B. HALL
This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mental health services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.
The theme issue of this bulletin is a discussion of youth with emotional disturbances who are in the juvenile justice system and how to meet their needs. Articles include: (1) "Responding to the Mental Health Needs of Youth in the Juvenile Justice System" (Susan Rotenberg); (2) "Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Youth in the Juvenile Justice…
McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.
This paper examines the concept of catastrophic experience, its relationship to the range of acute and prolonged stressors to which women may be exposed and the broad impacts on their mental health and well-being. It identifies catastrophe in terms of multiple accumulated stresses including death, loss, victimization, demoralization, shame, stigmatization, helplessness and identity. Catastrophic experiences include personal violence in domestic circumstances of intimate partner abuse, sexual assault and child physical and sexual abuse. Women's experiences of loss through the violent deaths of children and loved ones may also have such enduring impacts. Terrorism victimizes men and women in this way, with the enduring impacts for women in terms of threat of ongoing attacks as well as acute effects and their aftermath. The catastrophes of war, conflict, genocide, sexual exploitation and refugee status differentially affect large numbers of women, directly and through their concerns for the care of their children and loved ones. Ultimate catastrophes such as Hiroshima and the Holocaust are discussed but with recognition of the very large numbers of women currently experiencing catastrophe in ongoing ways that may be silent and unrecognized. This is significant for clinical care and population impacts, and in the losses for women across such contexts. PMID:18058439
Raphael, Beverley; Taylor, Mel; McAndrew, Virginia
... 2014-10-01 false Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. 410...SMI Benefits § 410.155 Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. (a...in connection with the treatment of a mental, psychoneurotic, or personality...
What are Mental Disorders? What is Addiction? Depression Bipolar Disorder Postpartum AlternativeTreatments for Mental Disorders Treatments for Addictions Recovery from Mental Disorders Addictions and Relapse Prevention Harm Reduction Preventing Addictions Achieving Positive Mental Health
by high-risk behavior8 . Mental illness is associated with both risky sexual behavior and substance abuse behavior. This is particularly concerning since the overall contribution of mental illness to the global sexual partners over a 12-month period.8 Tlaleletso UPDATES IN HIV: Diagnosing & managing ILLNESS
Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy. PMID:25317991
Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick
Crisis Text Line supports people with mental health issues through texting. Unfortunately, support is limited by the number of counselors and the time each counselor has for clients, as well as the cognitive load on ...
Chen, Ge (Ge Jackie)
This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying. PMID:24920001
Turcotte Benedict, Frances; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie
Poor housing conditions and residential instability have been associated with distress among women; however, this association could be the result of other social factors related to housing, such as intimate partner violence (IPV) and economic hardship. We examined associations of housing conditions and instability with maternal depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) while accounting for IPV and economic hardship in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N?=?2,104). In the third study wave, interviewers rated indoor housing quality, including housing deterioration (e.g., peeling paint and holes in floor) and housing disarray (e.g., dark, crowded, and noisy). Mothers reported whether they had moved more than twice in the past two years, an indicator of housing instability. A screening for depression and GAD was obtained from questions derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form in the second and third study waves. IPV and economic hardship were assessed through questionnaire. In this sample, 16% of women were classified as having probable depression and 5% as having probable GAD. In adjusted analyses, mothers experiencing housing disarray (odds ratio [OR], 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0, 1.7]) and instability (OR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2, 2.3]) were more likely to screen positive for depression. In addition, those experiencing housing instability were more likely to screen positive for GAD (OR 1.9 [95% CI, 1.2, 3.0]) even after adjusting for other social factors. No associations were noted between housing deterioration and maternal mental health. Similar associations were noted when incident cases of probable depression and GAD were examined. Housing instability and disarray, but not deterioration, are associated with screening positive for depression and generalized anxiety among women regardless of other social stressors present in their lives. Housing could potentially present a point of intervention to prevent mental health consequences among mothers and possibly their children. PMID:21647798
Suglia, Shakira Franco; Duarte, Cristiane S; Sandel, Megan T
Background: Promoting mental health and preventing mental disorders are of the main concerns for every country. Achieving these goals requires effective indexes for evaluating mental health. Therefore, to develop mental health enhancement programs in Iran, there is a need to measure the state of mental health in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to select a set of mental health indicators that can be used to monitor the status of mental health in Iran. Materials and Methods: This research work used Q-methodology which combines both quantitative and qualitative research methods for establishment of mental health indicators in Iran. In this study, 30 participants were chosen by purposive sampling from different types of professionals in the field of mental health. Results: Twenty seven mental health indicators were obtained from the Q-methodology. The most important indicators obtained in this study are as follows: annual prevalence of mental disorders, suicide rates, number of mental health professionals, mental health expenditures and suicide related deaths. Conclusions: This study provides mental health indices for measuring mental health status in Iran. These mental health indices can be used to measure progress in the reform policies and community mental health services. PMID:24719740
Mohamadi, Khosro; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Azad Fallah, Parviz; Ebadi, Abbas; Yahaghi, Emad
Traditionally the treatment of mental illness has been a responsibility of state governments, but they have been unable to solve the problem with any degree of success. In spite of rationalizations as to why a health department should not become involved in this field, more and more local health departments in California and across the nation are initiating various services in mental health. With the widespread interest in mental health at national and state levels and in local citizens' groups, local health officers must involve themselves in this most difficult effort. While the treatment of the emotionally disturbed and the psychotic is demanded most aggressively by the public which seeks outpatient, inpatient, and rehabilitation services on the local level, two services—consultation and education-information services—offer more hope in the promotion of mental health as contrasted with the treatment of mental illness. PMID:14021000
Chope, H. D.
Background Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Methods Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trřndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trřndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Results Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Conclusions Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner’s nursing home admission. PMID:24885732
Training institutions need to do a more adequate job in socializing students early and continuously for the role of community mental health researcher. While psychology is singled out to illustrate this thesis, all the disciplines that make up the community mental health team could profitably be examined from this standpoint. The university climate in which psychologists are reared is examined and nuclear shortcomings in respect to basic trust, feelings of competence, and sense of identity are dramatized. PMID:24186607
Baler, L A
Three studies were conducted to examine the mental health stereotypes about gay men among college student and therapist trainee\\u000a samples. Results from Study 1 indicated that (a) college students and therapist trainees endorsed a stereotype of the mental\\u000a health of gay men that was similar in terms of its content and strength, and (b) the stereotype was consistent with five
Guy A. Boysen; David L. Vogel; Stephanie Madon; Stephen R. Wester
A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women’s increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, PTSD, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989
Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly
Objective This study aimed to examine associations between physical activity (PA) and mental health among adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods Cross sectional analysis was conducted on pre-operative data of 850 adults with ? class 2 obesity. PA was measured with a step activity monitor; mean daily steps, active minutes, and high-cadence minutes (proxy for moderate-vigorous intensity PA) were determined. Mental health functioning, depressive symptoms and treatment for depression or anxiety were measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form, Beck Depression Inventory, and a study-specific questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression analyses tested associations between PA and mental health indicators, controlling for potential confounders. Receiver operative characteristic analysis determined PA thresholds that best differentiated odds of each mental health indicator. Results Each PA parameter was significantly (P<.05) associated with a decreased odds of depressive symptoms and/or treatment for depression or anxiety, but not with impaired mental health functioning. After controlling for sociodemographics and physical health, only associations with treatment for depression and anxiety remained statistically significant. PA thresholds that best differentiated those who had vs. had not recently received treatment for depression or anxiety were <191 active minutes/day, <4750 steps/day, and <8 high-cadence minutes/day. Utilizing high-cadence minutes, compared to active minutes or steps, yielded the highest classification accuracy. Conclusion Adults undergoing bariatric surgery who meet relatively low thresholds of PA (e.g., ? 8 high-cadence minutes/day, representative of approximately one hour/week of moderate-vigorous intensity PA) are less likely to have recently received treatment for depression or anxiety compared to less active counterparts. PMID:23332532
King, Wendy C.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Elder, Katherine A.; Mitchell, James E.
This first Report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health represents the initial step in advancing the notion that mental health is fundamental to general health. It states that a review of research on mental health revealed two findings. First, the efficacy of treatment is well documented, and second, a range of treatment exists for most mental…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
emotional distress and/or mental health issues. As key members of UW-Milwaukee's caring community, faculty and staff are encouraged to be supportive of students experiencing emotional distress and/or mental health with appropriate resources and services. Definitions: Mental Health: Mental health is a state of well
This DataWatch explores the roles of human service sectors (mental health, education, health, child welfare, and juvenile justice) in providing mental health services for children. The data are from the first wave of the Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth, a population-based study of psychopathology and mental health service use among children. The results show somewhat higher rates of mental
Barbara J. Burns; E. Jane Costello; Adrian Angold; Dan Tweed; Dalene Stangl; Elizabeth M. Z. Farmer; Al Erkanli
NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE Thomas Farley, MD, MPH Commissioner New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) 2014 Mental Health Scholarship Program One Year MENTAL HEALTH SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM: Letter of Intent due February 14, 2014 DEADLINE FOR SSSW AT HUNTER
People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal experience with mental illness and mental health care. In this study, 166 health care providers (42.2% primary care, 57.8% mental health practice) from the Veteran?s Affairs (VA) medical system completed measures of stigma characteristics, expected adherence, and subsequent health decisions (referral to a specialist and refill pain prescription) about a male patient with schizophrenia who was seeking help for low back pain due to arthritis. Research participants reported comfort with previous mental health interventions. Path analyses showed participants who endorsed stigmatizing characteristics of the patient were more likely to believe he would not adhere to treatment and hence, less likely to refer to a specialist or refill his prescription. Endorsement of stigmatizing characteristics was inversely related to comfort with one?s previous mental health care. Implications of these findings will inform a program meant to enhance VA provider attitudes about people with mental illness, as well as their health decisions. PMID:24774076
Corrigan, Patrick W; Mittal, Dinesh; Reaves, Christina M; Haynes, Tiffany F; Han, Xiaotong; Morris, Scott; Sullivan, Greer
Describes the mental-health and medical services provided at a high-school-based service center. Five years after the center's inception mental health visits had quadrupled. One third of students utilizing the center reported substance abuse within their family. Other reasons for center use included pregnancy, suicidal ideation, obesity,…
Jepson, Lisa; Juszczak, Linda; Fisher, Martin
Research on the effect of paternal mental health problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mental health symptoms in a community…
Smith, Hannah R.; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline
Background This study examined the use of professionals for mental health problems among New York City residents who were directly affected\\u000a by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) or had a probable diagnosis of post-traumatic\\u000a stress disorder (PTSD) or depression in its aftermath. Correlates of help seeking from professionals for mental health problems\\u000a after the
Jennifer Stuber; Sandro Galea; Joseph A. Boscarino; Mark Schlesinger
Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study\\u000a of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and\\u000a depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia. Participants described a range of\\u000a self-care practices for mental health including: self-medication, seeking
Martin Holt; Carla Treloar
Objective: This study examines perinatal mental health issues, ethnic differences, and comorbidity among pregnant women in Hawaii.\\u000a Methods: Eighty-four participants were recruited from women, ages 18–35, seeking prenatal care on Oahu. They were interviewed at\\u000a their initial prenatal visit about substance use, depression, and anxiety. Results: Sixty-one percent of women screened positive for at least one mental health issue. Thirteen
Deborah Goebert; Leslie Morland; LeighAnn Frattarelli; Jane Onoye; Courteney Matsu
Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. PMID:21749560
Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W
Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years. PMID:24931476
Daar, Abdallah S.; Jacobs, Marian; Wall, Stig; Groenewald, Johann; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; dos Santos, Palmira; Kagee, Ashraf; Gevers, Anik; Sunkel, Charlene; Andrews, Gail; Daniels, Ingrid; Ndetei, David
Annual Conference on Advancing School Mental Health Theme: "What Works in School Mental Health: Collaboration from the Inside Out" Early Bird Pre-Conference Training Opportunity--Youth Mental Health First Aid USA Want to become a Youth Mental Health First Aider? This Early Bird Pre-Conference opportunity
Weber, David J.
Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care through NIMH Funded Interventions Research Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup on Clinical Trials EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH
Baker, Chris I.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has for long proposed the development of community-based mental health services worldwide. However, the progress toward community mental health care in most African countries is still hampered by a lack of resources, with specialist psychiatric care essentially based in large, centrally located mental hospitals. It is again time to reconsider the direction of mental health care in Africa. Based on a small inquiry to a number of experienced mental health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa, we discuss what a community concept of mental health care might mean in Africa. There is a general agreement that mental health services should be integrated in primary health care. A critical issue for success of this model is perceived to be provision of appropriate supervision and continuing education for primary care workers. The importance of collaboration between modern medicine and traditional healers is stressed and the paper ends in a plea for WHO to take the initiative and develop mental health services according to the special needs and the socio-cultural conditions prevailing in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18458779
ALEM, ATALAY; JACOBSSON, LARS; HANLON, CHARLOTTE
Low-income, single mothers and their children constitute a rapidly growing population at risk for adverse health outcomes. The mental health of these women is particularly at risk. This study investigated the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms in low-income, single mothers of 1- to 4-year-old children; identified psychosocial predictors of…
Hall, Lynne A.; And Others
Poverty increases maternal stress by heightening exposure to negative life events, job loss, chronic strains, poor housing, dangerous neighborhoods, and conflict with partners, culminating in crippling depressive symptoms, the most prevalent mental health threat. Depressive symptoms interfere with the provision of the strong maternal support needed to counter the hardships of poverty, thus placing infants and toddlers at risk for delayed language, social, and emotional development. Initial clinical trials in high-risk mothers have shown promise, and successive tests of interventions will be strengthened if mothers who have mental health risks can be accurately targeted for inclusion. This article reports on a sequential, data-driven process by which high-risk mothers were targeted for intervention in two trials currently in progress to reduce depressive symptoms. An iterative process of using data to identify at-risk mothers and validate the presence of risk factors helped hone the recruitment and design of the intervention trials. This report also offers guidance for further study. PMID:17954677
Beeber, Linda S.; Perreira, Krista M.; Schwartz, Todd
Individuals with mild depression show an enhanced ability to read or “decode” others' mental states. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether this pattern of performance is related specifically to the pathology of depression or whether it is simply a feature of the transient dysphoric state. Forty-one undergraduates with a previous episode of major depression and 52
Kate L. Harkness; Jill A. Jacobson; David Duong; Mark A. Sabbagh
Mental health professionals are increasingly beingcalled upon by the courts to offer their expertise inchild custody and access disputes. This paperaddresses the specialized role mental healthprofessionals have in custody and access hearings,particularly in cases wherein one or both parents havereceived a mental diagnosis (i.e., of mental disorderor mental retardation). The focus upon thispopulation of parents is warranted, as there is
Mental health status of 726 adolescents and their backgrounds were investigated with Symptom Check List(SCL-90) and self-designed questionnaire. The results showed that the prevalence rate of psychological problems ranged from 6.34% to 24.93%. Among these problems, obsession led all the others. Females had higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobia than males. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the major factors contributed to mental health status of adolescents were the relationship between teacher and student, father's concern with his child, only child or not, parents' expectations, personality and sex. The study provides reference source for improving the mental health status of adolescents. PMID:12212202
Zhou, D M; Tan, H Z; Li, S Q
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at increased risk for mental health problems including depression, post-traumatic stress (PTSD), and suicidality. The overriding goal of the current investigation was to examine mental health and mental health services in a diverse sample of YMSM. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a cohort study of 598 YMSM, including sociodemographics, mental health, and mental health care. We then tested for bivariate associations, and used multivariable modeling to predict depression, PTSD, suicidality and mental health care utilization. Lower socioeconomic status, unstable housing, and school non-enrollment predicted depression and PTSD scores, while unstable housing and school non-enrollment predicted recent suicide attempt(s). These recent suicide attempt(s) also predicted current utilization of counseling or treatment, any history of psychiatric hospitalization, and any history of psychiatric diagnosis. Black and API men were less likely to have ever accessed mental health counseling or treatment. There were significant class-based differences with regard to mental health outcomes, but not mental health services. Further, recent crises (i.e., suicide attempt, hospitalization) were strong predictors of accessing mental health services. Improving the mental health of YMSM requires addressing the underlying structural factors that influence mental health outcomes and service access. PMID:24224066
Storholm, Erik David; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Moeller, Robert W.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Bare, Michael G.
Despite growing numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors (UMs) in Europe, and evidence that this group is at risk of developing mental health problems, there still remain important knowledge gaps regarding the development of UMs' mental health during their trajectories in the host country and, in particular, the possible influencing role of traumatic experiences and daily stressors therein. This study therefore followed 103 UMs from the moment they arrived in Belgium until 18 months later. Traumatic experiences (SLE), mental health symptoms (HSCL-37A, RATS) and daily stressors (DSSYR) were measured at arrival in Belgium, after 6 and 18 months. UMs reported generally high scores on anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Linear mixed model analysis showed no significant differences in mental health scores over time, pointing towards the possible long-term persistence of mental health problems in this population. The number of traumatic experiences and the number of daily stressors leaded to a significant higher symptom level of depression (daily stressors), anxiety and PTSD (traumatic experiences and daily stressors). European migration policies need to reduce the impact of daily stressors on UMs' mental health by ameliorating the reception and care facilities for this group. Moreover, regular mental health screenings are needed, in combination with, if needed, adapted psychosocial and therapeutic care. PMID:23979476
Vervliet, Marianne; Lammertyn, Jan; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
The Regional Aboriginal Integrated Social and Emotional (RAISE) Wellbeing program commenced in February 2003 as an Aboriginal mental health service partnership between one Aboriginal Health Service and three mainstream services: a community mental health team, a hospital mental health liaison, and an "outback" community counselling service. A case study method was used to describe the drivers (incentives for program development), linkage processes (structures and activities through which the partnership operated), and sustainability of the program. Program drivers were longstanding problems with Aboriginal peoples' access to mental health care, policy direction favouring shared service responsibility, and a relatively small amount of new funding for mental health that allowed the program to commence. Linkage processes were the important personal relationships between key individuals. Developing the program as a part of routine practice within and across the partner organisations is now needed through formal agreements, common care-management tools, and training. The program's sustainability will depend on this development occurring, as well as better collection and use of data to communicate the value of the program and support calls for adequate recurrent funds. The development of care-management tools, training and data systems will require a longer period of start-up funding as well as some external expertise. PMID:16296956
Fuller, Jeffrey D; Martinez, Lee; Muyambi, Kuda; Verran, Kathy; Ryan, Bronwyn; Klee, Ruth
Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains) remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower peri-event emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general wellness, and that peri-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across multiple domains of postdisaster functioning. PMID:25461873
Lowe, Sarah R; Joshi, Spruha; Pietrzak, Robert H; Galea, Sandro; Cerdá, Magdalena
While developmental studies predominantly investigated adolescents' mental illness and psychosocial maladjustment, the present research focused on positive mental health of Indian adolescents within the Mental Health Continuum model. Aims were to estimate their prevalence of mental health and to examine its associations with mental distress and psychosocial functioning, taking into account age and gender. A group of 539 students (age 13-18; 43.2% girls) in the National Capital Territory of Delhi completed Mental Health Continuum Short Form, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Findings showed that 46.4% participants were flourishing, 51.2% were moderately mentally healthy, and only 2.4% were languishing. A higher number of girls and younger adolescents were flourishing compared to boys and older adolescents. Moreover, flourishing youths reported lower prevalence of depression and adjustment difficulties, and more prosocial behavior. Findings support the need to expand current knowledge on positive mental health for well-being promotion in adolescence. PMID:25588610
Singh, Kamlesh; Bassi, Marta; Junnarkar, Mohita; Negri, Luca
As the nation's schools seek to fulfill the academic imperatives of the federal No Child Left Behind Act and associated state imperatives, they may be forgetting an important missing element in boosting academic achievement: directly confronting the mental health and psychosocial needs that impede a significant percentage of children and adolescents. This article explores the available research on mental health
Steve Jacob; Alberto Coustasse
May is National Mental Health Awareness Month. This is a great time to highlight the importance of mental wellness and school-based mental health services to children's positive learning and development. There is heightened urgency to the imperative to advance school-based mental health and school psychologists' expertise as essential to the…
Cowan, Katherine C.
Background Depression is a chronic mental health condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is well-established that psychological stress plays an integral role in depression and that depression has numerous negative health outcomes. However, a closer look at components of stress vulnerabilities and depression is required to allow for the development and testing of appropriate interventions. Aims and Discussion This article describes a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women. The authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. Conclusion The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression. PMID:25328843
Kinser, Patricia A; Lyon, Debra E
An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…
Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…
Robertson, Peter J.
Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50…
Kraft, David P.
Contact with people with mental illness is considered to be a promising strategy to change stigmatizing attitudes. This study examines the underlying mechanisms of the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. Data are derived from the 2009 survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study", using the Community Mental Health Ideology-scale. Results show that people who received mental health treatment themselves or have a family member who has been treated for mental health problems report more tolerant attitudes toward community mental health care than people with public contact with people with mental illness. Besides, the perception of the effectiveness of the treatment seems to matter too. Furthermore, emotions arising from public contact are associated with attitudes toward community mental health care. The degree of intimacy and the characteristics of the contact relationship clarify the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. PMID:23179045
Pattyn, E; Verhaeghe, M; Bracke, P
- The 'e-mental health' currently available, which also covers m-health and i-health, varies from psycho-education and self-tests to self-help, treatment and contact with fellow sufferers. Many programs are based on cognitive behavioural therapy, but other types of therapy are also used.- Research shows that online programs for depression, alcohol problems and anxiety can reduce these symptoms and can be cost effective. This applies to both self-help and treatment programs. Many e-programs in the Netherlands have been developed for the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care (GGZ) and for treatment of addiction problems.- One problem with e-mental-health is that provision is fragmented, and there is no national overview, while insight into quality is important for patients and professionals. The quality hallmark 'Onlinehulpstempel.nl' ('Online help hallmark') provides this insight.- The use of e-mental-health within Dutch healthcare services is still in its infancy. New financing methods are stimulating general practitioners to use it.- The consolidation of online and face-to-face care ('blended e-health') provides an opportunity for patients and GGZ support personnel within general practice to start to use e-health. PMID:25515395
Smeets, O; Martin Abello, K; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M; Boon, B
\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to offer a mental health theory approach to law and aging. Key issues regarding legal capacity,\\u000a mental competence, guardianship, and substitute decision making for older persons are presented as a core around which elder\\u000a law is established. A critical perspective describes how legal concepts of capacity are used to conceal legal bias and ageism
W. C. Schmidt
Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health. PMID:25084488
Houle, Jason N
Advance directives are designed to establish a person's preferences for treatment if the person becomes incompetent in the future or unable to communicate those preferences to treatment providers. Mental health advance directives are similar to the more commonly used directives for end-of-life medical decisions. A patient must be competent to execute a mental health advance directive, and the directive must clearly express the patient's wishes. Once directives are executed, steps must be taken to ensure compliance, including adequate dissemination to providers, and to ensure that proxy decisions are consistent with the patient's treatment preferences. Potential effects of mental health advance directives include enhanced consumer empowerment; improved functioning; improved communication between consumers, family members, and providers; increased tolerance for consumer autonomy at the organizational level in community mental health agencies; and reduced use of hospital services and judicial proceedings. Issues to be clarified in future research and practice include strategies for increasing awareness of advance directives in mental health, barriers to execution of legally and clinically effective directives, practitioners' concerns, providers' compliance with directives, effects of directives on consumers and providers, effects of managed care on implementation of directives, and stakeholders' perceptions of the value of directives. PMID:10402612
Srebnik, D S; La Fond, J Q
The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief personnel and volunteers to safeguard their mental health. However, programs on these subjects remain insufficient. We extend our utmost respect and appreciation to the disaster relief workforce for doing their best to save lives. We hope that this aids in the reconstruction process of such affected areas. PMID:24783446
Among American children and adolescents aged 1 to 17 years, the 12- to 17-year-olds represent the largest users of outpatient mental health services. This study utilizes a nationally representative sample of this age group from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to illuminate predictors of services use from three treatment settings: day treatment programs, mental health clinics/centers, and private/in-home settings. Univariate analyses were used to calculate the percentages of the study sample that used mental health services in these settings. In bivariate analyses, the authors estimated the strength of the associations between available predisposing, need, and enabling factors and the outcomes. Multiple logistic regressions estimated the independent effects of each covariate on the outcomes. Lifetime depression, lifetime general anxiety, delinquent behaviors, drug dependence, and Medicaid were consistent predictors of services use in the three treatment settings. Several other factors were associated with services use in bivariate analyses but lost most of their statistical significance when the authors adjusted for other confounders. Interpreted in light of its potential limitations, this study has important research and policy significance. PMID:19587845
Alexandre, Pierre Kébreau; Stephens, Robbin M.; Laris, Alexandra S.; Dowling, Krista; Rely, Kely
Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978
Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk
MENTAL HEALTH Mental health workers can take the form of counselors, psychologists, social workers, and clinical diagnosis and treatment. A period of clinical training in mental health facilities usually follows and therapists. Also called psychotherapists, these professionals help patients with mental illnesses
Background The reproductive and mental health of women contributes significantly to their overall well-being. Three of the eight Millennium\\u000a Development Goals are directly related to reproductive and sexual health while mental disorders make up three of the ten leading\\u000a causes of disease burden in low and middle-income countries. Among mental disorders, depression and anxiety are two of the\\u000a most prevalent. In
Jasim Anwar; Elias Mpofu; Lynda R Matthews; Ahmed Farah Shadoul; Kaye E Brock
Abstract Objective To explore the relationship between health promotion counseling (HPC) provided by FPs and health-related quality of life (HRQL) and the use of health care services among patients with chronic conditions, while assessing the effect of mental health on these relationships. Design Telephone survey using random-digit dialing. Setting Alberta. Participants A total of 1615 participants with chronic conditions. Main outcome measures Health promotion counseling provided by FPs, which was assessed using 4 questions; HRQL using the Euro quality of life 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire; and the use of health care services assessed with self-reported emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Results Of the 1615 participants with chronic conditions, 55% were female and more than two-thirds were older than age 45 years. Less than two-thirds of participants received HPC from their FPs. In patients without anxiety or depression, those who needed help from their FPs in making changes to prevent illness had a 0.05 lower EQ-5D score than those who did not (P < .001); and those who received diet counseling had a 0.03 higher EQ-5D score than their counterparts did (P = .048). However, these associations were not observed in patients with anxiety or depression. Patients were more likely to have visited EDs if they needed their physicians’ help in making changes to prevent illness (odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.89) and less likely to visit EDs if they had been encouraged by their physicians to talk about their health concerns (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91). None of the HPC items was associated with hospitalizations. Conclusion Not all patients with chronic conditions are receiving HPC from their FPs. Also, there is an association between HPC and important health outcomes (ie, HRQL and ED visits), but this association is not apparent for those with anxiety or depression. PMID:24522689
Al Sayah, Fatima; Agborsangaya, Calypse; Lahtinen, Markus; Cooke, Tim; Johnson, Jeffrey A.
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Background Depression is a worldwide problem warranting global solutions to tackle it. Enhancing well-being has benefits in its own right and could be a good strategy for preventing depression. Providing well-being interventions via the Internet may have synergetic effects. Objective Psyfit (“mental fitness online”) is a fully automated self-help intervention to improve well-being based on positive psychology. This study examines the clinical effects of this intervention. Methods We conducted a 2-armed randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of access to Psyfit for 2 months (n=143) to a waiting-list control condition (n=141). Mild to moderately depressed adults in the general population seeking self-help were recruited. Primary outcome was well-being measured by Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5); secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, anxiety, vitality, and general health measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), and Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS-SF) vitality and general health subscales, respectively. Online measurements were taken at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months after baseline. Results The dropout rate was 37.8% in the Psyfit group and 22.7% in the control group. At 2-month follow-up, Psyfit tended to be more effective in enhancing well-being (nonsignificantly for MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.27, P=.06; significantly for WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.31, P=.01), compared to the waiting-list control group. For the secondary outcomes, small but significant effects were found for general health (Cohen’s d=0.14, P=.01), vitality (d=0.22, P=.02), anxiety symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.32, P=.001), and depressive symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.36, P=.02). At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant effects on well-being (MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.01, P=.90; WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.26, P=.11), whereas depressive symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.35, P=.02) and anxiety symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.35, P=.001) were still significantly reduced compared to the control group. There was no clear dose–response relationship between adherence and effectiveness, although some significant differences appeared across most outcomes in favor of those completing at least 1 lesson in the intervention. Conclusions This study shows that an online well-being intervention can effectively enhance well-being (at least in the short-term and for 1 well-being measure) and can help to reduce anxiety and depression symptoms. Further research should focus on increasing adherence and motivation, reaching and serving lower-educated people, and widening the target group to include people with different levels of depressive symptoms. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) number: NTR2126; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2126 (archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6IIiVrLcO). PMID:24041479
Haverman, Merel; Kramer, Jeannet; Westerhof, Gerben J; Riper, Heleen; Walburg, Jan A; Boon, Brigitte; Bohlmeijer, Ernst
BACKGROUND: In post-apartheid South Africa the organisation and delivery of mental health care is undergoing significant change. With the heritage of an under-resourced, fragmented, racially inequitable service, heavily reliant on chronic custodial treatment in large centralised institutions, this change is long overdue. New policy has set out a vision for a community-based, comprehensive, integrated mental health service. In order to realise this vision a review is required of the way in which care is currently delivered, or the 'process' of mental health care. To date, no national research has been conducted regarding process of care indicators in South African mental health services. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study documents four public sector mental health service process indicators in South Africa: bed occupancy rates, admission rates, average length of stay and default rates. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health co-ordinators, requesting numbers of occupied and available beds in psychiatric inpatient facilities, annual mental health admissions, average length of stay (ALOS), and default rate in ambulatory care settings. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health co-ordinators in each of the 9 provinces. RESULTS: The national bed occupancy rate is 83% (range: 63-109%). The national annual rate of admission to psychiatric inpatient facilities is 150 per 100 000 population (range: 33-300). The national average length of admission is 219 days in psychiatric hospitals, 11 days in general regional hospitals and 7 days in general district hospitals. On average 11% of psychiatric patients who attend ambulatory care services on a monthly basis fail to keep their appointments. DISCUSSION: Although the national mean bed occupancy is compatible with international figures, there is considerable discrepancy between provinces, indicating both over- and under- utilisation of inpatient resources. Admission rates are low, relative to developed countries, though comparable to developing countries. Low admission rates are associated with a range of factors including inadequate service provision, unmet need, inaccessible services, cross-border flow between provinces and custodial patterns of care. There is evidence of long periods of admission relative to international settings. There is also considerable diversity between provinces, with certain institutions continuing to provide long term custodial patterns of care. Default rates are low relative to international settings and past reports default in South Africa. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: In keeping with current policies there is an urgent need for local level evaluation and reform of chronic custodial care. The ongoing monitoring of process indicators is important in the transition to community-based mental health care. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Limitations of the data, and problems of collecting information on mental health care within an integrated health system indicate the need for further research in this area. There is also a need for further research into unmet need for mental health care in South Africa. PMID:11967461
Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J.
The relation between functions of reminiscence and mental health has been studied elaborately in older adults. In this paper a review of this research is first presented. Eight functions are distinguished: bitterness revival, boredom reduction, identity, problem solving, maintaining intimacy, preparing for death, teaching/informing and conversation. Some functions such as bitterness revival are used more often by people with depression or anxiety. Other functions such as identity are used less often by people with psychological distress. A model based on these research findings is discussed. Three types of interventions are distinguished: reminiscence, life-review and life-review therapy. Life-review therapy is an evidence based treatment of depression in older adults. In the last part of the paper three effective Dutch interventions are discussed: Op zoek naar zin (Searching for meaning), Dierbare Herinneringen (Dear Memories) and De verhalen die we leven (The stories we live by). PMID:21400958
Bohlmeijer, E T; Steunenberg, B; Westerhof, G J
Health related non-profit organisations (NPOs) provide a potentially important but largely untapped role in mental health promotion in communities. This paper reports on a study investigating the activities and contributions made by NPOs to mental health and well-being. One hundred and eight NPOs based in the metropolitan area of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, participated in a survey exploring agency activities that contribute to promoting mental well-being; factors that helped or hindered the organisation in engaging in mental health promotion activities and evaluation methods and processes. An index of key themes was developed and frequencies derived from categorical data. NPOs undertook five key types of activities to promote mental health and well-being: support provision (81%); service provision (59%); information sharing (52%); activities to promote well-being (24%); and advocacy (6%). Systematic evaluation of longer-term outcomes was rare, with most NPOs (72%) relying on informal feedback from clients. Human resources in the form of paid or volunteer workers were most frequently (58%) identified as contributing to the capacity of agencies to carry out mental health promotion activities. Training and education emerged as a substantive need (34%). NPOs are well placed to enhance resiliency in the context of ongoing health problems, disability or other adverse psychosocial circumstances that place people at risk of mental health problems. As such they constitute a significant resource for advancing mental health promotion goals. What is needed to extend the practice and evidence base in this area is training and skill development for NPO workers, along with larger-scale research conducted in collaboration with NPOs to assess the contributions and cost-effectiveness of the sector. PMID:17956407
Boyle, Frances M; Donald, Maria; Dean, Julie H; Conrad, Sue; Mutch, Allyson J
Background Anxiety and depressive disorders occur in all stages of life and are the most common childhood disorders. However, only recently has attention been paid to mental health problems in indigenous children and studies of anxiety and depressive disorders in these children are still scarce. This study compares the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara and non-Aymara children. Among the Aymara children, the study examines the relations between these symptoms and the degree of involvement with Aymara culture. Methods We recruited 748 children aged 9 to 15 years from nine schools serving low socioeconomic classes in the city of Arica, in northern Chile. The children were equally divided between boys and girls and 37% of the children were Aymara. To evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms we used the Stress in Children (SiC) instrument and the Children Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), and used an instrument we developed to assess level of involvement in the Aymara culture. Results There was no significant difference between Aymara and non-Aymara children on any of the instrument scales. Dividing the Aymara children into high-involvement (n?=?89) and low-involvement (n?=?186) groups, the low-involvement group had significantly higher scores on the Hopelessness subscale of the CDI-S (p?=?0.02) and scores of marginally higher significance in overall Anxiety on the SiC (p?=?0.06). Conclusions Although Aymara children have migrated from the high Andean plateau to the city, this migration has not resulted in a greater presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Greater involvement with the Aymara culture may be a protective factor against anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara children. This point to an additional benefit of maintaining cultural traditions within this population. PMID:24438210
There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243
SUMMARY The clinician-patient relationship is more intense in the field of psychiatry than in other specialities of medicine. In this context, an understanding of the personality assets and liabilities of a psychiatrist takes on special significance. In the present comparative cross-sectional study, the personality profile, positive mental health characteristics and empathy were studied in two groups of residents in psychiatry and one in general medicine. Residents in psychiatry had greater amount of positive mental health characteristics and identifiable personality traits. However, in empathy the three groups did not show any significant difference. The utility and implications of the results are discussed. PMID:21927242
Chowdhury, Jyotirmoy Roy; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Prabhu, G.G.; Sarmukaddam, S.
Background The present study’s aim has been to investigate, identify and interpret the views of pediatric primary healthcare providers on the recognition and management of maternal depression in the context of a weak primary healthcare system. Methods Twenty six pediatricians and health visitors were selected by using purposive sampling. Face to face in-depth interviews of approximately 45 minutes duration were conducted. The data were analyzed by using the framework analysis approach which includes five main steps: familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, charting, mapping and interpretation. Results Fear of stigmatization came across as a key barrier for detection and management of maternal depression. Pediatric primary health care providers linked their hesitation to start a conversation about depression with stigma. They highlighted that mothers were not receptive to discussing depression and accepting a referral. It was also revealed that the fragmented primary health care system and the lack of collaboration between health and mental health services have resulted in an unfavorable situation towards maternal mental health. Conclusions Even though pediatricians and health visitors are aware about maternal depression and the importance of maternal mental health, however they fail to implement detection and management practices successfully. The inefficiently decentralized psychiatric services but also stigmatization and misconceptions about maternal depression have impeded the integration of maternal mental health into primary care and prevent pediatric primary health care providers from implementing detection and management practices. PMID:24725738
The U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed…
Sue, Stanley; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saad, Carmel S.; Chu, Joyce P.
BACKGROUND: Given the high prevalence of mental health problems after disasters it is important to study health services utilization. This study examines predictors for mental health services (MHS) utilization among survivors of a man-made disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000). METHODS: Electronic records of survivors (n = 339; over 18 years and older) registered in a mental health service (MHS)
Dirk-Jan den Ouden; Peter G van der Velden; Linda Grievink; Mattijn Morren; Anja JE Dirkzwager; C Joris Yzermans
Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…
Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen
A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI. PMID:25227181
Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhăes, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette
Few studies have examined the association between within-person (WP) reaction time (RT) variability and mental health (depression, anxiety, and social dysphoria) in old age. Therefore, we investigated mental health (using the General Health Questionnaire) and cognitive function (mean RT or WP variability) in 257 healthy, community-dwelling adults aged 50-90 years (M = 63.60). The cognitive domains assessed were psychomotor performance, executive function, visual search, and recognition. Structural equation models revealed that for WP variability, but not mean RT, poorer mental health was associated with visual search and immediate recognition deficits in older persons and that these relationships were partially mediated by executive function. The dissociation between mean RT and WP variability provides evidence that the latter measure may be particularly sensitive to the subtle effects of mental health on cognitive function in old age. PMID:24605782
Bauermeister, Sarah; Bunce, David
This paper reviews issues in planning and delivering mental health services to rural dwelling elderly. First, comparative data on the prevalence of mental illness among rural elderly, and the availability and accessibility of mental health services in rural areas are presented to provide a basis for subsequent discussion. Next, several strategies for improving the development and delivery of geriatric mental
Zona Chalifoux; Jane B. Neese; Kathleen C. Buckwalter; Eugene Litwak; Ivo L. Abraham
Background Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Methods Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Results Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. Conclusion This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated with negative mental health amongst specific population groups in order to ensure greater impact. PMID:24502531
Background Mental ill health, especially depression, is recognised as an important health concern, potentially with greater impact in rural communities. This paper reports on a project, Coach the Coach, in which Australian rural football clubs were the setting and football coaches the leaders in providing greater mental health awareness and capacity to support early help seeking behaviour among young males experiencing mental health difficulties, especially depression. Coaches and other football club leaders were provided with Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training. Method Pre-post measures of the ability of those club leaders undertaking mental health training to recognise depression and schizophrenia and of their knowledge of evidence supported treatment options, and confidence in responding to mental health difficulties were obtained using a questionnaire. This was supplemented by focus group interviews. Pre-post questionnaire data from players in participating football clubs was used to investigate attitudes to depression, treatment options and ability to recognise depression from a clinical scenario. Key project stakeholders were also interviewed. Results Club leaders (n = 36) who were trained in MHFA and club players (n = 275) who were not trained, participated in this evaluation. More than 50% of club leaders who undertook the training showed increased capacity to recognise mental illness and 66% reported increased confidence to respond to mental health difficulties in others. They reported that this training built upon their existing skills, fulfilled their perceived social responsibilities and empowered them. Indirect benefit to club players from this approach seemed limited as minimal changes in attitudes were reported by players. Key stakeholders regarded the project as valuable. Conclusions Rural football clubs appear to be appropriate social structures to promote rural mental health awareness. Club leaders, including many coaches, benefit from MHFA training, reporting increased skills and confidence. Benefit to club players from this approach was less obvious. However, the generally positive findings of this study suggest further research in this area is desirable. PMID:20482809
The present study examined the interactive influence of gender role typing and multiple role involvement with regard to specific mental health concerns among middle-class Caucasian women. As with previous research, depression and anxiety proved to be a function of gender role typing (feminine-typed and undifferentiated women displayed greater depression and anxiety relative to masculine-typed or androgynous women) with no differences
Bill Thornton; Rachel Leo
Objective To evaluate community-based outpatient mental health services for young adults. Methods Participants were interviewed at ages 21, 24, 27, and 30. Outcomes included: (1) symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety, social phobia, dysthymia and post traumatic stress individually and as a global scale; and (2) a dichotomous diagnosis variable inclusive of all above disorders. Treatment was indicated by an outpatient visit to a psychiatrist or other professional. Results Treatment did not reduce mental disorder or symptoms. Substance use, violence, poverty, community disorganization, and family history of antisocial behavior increased risks for negative outcomes, while social support was protective. Conclusions The absence of positive findings associated with outpatient treatment is troubling given the empirically supported interventions for the conditions examined. Practitioners, agencies, and managed care organizations share a responsibility to implement effective and comprehensive interventions. PMID:20186567
Van Dorn, Richard A.; Kosterman, Rick; Williams, James Herbert; Chandler, Kristen; Young, M. Scott; Catalano, Richard F.; Hawkins, J. David
Mental health problems pose challenges for military veterans, returning service members, and military family members including spouses and children. Challenges to meeting mental health needs include improving access to care and improving quality of care. Mobile Health, or "mHealth," can help meet these needs in the garrison and civilian environments. mHealth brings unique capabilities to health care provision through the use of mobile device technologies. This report identifies high-priority mHealth technology development considerations in two categories. First, priority considerations specific to mental health care provision include safety, privacy, evidence-based practice, efficacy studies, and temperament. Second, priority considerations broadly applicable to mHealth include security, outcomes, ease of use, carrier compliance, hardware, provider perspectives, data volume, population, regulation, command policy, and reimbursement. Strategic planning for the advancement of these priority considerations should be coordinated with stated Department of Defense capability needs to maximize likelihood of adoption. This report also summarizes three leading, military programs focused on mHealth projects in mental health, The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, The Military Operational Medicine Research Program, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and The National Center for Telehealth and Technology. PMID:25102529
Shore, Jay H; Aldag, Matt; McVeigh, Francis L; Hoover, Ronald L; Ciulla, Robert; Fisher, Ashley
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH ACTIVITIES REPRESENTING EIGHT MAJOR PROGRAMS OF THE INSTITUTE ARE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF MEETING THE NEEDS OF NORMAL CHILDREN IN NORMAL ENVIRONMENTS, PROVIDING EARLY TREATMENT OF MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD, AND DEVELOPING TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMS FOR SEVERELY DISTURBED CHILDREN.…
For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…
Jorm, Anthony F.
Studies have shown that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with poor mental health. But, does women’s, and specifically mother’s, mental health improve after leaving a union marked by IPV? We used two waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (n = 2610) to examine the association between IPV as measured by controlling and violent behaviors, and maternal mental health and union dissolution. Mothers in unions marked by IPV reported poorer mental health, became more depressed and maintained high levels of anxiety over time regardless of whether or not their union dissolved, compared to mothers who were in non-abusive unions. Mothers in stable non-abusive unions became more depressed over time, but at a lower magnitude than mothers in controlling and violent unions. Mothers in non-abusive unions that dissolved also became more depressed and anxious over time. Overall, we find that women are still at risk for mental health problems even after leaving IPV unions. PMID:25197152
Adkins, Kate S.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp
Objectives Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. Method At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the ‘VI Reparto Mobile’, a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand–Control–Support (DCS) and the Effort–Reward–Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Results Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI?10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers. PMID:23872288
Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women occurs in all countries, with wide-ranging negative effects, including on mental health. IPV rates vary widely across countries, however, suggesting cultural factors may play a role in IPV. The primary purpose of the present study was to assess relations among IPV, mental health symptoms, and cultural beliefs among Vietnamese women, focusing on moderator effects of cultural beliefs on relations between IPV and mental health. IPV, anxious and depressive mental health symptoms, and culturally-related beliefs about IPV were cross-sectionally assessed in 105 married adult Vietnamese women randomly selected from public population registries in five provinces. IPV was significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relations were moderated by wives’ culturally-related beliefs about abuse (e.g., relations between IPV and mental health symptoms were smaller for women who believed that nothing could be done about abuse). Findings suggest that when attempting to prevent or treat effects of IPV, it will be important to consider that certain beliefs about IPV generally viewed as maladaptive (e.g., nothing can be done about abuse) may have adaptive effects, at least in the short-term, on relations between IPV and mental health functioning. PMID:24358448
Do, Khanh Ngoc; Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie
Investigates the extent of aggression exposure and the effects of exposure on the psychological health of nursing staff in hospitals. Results suggested that nearly 40% of staff experienced psychological distress, while nearly 10% experienced moderate to severe depression. Results of the logistic analyses indicated that frequent exposure to…
Lam, Lawrence T.
Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…
Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
Comments on three articles (see records EJ733583, EJ733584, and EJ733585) on the status of children's mental health services in the United States, which appeared in the September 2005 issue of the "American Psychologist." The current authors suggest that, although this series of articles provides important information, the articles fall short in…
Holden, E. Wayne; Blau, Gary M.
Practicing psychologists are increasingly identifying serious problems in behavior, emotional development, and regulation in infants and very young children that result in impaired family functioning and relationships. Often these child challenges are in combination with a range of parental concerns including addictions, homelessness, teen parenthood, and unresolved feelings from the past. Infant mental health (IMH) is a broad field encompassing
Angela M. Tomlin; Stephan A. Viehweg
This research focused on the mental health issues at adult day centers and used a cluster analysis to profile older persons who received these services. The sample included 280 participants who attended adult day care. The data were collected from intake files using a biopsychosocial framework to guide the selection of variables from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2000.
Virginia E Richardson; Holly Dabelko; Tom Gregoire
Harm reduction is a conceptual framework and set of practices that focus on the minimization of the physical, social, and legal harms substance users do to themselves and to society as a whole. Its application to community mental health settings is relatively new, and can create controversies and ethical dilemmas if not properly designed, implemented, and evaluated. Building on the
Michael A. Mancini; Donald M. Linhorst
This paper addresses the theory and practice of empowerment as an emerging mental health technology, as well as its relationship to prevention. The paper begins with a discussion of the increasing interest in empowerment by preventionists. Definitional issues are then considered; in this context the disparate philosophical world views of empowerment and prevention are outlined. Next, attention is directed to
Carolyn Swift; Gloria Levin
Reviews literature on the evaluation of consumer satisfaction with mental health treatment. The methods of assessing consumer satisfaction, methodological issues in studies assessing satisfaction, results of the studies, and the value of consumer evaluation are discussed. Consumer evaluation is found to be a useful though flawed method of assessing services. It is concluded that consumer evaluation should be included in
Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…
Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin
Refugee movements impose tremendous psychological and physical trauma on survivors, making refugees a high risk group for psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment problems. This paper explores the traditional impediments to developing prevention programs for refugees and describes public mental health strategies that could be used for different…
Williams, Carolyn L.
This paper poses a series of fundamental educational challenges about mental health. First, it questions whether 'mental health' is a valid concept, in the light of debates over mind/body dualism. If the concept is valid, should the absence of mental health be seen as an illness, an adaptive strategy or simply a statistical eccentricity? Fulford's concept of 'failure of intentional action' is commended as a philosophical basis for unravelling these issues. Secondly, the paper considers whether diagnosis is a simple or complex process, and whether it can be an objective activity or one which involves a strong subjective element. The current and potential value of multiaxial classification systems are discussed. Thirdly, themes concerning mental health treatment are introduced, covering problems with consent and patient preference, the evidential basis of interventions, and the range and limitations of possible treatments. Finally, the paper reviews the educational processes needed to meet these challenges effectively. It recommends the development of multifaceted educational programmes, nurturing a spirit of critical enquiry and personal awareness and, above all, the recognition and toleration of the uncertainty and complexity which lie at the heart of successful medical practice. PMID:10886637
Guide to VA Mental Health Services for Veterans and Families Keitha R Beamer, MSN: PMHCNS, BC; CARN Justice System Â· Older Veterans Â· Homeless veterans: Â National Call Center for Homeless Veterans 1 to know the VA Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare 152 Medical Centers 817 Community Based
Hardy, Christopher R.
Direct patient-computer interviews were among the earliest applications of computing in medicine. Yet patient interviewing and other clinical applications have lagged behind fiscal/administrative uses. Several reasons for delays in the development and implementation of clinical computing programs and their resolution are discussed. Patient interviewing, clinician consultation and other applications of clinical computing in mental health are reviewed.
Greist, John H.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Erdman, Harold P.; Jefferson, James W.
BACKGROUND: Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of
Melanie A Barwick; Katherine M Boydell; Elaine Stasiulis; H Bruce Ferguson; Karen Blase; Dean Fixsen
This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element
Michael J. Rice
The United States is a country of immigrants. With the exception of Native-Americans, every other American is, or descends from, an immigrant. First and second generation immigrant children are the most rapidly growing segment of the American population, with the great majority of this population being of non-European origin. This paper reviews the unique risk factors and mental health needs
Andrés J. Pumariega; Eugenio Rothe; JoAnne B. Pumariega
Mental health and solitude in old age. Elderly people experience solitude as isolation, even more so when the person is ill. However, in the same circumstances, some people see solitude as an experience of maturity. Is it simply a question of inner strength? PMID:24600946
The mental health counseling profession has gained increasing influence in the last 20 years. The purpose of this edited collection of articles is to chart the antecedents to, the present status of, and the future trends for this group of professionals. The book draws together historical tracings, rationales, conceptual models, and other…
Weikel, William J., Ed.; Palmo, Artis J., Ed.
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each paper presents a clear, easily understood analysis of the subject under consideration. A…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1992
Describes a collaborative in Camden, New Jersey, that improves delivery and quality of mental health services for Head Start families. Reveals how the program addresses most of the social service and educational needs of the community through preventive intervention. Contains a description of each member's area of expertise and service. (SD)
This report contains summaries of mental health training projects conducted under grants awarded by the Experimental and Special Training Branch of the Division of Manpower and Training Programs. The projects have been developed in both academic and non-academic settings for professional, subprofessional, and nonprofessional training for a variety…
Silverstein, Sam, Ed.; And Others
The authors provide a brief overview of counseling and mental health care in Palestine, including their history and a summary of their current status. Finally, a discussion is presented of future trends in the development of the profession with regard to recent changes in the region.
Shawahin, Lamise; Ciftci, Ayse
With the growing number of counselors working outside of school settings, licensure of mental health counselors has become an important issue. A main problem facing counselors is the lack of a clear identity. Licensure would lead to increased professionalism and identification. Licensure is authorized by the state legislature, regulating the…
Background Although schools are often the first institution to provide recovery efforts for children post-disaster, few studies have involved the school community in research to improve the delivery of these mental health services on campuses. This community partnered study explores post-disaster counseling services ten months following Hurricane Katrina. Methods In July 2006, nine focus groups, comprised of 39 school-based mental health counselors and 6 program administrators (10 men, 35 women), were conducted following a two-day clinical training regarding a youth trauma intervention following Hurricane Katrina. Participants discussed types of services they had been providing prior to the training and potential barriers to delivering services. Results Participants identified high mental health needs of students and described populations that did not seem to be adequately supported by current funding sources, including those with preexisting traumatic experiences and mental health issues, indirect psychological and social consequences of the storms, and those students relocated to less impacted communities. Participants also described the need for a centralized information system. Conclusions Participants described the need for greater organizational structure that supports school counselors and provides system-level support for services. Implications for next steps of this community partnered approach are described. PMID:19896023
Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Nadeem, Erum; Wong, Marleen; Langley, Audra; Jaycox, Lisa; Stein, Bradley; Young, Phillip
The short term and long term effects of toxins on the human body are discussed from the perspective of physical and mental health. An understanding of some of the various ways that body organs and systems depend upon each other for their proper functioning is discussed. A strong emphasis is placed on the value of a healthy liver, as the
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight new and existing research on school characteristics that are essential elements in building the capacity of school communities to implement whole school approaches to mental health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: Through an overview of recent research and writing the need for a…
Notes extent and nature of problem drinking among older adults and role of mental health counselors. Asserts that nature of alcohol abuse by older persons and variety of problematic drinking behaviors suggest that range of counseling goals may be appropriate. Stresses that a broader range of treatment strategies is needed than has characterized…
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each lesson presents an analysis of the subject under consideration. A list of further sources…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1991
This document contains 19 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with the interface between the mental health establishments and the TC. Papers include: (1) "Psychiatry and the TC" (Jerome Jaffe); (2) "The Chemical Brain" (Sidney Cohen); (3) "Where Does the TC Fail?" (Ab Koster); (4) "Psychiatric Severity…
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
This curriculum guide contains articles from numerous experts in the field of mental health counseling. This issue includes: (1) "Therapeutic Approaches to Anxiety Disorders" (Robert L. DuPont); (2) "The Role of Nutrition in Detoxification from Drugs and Alcohol" (Jeffrey S. Bland); (3) "'Repair' vs. 'Growth' Approaches to Therapy" (Paul L.…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1993
Objectives This study draws on baseline data from the At Home/Chez Soi demonstration project to examine the association between parenting status and mental health among homeless women and whether the association varies by duration of homelessness. Setting Structured interviews were conducted with participants in five cities across Canada including Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver and Winnipeg. Participants Eligibility criteria included those with legal adult status, with a mental illness, and who lacked a regular, fixed shelter. All 713 women who participated in the larger project were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Measures The mental health conditions of interest include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol dependence and substance dependence. Results The relationship between parenting status and depression, as well as PTSD, varied by duration of homelessness. Among women who had been homeless for less than 2?years, no relationship was found between parenting status and depression, or PTSD. However, among women who had been homeless for 2 or more years, the odds of depression was twice as high among parenting women compared with others (aOR=2.05, p?0.05). A similar relationship was found between parenting status and PTSD (aOR=2.03, p?0.05). The odds of substance dependence was found to be 2.62 times greater among parenting women compared with others and this relationship did not vary by duration of homelessness (aOR=2.62; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.69). No relationship was found between parenting and alcohol dependence. Conclusions Overall, the findings from this study suggest that there is a relationship between long-term homelessness and mothers’ risk of poor mental health. Given the multiple demands mothers face, a failure to recognise their unique needs is likely to contribute to intergenerational legacies of homelessness and mental health problems. Trial registration number World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ISRCTN66721740 and ISRCTN57595077). PMID:25492272
Zabkiewicz, Denise M; Patterson, Michelle; Wright, Alexandra
Serious limitations exist in the delivery of mental health services to refugees throughout the resettlement process: fragmentation, instability, language barriers, culturally inappropriate treatment methods, and severe staff shortages. Suggested improvements for refugee mental health services emphasize outreach, prevention, treatment approaches,…
Gong-Guy, Elizabeth; And Others
This paper provides an historical look at the Egyptian contribution to mental health from Pharaonic times through to the Islamic era and up to today. The current situation as regards mental health in Egypt is described. PMID:12690756
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health. PMID:25160794
Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
... to change and cope with stress Foundation for thinking, communication, learning, emotional growth, resilience, healthy relationships, and self-esteem Health conditions involving by changes in: ? Thinking ? Mood ? Behavior Associated with distress and/or impaired ...
Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (? 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is associated with physiological well-being, our study may provide crucial information for developing better health care and disease prevention programmes in slums of Dhaka and other comparable settings. PMID:22404959
The present study examines the mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices. Fifty-five treated and 55 non-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S. I. Mental and Physical Health Society, Varanasi, India. The two groups were matched by age, ranging 20 to 53 years with a mean age of 36.2 years and mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 7.3 years. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Death Anxiety Scale were administered to ascertain mental health and death anxiety on seven selected dimensions, including: anxiety, obsession, phobia, somatization, depression, hysteria, and death anxiety. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using a t-test of significance. Results indicated that the characteristic associated with treated pathological gamblers was phobia whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated pathological gamblers were anxiety, obsession, somatization, depression, and death anxiety. PMID:24066639
Sharma, M G; Upadhyay, Awadhesh; Sharma, Vandana
In Mexico, mental disorders have displayed a sharp upward trend. Suicidal conduct is one of the most important mental health problems in the young population, with sexual orientation as a risk factor, since homosexuals show higher probability of suicide as compared to heterosexuals. Suicidal conduct is associated with prior health problems such as depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem, related to predisposing factors like formative experiences with personality. The current study takes a qualitative approach to explore the risk of mental health disorders in homosexuals, associated with suicidal conduct, based on their experience with homophobia in primary and secondary socialization settings. Discourse analysis revealed the relationship interviewees assigned to social rejection of their sexuality and key symptoms of depression (sadness), anxiety (fear), and suicidal conduct (intent and ideation). PMID:18461233
Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe
Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors’ understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Results Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils’ mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Conclusions Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students’ mental health. PMID:24192066
Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…
Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition, one that is associated with significant psychological disability. The psychological impairments in acne include higher rates of depression, anxiety, anger and suicidal thoughts. Despite a paucity of clinical research, patients with skin conditions and\\/or mental health disorders are frequent consumers of dietary supplements. An overlap may exist between nutrients that potentially have both
Mark G Rubin; Katherine Kim; Alan C Logan
Asians and Latinos are the 2 fastest growing immigrant populations in the United States. In this 3-year longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of mental health symptoms (withdrawn/depressed and somatic symptoms) among 163 first- and second-generation Asian (n = 76) and Latino (n = 97) adolescents. The focus of the study was to examine how…
Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Gupta, Taveeshi
Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems. PMID:24294879
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A
Most patients with mental health (MH) conditions, such as depression, receive care for their conditions from a primary care physician (PCP) in their health/medical home. Providing MH care, however, presents many challenges for the PCP, including (1) the difficulty of getting needed consultation from an MH specialist; (2) the time constraints of a busy PCP practice; (3) the complicated nature of recognizing depression, which may be described with only somatic complaints; (4) the barriers to reimbursement and compensation; and (5) associated medical and social comorbidities. Practice managers, emergency departments, and health plans are stretched to provide care for complex patients with unmet MH needs. At the same time, payment reform linked to accountable care organizations and/or episodic bundle payments, MH parity rules, and increasing MH costs to large employers and payers all highlight the critical need to identify high-quality, efficient, integrated MH care delivery practices. Over the past ten years, Intermountain Healthcare has developed a team-based approach-known as mental health integration (MHI)-for caring for these patients and their families. The team includes the PCPs and their staff, and they, in turn, are integrated with MH professionals, community resources, care management, and the patient and his or her family. The integration model goes far beyond co-location in its team-based approach; it is operationalized at the clinic, thereby improving both physician and staff satisfaction. Patients treated in MHI clinics also show improved satisfaction, lower costs, and better quality outcomes. The MHI program is financially sustainable in routinized clinics without subsidies. MHI is a successful approach to improving care for patients with MH conditions in primary care health homes. PMID:20402366
Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Briot, Pascal C; Savitz, Lucy A; Cannon, Wayne; Staheli, Russ
Current mental health services for Indian people living on and off the reservation are described for individuals interested in expanding or delivering mental health services to Indian people or in the state of the art. The conference held in July 1979 was established for the purpose of sharing information about successful mental health programs.…
Taylor, William J., Ed.
The effectiveness of mental health nurse interventions has not been generally established in the literature. In this systematic review, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified, undertaken in the United Kingdom, where mental health interventions delivered by mental health nurses had been evaluated. The main online literature databases were searched, key journals were hand searched and contact was made with key
Joseph Curran; Charles Brooker
The recovery alliance theory (RAT) is a mid-range theory of mental health nursing based on humanistic philosophy. The conception of the RAT was the outcome of collaboration among service users, practising mental health nurses, educationalists and managers and was developed in the context of a number of political and social changes as well as changes in the mental health field.
E. SHANLEY; M. JUBB-SHANLEY
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to assess the mental health system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. METHODS: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO AIMS) was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a) mental
Mario D Mateus; Jair J Mari; Pedro GG Delgado; Naomar Almeida-Filho; Thomas Barrett; Jeronimo Gerolin; Samuel Goihman; Denise Razzouk; Jorge Rodriguez; Renata Weber; Sergio B Andreoli; Shekhar Saxena
Active Minds: De-stigmatizing Mental Health Program Directors: Abby Hutchinson 2012 College of The Program: Active Minds: De-stigmatizing Mental Health is a program dedicated to educating ourselves related to mental health. Each student may choose to attend an Active Minds Club Event, or other events
Hayden, Nancy J.
This paper presents the approach used by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the University of Minnesota's Refugee Assistance Program in Mental Health for identifying successful and culturally sensitive mental health service delivery models. It divides these into four categories: the psychiatric model; the community mental health model; the…
Jaranson, James M.; Bamford, Pauline
Director's Report to the National Advisory Mental Health Council February 3, 2006 I am pleased to welcome members of the National Advisory Mental Health Council (NAMHC), and other participants and guests at the University of Puerto Rico. Dr. Canino's research focuses on mental health services, cultural adaptation
Baker, Chris I.
Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…
Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry
1 Director's Report to the National Advisory Mental Health Council May 11, 2007 I am pleased to welcome members of the National Advisory Mental