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Background: Mentalhealth literacy refers to the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management and prevention. This study examined the mentalhealth literacy and experience of depression in a random and representative community population. Method: The experience of depression and mentalhealth literacy of 3010 subjects from a random and representative population were determined on the
Robert D. Goldney; Laura J. Fisher; David H. Wilson
Village health worker (VHW) programs are known to be effective means of promoting health of communities. Comprehensive rural health project in India recently trained VHWs to identify, refer, and help people with mentalhealth issues. This study evaluated knowledge, attitude, and behavior of VHWs regarding depression. Cluster sampling was used including all 36 VHWs trained in mentalhealth. Among these, 24 were available and willing to participate in the study. Five FGDs were conducted among 24 VHWs, and the results were analyzed qualitatively. Four out of five groups were able to diagnose the presented case correctly as depression. VHWs were able to identify many symptoms and to suggest management options for depression. They showed supportive and empathetic attitudes towards depressed patients. VHWs are likely to be useful at identifying and assisting people with depression in the communities with lack of adequate resources provided they receive ongoing training and supervision. PMID:23756724
Background Staff who provide support services to older adults are in a unique position to detect depression and offer a referral for mentalhealth treatment. Yet integrating mentalhealth screening and recommendations into aging services requires staff learn new skills to integrate mentalhealth and overcome client barriers to accepting mentalhealth referrals. This paper describes client rates of depression and a novel engagement intervention (Open Door) for homebound older adults who are eligible for home delivered meals and screened for depression by in-home aging service programs. Methods Homebound older adults receiving meal service who endorsed depressive symptoms were interviewed to assess depression severity and rates of suicidal ideation. Open Door is a brief psychosocial intervention to improve engagement in mentalhealth treatment by collaboratively addressing the individual level barriers to care. The intervention targets stigma, misconceptions about depression, and fears about treatment, and is designed to fit within the roles and responsibilities of aging service staff. Results Among 137 meal recipients who had symptoms when screened for depression as part of routine home meal service assessments, half (51%) had Major Depressive Disorder and 13% met criteria for minor depression on the SCID. Suicidal ideation was reported by 29% of the sample, with the highest rates of suicidal ideation (47%) among the subgroup of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder. Conclusion Individuals who endorse depressive symptoms during screening are likely to have clinically significant depression and need mentalhealth treatment. The Open Door intervention offers a strategy to overcome barriers to mentalhealth treatment engagement and to improve the odds of quality care for depression.
Sirey, Jo Anne; Greenfield, Alexandra; DePasquale, Alyssa; Weiss, Nathalie; Marino, Patricia; Alexopoulos, George S; Bruce, Martha L
Objectives To study (a) the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (b) the utilization of mentalhealth treatment in an ethnoracially diverse sample consisting primarily of Asian Americans, European Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Participants 589 college students. Method A questionnaire packet that included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was administered to students in introductory psychology courses. Results a) there were no differences among ethnoracial groups in levels of depressive symptoms as measured by the CES-D, b) 71% of participants with high levels of depressive symptoms had not received any mentalhealth treatment in the previous 12 months, and c) European Americans were 3.7 times more likely to have received mentalhealth treatment in the previous 12 months than other students. Conclusion Outreach efforts designed to improve utilization of mentalhealth treatment services by depressed college students, especially by members of ethnoracial minority groups, should be increased.
Herman, Steve; Archambeau, Olga G.; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Chiu, Pearl H.; Frueh, B. Christopher
This study examined the mentalhealth literacy of a group of adolescents, with particular reference to their ability to recognize symptoms of depression in their peers. Respondents were 202 Australian adolescents (122 males, 80 females) aged 15–17 years. Their mentalhealth literacy was examined through a questionnaire that presented them with five scenarios of young people. Respondents showed a mixed
This study examined the mentalhealth literacy of a group of adolescents, with particular reference to their ability to recognize symptoms of depression in their peers. Respondents were 202 Australian adolescents (122 males, 80 females) aged 15-17 years. Their mentalhealth literacy was examined through a questionnaire that presented them with…
Most adolescents with depressive disorders do not receive any mentalhealth services, even though effective treatments exist. Although research has examined numerous individual-level factors associated with mentalhealth service use among depressed adolescents, less is known about the role of contextual factors. This study examines the relationship between contextual-level socioeconomic status (SES) and clinic-based mentalhealth counseling use among US adolescents with high depressive symptoms in urban and suburban areas. Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,133; 59 % female) were analyzed using multilevel logistic models in which adolescents were nested within counties. After controlling for individual-level predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics, as well as county racial/ethnic composition, county SES was positively associated with clinic-based counseling use among depressed youth. A one standard deviation increase in the county affluence index was associated with 43 % greater odds of receiving any clinical counseling services. Furthermore, the positive relationship between county affluence and clinical counseling use was no longer significant after controlling for the county supply of mentalhealth specialist physicians. The results indicate that county residential context is a key correlate of mentalhealth service use among depressed adolescents, such that those who live in lower SES counties with fewer mentalhealth specialists are less likely to receive treatment. PMID:24114588
Objective: To identify the growing significance of depression as a global leading cause of years lost to disability and its role as a major independent risk factor in many chronic illnesses. The distinct effects of depression on morbidity and mortality in cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke are investigated, including behavioral factors and plausible biological mechanisms (psychoneuroimmunology of depression). Data Sources: PubMed articles in English were searched from 1992 to 2012 (20-year span) using the following search criteria: psychoneuroimmunology of depression, immune-mediated inflammation, depression treatment recommendations, depression screening, years lost to disability, underserved populations and depression, chronic illnesses and depression, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and immune system. Data Synthesis: Evidence of the robust bidirectional relationship between depression and individual chronic diseases is presented and discussed. A brief overview of currently recommended psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment approaches in regard to depression in chronic diseases is provided. Results: Discordance between mentalhealth and primary care within the US public health system is a systematic problem that must be addressed. This situation leads to a potentially high hidden prevalence of underdiagnosed and undertreated depression, especially in the underserved populations. Conclusion: Measures must be implemented across the communities of mentalhealth and primary care practitioners in order to achieve a synergistic approach to depression.
Diagnosing childhood depression can pose a challenge, even for mentalhealth specialists. Screening tools can aid clinicians within the initial step of the diagnostic process. For the first time, the Children?s Depression Screener (ChilD-S) is validated in a mentalhealth setting as a novel field of application beyond the previously examined pediatric setting. Based on a structured interview, DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of depression were made for 79 psychiatric patients aged 9-12, serving as the gold standard for validation. For assessing criterion validity, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. Point prevalence of major depression and dysthymia was 28%. Diagnostic accuracy in terms of the area under the ROC curve was high (0.97). At the optimal cut-off point ?12 according to the Youden?s index, sensitivity was 0.91 and specificity was 0.81. The findings suggest that the ChilD-S is not only a valid screening instrument for childhood depression in pediatric care but also in mentalhealth settings. As a brief tool it can easily be implemented into daily clinical practice of mentalhealth professionals facilitating the diagnostic process, especially in case of comorbid depression. PMID:24742687
Background This study ascertain gender-specific determinants of outpatient mentalhealth (MH) service use for depression to highlight gender disparities in barriers to care and explain how depressed men and women in need of care might differ in their help-seeking behaviour. Methods Data used in this study came from the Canadian Community Health Survey on MentalHealth and Well Being, cycle 1.2 (CCHS 1.2) conducted by Statistics Canada in 2002 (N =?36,984). The sample was limited to respondents filling the criteria for a probable major depression in the 12 months prior to the interview (n =?1743). Gender-specific multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results The results showed that 54.3% of respondents meeting criteria for major depression had consulted for mentalhealth reasons in the year prior to interview. When looking at type of outpatient mentalhealth service use, males were more likely to consult a general practitioner and a mentalhealth specialist in the past year as opposed to females. However, females were more likely to consult a general practitioner only as opposed to no service use than males. Gender specific differences in determinants associated with outpatient service use included for males, lower adjusted household income, and for females, a younger age, the presence of social support, self-reported availability barriers, the presence of self-reported suicidal thoughts or attempt and a poorer self- perceived mentalhealth. Conclusions It is concluded that continued efforts to promote access to mentalhealth care are needed for men and women affected by depression, and this, to target specific vulnerable populations and increase utilization rates.
Mentalhealth literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention, and is an important determinant of help seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, particularly for those with major depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidal behavior. In this study of a random and representative community sample, a vignette depicting classical features of major depression was presented to subjects along with questions related to mentalhealth literacy. The responses of those with major depression, as delineated by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders instrument, both with and without suicidal ideation, were compared to those of a third group of respondents. The results demonstrated that despite increased professional contact by those with major depression and suicidal ideation, there were few differences among the three groups on either open-ended or direct questions related to mentalhealth literacy. This indicates that increased professional contact in itself was not related to increased mentalhealth literacy, and suggests that more specific psychoeducational programs are required. PMID:12501964
Goldney, Robert D; Fisher, Laura J; Wilson, David H; Cheok, Frida
Screening for maternal depression was a core component of the P.E.A.C.E., Inc., Early Head Start program's comprehensive approach to supporting the mentalhealth needs of low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. The addition of a mentalhealth coordinator as a full-time staff member created an opportunity to develop a…
This study aims to explore mentalhealth literacy, specifically focusing on depression, among Southeast Asian (SEA) elderly refugees residing in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Three focus groups were held with nine mentalhealth professionals who work with SEA elders. Jorm's mentalhealth literacy framework guided the…
Lee, Hee Yun; Lytle, Kathy; Yang, Pa Nhia; Lum, Terry
The purpose of this study is to understand mentalhealth literacy (MHL) (Jorm, 2000) in lower income women postpartum and share participant experiences of recognizing and seeking help for depressive symptoms. Focus group textual data were received from 25 participants who completed a weight and psychosocial health longitudinal study. Iterative content data analysis using Jorm's framework provided thematic understandings descriptive of MHL. Women recognized behavioral changes indicating mental distress, but fears prevented them from seeking help, and some resorted to risky behaviors. This framework could guide providers to identify women who may benefit from early intervention for postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:25017559
This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's MentalHealth Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mentalhealth history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR?=?3.22, 95 % CI?=?1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR?=?2.67, 95 % CI?=?1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069
Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T
OBJECTIVE To determine whether managed care is associated with reduced access to mentalhealth specialists and worse outcomes among primary care patients with depressive symptoms. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Offices of 261 primary physicians in private practice in Seattle. PATIENTS Patients (N = 17,187) were screened in waiting rooms, enrolling 1,336 adults with depressive symptoms. Patients (n = 942) completed follow-up surveys at 1, 3, and 6 months. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS For each patient, the intensity of managed care was measured by the managedness of the patient's health plan, plan benefit indexes, presence or absence of a mentalhealth carve-out, intensity of managed care in the patient's primary care office, physician financial incentives, and whether the physician read or used depression guidelines. Access measures were referral and actually seeing a mentalhealth specialist. Outcomes were the Symptom Checklist for Depression, restricted activity days, and patient rating of care from primary physician. Approximately 23% of patients were referred to mentalhealth specialists, and 38% saw a mentalhealth specialist with or without referral. Managed care generally was not associated with a reduced likelihood of referral or seeing a mentalhealth specialist. Patients in more-managed plans were less likely to be referred to a psychiatrist. Among low-income patients, a physician financial withhold for referral was associated with fewer mentalhealth referrals. A physician productivity bonus was associated with greater access to mentalhealth specialists. Depressive symptom and restricted activity day outcomes in more-managed health plans and offices were similar to or better than less-managed settings. Patients in more-managed offices had lower ratings of care from their primary physicians. CONCLUSIONS The intensity of managed care was generally not associated with access to mentalhealth specialists. The small number of managed care strategies associated with reduced access were offset by other strategies associated with increased access. Consequently, no adverse health outcomes were detected, but lower patient ratings of care provided by their primary physicians were found.
Grembowski, David E; Martin, Diane; Patrick, Donald L; Diehr, Paula; Katon, Wayne; Williams, Barbara; Engelberg, Ruth; Novak, Louise; Dickstein, Deborah; Deyo, Richard; Goldberg, Harold I
As primary caregivers of children with mentalhealth problems, mothers face challenges that put them at risk for depression,\\u000a which is rarely identified or addressed. The aims of this paper were to (a) identify mean differences among demographic, stressor,\\u000a threat, and resource variables specified in a theoretical model and thought to be associated with maternal depressive symptoms\\u000a and (b) determine
Janis E. GerkensmeyerSusan; Susan M. Perkins; Jennifer Day; Joan K. Austin; Eric L. Scott; Jingwei Wu
The authors examined the relationship among trauma, coping, depression, and mentalhealth service seeking in a probability sample of sheltered homeless and low-income housed women. Results highlight the diversity of trauma. In a longitudinal analysis, women who lived in shelters or experienced major violence had a twofold increase in their risk of…
Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Elliott, Marc N.; Hambarsoomians, Katrin; Marshall, Grant N.; Tucker, Joan S.
Objectives: To study (a) the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (b) the utilization of mentalhealth treatment in an ethnoracially diverse sample consisting primarily of Asian Americans, European Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Participants: Five hundred eighty-nine college students. Method: A questionnaire packet that…
Herman, Steve; Archambeau, Olga G.; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Chiu, Pearl H.; Frueh, B. Christopher
Mentalhealth literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention and is considered to be an important determinant of help-seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, as depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidality, has been the target of…
Chamberlain, Peter N.; Goldney, Robert D.; Taylor, Anne W.; Eckert, Kerena A.
This study examines depressed adults’ use of mentalhealth services, focusing on Latinos and African Americans. Self-report data for adults meeting CIDI criteria for major depression or dysthymia from the 1997–98 HealthCare for Communities Survey were analyzed. Gender stratified logistic regression models examined the relationship between race\\/ethnicity and outpatient mentalhealth service use, controlling for sociodemographic, health status, insurance, and
... problems.” Depression and Other Issues Many forms of mentalhealth issues can affect heart disease. There’s the temporary state of depression or a more severe, clinical case. You can also have varying levels of anxiety ...
Depression and anxiety are among the most common comorbid illnesses in people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with ESRD face many challenges which increase the likelihood that they will develop depression or anxiety or worsen these conditions. These include a general feeling of unwellness; specific symptoms caused by ESRD or the patient's treatment; major disruptions in lifestyle; the need to comply with treatment regimens, including dialysis schedules, diet prescription, and water restriction; ancillary treatments and hospitalizations; and the fear of disability, morbidity, and shortened lifespan. Depression has been studied extensively in patients on maintenance dialysis, and much effort has been done to validate the proper screening tools to diagnose depression and to define the treatment options for patients on maintenance dialysis with depression. Anxiety is less well studied in this population of patients. Evidence indicates that anxiety is also common in maintenance dialysis. More attention should be paid to measuring the incidence and prevalence and developing methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches for anxiety in patients with ESRD. In this review, we attempted to underscore those aspects of depression and anxiety that have not been investigated extensively, especially with regard to anxiety. The interaction between racial/ethnic characteristics of patients on maintenance dialysis with depression and anxiety needs to be studied more extensively, in order to assess better approaches to healthcare for these individuals. PMID:20622304
Feroze, Usama; Martin, David; Reina-Patton, Astrid; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kopple, Joel D
BackgroundMental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mentalhealth service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC’s).MethodsPost-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic
Fiona J. Charlson; Zachary Steel; Louisa Degenhardt; Tien Chey; Derrick Silove; Claire Marnane; Harvey A. Whiteford
Refugees suffer from a higher rate of mentalhealth symptoms than the general population since they have experienced extreme suffering and the accumulated effects of trauma. Because of the diversity of regions from which refugees originate, there is a need to understand some of the unique experiences that are specific to each sub-groups of immigrants. The purpose of the present study was to explore mentalhealth symptoms in Iraqi refugee clients who immigrated to the United States after the Gulf War of the early 1990's. As part of a larger study, 116 adult Iraqi immigrants to the United States (46 male, 70 females) who were seeking mentalhealth services completed measures of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. As expected, the majority of refugees reported intense anxiety and depression, and many met the DSM IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Like refugees from other countries-of-origin, Iraqi refugees are in need of culturally sensitive assessment and mentalhealth treatment. The results are discussed in light of the treatment needs of Iraqi refugee clients, their resilience and motivation for a better life, and the ways that health professionals can assist in optimizing their adjustment. PMID:19172969
Objective To examine the association between parent reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms within the first 3 years of a child’s life with subsequent mentalhealth conditions and psychotropic drug treatment. Design Prospective cohort study linking parental IPV and depression with subsequent billing and pharmacy data. Setting 4 pediatric clinics between November 2004 and June 2012 Patients/Participants 2,422 children Main Exposure Any report of IPV and/or parental depressive symptoms from birth to 3 years of age. Main Outcome Measures ICD-9 mentalhealth diagnoses and any psychotropic drug treatment between 3 and 6 years of age. Results 2.4% of caregivers (n=58) reported both IPV and depressive symptoms before their children were 3 years of age, 3% (n=69) of caregivers reported IPV only, 29% (n=704) reported depressive symptoms only, and 65.7% (n=1,591) reported neither exposure. Children of parents reporting both IPV and depressive symptoms were more likely to have a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (AOR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.5–10.9), even after adjusting for child gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance type. Children whose parents reported depressive symptoms were more likely to have been prescribed psychotropic medication (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0–3.4). Conclusions Exposure to both IPV and depression before 3 years is associated with preschool-onset ADHD; and early exposure to parental depression is associated with being prescribed psychotropic medication.
Bauer, Nerissa S.; Gilbert, Amy L.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.
Objective Depressed mothers, especially those who are African American, are likely to underutilize mentalhealth services. Children of depressed mothers are an at-risk population with mentalhealth needs that are often unmet. This prospective pilot study examined 3-month frequency rates and predictors of mentalhealth utilization for a sample of African American depressed mothers and their children. Methods Mothers and 1 of their children completed assessment interviews. Three months later, mothers completed a telephone interview of maternal and child mentalhealth utilization. Results Overall, 65.3% of depressed mothers and 36.7% of their children had utilized mentalhealth services. Logistic regression analyses indicated that initial mentalhealth treatment significantly predicted maternal mentalhealth utilization. Maternal reports of child behavioral problems significantly predicted child mentalhealth utilization. Conclusions The findings were consistent with other research and showed evidence of mentalhealth use among African Americans who are in need of such services.
Objective: The main objective of this paper was to investigate and compare mentalhealth nurses' beliefs about interventions for schizophrenia and depression with those of psychiatrists and the public. Factors affecting nurses' beliefs were also investigated.Method: This research used methods employed in previous surveys of professional and public beliefs. A postal survey of 673 Australian mentalhealth nurses was carried
Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system. Emerging research is establishing an association between omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic) and major depressive disorder. Evidence from epidemiological, laboratory and clinical studies suggest that dietary lipids and other associated nutritional factors may influence vulnerability and outcome in depressive disorders. Research in this area is growing at a rapid pace. The goal of this report is to integrate various branches of research in order to update mentalhealth professionals.
Prevalence of depression is associated inversely with some indicators of socioeconomic position, and the stress of social disadvantage is hypothesized to mediate this relation. Relative to whites, blacks have a higher burden of most physical health conditions but, unexpectedly, a lower burden of depression. This study evaluated an etiologic model that integrates mental and physical health to account for this counterintuitive patterning. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (Maryland, 1993–2004) was used to evaluate the interaction between stress and poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and obesity) and risk of depression 12 years later for 341 blacks and 601 whites. At baseline, blacks engaged in more poor health behaviors and had a lower prevalence of depression compared with whites (5.9% vs. 9.2%). The interaction between health behaviors and stress was nonsignificant for whites (odds ratio (OR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.11); for blacks, the interaction term was significant and negative (?: ?0.18, P < 0.014). For blacks, the association between median stress and depression was stronger for those who engaged in zero (OR = 1.34) relative to 1 (OR = 1.12) and ?2 (OR = 0.94) poor health behaviors. Findings are consistent with the proposed model of mental and physical health disparities.
Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane A.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Hudson, Darrell; Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Lee, Hedwig; Eaton, William W.; Jackson, James S.
OBJECTIVE This study examined whether depressed patients treated exclusively in primary care report less need for care and less acceptability of treatment options than those depressed patients treated in the specialty mentalhealth setting after up to 6 months of treatment. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Forty-five community primary care practices. PARTICIPANTS A total of 881 persons with major depression who had received mentalhealth services in the previous 6 months and who enrolled in 3 of the 4 Quality Improvement for Depression Collaboration Studies. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Patients were categorized into 1 of 2 groups: 1) having received mentalhealth services exclusively from a primary care provider (45%), or 2) having received any services from a mentalhealth specialist (55%) in the previous 6 months. Compared with patients who received care from mentalhealth specialists, patients who received mentalhealth services exclusively from primary care providers had 2.7-fold the odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 4.4) of reporting that no treatment was definitely acceptable and had 2.4-fold the odds (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.9) of reporting that evidence-based treatment options (antidepressant medication) were definitely not acceptable. These results were adjusted for demographic, social/behavioral, depression severity, and economic factors using multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS Patients with depression treated exclusively by primary care providers have attitudes and beliefs more averse to care than those seen by mentalhealth specialists. These differences in attitudes and beliefs may contribute to lower quality depression care observed in comparisons of primary care and specialty mentalhealth providers.
Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Cooper, Lisa A; Rost, Kathryn M; Nutting, Paul; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Meredith, Lisa; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E
Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Method Face?to?face interviews were conducted using a pre?validated 21?item questionnaire among students at USM. Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority. Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence?based mentalhealth care.
Mentalhealth includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mentalhealth is important at every stage of life, from ...
Background While it is recognized that psychosocial factors are important in the development and progression of musculoskeletal pain and disability, no systematic review has specifically focused on examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and knee pain. We aimed to systematically review the evidence to determine whether psychosocial factors, specifically depression, anxiety and poor mentalhealth, are risk factors for knee pain. Methods Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO were performed to identify relevant studies published up to August 2012 using MESH terms and keywords. We included studies that met a set of predefined criteria and two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a best evidence synthesis was performed. Results Sixteen studies were included in the review, of which 9 were considered high quality. The study populations were heterogeneous in terms of diagnosis of knee pain. We found a strong level of evidence for a relationship between depression and knee pain, limited evidence for no relationship between anxiety and knee pain, and minimal evidence for no relationship between poor mentalhealth and knee pain. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of the included studies, these data show that depression plays a significant role in knee pain, and that a biopsychosocial approach to the management of this condition is integral to optimising outcomes for knee pain.
With prevalence rates of postnatal depression (PND) as high as at least 7%, there was a need for early detection and intervention of postpartum mental illness amongst Singaporean mothers. This is a report on the first year results of our country's first PND Intervention Programme. The programme consists of two phases: (1) postpartum women were screened with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provided appropriate care plans; (2) individualized clinical intervention using a case management multidisciplinary team model. Screening for PND was generally acceptable, as 64% eligible women participated voluntarily. Nine percent (126) were identified as probable cases from 1369 women. Forty-one women accepted intervention and achieved 78% reduction in the EPDS symptom scores to below the cutoff of 13, 76% had improvement in GAF functioning scores, and 68% had improved health quality scores. Preliminary results are promising, and this intervention model can be replicated.
... you eat affects your body. Cutting back on junk food and choosing healthier options helps you maintain a ... Adolescent MentalHealth 14.3 (2009): 148-155 ) Junk Food Blues: Are Depression and Diet Related? by Zeratsky, ...
... MentalHealth Adolescent Health Topics MentalHealth States Adolescent MentalHealth Facts Click a state below to ... Care Positive MentalHealth: Resilience In the States Adolescent Health Topics Reproductive HealthMentalHealth Physical Health ...
Patients' illness representations and beliefs about treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as their perceived needs, are important for treatment. A systematic review was conducted of 71 studies describing the beliefs or perceived needs of patients and non-patients. Patients give multi-dimensional explanations for depression and see both psychological and medication treatment as helpful. People who suffer from depression have more positive beliefs about biological etiology and medication treatment than healthy people, or those with less severe depressive symptoms. Anxiety patients view psychological interventions as their best treatment option. Between 49% and 84% of the patients with depression or anxiety perceive a need for treatment, mostly for counseling and medication. All patients prefer psychological treatment forms to medication. A majority of patients view antidepressants as addictive and many perceive stigma and see practical and economic barriers to care. The most vulnerable groups in terms of seeking and receiving mentalhealth care for depression and anxiety seem to be minority groups, as well as younger and older patients. More research is required into the specific needs of anxiety and depression patients. Open communication between patient and provider could lead to valuable improvements in treatment. PMID:18420323
Prins, Marijn A; Verhaak, Peter F M; Bensing, Jozien M; van der Meer, Klaas
Background Based on data from large multicentre US trials, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is advocating a stepped-care model for the management of depression, with ‘case management’ or ‘collaborative care’ for selected patients in primary care. Aim To conduct a pilot study examining the use of graduate mentalhealth workers case managing depressed primary care NHS patients. Design of study A randomised controlled trial comparing usual GP care with or without case management over 16 weeks of acute antidepressant drug treatment. Setting Three primary care practices in the North East of England. Method Patients with depression, aged 18–65 years, who had failed to adequately respond to antidepressant treatment, were randomised to the two treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks using a combination of observer and self ratings. Results Randomisation of 62 patients required screening of 1073 potential patients. There was little difference in outcome between the two treatment arms but a gradual improvement in symptoms over time was seen. Client satisfaction was assessed as high across both treatments. Conclusion While this pilot study confirmed the integrity of the study protocol and the suitability of the outcome measures and randomisation procedure, it raises questions regarding the practicality of recruitment and feasibility of the intervention. It would be crucial to address these issues prior to the implementation of a large multi-centre randomised controlled trial.
McMahon, Lindsay; Foran, Karin M; Forrest, Stephen D; Taylor, Michelle L; Ingram, Graham; Rajwal, Madhuri; Cornwall, Peter L; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish
African American adolescent boys underutilize mentalhealth service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mentalhealth needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to…
Background Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent. Methods We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth MentalHealth (AYMH) scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153). The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency. Results Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mentalhealth, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and specificity (79%). However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71%) and poor sensitivity for boys (50%). Conclusions The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mentalhealth states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture.
African American adolescent boys underutilize mentalhealth service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mentalhealth needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to care. Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined the influence of mentalhealth stigma and social support on depressive symptoms among African American adolescent boys. Findings indicated the protective effects of social support in decreasing depressive symptoms, especially when participants experienced mentalhealth stigma. Results also revealed the pivotal role of family social support over both professional and peer support for participants who struggled with depressive symptoms. The primacy of family support among the sample, combined with the frequent distrust of professionals and peer networks, would indicate that working with families may improve initial identification of depression among African American adolescent boys and decrease their barriers to care. PMID:20953336
African American adolescent boys underutilize mentalhealth service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mentalhealth needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to care. Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined the influence of mentalhealth stigma and social support on depressive symptoms among African American adolescent boys. Findings indicated the protective effects of social support in decreasing depressive symptoms, especially when participants experienced mentalhealth stigma. Results also revealed the pivotal role of family social support over both professional and peer support for participants who struggled with depressive symptoms. The primacy of family support among the sample, combined with the frequent distrust of professionals and peer networks, would indicate that working with families may improve initial identification of depression among African American adolescent boys and decrease their barriers to care.
Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World MentalHealth (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood.
Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, Maria E.; O'Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.
... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is MentalHealth? Mentalhealth includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mentalhealth problems and where to find help . MentalHealth and Wellness Positive mentalhealth allows people to: ...
Background Questionnaires are valuable for population surveys of mentalhealth. Different survey instruments may however give different results. The present study compares two mentalhealth instruments, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the MentalHealth Inventory (MHI-5), in regard to their prediction of long-term sickness absence. Method Questionnaire data was collected from N?=?4153 Danish employees. The questionnaire included the MDI and the MHI-5. The information of long-term sickness absence was obtained from a register. We used Cox regression to calculate covariance adjusted hazard ratios for long-term sickness absence for both measures. Results Both the MDI and the MHI-5 had a highly significant prediction of long-term sickness absence. A one standard deviation change in score was associated with an increased risk of long-term sickness absence of 27% for the MDI and 37% for the MHI-5. When both measures were included in the same analysis, the MHI-5 performed best. Conclusion In general population surveys, the MHI-5 is a better predictor of long-term sickness absence than the MDI.
Limited research exists on social work students' level of depression and help-seeking beliefs. This study empirically examined the rates of depression among 215 BSW students and explored students' reasons for not using mentalhealth services. Approximately 50% scored at or above the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale cutoff;…
About 14% of the global burden of disease has been attributed to neuropsychiatric disorders, mostly due to the chronically disabling nature of depression and other common mental disorders, alcohol-use and substance-use disorders, and psychoses. Such estimates have drawn attention to the importance of mental disorders for public health. However, because they stress the separate contributions of mental and physical disorders to disability and mortality, they might have entrenched the alienation of mentalhealth from mainstream efforts to improve health and reduce poverty. The burden of mental disorders is likely to have been underestimated because of inadequate appreciation of the connectedness between mental illness and other health conditions. Because these interactions are protean, there can be no health without mentalhealth. Mental disorders increase risk for communicable and non-communicable diseases, and contribute to unintentional and intentional injury. Conversely, many health conditions increase the risk for mental disorder, and comorbidity complicates help-seeking, diagnosis, and treatment, and influences prognosis. Health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, and the quality of care for both mental and physical health conditions for these people could be improved. We need to develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions that can be integrated into management of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mentalhealth care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria; gender-based violence; antenatal care; integrated management of childhood illnesses and child nutrition; and innovative management of chronic disease. An explicit mentalhealth budget might need to be allocated for such activities. Mentalhealth affects progress towards the achievement of several Millennium Development Goals, such as promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women, reduction of child mortality, improvement of maternal health, and reversal of the spread of HIV/AIDS. Mentalhealth awareness needs to be integrated into all aspects of health and social policy, health-system planning, and delivery of primary and secondary general health care. PMID:17804063
The main objective of this study is to investigate the interrelation between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness among Ankara University students. 364 university students completed a test battery including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Hopelessness Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Life satisfaction was negatively and significantly correlated with the scores from depression, anxiety
Objective: The present research aims to analyze the efficacy of group metacognitive therapy (MCT) on self-esteem and mentalHealth of those who suffer from major depressive disorder. Methods: The research was a randomized clinical controlled trial, using pretest and posttest with 2 months of follow-up. Twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria were selected through available sampling from patients of two psychiatric hospitals of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. They were allocated randomly into two groups of trial (n = 11) and control (n = 11). Citalopram and sertraline were prescribed as antidepressant to both groups. The experimental group also attended nine 90-minute sessions of MCT (a 5-week program). Eysenck self-esteem scale (ESES) and MentalHealth Checklist (MHC) were used in pretest, posttest, and follow-up as the study instrument. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using SPSS. Results: ANCOVA revealed that the patients receiving group MCT had significantly increased (p < 0.001) self-esteem in posttest, which remained significant in the follow up (p < 0.001). Moreover, mentalhealth scores had increased in the MCT group (posttest, p < 0.001; follow up, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Group MCT has beneficial therapeutic roles in improving the self-steam and recuperation of mentalhealth in MDD patients.
... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mentalhealth Nutrition and mentalhealth Exercise and mentalhealth ... work to keep your mind healthy. Nutrition and mentalhealth Visit choosemyplate.gov to help find personalized eating ...
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Florida MentalHealth Institute, dedicated to research, training and program development for improving psychological wellbeing, has four main divisions: Aging and MentalHealth, Child and Family Studies, Community MentalHealth, and MentalHealth Law and Policy.
Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mentalhealth promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (??70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mentalhealth promotion intervention in improving client outcomes, reducing use of expensive health services, and improving clinical practice behaviours of home care providers. Future research should evaluate its efficacy using a randomized clinical trial design, in different settings, with an adequate sample of older home care recipients with depressive symptoms. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01407926.
Little is known about the association between depression and the buffering effects of social support in mid-life crisis. The aim of this study is to determine the buffering effects of social support on depression concerning middle-aged individuals, while also taking reciprocity and gender differences into careful consideration. A cross-sectional survey of all middle-aged individuals (40-69 years of age) using a large sample (n = 4558) from a community-living population, who resided in Rokunohe town, Aomori prefecture in northern Japan (response rate = 69.8%), was undertaken. This town recently had a lot of suicides. Two-way anova was used to analyze the effects of stressor and social support on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. The authors found a stress buffering effect of social support on the depressive symptoms occurring in middle age, however, a significant difference in the stress buffer effect was only observed in male subjects. Moreover, when the authors take reciprocity into account, the effect of the buffer on depression was found not only in males receiving support but in males providing support as well. In conclusion, pertaining to males, social support reduces depressive symptoms under stressful circumstances in middle age, not only when they receive such support but also when they provide it. Therefore, these findings suggest that reciprocal social support is important for males in relation to community mentalhealth. PMID:17109698
There is a paucity of research on self-harm during pregnancy and the postpartum period despite suicide being a leading cause of death and high rates of mental disorder during this time. This audit describes a cohort of women referred to a new perinatal mentalhealth team (PMHT) based in a large maternity hospital in the UK over a 12-month period. The audit was conducted in two stages. Stage one describes the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of 225 pregnant women referred to the team after screening positive for a significant mentalhealth history. Stage two determines the veracity of data on a subgroup of 73 pregnant women referred for previous postpartum depression (PPD), 58 % of whom disclosed an episode of self-harm with the 'intent to kill themselves' to the maternity staff when they first booked in for antenatal care. Previous PPD accounted for the largest majority of referrals (32 %) to the PMHT followed by depression (27 %) and self-harm (10 %). The majority of women (85 %) referred to the PMHT were engaged. Eight percent were so unwell at the point of referral they required an admission to the hospital. Attempted suicide in the subgroup of 73 women with previous PPD ranged from 24-49 %. The findings from this audit suggest that self-harm in PPD warrants further investigation. PMID:23462983
Exploration of the influence of neighbourhood social context on supportive relationships and social cohesion is on the rise. Positive social contexts may be less stressful for residents, resulting in mental wellbeing and calmness; whereas negative contexts may increase stress and deleterious mentalhealth. To examine this, we measured the relationship between an Index of Neighbourhood Social Fragmentation and overall mental well-being in New Zealand. Then we examined the influence of fragmentation on two components of mentalhealth: depression and calmness. Increased fragmentation was significantly associated with lower mentalhealth scores for the entire population and for females, with similar but insignificant trends for males. Increased fragmentation was associated with increased depression in both sexes, but not calmness. Depression rather than calmness may contribute to the observed association between fragmentation and overall mentalhealth. Groups vulnerable to stressful social contexts may be prone to depression in fragmented neighbourhoods. Further examination of the specific aspects of living in fragmented neighbourhoods which increase depressive feelings is warranted. PMID:24317391
Pearson, Amber L; Ivory, Vivienne; Breetzke, Gregory; Lovasi, Gina S
Background Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which increase their risk for the development of mentalhealth disorders particularly anxiety and depression. For Ghanaian patients with hypertension, the interaction between hypertension and symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress remains largely unexplored. To fill this knowledge gap, the study sought to ascertain the prevalence and role of these negative emotions on anti-hypertensive medication adherence while taking into account patients’ belief systems. Methods The hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 400 hypertensive patients was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Ghana. Data were gathered on patient’s socio-demographic characteristics, anxiety, depression and stress symptoms, spiritual beliefs, and medication adherence. Results Hypertensive patients experienced symptoms of anxiety (56%), stress (20%) and depression (4%). As a coping mechanism, a significant relation was observed between spiritual beliefs and anxiety (x2?=?13.352, p?=?0.010), depression (x2?=?6.205, p?=?0.045) and stress (x2?=?14.833, p?=?0.001). Stress among patients increased their likelihood of medication non-adherence [odds ratio (OR)?=?2.42 (95% CI 1.06 – 5.5), p?=?0.035]. Conclusion The study has demonstrated the need for clinicians to pay attention to negative emotions and their role in medication non-adherence. The recommendation is that attention should be directed toward the use of spirituality as a possible mechanism by which negative emotions could be managed among hypertensive patients.
... development, and these problems can continue into adulthood. Public health includes mentalhealth A new report from the ... impact of childhood mental disorders and developing a public health approach to address childrenâ€™s mentalhealth. Research on ...
Mentalhealth literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid in their recognition, management, or prevention; it is also a determinant of help seeking. As such, it is presumed to be important in community suicide prevention programs. In Australia there have been a number of government, professional, and charitable organizations as well as pharmaceutical company suicide prevention initiatives which have been designed to enhance public and professional knowledge about mental disorders, particularly depression. This naturalistic study conducted between 1998 and 2004 in a random and representative population sample examined the changes in mentalhealth literacy and treatment seeking of those with major depression, both with and without suicidal ideation, and those who were neither depressed nor suicidal. Results indicated that there was marked improvement in mentalhealth literacy for all three groups, although there was less change for those most in need of intervention (i.e., those with major depression and suicidal ideation). Furthermore, there were fewer changes in appropriate treatment seeking in those with major depression and suicidal ideation. These findings are consistent with literature reporting limited problem solving and decision making in those who are suicidal, and indicate that there are limits to broadbased community education programs. More focused suicide prevention initiatives are required, specifically for those who are depressed and suicidal. PMID:18444772
... worthless could be warning signs of a mentalhealth problem. Mentalhealth problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mentalhealth problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...
The objective of this study is to examine gender and ethnic differences in Veterans Affairs (VA) health services utilization among Iraq and Afghanistan military Veterans diagnosed with depression. With VA administrative data, sociodemographics, utilization of outpatient primary care, specialty mentalhealth and mentalhealth treatment modalities (psychotherapy and antidepressant prescriptions) were collected from electronic medical records of 1,556 depressed Veterans treated in one VA regional network from January 2008 to March 2009. Health care utilization patterns were examined 90 days following being diagnosed with depression. ?(2) and t-tests were used to evaluate unadjusted differences in VA service use by gender and ethnicity. Logistic regression was used to fit study models predicting VA service utilization. Study results indicate no ethnic or gender differences in the use of specialty mentalhealth services or in the use of mentalhealth treatments. However, women Veterans, especially those from ethnic minority groups, were less likely to use primary care than white and nonwhite male Veterans. Collectively, these findings signal a decrease in historically documented disparities within VA health care, especially in the use of mentalhealth services. PMID:24806496
Davis, Teri D; Deen, Tisha L; Fortney, John C; Sullivan, Greer; Hudson, Teresa J
In the last two decades, different research has demonstrated the high prevalence of childhood trauma, including sexual abuse, among depressive women. These findings are associated with a complex, severe, and chronic psychopathology. This can be explained considering the neurobiological changes secondary to early trauma that can provoke a neuroendocrine failure to compensate in response to challenge. It suggests the existence of a distinguishable clinical-neurobiological subtype of depression as a function of childhood trauma that requires specific treatments. Among women with depression and early trauma receiving treatment in a public mentalhealth service in Chile, it was demonstrated that a brief outpatient intervention (that screened for and focused on childhood trauma and helped patients to understand current psychosocial difficulties as a repetition of past trauma) was effective in reducing psychiatric symptoms and improving interpersonal relationships. However, in this population, this intervention did not prevent posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to the extreme earthquake that occurred in February 2010. Therefore in adults with depression and early trauma, it is necessary to evaluate prolonged multimodal treatments that integrate pharmacotherapy, social support, and interpersonal psychotherapies with trauma focused interventions (specific interventions for specific traumas). PMID:24695633
Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish
WEST VIRGINIA IS A RURAL STATE HAVING A LARGE POVERTY STRICKEN POPULATION. SINCE THIS GROUP HAD NO ACCESS TO MENTALHEALTH SERVICES, THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF MENTALHEALTH SPONSORED A VISTA PROGRAM IN MENTALHEALTH AND MENTAL RETARDATION, AND ENCOURAGED THE VOLUNTEERS TO USE THEIR OWN CREATIVITY AND INGENUITY IN PROVIDING SUCH SERVICES AS--(1)…
Background People with mental illness are more likely to suffer physical health problems than comparable populations who do not have mental illness. There is evidence to suggest that exercise, as well has having obvious physical benefits, also has positive effects on mentalhealth. There is a distinct paucity of research testing its effects on young people seeking help for mentalhealth issues. Additionally, it is generally found that compliance with prescribed exercise programmes is low. As such, encouraging young people to exercise at levels recommended by national guidelines may be unrealistic considering their struggle with mentalhealth difficulties. It is proposed that an exercise intervention tailored to young people's preferred intensity may improve mentalhealth outcomes, overall quality of life, and reduce exercise attrition rates. Methods/Design A sequential mixed methods design will be utilised to assess the effectiveness of an individually tailored exercise programme on the mentalhealth outcomes of young people with depression. The mixed methods design incorporates a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT), focus groups and interviews and an economic evaluation. Participants: 158 young people (14-17 years) recruited from primary care and voluntary services randomly allocated to either the intervention group or control group. Intervention group: Participants will undertake a 12 week exercise programme of 12 × 60 minutes of preferred intensity aerobic exercise receiving motivational coaching and support throughout. Participants will also be invited to attend focus groups and 1-1 interviews following completion of the exercise programme to illicit potential barriers facilitators to participation. Control group: Participants will receive treatment as usual. Primary Outcome measure: Depression using the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI-2). Secondary Outcome measures: Quality of Life (EQ-5D), physical fitness (Borg RPE scale, heart rate), incidents of self-harm, treatment received and compliance with treatment, and the cost effectiveness of the intervention. Outcome measures will be taken at baseline, post intervention and 6 month follow up. Discussion The results of this study will inform policy makers of the effectiveness of preferred intensity exercise on the mentalhealth outcomes of young people with depression, the acceptability of such an intervention to this population and its cost effectiveness. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01474837
... If you are in crisis, call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline at 800-273-TALK (8255). You can ... National MentalHealth Consumers' Self-Help Clearinghouse National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Substance Abuse and MentalHealth Services Administration ...
... service abroad can also play a role in mentalhealth issues, including anxiety , posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse . In addition to these mentalhealth issues, many soldiers have experienced traumatic brain injury ...
Community Psychiatric Practice is a special section within Community MentalHealth Journal devoted to issues relating to psychiatrists who practice in community mentalhealth centers and similar settings. The intent of the section is to stimulate interaction and involve community psychiatrists and other community mentalhealth professionals in a dialogue analogous to the collaborative situation in the community men- tal
Background The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mentalhealth is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mentalhealth in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Methods A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years) was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version), and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events. Results Over one third (36%) of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50%) of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more traumatic events. Conclusion This study provides evidence of high levels of mental distress in the population of Juba Town, and associated risk-factors. Comprehensive social and psychological assistance is urgently required in Juba.
Describes hypothyroidism, an endocrine disorder characterized by symptoms that resemble those of depression. Discusses features of the disorder, types and grades of hypothyroidism, causes, valuative techniques for the disorder, and implications of hypothyroidism in counseling and in treating patients suffering from this disorder. (RJM)
This study investigated the relationships among dysfunctional career thoughts and career indecision with respect to symptoms of depression. Such information could be useful to counselors in identifying individuals at the outset of career counseling who may be experiencing emotional distress from life stressors in addition to career stress.…
The EXPLORE study evaluated a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV infection among MSM. We examined depressive symptoms,\\u000a utilization of mentalhealth care, substance use and HIV risk taking behaviors in YMSM aged 16–25 years compared with their\\u000a older counterparts. YMSM were more likely to report depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) and less likely to report use of counseling\\u000a (OR = 0.39) or medication (OR = 0.20) for
Elizabeth A. Salomon; Matthew J. Mimiaga; Marla J. Husnik; Seth L. Welles; Marc W. Manseau; Arnel B. Montenegro; Steven A. Safren; Beryl A. Koblin; Margaret A. Chesney; Kenneth H. Mayer
This lesson, from Science NetLinks, examines how mental illness has been portrayed in the arts while highlighting for students a more insightful way to further develop their ideas about human behavior. This lesson is the third of three lessons on mentalhealth and human behavior.
This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mentalhealth and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mentalhealth asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.
Background Very little research has been conducted in the area of depression among older home care clients using personal support services. These older adults are particularly vulnerable to depression because of decreased cognition, comorbid chronic conditions, functional limitations, lack of social support, and reduced access to health services. To date, research has focused on collaborative, nurse-led depression care programs among older adults in primary care settings. Optimal management of depression among older home care clients is not currently known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a 6-month nurse-led, interprofessional mentalhealth promotion intervention aimed at older home care clients with depressive symptoms using personal support services. Methods/Design This one-group pre-test post-test study aims to recruit a total of 250 long-stay (> 60 days) home care clients, 70 years or older, with depressive symptoms who are receiving personal support services through a home care program in Ontario, Canada. The nurse-led intervention is a multi-faceted 6-month program led by a Registered Nurse that involves regular home visits, monthly case conferences, and evidence-based assessment and management of depression using an interprofessional approach. The primary outcome is the change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to 6 months using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and the rate and appropriateness of depression treatment from baseline to 12 months. Changes in the costs of use of health services will be assessed from a societal perspective. Descriptive and qualitative data will be collected to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to implementation. Discussion Data collection began in May 2010 and is expected to be completed by July 2012. A collaborative nurse-led strategy may provide a feasible, acceptable and effective means for improving the health of older home care clients by improving the prevention, recognition, and management of depression in this vulnerable population. The challenges involved in designing a practical, transferable and sustainable nurse-led intervention in home care are also discussed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01407926
Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World MentalHealth (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly.
Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.
Inconsistencies surrounding the prevalence levels of depression in later life suggest that the measurement of depression in older people may be problematic. The current study aimed to map responses to a depressive symptom scale, the MentalHealth Index-5 (MHI-5) which is part of the Short form 36 (SF-36, Ware et al., 1993) against the diagnostic screening items of the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument-Short Form (CIDI-SF, Kessler et al., 1998) to examine disagreement rates across age groups. The study examined data from a national random sample of 10,641 participants living in Ireland, 58.8% were female and 19% were over 65 (SLÁN, 2007). CIDI-SF depression screening endorsement was lower in older groups, whereas mean MHI-5 depressive symptoms showed less change across age groups. Results showed that the odds of MHI-5 endorsers aged 18-44 endorsing CIDI-SF screening questions were 5 times and 4.5 times (dysphoria and anhedonia, respectively) greater than the odds of people aged 75 or more endorsing these items. Findings suggest that although the risk of depressive disorder may decrease with age, complex diagnostic screening questions may exaggerate lower rates of depression among older people. PMID:23993442
This study examined the effect of maternal depression and anxiety on child treatment outcome. Psychiatric assessments were conducted on 180 mother–child pairs when the child entered treatment in a community mentalhealth center and six months later. Children whose mothers were depressed or anxious were significantly more impaired than children of mentally healthy mothers at both time points. Both groups
Carrie W. Rishel; Catherine G. Greeno; Steven C. Marcus; Esther Sales; M. Katherine. Shear; Holly A. Swartz; Carol Anderson
... the teen gets help: • The teen’s parents • A mentalhealth professional at school or in the community • A health professional (doctor, ... old, approximately 4 million people, have a major mentalhealth disorder that ... at home, school or with peers. (Surgeon General, 2000) Suicide is ...
This contribution describes current and future prison mentalhealth service provision in England and Wales. There is a need for the development of multidisciplinary prison health care services, including greater coordination of care, continuity of care between the community and prison, improved information-sharing between agencies and developed care planning for prisoners with mentalhealth problems. Recently, a formal partnership between
The United States federal government has a vested interest in the mentalhealth of children and adolescents. It considers\\u000a the current state of mentalhealth care for children a public crisis (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000). Approximately 21%\\u000a of children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 17 have a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder that causes at least
... About Us Home > Health & Education > MentalHealth Information Child and Adolescent MentalHealth Publications Anxiety Disorders in Children and ... of development. More What Goes on in the Adolescent Brain? In recognition of National Children’s MentalHealth ...
A random sample of college sophomores was studied regarding their mentalhealth status, mentalhealth service use, and attitudes toward mentalhealth professionals. Data were collected through home interviews and a search of the students' service records at the university. Mentalhealth status was measured by the 22-item Midtown MentalHealth Scale.Religious affiliation and performance satisfaction were both found to
Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mentalhealth services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mentalhealth service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU). The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability) associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent MentalHealth Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a) training and delivery of IPT, or (b) TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra-class correlation coefficient will be calculated and used to inform sample size calculations for subsequent large-scale trials. Qualitative data regarding process implementation will be collected quarterly from focus groups with participating clinicians over 18 months, plus phone interviews with participating adolescents and parent/guardians at 12 weeks and 24 weeks of treatment. The focus group qualitative data will be analysed using a Fourth Generation Evaluation methodology that includes a constant comparative cyclic analysis method. Discussion This study protocol will be informative for researchers and clinicians interested in considering, designing and/or conducting cluster randomised trials within community practice such as mentalhealth services. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRNO12607000324415
In this chapter, the relation between religion and mentalhealth and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mentalhealth and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mentalhealth have been highlighted.
Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.
This descriptive study used stakeholder input to prioritize evidence-based strategies for improving depression care and to select incentives for mentalhealth clinicians to adopt those strategies, and to conduct a feasibility test of an incentive-based program in a managed behavioral healthcare organization (MBHO). In two rounds of interviews and a stakeholder meeting, MBHO administrators and clinicians selected increasing combination treatment (antidepressant plus psychotherapy) rates as the program goal; and paying a bonus for case reviews, clinician feedback, and clinician education as incentives. We assessed program feasibility with case review and clinician surveys from a large independent practice association that contracts with the MBHO. Findings suggest that providing incentives for mentalhealth clinicians is feasible and the incentive program did increase awareness. However, adoption may be challenging because of administrative barriers and limited clinical data available to MBHOs. PMID:20957427
Meredith, Lisa S; Branstrom, Robert B; Azocar, Francisca; Fikes, Ruth; Ettner, Susan L
It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mentalhealth outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks
THE DIRECTORY IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GUIDE TO MENTALHEALTH PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. IT IS ORGANIZED INTO A FEDERAL SECTION AND A STATE AND COMMUNITY SECTION, EACH OF WHICH IS PRECEDED BY AN INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT CONCERNING THE LISTINGS IN THAT SECTION. ADDRESSES AND SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAJOR MENTALHEALTH…
This study examined mental healthcare use and barriers to mental healthcare utilization in a sample of 130 transgender volunteers. Roughly a third of participants sought treatment for mentalhealth issues including depression, anxiety, and relationship problems. Sixty-eight participants (52% of sample) showed evidence of psychological distress but had not received mentalhealth services in the past year. Results point to
Jillian C. Shipherd; Kelly E. Green; Sarah Abramovitz
... ignity and S ocial Inclusion Associated with MentalHealth (ADS Center) Home >> Publications Myths & Facts About MentalHealth ... attention, and mentalhealth services. By Post: SAMHSA ADS Center 4350 East West Highway, Suite 1100 Bethesda, ...
This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mentalhealth topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mentalhealth, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mentalhealth field.
... development of more effective treatment and prevention of mentalhealth disorders in children, youth, and families, including programs targeting expectant mothers, children in school settings, and youth transitioning into adulthood and programs ...
The EXPLORE study evaluated a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV infection among MSM. We examined depressive symptoms, utilization of mentalhealth care, substance use and HIV risk taking behaviors in YMSM aged 16-25 years compared with their older counterparts. YMSM were more likely to report depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) and less likely to report use of counseling (OR = 0.39) or medication (OR = 0.20) for psychiatric conditions. YMSM were more likely to report heavy alcohol and drug use. YMSM more often reported engaging in unprotected insertive (OR = 1.60) and receptive (OR = 2.07) anal intercourse with presumed HIV-uninfected partners, and unprotected receptive (OR = 1.72) anal intercourse with partners of unknown-HIV status. These findings suggest the need for more appropriate and accessible mentalhealth care and substance use services for YMSM. Additionally, HIV prevention work with this population should provide comprehensive education about HIV testing and risk reduction counseling that focuses on communication about serostatus and safety in sexual situations. PMID:18709453
Salomon, Elizabeth A; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Husnik, Marla J; Welles, Seth L; Manseau, Marc W; Montenegro, Arnel B; Safren, Steven A; Koblin, Beryl A; Chesney, Margaret A; Mayer, Kenneth H
The EXPLORE study evaluated a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV infection among MSM. We examined depressive symptoms, utilization of mentalhealth care, substance use and HIV risk taking behaviors in YMSM aged 16–25 years compared with their older counterparts. YMSM were more likely to report depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) and less likely to report use of counseling (OR = 0.39) or medication (OR = 0.20) for psychiatric conditions. YMSM were more likely to report heavy alcohol and drug use. YMSM more often reported engaging in unprotected insertive (OR = 1.60) and receptive (OR = 2.07) anal intercourse with presumed HIV-uninfected partners, and unprotected receptive (OR = 1.72) anal intercourse with partners of unknown-HIV status. These findings suggest the need for more appropriate and accessible mentalhealth care and substance use services for YMSM. Additionally, HIV prevention work with this population should provide comprehensive education about HIV testing and risk reduction counseling that focuses on communication about serostatus and safety in sexual situations.
Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Husnik, Marla J.; Welles, Seth L.; Manseau, Marc W.; Montenegro, Arnel B.; Safren, Steven A.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.
The physical health of people with severe mental illness is often neglected. Patients are more likely to smoke and have a poor diet, while psychiatric medication is known to affect physical health adversely. Yet these patients are less likely to be offered a physical health check. PMID:24802485
Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mentalhealth and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mentalhealth problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mentalhealth instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mentalhealth professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mentalhealth professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ? 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ? 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling lonely" (DSRS.15). The CPSS items with significant discriminant validity were nightmares (CPSS.2), flashbacks (CPSS.3), traumatic amnesia (CPSS.8), feelings of a foreshortened future (CPSS.12), and easily irritated at small matters (CPSS.14). Conclusions Transcultural translation and alternative validation feasibly can be performed in low clinical resource settings through task-shifting the validation process to trained mentalhealth paraprofessionals using structured interviews. This process is helpful to evaluate cost-effectiveness of psychosocial interventions.
Data was analyzed in the National Longitudinal Survey Study from 1997 specifically relating to questions regarding depression in youth. In the analysis it was found that how the respondent defined their own depression and poor mentalhealth was different than the perceptions about their mentalhealth from those that live with them in the same…
MentalHealth Matters is a collection of various mentalhealth articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.
Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is known to be a significant risk factor for mental disorders in Western societies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a similar association exists in Japan. Methods We used data from the World MentalHealth Japan Survey conducted from 2002–2006 (weighted N?=?1,682). Respondents completed diagnostic interviews that assessed lifetime prevalence of major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Associations between parental education (a proxy of SES in childhood) and lifetime onset of both disorders were estimated and stratified by gender using discrete-time survival analysis. Results Among women, high parental education was positively associated with MD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-3.18) in comparison with low parental education, even after adjustment for age, childhood characteristics, and SES in adulthood. This same effect was not found for men. In contrast, higher parental education was associated with GAD (OR: 6.84, 95% CI: 1.62-28.94) in comparison with low parental education among men, but this association was not found among the women, in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions In Japan, childhood SES is likely to be positively associated with the lifetime onset of mental disorders, regardless of family history of mental disorders, childhood physical illness, or SES in adulthood. Further study is required to replicate the current findings and elucidate the mechanism of the positive association between mental disorders and childhood SES.
This handbook describes the ways in which society shapes the mentalhealth of its mem bers and further shapes the hves of those who have been identified as mentally ill. The terms mentalhealth and mental illness encompass a broad collection of cognitive, emo tional, and behavioral phenomena. Mental illness includes, for example, the experiences of a person who speaks
The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate\\u000a farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress\\u000a and other mentalhealth difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.\\u000a \\u000a Almost all of the studies on the mentalhealth
As evidenced by the European Commission's recent MentalHealth Pact, mentalhealth has moved up the policy agenda in many countries. There is much more attention now on promoting general mental wellbeing in the population, and addressing the needs of people with mentalhealth problems. Particular concerns are: human rights abuses; rebalancing community and institutional care; coordinating action across multiple
Martin Knapp; David McDaid; Jennifer Beecham; Derek King; Roshni Mangalore; A-La Park; Andres Roman; Monique Smith; Cicely Thomas; Fayaz Aziz
This project was designed to present a method of identifying children (ages less than 21) with mentalhealth conditions in the United States and to use those definitions to understand the utilization and expenditure patterns of children with mentalhealth...
Mentalhealth problems are the most significant cause of morbidity in prisons. Over 90% of prisoners have a mental disorder. The prison environment and the rules and regimes governing daily life inside prison can be seriously detrimental to mentalhealth. Prisoners have received very poor health care and, until recently, the National Health Service (NHS) had no obligations to service
Background Web-based interventions for the early treatment of depressive symptoms can be considered effective in reducing mental complaints. However, there is a limited understanding of which elements in an intervention contribute to effectiveness. For efficiency and effectiveness of interventions, insight is needed into the use of content and persuasive features. Objective The aims of this study were (1) to illustrate how log data can be used to understand the uptake of the content of a Web-based intervention that is based on the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and (2) to discover how log data can be of value for improving the incorporation of content in Web-based interventions. Methods Data from 206 participants (out of the 239) who started the first nine lessons of the Web-based intervention, Living to the Full, were used for a secondary analysis of a subset of the log data of the parent study about adherence to the intervention. The log files used in this study were per lesson: login, start mindfulness, download mindfulness, view success story, view feedback message, start multimedia, turn on text-message coach, turn off text-message coach, and view text message. Differences in usage between lessons were explored with repeated measures ANOVAs (analysis of variance). Differences between groups were explored with one-way ANOVAs. To explore the possible predictive value of the login per lesson quartiles on the outcome measures, four linear regressions were used with login quartiles as predictor and with the outcome measures (Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression [CES-D] and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Anxiety [HADS-A] on post-intervention and follow-up) as dependent variables. Results A significant decrease in logins and in the use of content and persuasive features over time was observed. The usage of features varied significantly during the treatment process. The usage of persuasive features increased during the third part of the ACT (commitment to value-based living), which might indicate that at that stage motivational support was relevant. Higher logins over time (9 weeks) corresponded with a higher usage of features (in most cases significant); when predicting depressive symptoms at post-intervention, the linear regression yielded a significant model with login quartile as a significant predictor (explained variance is 2.7%). Conclusions A better integration of content and persuasive features in the design of the intervention and a better intra-usability of features within the system are needed to identify which combination of features works best for whom. Pattern recognition can be used to tailor the intervention based on usage patterns from the earlier lessons and to support the uptake of content essential for therapy. An adaptable interface for a modular composition of therapy features supposes a dynamic approach for Web-based treatment; not a predefined path for all, but a flexible way to go through all features that have to be used.
Background Despite the emergence of mentalhealth problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace) that target young people with emerging mentalhealth problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Method Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service’s funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Conclusions Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people’s consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from providing more timely appointments with therapists. The service’s funding model is important in enabling access initially to young people from low socioeconomic backgrounds, but the government needs to reassess the model for those who require additional support.
Objective: The authors examined the prevalence of and risk factors for homeless- ness among all patients treated for serious mental illnesses in a large public mentalhealth system in a 1-year period. The use of public mentalhealth services among homeless persons was also examined. Method: The study included 10,340 per- sons treated for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression
David P. Folsom; William Hawthorne; Anne Bailey; Richard Hough; Dilip V. Jeste
Latina mothers' perceptions of mentalhealth and factors that promote/restore mentalhealth were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mentalhealth. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…
Purpose Rural individuals utilize specialty mentalhealth services (eg, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and social workers) at lower rates than their urban counterparts. This study explores whether cognitive appraisals (ie, individual perceptions of need for services, outcome expectancies, and value of a positive therapeutic outcome) of help-seeking for depression symptoms are related to the utilization of specialty mentalhealth services in a rural sample. Methods Demographic and environmental characteristics, cultural barriers, cognitive appraisals, and depression symptoms were assessed in one model predicting specialty mentalhealth service utilization (MHSU) in a rural sample. Three hypotheses were proposed: (1) a higher number of environmental barriers (eg, lack of insurance or transportation) would predict lower specialty mentalhealth service utilization; (2) an increase in cultural barriers (stigma, stoicism, and lack of anonymity) would predict lower specialty mentalhealth utilization; and (3) higher cognitive appraisals of mentalhealth services would predict specialty mentalhealth care utilization beyond the predictive capacities of psychiatric symptoms, demographic variables, environmental barriers, and cultural barriers. Findings Current depression symptoms significantly predicted lifetime specialty mentalhealth service utilization. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were not supported: more environmental barriers predicted higher levels of specialty MHSU while cultural barriers did not predict specialty mentalhealth service utilization. Hypothesis 3 was supported: cognitive appraisals significantly predicted specialty mentalhealth service utilization. Conclusions It will be important to target perceptions and attitudes about mentalhealth services to reduce disparities in specialty MHSU for the rural population.
Deen, Tisha L.; Bridges, Ana J.; McGahan, Tara C.; Andrews, Arthur R.
... of the scarcity of mentalhealth care providers, primary care doctors, who may not be adequately prepared in ... integration of mental, or rather, behavioral health and primary care services, for rural areas. It is assumed that ...
... Resources Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & MentalHealth Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mentalhealth professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Outlines some of the main issues and areas of debate at the first international Congress on Audio-Visual Communication and MentalHealth, which was held in Helsinki in June 1983. The issues discussed include the connection between violent actions and violence on television and censorship. The declared congress objectives are listed. (Author/MBR)
This article briefly reviews the history of ideas and practice in psychosocial occupational therapy. It then reports the results of two studies which examined present-day perspectives as reflected in occupational therapy literature and the actural practices of psychosocial therapists. The first study was based on a review of mentalhealth-related articles in AJOT and OTMH; the second represented secondary analyses
This study surveyed current practice amongst 91 Indian and Australian staff working within multidisciplinary mentalhealth teams, looking at leadership skills, conflict resolution and therapeutic abilities. Length of training was asso ciated with management skills, though these skills were more developed by psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists working in community settings. Hospital settings involved less consensual decision-making than community teams.
Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mentalhealth. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
This study examines the mentalhealth characteristics of sexual minority (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, or LGB) veterans, compared these characteristics to those of an existing Veterans Affairs (VA) sample, and examined the relationship between mentalhealth and anxiety around concealment of LGB identity while in the military. Data regarding LGB veterans' (n = 409) military experiences and current mentalhealth were collected via an online survey; comparison data (n = 15,000) were retrieved from a VA data warehouse. LGB veterans were more likely to screen positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and alcohol problems than the comparison sample. Anxiety around concealment of one's sexual orientation while in the service was related to current depression and PTSD symptoms. PMID:23414280
Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mentalhealth. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine personal and situational correlates of poor mentalhealth among Latino farmworkers. Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N=69) in six counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mentalhealth, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results also indicated that each mentalhealth outcome had different predictors. Addressing the mentalhealth issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach.
Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mentalhealth providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mentalhealth service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
This project collects resources for studying mentalhealth and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. ...
Purpose To extend understanding of the effects of maternal depression on children to low-income and minority families; to apply advanced analytic methods to incorporate the reports of mothers, fathers, and teachers on the emotional and behavior problems and adaptive skills of 4–10 year old urban children; and to examine parenting quality and family environment as possible explanations of high rates of problems among children whose mothers have depression compared to those whose mothers are not depressed. Methods Mothers who participated either had major depressive disorder (n=84) or did not (n=49). They were predominantly African-American or Latino and lived in low-income, urban communities. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children’s emotional, behavioral and adaptive functioning. Parenting behavior and family stress were examined as potential mediators and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to test mediation and to account for discrepancies in reports by different raters. Results By mother, father and teacher reports, children of depressed mothers had significantly poorer adaptive skills than children of sociodemographically-similar non-depressed mothers; and they had more emotional/behavior problems according to mothers and fathers. The quality of mothers’ parenting mediated these associations, but quality of the family environment did not. Conclusions This study extends the literature on the effects of maternal depression to low-income, minority families, and demonstrates that mothers, fathers and teachers observe worse functioning in children of depressed mothers than those of non-depressed mothers, although their perspectives vary somewhat. The impact of maternal depression suggests the importance of developing and funding services to address the needs of affected families.
Riley, Anne W.; Coiro, Mary Jo; Broitman, Marina; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Hurley, Kristen; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Miranda, Jeanne
This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mentalhealth service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty MentalHealth System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
Objective: To examine the concept and evidence for mentalhealth promotion, within an understanding of mentalhealth and mental illness and their determinants.Method: Aselective review of literature and opinion in the fields of public health and mentalhealth.Results: Mentalhealth and mental illness are often given a low priority, despite growing evidence of the burden of disease and costs to
\\u000a Farmworker mentalhealth research is sparse, particularly in the eastern United States. Nevertheless, available evidence suggests\\u000a that 20–50% of farmworkers have poor mentalhealth as indicated by elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety, frequent heavy\\u000a alcohol consumption, or recent experiences of lay-defined illnesses like susto or nervios. Farmworkers’ poor mentalhealth\\u000a likely results from a variety of structural and social
Mentalhealth care epidemiology seeks to investigate the practical situation of the health care system and services for individuals with mental disorders. In the past decades, mentalhealth care structures in Germany were successively transformed from long-term inpatient treatment capacities to decentralized outpatient and day clinic services. Currently, the proportional relation between treatment facilities in different settings has been stabilized and the strategy of mentalhealth care development focuses on innovative and integrative models of care provision. The aim is to integrate fragmented services by the introduction of network structures to overcome rigid sector boundaries. The need for health care services is associated with multiple factors such as population-based epidemiological data, usage behavior, and health politics. Due to scarce data and poor standards of care it is difficult to determine if current structures of mentalhealth services cover the actual needs. Therefore, a substantial increase of mentalhealth service research is needed. PMID:22371103
Background In clinical samples, comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders is associated with greater symptom severity and elevated suicide risk. Less is known, however, regarding the long-term psychosocial impact that a lifetime history of both MDD and one or more anxiety disorders has in community samples. This report evaluates clinical, psychological, social, and stress-related characteristics associated with a lifetime history of MDD and anxiety. Methods Data from 915 women aged 42–52 who were recruited as part of the the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation MentalHealth Study were used to examine clinical and psychosocial features across groups of women with a SCID-diagnosed lifetime history of MDD alone, anxiety alone, both MDD and anxiety, or neither MDD nor anxiety. Results As compared with women with a history of either MDD or anxiety alone, women with a comorbid history were more likely to report recurrent MDD, multiple and more severe lifetime anxiety disorders, greater depressive and anxiety symptoms, diminished social support, and more past-year distressing life events. Exploratory analyses indicated that women with a comorbid history also report more childhood abuse/neglect and diminished self-esteem, as compared with women with a history of either disorder alone. Conclusions Midlife women with a comorbid history that includes both MDD and anxiety disorders report diminished social support, more symptomatic distress, and a more severe and recurrent psychiatric history. Future research is needed to clarify the biological and psychosocial risk factors associated with this comorobid profile, and to develop targeted interventions for this at-risk group.
Cyranowski, Jill M.; Schott, Laura L.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Brown, Charlotte; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Joffe, Hadine; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.
Data presented in the fifth edition of 'MentalHealth, United States' derive principally from national surveys. For the first time, the volume includes a chapter that highlights the characteristics of seriously mentally ill persons in the household popula...
... or natural disasters such as hurricanes, are at risk of developing mentalhealth issues. Dr. Sandro Galea : But we also know that people who are isolated- socially isolated- are at great risk of mental illness after these events. We know ...
Outcomes in depression treatment research include both changes in symptom severity and functional impairment. Symptom measures tend to be the standard outcome but we argue that there are benefits to considering functional outcomes. An exhaustive literature review shows that the relationship between symptoms and functioning remains unexpectedly weak and often bidirectional. Changes in functioning often lag symptom changes. As a result, functional outcomes might offer depression researchers more critical feedback and better guidance when studying depression treatment outcomes. The paper presents a case for the necessity of both functional and symptom outcomes in depression treatment research by addressing three aims–1) review the research relating symptoms and functioning, 2) provide a rationale for measuring both outcomes, and 3) discuss potential artifacts in measuring functional outcomes. The three aims are supported by an empirical review of the treatment outcome and epidemiological literatures.
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that people living with depression, anxiety or other mentalhealth conditions are twice as likely to have tried e-cigarettes and three times as likely to be current users of the controversial battery-powered nicotine-delivery devices, as people without mentalhealth disorders.
Mentalhealth problems--and depression in particular--have been rising internationally. The link between poor mentalhealth and poor educational outcomes is particularly interesting in the case of the UK which has a low international ranking both on measures of child wellbeing and the probability of early drop-out from the labour market and…
Little is known about the mentalhealth status of trafficked women, even though international conventions require that it be considered. This study, therefore, aims at exploring the mentalhealth status, including anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), of female survivors of human trafficking who are currently supported by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Katmandu, the capital of Nepal, through
Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mentalhealth and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future.
"Mentalhealth literacy" is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid in their recognition, management, or prevention; it is also a determinant of help seeking. As such, it is presumed to be important in community suicide prevention programs. In Australia there have been a number of government, professional, and charitable…
Background The recent adoption of China's new national mentalhealth law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mentalhealth literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the MentalHealth Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mentalhealth literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mentalhealth promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mentalhealth literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mentalhealth literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments used to assess mentalhealth literacy (MHKQ and CAQ) have not been adequately assessed so this result must be considered preliminary. Further work, preferably including both qualitative and quantitative components, is needed to revise these instruments before they can be used to assess the effectiveness of mentalhealth promotion campaigns.
Perspectives, provided by MentalHealth Net, is a quarterly online magazine devoted to mentalhealth. It features short (usually less than 2,000 word) articles about all aspects of its topic. The Vol. 1, No. 4 issue contains articles on Prozac, loneliness, and managed care, among others. It also includes a regular column on "Being Human." Archives are available at the site, as are submission guidelines. MentalHealth Net is a well known "comprehensive guide to mentalhealth online," with pointers to resources in the field, arranged by topic and resource type.
Children constitute nearly 40% of India's population, a significant portion of whom suffer mental ailments. Ways to sensitize those who work with children to various aspects associated with child mentalhealth are explored in this book. The focus is not on mental handicap but on the internal or external distress which warps the psychosocial…
Accurate information is needed to facilitate health equity in underserved communities. This community-based participatory study asked residents about the meaning of mentalhealth, their perceptions of community mentalhealth needs, barriers to accessing mentalhealth care, and acceptability of mentalhealth services that are integrated in primary health clinics. Forty-five primarily African-American residents from urban communities participated in focus groups. Findings revealed high prevalence of substance abuse, depression, crime, and stigma about mental illness, with multiple access barriers. Participants were receptive to mentalhealth care integrated in primary care, if others did not know they were receiving mentalhealth care. PMID:18979331
Roberts, Kay T; Robinson, Karen M; Topp, Robert; Newman, Jamie; Smith, Felicia; Stewart, Christopher
This study examined associations between elevated symptoms of prenatal depression or anxiety and offspring emotional and behavioral problems during mid to late childhood taking into account the impact of later maternal mentalhealth symptoms. The sample consisted of 2,891 women and their children (49 % male) from a prospective, community-based study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women completed measures of depressive (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and anxious (Crown Crisp Experiential Index) symptoms at regular intervals beginning in pregnancy. Mothers and teachers assessed offspring emotional and behavioral problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when children were 10-11 years old. Multivariable regression models were fit to address study hypotheses. Exposure to elevated symptoms of maternal depression during pregnancy was associated with increased total offspring emotional and behavioral problems, even after controlling for later maternal mentalhealth problems and a range of sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, according to mothers' but not teachers' reports. Similarly, children exposed to elevated symptoms of maternal anxiety during pregnancy were reported to have increased total emotional and behavioral problems by mothers but not by teachers. We found support for modest associations between elevated symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety during the prenatal period and certain domains of offspring emotional and behavioral problems in mid to late childhood above and beyond the impact of later maternal mentalhealth problems. These findings highlight the need for additional clinical and research attention to the prenatal period and to both maternal depression and anxiety. PMID:23748337
Leis, Julie A; Heron, Jon; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Mendelson, Tamar
Objective: To identify the prevalence of three mental disorders (Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder), the prevalence of mentalhealth problems, the health-related quality of life of those with problems, and patterns of service utilisation of those with and without mentalhealth problems, among 4–17-year-olds in Australia. To identify rates of health-risk behaviours among adolescents with mentalhealth problems.Method:
M. G Sawyer; F. M. Arney; P. A. Baghurst; J. J. Clark; B. W. Graetz; R. J. Kosky; B Nurcombe; G. C. Patton; M. R. Prior; B Raphael; J. M. Rey; L. C Whaites; S. R Zubrick
The purpose of this review of the literature is to present a contemporary perspective related to the nursing care of hospitalized mentalhealth patients who have risk of developing oral health issues. Mental illness is a major health concern worldwide. Compounding this health issue, mentalhealth patients/clients demonstrate avoidant behaviours related to oral health, and the symptoms of mental illness can be a compounding factor. Oral health and oral inflammatory disease are the result of lifestyle and behaviour and mental disorders affect both lifestyle and behaviour. The search used the search terms oral health AND nursing AND mental illness AND Published Date 2005 to 2010. For those who experience mental illness oral health assessment is not routinely practised by clinicians. The importance of special attention to dental problems for people with mental disorders has also been stressed by researchers since the lifespan of people with serious mental disorders is shortened compared to the general population. Oral health care is an important part of treatment. Routine oral care for hospitalized patients is imperative, and this is usually the responsibility of nurses without sufficient knowledge in oral care or comprehensive protocols to follow. PMID:22070464
Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mentalhealth problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mentalhealth in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mentalhealth included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mentalhealth treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mentalhealth outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mentalhealth problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mentalhealth problems.
For people who are living with a mentalhealth condition, it can be most helpful to have access to high-quality and authoritative information. The National Institute of MentalHealth provides such information on the publications area of their website, and visitors can make their way through fact sheets, booklets, and Spanish-language versions of these documents here. The topical fact sheets are quite good, and they include titles such as "Suicide in the U.S.: Statistics and Prevention" and "Depression: A Treatable Illness". Moving on, the "Booklets" area includes "Eating Disorders", "Depression", and ten other offerings. Finally, the right-hand side of the site includes news about recent research findings from the Institute.
Examined the frequency and nature of mentalhealth problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mentalhealth problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…
Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.
This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mentalhealth settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mentalhealth that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…
Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mentalhealth studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of MentalHealth (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…
Background: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional/behavioral problems. Methods: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mentalhealth screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mentalhealth of children and…
Weist, Mark D.; Rubin, Marcia; Moore, Elizabeth; Adelsheim, Steven; Wrobel, Gordon
Previous studies have identified a low preference for mentalhealth careers among students and practitioners in occupational therapy. Factors implicated include the social stigma of mentalhealth in the community, fieldwork experience, academic preparation, and work setting factors such as role ambiguity and chronicity of clients. Of these factors, fieldwork may be the most important influence. A survey was administered
The recruitment of students in health professions into the area of mentalhealth has been shown to be influenced by their attitudes towards the area, with such attitudes possibly shaped in the same way as many of the attitudes towards mental illness are by the general community. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of occupational therapy
Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mentalhealth. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mentalhealth settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and
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Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mentalhealth problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mentalhealth, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mentalhealth challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mentalhealth services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mentalhealth needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents' engagement in mentalhealth treatment. PMID:24298010
Argues that in the 1980s, an increase in life expectancy of older adults will have a significant impact on the cultural, social, economic, and political life of the country. As the 75+ yr old population increases, the need for comprehensive, community-based care for those persons will increase. Mental and physical health problems confronting the elderly include depression, mental disorder or
This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mentalhealth programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mentalhealth fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mentalhealth, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mentalhealth resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mentalhealth care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mentalhealth care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent.
This study examines the mentalhealth status of Israeli homosexuals in adolescence and early adulthood in comparison to heterosexual controls. We compared 219 homosexuals (136 gay men and 83 lesbian women) with 219 individually matched heterosexuals on indices of depression and subjective well being. In line with the study hypothesis, the results indicated that the homosexual participants reported more depressive
The World Health Organization predicts that depression will create the second greatest burden of disease by 2020, requiring cost-effective prevention and intervention strategies. The evidence to support the benefits of exercise in offering protection from depression and as an intervention in the treatment of mental illness is growing. The literature is reviewed with 11 prospective longitudinal studies that include measures
Although numerous authors have associated metal music with social problems such as suicide, self-destruction and Satanism, few studies have been undertaken to examine the mentalhealth of fans of heavy metal music. This study attempts to determine if there is a link between mentalhealth and the enjoyment of this type of music in France. The researchers surveyed 333 fans of metal music. Their mentalhealth was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a widely used instrument that measures anxiety and depression. The scores of the sample of metal music fans were then compared to the scores that reveal possible, probable, or severe mental disorders. Qualifying variables included age, gender, status, education, motivation and participation in metal music culture. The results indicated that fans of metal music are mainly young adults (median age = 22.67, SD = 5.29) and tend to be male (87.85 percent). As a whole, metal music fans have levels of anxiety and depression that are similar to and lower than levels in the general population. Specifically, <5 percent of metal music fans surveyed showed pathological symptoms. Subjects that scored higher levels of anxiety and depression were those that had literary and/or arts backgrounds rather than scientific backgrounds, that wrote metal music lyrics, that consumed alcohol and that engaged in the body modification practice of scarification. This study suggests that opponents of metal music should re-examine the basis for their criticism. More scholarly research is needed to better understand the effects of metal music on fans and on society. PMID:19521752
Recours, Robin; Aussaguel, François; Trujillo, Nick
Summary \\u000a Domestic violence is a major public health problem throughout the world. Domestic violence against women is perpetrated by\\u000a intimate male partners on family members, and may give rise to both physical and mentalhealth sequelae. Mentalhealth consequences\\u000a include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorder, somatization,\\u000a and self-harm behaviours. Psychiatrists may be called upon to
\\u000a It has been almost a decade since the World Health Organization brought to light the impact of mentalhealth disorders worldwide\\u000a (WHO, 2001). The report states that mentalhealth disorders are one of the ten leading causes of disability and account for\\u000a 10.5% of the global burden of all illness (Standing Senate committe, 2004). Moreover, depression alone constitutes the second
Izabela Z. Schultz; Ruth A. Milner; Douglas B. Hanson; Alanna Winter
The prevalence of 3 mental disorders (Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder), the prevalence of mentalhealth problems, and rates of health-risk behaviours among those with problems, along with patterns of service utilisation, are reported for 1490 adolescents aged 13-17 years in Australia. Mental…
Global mentalhealth challenges sit at the frontiers of health care worldwide. The frequency of mentalhealth disorders is increasing, and represents a large portion of the global burden of human disease (DALYs). There are many impeding forces in delivering mentalhealth care globally. The knowledge of what mentalhealth and its diseased states are limits the ability to seek
The roles that mentalhealth professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mentalhealth professionals must re-examine the meaning of mentalhealth in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…
As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mentalhealth program. However, the lack of an existing mentalhealth plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mentalhealth policy. PMID:17914016
As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National MentalHealth Association (NMHA) remains the countryÃ¢ÂÂs oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mentalhealth and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The Ã¢ÂÂNeed Info?Ã¢ÂÂ area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mentalhealth news coverage.
Long-standing policy controversies have heated up as a result of increasing proposals for using schools to screen for mentalhealth problems (e.g., depression screening). This brief highlights the following issues: (1) How appropriate is large-scale screening for mentalhealth problems? (2) Will the costs of large-scale mentalhealth screening…
BACKGROUND: Although there have been many population studies of mentalhealth literacy, little is known about the mentalhealth literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The mentalhealth literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional,
Kathleen M Griffiths; Helen Christensen; Anthony F Jorm
BACKGROUND: Workplace mentalhealth promotion (WMHP) aims to prevent and effectively manage the social and economic costs of common mental illnesses such as depression. The mentalhealth of managers and employees within small-medium enterprises (SMEs) is a neglected sector in occupational health research and practice, despite the fact that this sector is the most common work setting in most economies.
Angela Martin; Kristy Sanderson; Jenn Scott; Paula Brough
Alcohol use disorders frequently occur in tandem with mentalhealth disorders, such as depression, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, tobacco dependence, and even pathological gambling. Co-occurring disorders may be present in adolescence,...
Discusses assessment studies related to quality of care in the mentalhealth field. Quality assessment involves defining quality of care, choosing an appropriate focus of quality-of-care studies, identifying applicable and feasible methods, and guaranteeing the reliability and validity of the data used in the assessment. It is concluded that (a) dogmatic statements about methods to assess the quality of mental
Robert H. Brook; Caren J. Kamberg; Kathleen N. Lohr
Facts about college mentalhealth are presented in response to frequently asked questions. Areas of concern include common conditions interfering with student effectiveness, why students seek help and where they can get it, the frequency of severe mental illness in college students, the suicide problem, the limitations of nonprofessional help, the…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
The study on the impact of disasters on the mentalhealth is a relatively recent research field. Despite this, there are a significant number of studies showing the epidemiological data of the psychiatric pathology present in survivors and those affected by disasters This review attempts to summarize current knowledge and give an integrated vision of the effects of the disasters on the mentalhealth, either natural or manmade disasters, as well as identify the effects prevalence and differences in each type of disaster. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are some of the pathologies observed in people affected by disasters and with an ineffective adaptation, jointly with an increase in the consumption of toxic substances, generating an additional public health problem within another problem. The consequences will be different depending on the type of population and its cultural pattern, sex and gender of the affected people and type of disasters. PMID:24547635
Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael
The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mentalhealth professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. PMID:24118217
Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham
Recommendations of a task force charged with examining conditions of mentalhealth operatios in western Massachusetts are contained in this report. The greatest needs in the region were found to be crisis intervention, childrens' services, community-parti...
This fact sheet addresses the mentalhealth needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mentalhealth problems, that these mentalhealth problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mentalhealth problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
Explored mentalhealth counselors' and counselor educators' perceptions of the training mentalhealth counselors receive. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 mentalhealth counselors or counselor educators. Key issues that emerged from interviews concerned licensure movement, what distinguishes mentalhealth counseling, variability of…
Background: A series of surveys of mentalhealth literacy have been undertaken in Australia, involving members of the general public\\u000a as well as general practitioners and mentalhealth professionals, whereby respondents consider vignettes of depression and\\u000a of schizophrenia, offer a diagnosis and rate a series of possible interventions for their judged helpfulness. A similar survey\\u000a was undertaken in Singapore and
G. Parker; R. Mahendran; S. G. Yeo; M. I. Loh; A. F. Jorm
Objective: This paper considers mentalhealth services resource distribution under the Australian second national mentalhealth plan, with its direction to mentalhealth services to be more inclusive of people with higher prevalence psychiatric disorders. We consider inequalities in mentalhealth in Australia, and describe the performance of the composite census variable employed in the Victorian mentalhealth funding distribution
One of the major problems in measuring community mentalhealth status is the lack of consensus among mentalhealth workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…
Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mentalhealth treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mentalhealth services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mentalhealth system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mentalhealth services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mentalhealth service that covers community mentalhealth by integrating mentalhealth into primary health care. Mentalhealth care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mentalhealth services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mentalhealth. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mentalhealth in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine. PMID:15276949
Disaster preparations and responses are incomplete without addressing the mentalhealth aspects of disasters. Unpleasant mental states can be a natural and even adaptive human response following a disaster; however, disasters also can contribute to the development of mental illnesses and substance use disorders or exacerbate existing disorders for disaster survivors, response personnel, and even families and close contacts of survivors and responders. Disaster-related psychopathology can mimic or negatively affect other disaster-related illnesses and can impair health professionals and others who must respond to catastrophic events; however, disasters also can encourage tremendous human coping, perseverance, and resilience and can even enhance personal and collective feelings of purpose, connection, and meaning. Integrating mentalhealth promotion and care into disaster planning and response has the potential to mitigate psychiatric and medical consequences of a disaster and may preserve the mission readiness of disaster response personnel and promote healing among communities traumatized by disaster. PMID:23263326
Objectives We examined whether Black Americans and Hispanic Americans experienced greater mentalhealth benefits from religious involvement than White Americans, and whether these benefits would be mediated through three psychosocial factors—social support, meaning and forgiveness. Methods Utilizing data from a probability sample of Chicago-based adults (n=3103), ethnicity-stratified multivariate regression models estimated the association of religiosity with depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Models controlled for potential confounders and psychosocial mediators. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, religiously involved Black Americans and Hispanic Americans did not experience greater mentalhealth benefits than their White counterparts. For White Americans alone, service attendance was inversely related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Religious saliency was consistently associated with worse mentalhealth for Hispanic Americans only. However, both meaning and forgiveness conferred mentalhealth benefits for all three groups. Conclusions The benefits of specific aspects of religious involvement vary across ethnicity. Caution is necessary in any effort to bring religion into the health domain. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that initiatives that facilitate a sense of purpose or forgiveness are likely to prove promising in improving mentalhealth, regardless of race or ethnicity.
Sternthal, Michelle J.; Williams, David R.; Musick, Marc A.; Buck, Anna C.
Background There is ample evidence that both intimate-partner violence (IPV) and childhood abuse adversely affect the physical and mentalhealth of adult women over the long term. Objective The authors assessed the associations between abuse, symptoms, and mentalhealth utilization. Method The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of 380 adult female, internal-medicine patients. Results Although both IPV and childhood abuse were associated with depressive and physical symptoms, IPV was independently associated with physical symptoms, and childhood abuse was independently associated with depression. Women with a history of childhood abuse had higher odds, whereas women with IPV had lower odds, of receiving care from mentalhealth providers. Conclusion IPV and childhood abuse may have different effects on women’s symptoms and mentalhealth utilization.
Using data from three waves of the Children of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth data set (1986, 1988, 1990), we examine the dynamic relationship between children's family histories of poverty and their developmental trajectories of mentalhealth. Children who were poor in 1986 or who had prior histories of poverty had higher levels of depression and antisocial behavior in that year. Furthermore, subsequent poverty histories were also related to children's mentalhealth trajectories. The number of years that children were poor between 1986 and 1990 correlates significantly with changes in children's antisocial behavior during those years. Finally, rates of increase in antisocial behavior were substantially higher for children with histories of persistent poverty during those years than for transiently poor or nonpoor children. These results demonstrate the accelerating behavioral disadvantages faced by persistently poor children. PMID:8898493
... at higher risk for depression, anxiety, or even suicide. Some teens develop eating disorders, too. Some of ... with problems. Recognize the warnings and prevent teen suicide. Many teenage girls feel sad, stressed, angry, or ...
This study investigated the mentalhealth status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mentalhealth education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ? 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ? 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mentalhealth status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mentalhealth status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mentalhealth status. It was concluded that the mentalhealth of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mentalhealth problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mentalhealth of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment. PMID:24939314
The Boston Health Project II, replicating a national survey of lesbians completed in 1987, found few differences from previous data regarding mentalhealth problems and service use among lesbians. Respondents expressed positive feelings about being lesbian but reported money and work to be major problems. Surveyed lesbians used therapy at high rates, with depression and relationship problems being common reasons
Susan Jo Roberts; Cecelia Gatson Grindel; Carol A. Patsdaughter; Kathleen Reardon; M. Suzanne Tarmina
Background: This study aimed to examine the patterns of association between cannabis use, and anxiety and affective disorders, in the\\u000a general population. Method: Data from the Australian National Survey of MentalHealth and Well-Being, a representative survey of Australians aged 18\\u000a years and over, were analysed to address the following questions: (1) is there an association between cannabis use, DSM-IV
Aggression, antisocial and delinquent behavior frequently result in the incarceration of a large number of young people, but these problems pale in comparison to the mentalhealth challenges faced by many of these youth. Recent studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents within the justice system. These findings have led researchers, clinicians and policy-makers to re-evaluate the assessment and treatment options that are available for youth within correctional facilities. This article provides a concise review of the most recent research related to mentalhealth disorders among incarcerated juveniles within Canada and the United States. Rates of some of the most common mentalhealth disorders among juveniles, including depression, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity and substance use are summarized. Throughout the review, issues related to co-morbidity and gender differences are highlighted. The implications of mentalhealth disorders for juvenile justice policy and practice are discussed.
Odgers, Candice L.; Burnette, Mandi L.; Chauhan, Preeti; Moretti, Marlene M.; Reppucci, N. Dickon
Depression affects up to 60% of solid-organ recipients and is independently associated with both mortality (hazard ratio for death of ~2) and de novo malignancy after transplantation, although the mechanism is not clear. Both pretransplantation psychosis and depression occurring more than 2 years after transplantation are associated with increased noncompliance and graft loss. It remains to be shown that effective treatment of depression is associated with improved outcomes and quality of life. Immunosuppressive drugs (especially corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors) and physiologic challenges can precipitate deterioration in mentalhealth. All potential transplant candidates should be assessed for mentalhealth problems and preexisting medical conditions that can mimic mentalhealth problems, such as uremic, hepatic, or hypoxic encephalopathy, should be identified and treated appropriately. Expert mentalhealth review of those with identified risk factors (such as previous suicide attempts, history of mental illness or noncompliance with medications) is advisable early in the transplant assessment process to mitigate risk and support the patient. Patients with mentalhealth disorders, when adequately controlled and socially supported, have outcomes similar to the general transplant population. Therefore, exclusion from transplantation based on the diagnosis alone is neither ethically nor medically justified. However, it is ethically and clinically justifiable to deny access to transplantation to those who, despite full support, would have a quality of life that is unacceptable to the candidate or are likely to be noncompliant with treatment or follow-up, which would lead to graft loss. PMID:23743726
Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Parker, Richard; Webb, Kerry; Neuberger, James M
Objective: We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of obesity in individuals with a mood disorder (MD) (that is, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder), compared with the general population. We further aimed to examine the likelihood of an association between obesity and MD, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic variables. Method: The analysis was based on data from Statistics
Roger S McIntyre; Jakub Z Konarski; Kathryn Wilkins; Joanna K Soczynska; Sidney H Kennedy
SUMMARY This paper advocates that mentalhealth promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mentalhealth pro- motion is frequently overlooked in health promotion pro- grammes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mentalhealth as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for the largest burden of early mortality and are predicted to cost the global community more than US $30 trillion over the next 20 years. Unhealthy dietary habits, in large part driven by substantial changes to global food systems, are recognised as major contributors to many of the common NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Recent evidence now indicates that unhealthy diets are also risk factors for mental disorders, particularly depression and dementia. This affords substantial scope to leverage on the established and developing approaches to the nutrition-related NCDs to address the large global burden of these mental disorders and reinforces the imperative for governments take substantial actions in regards to improving the food environment and consequent population health via policy initiatives.
Five papers cover recent developments in rural mentalhealth nursing. "Rural MentalHealth Care: A Survey of the Research" (Karen Babich) chronicles recent interest in understanding the rural population's character and the nature of mentalhealth services needed by and provided to rural America. Lauren Aaronson ("Using Health Beliefs in a Nursing…
Prior research on the association of mentalhealth and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,315). We estimated the associations of depression, attention problems, delinquency, and substance use with two indicators of academic achievement (high school GPA and highest degree received) with controls for academic aptitude. Attention problems, delinquency, and substance use were significantly associated with diminished achievement, but depression was not. Combinations of problems involving substance use were especially consequential. Our results demonstrate that the social consequences of mentalhealth problems are not the inevitable result of diminished functional ability but, rather, reflect negative social responses. These results also encourage a broader perspective on mentalhealth by demonstrating that behavior problems heighten the negative consequences of more traditional forms of distress.
Latest research on the mentalhealth status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mentalhealth services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mentalhealth services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mentalhealth as an essential part of academic success (Adelman & Taylor, 2002).
Latest research on the mentalhealth status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mentalhealth services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mentalhealth services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mentalhealth as an essential part of…
Discussions of aging and mentalhealth widely assume that ageism among mentalhealth providers is an important factor limiting access to mentalhealth services for older adults. Given the widespread citation of ageism as a problem, we critically review the history of the ageism construct, and evidence for its existence in both mentalhealth and medical professionals. There is surprisingly
AIM: To examine the psychological, self-esteem (SE), family function, marital satisfaction, life satisfaction and degree of agreement with the practice of polygamy among polygamous women with a control group from monogamous women in Syria. METHODS: Convenience sample of 136 women, 64 of whom were wives in polygamous marriages and 72 were wives in monogamous marriages participated in this study. A snowball method of sampling was used, conducted by undergraduate local female students trained to collect data according to culturally competent methods. The following research instruments were deployed: the symptoms checklist-90, the Rosenberg SE, the Life Satisfaction, family function and marital satisfaction. RESULTS: Findings revealed that women in polygamous marriages experienced lower SE, less life satisfaction, less marital satisfaction and more mentalhealth symptomatology than women in monogamous marriages. Many of the mentalhealth symptoms were different; noteworthy were elevated somatization, depression, hostility and psychoticism and their general severity index was higher. Furthermore, “first wife syndrome” was examined in polygamous families, comparing first with second and third wives in polygamous marriages. Findings indicated that first wives reported on more family problems, less SE, more anxiety, more paranoid ideation, and more psychoticism than second and third wives. CONCLUSION: These results are best understood through consideration of the socio-cultural and economic realities facing these women. Implications for mentalhealth practice, policy and further research are discussed.
BACKGROUND: Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mentalhealth seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a) examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b) identify the level of specialization in mentalhealth among service-providers, and c) identify associations
Henrik D Zachrisson; Kjetil Rödje; Arnstein Mykletun
After initially defining both mentalhealth and guilt feelings, the author examined their relationship, primarily from the perspective of the crippling effects of unwarranted feelings of guilt. Admitting the varied pressures of modern society, he nevertheless believes it is the individual's fault when he fails to glean as much from lif e as he…
... of relationship challenges can build on already existing mentalhealth problems or lead to them. Are you thinking of suicide? If yes, please do the following – Dial: 911 Dial: 800-273-TALK (8255) Check yourself into the emergency room. Tell someone who can help you find help ...
MentalHealth and Asian Americans Suicide was the 10th leading cause of death for Asian Americans, and also was the 10th leading cause of death for White ... 1 Older Asian American women have the highest suicide rate of all women over age 65 in ...
This lesson, from Science NetLinks, provides students with a sound introduction and historical overview of the important figures and discoveries that have greatly advanced the study of human behavior since the early 1900s. This lesson is the first of three lessons on mentalhealth and human behavior.
Mentalhealth disparities refer to the disproportionate amount of psychopathology found among persons of disadvantageous social standing, such as persons of low socioeconomic status (SES). Although social and self selection cannot entirely be ruled out as explanations for these differences, the accumulation of evidence supports a social causation…
Presents four articles discussing mentalhealth issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…
Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.
Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States.
This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
\\u000a Social capital is a compound and complex construct, an umbrella term under which social cohesion, social support, social integration\\u000a and\\/or participation are often lumped together. Beyond its growing appeal to policy makers, practitioners and researchers\\u000a in public health in general and mentalhealth in particular, social capital is now also an integral part of broad-based discussions\\u000a on social-ecological resilience, ecosystem
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mentalhealth training as mediators and providers of mentalhealth care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mentalhealth services, the characteristics of bilingual mentalhealth workers, and the work places and expectations…
Reforming mentalhealth care is a focus of many ongoing initiatives in the United States, both at the national and state levels. Access to adequate mentalhealth care services is one of the identified problems. Telepsychiatry and e-mentalhealth services could improve access to mentalhealth care in rural, remote and underserved areas. The authors discuss the required technology, common
Kaye L. McGinty; Sy Atezaz Saeed; Scott C. Simmons; Yilmaz Yildirim
Proposes 4 principles for community mentalhealth programing that are consistent with an ecological thesis: (1) Assessment methods are focused on the total population rather than on those persons who presently receive a mentalhealth service. (2) Mentalhealth services are designed to reduce a high risk for community service. (3) Professional and research services are created as local community
This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mentalhealth from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mentalhealth, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mentalhealth. The…
By addressing common reasons that schools and mentalhealth partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mentalhealth services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mentalhealth collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage…
The author discusses a comprehensive literature review on the mentalhealth effects of marriage denial on lesbians and gay men and the role of mentalhealth arguments in advocacy for marriage equality. The review, by Gil Herdt and Robert Kertzner, studied more than 150 reports on how marriage is related to mentalhealth and the psychological effects of discrimination as
The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mentalhealth of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mentalhealth in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mentalhealth problems. The book is divided…
Examines reports written in mentalhealth hospitals and community mentalhealth centers. Analyzes a total of 150 randomly selected samples of 5 basic mentalhealth records, and evaluates the rhetorical contexts for each with regard to author, purpose, audience and use. (KEH)
The prestige of occupational therapy in mentalhealth was studied in relationship to the prestige held by other mentalhealth professions. One hundred fifty four mentalhealth professionals, representing members of a psychiatric treatment team, were surveyed. Although all professionals agreed that occupational therapists held a moderate amount of prestige when considered apart from other disciplines, occupational therapists received the
The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the problems confronting minority administrators of mentalhealth agencies. Twenty-five minority directors of Community MentalHealth Centers were given questionnaires asking for information about their backgrounds and the design, structure, and operation of their respective mentalhealth…
Howard Univ., Washington, DC. Mental Health Research and Development Center.
This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mentalhealth focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mentalhealth services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's MentalHealth" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…
Objective: To examine whether involvement in committed dating relationships is associated with university students’ mentalhealth (depressive symptoms and problem alcohol use, including binge drinking), and whether these associations differ by gender. Participants: A sample of 889 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25. Methods: Self-report measures…
Whitton, Sarah W.; Weitbrecht, Eliza M.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Bruner, Michael R.
This paper reviews the literature on various mentalhealth problems and their impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders related to substance abuse were identified as key role-players influencing adherence. The severity of symptoms related to these disorders was found to be inversely related to ART adherence, with the possible exception of post-traumatic stress disorder
Recent research on the mentalhealth of college students conducted by Daniel Eisenberg, principal investigator in the multiyear Healthy Minds study, indicates that as many as one in five college students may suffer from depression, generalized anxiety disorder, or a panic disorder. Although it's too early to assess the effect of the economic…
This study examines the mentalhealth consequences of dropping out of high school. It looks at levels of depression, anxiety, and self esteem reported by high school dropouts and graduates during the adolescent to young adult transition. It examines the extent to which family structure and family processes (parental support and transition specific…
Liem, Joan H.; Dillon, Colleen O'Neill; Gore, Susan
Responses from 334 of 803 Department of Veterans Affairs mentalhealth professionals indicated that they spend 30% of their time with older veterans; one-third had no geriatric training; and three-fourths would like more training in such areas as dementia, depression, grief, substance abuse, and legal and ethical issues. (Contains 19 references.)…
Molinari, Victor; Kier, Frederick J.; Kunik, Mark E.
From a policy standpoint, the spread of health conditions in social networks is important to quantify, because it implies externalities and possible market failures in the consumption of health interventions. Recent studies conclude that happiness and depression may be highly contagious across social ties. The results may be biased, however, because of selection and common shocks. We provide unbiased estimates by using exogenous variation from college roommate assignments. Our findings are consistent with no significant overall contagion of mentalhealth and no more than small contagion effects for specific mentalhealth measures, with no evidence for happiness contagion and modest evidence for anxiety and depression contagion. The weakness of the contagion effects cannot be explained by avoidance of roommates with poor mentalhealth or by generally low social contact among roommates. We also find that similarity of baseline mentalhealth predicts the closeness of roommate relationships, which highlights the potential for selection biases in studies of peer effects that do not have a clearly exogenous source of variation. Overall, our results suggest that mentalhealth contagion is lower, or at least more context specific, than implied by the recent studies in the medical literature. PMID:23055446
Eisenberg, Daniel; Golberstein, Ezra; Whitlock, Janis L; Downs, Marilyn F
Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is frequently complicated by co-occurring psychiatric problems, such as depression and anxiety, that negatively affect the course and management of the illness. Yet, in the majority of cases, these psychiatric comorbidities are neither recognized nor treated to remission. The primary purpose of this study was to identify and describe barriers to mentalhealth care utilization for people with PD. Secondary objectives included the assessment of attitudes and preferences regarding the need for mentalhealth services in the PD community and the acceptability of tele-health interventions as a method for improving access and quality of care. Methods Seven hundred sixty-nine people with PD completed an anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire assessing barriers to mentalhealth care utilization in this medical population. Respondents were drawn from a national sample. Results Commonly endorsed barriers to mentalhealth care utilization in PD reflect the patients’ incomplete understanding of mentalhealth problems, access issues, and illness-specific concerns, as well as the inadequate screening and detection of psychiatric complications by medical providers, and the need for more effective treatments in this medical population. Several demographic, medical, and psychiatric variables also influenced the likelihood of accessing mentalhealth care. Interest in tele-health approaches to mentalhealth treatment was high and, in several instances, correlated with perceived barriers to mentalhealth care utilization. Conclusions People with PD may encounter a multitude of barriers that impede their pursuit of mentalhealth care. Clinical implications are discussed and further research is needed to replicate and extend these findings.
Dobkin, Roseanne D.; Rubino, Jade Tiu; Friedman, Jill; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Menza, Matthew
Family members who live with patients with serious mental disorders incur increased healthcare expenses. A retrospective study measured these increased expenses using administrative data from a large Blue Cross Blue Shield health plan in the USA. Mental and other healthcare expenses of family members of patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression were compared to those of control family
BACKGROUND: Common mentalhealth problems are mainly treated in primary care settings and collaboration with mentalhealth services is needed. Prior to re-organisation of the mentalhealth care offer in a geographical area, a study was organized: 1) to evaluate GPs' opinions on their day-to-day practice with Patients with MentalHealth Problems (PMHP) and on relationships with MentalHealth Professionals
Nadia Younes; Isabelle Gasquet; Pierre Gaudebout; Marie-Pierre Chaillet; Viviane Kovess; Bruno Falissard; Marie-Christine Hardy Bayle
The second in a series of bibliographies lists approximately 350 instructional materials for use in mentalhealth education. It is noted that all of the materials listed were suggested by teachers after careful screening, including evaluation with handicapped children. Materials are grouped according to the following media forms: books (the major…
The Healthy Child Programme (HCP) focuses on the care offered to pregnant women and children in the first five years of life. It is delivered by a range of professionals, with the health visitor as lead. Effective delivery of the HCP depends on services for children and families being fully integrated, and partnership working between different agencies on a local level seems to be the key to success. This article focuses on how effective implementation of the HCP facilitates the recognition and care of women with anxiety, mild to moderate depression and other perinatal mental disorders during both the antenatal period and after the birth. PMID:24669519
Advantages of providing primary health and mentalhealth services in the same location are argued from a standpoint of the author's experience and a review of the relevant literature. Alternatives to current national mentalhealth policy are suggested to ...
J. F. Borus, B. J. Burns, A. M. Jacobson, L. B. Macht, R. G. Morrill
We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mentalhealth complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mentalhealth effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mentalhealth complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mentalhealth complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mentalhealth effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders. PMID:23380530
Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W
The prevalence of 3 mental disorders (Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder),\\u000a the prevalence of mentalhealth problems, and rates of health-risk behaviours among those with problems, along with patterns\\u000a of service utilisation, are reported for 1490 adolescents aged 13–17 years in Australia. Mental disorders were assessed using\\u000a the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV completed by parents.
The PHASE research programme is an NHS-Executive funded, randomized controlled trial of assisted self-help for common mental disorders, delivered by practice nurses in primary care. The self-help guide - Managing anxiety and depression: a self-help guide published by the MentalHealth Foundation - is conceptualized as a ' health technology' where the nurse' s role is to educate patients how
David Richards; Michael Barkham; Jane Cahill; Chris Williams; Chris Williams
Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mentalhealth courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mentalhealth court system, we used mentalhealth court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…
Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.
Purpose of review To describe community engaged research (CEnR) and how it may improve the quality of a research study while addressing ethical concerns that communities may have with mentalhealth and substance abuse research. This article includes a review of the literature as well as recommendations from an expert panel convened with funding from the US National Institute of MentalHealth. Recent findings CEnR represents a broad spectrum of practices including representation on institutional ethics committees, attitude research with individuals from the study population, engaging community advisory boards, forming research partnerships with community organizations, and including community members as co-investigators. Summary CEnR poses some challenges; for example, it requires funding and training for researchers and community members. However, it offers many benefits to researchers and communities and some form of CEnR is appropriate and feasible in nearly every study involving human participants.
DuBois, James; Bailey-Burch, Brendolyn; Bustillos, Dan; Campbell, Jean; Cottler, Linda; Fisher, Celia; Hadley, Whitney B.; Hoop, Jinger G.; Roberts, Laura; Salter, Erica K.; Sieber, Joan E.; Stevenson, Richard D.
Part of a much larger meta-resource, this site contains annotated, rated resources in over 25 subject categories, as well as associations, academic departments, employment, mailing lists, and newsgroups, among other resources. MHN has a rating system (one to four stars), based on content, presentation, ease of use, and overall experience. Interestingly, users are also allowed to interactively vote thumbs up or down on annotated resources. MentalHealth Net and CMHC Systems maintain this site.
A series of recommendations with respect to health and mentalhealth priorities for the Caribbean are presented. The recommendations are the result of a Caribbean Conference on Health/MentalHealth held in St. Ann, Jamaica in April 1983. Because mental he...
Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mentalhealth issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mentalhealth services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe
Reviews research pertinent to mentalhealth services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mentalhealth benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mentalhealth services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…
This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mentalhealth in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mentalhealth problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…
Reviews two articles contained in December 1987 issue of "Sante Mentale au Quebec" on the subject of mentalhealth and unemployment. Articles reviewed present results of a qualitative study of the problems experienced and the mentalhealth practices used by unemployed people. Claims articles reveal complexity of the issue while organizing it. (ABL)
The National Institute of MentalHealth (NIMH) aims to improve mentalhealth services by funding research projects and research centers. NIMH also supports state planning, protection of and advocacy for the mentally ill, disaster relief, professional training, and public information programs. (DM)
Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural MentalHealth Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mentalhealth practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…
Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.
Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mentalhealth problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mentalhealth problems comprised just under thirty percent
Summary • MentalHealth First Aid is a training program for members of the public in how to support someone in a mentalhealth crisis situation or who is developing a mental disorder. • The program has solid evidence for its effectiveness from randomized controlled trials and qualitative studies. It increases knowledge, reduces stigma and, most importantly, increases supportive actions.
Mental and substance use disorders are leading contributors to the burden of disease among young people in Australia, but young people experience a range of barriers to accessing appropriate treatment for their mentalhealth concerns. The development of early intervention services that provide accessible and effective mentalhealth care has the…
Background NICE guidance states that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) should be offered to all patients with psychosis. However, there is a need to improve access to therapeutic interventions. We aim to train frontline mentalhealth staff to deliver brief, structured CBT-based therapies. We have developed and piloted a manualized intervention to support people with psychosis and anxious avoidance or depression to work towards a personal recovery goal. Methods/Design The ‘GOALS Study’ is a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing usual care plus an 8-week intervention with usual care alone. The key objective is to assess clinical feasibility (recruitment and randomization; compliance with the treatment manual; acceptability and satisfaction; progress towards goals). A secondary objective is a preliminary evaluation of efficacy. Sixty-six participants with a diagnosis of psychosis, plus symptoms of depression or anxiety will be recruited from adult mentalhealth services. Those currently refusing medication, in receipt of CBT, or with a primary diagnosis of an organic mentalhealth problem or substance dependency will be excluded. Following informed consent, randomization will be independent of the trial team, at a 50:50 ratio, at the level of the individual and stratified by main problem focus. Following randomization, participants allocated to the intervention group will begin the 8-week intervention with a local, trained member of staff, supervised by the study coordinator. Outcomes will be assessed blind to treatment condition at 0, 12 and 18 weeks post-randomization. The primary outcome measure for the efficacy analysis will be activity levels at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures include mood, psychotic symptoms, quality of life and clinical distress. A health economic analysis comparing service use in each condition will also be performed. Recruitment began in March, 2013 and is ongoing until December, 2014. Discussion This is the first trial of the GOALS intervention. The approach is brief and staff can be readily trained in its delivery: there is therefore potential to develop a cost-effective intervention that could be widely disseminated. If the trial proves clinically feasible and demonstrates preliminary evidence of efficacy, a large multi-site trial will be warranted. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN: 73188383. http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/search/StudyDetail.aspx?StudyID=13538
We evaluated the impact of brief structured suicidal ideation (SI) assessments on mentalhealth care among new-to-care Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. National datasets provided military, demographic, and clinical information. For all new-to-care OEF/OIF veterans administered depression screens (PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and structured SI assessments in primary care or ambulatory mentalhealth settings of three Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers between April 2008 and September 2009 (N=465), generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between SI and number of subsequent-year specialty mentalhealth visits and antidepressant prescriptions. Approximately one-third of the veterans reported SI. In multivariate models, PTSD and anxiety diagnoses, severe depression symptoms, being married, and SI assessment by a mentalhealth clinician were associated with more mentalhealth visits in the subsequent year. Depression, PTSD, and anxiety diagnoses, and SI assessment by a mentalhealth clinician were associated with receiving antidepressants. Presence of SI did not significantly affect subsequent year mentalhealth utilization when adjusting for diagnostic and clinician variables, but inaugural visits involving mentalhealth clinicians were consistently associated with subsequent mentalhealth care. PMID:24726814
Denneson, Lauren M; Corson, Kathryn; Helmer, Drew A; Bair, Matthew J; Dobscha, Steven K
... Child mentalhealth. 1304.24...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services Â§ 1304.24 Child mentalhealth. (a...mentalhealth interventions. (2)...
... Child mentalhealth. 1304.24...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services Â§ 1304.24 Child mentalhealth. (a...mentalhealth interventions. (2)...
Depression is characterized by a large risk of relapse\\/recurrence. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a recent non-drug psychotherapeutic intervention to prevent future depressive relapse\\/recurrence in remitted\\/recovered depressed patients. In this randomized controlled trial, the authors investigated the effects of MBCT on the relapse in depression and the time to first relapse since study participation, as well as on several mood
Objective To evaluate a consumer-led teaching intervention to reduce pharmacy students' stigma towards depression and schizophrenia, and improve attitudes toward providing pharmaceutical care for consumers with mental illness. Design Third-year bachelor of pharmacy degree students were given a series of mentalhealth lectures, undertook supervised weekly placements in the community pharmacy setting, and attended a tutorial led by trained mentalhealth consumer educators. Assessment A previously validated 26-item survey instrument was administered at baseline, 6 weeks postintervention, and 12 months postintervention, and 3 focus groups were conducted. Survey instruments were completed by 225 students at baseline, 230 students postintervention, and 228 students at 12 months. Students' stigma decreased (p < 0.05) and their attitudes toward the provision of pharmaceutical services to consumers with a mental illness showed significant improvements (p < 0.05). These improvements were maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Four themes emerged from the focus groups: knowledge and experience of mental illness, mentalhealth stigma, impacts on attitudes and self-reported behavior, and the role of the pharmacist in mental healthcare. Conclusions Consumer-led education for pharmacy students may provide a sustainable reduction in stigma and improve attitudes towards providing pharmaceutical services to consumers with a mental illness.
This study examined gender differences for two measures of mentalhealth as related to the quality of the marital relationship. Middle-aged respondents (221 female; 210 male) rated their marital satisfaction, affection, and communication. They also rated their psychological well-being and depression. The correlations between marital quality and mentalhealth indicated that for males marital quality was more strongly associated with psychological well-being than with depression. Females showed no such difference, or their marital quality was associated with depression. This implies that for females, depression was a more sensitive measure of their mentalhealth related to their husband-wife relationship. On the other hand, for males subjective well-being which was correlated with self-esteem was a more sensitive measure of their mentalhealth. PMID:24669502
There has been growing concern as to the mentalhealth status of persons with learning disabilities (PWLD). This study examined rates of mentalhealth problems among PWLD aged 15 to 44 years using a large, nationally representative data set. PWLD were more than twice as likely to report high levels of distress, depression, anxiety disorders,…
Wilson, Alexander M.; Deri Armstrong, Catherine; Furrie, Adele; Walcot, Elizabeth
Background: The main objective of this study was predicting student's mentalhealth using social problem solving- ability. Methods: In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mentalhealth (P < 0.01). Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mentalhealth.
Introduction Mental disorders occur as frequently in Russia as elsewhere, but the common mental disorders, especially depression, have gone largely unrecognised and undiagnosed by policlinic staff and area doctors. Methods This paper describes the impact and sustainability of a multi-component programme to facilitate the integration of mentalhealth into primary care, by situation appraisal, policy dialogue, development of educational materials, provision of a training programme and the publication of standards and good practice guidelines to improve the primary care of mental disorders in the Sverdlovsk region of the Russian Federation. Results The multi-component programme has resulted in sustainable training about common mental disorders, not only of family doctors but also of other cadres and levels of professionals, and it has been well integrated with Sverdlovsk's overall programme of health sector reforms. Conclusion It is possible to facilitate the sustainable integration of mentalhealth into primary care within the Russian context. While careful adaptation will be needed, the approach adopted here may also hold useful lessons for policy makers seeking to integrate mentalhealth within primary care in other contexts and settings.
Three revolutions in the history of mentalhealth were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mentalhealth and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mentalhealth revolution.…
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mentalhealth continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mentalhealth and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…
Eight cases of early onset bipolar affective disorder in adolescents with mental impairment are described, focusing on age of onset; common characteristics such as rapid cycling, mixed affective states, and lithium resistance; and the likelihood that cerebral dysfunction might cause a secondary form of bipolar disorder. (JDD)
This study investigated the relationships between resilience factors (mentalhealth literacy, social connectedness, coping strategies) frequently targeted in interventions, and both adjustment (depressive symptomatology, life satisfaction, prosocial behaviour, emotional\\/behavioural difficulties) and caregiving outcomes in children (12 – 17 years) of a parent with mental illness. Forty-four participants completed questionnaires. Correlations showed weak support for the predicted beneficial associations of mental
... 2013-10-01 false Agreement with State mentalhealth authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Other Agencies Â§ 431.620 Agreement with State mentalhealth authority or mental institutions....
The effect of social roles (partner, parent, worker) on mentalhealth may depend on the total number or the quality of the individual occupied social roles. With longitudinal data from the Netherlands MentalHealth Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), the effect of the number and quality of occupied social roles on mentalhealth over three years was examined among 2471 men and women aged 25-55 years without mental disorders at baseline. Mentalhealth was assessed using 3-year change in the SF-36 mentalhealth scale as well as using the 3-year incidence of anxiety and depressive disorders defined by DSM-III criteria. The quality of social roles was assessed by the GQSB (Groningen Questionnaire Social Behavior). The number of social roles had no significant effect on the risk of developing depressive and anxiety disorders, but particularly the partner-role had a significant positive effect on mentalhealth (beta of mentalhealth=1.19, p=0.01; HR of incident disorders=0.75, 95% CI:0.51-1.00, p=0.05). A good quality of each of the three social roles was associated with higher levels of mentalhealth and lower risks of incident disorders over 3 years. More than the number of social roles, knowledge about social role quality might provide opportunities for prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders. PMID:18448169
Plaisier, I; Beekman, A T F; de Bruijn, J G M; de Graaf, R; Ten Have, M; Smit, J H; van Dyck, R; Penninx, B W J H
Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mentalhealth, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot MentalHealth. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mentalhealth. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mentalhealth issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mentalhealth conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mentalhealth in aviation safety. PMID:23316549
Mentalhealth is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mentalhealth services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mentalhealth services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mentalhealth institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mentalhealth services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mentalhealth in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.
Mentalhealth problems are highly prevalent among individuals with HIV and are consistently associated with negative health outcomes. However, mental illness often remains untreated due to significant psychosocial and physical barriers to treatment participation. The Collaborative HIV/AIDS MentalHealth Program (CHAMP) assessed the outcomes associated with providing 9 months of in-home mentalhealth counseling for 40 individuals with HIV and a Major Axis I mental disorder. The evidence-based Illness Management and Recovery Model was adapted for use with HIV-positive individuals for the study using a community-based participatory research approach. Study participants were surveyed at baseline, 5 and 9 months to assess for changes in health outcomes. Thirty-five percent of study participants were female, 80% African American, 33% self-identified as MSM and the average participant age was 43. Forty percent of participants were on psychotropic medication at baseline. Participants had an average of 8 counseling visits (median 9). Statistically significant decreases in the global Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) score and a number of BSI symptoms dimensions including anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive, phobic anxiety and hostility were detected, indicating a reduction of psychiatric symptoms. Statistically significant improvement was also identified for the SF-12 mentalhealth scale, adaptive coping, overall social support and emotional support. No differences in psychiatric outcomes were identified by gender, race/ethnicity, or sexual preference. Findings from the CHAMP Study suggest that the use of in-home mentalhealth treatment may be beneficial in engaging and treating HIV-positive individuals with comorbid mentalhealth disorders. PMID:23050767
Reif, Susan S; Pence, Brian W; LeGrand, Sara; Wilson, Elena S; Swartz, Marvin; Ellington, Terry; Whetten, Kathryn
Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mentalhealth disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of MentalHealth called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mentalhealth professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mentalhealth practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mentalhealth is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mentalhealth, exercises have been developed to increase students’ awareness of their own coping strategies. Finally, several books and movies are incorporated to provide additional points of view of the topics discussed in the course.
Aim In this retrospective survey women with and without self-reported postpartum depression (PPD) were compared in regards to consumption-frequency of foods and supplements rich in nutrients beneficial to nervous system (NS) health, in regards to consumption-frequency of compounds which may counteract the effect of the above and in regards to nutritional support provided to them during a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is defined as a major depressive episode that begins within 1 month of delivery and is experienced by roughly 13% of mothers. Patients and methods Four Hundred participants were recruited through the internet. Data gathered via multiple choice questionnaires was statistically analyzed using SPSS and Statistical software; statistical procedures included discriminant analysis, Pearson's product moment correlation, independent t-test and cross-tabulations. Results Out of 400 participants 83 (20.8%) were affected by self-reported depression after a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Depressed subjects consumed oily fish and offal significantly more often than non depressed subjects. Depression was more prevalent among women with vegetarian diets. No significant difference concerning food group intake or the ratios between foods rich in nutrients beneficial to NS health and foods rich in compounds antagonising their effect were found between depressed and non depressed subjects. Iron supplementation correlated positively with zinc supplementation in both groups. Roughly 70% of women reported to have received no information about n-3 fatty acid fish oils during pregnancy; informed subjects consumed fish oils more often. The majority of subjects with self-reported depression described nutritional support during pregnancy as inadequate. Conclusion Within this Austrian sample, the prevalence rate of postpartum depression was high; while the consumption of oily fish and vegetarian diets negatively correlated with depression, Patient information positively correlated with the consumption of fish oil supplements. These results indicate that further studies will be required in order to establish the exact relationship between nutrition and mentalhealth during and after pregnancy.
Objective. It is widely believed that only a minority of vulnerable children and adolescents receive any mentalhealth services. Although health care dispar- ities associated with sociodemographic characteristics are well known, almost no information exists about another potentially important source of disparity for children: How does state of residence affect mentalhealth service use? Methods. Observational analysis was conducted us-
Because health is not the primary business of schools, a school’s response to mentalhealth and psychosocial concerns usually is limited to targeted problems seen as direct barriers to learning. And because resources are sparse, priority is given to problems defined in legislative mandates. As a result, school-based mentalhealth services are available only to a small proportion of the
A mentalhealth promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mentalhealth and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)
This article discusses the precarious relationship of humanistic psychology to the mentalhealth worker in our current managed care, empirically based, behaviorally focused, excessively medication-oriented mentalhealth system. Some of the challenges, frustrations, and potential successes of bringing real and nurturing human relationships in the context of humanistic psychology into the day-to-day involvements with clients for the mentalhealth worker
Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental\\u000a health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with\\u000a lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or sociability (positive\\u000a reinforcement) and better mentalhealth. Maori identification and mentalhealth would be
The World Federation for MentalHealth was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…
This dialog suggests that mentalhealth services in Head Start should be more broadly defined than they currently are in many programs. Specifically, these services should emphasize the important role prevention (e.g., prereferral/identification) plays in promoting mental wellness. Additionally, this dialog briefly addresses the role of the mental…
The Department of Health is undertaking a review of the MentalHealth Act 1983 code of practice and as part of that review has opened a consultation on what changes should be made. One key area for change is a chapter that provides clearer information about the interface between the MentalHealth Act 1983 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Both the House of Commons Health Select Committee and the House of Lords Mental Capacity Act Committee have argued that poor understanding of the interface has led to flawed decision making by doctors and nurses. In the first of a short series of articles, Richard Griffith considers the interface between these two important statutes, beginning with advance decisions to refuse treatment (ADRT). PMID:25062320
Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mentalhealth is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mentalhealth parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint. PMID:17370005
McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A
BACKGROUND: Research in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has revealed that depression is associated with inflammation manifested by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. DISCUSSION: The old paradigm described inflammation as simply one of many risk factors for depression. The new paradigm is based on more recent research that has indicated that physical and psychological stressors increase inflammation. These recent studies
The relationship between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome was examined for depressed outpa- tients who received interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, imipramine with clinical management, or placebo with clinical management. Clinical raters scored videotapes of early, middle, and late therapy sessions for 225 cases (619 sessions). Outcome was assessed from patients' and clinical evaluators' perspectives and from depressive symptomatology. Therapeutic alliance
Janice L. Krupnick; Stuart M. Sotsky; Sam Simmens; Janet Moyer
Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mentalhealth files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mentalhealth program that can respond to a wide range of mentalhealth problems. PMID:22645874
The present study examines the effect of war and domestic violence on the mentalhealth of child soldiers in a sample consisting of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17 years, female: 49%). All children had experienced at least 1 war-related event and 78% were additionally exposed to at least 1 incident of domestic violence. Prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder were 33%, and 36%, respectively. Behavioral and emotional problems above clinical cutoff were measured in 61%. No gender differences were found regarding mentalhealth outcomes. War experience and domestic violence were significantly associated with all mentalhealth outcomes. The authors' findings point to the detrimental effects of domestic violence in addition to traumatizing war experiences in child soldiers. PMID:21053376
Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mentalhealth signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mentalhealth problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services. PMID:24566505
Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K
It is estimated that approximately 10% of children and young people in Scotland have mentalhealth problems (Scottish Government, 2008), resulting in a rapidly increasing need for child and adolescent mentalhealth services (CAMHS). Primary mentalhealth workers (PMHW) have been identified as one of the key professional groups within a multidisciplinary CAMHS team to progress the agenda of early
There is a critical need for research to examine the changing mentalhealth services system, to evaluate major innovations in the provision of mentalhealth treatment, and to remove existing barriers to comprehensive and cost-effective care. To achieve these aims, collaboration is needed among government agencies, mentalhealth services programs, academic institutions, and the private sector. The National Institute of MentalHealth supports research and research training on the mentalhealth services system primarily through the Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences. This article focuses on the division's three priority research areas of the mentalhealth services system: the provision of mentalhealth care in the primary care sector, the organization and delivery of care for the chronically mentally ill, and financing and reimbursement of care. The various mechanisms of research support are also highlighted.
Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mentalhealth problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults.
Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F.; Pollio, David
This paper advocates that mentalhealth promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mentalhealth promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mentalhealth as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mentalhealth in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mentalhealth programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work. PMID:17307955
MentalHealth First Aid is a relatively new concept conceived in Australia about 10 years ago and by 2010 it has spread to 15 other countries including Nepal. It is designed to deal with mentalhealth emergencies as well as to help people with developing mentalhealth problems to get to appropriate help before a crisis occurs. This programme was launched in Kathmandu by SAF-Nepal in November 2010 when the Australian experts ran a workshop for over 22 delegates from various mentalhealth organisations. The MHFA Nepal course is being evaluated and adapted to suit Nepalese context. New conditions including hysteria and epilepsy have been added in the Nepalese version. The programme is expected to raise mentalhealth awareness and reduce stigmatising attitudes amongst the selected members of the general public and health professionals. PMID:23281463
Jha, A; Kitchener, B A; Pradhan, P K; Shyangwa, P; Nakarmi, B
On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mentalhealth counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mentalhealth support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mentalhealth status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mentalhealth status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations. PMID:24558743
Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon
Development of a mentalhealth education package for community pharmacy staff should be informed by mentalhealth consumers/carers' needs, expectations and experiences, and staff knowledge, skills and attitudes. This review (1) explored research on community pharmacy practice and service provision for mentalhealth consumers/carers, and (2) identified validated methods for assessing staff knowledge, skills and attitudes about mental illness to inform the development of a training questionnaire. A literature scan using key words knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs combined with community pharmacy, pharmacist, and pharmacy support staff, and mental illness, depression, anxiety was conducted. A small number of studies were found that used reliable methods to assess pharmacists' training needs regarding mental illness and treatment options. There was little published specifically in relation to depression and anxiety in community pharmacy practice. No studies assessed the training needs of pharmacy support staff. A systematic analysis of pharmacy staff learning needs is warranted. PMID:23306675
Mey, Amary; Fowler, Jane L; Knox, Kathy; Shum, David H K; Fejzic, Jasmina; Hattingh, Laetitia; McConnell, Denise; Wheeler, Amanda
ObjectiveTo assess the association between maternal postnatal depression and child behaviour problems and child growth at age 2 yearsMethodsThis was a longitudinal birth cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa. Primary analysis on the ‘Birth to Twenty’ cohort was performed for the association between maternal postnatal depression and child behaviour problems (n=1035) and growth (n=891) at age 2 and subgroup analyses
Bilal Avan; Linda M Richter; Paul G Ramchandani; Shane A Norris; Alan Stein
Papers delivered during a symposium on the definition and measurement of mentalhealth, organized by the National Center for Health Statistics, DHEW, are presented. The symposium was conducted as a series of lectures, each followed by group discussion and...
Presented is a speech by Bertram Brown, director of the National Institute of MentalHealth, on the effects of decreased federal funding of mentalhealth research. Brown notes that there has been a 56% slash in the purchasing power of the research grant program when inflation is accounted for. It is suggested that causes of the dwindling support…
This paper is the first of a two-part series on financing early childhood mentalhealth services. It discusses the need for a systemic approach to financing early childhood mentalhealth services and supports and presents a matrix to assist states and communities in the design of comprehensive financing systems. The vertical axis of the matrix…
Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mentalhealth of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mentalhealth. Methods: An…
Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Expanded school mentalhealth programs provide a full range of mentalhealth services (assessment, treatment, case management, prevention) to youth in regular and special education, and typically involve close collaboration between schools and community agencies. A major challenge for these programs is documenting that provided services are of high quality and leading to enhanced outcomes for the youth and schools
Mark D. Weist; Laura A. Nabors; C. Patrick Myers; Paula Armbruster
It is often difficult to interpret the clinical or policy significance of findings from mentalhealth research when results are presented only in terms of statistical significance. Results expressed in terms of p values or as a metric corresponding to a mentalhealth status scale are seldom intuitively meaningful. To help interpret the significance of research results, we demonstrate a
Jeffrey S. Harman; Willard G. Manning; Nicole Lurie; Chuan-Fen Liu
In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mentalhealth, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mentalhealth issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…
As someone who has been involved in college mentalhealth in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mentalhealth centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the mentalhealth literacy of students. This study is part of the growing interest in mentalhealth literacy among young people. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Over 400 university students indicated their knowledge of over 90 psychiatric illnesses labels derived from DSM:IV. They rated disorders on six questions concerning whether they had heard
Adrian Furnham; Richard Cook; Neil Martin; Mark Batey
From first contact with the police to release from prison, people with mental ill health who come into conflict with the law often find that their mentalhealth needs are neglected while they are under the authority of the criminal justice system. In 2008, the Prison Reform Trust surveyed independent monitoring boards in England and Wales, asking them to comment
The community mentalhealth centre affords an opportunity for psychodynamic practice that is both challenging and rewarding. The experience of psychoanalytic education and supervision at a suburban mentalhealth centre is described in terms of its transformative effect on the participants and the clinical setting. A parallel clinical transformative process is illustrated through an extended vignette of one client's experience
Advance directives are designed to establish a person's preferences for treatment if the person becomes incompetent in the future or unable to communicate those preferences to treatment providers. Mentalhealth advance directives are similar to the more commonly used directives for end-of-life medical decisions. A patient must be competent to execute a mentalhealth advance directive, and the directive must
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mentalhealth problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mentalhealth. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Expanded school mental-health (ESMH) programs address the limitations of traditional mental-health agencies in meeting childrens' needs by offering a full range of services in school. Family involvement in ESMHs can enhance their effectiveness. This paper describes challenges of involving families, guidelines for determining program goals for…
Bickham, Nicole L.; Pizarro, L. Josefina; Warner, Beth S.; Rosenthal, Bernice; Weist, Mark D.
Although schools are not traditionally designed to provide intensive mentalhealth services to children, they are in a position to create systems that foster mentalhealth. By creating school-wide systems in which students are academically, behaviorally and socially successful, schools can integrate those essential protective factors shown to…
Objective: This paper describes the informational and treatment opportunities offered by the Worldwide Web (WWW) and comments on the advantages, disadvantages and potential dangers of its role in mentalhealth and mentalhealth research.Method: Two perspectives are taken: (i) the impact of the Web from the point of view of the clinician (the practitioner view) and (ii) the impact of
As the evidence base for the study of mentalhealth problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mentalhealth research has lagged behind
In Australia, there is increasing attention being paid to the promotion of mentalhealth and the prevention of serious mental disorder by policymakers, funders, academics and service providers. This has required a shift in thinking to focus on health and well being, not just on illness and treatment. The National Action Plan for Promotion,…
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that mentalhealth is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. School nurses play a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mentalhealth development in students through school/community-based programs and curricula. As members of…
An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mentalhealth on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mentalhealth. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…
The mentalhealth component of the countywide human services planning program of the Johnson County Regional Planning Commission in Iowa is described. The report on mentalhealth is one in a series of eight reports outlining the program. The overall goal ...
Background Post-conflict mentalhealth studies in low-income countries have lacked pre-conflict data to evaluate changes in psychiatric morbidity resulting from political violence. Aims This prospective study compares mentalhealth before and after exposure to direct political violence during the People’s War in Nepal. Method An adult cohort completed the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in 2000 prior to conflict violence in their community and in 2007 after the war. Results Of the original 316 participants, 298 (94%) participated in the post-conflict assessment. Depression increased from 30.9 to 40.6%. Anxiety increased from 26.2 to 47.7%. Post-conflict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 14.1%. Controlling for ageing, the depression increase was not significant. The anxiety increase showed a dose–response association with conflict exposure when controlling for ageing and daily stressors. No demographic group displayed unique vulnerability or resilience to the effects of conflict exposure. Conclusions Conflict exposure should be considered in the context of other types of psychiatric risk factors. Conflict exposure predicted increases in anxiety whereas socioeconomic factors and non-conflict stressful life events were the major predictors of depression. Research and interventions in post-conflict settings therefore should consider differential trajectories for depression v. anxiety and the importance of addressing chronic social problems ranging from poverty to gender and ethnic/caste discrimination.
Kohrt, Brandon A.; Hruschka, Daniel J.; Worthman, Carol M.; Kunz, Richard D.; Baldwin, Jennifer L.; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Acharya, Nanda Raj; Koirala, Suraj; Thapa, Suraj B.; Tol, Wietse A.; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Robkin, Navit; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Nepal, Mahendra K.
...RIN 0720-AB55] TRICARE: Certified MentalHealth Counselors AGENCY: Office of the...that would allow licensed or certified mentalhealth counselors to be able to independently...Under current TRICARE requirements, mentalhealth counselors (MHCs) are...
The collaborative sharing of knowledge about training among Indiana mentalhealth agencies to strengthen the individual efforts of each separate agency was defined. The mentalhealth worker is referred to as a generalist mentalhealth practitioner, demons...
This paper describes an approach utilized by Margaret Dumas MentalHealth Center to produce an effective preventive mentalhealth program with the school incorporating the concept of clear communication and consultation between the school and mentalhealth personnel. (Author)
Enhancement of mentalhealth literacy is a mentalhealth promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mentalhealth literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mentalhealth problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Released on December 13, the first Surgeon General's report on mentalhealth reveals that nearly half of all Americans who have a severe mental illness fail to seek treatment. The 500-page publication was developed by the Substance Abuse and MentalHealth Services Administration (SAMHSA) and the National Institute of MentalHealth (NIMH) under the guidance of the Surgeon General. It notes that "disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders are real illnesses that, if untreated, can be as disabling and serious as cancer and heart disease in terms of premature death and lost productivity." The report takes a life-span approach, considering vulnerability to distinct forms of mental and behavioral disorders at different stages of life as well as the impact of gender, culture, and age on the diagnosis, course, and treatment of mental illness. Users can read the full text of the report and the accompanying tables and figures in HTML or .pdf formats at the Virtual Office of the Surgeon General or one of three mirror sites. For more on the report, please see the In The News section from this week's Scout Report for Social Sciences.
Background: Today, substance dependence and illegal trading of narcotics is considered as a global issue. Since mental disorder has been reported in about 90% of the substance dependents, this study aimed at determining the rate of mentalhealth in the substance dependents in Sari Township in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this study, 500 substance-dependent patients were selected using convenience sampling method. To collect data, SCL-90-R was used for the evaluation of their mentalhealth and a demographic questionnaire was employed for identifying their personal information. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using the SPSS software. Results: It was found that 90.4% of the participants were susceptible to mental disorder. Most of them suffered from depression, psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, and paranoia. Also, there was significant relationship between the mentalhealth of single, divorced and married addicts (P < 0.21). Conclusion: Due to the presence of mental disorder in the substance-dependent patients, it is recommended to help treat them by providing them with education, psychotherapy, and psychiatric medication. PMID:24923370
Fard, Jabbar Heydari; Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Jannati, Yadollah; Golikhatir, Iraj; Bozorgi, Farzad; Mohammadpour, Rezaali; Gorji, Ali Morad Heidari
Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mentalhealth in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mentalhealth issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mentalhealth risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mentalhealth risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mentalhealth of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mentalhealth Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and influence seeking for psychiatric care. Comments and Remarks Despite in the migrants some vulnerable groups were identified with respect to health problems, in many European countries there are migrants who fall outside the existing health and social services, something which is particularly true for asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants. In order to address these deficiencies, it is necessary to provide with an adequate financing and a continuity of the grants for research into the multicultural health demand. Finally, there is to highlight the importance of adopting an integrated approach to mentalhealth care that moves away from psychiatric care only.
This study examined the extent to which a criminal history is associated with the use of various mentalhealth services as well as related service use predictors among people with serious mental illness (SMI). Data were obtained from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The sample consisted of 1,588 adults with SMI, including major depressive disorder (n = 1,398) and bipolar disorder (n = 190). Chi square tests were conducted to compare respondent characteristics based upon the presence/absence of a criminal history. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine various mentalhealth services usage among respondents while controlling for predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Approximately 30 % of respondents reported a criminal history. Those with a criminal history were more likely to use specialty mentalhealth services (OR = 1.42, p < 0.05). Findings suggest that the criminal justice system may be serving as a substantial referrer to mentalhealth services or that there is higher morbidity among people with SMI who have been justice involved. PMID:23783440
In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mentalhealth. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts.
This article provides an overview of current psychological research on mentalhealth and sexual orientation, as well as clinical practice with sexual minorities. The historical context for current research questions and controversies is described, and the findings of recent empirical research on psychological well-being and distress among nonheterosexuals are summarized. The minority stress model is used to frame a discussion of stressors unique to sexual minorities and to consider their possible effects on psychological well-being. The possible ameliorative effects of adopting a sexual orientation identity are examined, followed by a discussion of how these ideas translate into contemporary clinical work with sexual minority clients. The review concludes with a brief discussion of priority areas for empirical research and clinical practice. PMID:17716060
There are over 3 million truck drivers employed in the commercial transportation and material moving occupations, one of the largest occupational groups in the United States. Workers in this large and growing occupational segment are at risk for a range of occupational health-induced conditions, including mentalhealth and psychiatric disorders due to high occupational stress, low access and use of health care, and limited social support. The purpose of this study was to explore male truck drivers' mentalhealth risks and associated comorbidities, using a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data were collected from a random sample of 316 male truckers between the ages of 23 and 76 at a large truck stop located within a 100-mile radius of Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, using a self-administered 82-item questionnaire. Surveyed truckers were found to have significant issues affecting their mentalhealth, such as loneliness (27.9%), depression (26.9%), chronic sleep disturbances (20.6%), anxiety (14.5%), and other emotional problems (13%). Findings have potential to help researchers develop interventions to improve the emotional and occupational health of truck drivers, a highly underserved population. Mentalhealth promotion, assessment, and treatment must become a priority to improve the overall trucking environment for truckers, the transportation industry, and safety on US highways. PMID:22757596
Major depression is a consequential public health problem in the United States. Depression has long been recognized as an important target of intervention in psychology and psychiatry, but these fields have focused efforts primarily on treatment rather than prevention. Although effective preventive interventions targeting high-risk groups have been developed, they have thus far had poor reach and sustainability in the community. The development of sustainable preventive interventions that have the potential to impact population health represents a critical goal for the field. To this end, a research agenda incorporating the perspectives of both mentalhealth disciplines and public health is proposed as a guide for future depression prevention research. Increased interdisciplinary collaboration between mentalhealth disciplines and public health is recommended to develop, enact, and evaluate multi-level preventive interventions aimed at reducing the population health burden of major depression.
Major depression is a consequential public health problem in the United States. Depression has long been recognized as an important target of intervention in psychology and psychiatry, but these fields have focused efforts primarily on treatment rather than prevention. Although effective preventive interventions targeting high-risk groups have been developed, they have thus far had poor reach and sustainability in the community. The development of sustainable preventive interventions that have the potential to impact population health represents a critical goal for the field. To this end, a research agenda incorporating the perspectives of both mentalhealth disciplines and public health is proposed as a guide for future depression prevention research. Increased interdisciplinary collaboration between mentalhealth disciplines and public health is recommended to develop, enact, and evaluate multilevel preventive interventions aimed at reducing the population health burden of major depression. PMID:21732121
Objective: To compare the perceptions of aged care services, adult mentalhealth services and mentalhealth services for older people regarding aspects of mentalhealth service delivery for older people in New South Wales, Australia.Method: The NSW Branch of the Faculty of Psychiatry of Old Age in association with the NSW Centre for MentalHealth, sent a postal survey to
Brian Draper; Tanya Jochelson; David Kitching; John Snowdon; Henry Brodaty; Bob Russell
Burnout specific to human service workers has been reported in the U.S. in the 1970s. Since then, such burnout has become widely known and the mentalhealth of nurses has attracted attention. Stressors in the work environment and complexity have increased with advancement in increasingly complicated medical care. One of the major roles of a psychiatric liaison nurse is to provide support to improve the mentalhealth of nurses. In our hospital, a psychiatric liaison nurse has a staff position under the direct supervision of the director of the nursing department but operates outside the chain of command. A psychiatric liaison nurse is not involved in the performance review of nurses. Thus, the nursing staff and the nursing manager can discuss their problems with the psychiatric liaison nurse without risks. Psychiatric liaison nurses provide support as counselors through individual and group interviews so that nurses can become re-energized about their work. In addition, psychiatric liaison nurses provide consultations and education. They perform coordination function to organize an environment to promote consultations regarding nurse support to the staff nurses and the nursing manager and to promote support by supervisors. For support after reinstatement of a nurse following a medical leave, it is particularly important to work with not only the individual nurse but also the entire nursing team. In our hospital, newly graduated nurses are given the GHQ-28 after one month of employment to assess the support they might need. In our study, nurses with high risks were divided into a group with a score of at least 6 points but less than 10 points and a group with a score of at least 10 points. The group with at least 10 points had significantly higher rates of leave of absence and resignation. Thus, early intervention was thought to be necessary in newly graduated nurses with a score of at least 10 points in the GHQ. PMID:22712205
The number of students on university and college campuses that are struggling with depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and psychosis across North America is rising (Gallagher, 2008). This intensification of students' psychological needs has become a mentalhealth crisis. The age at which many mental disorders manifest themselves is…
BACKGROUND: Mentalhealth literacy is a prerequisite for early recognition and intervention in mental disorders. The aims of this paper are to determine whether a sample of university students recognise different symptoms of depression and schizophrenia and to reveal factors influencing correct recognition. METHODS: Bivariate and correspondence analyses of the results from an online survey among university students (n =
Christoph Lauber; Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross; Nadja Fritschi; Niklaus Stulz; Wulf Rössler
Although understanding of the subsistence patterns, service utilization, and HIV-risk behaviors of homeless youths and young adults is increasing, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of mentalhealth problems in this group or the relationships between mentalhealth problems and substance use. This study measured symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, ADHD, suicidality, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and drug and alcohol
Jennifer B. Unger; Michele D. Kipke; Thomas R. Simon; Susanne B. Montgomery; Christine J. Johnson
The objective of this study was to evaluate community-based outpatient mentalhealth services for young adults. Participants\\u000a were interviewed at ages 21, 24, 27, and 30. Outcomes included: (1) symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety, social phobia,\\u000a dysthymia and post traumatic stress individually and as a global scale; and (2) a dichotomous diagnosis variable inclusive\\u000a of all above disorders. Treatment was
Richard A. Van Dorn; Rick Kosterman; James Herbert Williams; Kristen Chandler; M. Scott Young; Richard F. Catalano; J. David Hawkins
In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mentalhealth counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…
We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mentalhealth survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL) were administered by trained local interviewers. Correlations with probable
Verena Ertl; Anett Pfeiffer; Regina Saile; Elisabeth Schauer; Thomas Elbert; Frank Neuner
We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mentalhealth survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL) were administered by trained local interviewers. Correlations with probable
Verena Ertl; Anett Pfeiffer; Regina Saile; Elisabeth Schauer; Thomas Elbert; Frank Neuner
Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mentalhealth clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…
Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol
We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mentalhealth survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom…
Reports on surveys of attendees (N=77) at MentalHealth Promotion Conference in Yorkshire, England. There was agreement among respondents that a sense of self-worth is the most important attribute of being mentally healthy. Concludes there is a need to educate about enablement strategies to help develop concepts of positive mentalhealth.…
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mentalhealth trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
This research explored the effectiveness of narrative advertising and argument advertising in increasing mental illness (depression) literacy. Results showed that narrative advertising was more effective than argument advertising at engaging participants in experiential immersion, resulting in greater sympathy toward those suffering from depression. In addition, narrative advertising better involved participants in issue elaboration and increased willingness to seek professional help. Finally, in comparison with argument advertising, narrative advertisements were rated higher in providing vivid information, resulting in an increase in participants' perceived efficacy in recognizing friends or family suffering from depression. PMID:18307135
Since 1997, the Center for MentalHealth Services (CMHS), within the Substance Abuse and MentalHealth Services Administration (SAMHSA), has sponsored a series of participatory dialogues that offer mentalhealth consumers and representatives from other gr...
Postpartum depression is a prevalent mental disorder; however, scarce research has examined its association with prenatal health behaviors. This study investigated the associations of cigarette smoking, caffeine intake, and vitamin intake during pregnancy with postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks after childbirth. Using a prospective cohort study design, participants were recruited from the postpartum floor at a hospital for women and newborns located in a northeastern city, from 2005 through 2008. Eligible women who were at least 18 years old and spoke English were interviewed in person while hospitalized for childbirth (N?=?662). A follow-up home interview was conducted at 8 weeks postpartum with a 79% response rate (N?=?526). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that smoking cigarettes anytime during pregnancy and not taking prenatal vitamins in the first trimester were significantly associated with worse depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Moreover, having a colicky infant, an infant that refuses feedings, being stressed out by parental responsibility, and having difficulty balancing responsibilities were stressors associated with worse depressive symptoms. Primary health care providers should consider evaluating women for risk of postpartum depression during their first prenatal visit, identifying prenatal health behaviors such as smoking and taking prenatal vitamins. PMID:22215286
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mentalhealth services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mentalhealth and increased attention to the need to develop mentalhealth systems for responding to population mentalhealth service needs. In countries and regions where mentalhealth services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mentalhealth services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mentalhealth workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International MentalHealth in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mentalhealth system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. PMID:22335181
Objectives. This study investigates the effectiveness of 24-week aerobic and weight-training exercise plus behavior modification for mentalhealth and quality of life (QOL) outcomes.Methods. Mentalhealth and QOL data was collected using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales and SF-36 Health Status Survey, respectively. Employees from a single work-site were randomized into either treatment or wait-list control groups.Results: MentalHealth
Evan Atlantis; Chin-Moi Chow; Adrienne Kirby; Maria Fiatarone Singh
HEALTH ISSUE: Research on the relationship between women's social roles and mentalhealth has been equivocal. Although a greater number of roles often protect mentalhealth, certain combinations can lead to strain. Our study explored the moderating affects of different role combinations on women's mentalhealth by examining associations with socioeconomic status and differences in women's distress (depressive symptoms, personal stress (role strain) and chronic stress (role strain plus environmental stressors). KEY FINDINGS: Women with children, whether single or partnered, had a higher risk of personal stress. Distress, stress and chronic stress levels of mothers, regardless of employment, or marital status, are staggeringly high. Single, unemployed mothers were significantly more likely than all other groups to experience financial stress and food insecurity. For partnered mothers, rates of personal stress and chronic stress were significantly lower among unemployed partnered mothers. Married and partnered mothers reported better mentalhealth than their single counterparts. Lone, unemployed mothers were twice as likely to report a high level of distress compared with other groups. Lone mothers, regardless of employment status, were more likely to report high personal and chronic stress. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: National health surveys need to collect more data on the characteristics of women's work environment and their care giving responsibilities. Questions on household composition should include inter-generational households, same sex couples and multifamily arrangements. Data disaggregation by ethno-racial background would be helpful. Data should be collected on perceived quality of domestic and partnership roles and division of labours. PMID:15345066
U TILIZATION by Mexican Americans of Mental Facilities of a Barrio area neighborhood health center, and demographic and symptom characteristicts of this population were investigated. The findings suggest that contrary to other studies this program was able to reach a high risk Mexican American population frequently missed by mentalhealth programs. The barrio location, the relationship to a neighborhood health
PURPOSE In recognition of the impact of chronic diseases on mentalhealth and the lack of research on Asian American subgroups, the present study examined subjective perceptions of health as a potential mediator in the association between diabetes and depressive symptoms in Korean American older adults. METHODS Multivariate analysis with data from 672 Korean American older adults in Florida explored the mediation model of health perceptions. RESULTS The presence of diabetes was associated with negative perceptions of health and elevated symptoms of depression. The proposed mediation model was also supported: negative perceptions of health served as an intervening step between diabetes and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The intervening role of health perceptions yields implications for developing health promotion interventions targeting older individuals with diabetes. Results suggest that even in the presence of chronic health conditions, mental well-being of older adults can be maintained by having optimistic beliefs and positive attitudes towards their own health.
Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Cho, Soyeon; Roh, Soonhee; Chiriboga, David A.
Objective: We examined the capacity of the disaster mentalhealth workforce in Victoria, Australia, to provide the three evidence-supported intervention types of psychological first aid, skills for psychological recovery, and intensive mentalhealth treatments. Method: Utilizing data from a cross-professional, state-level disaster mentalhealth workforce survey (n = 791), we developed composite capacity indicators (CCI) for each intervention and performed logistic regression analyses to examine key predictors of disaster mentalhealth workforce capacity. Results: CCI profiles highlighted significant gaps in the disaster mentalhealth capacity of Victorian providers, with only 32-42% able to deliver current best practice interventions. Key predictors of workforce capacity common and unique to interventions were highlighted. Conclusions: Key strategies to raise Victoria's disaster mentalhealth workforce capacity should focus on targeted multilevel training in best practice interventions, creation of practice opportunities, and structural provider support/engagement. CCIs focused on best practice interventions provide a methodology for rapid workforce capacity assessment that can facilitate disaster preparedness planning, capacity building, and delivery of quality disaster mentalhealth services. PMID:24865201
Reifels, Lennart; Naccarella, Lucio; Blashki, Grant; Pirkis, Jane
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mentalhealth continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mentalhealth and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults—individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing—reported the fewest missed days of work, the fewest half-day or greater work cutbacks, the healthiest
According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mentalhealth issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mentalhealth treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mentalhealth treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mentalhealth care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357
Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S
Background Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mentalhealth, few park studies incorporate mentalhealth measures. Aims of the Study To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Results Mentalhealth is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mentalhealth. Discussion and Limitations This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mentalhealth benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mentalhealth. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Implications for Health Policy Mentalhealth policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted attention to modifiable environmental determinants, population mentalhealth may benefit substantially from environmental interventions. Implications for Future Research Policy evaluations should incorporate mentalhealth measures when assessing neighborhood improvement programs and physical environments. Many recent and ongoing studies have excluded mentalhealth measure in the belief that they are too burdensome for respondents or irrelevant. If a causal relationship is confirmed, then ameliorating neighborhood conditions and physical environments could represent a scalable way to improve mentalhealth issues for large populations.
Twenty male inpatients with mentaldepression or mania were studied in respect of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the CSF. The results obtained suggest a decrease of CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the acute phase of depression, with...
Many people who would benefit from mentalhealth services opt not to pursue them or fail to fully participate once they have begun. One of the reasons for this disconnect is stigma; namely, to avoid the label of mental illness and the harm it brings, people decide not to seek or fully participate in care. Stigma yields 2 kinds of harm that may…
This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mentalhealth services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.
Background Although there have been many population studies of mentalhealth literacy, little is known about the mentalhealth literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. Methods The mentalhealth literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional, remote, and very remote) regions were compared using data from a 2003–04 Australian national survey of the mentalhealth literacy of 3998 adults. Measures included the perceived helpfulness of a range of professionals, non-professionals and interventions, and the causes, prognosis, and outcomes after treatment for four case vignettes describing depression, depression with suicidal ideation, early schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia. Participant awareness of Australia's national depression initiative and depression in the media, their symptoms of depression and exposure to the conditions depicted in the vignettes were also compared. Results Mentalhealth literacy was similar across remoteness categories. However, inner regional residents showed superior identification of the disorders depicted in the suicidal ideation and chronic schizophrenia vignettes. They were also more likely to report having heard of Australia's national depressionhealth promotion campaign. Conversely, they were less likely than major city residents to rate the evidence-based treatment of psychotherapy helpful for depression. Both inner regional and outer-remote residents were less likely to rate psychologists as helpful for depression alone. The rural groups were more likely to rate the non-evidence based interventions of drinking and painkillers as helpful for a depression vignette. In addition, outer-remote residents were more likely to identify the evidence based treatment of antipsychotics as harmful for early schizophrenia and less likely to endorse psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and general practitioners as helpful for the condition. Conclusion Mentalhealth awareness campaigns in rural and remote regions may be most appropriately focused on communicating which interventions are effective for depression and schizophrenia and which mentalhealth and other professionals are trained in the best-practice delivery and management of these. There is also a need to communicate to rural residents that alcohol and pain relievers are not an effective solution for depression.
Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F
The role of community consultation and education in the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of mentalhealth is discussed. Mentalhealth consultation is defined as the provision of technical assistance by an expert to individual and agency care...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive mentalhealth program. 441.106 Section 441...Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases Â§ 441.106 Comprehensive mentalhealth program. (a) If the plan...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mentalhealth program. 441.106 Section 441...Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases Â§ 441.106 Comprehensive mentalhealth program. (a) If the plan...
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Comprehensive mentalhealth program. 441.106 Section 441...Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases Â§ 441.106 Comprehensive mentalhealth program. (a) If the plan...
Depression is a common cause of illness with significant social, vocational, and economic consequences. As one of the most treatable forms of mental illness, depression often is underrecognized and undertreated. The annual cost of depression to the United States economy is approximately $43.7 billion, with 55 percent (or $23.8 billion) accounting for missed work and lowered productivity. The prevalence rate of depression is estimated at 12-20 percent. The depressed patient utilizes two to three times more health services. There is little in the literature to demonstrate the care of the depressed person across the continuum in an integrated health care system. This article reviews the development and implementation of the treatment of depression care across multiple sites along the continuum. The care management depression team utilized the principles of performance improvement; Plan, Do, Check, Act framework for the initiative. PMID:9926675
Background: Promoting mentalhealth and preventing mental disorders are of the main concerns for every country. Achieving these goals requires effective indexes for evaluating mentalhealth. Therefore, to develop mentalhealth enhancement programs in Iran, there is a need to measure the state of mentalhealth in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to select a set of mentalhealth indicators that can be used to monitor the status of mentalhealth in Iran. Materials and Methods: This research work used Q-methodology which combines both quantitative and qualitative research methods for establishment of mentalhealth indicators in Iran. In this study, 30 participants were chosen by purposive sampling from different types of professionals in the field of mentalhealth. Results: Twenty seven mentalhealth indicators were obtained from the Q-methodology. The most important indicators obtained in this study are as follows: annual prevalence of mental disorders, suicide rates, number of mentalhealth professionals, mentalhealth expenditures and suicide related deaths. Conclusions: This study provides mentalhealth indices for measuring mentalhealth status in Iran. These mentalhealth indices can be used to measure progress in the reform policies and community mentalhealth services.
Background? There is growing acceptance of the importance of the consumer viewpoint in mentalhealth research. Previous studies have identified differences in research priorities between researchers and mentalhealth consumers in Australia defined broadly. However, little is known about the research priorities of consumers with specific mentalhealth conditions. Objective? The aim of this study was to explore Australian mentalhealth consumers' priorities for depression and bipolar disorder research. Design? Focus groups with consumers and individual telephone interviews with consumer advocates. Participants were asked to discuss the topics they believed were priorities for depression or bipolar disorder research. Transcripts were thematically analysed using NVivo 7. Setting and Participants? Ten people with depression and 19 with bipolar disorder participated in face-to-face focus groups held in three Australian capital cities. Five participants with each disorder participated in online focus groups. Five Australian consumer advocates with experience of depression and six with experience of bipolar disorder were individually interviewed by telephone. Results? Participants raised a broad variety of topics for research. The most salient themes included the need for research on medication, and lifestyle and psychosocial influences on depression and bipolar disorder. Conclusions? Participants' priorities reflect an interest in a holistic approach to mentalhealth research that examines the influences of everyday life and psychosocial influences both on the development and on the management of these disorders. Their focus was on research that explores individualized care and the active role that consumers can play in their own care and recovery. PMID:22221624
Banfield, Michelle A; Barney, Lisa J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen M
In this article, we present the results of a local needs assessment of the mentalhealth experiences, service needs, and barriers\\u000a to treatment-seeking of the Latino population in Worcester, Massachusetts. Overall, participants reported relatively high\\u000a rates of experiences with symptoms of mentalhealth problems, they indicated using a range of both formal and alternative\\u000a mentalhealth services, and they noted
Esteban V. Cardemil; Sara T. Adams; Joanne L. Calista; Joy Connell; José Encarnación; Nancy K. Esparza; Jeanne Frohock; Ellen Hicks; Saeromi Kim; Gerald Kokernak; Michael McGrenra; Ray Mestre; Maria Pérez; Tatiana M. Pinedo; Rosemary Quagan; Christina Rivera; Patsy Taucer; Ed Wang
Religion, Spirituality and Your MentalHealth Care Quick Links Facts for Families - Numerical List Facts for Families - ... and print a PDF version of this document . Religion and spirituality can be important in the lives ...
During the last several years considerable attention has been devoted to the need for public policies to influence the availability of outpatient mentalhealth insurance coverage in Rhode Island. A number of experts have expressed opinions on this issue a...
The goal of this project has been to elicit ideas from some of the most respected criminal justice and mentalhealth practitioners in the United States, to develop recommendations that reflect a consensus among seemingly opposing viewpoints, and to dissem...
... Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools NLM Director’s Comments Transcript Child MentalHealth and Brain Development: 06/ ... information is available in 43 other languages. Your comments about this or any of our podcasts are ...
Focuses on the implications that children's excessive attention-seeking behavior, loneliness, and low self-esteem have for counselors. Early intervention is essential. Provision of counseling services in all elementary schools is recommended to insure children's mentalhealth. (BEF)
Guidelines are presented to assist State mentalhealth agencies in developing, monitoring, and using standards. The guidelines are directed to State agency directors, to members of their management teams and support systems, and to persons charged with de...
Nursing students in their final semester of study have participated in “Stepping Out”, a student-led mentalhealth conference that’s the first of its kind at The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Sydney School of Nursing.\\u000aAssociate Professor Bill Goodin and Associate Professor Bethne Hart decided to incorporate the conference into the assessment schedule for nursing students undertaking the MentalHealth
We reviewed case records for 583 juvenile delinquency intakes in four county juvenile probation offices; 14.4% were receiving\\u000a mentalhealth or substance use services at case opening, and 24.9% were newly identified during probation contact. Youths\\u000a were significantly more likely to be newly identified if they were repeat offenders, if their probation officer knew more\\u000a about mentalhealth and if
Gail A. Wasserman; Larkin S. McReynolds; Andria L. Whited; Joseph M. Keating; Hana Musabegovic; Yanling Huo
Sahaja is an Indian ideal of mental and spiritual health that has received special emphasis in the Sikh scriptures--especially, the Adi Granth. Since the concept of sahaja has long been associated with mystical thought and practice, its description has become shrouded in peculiar esoteric terminologies. It is the purpose of this communication to divest sahaja of its esoteric, mystic connotations and to redefine it as a mentalhealth ideal in the context of contemporary conditions. PMID:1114187
Faced with a rapidly changing market, increased legislation and intense competition, mentalhealth service providers must be sophisticated planners and position themselves advantageously in the marketplace. They can effectively position themselves to be profitable and sustaining through market segmentation and sensitivity. The following article will address one concept of marketing that has received less attention but is of critical importance: positioning. As the market environment becomes increasingly competitive, positioning will be the key to success for mentalhealth programs and institutions. PMID:10302552
Using data (N = 2,109) from a large-scale epidemiological study of Filipino Americans, this study examines whether ethnic identity is linked to mentalhealth and reduces the stress of discrimination. The strength of identification with an ethnic group is found to be directly associated with fewer depressive symptoms. In other words, having a sense of ethnic pride, involvement in ethinic practices, and cultural commitment to one's racial/ethnic group may protect mentalhealth. Self-reports of racial/ethnic discrimination over a lifetime and everyday discrimination in the past month not due to race/ethnicity are associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Yet ethnic identity buffers the stress of racial/ethnic discrimination. This suggests that ethnic identity is a coping resource for racial/ethnic minorities that should not be overlooked. The strong link between ethnic identity and better mentalhealth has implications for social-psychological theories on race/ethnicity and assimilation in the United States. PMID:14582311
This DataWatch explores the roles of human service sectors (mentalhealth, education, health, child welfare, and juvenile justice) in providing mentalhealth services for children. The data are from the first wave of the Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth, a population-based study of psychopathology and mentalhealth service use among children. The results show somewhat higher rates of mental
Barbara J. Burns; E. Jane Costello; Adrian Angold; Dan Tweed; Dalene Stangl; Elizabeth M. Z. Farmer; Al Erkanli
Mentalhealth services exist in prisons. Participants often abuse psychoactive substances. Substance abuse treatment programs in prison manifest a custodial culture of safety and control. Substance abuse among inmate participants in mentalhealth programming must be dealt with in the context of mentalhealth treatment. Mentalhealth treatment, which is less coercive than substance abuse programming in prisons, shows a
The school mentalhealth clinic is an unusual amalgamation of the mentalhealth and education sectors in Bombay. It aims to detect emotional problems in schoolchildren, increase mentalhealth awareness in teachers and other professionals and determine any risk or causal factors in schoolchildren suffering from mentalhealth problems. It also offers cross-cultural research opportunities. PMID:10962654
This first Report of the Surgeon General on MentalHealth represents the initial step in advancing the notion that mentalhealth is fundamental to general health. It states that a review of research on mentalhealth revealed two findings. First, the efficacy of treatment is well documented, and second, a range of treatment exists for most mental…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
Chapters included are (1) introduction; (2) mentalhealth problems affecting Indian people; (3) impact of mentalhealth problems on Indian communities; (4) the service delivery system; (5) treatment modalities; (6) mentalhealth providers; (7) holding the system together; and (7) a model Indian mentalhealth system. (KS)
This country has never had a formalized child mentalhealth policy, if one uses the definition of child mentalhealth policy as the existence of governmental commitment to ensure the availability of appropriate mentalhealth services to children (birth-21 years) and their families. Over the past century, the field of children's mentalhealth has borrowed policy from child welfare, juvenile
People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal experience with mental illness and mentalhealth care. In this study, 166 health care providers (42.2% primary care, 57.8% mentalhealth practice) from the Veteran?s Affairs (VA) medical system completed measures of stigma characteristics, expected adherence, and subsequent health decisions (referral to a specialist and refill pain prescription) about a male patient with schizophrenia who was seeking help for low back pain due to arthritis. Research participants reported comfort with previous mentalhealth interventions. Path analyses showed participants who endorsed stigmatizing characteristics of the patient were more likely to believe he would not adhere to treatment and hence, less likely to refer to a specialist or refill his prescription. Endorsement of stigmatizing characteristics was inversely related to comfort with one?s previous mentalhealth care. Implications of these findings will inform a program meant to enhance VA provider attitudes about people with mental illness, as well as their health decisions. PMID:24774076
Corrigan, Patrick W; Mittal, Dinesh; Reaves, Christina M; Haynes, Tiffany F; Han, Xiaotong; Morris, Scott; Sullivan, Greer
Urgent action is needed to address mentalhealth issues globally. In Africa, where mentalhealth disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive MentalHealth Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mentalhealth and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mentalhealth services and development of national mentalhealth strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mentalhealth into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mentalhealth into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on MentalHealth within three years. PMID:24931476
Urgent action is needed to address mentalhealth issues globally. In Africa, where mentalhealth disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive MentalHealth Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mentalhealth and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mentalhealth services and development of national mentalhealth strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mentalhealth into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mentalhealth into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on MentalHealth within three years.
Psychiatric mentalhealth is critical to ensuring the health and wellbeing of individuals, families, and communities. While psychiatric mentalhealth work continues to become increasingly complex and challenging, the demand for psychiatric nurses with evidence-based skills continues to grow. Psychiatric mentalhealth nurses (PMHNs) are the primary providers of professional psychiatric mentalhealth care services. PMFNs emphasize humanistic values and focus on servicing patient and family needs. In Taiwan, the Psychiatric MentalHealth Nursing Association constructs the competence-credentialing model for psychiatric mentalhealth nursing that underpins the values, attitudes, and beliefs of PMHNs and ensures that the mentalhealth nursing practice promotes public health and wellbeing. In addition, this association promotes advanced psychiatric nursing education, research, and practice, influences the national health agenda, and discusses and disseminates information on psychiatric mentalhealth care issues in order to influence the direction, nature, and quality of psychiatric and mentalhealth care. PMID:24519338
Aims: There is evidence of a non-linear relationship between alcohol consumption and mentalhealth status, and of an association between tobacco use and poor mentalhealth. This paper examines the nature of the association between usual alcohol consumption, tobacco use and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Emergency Department patients in Queensland, Australia. Methods: A cross sectional survey of patients
Rosa Alati; Stuart Kinner; Jake M. Najman; Greg Fowler; KERRIANNE WATT; DAVID GREEN
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mentalhealth consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mentalhealth outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n
Lamaro P Onyut; Frank Neuner; Verena Ertl; Elisabeth Schauer; Michael Odenwald; Thomas Elbert
Research on the effect of paternal mentalhealth problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mentalhealth symptoms in a community…
ObjectivePublic health concern surrounding the mentalhealth needs of former system youth is escalating. We know very little about mentalhealth service utilization on the other side of the developmental transition to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to explore the mentalhealth service use experiences among former system youth with childhood histories which included mental disorder, use of
Michelle R. Munson; Lionel D. Scott; Susan E. Smalling; HyunSoo Kim; Jerry E. Floersch
Mentalhealth is a low priority in most countries around the world. Minimal research and resources have been invested in mentalhealth at the national level. As a result, WHO has developed the Assessment Instrument for MentalHealth Systems (WHO- AIMS) to encourage countries to gather data and to re-evaluate their national mentalhealth policy. This paper demonstrates the utility
Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mentalhealth and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mentalhealth nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mentalhealth nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. PMID:21749560
This research examines mentalhealth correlates of different victim-perpetrator relationships among adolescent victims of interpersonal violence. A large and nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 4,023) responded to structured telephone interviews concerning mentalhealth functioning (posttraumatic stress disorder—PTSD, major depressive disorder, substance abuse\\/dependence, and delinquency). Those reporting histories of sexual (n = 321) and\\/or physical (n = 688) assault
Steven R. Lawyer; Kenneth J. Ruggiero; Heidi S. Resnick; Dean G. Kilpatrick; Benjamin E. Saunders
The mentalhealth of mothers and children are closely linked. This study examined the relationship between child and maternal\\u000a symptom change during a period in which children participated in community mentalhealth treatment. Symptom change was measured\\u000a using the Child Behavior Checklist for children and the Beck Depression Inventory for Mothers. Results indicate that mothers\\u000a whose children improve in community
Carrie W. Rishel; Catherine G. Greeno; Carol Anderson
Despite recent increases in life course research on mental illness, important questions remain about the social patterning of, and explanations for, depression trajectories among women in later life. The authors investigate competing theoretical frameworks for the age patterning of depressive symptoms and the physical health, socioeconomic, and family mechanisms differentiating black and white women. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, the authors use linear mixed (growth curve) models to estimate trajectories of distress for women aged 52 to 81 years (N = 3,182). The results demonstrate that: (1) there are persistently higher levels of depressive symptoms among black women relative to white women throughout later life; (2) physical health and socioeconomic status account for much of the racial gap in depressive symptoms; and (3) marital status moderates race differences in distress. The findings highlight the importance of physical health, family, and socioeconomic status in racial disparities in mentalhealth.
Spence, Naomi J.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Dupre, Matthew E.
In this really hectic world, quite a number of people are exposed to situations where mental stress Is unavoidable. This leads to people having all kinds of mentalhealth problems that eventually may turn to chronic mental disorders. People with mentalhealth problems normally have the tendency of not admitting their health problems because of the stigma attached to these
Hajar Mat Jani; Jalan Kajang-Puchong; Selangor Darul Ehsan
The resident population of large mental hospitals has been reduced by two-thirds in 20 years, but chronic patients are being discharged to a lonely existence in hostile communities without adequate care. (Author/BB)
Research shows a strong association between traumatic life experience and mentalhealth and important gender differences in that relationship in the Western European Diaspora, but much less is known about these relationships in other settings. We investigate these relationships in a poor rural Asian setting that recently experienced a decade-long armed conflict. We use data from 400 adult interviews in rural Nepal. The measures come from World MentalHealth survey instruments clinically validated for this study population to measure Depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED). Our results demonstrate that traumatic life experience significantly increases the likelihood of mentalhealth disorders in this setting and that these traumatic experiences have a larger effect on the mentalhealth of women than men. These findings offer important clues regarding the potential mechanisms producing gender differences in mentalhealth in many settings.
Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Williams, Nathalie E.; Scott, Kate M.
Understanding how depression and/or anxiety affect use of health care among Latinas in rapidly growing new Latino destinations, population where the growth rate of the Latino population exceeds the national average, may enhance community engagement efforts. Using community-based participatory research, a questionnaire assessing health care use was administered to 289 Latinas. Most (70%) reported delaying healthcare, and self-reported depression/anxiety was associated with a 3.1 fold (95% CI: 1.6 - 5.9) increase in delay, after adjusting for current health status, acculturation, age, education and place of birth. Mentalhealth disparities exist among Latinas, which are related to delays in use of health care. A gap exists regarding health education interventions for Latinas. More research is needed to identify successful models, especially in new Latino destinations as they may be particularly vulnerable to delay care.
We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged ?55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of depressive symptomatology and chronic pain, and with higher levels of mental and physical health. Resilience remained significantly associated with depressive symptomatology after controlling for demographic and other health measures. Our findings suggest that resilience among older AIs has important implications for some aspects of mental and physical health.
Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner
The paper presents an overview of the WHO World MentalHealth (WMH) Survey Initiative and summarizes recent WMH results regarding the prevalence and societal costs of mental disorders. The WMH surveys are representative community surveys that were carried out in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mentalhealth policy makers about the prevalence, burden, and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders. Results show that mental disorders are commonly occurring in all participating countries. The inter-quartile range (IQR: 25th–75th percentiles) of lifetime DSM-IV disorder prevalence estimates (combining anxiety, mood, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders) is 18.1–36.1%. The IQR of 12-month prevalence estimates is 9.8–19.1%. Analysis of age-of-onset reports shows that many mental disorders begin in childhood-adolescence and have significant adverse effects on subsequent role transitions. Adult mental disorders are found in the WMH data to be associated with high levels of role impairment. Despite this burden, the majority of mental disorders go untreated. Although these results suggest that expansion of treatment could be cost-effective from both the employer perspective and the societal perspective, treatment effectiveness trials are needed to confirm this suspicion. The WMH results regarding impairments are being used to target several such interventions.
Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ustun, T. Bedirhan
This study examined factors contributing to depressive symptoms among Japanese Americans. Data were collected in Houston, Texas, in 2008, before the March 2011 Japan earthquake, through a community survey including demographic and mentalhealth questions and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. Among 43 Japanese American respondents in this convenience sample, the depression prevalence was 11.6 percent. Chi-square results found that having anxiety symptoms and holding a master's degree had statistically significant relationships with depressive symptoms. An independent sample t test found that those having depressive symptoms experienced significantly more health issues than those without depressive symptoms. When these statistically significant variables were entered into a logistic regression model, the overall effect of having health issues, anxiety symptoms, and a master's degree collectively predicted depressive symptoms. It was also found that Japanese Americans rarely consult mentalhealth professionals; in particular, female Japanese American respondents tend to seek help from religious leaders. As implied by these findings, the reluctance of Japanese Americans to seek formal help can be explained by social stigma, a health-oriented approach to treatment, and other cultural considerations. Practice implications focus on disaster counseling with a connection between mentalhealth needs and health care support. PMID:24032301
BACKGROUND: Mental ill health is a common condition in the general population, yet only about half of those with a mental disorder have treatment contact. Personal experience may affect attitudes, which in turn influence the help-seeking process. This study investigated differences in mentalhealth literacy and attitudes among mentally healthy persons and in persons with symptoms of mental illness with
This paper examines trends in use and risk factors for six substance use and mentalhealth indicators among United States active duty military personnel: cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, illicit drug use, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
The neuroscience of exercise is a growing research area that is dedicated to furthering our understanding of the effects that exercise has on mentalhealth and athletic performance. The present study examined three specific topics: (1) the relationship between exercise and mental disorders (e.g. major depressive disorder, dementia and Parkinson's disease), (2) the effects of exercise on the mood and mentalhealth of athletes, and (3) the possible neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise. Positive responses to regular physical exercise, such as enhanced functional capacity, increased autonomy and improved self-esteem, are frequently described in the recent literature, and these responses are all good reasons for recommending regular exercise. In addition, physical exercise may improve both mood and adherence to an exercise program in healthy individuals and might modulate both the performance and mentalhealth of athletes. Exercise is associated with the increased synthesis and release of both neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and these increases may be associated with neurogenesis, angiogenesis and neuroplasticity. This review is a call-to-action that urges researchers to consider the importance of understanding the neuroscience of physical exercise and its contributions to sports science. PMID:23774826
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at increased risk for mentalhealth problems including depression, post-traumatic stress (PTSD), and suicidality. The overriding goal of the current investigation was to examine mentalhealth and mentalhealth services in a diverse sample of YMSM. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a cohort study of 598 YMSM, including sociodemographics, mentalhealth, and mentalhealth care. We then tested for bivariate associations, and used multivariable modeling to predict depression, PTSD, suicidality and mentalhealth care utilization. Lower socioeconomic status, unstable housing, and school non-enrollment predicted depression and PTSD scores, while unstable housing and school non-enrollment predicted recent suicide attempt(s). These recent suicide attempt(s) also predicted current utilization of counseling or treatment, any history of psychiatric hospitalization, and any history of psychiatric diagnosis. Black and API men were less likely to have ever accessed mentalhealth counseling or treatment. There were significant class-based differences with regard to mentalhealth outcomes, but not mentalhealth services. Further, recent crises (i.e., suicide attempt, hospitalization) were strong predictors of accessing mentalhealth services. Improving the mentalhealth of YMSM requires addressing the underlying structural factors that influence mentalhealth outcomes and service access.
Storholm, Erik David; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Moeller, Robert W.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Bare, Michael G.
may be explained by different definitions of may be explained by different definitions of recovery. Moreover, the previous studies recovery. Moreover, the previous studies were subject to two kinds of bias. Lead- were subject to two kinds of bias. Lead- time bias arises because participants with time bias arises because participants with depression were not recruited at a similar depression
JAN SPIJKER; RON JAN SPIJKER; RON DE DE GRAA; ROB V. BIJL; T. F. BEEKMAN; GR AAF; JOHAN ORMEL; WILLEM A. NOLEN
Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mentalhealth utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mentalhealth referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1) screening and referral, (2) facilitators to referral, (3) barriers to referral, (4) culture and language, (5) life events, and (6) support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mentalhealth services.
Boyd, Rhonda C.; Mogul, Marjie; Newman, Deena; Coyne, James C.
Despite growing numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors (UMs) in Europe, and evidence that this group is at risk of developing mentalhealth problems, there still remain important knowledge gaps regarding the development of UMs' mentalhealth during their trajectories in the host country and, in particular, the possible influencing role of traumatic experiences and daily stressors therein. This study therefore followed 103 UMs from the moment they arrived in Belgium until 18 months later. Traumatic experiences (SLE), mentalhealth symptoms (HSCL-37A, RATS) and daily stressors (DSSYR) were measured at arrival in Belgium, after 6 and 18 months. UMs reported generally high scores on anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Linear mixed model analysis showed no significant differences in mentalhealth scores over time, pointing towards the possible long-term persistence of mentalhealth problems in this population. The number of traumatic experiences and the number of daily stressors leaded to a significant higher symptom level of depression (daily stressors), anxiety and PTSD (traumatic experiences and daily stressors). European migration policies need to reduce the impact of daily stressors on UMs' mentalhealth by ameliorating the reception and care facilities for this group. Moreover, regular mentalhealth screenings are needed, in combination with, if needed, adapted psychosocial and therapeutic care. PMID:23979476
Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mentalhealth needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mentalhealth related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mentalhealth links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78%) completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mentalhealth related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p < .05). The most highly linked across all areas of activity were Rural Financial Counsellors, the Department of Primary Industry Drought Support Workers and Community Health Centres. Hence for a mentalhealth service network targeting farming families these are three key agencies across the spectrum of case work to program development. The study limitations in describing service networks relate to the accuracy of network bounding, self report bias and missing data from non participants. Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mentalhealth service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mentalhealth care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mentalhealth training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.
In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mentalhealth, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mentalhealth needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.
Research centers have become a key component of the research infrastructure in schools of social work, including the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University. In 1993, that school's Center for MentalHealth Services Research (CMHSR) received funding from the National Institute of MentalHealth (NIMH) as a Social Work…
Proctor, Enola K.; McMillen, Curtis; Haywood, Sally; Dore, Peter
As the nation's schools seek to fulfill the academic imperatives of the federal No Child Left Behind Act and associated state imperatives, they may be forgetting an important missing element in boosting academic achievement: directly confronting the mentalhealth and psychosocial needs that impede a significant percentage of children and adolescents. This article explores the available research on mentalhealth
This article describes the development of the primary mentalhealth worker (PMHW) role within Child and Adolescent MentalHealth Services (CAMHS) within the UK, and focuses on services in Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland, an area with a general population of 900,000. The concept behind the PMHW role is described and the application of this to practice is outlined. The role
Evaluated psychosocial differences between youthreceiving mentalhealth services in Community MentalHealth Centers (CMHCs; n = 79) as compared to youthreceiving services from a program operating in 10 Baltimore schools (n = 186). Racial and genderdifferences were shown, with more African American youthand females in the School than CMHC sample. Multivariateanalyses that controlled for these racial and gender differences failed to
Mark D. Weist; C. Patrick Myers; Eileen Hastings; Hari Ghuman; Yu Ling Han
The latest initiative to address mentalhealth needs of the nation, including those of children and youth, is the President's New Freedom Commission on MentalHealth (NFC). The NFC formulated a benchmark of six goals and related recommendations toward which the U.S. should strive, including the recommendation that each state develop a…
Gould, Sara R.; Roberts, Michael C.; Beals, Sarah E.
Epidemiological studies of the prevalence of mentalhealth disorders typically contain multiple measures of mentalhealth, using different instruments and different informants (child, parent, and interviewer). We used the Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescents Mental Disorder (MECA) study of U.S. youth to assess the effects of employing a range of these measures in mentalhealth services research.
Sherry Glied; Christina W. Hoven; A. Bowen Garrett; Robert E. Moore; Philip Leaf; Hector R. Bird; Sherryl Goodman; Darrel Regier; Margarita Alegria
May is National MentalHealth Awareness Month. This is a great time to highlight the importance of mental wellness and school-based mentalhealth services to children's positive learning and development. There is heightened urgency to the imperative to advance school-based mentalhealth and school psychologists' expertise as essential to the…
As knowledge of effective treatments for mental disorders has grown, so too has the field of mentalhealth promotion and positive development. Studies completed during the last two decades have synthesized the state of mentalhealth promotion and documented that universal mentalhealth supports positively affect child and adolescent developmental…
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2008
Contact with people with mental illness is considered to be a promising strategy to change stigmatizing attitudes. This study examines the underlying mechanisms of the association between contact and attitudes toward community mentalhealth care. Data are derived from the 2009 survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian MentalHealth Study", using the Community MentalHealth Ideology-scale. Results show that people who received mentalhealth treatment themselves or have a family member who has been treated for mentalhealth problems report more tolerant attitudes toward community mentalhealth care than people with public contact with people with mental illness. Besides, the perception of the effectiveness of the treatment seems to matter too. Furthermore, emotions arising from public contact are associated with attitudes toward community mentalhealth care. The degree of intimacy and the characteristics of the contact relationship clarify the association between contact and attitudes toward community mentalhealth care. PMID:23179045
Background: Previous findings indicate that mentalhealth problems are common in Emergency departments; however, there are few studies of the extent of health-related problems and emergency service use in mentalhealth populations as a whole. Methods: Record linkage methods were used to map the association between mentalhealth, age, gender, and health-related harm across total health and mentalhealth care
Background This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mentalhealth, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. Materials and methods Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively) California Women's Health Survey (CWHS), a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by the California Department of Health Services. The sample was 6,942 women aged 18 years or older. Results The prevalence of binge drinking was 9.3%. Poor physical health, and poorer mentalhealth (i.e., symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, feeling overwhelmed by stress), were associated with binge drinking when demographics were controlled, as were adverse experiences in adulthood (intimate partner violence, having been physically or sexually assaulted, or having experienced the death of someone close) and in childhood (living with someone abusing substances or mentally ill, or with a mother vicimized by violence, or having been physically or sexually assaulted). When adult mentalhealth and adverse experiences were also controlled, having lived as a child with someone who abused substances or was mentally ill was associated with binge drinking. Associations between childhood adverse experiences and binge drinking could not be explained by women's poorer mentalhealth status in adulthood. Conclusion Identifying characteristics of women who engage in binge drinking is a key step in prevention and intervention efforts. Binge drinking programs should consider comprehensive approaches that address women's mentalhealth symptoms as well as circumstances in the childhood home.
Studies of arrestees and court defendants have demonstrated that health and mentalhealth problems are apparent in these groups at higher rates than in the general population. This study examined self-reported physical and mental well-being of 200 participants in a pre-trial support program (Court Integrated Services Program), using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 v2). On entry to the program, clients
Studies of arrestees and court defendants have demonstrated that health and mentalhealth problems are apparent in these groups at higher rates than in the general population. This study examined self-reported physical and mental well-being of 200 participants in a pre-trial support program (Court Integrated Services Program), using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 v2). On entry to the program, clients
Objectives. We examined the public health impact of the socioeconomic status (SES) gradient on adolescents' physical and mentalhealth. Methods. Population attributable risk (PAR) for household income and parental edu- cation were calculated relative to depression and obesity among a nationally repre- sentative sample of 15 112 adolescents. Results. PARs for income and education were large. Across each gender and
Background Outcome quality indicators are rarely used to evaluate mentalhealth services because most jurisdictions lack clinical data systems to construct indicators in a meaningful way across mentalhealth providers. As a result, important information about the effectiveness of health services remains unknown. This study examined the feasibility of developing mentalhealth quality indicators (MHQIs) using the Resident Assessment Instrument - MentalHealth (RAI-MH), a clinical assessment system mandated for use in Ontario, Canada as well as many other jurisdictions internationally. Methods Retrospective analyses were performed on two datasets containing RAI-MH assessments for 1,056 patients from 7 facilities and 34,788 patients from 70 facilities in Ontario, Canada. The RAI-MH was completed by clinical staff of each facility at admission and follow-up, typically at discharge. The RAI-MH includes a breadth of information on symptoms, functioning, socio-demographics, and service utilization. Potential MHQIs were derived by examining the empirical patterns of improvement and incidence in depressive symptoms and cognitive performance across facilities in both sets of data. A prevalence indicator was also constructed to compare restraint use. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk adjustment of MHQIs using patient case-mix index scores derived from the RAI-MH System for Classification of Inpatient Psychiatry. Results Subscales from the RAI-MH, the Depression Severity Index (DSI) and Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS), were found to have good reliability and strong convergent validity. Unadjusted rates of five MHQIs based on the DSI, CPS, and restraints showed substantial variation among facilities in both sets of data. For instance, there was a 29.3% difference between the first and third quartile facility rates of improvement in cognitive performance. The case-mix index score was significantly related to MHQIs for cognitive performance and restraints but had a relatively small impact on adjusted rates/prevalence. Conclusions The RAI-MH is a feasible assessment system for deriving MHQIs. Given the breadth of clinical content on the RAI-MH there is an opportunity to expand the number of MHQIs beyond indicators of depression, cognitive performance, and restraints. Further research is needed to improve risk adjustment of the MHQIs for their use in mentalhealth services report card and benchmarking activities.
Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mentalhealth service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50…
After some of the work hazards unique to teaching are noted and the identifiable characteristics of the maladjusted teacher discussed, a three-state teacher mentalhealth plan is proposed to prevent children from being exposed to teachers who suffer from poor emotional health: prevention, assistance, dismissal. (Author/SJL)
BACKGROUND: Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mentalhealth needs of farming families. This serves as
Jeffrey D Fuller; Brian Kelly; Susan Law; Georgia Pollard; Lyn Fragar
The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for MentalHealth in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…
This paper presents an investigation into the impacts of mental and physical health on the propensity to be employed. Health status is parameterised using three physical and three mentalhealth indicators. After controlling for various socioeconomic factors, the application of limited dependent variable regression techniques generates results which indicate that activity-limiting physical health and accomplishment-limiting mentalhealth issues significantly affect
Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mentalhealth center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented.
Objectives: The goals of this study were to uncover the criteria by which centenarians, proxy\\/caregivers, and interviewers rated centenarians’ mentalhealth. Often proxy and interviewer reports are obtained in studies of the oldest-old and become a primary source of information.Methods: Data were from a population-based sample of mentally competent US centenarians in northern Georgia. The dependent variables were based on
Maurice MacDonald; Peter Martin; Jennifer Margrett; Leonard W. Poon
The Center for MentalHealth Services (1997) estimates that from 9 to 13% of all children aged 9–17 have a serious emotional\\u000a disturbance that either impairs or substantially interferes with their ability to function effectively at home, school, or\\u000a within the community. More than 20 years ago, Knitzer (1982) found that two-thirds of children in need did not receive mental
Philip J. Leaf; David Schultz; Laurel J. Riser; David B. Pruitt
This study examines the relationship between road traffic noise, self-reported sleep quality and mentalhealth. The study is cross-sectional and based on data from a survey conducted in Oslo, Norway, in 2000. Psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, HSCL-25) was measured along with self-reported somatic health, sleep quality, noise sensitivity and socioeconomic variables. Questionnaire data were combined with modeled estimates of noise exposure. The total study sample consisted of 2898 respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders and stratifying for sleep quality, we found a positive, but not statistically significant association between noise exposure and symptoms of psychological distress among participants with poor sleep quality (slope=0.06, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.13, per 10dB increase in noise exposure). In the same sleep quality group, we found a borderline statistically significant association between noise exposure and a symptom level indicating a probable mental disorder (HSCL?1.55) (odds ratio=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, per 10dB increase in noise exposure). We found no association between road traffic noise and mentalhealth among subjects reporting good and medium sleep quality. The results suggest that road traffic noise may be associated with poorer mentalhealth among subjects with poor sleep. Individuals with poor sleep quality may be more vulnerable to effects of road traffic noise on mentalhealth than individuals with better sleep quality. PMID:24637180
In a survey exploring the reliability and validity of a screening tool, we explored the substance abuse and mentalhealth issues among 371 elders; 74 were sexual minorities. Analyses by age group indicated that elders 55-64 years had significantly more problems with substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts compared to those 65 and older. Bisexuals reported significantly greater problems with depression, anxiety, and suicidality than either heterosexual or lesbian or gay elders. Mentalhealth and substance abuse treatment utilization was low among all elders with problems. Implications for assessment, access to care, and group-specific services delivery are discussed. PMID:22587357
The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mentalhealth was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mentalhealth support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mentalhealth of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mentalhealth support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mentalhealth of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mentalhealth needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief personnel and volunteers to safeguard their mentalhealth. However, programs on these subjects remain insufficient. We extend our utmost respect and appreciation to the disaster relief workforce for doing their best to save lives. We hope that this aids in the reconstruction process of such affected areas. PMID:24783446
Individuals with mild depression show an enhanced ability to read or “decode” others' mental states. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether this pattern of performance is related specifically to the pathology of depression or whether it is simply a feature of the transient dysphoric state. Forty-one undergraduates with a previous episode of major depression and 52
Kate L. Harkness; Jill A. Jacobson; David Duong; Mark A. Sabbagh
... any thoughts of suicide could indicate clinical depression . Energy — Do you feel that you have the energy to do the things you need and want ... high sugar and fatty foods ultimately zap your energy and leave you feeling lower. Not to mention ...
This study is the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate the relationship between mentalhealth and social support in a large, random sample of college students. A Web-based survey was administered at a large, public university, with 1,378 students completing the measures in this analysis (response rate = 57%). The results support our hypothesis that students with characteristics differing from most other students, such as minority race or ethnicity, international status, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk of social isolation. In addition, the authors found that students with lower quality social support, as measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, were more likely to experience mentalhealth problems, including a sixfold risk of depressive symptoms relative to students with high quality social support. These results may help administrators and health providers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue. PMID:20099940
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
The purpose of this guidance is to review currently available evidence on mentalhealth problems in migrants and to present advice to clinicians and policy makers on how to provide migrants with appropriate and accessible mentalhealth services. The three phases of the process of migration and the relevant implications for mentalhealth are outlined, as well as the specific problems of groups such as women, children and adolescents, the elderly, refugees and asylum seekers, and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals. The concepts of cultural bereavement, cultural identity and cultural congruity are discussed. The epidemiology of mental disorders in migrants is described. A series of recommendations to policy makers, service providers and clinicians aimed to improve mentalhealth care in migrants are provided, covering the special needs of migrants concerning pharmacotherapies and psychotherapies.
Objective To examine the patterns of previous and current mentalhealth services use among older adults in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-up. Examination of a recent cohort of older adults is important because patterns of utilization may have changed due to treatment advances, changes in mentalhealth-care services, and greater mentalhealth awareness. Design A population-based longitudinal survey. Setting Continuing participants in a study of community-dwelling adults who were living in East Baltimore in 1981. Participants In all, 1,067 adults for whom complete data were available. Measurements Separately, and before the mentalhealth assessments were made, participants were asked about use of health services. Cognitive status and physical health were assessed using standardized instruments. Mental disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Results Compared with adults aged 40–59 years in 2004, adults aged 60 years and older were less likely to report specialty mentalhealth services versus general medical care without a mentalhealth component (adjusted odds ratio = 0.28, 95% confidence interval [0.14–0.56]). Multivariate models controlled for potentially influential characteristics including major depression or depression associated with recent bereavement, anxiety disorders, and past use of mentalhealth services. Conclusion