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Sample records for mental health depression

  1. Perinatal depression: implications for child mental health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal depression is common and primary care holds a crucial role for detecting, treating or, if necessary, providing referrals to mental health care for affected women. Family doctors should be aware of risk factors for peripartum depression, including previous history of depression, life events and interpersonal conflict. Perinatal depression has been associated with many poor outcomes, including maternal, child and family unit challenges. Infants and young children of perinatally depressed mothers are more likely to have a difficult temperament, as well as cognitive and emotional delays. The primary care setting is uniquely poised to be the screening and treatment site for perinatal depression; however, several obstacles, both at patient and systems level, have been identified that interfere with women's treatment engagement. Current published treatment guidelines favour psychotherapy above medicines as first line treatment for mild to moderate perinatal depression, while pharmacotherapy is first choice for severe depression, often in combination with psychosocial or integrative approaches. Among mothers who decide to stop taking their antidepressants despite ongoing depression during the perinatal period, the majority suffer from relapsing symptoms. If depression continues post?partum, there is an increased risk of poor mother–infant attachment, delayed cognitive and linguistic skills in the infant, impaired emotional development and risk for behavioural problems in later life. Complex, comprehensive and multilevel algorithms are warranted to treat perinatal depression. Primary care doctors are best suited to initiate, carry out and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions designed to prevent adverse outcomes of maternal perinatal depression on mother and child wellbeing. PMID:22477948

  2. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  3. Depression Research at the National Institute of Mental Health. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is committed to reducing the burden of mental illness through research on mind, brain, and behavior. This report presents the latest information on what is known about depression. The symptoms and types of depression are considered. Research on the treatments of depression is described, including the…

  4. Evaluating Mental Health Literacy and Adolescent Depression: What Do Teenagers "Know?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Bruno, Michelle; Fernandes, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of depression increases markedly during adolescence, yet many youth are not receiving the support that they need. One factor that has been speculated as contributing to low rates of care is a lack of mental health literacy about depression and viable sources of support. This pilot study focused on mental health literacy as it…

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health Treatment in an Ethnoracially Diverse College Student Sample

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Steve; Archambeau, Olga G.; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Chiu, Pearl H.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study (a) the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (b) the utilization of mental health treatment in an ethnoracially diverse sample consisting primarily of Asian Americans, European Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Participants 589 college students. Method A questionnaire packet that included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was administered to students in introductory psychology courses. Results a) there were no differences among ethnoracial groups in levels of depressive symptoms as measured by the CES-D, b) 71% of participants with high levels of depressive symptoms had not received any mental health treatment in the previous 12 months, and c) European Americans were 3.7 times more likely to have received mental health treatment in the previous 12 months than other students. Conclusion Outreach efforts designed to improve utilization of mental health treatment services by depressed college students, especially by members of ethnoracial minority groups, should be increased. PMID:21950252

  6. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  7. Mental Health Literacy of Depression: Gender Differences and Attitudinal Antecedents in a Representative British Sample

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. Methods In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Results There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Conclusion Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health. PMID:23166769

  8. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information on Depression and Other Medical Illnesses Chronic Illness & Mental Health Order a free hardcopy Depression is ... is clear. Depression is treatable even when other illness is present. Do not dismiss depression as a ...

  9. Recession Depression: Mental Health Effects of the 2008 Stock Market Crash*

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M.; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-01-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  10. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment. PMID:26704465

  11. Contextual Socioeconomic Status and Mental Health Counseling Use Among U.S. Adolescents with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    Most adolescents with depressive disorders do not receive any mental health services, even though effective treatments exist. Although research has examined numerous individual-level factors associated with mental health service use among depressed adolescents, less is known about the role of contextual factors. This study examines the relationship between contextual-level socioeconomic status (SES) and clinic-based mental health counseling use among U.S. adolescents with high depressive symptoms in urban and suburban areas. Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=1,133; 59% female) were analyzed using multilevel logistic models in which adolescents were nested within counties. After controlling for individual-level predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics, as well as county racial/ethnic composition, county SES was positively associated with clinic-based counseling use among depressed youth. A one standard deviation increase in the county affluence index was associated with 43% greater odds of receiving any clinical counseling services. Furthermore, the positive relationship between county affluence and clinical counseling use was no longer significant after controlling for the county supply of mental health specialist physicians. The results indicate that county residential context is a key correlate of mental health service use among depressed adolescents, such that those who live in lower SES counties with fewer mental health specialists are less likely to receive treatment. PMID:24114588

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  13. Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

  14. Women's Use of Multi sector Mental Health Services in a Community-Based Perinatal Depression Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2010-01-01

    Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression among adolescents. This study examines differences in mental health service use among non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method Five years of data (2004–2008) were pooled from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health to derive a nationally representative sample of 7,704 adolescents (age 12–17) diagnosed with major depression in the past year. Racial/ethnic differences were estimated with weighted probit regressions across several measures of mental health service use controlling for demographics and health status. Additional models assessed whether family income and health insurance status accounted for these differences. Results The adjusted percentages of blacks (32%), Hispanics (31%), and Asians (19%) who received any treatment for major depression were significantly lower than among non-Hispanic whites (40%; p<0.001). Black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents were also significantly less likely than non-Hispanic whites to receive prescription medication for major depression, to receive treatment for major depression from a mental health specialist or medical provider, and to receive any mental health treatment in an outpatient setting (p<0.01). These differences persisted after adjusting for family income and insurance status. Conclusion Results indicated low rates of mental health treatment for major depression among all adolescents. Improving access to mental health care for adolescents will also require attention to racial/ethnic subgroups at highest risk for nonreceipt of services. PMID:21241953

  16. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  17. Attitudes and beliefs about mental health among African American older adults suffering from depression

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kyaien O.; Lee, Brenda; Mayers, Vanessa; Robinson, Deborah; Reynolds, Charles F.; Albert, Steve; Brown, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Depression among older adults is a major public health concern leading to increased disability and mortality. Less than 3% of older adults utilize professional mental health services for the treatment of depression, less than any other adult age group. And despite similar rates of depression, African Americans are significantly less likely to seek, engage and be retained in professional mental health services than their white counterparts. Cultural differences in the way depression symptoms are manifested, defined, interpreted and labeled may in part explain some of these racial differences in help-seeking behaviors. Focus group methodology was utilized to identify and explore attitudes and beliefs about depression and mental health treatment utilization among 42 older African Americans who had recently suffered a major depressive episode. Thematic analysis of identified six overarching themes: (a) perceptions of depression, (b) the African American experience, (c) seeking treatment as a last resort, (d) myths about treatment, (e) stigma associated with seeking treatment and (f) culturally appropriate coping strategies. We discuss implications for practice, education and research. PMID:21423819

  18. The Role of an Early Head Start Mental Health Coordinator: Screening for Maternal Depression in a Comprehensive Approach to Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canuso, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Screening for maternal depression was a core component of the P.E.A.C.E., Inc., Early Head Start program's comprehensive approach to supporting the mental health needs of low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. The addition of a mental health coordinator as a full-time staff member created an opportunity to develop a…

  19. Depression and Service Use Among Caregivers Dually Involved in the Child Welfare and Mental Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Acri, Mary; Gopalan, Geetha; Lalayants, Marina; McKay, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression, use of mental health services, and correlates of service use among caregivers who are dually involved in the child welfare and child mental health systems. Methods This study analyzed baseline data from 129 caregivers who reported child welfare system involvement and were participating in a Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders. Results Seventy-eight (60.5%) of caregivers met or exceed the clinical-cut off for depression; of them 50 (64.1%) reported utilizing mental health services for their emotional health. Race, employment status, and CES-D score were significantly associated with lifetime mental heath services use. Discussion Depression rates exceeded those found among caregiver involved in either the child welfare or child mental health systems. Rates of service use were higher than found in existing research. As expected, racial differences and depression were associated with service use; contrary to expectations, full time employment was not associated with service use. Discrepancies between this study and existing research are discussed, as are practice, policy, and research implications. PMID:26366130

  20. Mental Health Literacy in Hmong and Cambodian Elderly Refugees: A Barrier to Understanding, Recognizing, and Responding to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lytle, Kathy; Yang, Pa Nhia; Lum, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore mental health literacy, specifically focusing on depression, among Southeast Asian (SEA) elderly refugees residing in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Three focus groups were held with nine mental health professionals who work with SEA elders. Jorm's mental health literacy framework guided the…

  1. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Child and Adolescent Mental Health Publications Teen Depression Flier for teens ... of development. More What Goes on in the Adolescent Brain? In recognition of National Children’s Mental Health ...

  2. Trauma, Depression, Coping, and Mental Health Service Seeking Among Impoverished Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Elliott, Marc N.; Hambarsoomians, Katrin; Marshall, Grant N.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship among trauma, coping, depression, and mental health service seeking in a probability sample of sheltered homeless and low-income housed women. Results highlight the diversity of trauma. In a longitudinal analysis, women who lived in shelters or experienced major violence had a twofold increase in their risk of…

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health Treatment in an Ethnoracially Diverse College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Steve; Archambeau, Olga G.; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Chiu, Pearl H.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study (a) the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (b) the utilization of mental health treatment in an ethnoracially diverse sample consisting primarily of Asian Americans, European Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Participants: Five hundred eighty-nine college students. Method: A questionnaire packet that…

  4. Have Mental Health Education Programs Influenced the Mental Health Literacy of Those with Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation? A Comparison between 1998 and 2008 in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Peter N.; Goldney, Robert D.; Taylor, Anne W.; Eckert, Kerena A.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention and is considered to be an important determinant of help-seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, as depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidality, has been the target of…

  5. Late Life Recurrent Depression: Challenge to Mental Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.

    For the vast majority of persons of all ages who suffer from major depression, it is recurrent. A traditional wisdom has been that elderly persons respond more poorly to treatment for serious depression than younger persons. The psychiatric status of 127 elderly persons hospitalized for an episode of major depression was systematically assessed…

  6. Social class and mental health: testing exploitation as a relational determinant of depression.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as "ownership type" (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and "managerial domination" (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  7. Limitations of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Identifying Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: Many Cases Are Undetected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…

  8. Mental health symptoms in Iraqi refugees: posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet; Farrag, Mohamed; Hakim-Larson, Julie; Kafaji, Talib; Abdulkhaleq, Husam; Hammad, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    Refugees suffer from a higher rate of mental health symptoms than the general population since they have experienced extreme suffering and the accumulated effects of trauma. Because of the diversity of regions from which refugees originate, there is a need to understand some of the unique experiences that are specific to each sub-groups of immigrants. The purpose of the present study was to explore mental health symptoms in Iraqi refugee clients who immigrated to the United States after the Gulf War of the early 1990's. As part of a larger study, 116 adult Iraqi immigrants to the United States (46 male, 70 females) who were seeking mental health services completed measures of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. As expected, the majority of refugees reported intense anxiety and depression, and many met the DSM IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Like refugees from other countries-of-origin, Iraqi refugees are in need of culturally sensitive assessment and mental health treatment. The results are discussed in light of the treatment needs of Iraqi refugee clients, their resilience and motivation for a better life, and the ways that health professionals can assist in optimizing their adjustment. PMID:19172969

  9. Barriers to Mental Health Service Use Among Workers With Depression and Work Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the decrease in workplace productivity losses associated with removal of three types of barriers to mental health service use among workers with depression. Methods: A model of productivity losses based on the results of a population-based survey of Canadian workers was used to estimate the impact of three types of barriers to mental health service use among workers with depression. Results: Removing the service need recognition barrier is associated with a 33% decrease in work productivity losses. There is a 49% decrease when all three barriers are removed. Conclusions: Our results suggest recognizing the need for treatment is only one barrier to service use; attitudinal and structural barriers should also be considered. The greatest decrease in productivity losses is observed with the removal of all three barriers. PMID:26147540

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids and major depression: A primer for the mental health professional

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system. Emerging research is establishing an association between omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic) and major depressive disorder. Evidence from epidemiological, laboratory and clinical studies suggest that dietary lipids and other associated nutritional factors may influence vulnerability and outcome in depressive disorders. Research in this area is growing at a rapid pace. The goal of this report is to integrate various branches of research in order to update mental health professionals. PMID:15535884

  11. Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  12. Are depression, anxiety and poor mental health risk factors for knee pain? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While it is recognized that psychosocial factors are important in the development and progression of musculoskeletal pain and disability, no systematic review has specifically focused on examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and knee pain. We aimed to systematically review the evidence to determine whether psychosocial factors, specifically depression, anxiety and poor mental health, are risk factors for knee pain. Methods Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO were performed to identify relevant studies published up to August 2012 using MESH terms and keywords. We included studies that met a set of predefined criteria and two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a best evidence synthesis was performed. Results Sixteen studies were included in the review, of which 9 were considered high quality. The study populations were heterogeneous in terms of diagnosis of knee pain. We found a strong level of evidence for a relationship between depression and knee pain, limited evidence for no relationship between anxiety and knee pain, and minimal evidence for no relationship between poor mental health and knee pain. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of the included studies, these data show that depression plays a significant role in knee pain, and that a biopsychosocial approach to the management of this condition is integral to optimising outcomes for knee pain. PMID:24405725

  13. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise. PMID:25569828

  14. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  15. The Effectiveness of Clinician Feedback in the Treatment of Depression in the Community Mental Health System

    PubMed Central

    Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth; Kurtz, John E.; Thompson, Donald L.; Mack, Rachel A.; Lee, Jacqueline K.; Rothbard, Aileen; Eisen, Susan V.; Gallop, Robert; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe the development and evaluation of a clinician feedback intervention for use in community mental health settings. The Community Clinician Feedback System (CCFS) was developed in collaboration with a community partner to meet the needs of providers working in such community settings. Method The CCFS consists of weekly performance feedback to clinicians as well as a clinical feedback report that assists clinicians with patients who are not progressing as expected. Patients in the randomized sample (N=100) were pre-dominantly female African-Americans, with a mean age of 39. Results Satisfaction ratings of the CCFS indicate that the system was widely accepted by clinicians and patients. An HLM analysis comparing rates of change across conditions controlling for baseline gender, age, and racial group indicated a moderate effect in favor of the feedback condition for symptom improvement (t(94) = 2.41, p = .017, d = .50). Thirty-six percent of feedback patients compared to only 13% of patients in the no feedback condition demonstrated clinically significant change across treatment (?2(1) = 6.13, p = .013). Conclusions These results indicate that our CCFS is acceptable to providers and patients of mental health services, and has the potential to improve the effectiveness of services for clinically meaningful depression in the community mental health setting. PMID:26052874

  16. Older depressed Latinos’ experiences with primary care visits for personal, emotional and/or mental health problems: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Adriana; Sarkisian, Catherine; Ryan, Gery; Wells, Kenneth B.; Miranda, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe salient experiences with a primary care visit (e.g., the context leading up to the visit, the experience and/or outcomes of that visit) for emotional, personal and/or mental health problems older Latinos with a history of depression and recent depressive symptoms and/or antidepressant medication use reported 10 years after enrollment into a randomized controlled trial of quality-improvement for depression in primary care. Design Secondary analysis of existing qualitative data from the second stage of the continuation study of Partners in Care (PIC). Participants Latino ethnicity, age ? 50 years, recent depressive symptoms and/or antidepressant medication use, and a recent primary care visit for mental health problems. Of 280 second-stage participants, 47 were eligible. Both stages of the continuation study included participants from the PIC parent study control and 2 intervention groups, and all had a history of depression. Methods Data analyzed by a multidisciplinary team using grounded theory methodology. Results Five themes were identified: beliefs about the nature of depression; prior experiences with mental health disorders/treatments; sociocultural context (e.g., social relationships, caregiving, the media); clinic-related features (e.g., accessibility of providers, staff continuity, amount of visit time); provider attributes (e.g., interpersonal skills, holistic care approach). Conclusions Findings emphasize the importance of key features for shaping the context leading up to primary care visits for help-seeking for mental health problems, and the experience and/or outcomes of those visits, among older depressed Latinos at long-term follow-up, and may help tailor chronic depression care for the clinical management of this vulnerable population. PMID:24620453

  17. Validation of four measures of mental health against depression and generalized anxiety in a community based sample.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim Matthew; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-02-28

    There is a need to validate screening measures of affective and generalized anxiety disorders for use in epidemiological surveys of mental health in the general population. This study examined the diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scales (GAS, GDS) and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) Mental Health Component Summary Scale (MCS-12) in a population based longitudinal study in Australia. We report analyses of two narrow age birth cohorts in the Personality and Total Health (PATH) through life study (ages 32-36 and 52-58). Depressive episodes (severe, moderate, and mild), dysthymia and generalized anxiety disorder were diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria using the World Health Organisation (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) as a criterion. All scales had high concordance with their target 30-day diagnoses, with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) ranging between 0.85 and 0.90. The PHQ-9, GDS, GAS and MCS-12 were all valid instruments for identifying possible cases of depression and anxiety, and assessing the severity of these common mental disorders in the general population. We report recommended cut-points for each scale, though note that the optimal cut-point on mental health screening instruments may vary depending on the context of test administration. PMID:25578983

  18. Self-Rated Mental Health: Screening for Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Women Exposed to Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Bullock, Linda C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the validity of a single-item, self-rated mental health (SRMH) measure in the identification of women at risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Baseline data of 239 low-income women participating in an intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention study were analyzed. PTSD was measured with the Davidson Trauma Scale. Risk for depression was determined using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. SRMH was assessed with a single item asking participants to rate their mental health at the time of the baseline interview. Single-item measures can be an efficient way to increase the proportion of patients screened for mental health disorders. Although SRMH is not a strong indicator of PTSD, it may be useful in identifying pregnant women who are at increased risk for depression and need further comprehensive assessment in the clinical setting. Future research examining the use of SRMH among high-risk populations is needed. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(11), 32-38.]. PMID:26535762

  19. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  20. Predicting the Impact of the 2011 Conflict in Libya on Population Mental Health: PTSD and Depression Prevalence and Mental Health Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Fiona J.; Steel, Zachary; Degenhardt, Louisa; Chey, Tien; Silove, Derrick; Marnane, Claire; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mental health service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC’s). Methods Post-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mental health among populations living in conflict. Political terror ratings and intensity of exposure to traumatic events were used in predictive models. Prevalence of severe cases was applied to chosen populations along with uncertainty ranges. Six populations deemed to be affected by the conflict were chosen for modelling: Misrata (population of 444,812), Benghazi (pop. 674,094), Zintan (pop. 40,000), displaced people within Tripoli/Zlitan (pop. 49,000), displaced people within Misrata (pop. 25,000) and Ras Jdir camps (pop. 3,700). Proposed targets for service coverage, resource utilisation and full-time equivalent staffing for management of severe cases of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on a published model for LMIC’s. Findings Severe PTSD prevalence in populations exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events was estimated at 12.4% (95%CI 8.5–16.7) and was 19.8% (95%CI 14.0–26.3) for severe depression. Across all six populations (total population 1,236,600), the conflict could be associated with 123,200 (71,600–182,400) cases of severe PTSD and 228,100 (134,000–344,200) cases of severe depression; 50% of PTSD cases were estimated to co-occur with severe depression. Based upon service coverage targets, approximately 154 full-time equivalent staff would be required to respond to these cases sufficiently which is substantially below the current level of resource estimates for these regions. Discussion This is the first attempt to predict the mental health burden and consequent service response needs of such a conflict, and is crucially timed for Libya. PMID:22808201

  1. Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  2. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  3. Elderly mental health: needs.

    PubMed

    Parkar, Shubhangi R

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  4. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... nih.gov Share Science News About Women’s Mental Health Soldiers at High Suicide Risk after Hospitalization NIMH ...

  5. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders. PMID:26388103

  6. The Onset of Depression During the Great Recession: Foreclosure and Older Adult Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.; Iveniuk, James; English, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined neighborhood-level foreclosure rates and their association with onset of depressive symptoms in older adults. Methods. We linked data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (2005–2006 and 2010–2011 waves), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey, to data on zip code–level foreclosure rates, and predicted the onset of depressive symptoms using logit-linked regression. Results. Multiple stages of the foreclosure process predicted the onset of depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic characteristics and changes in household assets, neighborhood poverty, and visible neighborhood disorder. A large increase in the number of notices of default (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.14, 2.67) and properties returning to ownership by the bank (OR?=?1.62; 95% CI?=?1.06, 2.47) were associated with depressive symptoms. A large increase in properties going to auction was suggestive of such an association (OR?=?1.45; 95% CI?=?0.96, 2.19). Age, fewer years of education, and functional limitations also were predictive. Conclusions. Increases in neighborhood-level foreclosure represent an important risk factor for depression in older adults. These results accord with previous studies suggesting that the effects of economic crises are typically first experienced through deficits in emotional well-being. PMID:24446830

  7. Early Cannabis Use and Estimated Risk of Later Onset of Depression Spells: Epidemiologic Evidence From the Population-based World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Radovanovic, Mirjana; van Laar, Margriet; Fairman, Brian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fayyad, John; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Huang, Yueqin; Kostychenko, Stanislav; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Tachimori, Hisateru; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Early-onset cannabis use is widespread in many countries and might cause later onset of depression. Sound epidemiologic data across countries are missing. The authors estimated the suspected causal association that links early-onset (age <17 years) cannabis use with later-onset (age ?17 years) risk of a depression spell, using data on 85,088 subjects from 17 countries participating in the population-based World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (2001–2005). In all surveys, multistage household probability samples were evaluated with a fully structured diagnostic interview for assessment of psychiatric conditions. The association between early-onset cannabis use and later risk of a depression spell was studied using conditional logistic regression with local area matching of cases and controls, controlling for sex, age, tobacco use, and other mental health problems. The overall association was modest (controlled for sex and age, risk ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 1.7), was statistically robust in 5 countries, and showed no sex difference. The association did not change appreciably with statistical adjustment for mental health problems, except for childhood conduct problems, which reduced the association to nonsignificance. This study did not allow differentiation of levels of cannabis use; this issue deserves consideration in future research. PMID:20534820

  8. [Economic evaluation of the demand of medical care for mental health in Mexico: schizophrenia and depression, 1996-2000].

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Armando; Ramos, René; Zúñiga, Alexis

    2003-01-01

    Financing protection for both, users and providers of health care services is one of the main objectives of National Program of Health in Mexico, 2001-2006. In fact one of the elements of the present health care reform initiatives is need for the efficient allocation of financial resources, using resource allocation schemes by specific health care demands that combine both the economic, clinical and the epidemiological perspectives. The evaluation of such schemes has been approached in several ways; however, in the case of mental health services, there is dearth of studies that use economic assessment methods. Moreover, such studies are of limited scope, often a response to unmated health needs, disregarding the economic implication for health services production and financing and ensuing medical care market imbalances. This paper presents the results of an evaluative research work aimed to assess the average cost of depression and schizophrenia case management, the financial resources required to meet the health care demands by type of institution, period 1996-2000, in Mexico by type of health care provider. The case management average cost for schizophrenia was $211.00 US, and that for depression was $221.00 US. The demand of services for both conditions in each type of institution showed that the greatest relative demands (96% of the national total for depression and 94% of the national total for schizophrenia) occur in three institutions: IMSS, SSA and ISSSTE. The greatest demand of the health services for the two study condition corresponded to those insured by the IMSS, followed by those uninsured who use the SSA services, and those insured by the ISSSTE. The case management costs for mental conditions are in the middle range between hypertension and diabetes in the upper end, pneumonia and diarrhea in the lower end. The case managment costs of health care demands for the selected tracer conditions differ considerably among institutions for insure populations and those for uninsured populations, with a greater economic impact on-the former. Independent from differences found, these results allow the identification of economic evaluation indicators that could be used to design resource allocation schemes for each of the institutions included in this study. PMID:12708163

  9. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  10. Depression and Psychological Trauma: An Overview Integrating Current Research and Specific Evidence of Studies in the Treatment of Depression in Public Mental Health Services in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vitriol, Verónica; Cancino, Alfredo; Weil, Kristina; Salgado, Carolina; Asenjo, Maria Andrea; Potthoff, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, different research has demonstrated the high prevalence of childhood trauma, including sexual abuse, among depressive women. These findings are associated with a complex, severe, and chronic psychopathology. This can be explained considering the neurobiological changes secondary to early trauma that can provoke a neuroendocrine failure to compensate in response to challenge. It suggests the existence of a distinguishable clinical-neurobiological subtype of depression as a function of childhood trauma that requires specific treatments. Among women with depression and early trauma receiving treatment in a public mental health service in Chile, it was demonstrated that a brief outpatient intervention (that screened for and focused on childhood trauma and helped patients to understand current psychosocial difficulties as a repetition of past trauma) was effective in reducing psychiatric symptoms and improving interpersonal relationships. However, in this population, this intervention did not prevent posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to the extreme earthquake that occurred in February 2010. Therefore in adults with depression and early trauma, it is necessary to evaluate prolonged multimodal treatments that integrate pharmacotherapy, social support, and interpersonal psychotherapies with trauma focused interventions (specific interventions for specific traumas). PMID:24695633

  11. Nutrition and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... certain supplement will improve a person’s mental health? Mental illness is serious. In some cases, it can even be life-threatening. If you are struggling with mental health issues, talk to your family doctor. He ...

  12. Mental Health Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people include: Type of mental disorder, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia Age, sex, and body ... information, see the section on medications for treating depression. . Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety medications) The anti-anxiety medications called benzodiazepines can ...

  13. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  14. The Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy as a Public Mental Health Intervention for Adults with Mild to Moderate Depressive Symptomatology: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pots, Wendy T. M.; Meulenbeek, Peter A. M.; Veehof, Martine M.; Klungers, Jorinde; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there has been growing evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for different clinical populations, its effectiveness as a public mental health intervention has not been studied. The present study evaluates a community-based MBCT intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Method The participants with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology were recruited from the general population and randomized to the MBCT intervention (n?=?76) or to a waiting list control group (n?=?75). Participants completed measures before and after the intervention. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures at a 3-month follow-up. Results In the experimental condition significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance, and improvements in mindfulness and emotional- and psychological mental health were found, compared to the waiting list (effect sizes Cohen's d?=?0.31–0.56). These effects were sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher for the MBCT group [odds ratio (OR) 3.026, p<0.01 at post-treatment; NNT?=?5.10]. Discussion MBCT as a public mental health intervention for adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms seems effective and applicable in a natural setting. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR2096 PMID:25333885

  15. Nonlinear digital signal processing in mental health: characterization of major depression using instantaneous entropy measures of heartbeat dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Gaetano; Garcia, Ronald G.; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear digital signal processing methods that address system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of pathologies. More specifically, nonlinear measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression (MD). In this study, we propose the use of instantaneous measures of entropy, namely the inhomogeneous point-process approximate entropy (ipApEn) and the inhomogeneous point-process sample entropy (ipSampEn), to describe a novel characterization of MD patients undergoing affective elicitation. Because these measures are built within a nonlinear point-process model, they allow for the assessment of complexity in cardiovascular dynamics at each moment in time. Heartbeat dynamics were characterized from 48 healthy controls and 48 patients with MD while emotionally elicited through either neutral or arousing audiovisual stimuli. Experimental results coming from the arousing tasks show that ipApEn measures are able to instantaneously track heartbeat complexity as well as discern between healthy subjects and MD patients. Conversely, standard heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed in both time and frequency domains did not show any statistical significance. We conclude that measures of entropy based on nonlinear point-process models might contribute to devising useful computational tools for care in mental health. PMID:25821435

  16. Depression or Endocrine Disorder?: What Mental Health Counselors Need to Know about Hypothyroidism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Paula Helen

    1997-01-01

    Describes hypothyroidism, an endocrine disorder characterized by symptoms that resemble those of depression. Discusses features of the disorder, types and grades of hypothyroidism, causes, valuative techniques for the disorder, and implications of hypothyroidism in counseling and in treating patients suffering from this disorder. (RJM)

  17. Career Thoughts, Indecision, and Depression: Implications for Mental Health Assessment in Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jerry V., III; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among dysfunctional career thoughts and career indecision with respect to symptoms of depression. Such information could be useful to counselors in identifying individuals at the outset of career counseling who may be experiencing emotional distress from life stressors in addition to career stress.…

  18. Depression in Europe: does migrant integration have mental health payoffs? A cross-national comparison of 20 European countries.

    PubMed

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Depression is a leading cause of ill health and disability. As migrants form an increasing group in Europe, already making up about 8.7% of the population in 2010, knowledge on migrant-related inequalities in depression is of main public health interest. In this study, we first assess whether migrants in Europe are at higher risk for depression compared to the native population. Second, we assess whether the association between migration and depression is dependent on different forms of migrant integration. Migrant integration is looked at both from the individual and from the national level. Design. Hierarchical linear regression analyses based on data for 20 countries in the European Social Survey 2006/2007 (N = 37,076 individuals aged 15 or more). Depression is measured using the center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale. We consider migrant integration over time (first- and second-generation migrants, differentiated according to European Union (EU) or non-EU origin), barriers to integration (low educational level, financial difficulties, being out of the labor market, ethnic minority status, discrimination), and the host country environment (national migrant integration policy). Controls are gender, age, partner relationship, social support, and welfare state regime. Results. Natives and second-generation migrants do not differ significantly in their risk profile for depression. First-generation migrants show higher levels of depression, with those born outside of Europe to be the worst off. This higher risk for depression is not attributable to ethnic minority status but is mainly due to experienced barriers to socioeconomic integration and processes of discrimination. A country's national policy on migrant integration shows not to soften the depressing effect of being a first-generation migrant nor does it have indirect beneficial health effects by reducing barriers to integration. Conclusion. In Europe, first-generation EU and non-EU migrants experience higher levels of depression. Second-generation migrants and natives show similar risk profiles. PMID:24517205

  19. Women's Mental Health

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    ... To promote good mental health, keep exercising your body and mind. Do activities you enjoy, strengthen friendships, hobbies, and ... alone. Even if you take care of your body and mind, there are no guarantees against mental illness. Even ...

  20. Children's Mental Health

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    ... families and hear about their experiences living with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette Syndrome Watch the video » Mental health ... emotions. Some examples of childhood mental disorders are: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ... disorders Mood and anxiety disorders Substance ...

  1. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio-vascular diseases and cancers, and due to poverty, poor health prevention and primary health care for these patients. From a system perspective, Australia has been inspired by Canada and created in 2012 its own mental health commission with a similar leading role for patients and families, aboriginal people representatives, but also a surveillance of the system with its own yearly report, like the Quebec Health Commissioner 2012 mental health system performance report. PMID:25120122

  2. Reducing depression in older home care clients: design of a prospective study of a nurse-led interprofessional mental health promotion intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Very little research has been conducted in the area of depression among older home care clients using personal support services. These older adults are particularly vulnerable to depression because of decreased cognition, comorbid chronic conditions, functional limitations, lack of social support, and reduced access to health services. To date, research has focused on collaborative, nurse-led depression care programs among older adults in primary care settings. Optimal management of depression among older home care clients is not currently known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a 6-month nurse-led, interprofessional mental health promotion intervention aimed at older home care clients with depressive symptoms using personal support services. Methods/Design This one-group pre-test post-test study aims to recruit a total of 250 long-stay (> 60 days) home care clients, 70 years or older, with depressive symptoms who are receiving personal support services through a home care program in Ontario, Canada. The nurse-led intervention is a multi-faceted 6-month program led by a Registered Nurse that involves regular home visits, monthly case conferences, and evidence-based assessment and management of depression using an interprofessional approach. The primary outcome is the change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to 6 months using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and the rate and appropriateness of depression treatment from baseline to 12 months. Changes in the costs of use of health services will be assessed from a societal perspective. Descriptive and qualitative data will be collected to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to implementation. Discussion Data collection began in May 2010 and is expected to be completed by July 2012. A collaborative nurse-led strategy may provide a feasible, acceptable and effective means for improving the health of older home care clients by improving the prevention, recognition, and management of depression in this vulnerable population. The challenges involved in designing a practical, transferable and sustainable nurse-led intervention in home care are also discussed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01407926 PMID:21867539

  3. Subjective Versus Objective: An Exploratory Analysis of Latino Primary Care Patients With Self-Perceived Depression Who Do Not Fulfill Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire Criteria for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Alvidrez, Jennifer; Paris, Manuel; Escobar, Javier I.; Dixon, Jane K.; Desai, Mayur M.; Whittemore, Robin; Scahill, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Identification and treatment of depression may be difficult for primary care providers when there is a mismatch between the patient's subjective experiences of illness and objective criteria. Cultural differences in presentation of symptoms among Latino immigrants may hinder access to care for treatment of depression. This article seeks to describe the self-perceptions and symptoms of Latino primary care patients who identify themselves as depressed but do not meet screening criteria for depression. Method: A convenience sample of Latino immigrants (N = 177) in Corona, Queens, New York, was obtained from a primary care practice from August 2008 to December 2008. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to whether participants met Patient Health Questionnaire diagnostic criteria for depression and whether or not participants had a self-perceived mental health problem and self-identified their problem as “depression” from a checklist of cultural idioms of distress. Psychosocial, demographic, and treatment variables were compared between the 3 groups. Results: Participants’ descriptions of symptoms had a predominantly somatic component. The most common complaints were ánimo bajo (low energy) and decaimiento (weakness). Participants with “subjective” depression had mean scores of somatic symptoms and depression severity that were significantly lower than the participants with “objective” depression and significantly higher than the group with no depression (P < .0001). Conclusions: Latino immigrants who perceive that they need help with depression, but do not meet screening criteria for depression, still have significant distress and impairment. To avoid having these patients “fall through the cracks,” it is important to take into account culturally accepted expressions of distress and the meaning of illness for the individual. PMID:21274360

  4. Marital trajectories and mental health.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A E

    2000-12-01

    This study expands the marital status and mental health literature by examining several dimensions of marital trajectories, including the number and type of prior marital losses and duration in current status. Data are drawn from the Piedmont Health Survey of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, collected in 1982-83 (n = 2,158). Results indicate that number of prior losses moderates the health-enhancing effect of being currently married; higher order marriages are associated with worse mental health. Although results vary across the mental illnesses examined (depression, anxiety, and substance use), the negative effect of multiple loss also is observed for the currently divorced and widowed. There is less evidence that the type of prior loss (i.e., divorce or widowhood) moderates the effect of current marital status on mental health; however, some support is found among the presently widowed. The analyses of duration in current status suggest that the rate of decline in symptoms of anxiety following one's most recent loss varies by marital history among the currently widowed. PMID:11198568

  5. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  6. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... email for information and resources 800.273.8255 (crisis line) How can our school take action to ... health Peer mentoring School-based mental health services Crisis response Postvention See SAMHSA’s Preventing Suicide: A Toolkit ...

  7. Exploring mental health history.

    PubMed

    2015-10-14

    Caring for people with mental health problems has a colourful past, from the horrors of electroconvulsive therapy to the Handbook for Attendants of the Insane. An exhibition called Out of the Asylum: the History of Mental Health Nursing, which opened at the RCN library and heritage centre last week, brings all this history together. PMID:26463770

  8. A collaborative approach to identifying effective incentives for mental health clinicians to improve depression care in a large managed behavioral healthcare organization

    PubMed Central

    Branstrom, Robert B.; Fikes, Ruth; Azocar, Francisca; Ettner, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study used stakeholder input to prioritize evidence-based strategies for improving depression care and to select incentives for mental health clinicians to adopt those strategies, and to conduct a feasibility test of an incentive-based program in a managed behavioral healthcare organization (MBHO). In two rounds of interviews and a stakeholder meeting, MBHO administrators and clinicians selected increasing combination treatment (antidepressant plus psychotherapy) rates as the program goal; and paying a bonus for case reviews, clinician feedback, and clinician education as incentives. We assessed program feasibility with case review and clinician surveys from a large independent practice association that contracts with the MBHO. Findings suggest that providing incentives for mental health clinicians is feasible and the incentive program did increase awareness. However, adoption may be challenging because of administrative barriers and limited clinical data available to MBHOs. PMID:20957427

  9. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  10. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. PMID:25457687

  11. Religion, Senescence, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Larson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review epidemiological and survey research relevant to the relationships between religiousness/spirituality and mental health in people at the end of life, with the end of helping psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals dealing with older Americans. They give special attention to well-being, religious coping, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and suicide, and consider the extent to which hope is a mediator of the purported salutary effects of religiousness. Studies were selected from the comprehensive and systematic review of 20th-century scientific literature concerning religion and health. Authors also review current studies relevant to religion and end-of-life issues. Religious persons reported generally higher levels of well-being. The review also found fairly consistent inverse associations of religiousness with rates of depression and suicide. There was some negative association between religious participation and cognitive dysfunction, but the association with anxiety was inconsistent, with some studies showing a correlation between higher levels of religion and anxiety. Religion’s effects on mental health are generally protective in direction but modest in strength. PMID:12095898

  12. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ? 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ? 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling lonely" (DSRS.15). The CPSS items with significant discriminant validity were nightmares (CPSS.2), flashbacks (CPSS.3), traumatic amnesia (CPSS.8), feelings of a foreshortened future (CPSS.12), and easily irritated at small matters (CPSS.14). Conclusions Transcultural translation and alternative validation feasibly can be performed in low clinical resource settings through task-shifting the validation process to trained mental health paraprofessionals using structured interviews. This process is helpful to evaluate cost-effectiveness of psychosocial interventions. PMID:21816045

  13. Zambia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is traditionally the duty and responsibility of the extended family to look after the aged. Gender based violence (GBV) is another issue. Women, who are totally dependent on their spouses economically, are forced by circumstances to continue living in abusive relationships to the detriment of their mental well-being. In Zambia, the family is considered sacrosanct and the affairs of the family members, private. It is within this context that GBV is regarded as a family affair and therefore a private affair, yet spouse beating has led to depression and in some cases death. In terms of psychiatric services, there are close to 560 beds for psychiatric patients across the country. Common mental disorders found in Zambia are acute psychotic episodes, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcohol related problems and organic brain syndromes. About 70-80% of people with mental health problems consult traditional health practitioners before they seek help from conventional health practitioners. Over time the number of frontline mental health workers and professional staff has been declining. This is due to the 'brain drain', retirement, death and low output from training institutions. For practicing psychiatrists, only one is available for the whole country. Other key mental health workers such as psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are also in short supply. All in all, the mental health services situation in Zambia could be described as critical, requiring urgent attention. PMID:15276939

  14. What about the mental health of adults?

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression have surfaced and are affecting many residents in Fukushima prefecture as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disaster. It has also been reported that such mental health problems appeared and persisted after large-scale nuclear accidents in the past, such as the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents, widely affecting the disaster victims. PMID:25747615

  15. A colonial mentality model of depression for Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    David, E J R

    2008-04-01

    Many cultural and ethnic minorities have extensive experiences of being oppressed, which they may eventually internalize. However, psychology has yet to actively incorporate various forms of internalized oppression (e.g., colonial mentality [CM]) into the etiological conceptualizations of psychopathology. Using a sample of 248 Filipino Americans, the author tested a more complete and sociopolitically informed cultural model of depression symptoms. Results with structural equation modeling showed that a conceptual model that includes CM better explained depression symptoms among Filipino Americans than the model without CM and revealed that CM had a significant direct effect on Filipino Americans' experiences of depression symptoms. It is argued, through this illustrative case of depression symptoms among Filipino Americans, that incorporating the psychological effects of oppressive historical and contemporary conditions into our conceptualizations of ethnic minority mental health may lead to a more culturally accurate etiological understanding of psychopathology among historically oppressed groups. PMID:18426284

  16. Mental health consequences of disasters.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    We present in this review the current state of disaster mental health research. In particular, we provide an overview of research on the presentation, burden, correlates, and treatment of mental disorders following disasters. We also describe challenges to studying the mental health consequences of disasters and discuss the limitations in current methodologies. Finally, we offer directions for future disaster mental health research. PMID:24159920

  17. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  18. Depressed but not legally mentally impaired.

    PubMed

    Wondemaghen, Meron

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the mental impairment (insanity) defense in the Australian state of Victoria and argues that the defense is successful only when offenders suffer from psychotic mental illnesses. This raises the question about how non-psychotic offenders are dealt with by the courts when they claim 'mental impairment' for serious acts of violence such as homicide, particularly when a relatively large number of perpetrators involved in homicide suffer from non-psychotic illnesses like depression. The analysis shows that depressive illnesses do not reach the threshold for mental impairment (legal insanity) such that they mitigate violent criminal behavior, although they can, arguably, diminish culpability. This article draws upon existing literature, qualitative analysis of two court cases and semi-structured interviews with four legal representatives to make its conclusions. PMID:24268825

  19. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Child and Adolescent Mental Health www.le.ac.uk/greenwood Greenwood Institute of Child Health #12. Contents Background to the course 2 aims 3 why study child and adolescent Mental health at Leicester? 3 Learning outcomes 4 relevance to child and adolescent Mental health services 4 who will the course Benefit

  20. Understanding the Usage of Content in a Mental Health Intervention for Depression: An Analysis of Log Data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions for the early treatment of depressive symptoms can be considered effective in reducing mental complaints. However, there is a limited understanding of which elements in an intervention contribute to effectiveness. For efficiency and effectiveness of interventions, insight is needed into the use of content and persuasive features. Objective The aims of this study were (1) to illustrate how log data can be used to understand the uptake of the content of a Web-based intervention that is based on the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and (2) to discover how log data can be of value for improving the incorporation of content in Web-based interventions. Methods Data from 206 participants (out of the 239) who started the first nine lessons of the Web-based intervention, Living to the Full, were used for a secondary analysis of a subset of the log data of the parent study about adherence to the intervention. The log files used in this study were per lesson: login, start mindfulness, download mindfulness, view success story, view feedback message, start multimedia, turn on text-message coach, turn off text-message coach, and view text message. Differences in usage between lessons were explored with repeated measures ANOVAs (analysis of variance). Differences between groups were explored with one-way ANOVAs. To explore the possible predictive value of the login per lesson quartiles on the outcome measures, four linear regressions were used with login quartiles as predictor and with the outcome measures (Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression [CES-D] and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Anxiety [HADS-A] on post-intervention and follow-up) as dependent variables. Results A significant decrease in logins and in the use of content and persuasive features over time was observed. The usage of features varied significantly during the treatment process. The usage of persuasive features increased during the third part of the ACT (commitment to value-based living), which might indicate that at that stage motivational support was relevant. Higher logins over time (9 weeks) corresponded with a higher usage of features (in most cases significant); when predicting depressive symptoms at post-intervention, the linear regression yielded a significant model with login quartile as a significant predictor (explained variance is 2.7%). Conclusions A better integration of content and persuasive features in the design of the intervention and a better intra-usability of features within the system are needed to identify which combination of features works best for whom. Pattern recognition can be used to tailor the intervention based on usage patterns from the earlier lessons and to support the uptake of content essential for therapy. An adaptable interface for a modular composition of therapy features supposes a dynamic approach for Web-based treatment; not a predefined path for all, but a flexible way to go through all features that have to be used. PMID:24486914

  1. Latina Mothers' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Conner, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Latina mothers' perceptions of mental health and factors that promote/restore mental health were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mental health. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…

  2. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child. PMID:26474475

  3. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  4. Appalachian Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Susan Emley, Ed.

    In this book, 17 psychologists, anthropologists, social workers and others explore important theoretical and applied issues concerning the mental health of Appalachian people. Rejecting the view of Appalachia as an area dominated by a culture of poverty, these papers portray a strong regional culture based on family, community, and religion. This…

  5. Audiovisuals in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigitte L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes major uses of film, television, and video in mental health field and discusses problems in selection, acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, transfer, care of tapes, patients' rights, and copyright. A sample patient consent form for media recording, borrower's evaluation sheet, sources of audiovisuals and reviews, and 35 references…

  6. Poverty and mental health in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung

    2014-04-01

    Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries. PMID:24524962

  7. Mental Health Program Reports - 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Julius, Ed.

    The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…

  8. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health

  9. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care. PMID:25963120

  10. Preventing and Treating Child Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…

  11. Predicting future hospital utilization for mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Kolbasovsky, Andrew; Reich, Leonard; Futterman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    To develop a model using administrative variables to predict number of days in the hospital for a mental health condition in the year after discharge from a mental health hospitalization. Background, index hospitalization and preindex inpatient, emergency room, and outpatient utilization information were collected for 766 adult members discharged from a mental health hospitalization during a 1-year period. A regression model was developed to predict hospitalized days for a mental health condition in the year after discharge. A regression model was created containing five statistically significant predictors: Medicare insurance coverage, preindex mental health inpatient days, index length of stay, depression diagnosis, and number of mental health outpatient visits with a professional provider. It is possible to predict future mental health inpatient utilization at the time of discharge from a mental health hospitalization using administrative data, thus allowing disease managers to better identify members in greatest need of additional services and interventions. PMID:17160724

  12. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mental illnesses also carry an increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults Antipsychotics Use Goes Up Among Elderly October 21, 2015 NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on Depression and Older Adults December 11, ...

  13. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  14. Thailand mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2004-01-01

    Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service. PMID:15276947

  15. [Mental Health and relationships].

    PubMed

    Spivacow, Miguel Alejo

    2012-01-01

    After acknowledging that the diversity of cultural, historical and theoretical perspectives has given place to multiple definitions of mental health, the author circumscribes the goal of this article to reflecting on mental health from the viewpoint of human relationships in intersubjective milieux. The basic assumption that guides this paper is that the subject's psychic structure is constituted and developed in a relational matrix. Conceptualized in a relational context, the individual's mental health needs to take into account each member's developmental stage and asymmetrical position in a relationship. In the theoretical and therapeutic approach proposed here, drive renunciation, negative pacts, and intersubjective work are described as basic concepts in the analysis of relational links. Drive renunciation is defined as the operation that excludes certain drives derivatives from explicit relational interchange in order to maintain the structure and stability of the relationship. Negative pacts are defined as the configurations of reciprocal libidinal investments that give form to drive renunciation. The concept of intersubjective work places the emphasis on the interaction of the poles of the relationship, on how what one does influences the other's response. Thus, in the therapeutic context, intersubjective work accounts for each member's processes of symbolization and working through in the interchange and reciprocal impact of each member on the transformation of the relationship. Finally, the complexities around the formulation of therapeutic goals are emphasized and the occasional need of an interdisciplinary therapeutic plan is highlighted. PMID:22880195

  16. Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David J.

    The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…

  17. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  18. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems. PMID:25698655

  19. Mental Health and Education Decisions. CEE DP 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Crivellaro, Elena; McNally, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems--and depression in particular--have been rising internationally. The link between poor mental health and poor educational outcomes is particularly interesting in the case of the UK which has a low international ranking both on measures of child wellbeing and the probability of early drop-out from the labour market and…

  20. Perceived discrimination and children's mental health symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Cheryl L; Bowie, Bonnie H; Carrère, Sybil

    2014-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be strongly associated with mental health outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, chronic stress, post traumatic stress disorder, and low self-esteem. This study (N = 88) examined the effects of perceived discrimination and its association with child mental health symptoms. African American children had a significantly stronger association between social stress and a sense of exclusion/rejection than Multiracial or European American children. Nurses need to assess and counsel families of color about their experiences with perceived discriminatory acts. PMID:25365283

  1. Mental health and disorders. Editorial.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". PMID:24375538

  2. Depressants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms when trying to quit. Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar to seizures) depression and other mental health issues Continue Other Possible Problems Taking too much ...

  3. Mental Health Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent suicides? Where can I find mental health statistics for rural populations? The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ( ... and county type. County type is divided into population data classes: Large metro 1 ... to browse RHIhub’s Finding Statistics and Data Related to Rural Health topic guide ...

  4. Enhancing Hispanic Participation in Mental Health Clinical Research: Development of a Spanish-speaking Depression Research Site

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Vivianne Aponte; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Ramirez, Cynthia; Kelley, Mary E.; Schneider, Rebecca; Blastos, Beatriz; Larson, Jacqueline; Mercado, Flavia; Mayberg, Helen; Craighead, W. Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanics, particularly those with limited English proficiency, are underrepresented in psychiatric clinical research studies. We developed a bilingual and bicultural research clinic dedicated to the recruitment and treatment of Spanish-speaking subjects in the Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study, a large clinical trial of treatment-naïve subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Demographic and clinical data derived from screening evaluations of the first 1,174 subjects presenting for participation were compared between the Spanish-speaking site (N=275) and the primary English-speaking site (N=899). Reasons for ineligibility (N=888) for the PReDICT study were tallied for each site. Results Compared to English-speakers, Spanish-speakers had a lower level of education and were more likely to be female, uninsured, and have uncontrolled medical conditions. Clinically, Spanish-speakers demonstrated greater depression severity, with higher mean symptom severity scores, and a greater number of previous suicide attempts. Among the subjects who were not randomized into the PReDICT study, Spanish-speaking subjects were more likely to have an uncontrolled medical condition or refuse participation, whereas English-speaking subjects were more likely to have bipolar disorder or a non-MDD depressive disorder. Conclusion Recruitment of Hispanic subjects with MDD is feasible and may enhance efforts at signal detection, given the higher severity of depression among Spanish-speaking participants presenting for clinical trials. Specific approaches for the recruitment and retention of Spanish-speaking participants are required. PMID:23959771

  5. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385

  6. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. PMID:22394694

  7. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core components of positive mental health: feelings of happiness and satisfaction with life (emotional well-being), positive individual functioning in terms of self-realization (psychological well-being), and positive societal functioning in terms of being of social value (social well-being). The two continua model holds that mental illness and mental health are related but distinct dimensions. This model was studied on the basis of a cross-sectional representative internet survey of Dutch adults (N = 1,340; 18–87 years). Mental illness was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and mental health with the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. It was found that older adults, except for the oldest-old, scored lower on psychopathological symptoms and were less likely to be mentally ill than younger adults. Although there were fewer age differences for mental health, older adults experienced more emotional, similar social and slightly lower psychological well-being. In sum, today’s older adults have fewer mental illness problems, but they are not in a better positive mental health than today’s younger adults. These findings support the validity of the two continua model in adult development. PMID:20502508

  8. Understanding and Building Mental Health UBC Resources

    E-print Network

    Conati, Cristina

    Understanding and Building Mental Health UBC Resources How do I build my mental health? What do members of the UBC community do to build mental health? How can I access mental health training? Where can I assess my current state of mental health? Where can I find information about mindfulness? Where

  9. Patience and Mental Health in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. Materials and Methods: A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. Results: The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Conclusions: Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being. PMID:26576165

  10. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

  11. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

  12. Mental Health, United States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

    In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

  13. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  14. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reighley, Joan

    A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…

  15. Mental Health and Sociocultural Determinants in an Asian Indian Community.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa R; Mann, Semran K; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    In a US population of adult male and female Sikh immigrant participants (N = 350), we explored sociocultural factors related to depression, giving participants a choice between English or Punjabi surveys. Language preference pointed to a subgroup with higher levels of depression and lower satisfaction with life. Underreporting of depression suggests a general reluctance to discuss depression. While multiple sociocultural variables were associated with depression bivariably, multivariate analysis identified negative religious coping and anxiety as unique predictors of depression. Community interventions should tap into the protective close-knit social fabric of this community as an opportunity to change the stigma of mental health. PMID:26605953

  16. Sufism and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  17. Sufism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  18. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  19. Correlates of Mental Depression Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pachauri, Saroj; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2015-11-01

    Mental health is an integral part of overall health status but has been a largely neglected issue in the developing world especially among female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of major depression among FSWs in southern India. Major depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale data from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey, 2010-2011 conducted among FSWs (n = 1986) in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India. Almost two-fifths of FSWs (39%) reported major depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows a significant association between major depression and the following characteristics for FSWs: low autonomy, alcohol use, experience of violence, police arrest, inconsistent condom use with clients, mobility for sex work, and being HIV positive or not wanting to disclose HIV status. Research and advocacy efforts are needed to ensure that the mental health issues of marginalized groups are appropriately addressed in HIV prevention programs. PMID:26307144

  20. Good Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if: You often have difficulty sleeping and the solutions listed above are not working for you You ... the signs and symptoms of mental illness and solutions for preventing and coping with mental illness. Insomnia ...

  1. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  2. Addressing the mental health needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents' engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  3. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  4. Introduction In recent years, child and adolescent mental health issues

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    . Nevada has one of the highest rates of major depression and suicide in the nation and ranks 36th and adolescents, and major depressive disorder is the main cause of disability among adolescents and young adultsIntroduction In recent years, child and adolescent mental health issues have become a significant

  5. Metal music and mental health in France.

    PubMed

    Recours, Robin; Aussaguel, François; Trujillo, Nick

    2009-09-01

    Although numerous authors have associated metal music with social problems such as suicide, self-destruction and Satanism, few studies have been undertaken to examine the mental health of fans of heavy metal music. This study attempts to determine if there is a link between mental health and the enjoyment of this type of music in France. The researchers surveyed 333 fans of metal music. Their mental health was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a widely used instrument that measures anxiety and depression. The scores of the sample of metal music fans were then compared to the scores that reveal possible, probable, or severe mental disorders. Qualifying variables included age, gender, status, education, motivation and participation in metal music culture. The results indicated that fans of metal music are mainly young adults (median age = 22.67, SD = 5.29) and tend to be male (87.85 percent). As a whole, metal music fans have levels of anxiety and depression that are similar to and lower than levels in the general population. Specifically, <5 percent of metal music fans surveyed showed pathological symptoms. Subjects that scored higher levels of anxiety and depression were those that had literary and/or arts backgrounds rather than scientific backgrounds, that wrote metal music lyrics, that consumed alcohol and that engaged in the body modification practice of scarification. This study suggests that opponents of metal music should re-examine the basis for their criticism. More scholarly research is needed to better understand the effects of metal music on fans and on society. PMID:19521752

  6. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  7. Why mental health matters to global health.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2014-12-01

    Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. PMID:24595266

  8. Adult neurogenesis, mental health, and mental illness: hope or hype?

    PubMed

    Eisch, Amelia J; Cameron, Heather A; Encinas, Juan M; Meltzer, Leslie A; Ming, Guo-Li; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda S

    2008-11-12

    Psychiatric and neurologic disorders take an enormous toll on society. Alleviating the devastating symptoms and consequences of neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, epilepsy, and schizophrenia is a main force driving clinical and basic researchers alike. By elucidating these disease neuromechanisms, researchers hope to better define treatments and preventive therapies. Research suggests that regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents a promising approach to treating and perhaps preventing mental illness. Here we appraise the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in major psychiatric and neurologic disorders within the essential framework of recent progress made in understanding "normal" adult neurogenesis. Topics addressed include the following: the life cycle of an adult hippocampal stem cell and the implications for aging; links between learning and hippocampal neurogenesis; the reciprocal relationship between cocaine self-administration and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; the role of adult neurogenesis in an animal model of depression and response to antidepressant exposure; the impact of neonatal seizures on dentate gyrus neurogenesis; and the contribution of a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These topics are discussed in light of the regulation of adult neurogenesis, the relationship to normal neurogenesis in adulthood and aging, and, importantly, the manipulation of neurogenesis to promote mental health and treat mental illness. PMID:19005040

  9. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  10. Online Social Networking and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  11. Islamic Values and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassir, Balkis

    Mental well-being is as important as physical well-being for sound life of man, and perhaps even more important, since physical illnesses are related in varying degrees to psychological problems. Modern psychology emphasizes essential criteria for mental health and well-being. These include positive relationships with others, productivity and…

  12. Mental health effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  13. [Impact of disasters on the mental health].

    PubMed

    Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    The study on the impact of disasters on the mental health is a relatively recent research field. Despite this, there are a significant number of studies showing the epidemiological data of the psychiatric pathology present in survivors and those affected by disasters This review attempts to summarize current knowledge and give an integrated vision of the effects of the disasters on the mental health, either natural or manmade disasters, as well as identify the effects prevalence and differences in each type of disaster. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are some of the pathologies observed in people affected by disasters and with an ineffective adaptation, jointly with an increase in the consumption of toxic substances, generating an additional public health problem within another problem. The consequences will be different depending on the type of population and its cultural pattern, sex and gender of the affected people and type of disasters. PMID:24547635

  14. Quality and relevance of domain-specific search: a case study in mental health

    E-print Network

    Hawking, David

    be justified in terms of qual- ity or quantity of search results. We chose depressive illness (mental healthQuality and relevance of domain-specific search: a case study in mental health Thanh Tin Tang.craswell@csiro.au, david.hawking@csiro.au Kathy Griffiths and Helen Christensen Centre for Mental Health Research, ANU

  15. Mental health and family planning.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1971-04-01

    It is known that unwanted pregnancies have damaging consequences. Despite the fact that 97% of fecund U.S. women have used or expect to use contraception, more than 1/2 of the births were reported by married couples in 1965 as unplanned. The circular relationship between excess fertility and conditions of poverty and their relevance for mental health has been studied; results have shown that in large families there is a great likelihood that the last-born child is unwanted. It is also true that in families with 4 or more children, those in the last half of the birth order are more likely to develop mental illness than their older siblings. One way to reduce unwanted pregnancies is to enable couples to have children only with their own informed consent. Induced abortion must be among the available alternatives for the women desiring it. The role of unregulated fertility in the etiology of mental disorder is seldon explored. Systematic observations of the mental health consequences of unwanted pregnancies are rare. Similarly, the appropriateness of applying family planning concepts in preventive mental health programs has received little attention. Sex education and contraceptive information should be introduced when a girl reaches menarche. Closer work between mental health association, medical schools, general practitioners, etc., is needed urgently. The author maintains that the prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and the appalling numbers of unwanted births in the U.S today represent a mental health problem of undefined but clearly immense proportions. PMID:5098783

  16. Mental Health Treatment Program Locator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Facility Locator Buprenorphine Physician Locator Find a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health ... Service . Privacy Policy . Home | About the Locator | Find Facilities Near You | Find Facilities by City, County, State ...

  17. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. PMID:24118217

  18. The Role of Mental Imagery in Depression: Negative Mental Imagery Induces Strong Implicit and Explicit Affect in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Görgen, Stefanie Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood) and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) and the self-assessment manikin (SAM) to assess implicit (AMP) and explicit (SAM) affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n?=?32) compared to healthy controls (n?=?32). In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures) in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression, such as the promotion of positive imagery. PMID:26217240

  19. Pediatric mental health emergencies in the emergency medical services system.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Margaret A; Mace, Sharon E

    2006-10-01

    Emergency departments are vital in the management of pediatric patients with mental health emergencies. Pediatric mental health emergencies are an increasing part of emergency medical practice because emergency departments have become the safety net for a fragmented mental health infrastructure that is experiencing critical shortages in services in all sectors. Emergency departments must safely, humanely, and in a culturally and developmentally appropriate manner manage pediatric patients with undiagnosed and known mental illnesses, including those with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and those experiencing a behavioral crisis. Emergency departments also manage patients with suicidal ideation, depression, escalating aggression, substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder, and maltreatment and those exposed to violence and unexpected deaths. Emergency departments must address not only the physical but also the mental health needs of patients during and after mass-casualty incidents and disasters. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Emergency Physicians support advocacy for increased mental health resources, including improved pediatric mental health tools for the emergency department, increased mental health insurance coverage, and adequate reimbursement at all levels; acknowledgment of the importance of the child's medical home; and promotion of education and research for mental health emergencies. PMID:17015573

  20. Integrated primary mental health care.

    PubMed

    La Grenade, J

    1998-12-01

    Mental health is increasingly being recognized as contributing significantly to the burden of disease, particularly now that the indicators have shifted from measures of mortality to measures of morbidity. Psychiatric morbidity in the community, based on community surveys, is estimated at 20 to 30% of the population. Increasingly, patients needing mental health services prefer to be in a general health care setting than in specialized centres. Internationally and regionally, the general policy has been to move toward the development of comprehensive mental health programmes integrated within primary health care. This integration may be structural (use of shared facilities), administrative (shared administrative resources) or functional (complete integration of clinical services, with staff jointly responsible for patient welfare). This paper examines how this integration can be achieved, and the potential role of the Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, University of the West Indies in advancing this integrative process through research and training. PMID:10368622

  1. Mental Health Education and Information UBC Resources

    E-print Network

    Conati, Cristina

    Mental Health Education and Information UBC Resources Where can I access mental health training and faculty? What are some resources I can share related to building mental health? External Resources How do I recognize a mental health problem in the workplace? Where can I access e-learning modules related

  2. Children's and Adolescents' Mental Health. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This fact sheet addresses the mental health needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mental health problems, that these mental health problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mental health problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…

  3. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine. PMID:15276949

  4. Mental Health, Are We at Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Tawar, Shabeena; Bhatia, Sanjana Seth; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health is an important component of the total positive health and is interwoven closely with the physical and physiological dynamics of the human body. Worldwide, about 500 million people are believed to be suffering from neurotic, stress related and psychological problems. In India, surveys on mental morbidity in various parts of the country suggest a prevalence rate of 18-20 per 1000. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out amongst married women in the age group 18-45 years in an urban community of South Mumbai. Self-reporting questionnaire of 20 items (SRQ 20) developed by the WHO was administered. Statistical analysis was carried out to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disturbance. Result: The prevalence of psychiatric disturbance was found to be 27.27% for the total sample. The study results indicate that somatic symptoms were reported more commonly which could be a manifestation of underlying/burgeoning mental disorders. Conclusions: The results imply a high prevalence of 27.27% of psychiatric disturbance in our community. However, defining mental disorder from a clinical standpoint necessitates identification of the dividing line between despair and depression. It is recommended that women be encouraged to approach counsellors and thus enable further diagnosis and management of Common Mental Disorders in the community. PMID:24695680

  5. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

  6. Workaholism and mental health among Polish academic workers.

    PubMed

    Bartczak, Monika; Ogi?ska-Bulik, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between workaholism and mental health among 126 Polish academic workers. The participants' mean age was 45.9 years, 51.6% of them were women. The participants completed 2 questionnaires: the work addiction risk test and the general health questionnaire. Even though 66% of the subjects were classified in the group of moderate-to-high risk of workaholism, the overall state of mental health was categorized as average. The results revealed that workaholism was associated with poorer mental health. Employees with higher levels of workaholism had worse state of health, i.e., more somatic symptoms, higher levels of anxiety, insomnia, social dysfunction and symptoms of depression. Emotional arousal/perfectionism was the strongest predictor of the state of general health and was mostly responsible for harmful effects on mental health. However, the general effect of workaholism on health was not as strong as expected. PMID:22429525

  7. The Nevada mental health courts.

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. PMID:20655596

  8. Conceptions of Mental Illness: Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals and the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Jennifer P.; Rocha, Anita; Christian, Ann; Link, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The authors compared attitudes of the U.S. general public and of mental health professionals about the competence and perceived dangerousness of people with mental health problems and the desire for social distance from them. Factors related to negative attitudes and the desire for social distance also were examined. Methods Vignettes describing individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression and schizophrenia were included in the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) and a 2009 study of mental health professionals, and responses were descriptively compared (GSS, N=397 responses to depression vignette, N=373 responses to schizophrenia vignette; 731 mental health professionals responded to both vignettes). Regression analyses examined whether demographic and provider characteristics were associated with perceptions of less competence and perceived dangerousness of the vignette character and with respondents’ desire for social distance. Results Compared with the American public, mental health professionals had significantly more positive attitudes toward people with mental health problems. However, some providers’ conceptions about the dangerousness of people with schizophrenia and provider desire for social distance from clients in work and personal situations were concerning. Younger age, self-identifying as non-Hispanic white, being female, having at least a four-year college degree, being familiar with mental illness, and certain job titles and more years of experience in the mental health field were predictive of more positive conceptions. Conclusions Although mental health professionals held more positive attitudes than the general public about people with mental health problems, strong stereotypes persisted in both groups, especially concerning schizophrenia. This study identified several demographic and provider characteristics that can inform intervention strategies in both groups. PMID:24430508

  9. Predictors of Healthcare Service Utilization for Mental Health Reasons

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Ngamini Ngui, André; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Grenier, Guy; Caron, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to identify: (1) predictors of 12-month healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons, framed by the Andersen model, among a population cohort in an epidemiological catchment area; and (2) correlates associated with healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons among individuals with and without mental disorders respectively. Analyses comprised univariate, bivariate, and multiple regression analyses. Being male, having poor quality of life, possessing better self-perception of physical health, and suffering from major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social phobia, and emotional problems predicted healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons. Among individuals with mental disorders, needs factors (psychological distress, impulsiveness, emotional problems, victim of violence, and aggressive behavior) and visits to healthcare professionals were associated with healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons. Among individuals without mental disorders, healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons is strongly associated with enabling factors such as social support, income, environmental variables, and self-perception of the neighborhood. Interventions facilitating social cohesion and social solidarity in neighborhood settings may reduce the need to seek help among individuals without mental disorders. Furthermore, in their capacity as frontline professionals, general practitioners should be more sensitive in preventing, detecting, and treating mental disorders in routine primary care. PMID:25321874

  10. Dating violence: mental health consequences based on type of abuse.

    PubMed

    Eshelman, Lee; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and mental health symptoms. Female college students (N = 499) completed anonymous online surveys to report experiences of abuse, as well as symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and physical injuries. Five groups of participants were found: no abuse; psychological abuse; physical abuse; psychological and physical abuse; and psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The multiple abuse groups showed the highest rate of mental health symptoms. In addition, increased frequency of abuse was related to more mental health symptoms and more physical injuries. PMID:22594217

  11. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. ? Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...

  12. Menopause and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... having a job Not having enough money Having low self-esteem (how you feel about yourself) Not having the social support you need Feeling disappointed that you can't have children anymore Return to top Ways to feel better Treating depression MHT is not an antidepressant. If you are ...

  13. Health sciences librarians and mental health laws.

    PubMed

    Hartz, F R

    1978-10-01

    Two U.S. Supreme Court decisions, O'Connor v. Donaldson and Bounds v. Smith, hold important implications for health sciences librarians serving in mental health facilities. The first, O'Connor, with its many ancillary holdings, puts mental health personnel on notice that patients have certain basic rights, which courts all over the country will now be required to enforce. In Bounds the court has ruled that prison authorities must assist prison inmates in preparing and filing legal papers. The ruling will most likely benefit all mentally disabled prisoners, and future litigation may expand this category to include: (1) persons committed under the criminal code, (2) persons under involuntary commitment not related to the criminal code, and (3) persons voluntarily committed. A selective annotated bibliography, consisting of background readings in mental health and the law, basic rights, law library materials, and mental health legal services, has been compiled to help librarians establish and develop legal collections in anticipation of court decisions that will expand the conditions of Bounds to include all mentally disabled patients. PMID:361117

  14. What does Self Rated Mental Health Represent

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daphna; Kaplan, Giora

    2014-01-01

    Background Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859]. Results The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health Significance for public health The present study is an original study on the self rated physical, mental and overall health measures. Because of the wide range of associations with other health indicators, and the simplicity with which they are collected, self-rated health measures are widely used in large population surveys. The present study questions the automatic assumption that the self rated mental health functions as a proxy measure of psychiatric morbidity, and suggests that the self rated mental health is more closely related to subjective well-being. The results show that self rated mental health predicts self rated general health better than self rated physical health. PMID:25553310

  15. Depression, Anxiety, and Relevant Cognitions in Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Elizabeth; Bihm, Elson M.; Lammers, William J.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed depression, anxiety, and relevant cognitions in 46 adults with borderline, mild, or moderate mental retardation. Consistent with research on other groups, self-reports of depression and anxiety were highly correlated and cognitions were strong predictors of negative affect. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses offered…

  16. The relation of physical activity and exercise to mental health.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C B; Sallis, J F; Needle, R

    1985-01-01

    Mental disorders are of major public health significance. It has been claimed that vigorous physical activity has positive effects on mental health in both clinical and nonclinical populations. This paper reviews the evidence for this claim and provides recommendations for future studies. The strongest evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise probably alleviate some symptoms associated with mild to moderate depression. The evidence also suggests that physical activity and exercise might provide a beneficial adjunct for alcoholism and substance abuse programs; improve self-image, social skills, and cognitive functioning; reduce the symptoms of anxiety; and alter aspects of coronary-prone (Type A) behavior and physiological response to stressors. The effects of physical activity and exercise on mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, and other aspects of mental health are not known. Negative psychological effects from exercise have also been reported. Recommendations for further research on the effects of physical activity and exercise on mental health are made. PMID:3920718

  17. Leadership and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper argues for the critical importance of successful leadership for effective mental health nursing, observing that nursing leadership has long been regarded problematically by the profession. Using empirical and theoretical evidence we debate what leadership styles and strategies are most likely to result in effective, recovery-orientated mental health nursing. Models of transformational and distributed leadership are found to be highly congruent with mental health nursing values, yet the literature suggests it is a type of leadership more often desired than experienced. We note how the scholarly literature tends to ignore the "elephant in the room" that is organizational power, and we question whether transformational leadership pursued within a specific clinical context can influence beyond those confines. Nevertheless it is within these contexts that consumers experience nursing, effective or otherwise, thus we should advocate what is known about effective leadership wherever it is required. PMID:21932925

  18. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Benefits Home Apply for VA Care Apply Online Application Process Veteran Eligibility Active Duty Families of Veterans Women Veterans Determine Costs Copays Means Test Health Insurance Make a Payment Annual Income Thresholds Non-VA Care Purchased Care ...

  19. Mental Health and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Benefits Home Apply for VA Care Apply Online Application Process Veteran Eligibility Active Duty Families of Veterans Women Veterans Determine Costs Copays Means Test Health Insurance Make a Payment Annual Income Thresholds Non-VA Care Purchased Care ...

  20. Supporting Students with Mental Health Conditions

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    a period of illness and go on to enjoy long periods of complete health. The term mental health conditionSupporting Students with Mental Health Conditions One of a series of fact sheets for staff INTRODUCTION National statistics indicate that 1 in 5 Australians experience a mental health condition

  1. Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health1234

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Mental health problems in women, children, and adolescents are a significant public health issue. Given current barriers to the effective treatment of these problems, researchers are looking to the field of nutrition for potential alternatives to better understand and address mental health issues. The purpose of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between zinc and mental health disorders with a focus on 2 mental health problems that commonly affect women and children: depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search of the databases Medline and PsychInfo was conducted with the use of key terms. The review included articles from 1975 to May 2008, but focused on articles published in recent years. Relations between zinc concentrations and behavior in animals; the relation between zinc deficiency, depression, and ADHD in patient and community samples; and the potential biological mechanisms for these relations were explored. The data support a relation between low concentrations of zinc and mental health problems, especially in at-risk populations. Evidence for the potential use of zinc in treating mental health problems comes mainly from patient populations and is strongest when zinc is given in combination with pharmacologic treatment. Less conclusive evidence exists for the effectiveness of zinc alone or in general community samples. Recommendations for further research in this area are provided. PMID:19176735

  2. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  3. Mental health and polygamy: The Syrian case

    PubMed Central

    Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the psychological, self-esteem (SE), family function, marital satisfaction, life satisfaction and degree of agreement with the practice of polygamy among polygamous women with a control group from monogamous women in Syria. METHODS: Convenience sample of 136 women, 64 of whom were wives in polygamous marriages and 72 were wives in monogamous marriages participated in this study. A snowball method of sampling was used, conducted by undergraduate local female students trained to collect data according to culturally competent methods. The following research instruments were deployed: the symptoms checklist-90, the Rosenberg SE, the Life Satisfaction, family function and marital satisfaction. RESULTS: Findings revealed that women in polygamous marriages experienced lower SE, less life satisfaction, less marital satisfaction and more mental health symptomatology than women in monogamous marriages. Many of the mental health symptoms were different; noteworthy were elevated somatization, depression, hostility and psychoticism and their general severity index was higher. Furthermore, “first wife syndrome” was examined in polygamous families, comparing first with second and third wives in polygamous marriages. Findings indicated that first wives reported on more family problems, less SE, more anxiety, more paranoid ideation, and more psychoticism than second and third wives. CONCLUSION: These results are best understood through consideration of the socio-cultural and economic realities facing these women. Implications for mental health practice, policy and further research are discussed. PMID:24175180

  4. Teen Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are going through. Depression is not your fault or caused by something you did wrong Depression ... being negative. Remember that depression is not your fault! Learn more National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH): ...

  5. Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health disparities refer to the disproportionate amount of psychopathology found among persons of disadvantageous social standing, such as persons of low socioeconomic status (SES). Although social and self selection cannot entirely be ruled out as explanations for these differences, the accumulation of evidence supports a social causation…

  6. Mental Health Care: Who's Who

    MedlinePLUS

    ... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...

  7. State Child Mental Health Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Sheila A.

    This monograph is based on experiences of the national Child and Adolescent Service System Program (CASSP) and describes a plan for developing and implementing community based systems of care for children and adolescents with serious emotional disorders and their families. It draws on examples from state mental health plans to illustrate planning…

  8. Ethnic Lifestyles and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.

    This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…

  9. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual’s’ human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. Material and Methods: The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers’ mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. Results: The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated with any SRSDA subscale. Conclusions: Burnout appears to implicate mental health status of healthcare providers in work index. Emotional exhaustion is the burnout dimension that is correlated the most with employees’ mental health. PMID:25870487

  10. Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seekles, Wike; van Straten, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan; van Marwijk, Harm; Cuijpers, Pim

    2009-01-01

    Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1) Watchful waiting, (2) Guided self-help, (3) Problem Solving Treatment and (4) Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia), generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610. PMID:19500346

  11. The treatment gap in mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922

  12. Mental Health Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... to what’s called conduct disorder. This sometimes includes bullying, destroying property, and being cruel to animals — plus ...

  13. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major services and service delivery systems in Nevada for persons with mental health disorders, mentally retarded persons, and abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Considered are the following areas of basic service needs: prevention of the mentally handicapping conditions,…

  14. Mental Health First Aid Fall Trainings

    E-print Network

    Kim, John

    Mental Health First Aid Fall Trainings Faculty/Staff Training Dates: 12/14-12/16 8:30am-12:00pm@caps.ucla.edu What is Mental Health First Aid? Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is an internationally recognized to a spectrum of mental health problems and crises. Since its US launch in 2008 more than 100,000 people have

  15. International Committee on Mental Health in Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus statements for screening and treating depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Abbott, Janice; Georgiopoulos, Anna M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Smith, Beth; Hempstead, Sarah E; Marshall, Bruce; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Elborn, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Studies measuring psychological distress in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have found high rates of both depression and anxiety. Psychological symptoms in both individuals with CF and parent caregivers have been associated with decreased lung function, lower body mass index, worse adherence, worse health-related quality of life, more frequent hospitalisations and increased healthcare costs. To identify and treat depression and anxiety in CF, the CF Foundation and the European CF Society invited a panel of experts, including physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, social workers, a pharmacist, parents and an individual with CF, to develop consensus recommendations for clinical care. Over 18?months, this 22-member committee was divided into four workgroups: Screening; Psychological Interventions; Pharmacological Treatments and Implementation and Future Research, and used the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome methodology to develop questions for literature search and review. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Psychiatry online and ABDATA by a methodologist at Dartmouth. The committee reviewed 344 articles, drafted statements and set an 80% acceptance for each recommendation statement as a consensus threshold prior to an anonymous voting process. Fifteen guideline recommendation statements for screening and treatment of depression and anxiety in individuals with CF and parent caregivers were finalised by vote. As these recommendations are implemented in CF centres internationally, the process of dissemination, implementation and resource provision should be closely monitored to assess barriers and concerns, validity and use. PMID:26452630

  16. Maternal mental health: The missing "m" in the global maternal and child health agenda.

    PubMed

    Atif, Najia; Lovell, Karina; Rahman, Atif

    2015-08-01

    While the physical health of women and children is emphasized, the mental aspects of their health are often ignored by maternal and child health programs, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We review the evidence of the magnitude, impact, and interventions for common maternal mental health problems with a focus on depression, the condition with the greatest public health impact. The mean prevalence of maternal depression ranges between 15.6% in the prenatal and 19.8% in the postnatal period. It is associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, and poor infant growth and cognitive development. There is emerging evidence for the effectiveness of interventions, especially those that can be delivered by non-specialists, including community health workers, in low-income settings. Strategies for integrating maternal mental health in the maternal and child health agenda are suggested. PMID:26164538

  17. The ABCs of Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelley, Pete; Cash, Gene; Bryson, Dixie

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's 2000 Report on Children's Mental Health estimates that one in five children and adolescents will experience a significant mental-health problem during their school years. While the family is the primary source of support for a child's mental health, the increased stress and fracturing of today's life make it imperative…

  18. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

    This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…

  19. Young People's Experiences of Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…

  20. Indian Adolescent Mental Health. OTA Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs is considering legislation to improve mental health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. This report is in response to the Committee's request for information on the mental health needs of Indian adolescents and the services available to them. The section on mental health problems among…

  1. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  2. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset: beyond depression

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia E.; Hu, Chiyi; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José A.; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies on the depression-heart disease association have not usually used diagnostic measures of depression, nor taken other mental disorders into consideration. As a result, it is not clear whether the association between depression and heart disease onset reflects a specific association, or the comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders. Additionally, the relative magnitude of associations of a range of mental disorders with heart disease onset is unknown. Methods Face-to-face household surveys were conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095; person years=2,141,194). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Heart disease was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis, or self-report of heart attack, together with their timing (year). Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset. Results After comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders were associated with heart disease onset (ORs 1.3–1.6). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with heart disease in a dose-response fashion. Mood disorders and alcohol abuse were more strongly associated with earlier onset than later onset heart disease. Associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions Depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with heart disease onset; depression was the weakest predictor. If confirmed in future prospective studies, the breadth of psychopathology’s links with heart disease onset has substantial clinical and public health implications. PMID:23993321

  3. Committed Dating Relationships and Mental Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Weitbrecht, Eliza M.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Bruner, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether involvement in committed dating relationships is associated with university students’ mental health (depressive symptoms and problem alcohol use, including binge drinking), and whether these associations differ by gender. Participants: A sample of 889 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25. Methods: Self-report measures…

  4. A Program To Educate School Nurses about Mental Health Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hootman, Janis; Houck, Gail M.; King, Mary Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an educational program, which helped school nurses identify potential mental health problems. All school nurses in one district received the education, and six nurses developed and implemented practice improvement projects with at-risk students. The sessions addressed pathways to violence, therapeutic communication, and depression and…

  5. Working-Class Jobs and New Parents' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade

    2011-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive

  6. Obtaining Age-Related Mental Health Competency: What Is Needed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Victor; Kier, Frederick J.; Kunik, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 334 of 803 Department of Veterans Affairs mental health professionals indicated that they spend 30% of their time with older veterans; one-third had no geriatric training; and three-fourths would like more training in such areas as dementia, depression, grief, substance abuse, and legal and ethical issues. (Contains 19 references.)…

  7. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health

  8. Mental health promotion and the prevention of mental disorders in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Petersen, I; Bhana, A; Swartz, L

    2012-11-01

    The need for greater attention to mental health promotion and the prevention of mental disorders in South Africa is highlighted by the cycle of poverty and mental ill-health, the potential for social gains, the question of affordability of treatment in the face of the increasing burden of mental disorders, and the limitations of existing treatment methods. This article, which provides a desk review of the current status of mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders in South Africa, suggests that South Africa has a number of policies that bode well for promoting mental health from infancy through to old age. There is, however, a need for programmatic interventions to promote resilience in vulnerable populations. Of note, is the need for programmes to address maternal depression and strengthen attachment and psychosocial stimulation during infancy, strengthen families, promote health enhancing school environments, and address intimate partner violence and build health enhancing social capital. Given the multifaceted nature of risk and protective influences, the need for a multi-sectoral plan of action is highlighted. PMID:23340522

  9. Efficacy of Attribution Retraining on Mental Health of Epileptic Children

    PubMed Central

    Pourmohamadreza Tajrishi, Masoume; Abbasi, Saeid; Najafi Fard, Tahereh; Yousefi, Saheb; Mohammadi Malek Abadi, Athar; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy affects children’s quality of life and leads to social and mental problems. Promoting the mental health of children, especially epileptic ones, and preventing problems affecting them constitute major concerns for every country. Mental health promotion requires intervention programs. Objectives: We sought to assess the efficacy of attribution retraining on the mental health of epileptic children. Patients and Methods: The present study is a semi-experimental investigation with a pretest and posttest design and includes a control group. Thirty children, comprising 17 boys and 13 girls, were selected randomly from the Iranian epilepsy association in Tehran and assigned to experimental and control groups. They answered to the general health questionnaire (Goldberg and Hiller, 1979). The experimental group participated in 11 training sessions (twice a week; 45 minutes for each session) and received attribution retraining. The data were analyzed using the multiple analysis of covariance. Results: The findings showed that the experimental group, in comparison with the control group, experienced a reduction in physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and depression and an increase in mental health significantly (P < 0.01) after the training sessions. There were no significant differences, however, between the two groups at 6 weeks’ follow-up. Conclusions: Attribution retraining improved mental health in the epileptic children in our study. It, therefore, seems to be an appropriate intervention for promoting the mental health of children. PMID:26568854

  10. Social contagion of mental health: evidence from college roommates.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Golberstein, Ezra; Whitlock, Janis L; Downs, Marilyn F

    2013-08-01

    From a policy standpoint, the spread of health conditions in social networks is important to quantify, because it implies externalities and possible market failures in the consumption of health interventions. Recent studies conclude that happiness and depression may be highly contagious across social ties. The results may be biased, however, because of selection and common shocks. We provide unbiased estimates by using exogenous variation from college roommate assignments. Our findings are consistent with no significant overall contagion of mental health and no more than small contagion effects for specific mental health measures, with no evidence for happiness contagion and modest evidence for anxiety and depression contagion. The weakness of the contagion effects cannot be explained by avoidance of roommates with poor mental health or by generally low social contact among roommates. We also find that similarity of baseline mental health predicts the closeness of roommate relationships, which highlights the potential for selection biases in studies of peer effects that do not have a clearly exogenous source of variation. Overall, our results suggest that mental health contagion is lower, or at least more context specific, than implied by the recent studies in the medical literature. PMID:23055446

  11. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents. PMID:25859714

  12. Transforming the Nation's Health: next steps in mental health promotion.

    PubMed

    Power, A Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    The National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine have called for making the healthy mental, emotional, and behavioral development of young people a national priority. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the US Department of Health and Human Services is uniquely positioned to help develop national mental health policies that promote mental health and prevent mental illnesses. In this article I describe the role of mental health in overall health, I make the case for a public health approach to mental health promotion and mental illness prevention, and I outline a strategy to promote individual, family, and community resilience. I also describe how SAMHSA works to achieve these goals. Ultimately, true health reform will not succeed without a comprehensive, committed focus on the mental health needs of all Americans. PMID:20966366

  13. Using cohort studies to investigate rural and remote mental health.

    PubMed

    Inder, Kerry J; Berry, Helen; Kelly, Brian J

    2011-08-01

    This paper, presented at the 2010 rural health researchers' National Scientific Symposium on Rural and Remote Health, provides an overview of large Australian population mental health cohort studies which have a focus on climate-related and environmental adversity, social factors and mental health. These studies highlight the value of exploiting multiple exceptional datasets to better understand the drivers of rural health, including how to use population-level research to improve health resources in non-metropolitan areas. We show how the key characteristics of rural and remote mental health might be explored by exploiting the following cohort studies: Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey; Australian Rural Mental Health Study; Hunter Community Study; and Extending Treatments, Education and Networks in Depression study. Existing cohort studies that focus on significant rural and regional characteristics can be creatively analysed to better understand geographic variation in mental health. They have the potential to move understanding beyond simple prevalence to building knowledge about the trajectories of psychological distress and determinants of mental disorders and outcomes over time. PMID:21771157

  14. Institutions, Politics, and Mental Health Parity

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Elaine M.; Uggen, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Mental health parity laws require insurers to extend comparable benefits for mental and physical health care. Proponents argue that by placing mental health services alongside physical health services, such laws can help ensure needed treatment and destigmatize mental illness. Opponents counter that such mandates are costly or unnecessary. The authors offer a sociological account of the diffusion and spatial distribution of state mental health parity laws. An event history analysis identifies four factors as especially important: diffusion of law, political ideology, the stability of mental health advocacy organizations and the relative health of state economies. Mental health parity is least likely to be established during times of high state unemployment and under the leadership of conservative state legislatures. PMID:24353902

  15. Obesity among those with mental disorders: a National Institute of Mental Health meeting report.

    PubMed

    Allison, David B; Newcomer, John W; Dunn, Andrea L; Blumenthal, James A; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Daumit, Gail L; Cope, Mark B; Riley, William T; Vreeland, Betty; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Alpert, Jonathan E

    2009-04-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health convened a meeting in October 2005 to review the literature on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity among those with mental disorders. The findings of this meeting and subsequent update of the literature review are summarized here. Levels of obesity are higher in those with schizophrenia and depression, as is mortality from obesity-related conditions such as coronary heart disease. Medication side effects, particularly the metabolic side effects of antipsychotic medications, contribute to the high levels of obesity in those with schizophrenia, but increased obesity and visceral adiposity have been found in some but not all samples of drug-naïve patients as well. Many of the weight-management strategies used in the general population may be applicable to those with mental disorders, but little is known about the effects of these strategies on this patient population or how these strategies may need to be adapted for the unique needs of those with mental disorders. The minimal research on weight-management programs for those with mental disorders indicates that meaningful changes in dietary intake and physical activity are possible. Physical activity is an important component of any weight-management program, particularly for those with depression, for which a substantial body of research indicates both mental and physical health benefits. Obesity among those with mental disorders has not received adequate research attention, and empirically-based interventions to address the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in this population are lacking. PMID:19285199

  16. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2013-09-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders. PMID:23380530

  17. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  18. Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Diagnoses: Faring in a Mental Health Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…

  19. The Role of Masculine Norms and Informal Support on Mental Health in Incarcerated Men

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Gordon, Derrick; Oliveros, Arazais; Perez-Cabello, Arturo; Brabham, Tamika; Lanza, Steve; Dyson, William

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems, in general, and major depression in particular, are prevalent among incarcerated men. It is estimated that 23% of state inmates report experiencing symptoms of major depression. Despite the high rates of depressive symptoms, there is little understanding about the psychosocial factors that are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms of incarcerated men. One factor relevant to the mental health of incarcerated men is their adherence to traditional masculine norms. We investigated the role of masculine norms and informal support on depressive and anxiety symptoms among 123 incarcerated men. The results revealed that adherence to the masculine norm of emotional control were negatively associated with depressive symptoms while heterosexual presentation and informal support were related to both depressive and anxiety symptoms. High levels of reported informal support moderated the effects of heterosexual presentation on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Public health and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23139638

  20. [Economic crisis and mental health: effects on the prevalence of common mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Economou, M; Peppou, L; Fousketaki, S; Theleritis, Ch; Patelakis, A; Alexiou, T; Madianos, M; Stefanis, C

    2013-01-01

    Economic crises have been found to bring adverse repercussions on physical and mental health internationally through various pathways. Research corroborates a link between financial distress and common mental disorders. In this context, the University Mental Health Research Institute conducted epidemiological nationwide surveys in an endeavour to gauge the impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the mental health of the Greek population. The purpose of the present analysis pertains to investigating changes in the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population as a whole as well as in various population sub-groups between years 2009 and 2011. In addition, the association of financial strain with common mental disorders was also explored. For investigating the particular research objectives, two cross-sectional surveys following the same methodology were conducted. A random and representative sample of 2192 respondents in 2009 and 2256 respondents in 2011 took part in telephone interviews. Generalized anxiety disorder and major depression were assessed with the germane modules of Structured Clinical Interview, while financial difficulties with the Index of Personal Economic Distress (IPED), an original scale developed for the purposes of the particular surveys. All measures displayed good psychometric properties. Between the two years, a noteworthy, albeit non-significant, increase in one-prevalence of major depression was documented. On the other hand, the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder remained largely unchanged. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of both disorders were reported for particular population subgroups, with married persons and employed people emerging as the most afflicted individuals. Regarding financial distress, it was found to bear a statistically significant association with major depression but not with generalized anxiety disorder. For mitigating the mental health effects of the crisis on the general population, study findings underline the necessity of implementing targeted interventions, tailored to the needs and difficulties of each population sub-group. PMID:24486974

  1. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    PubMed

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations, continuing education providers, and app developers. PMID:26543907

  2. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations, continuing education providers, and app developers. PMID:26543907

  3. Sleep Characteristics, Mental Health, and Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Edward J.; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Research has suggested that a higher risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep characteristics exists. However, studies have not thoroughly assessed the potential confounding effects of mental health conditions associated with alterations in sleep. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively assessed the association between sleep characteristics and self-reported incident diabetes among Millennium Cohort Study participants prospectively followed over a 6-year time period. Surveys are administered approximately every 3 years and collect self-reported data on demographics, height, weight, lifestyle, features of military service, sleep, clinician-diagnosed diabetes, and mental health conditions assessed by the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version. Statistical methods for longitudinal data were used for data analysis. RESULTS We studied 47,093 participants (mean 34.9 years of age; mean BMI 26.0 kg/m2; 25.6% female). During 6 years of follow-up, 871 incident diabetes cases occurred (annual incidence 3.6/1,000 person-years). In univariate analyses, incident diabetes was significantly more likely among participants with self-reported trouble sleeping, sleep duration <6 h, and sleep apnea. Participants reporting incident diabetes were also significantly older, of nonwhite race, of higher BMI, less likely to have been deployed, and more likely to have reported baseline symptoms of panic, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. After adjusting for covariates, trouble sleeping (odds ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.03–1.42]) and sleep apnea (1.78 [1.39–2.28]) were significantly and independently related to incident diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Trouble sleeping and sleep apnea predict diabetes risk independent of mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors. PMID:23835691

  4. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental

  5. Mental Health Counseling: A Stakeholder's Manifesto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…

  6. Issues in Children's Mental Health. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Margaret L.

    This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…

  7. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy. PMID:25745735

  8. Contemporary Perspectives on Spirituality and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086

  9. Mental Health under National Health Care Reform: The Empirical Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…

  10. The effects of a brief CBT intervention, delivered by frontline mental health staff, to promote recovery in people with psychosis and comorbid anxiety or depression (the GOALS study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background NICE guidance states that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) should be offered to all patients with psychosis. However, there is a need to improve access to therapeutic interventions. We aim to train frontline mental health staff to deliver brief, structured CBT-based therapies. We have developed and piloted a manualized intervention to support people with psychosis and anxious avoidance or depression to work towards a personal recovery goal. Methods/Design The ‘GOALS Study’ is a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing usual care plus an 8-week intervention with usual care alone. The key objective is to assess clinical feasibility (recruitment and randomization; compliance with the treatment manual; acceptability and satisfaction; progress towards goals). A secondary objective is a preliminary evaluation of efficacy. Sixty-six participants with a diagnosis of psychosis, plus symptoms of depression or anxiety will be recruited from adult mental health services. Those currently refusing medication, in receipt of CBT, or with a primary diagnosis of an organic mental health problem or substance dependency will be excluded. Following informed consent, randomization will be independent of the trial team, at a 50:50 ratio, at the level of the individual and stratified by main problem focus. Following randomization, participants allocated to the intervention group will begin the 8-week intervention with a local, trained member of staff, supervised by the study coordinator. Outcomes will be assessed blind to treatment condition at 0, 12 and 18 weeks post-randomization. The primary outcome measure for the efficacy analysis will be activity levels at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures include mood, psychotic symptoms, quality of life and clinical distress. A health economic analysis comparing service use in each condition will also be performed. Recruitment began in March, 2013 and is ongoing until December, 2014. Discussion This is the first trial of the GOALS intervention. The approach is brief and staff can be readily trained in its delivery: there is therefore potential to develop a cost-effective intervention that could be widely disseminated. If the trial proves clinically feasible and demonstrates preliminary evidence of efficacy, a large multi-site trial will be warranted. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN: 73188383. http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/search/StudyDetail.aspx?StudyID=13538 PMID:24973026

  11. Mental health utilization of new-to-care Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans following suicidal ideation assessment.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Corson, Kathryn; Helmer, Drew A; Bair, Matthew J; Dobscha, Steven K

    2014-07-30

    We evaluated the impact of brief structured suicidal ideation (SI) assessments on mental health care among new-to-care Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. National datasets provided military, demographic, and clinical information. For all new-to-care OEF/OIF veterans administered depression screens (PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and structured SI assessments in primary care or ambulatory mental health settings of three Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers between April 2008 and September 2009 (N=465), generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between SI and number of subsequent-year specialty mental health visits and antidepressant prescriptions. Approximately one-third of the veterans reported SI. In multivariate models, PTSD and anxiety diagnoses, severe depression symptoms, being married, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with more mental health visits in the subsequent year. Depression, PTSD, and anxiety diagnoses, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with receiving antidepressants. Presence of SI did not significantly affect subsequent year mental health utilization when adjusting for diagnostic and clinician variables, but inaugural visits involving mental health clinicians were consistently associated with subsequent mental health care. PMID:24726814

  12. Manic Depressive Disorder in Mental Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, T. P.; Jones, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    Eight cases of early onset bipolar affective disorder in adolescents with mental impairment are described, focusing on age of onset; common characteristics such as rapid cycling, mixed affective states, and lithium resistance; and the likelihood that cerebral dysfunction might cause a secondary form of bipolar disorder. (JDD)

  13. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167

  14. Use and Quality of Mental Health Services for Haitian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Nicholas J.; Stewart, Mark; Lin, Julia Y.; Alegria, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the mental health service use of Haitian, African American, and non-Latino White youth in a community mental health setting. Groups are compared on adherence to treatment guidelines for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders. Design Retrospective review of outpatient mental health charts (n=252) from five community sites in an urban area of the Northeastern United States. We recorded total number and treatment type of sessions during the first six months of treatment. Guideline-adherent treatments were compared and predicted after controlling for clinical need. Results Most Haitian and African American youth stopped treatment by six months, with the majority attending less than eight sessions. One third of Haitian and African American patients attended just one session. Haitians patients who presented with less severe symptoms and dysfunction were more likely to have single-session treatments. Guideline-adherent treatment for ADHD and depression was less likely for Haitians. Older patients were more likely to receive adequate depression treatment. Haitian youth were relatively underinsured, had more family separations documented, and received Adjustment Disorder diagnoses more often. Conclusions Haitian youth use outpatient mental health services in similar proportion to African American youth, and at lower rates than White youth. Guideline-adherent treatment for ADHD and depression is limited by low retention in care for Black youth. Low insurance coverage is likely an important contributor to reduced use of services, especially for Haitians. These findings are discussed in the context of providing culturally sensitive mental health care to diverse communities. PMID:22050537

  15. Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane; Birrell, Emma

    2014-01-01

    International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence-based approach, dedicated advocacy and, critically, the inclusion of young people in service design, development, and ongoing evaluation to ensure that services can be continuously improved. PMID:25473320

  16. Mental Health Service Use After Trauma Exposure: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Bita; Barragan, Belen; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Research findings indicate that many urban trauma exposed individuals do not access needed mental health care; therefore, it is critical to identify factors associated with the use of mental health services for this group. This study used a mixed methods approach to examine predictors of mental health service use and barriers to care. Quantitative findings showed that adults who did not report current mental health service use were significantly more male and Black with a lower education and income. After controlling for covariates, individuals with lower trauma exposure (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5, 0.9) and higher depression symptom scores (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.1) were significantly more likely to report current mental health service use. Qualitative findings indicated that fear, low mental health literacy, helplessness, and psychosocial issues were identified as barriers to mental health treatment. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:24566510

  17. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  18. Mental health and the teacher.

    PubMed

    Miller, D F; Wiltse, J

    1979-09-01

    The emotional atmosphere in a classroom setting is important to the experiences of all students. That atmosphere is affeected by the emotional stability of the teacher. A teacher with personal mental health problems can have a detrimental effect upon all of those students who are associated with him or her. There are a variety of courses and contributing factors of mental health problems. Certain signs and symptoms, at times, can be identified that relate to emotional difficulties. It is important that measures be identified to help teachers with emotional problems. This is not always an easy task, yet it is necessary if the teaching-learning environment is to be of a positive nature. School administrators, teacher preparation programs, teaching peers, and self-analysis all should play a role in identifying one's teaching. This is a task that no one person or agency can accomplish alone. Though often felt to be an uncomfortable issue with which to deal, all educators must become increasingly aware of the problem and be willing to work toward greater emotional health of all teachers. PMID:258702

  19. Relationships of Shared Decision Making with Parental Perceptions of Child Mental Health Functioning and Care.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ashley M; Weller, Bridget; Titus, Courtney

    2015-11-01

    Experts encourage parents and practitioners to engage in shared decision making (SDM) to provide high quality child mental health care. However, little is known regarding SDM among families of children with common mental health conditions. The objectives of this study were to examine associations between parental report of SDM and parental perceptions of (a) receiving child mental health care and (b) child mental health functioning. We analyzed cross-sectional data on children with a common mental health condition (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder, anxiety, or depression) from the 2009/2010 National Survey of Children with Special Healthcare Needs (N = 9,434). The primary independent variable was parent-reported SDM, and the dependent variables were parental perception of (a) their child receiving all needed mental health care (b) their children's impairment in school attendance and extracurricular activity participation, and (c) severity of their children's mental health condition. Multivariate logistic and multinomial regression analyses were conducted. Greater parent-reported SDM was associated with parental perceptions of receiving all needed child mental health care and children not having school or extracurricular impairment. Greater SDM was also associated with perceptions of children having a mild mental health condition compared to children having a moderate or severe condition. Findings provide a basis for future longitudinal and intervention studies to examine the benefit of SDM for improving parental perceptions of the quality of child mental health care and mental health functioning among children with common mental health conditions. PMID:25577238

  20. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  1. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...

  2. [Community mental health in Israel].

    PubMed

    Müller, K; Müller, P

    1982-07-01

    The current state of mental health care in Israel is described, considering the historical and sociodemographic background. Predominating are community out-patient clinics and cooperation of out-patient and in-patient services, whereas the number of beds and the size of wards is comparatively small. The country is consequently divided into catchment areas with a flexible adjustment according to the geographical characteristics and practical means. Generally the centres are richly staffed instead of expensive buildings. In a short amount of time and by comparatively small means, a modern and humane psychiatric and psychotherapeutic care has been established, fairly meeting the needs of the patient concerned. PMID:7122765

  3. Childhood and Adolescence: Challenges in Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking. PMID:23667353

  4. Mental Health Promotion Education in Multicultural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanlou, Nazilla

    2003-01-01

    A mental health promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mental health and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  5. Community mental health response to crisis.

    PubMed

    Gard, Betsy A; Ruzek, Josef I

    2006-08-01

    Mental health is seen as an important aspect in the community response to crisis and disaster. Research offers limited guidance to what interventions are likely to be effective in preventing postdisaster mental health problems. This article reviews recommended elements of mental health responses to community disasters. Different factors influencing response are illustrated by using 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina as examples. Clinical suggestions for community planning and actions of individual psychologists conclude the article. PMID:16700021

  6. Flooding and Mental Health: A Systematic Mapping Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses. PMID:25860572

  7. The Clinical Neuroscience Course: Viewing Mental Health from Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kelly G.

    2005-01-01

    Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mental health, exercises have been developed to increase students’ awareness of their own coping strategies. Finally, several books and movies are incorporated to provide additional points of view of the topics discussed in the course. PMID:23494100

  8. Psychological issues surrounding paternal perinatal mental health.

    PubMed

    Currid, Thomas J

    It has become widely accepted that the perinatal period can be a time of heightened risk for mental health problems and emotional responses in women. However, there has been less research on men in this area and it has remained a somewhat neglected area. While perinatal mental health services are increasing for women, few exist for men. While the author acknowledges the greater impact perinatal mental health problems can have on women, this article explores psychological issues relating to paternal perinatal mental health. PMID:15732493

  9. Mental health policy development in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, O.; Alem, A.

    2000-01-01

    Mental health issues are usually given very low priority in health service policies. Although this is changing, African countries are still confronted with so many problems caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition that they have not waken up to the impact of mental disorders. Every country must formulate a mental health policy based on its own social and cultural realities. Such policies must take into account the scope of mental health problems, provide proven and affordable interventions, safeguard patients' rights, and ensure equity. PMID:10885166

  10. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  11. Comorbid mental and physical health and health access in Cambodian refugees in the US.

    PubMed

    Berthold, S Megan; Kong, Sengly; Mollica, Richard F; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary; Franke, Todd

    2014-12-01

    Little research has been conducted on the prevalence of physical health problems in Cambodian refugees and the relationship between their mental and physical health. We identified the relationship between mental and physical health problems and barriers to healthcare access in Cambodian refugee adults. We used a cross-sectional survey design with a snowball sample of 136 Cambodian refugee adult residents of Connecticut and Western Massachusetts. 61% reported being diagnosed with three or more physical conditions and 73% with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or both. Language and transportation problems were the primary barriers to accessing care. Participants with probable comorbid PTSD and depression had 1.850 times more physical health problems than those without either condition (p > .001; CI 1.334-2.566). Age moderated this relationship. Participants who had been diagnosed with both depression and PTSD reported a consistent number of health conditions across the age span while those who had no mental health conditions or only one of the two reported fewer health conditions when they were younger and more when they were older. These two groups were significantly different from the group reporting both. There is a significant relationship between chronic comorbid mental and physical health diseases affecting Cambodian refugees resettled in the US Having comorbid depression and PTSD puts Cambodian refugees at risk for physical health problems no matter their age. It is vital that those treating Cambodian genocide survivors identify and treat their prevalent comorbid health conditions. Language and transportation barriers must be addressed to improve access to mental and physical health care in this population. PMID:24651944

  12. Rural Mental Health Ecology: A Framework for Engaging with Mental Health Social Capital in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context. PMID:26163020

  13. Child Allergic Symptoms and Mental Well-Being: The Role of Maternal Anxiety and Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Study design Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child rash and wheeze categories were ‘none’; ‘early onset transient’ (infancy/preschool only); ‘persistent’ (infancy/preschool and at school age); and ‘late onset’ (school age only). Maternal anxiety and depression were reported during pregnancy and when child was 8 years old. Results Persistent wheezing symptoms were associated with high externalizing (OR 1.74, 95% CI, 1.41-2.15) and internalizing (1.67, 1.35-2.06) problems compared with never wheeze. Maternal anxiety and depression, and disrupted child sleep, attenuated these associations. Persistent rash (externalizing: 1.74, 1.40-2.15; internalizing: 1.42, 1.16-1.74) and late onset rash (externalizing: 1.62, 1.17-2.25; internalizing: 1.46, 1.07-1.99) symptoms were associated with poorer mental well-being compared with no rash at any age. Maternal anxiety and depression, particularly when child was aged 8 years rather than during pregnancy, accounted for the association with internalizing symptoms and partly for externalizing symptoms. Sleep disruption did not mediate the association. Conclusions Maternal anxiety and depression may mediate the association between child rash and wheeze and child mental well-being. PMID:24952709

  14. Global Mental Health: From Science to Action

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:6–12.) PMID:22335178

  15. Global mental health: from science to action.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future. PMID:22335178

  16. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field. PMID:23307563

  17. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations. PMID:24558743

  18. Integrating Children's Mental Health into Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Wissow, Lawrence S; van Ginneken, Nadja; Chandna, Jaya; Rahman, Atif

    2016-02-01

    Children's mental health problems are among global health advocates' highest priorities. Nearly three-quarters of adult disorders have their onset or origins during childhood, becoming progressively harder to treat over time. Integrating mental health with primary care and other more widely available health services has the potential to increase treatment access during childhood, but requires re-design of currently-available evidence-based practices to fit the context of primary care and place a greater emphasis on promoting positive mental health. While some of this re-design has yet to be accomplished, several components are currently well-defined and show promise of effectiveness and practicality. PMID:26613691

  19. A Call to Arms: Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Morton

    2008-01-01

    The author, a superintendent of schools, discusses a rising tide of social and emotional needs among school children as educators struggle with the issue of whether to deal with students' mental health issues. Readers are asked to consider this statement from "Children's Mental Health: Developing a National Action Agenda," a report prepared by the…

  20. Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    This article reviews the progress made in meeting United States' existing mental health goals for adolescents, and identifies issues that will have to be considered in setting new goals. The article examines the substantial need for child mental health services, particularly among young, socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The unmet need for…

  1. Whatever Happened to "Community Mental Health?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musto, David F.

    1975-01-01

    A chronicle of the developmental thrust of psychiatry into the community mental health movement; its rise and fall in popularity, and the subsequent doubts raised about the power of social environment and mental health experts as manipulators of that environment to serve as unique forces for the betterment of society as a whole. (EH)

  2. Mental Health of Students. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. School nurses play a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health development in students through school/community-based programs and curricula. As members of…

  3. Promoting School-Wide Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Although schools are not traditionally designed to provide intensive mental health services to children, they are in a position to create systems that foster mental health. By creating school-wide systems in which students are academically, behaviorally and socially successful, schools can integrate those essential protective factors shown to…

  4. Migrant Farmworker Stress: Mental Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…

  5. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. PMID:26359754

  6. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  7. Funding Early Childhood Mental Health Services & Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishmann, Amy; Kates, Donald; Kaufmann, Roxane

    This paper is the first of a two-part series on financing early childhood mental health services. It discusses the need for a systemic approach to financing early childhood mental health services and supports and presents a matrix to assist states and communities in the design of comprehensive financing systems. The vertical axis of the matrix…

  8. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  9. Student Mental Health: Reframing the "Problem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mental health, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mental health issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…

  10. Political violence and mental health in Nepal: prospective study*†

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Hruschka, Daniel J.; Worthman, Carol M.; Kunz, Richard D.; Baldwin, Jennifer L.; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Acharya, Nanda Raj; Koirala, Suraj; Thapa, Suraj B.; Tol, Wietse A.; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Robkin, Navit; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Nepal, Mahendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Post-conflict mental health studies in low-income countries have lacked pre-conflict data to evaluate changes in psychiatric morbidity resulting from political violence. Aims This prospective study compares mental health before and after exposure to direct political violence during the People’s War in Nepal. Method An adult cohort completed the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in 2000 prior to conflict violence in their community and in 2007 after the war. Results Of the original 316 participants, 298 (94%) participated in the post-conflict assessment. Depression increased from 30.9 to 40.6%. Anxiety increased from 26.2 to 47.7%. Post-conflict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 14.1%. Controlling for ageing, the depression increase was not significant. The anxiety increase showed a dose–response association with conflict exposure when controlling for ageing and daily stressors. No demographic group displayed unique vulnerability or resilience to the effects of conflict exposure. Conclusions Conflict exposure should be considered in the context of other types of psychiatric risk factors. Conflict exposure predicted increases in anxiety whereas socioeconomic factors and non-conflict stressful life events were the major predictors of depression. Research and interventions in post-conflict settings therefore should consider differential trajectories for depression v. anxiety and the importance of addressing chronic social problems ranging from poverty to gender and ethnic/caste discrimination. PMID:22878131

  11. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  12. Recruiting licensed staff in mental health.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2005-01-01

    This 4- to 6-month mental health internship program for new graduates vocational nurses (GVNs) involves a 4-month mental health course, a new graduate course, management of assaultive behavior course, and a 1:1 preceptorship in mental health. This successful program has recruited and trained 18 VNs to improve licensed staff/patient ratios in mental health. These new graduates are licensed at the end of 4 months and are working successfully as licensed staff on the psychiatric units. All of these licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) are now completing prerequisites or entering registered nurse (RN) programs to earn an advanced degree. They bring their medical skills, positive attitudes, and therapeutic strategies to contribute to the milieu on the nursing units. They have reduced the facility's licensed staff shortage in mental health. PMID:15812278

  13. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    PubMed

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform. PMID:25274147

  14. Mental health policy in Eastern Europe: a comparative analysis of seven mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this international comparative study is to describe and compare the mental health policies in seven countries of Eastern Europe that share their common communist history: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Methods The health policy questionnaire was developed and the country-specific information was gathered by local experts. The questionnaire includes both qualitative and quantitative information on various aspects of mental health policy: (1) basic country information (demography, health, and economic indicators), (2) health care financing, (3) mental health services (capacities and utilisation, ownership), (4) health service purchasing (purchasing organisations, contracting, reimbursement of services), and (5) mental health policy (policy documents, legislation, civic society). Results The social and economic transition in the 1990s initiated the process of new mental health policy formulation, adoption of mental health legislation stressing human rights of patients, and a strong call for a pragmatic balance of community and hospital services. In contrast to the development in the Western Europe, the civic society was suppressed and NGOs and similar organizations were practically non-existent or under governmental control. Mental health services are financed from the public health insurance as any other health services. There is no separate budget for mental health. We can observe that the know-how about modern mental health care and about direction of needed reforms is available in documents, policies and programmes. However, this does not mean real implementation. Conclusions The burden of totalitarian history still influences many areas of social and economic life, which also has to be taken into account in mental health policy. We may observe that after twenty years of health reforms and reforms of health reforms, the transition of the mental health systems still continues. In spite of many reform efforts in the past, a balance of community and hospital mental health services has not been achieved in this part of the world yet. PMID:24467832

  15. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  16. 38 CFR 17.98 - Mental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Mental health services. 17.98 Section...Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following...persons who were receiving mental health services in connection...emotional and psychological stress accompanying the...

  17. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

  18. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...

  19. 76 FR 80741 - TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...0720-AB55] TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors AGENCY: Office of...would allow licensed or certified mental health counselors to be able to independently...current TRICARE requirements, mental health counselors (MHCs) are...

  20. National Institute of Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on the topic. More Coordinated Specialty Care for Mental Illness Watch NIMH expert Dr. Robert Heinssen discuss new ... 2015 Combating Early Death in People with Serious Mental Illness November 4, 2015 Medicaid supports new psychosis treatment ...

  1. Transitions: A Mental Health Literacy Program for Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…

  2. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and influence seeking for psychiatric care. Comments and Remarks Despite in the migrants some vulnerable groups were identified with respect to health problems, in many European countries there are migrants who fall outside the existing health and social services, something which is particularly true for asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants. In order to address these deficiencies, it is necessary to provide with an adequate financing and a continuity of the grants for research into the multicultural health demand. Finally, there is to highlight the importance of adopting an integrated approach to mental health care that moves away from psychiatric care only. PMID:16135246

  3. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  4. Mental Health Literacy and Help-Giving Responses in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Sadhbh; Swords, Lorraine; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed mental health literacy in Irish adolescents (N = 187), and explored participants' help-giving responses toward hypothetical depressed peers. Participants read five vignettes, each describing an adolescent experiencing a life difficulty; two of the characters met "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"…

  5. A Suffering Generation: Six Factors Contributing to the Mental Health Crisis in North American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruisselbrink Flatt, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The number of students on university and college campuses that are struggling with depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and psychosis across North America is rising (Gallagher, 2008). This intensification of students' psychological needs has become a mental health crisis. The age at which many mental disorders manifest themselves is…

  6. [Mental health care for immigrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schouler-Ocak, M

    2015-11-01

    Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options. PMID:26385118

  7. MENTAL HEALTH and INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    depression--until a manic episode occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Mania is characterized to regulate one's mood). Major Depressive Disorder Depression is the most prevalent of psychiatric disorders in adolescence. It is characterized by mood dysregulation, a persisting sadness, or lack of interest, accompanied

  8. Validation of a Mental Health Assessment in an African Conflict Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Saile, Regina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mental health survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom…

  9. Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

  10. Many Say Mental Health Care Is Vital, but Often Tough to Get

    MedlinePLUS

    ... participants knew that mental health disorders such as depression are risk factors for suicide. Only 47 percent knew that anxiety disorders also ... were released Sept. 1 by the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, the ... for Suicide Prevention and the National Action Alliance for Suicide ...

  11. Feasibility of dissemination of cognitive behavioral therapy to Texas community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Molly A; Basco, Monica Ramirez

    2011-01-01

    State mental health systems are actively seeking to disseminate empirically supported treatment approaches to improve the outcomes of adults with serious mental illnesses. However, many of these interventions have not been studied within public mental health settings. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective for major depression in well-controlled trials, but its effectiveness in public mental health settings is less known. The present study examines the feasibility of dissemination of CBT in the Texas public mental health system. Seven clinicians were trained by a CBT expert and supervised for 5 months, during which time their skills approached competency levels of therapists in randomized controlled trials. Forty clients were treated during the therapists' training phase, attending an average of ten sessions and experiencing a significant reduction in depressive symptoms. Study results are compared with previously published studies of CBT. PMID:20162373

  12. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  13. Ethnic Differences in Children’s Entry into Public Mental Health Care via Emergency Mental Health Services

    E-print Network

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Masland, Mary C.; Fawley, Kya; Wallace, Neal

    2009-01-01

    on mental health care for African American adolescents foundAmericans, the Surgeon General asserted that: ‘‘Mental health careAmerican adoles- cents received less mental health treatment, including outpatient care,

  14. The Cuban immigration of 1980: a special mental health challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, L B; Silver, B J; Silverman, M M; Prescott, W; del Pollard, L

    1985-01-01

    The 124,769 Cubans who entered the United States from Cuba in a boatlift in 1980 included a small minority of people who needed mental health care. Some had been taken involuntarily from psychiatric hospitals, mental retardation facilities, jails, and prisons. The National Institute of Mental Health, Public Health Service (PHS), was responsible for mental health screening, evaluation, and treatment of the Cuban Entrants. Bilingual psychiatrists and psychologists found that many Entrants given preliminary evaluations showed evidence of transient situational stress reactions, not psychiatric illnesses. Entrants who had not yet been sponsored were consolidated into one facility in October 1980, and about 100 of those with severe problems were transferred to an Immigration and Naturalization Service-PHS evaluation facility in Washington, DC. Between March 1, 1981, and March 1, 1982, a total of 3,035 Entrants were evaluated at both facilities. Among the 1,307 persons who presented symptoms, there was a primary diagnosis of personality disorders for 26 percent, schizophrenic disorders for 15 percent, adjustment disorders for 14.5 percent, mental retardation for 8.6 percent, chronic alcohol abuse for 8.6 percent, and major depression for 7.2 percent. Only 459 Cubans with symptoms were found to be in need of further psychiatric care. As of October 1984, many Entrants with psychiatric illnesses remained under inpatient or community-based halfway house psychiatric care as a direct Federal responsibility. A PHS program for further placement in community-based facilities is underway. PMID:3918322

  15. Intersections Between Mental Health and Criminal/Legal Systems

    E-print Network

    Riley, Shawn J.

    University April 2015 #12;Mental Health Mental Illness · Depending upon your measure, when you measured problem/illness. ­ Time: · Increasing rates ­ Site: · Jails have higher rates of mental illness than and Persistent Mental Illness (SPMI) or Serious Mental Illness (SMI) · Situational Mental Health Problem #12

  16. Correlates of Korean immigrants' mental health.

    PubMed

    Hurh, W M; Kim, K C

    1990-11-01

    The main objectives of this paper are an empirical investigation of major structural and situational variables related to Korean immigrants' mental health and a theoretical exploration of the meaning of the empirical findings. As part of a larger epidemiological research, the data for this paper derive from diagnostic interviews of 622 Korean immigrants (20 years and older) residing in the Chicago area. Data analyses reveal that, among the respondents in general, those who are married, highly educated, and currently employed in a high-status occupation indicate better subjective mental health (less demoralized and more satisfied with life) than others. Of other variables examined, however, significant gender differences in the correlates of mental health are observed. For the male immigrants, a set of work-related variables is clearly the strongest correlate of their mental health, whereas no such distinctive set of variables accounts for the female immigrants' mental health. Nevertheless, the family life satisfaction and several ethnic attachment variables are moderately related to the female immigrants' mental health. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed in light of the confluence of ethnic attachment and acculturation on immigrants' mental health. PMID:2230758

  17. Autism: are mental health services failing children and parents?

    PubMed

    Read, Nicola; Schofield, Adél

    2010-01-01

    Autism is not a menta illness but a neurodevelopmental disorder. However, the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression among children and young people with autism is high. One in 10 children and young people who use Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) has autism. Recent research by The National Autistic Society (NAS) into the effectiveness of these services has revealed a serious lack of understanding and support, with some families reporting that they have had to wait for years to receive help. The research involved a survey of 455 parents of children and young people with autism, together with qualitative findings from parental and young people's focus groups, a survey of CAMHS professionals and visits to CAMHS sites. Responses from parents, young people and professionals indicated that CAMHS did not have the knowledge or the skills to identify or treat mental health problems in children with autism.This can have profound consequences for the health and well-being of the whole family. Autism is a complex disability that can make it harder to diagnose concomitant mental health problems. It is a condition that can make it more difficult for professionals to develop successful, trusting relationships with children, and requires services to be adapted to the individual child. Mainstream interventions and treatments, if unadjusted, will usually fail to improve the mental health of a child with autism and may even make things worse.This article explores how CAMHS services might better meet the needs of children with autism and their families, including improvements in the transition to adult mental health services. In June 2010 NAS launched You Need to Know, a campaign calling on the Government to give priority to improving CAMHS services for children with autism and to support loca areas in delivering the changes that families and front-line professionals are calling for. PMID:21053660

  18. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  19. Impact of Mental Health Visits on Healthcare Cost in Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Mental Health Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Egede, Leonard E.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Zhao, Yumin; Dismuke, Clara E.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Hunt, Kelly J.; Axon, R. Neal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of mental health visits (MHV) on the cost of care for Veterans with diabetes and comorbid mental health conditions. Methods A national cohort of 120,852 Veterans with diabetes and at least one mental health diagnosis (i.e., substance abuse, depression or psychoses) in 2002 was followed through 2006. Outcomes were pharmacy, inpatient and outpatient costs in 2012 dollars. Results Least-square covariate adjusted estimates from the joint model of total VA costs of the number of MHV using December 31, 2012 value dollars indicate that relative to those with fewer MHV, those with 3+ MHV had the lowest mean inpatient cost ($21,406), but the highest mean outpatient and pharmacy cost ($9,727 and $2,015, respectively). If all Veterans who received zero MHV actually received 3+ MHV, we estimate through simulated scenarios that between $32,272,329 and $181,460,247 in inpatient costs would be saved. However, these savings would be offset by additional expenditures of between $1,166,017,547 and $1,166,224,787 in outpatient costs and between $151,604,683 and $161,439,632 in pharmacy costs. Conclusions Among Veterans with diabetes and comorbid mental disorders having three or more mental health visits is associated with marginally decreased inpatient cost, but these potential savings seem to be offset by increased outpatient and pharmacy costs. PMID:25083903

  20. Staffing patterns in community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Perls, S R; Winslow, W W; Pathak, D R

    1980-02-01

    Staffing patterns of federally funded community mental health centers were examined in a survey of 512 centers conducted in 1977. A total of 275 usable responses were received. The findings showed that rural centers had significantly fewer trainees in three of the major mental health disciplines (psychiatry, psychology, and soical work) and fewer affiliations with training institutions, factors that contribute to the maldistribution of mental health professionals in rural areas. The survey also showed that center directors tended to hire more staff of their own professional background. PMID:7353834

  1. Integrating Mental Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention on College Campuses. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…

  2. Predictors of Using Mental Health Services After Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357

  3. Positive mental health: is there a cross-cultural definition?

    PubMed Central

    VAILLANT, GEORGE E.

    2012-01-01

    Seven models for conceptualizing positive mental health are reviewed: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV’s Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health. PMID:22654934

  4. Be vigilant for perinatal mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Tamara; Behrman, Sophie; Jones, Simon Vann; Chouliaras, Leonidas; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2015-03-01

    The postnatal period appears to be associated with higher rates of adjustment disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, and depression. Women who have a history of serious mental illness are at higher risk of developing a postpartum relapse, even if they have been well during pregnancy. Psychiatric causes of maternal death are more common than some direct causes of death. UK rates increased from 13/100,000 in 2006-2008 to 16/100,000 in 2010-2012, higher than, for example, mortality caused by haemorrhage or anaesthetic complications of childbirth. Postnatal depression is more severe than baby blues, follows a chronic course and may relapse outside the perinatal period. Although 13% of patients already have depression in pregnancy, the majority tend to be diagnosed after delivery; up to 19% from childbirth to three months postpartum. NICE recommends using the Two Question Depression Screen and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale from the booking visit through to one year postpartum. A positive response to depression or anxiety questions warrants a full assessment using either PHQ-9 or the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolar disorder may present as a first depressive episode in pregnancy or the postnatal period. In the postpartum period women have a high risk of severe relapse. Postpartum psychosis has a sudden and dramatic presentation with delusions, mania, severe depression, or mixed episodes with wide fluctuations of symptoms and severe mood swings. PMID:26062269

  5. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  6. Dysbiotic drift: mental health, environmental grey space, and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors. It is argued here that in Western industrial nations a 'disparity of microbiota' might be expected among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, those whom face more profound environmental forces. Many of the environmental forces pushing against the vulnerable are at the neighborhood level. Matching the developing microbiome research with existing environmental justice research suggests that grey space may promote dysbiosis by default. In addition, the influence of Westernized lifestyle patterns, and the marketing forces that drive unhealthy behaviors in deprived communities, might allow dysbiosis to be the norm rather than the exception in those already at high risk of depression, subthreshold (subsyndromal) conditions, and subpar mental health. If microbiota are indeed at the intersection of nutrition, environmental health, and lifestyle medicine (as these avenues pertain to mental health), then perhaps the rapidly evolving gut-brain-microbiota conversation needs to operate through a wider lens. In contrast to the more narrowly defined psychobiotic, the term eco-psychotropic is introduced. PMID:25947328

  7. Visualizations for mental health topic models

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ge (Ge Jackie)

    2014-01-01

    Crisis Text Line supports people with mental health issues through texting. Unfortunately, support is limited by the number of counselors and the time each counselor has for clients, as well as the cognitive load on ...

  8. A Search for Mental Health Output Measures

    PubMed Central

    Black, Gordon C.; Saveanu, Traian I.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a summary of our initial efforts to identify mental health output measures: (1) for estimating change in mental health status (incidence and prevalence) in a given population, (2) for use in monitoring, planning, evaluating and/or assessing quality of programs; and (3) possibly for use in controlling mental health costs. This preliminary work is centered on the concept that routinely generated operational data can be used to develop output measures of mental health service programs and thereby provide a basis for controlling programs through output monitoring. A conceptual framework, study design and methodology are discussed. Patient analysis includes: (1) patterns and trends over time, (2) population at risk and (3) patient outcome. The study concludes that routinely generated data can provide much needed information for managers in these turbulent times. Also, the author's suggested areas that need further study.

  9. Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your area. Crisis hotlines. These help survivors of rape, violence, and other traumas, Some may also provide ... people coping with mental health problems, abuse, or sexual assault. They're a bit like ERs for people ...

  10. Mental health interventions in schools 1

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092

  11. Supporting Student Mental Health: The Role of the School Nurse in Coordinated School Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole

    2015-01-01

    School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…

  12. Utility of self-reported sleep disturbances as a marker for major depressive disorder (MDD): Findings from the World Mental Health Japan Survey 2002–2006

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito

    2013-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious common disease, many depressive patients attend primary care complaining sleep disturbances and remain undiagnosed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of self-reported sleep disturbances as a marker for MDD. This study investigated the association between 12-month prevalence of self-reported sleep disturbances and MDD using data from a cross-sectional survey in Japan. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of self-reported sleep disturbances as a marker for MDD were 58.9%, 73.4%, 6.9%, 98.1%, and 0.66, respectively. Self-reported sleep disturbances showed highest utility for the youngest group. Among four types of sleep disturbances, problem of daytime sleepiness was most useful as a marker for MDD. Combined with at least moderate role impairment, self-reported sleep disturbances became more informative with higher specificity (99.6%) and PPV (80.0%) as a marker for MDD. Self-reported sleep disturbances cannot be a marker for MDD in isolation. Comorbid role impairment increases probability of MDD. Clinicians should be cautious about young people who have sleep disturbances. Daytime sleepiness should be included in the question asking about sleep disturbances. PMID:22377572

  13. Integrating Mental Health Specialty Services Via Telehealth.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Regina Trautner; Rooney, Deborah L; Grecco, Elizabeth C

    2015-12-01

    Older adults may experience a variety of mental health conditions that negatively impact quality of life and management of co-occurring medical conditions. Collaborative care models are an option to provide access to specialty mental health care; however, these programs are not widely accessible. We propose that the delivery of specialty care via telehealth is a cost effective solution to obstacles to care. PMID:26577547

  14. MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS—The Role of the Health Officer

    PubMed Central

    Chope, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Traditionally the treatment of mental illness has been a responsibility of state governments, but they have been unable to solve the problem with any degree of success. In spite of rationalizations as to why a health department should not become involved in this field, more and more local health departments in California and across the nation are initiating various services in mental health. With the widespread interest in mental health at national and state levels and in local citizens' groups, local health officers must involve themselves in this most difficult effort. While the treatment of the emotionally disturbed and the psychotic is demanded most aggressively by the public which seeks outpatient, inpatient, and rehabilitation services on the local level, two services—consultation and education-information services—offer more hope in the promotion of mental health as contrasted with the treatment of mental illness. PMID:14021000

  15. Unusual but sound minds: mental health indicators in spiritual individuals.

    PubMed

    Farias, Miguel; Underwood, Raphael; Claridge, Gordon

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has linked certain types of modern spirituality, including New Age and Pagan, with either benign schizotypy or insecure attachment. While the first view emphasizes a positive aspect of spiritual believers' mental health (benign schizotypy), the second view emphasizes a negative aspect, namely the unhealthy emotional compensation associated with an insecure attachment style. This study addresses these two conflicting views by comparing a sample of modern spiritual individuals (N = 114) with a contrast group of traditional religious believers (N = 86). Measures of schizotypy and attachment style were combined with mental health scales of anxiety and depression. We further assessed death anxiety to determine whether modern spiritual beliefs fulfilled a similar function as traditional religious beliefs in the reduction of existential threat. Our results support a psychological contiguity between traditional and modern spiritual believers and reinforce the need to de-stigmatize spiritual ideas and experiences. Using hierarchical regression, we showed that unusual experiences and ideas are the major predictor of engagement in modern spiritual practices. Anxiety, depression variables, and insecure attachment were not significant predictors of spirituality or correlated with them; on the other hand, the results show that spiritual believers report high social support satisfaction and this variable predicts involvement in modern spirituality. Further, spiritual practices were negatively correlated with and negatively predicted by death anxiety scores. Overall, the results strengthen the association between modern spirituality, good mental health, and general well-being. PMID:23848387

  16. Mental health research priorities for Europe.

    PubMed

    Wykes, Til; Haro, Josep Maria; Belli, Stefano R; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Arango, Celso; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Bitter, István; Brunn, Matthias; Chevreul, Karine; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Elfeddali, Iman; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Fiorillo, Andrea; Forsman, Anna K; Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Kuepper, Rebecca; Knappe, Susanne; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Shôn W; Linszen, Donald; Luciano, Mario; Maj, Mario; McDaid, David; Miret, Marta; Papp, Szilvia; Park, A-La; Schumann, Gunter; Thornicroft, Graham; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; van Os, Jim; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Walker-Tilley, Tom; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    Mental and brain disorders represent the greatest health burden to Europe-not only for directly affected individuals, but also for their caregivers and the wider society. They incur substantial economic costs through direct (and indirect) health-care and welfare spending, and via productivity losses, all of which substantially affect European development. Funding for research to mitigate these effects lags far behind the cost of mental and brain disorders to society. Here, we describe a comprehensive, coordinated mental health research agenda for Europe and worldwide. This agenda was based on systematic reviews of published work and consensus decision making by multidisciplinary scientific experts and affected stakeholders (more than 1000 in total): individuals with mental health problems and their families, health-care workers, policy makers, and funders. We generated six priorities that will, over the next 5-10 years, help to close the biggest gaps in mental health research in Europe, and in turn overcome the substantial challenges caused by mental disorders. PMID:26404415

  17. Empowerment of women and mental health promotion: a qualitative study in rural Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Kermode, Michelle; Herrman, Helen; Arole, Rajanikant; White, Joshua; Premkumar, Ramaswamy; Patel, Vikram

    2007-01-01

    Background The global burden of mental illness is high and opportunities for promoting mental health are neglected in most parts of the world. Many people affected by mental illness live in developing countries, where treatment and care options are limited. In this context, primary health care (PHC) programs can indirectly promote mental health by addressing its determinants i.e. by enhancing social unity, minimising discrimination and generating income opportunities. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Describe concepts of mental health and beliefs about determinants of mental health and illness among women involved with a PHC project in rural Maharashtra, India; 2. Identify perceived mental health problems in this community, specifically depression, suicide and violence, their perceived causes, and existing and potential community strategies to respond to them and; 3. Investigate the impact of the PHC program on individual and community factors associated with mental health Method We undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 32 women associated with the PHC project regarding: their concepts of mental health and its determinants; suicide, depression and violence; and the perceived impact of the PHC project on the determinants of mental health. The interviews were taped, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results Mental health and illness were understood by these women to be the product of cultural and socio-economic factors. Mental health was commonly conceptualised as an absence of stress and the commonest stressors were conflict with husbands and mother-in-laws, domestic violence and poverty. Links between empowerment of women through income generation and education, reduction of discrimination based on caste and sex, and promotion of individual and community mental health were recognised. However, mental health problems such as suicide and violence were well-described by participants. Conclusion While it is essential that affordable, accessible, appropriate treatments and systems of referral and care are available for people with mental illness in developing country settings, the promotion of mental health by addressing its determinants is another potential strategy for reducing the burden of mental illness for individuals and communities in these settings. PMID:17761003

  18. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying. PMID:24920001

  19. Capacity Building in Rural Mental Health in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoun, Samar; Johnson, Lyn

    2002-01-01

    A distance education program in mental health was delivered to 31 rural health professionals in Western Australia who dealt with mentally ill patients at the primary level. Evaluation on completion and 4 months postprogram indicated that participants learned mental health management regimes, developed mental health assessment skills, improved…

  20. Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Methods Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Results Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Conclusions Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner’s nursing home admission. PMID:24885732

  1. Mental health stigma and primary health care decisions

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Mittal, Dinesh; Reaves, Christina M.; Haynes, Tiffany F.; Han, Xiaotong; Morris, Scott; Sullivan, Greer

    2015-01-01

    People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal experience with mental illness and mental health care. In this study, 166 health care providers (42.2% primary care, 57.8% mental health practice) from the Veteran's Affairs (VA) medical system completed measures of stigma characteristics, expected adherence, and subsequent health decisions (referral to a specialist and refill pain prescription) about a male patient with schizophrenia who was seeking help for low back pain due to arthritis. Research participants reported comfort with previous mental health interventions. Path analyses showed participants who endorsed stigmatizing characteristics of the patient were more likely to believe he would not adhere to treatment and hence, less likely to refer to a specialist or refill his prescription. Endorsement of stigmatizing characteristics was inversely related to comfort with one's previous mental health care. Implications of these findings will inform a program meant to enhance VA provider attitudes about people with mental illness, as well as their health decisions. PMID:24774076

  2. Pediatric Mental Health Emergencies and Special Health Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Thomas H.; Katz, Emily R.; Duffy, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Children with mental health problems are increasingly being evaluated and treated by both pediatric primary care and pediatric emergency physicians. This article focuses on the epidemiology, evaluation, and management of the two most common pediatric mental health emergencies, suicidal and homicidal/aggressive patients, as well as the equally challenging population of children with autism or other developmental disabilities. PMID:24093903

  3. Beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness: an examination of the sex differences in mental health literacy in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Raymond J.; Loi, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The current study investigated mental health literacy in an Australian sample to examine sex differences in the identification of and attitudes towards various aspects of mental illness. Method. An online questionnaire was completed by 373 participants (M = 34.87 years). Participants were randomly assigned either a male or female version of a vignette depicting an individual exhibiting the symptoms of one of three types of mental illness (depression, anxiety, or psychosis) and asked to answer questions relating to aspects of mental health literacy. Results. Males exhibited poorer mental health literacy skills compared to females. Males were less likely to correctly identify the type of mental illness, more likely to rate symptoms as less serious, to perceive the individual as having greater personal control over such symptoms, and less likely to endorse the need for treatment for anxiety or psychosis. Conclusion. Generally, the sample was relatively proficient at correctly identifying mental illness but overall males displayed poorer mental health literacy skills than females. PMID:26413429

  4. Struggling to Survive: Sexual Assault, Poverty, and Mental Health Outcomes of African American women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women’s increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, PTSD, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989

  5. Associations between physical activity and mental health among bariatric surgical candidates

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Elder, Katherine A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine associations between physical activity (PA) and mental health among adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods Cross sectional analysis was conducted on pre-operative data of 850 adults with ? class 2 obesity. PA was measured with a step activity monitor; mean daily steps, active minutes, and high-cadence minutes (proxy for moderate-vigorous intensity PA) were determined. Mental health functioning, depressive symptoms and treatment for depression or anxiety were measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form, Beck Depression Inventory, and a study-specific questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression analyses tested associations between PA and mental health indicators, controlling for potential confounders. Receiver operative characteristic analysis determined PA thresholds that best differentiated odds of each mental health indicator. Results Each PA parameter was significantly (P<.05) associated with a decreased odds of depressive symptoms and/or treatment for depression or anxiety, but not with impaired mental health functioning. After controlling for sociodemographics and physical health, only associations with treatment for depression and anxiety remained statistically significant. PA thresholds that best differentiated those who had vs. had not recently received treatment for depression or anxiety were <191 active minutes/day, <4750 steps/day, and <8 high-cadence minutes/day. Utilizing high-cadence minutes, compared to active minutes or steps, yielded the highest classification accuracy. Conclusion Adults undergoing bariatric surgery who meet relatively low thresholds of PA (e.g., ? 8 high-cadence minutes/day, representative of approximately one hour/week of moderate-vigorous intensity PA) are less likely to have recently received treatment for depression or anxiety compared to less active counterparts. PMID:23332532

  6. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  7. Service Delivery Patterns for Adults with Mild Mental Retardation at Community Mental Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Tobie A.; Prout, H. Thompson

    1993-01-01

    Results of a national survey on mental health services for adults with mild mental retardation, completed by 156 directors of psychological services at community health centers, indicated that adults with mild mental retardation were not frequent consumers of community mental health services and received differential treatment when provided with…

  8. Declaration on mental health in Africa: moving to implementation

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S.; Jacobs, Marian; Wall, Stig; Groenewald, Johann; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; dos Santos, Palmira; Kagee, Ashraf; Gevers, Anik; Sunkel, Charlene; Andrews, Gail; Daniels, Ingrid; Ndetei, David

    2014-01-01

    Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years. PMID:24931476

  9. UWM Chancellor's Advisory Committee on Mental Health The charge of the Chancellor's Advisory Committee on Mental Health is to

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    7-26-11 UWM Chancellor's Advisory Committee on Mental Health Charge The charge of the Chancellor's Advisory Committee on Mental Health is to: I. Support the establishment of comprehensive mental health strategies to implement the 6 recommendations of the Campus Mental Health Task Force (Final Report

  10. Paternal Postnatal and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms and Child Socio-Emotional and Behavioural Problems at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hannah R.; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effect of paternal mental health problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mental health symptoms in a community…

  11. Mental health issues and discrimination among older LGBTI people.

    PubMed

    Tinney, Jean; Dow, Briony; Maude, Phillip; Purchase, Rachel; Whyte, Carolyn; Barrett, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    LGBT is an acronym used to describe people from diverse sexual orientation or gender identity, people that are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. LGBT people do not constitute a single group nor does each individual "group" constitute a homogeneous unity. However, as higher rates of depression and/or anxiety have been observed in older LGBT people, compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Guasp, 2011) there is a need to raise the profile of mental health issues amongst these groups. The additional letter I is also often included in the acronym LGBTI as intersex people are often included as another gender diverse group. However, there is very little research that includes intersex people and none on older intersex people's mental health so this editorial is restricted to consideration of older LGBT people. PMID:26223452

  12. A Statewide Common Elements Initiative for Children's Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Shannon; Berliner, Lucy; Lyon, Aaron R; Pullmann, Michael D; Murray, Laura K

    2014-08-01

    Many evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for child and adolescent mental health disorders have been developed, but few are available in public mental health settings. This paper describes initial implementation outcomes for a state-funded effort in Washington State to increase EBT availability, via a common elements training and consultation approach focused on four major problem areas (anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and behavioral problems). Clinicians (N?=?180) reported significant improvement in their ability to assess and treat all problem areas at post-consultation. Clinicians from organizations with a supervisor-level "EBT champion" had higher baseline scores on a range of outcomes, but many differences disappeared at post-consultation. Outcomes suggest that a common elements initiative, which includes training and consultation, may positively impact clinician-level outcomes and that having "in-house" EBT expertise may provide additional benefits. PMID:25081231

  13. School Psychologists' Perceptions and Experiences regarding Students with Mental Retardation and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    An exploration of use and believed effectiveness of interventions as well as personal interest and perceived effectiveness in working with (1) students with average IQs and depression, (2) students with mental retardation, and (3) students with both mental retardation and depression was conducted via a nationwide survey of 131 school…

  14. Designing Consumer Health Technologies for the Treatment of Patients With Depression: A Health Practitioner's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    White, Ginger; Caine, Kelly; Selove, Rebecca; Doub, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumer health technologies used by patients on a daily basis can be effectively leveraged to assist them in the treatment of depression. However, because treatment for depression is a collaborative endeavor, it is important to understand health practitioners’ perspectives on the benefits, drawbacks, and design of such technologies. Objective The objective of this research was to understand how patients and health practitioners can effectively and successfully influence the design of consumer health treatment technologies for treating patients with depression. Methods A group of 10 health practitioners participated in individual semistructured contextual interviews at their offices. Health practitioners rated an a priori identified list of depression indicators using a 7-point Likert scale and generated a list of depression indicators. Finally, health practitioners were asked to rate the perceived usefulness of an a priori identified list of depression treatment technologies using a 7-point Likert scale. Results Of the 10 health practitioners interviewed, 5 (50%) were mental health practitioners, 3 (30%) nurses, and 2 (20%) general practitioners. A total of 29 unique depression indicators were generated by the health practitioners. These indicators were grouped into 5 high-level categories that were identified by the research team and 2 clinical experts: (1) daily and social functioning, (2) medication, (3) nutrition and physical activity, (4) demographics and environment, and (5) suicidal thoughts. These indicators represent opportunities for designing technologies to support health practitioners who treat patients with depression. The interviews revealed nuances of the different health practitioners’ clinical practices and also barriers to using technology to guide the treatment of depression. These barriers included (1) technology that did not fit within the current practice or work infrastructure, (2) technology that would not benefit the current treatment process, (3) patients forgetting to use the technology, and (4) patients not being able to afford the technology. Conclusions In order to be successful in the treatment of depression, consumer health treatment technologies must address health practitioners’ technology concerns early on in the design phase, account for the various types of health practitioners, treatment methods, and clinical practices, and also strive to seamlessly integrate traditional and nontraditional depression indicators within various health practitioners’ clinical practices. PMID:24413087

  15. Relationships among mental health, coping styles, and mood.

    PubMed

    Ando, Michiyo

    2002-04-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire--6 factors: General Illness, Somatic Symptoms, Sleep Disturbance, Social Dysfunction, Anxiety and Dysphoria, Suicidal Depression), coping styles (two strategies: Cognitive centered, Emotional centered), and mood (Tense Arousal, Energetic Arousal). 96 students answered questionnaires before their semester test which was a stressor. Analysis showed that (1) Tense Arousal scores correlated positively with overall General Health scores and all General Health factor scores, and Energetic Arousal scores correlated negatively with overall General Health scores and all General Health factor scores except one; (2) Anxiety and Dysphoria scores predicted Tense Arousal scores the best of General Health factor scores, while both Social Dysfunction scores and General Illness scores predicted Energetic Arousal scores. (3) Participants with high Energetic Arousal scores used a Cognitive centered coping strategy much more than an Emotional centered coping strategy. That is, people with low Energetic Arousal scores seem to use the Emotional centered coping strategy and have anxiety/dysphoria, while people with high Energetic Arousal scores seem to use a Cognitive centered coping strategy and have good health and social activity. These results suggest that there are small but significant relationships among mental health, coping styles, and mood. PMID:12061603

  16. Global Mental Health: concepts, conflicts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces, describes and analyses the emerging concept of Global Mental Health (GMH). The birth of GMH can be traced to London, 2007, with the publication of a series of high-profile papers in The Lancet. Since then, GMH has developed into a movement with proponents, adherents, opponents, an ideology and core activities. The stated aims of the Movement for GMH are 'to improve services for people living with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries where effective services are often scarce'. GMH could be considered an attempt to right a historic wrong. During the colonial and post-colonial eras, the mental health of subject populations was accorded a very low priority. This was fuelled by scientific racism, which alleged that mental illness was uncommon in places such as Africa. As developing nations have made the epidemiological transition, the burden of mental illness has proportionately increased, with research suggesting a massive 'treatment gap' between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care. As such, much GMH research and action has been devoted to: (i) the identification and scale-up of cost-effective evidence-supported interventions that could be made more widely available; (ii) task-shifting of such intervention delivery to mental-health trained non-specialist Lay Health Workers. GMH has come under sustained critique. Critics suggest that GMH is colonial medicine come full circle, involving the top-down imposition of Western psychiatric models and solutions by Western-educated elites. These critiques suggest that GMH ignores the various indigenous modalities of healing present in non-Western cultures, which may be psychologically adaptive and curative. Relatedly, critics argue that GMH could be an unwitting Trojan horse for the mass medicalisation of people in developing countries, paving the way for exploitation by Big Pharma, while ignoring social determinants of health. PMID:26027857

  17. Supporting the Mental Health of Mothers Raising Children in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Beeber, Linda S.; Perreira, Krista M.; Schwartz, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Poverty increases maternal stress by heightening exposure to negative life events, job loss, chronic strains, poor housing, dangerous neighborhoods, and conflict with partners, culminating in crippling depressive symptoms, the most prevalent mental health threat. Depressive symptoms interfere with the provision of the strong maternal support needed to counter the hardships of poverty, thus placing infants and toddlers at risk for delayed language, social, and emotional development. Initial clinical trials in high-risk mothers have shown promise, and successive tests of interventions will be strengthened if mothers who have mental health risks can be accurately targeted for inclusion. This article reports on a sequential, data-driven process by which high-risk mothers were targeted for intervention in two trials currently in progress to reduce depressive symptoms. An iterative process of using data to identify at-risk mothers and validate the presence of risk factors helped hone the recruitment and design of the intervention trials. This report also offers guidance for further study. PMID:17954677

  18. Caregiver Mental Health, Neighborhood, and Social Network Influences on Mental Health Needs among African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…

  19. Do State Mental Health Plans Address the New Freedom Commission's Goals for Children's Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Sara R.; Roberts, Michael C.; Beals, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    The latest initiative to address mental health needs of the nation, including those of children and youth, is the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (NFC). The NFC formulated a benchmark of six goals and related recommendations toward which the U.S. should strive, including the recommendation that each state develop a…

  20. The Infant Mental Health Learning Group: Infusing Infant Mental Health Practices into Community-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Nick D.; Woodlock, Kelly K.

    2006-01-01

    Many professionals who work with very young children and their families have not received training in infant mental health (IMH). The Ounce of Prevention Fund recognized this unmet need and formed a multidisciplinary support network for teams of home visitors, parent group facilitators, community program supervisors, and mental health clinicians.…

  1. Formulating Mental Health Treatment Paridigms for Military Filipino Amerasians: A Social Work Education Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutschera, P. C.; Caputi, Marie A.; Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III

    2013-01-01

    Virtually no formal treatment protocol exists for the health/mental health care of biracial Filipino Amerasians in the Philippines. Today this large group comprises a mostly socioeconomically at risk diaspora. A recent 3-year study found depression, elevated anxiety, joblessness, social isolation, substance and alcohol abuse, and housing…

  2. Psychosocial Predictors of Maternal Mental Health, Parenting Attitudes, and Child Behavior in Single-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lynne A.; And Others

    Low-income, single mothers and their children constitute a rapidly growing population at risk for adverse health outcomes. The mental health of these women is particularly at risk. This study investigated the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms in low-income, single mothers of 1- to 4-year-old children; identified psychosocial predictors of…

  3. Longitudinal follow-up of the mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors.

    PubMed

    Vervliet, Marianne; Lammertyn, Jan; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    Despite growing numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors (UMs) in Europe, and evidence that this group is at risk of developing mental health problems, there still remain important knowledge gaps regarding the development of UMs' mental health during their trajectories in the host country and, in particular, the possible influencing role of traumatic experiences and daily stressors therein. This study therefore followed 103 UMs from the moment they arrived in Belgium until 18 months later. Traumatic experiences (SLE), mental health symptoms (HSCL-37A, RATS) and daily stressors (DSSYR) were measured at arrival in Belgium, after 6 and 18 months. UMs reported generally high scores on anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Linear mixed model analysis showed no significant differences in mental health scores over time, pointing towards the possible long-term persistence of mental health problems in this population. The number of traumatic experiences and the number of daily stressors leaded to a significant higher symptom level of depression (daily stressors), anxiety and PTSD (traumatic experiences and daily stressors). European migration policies need to reduce the impact of daily stressors on UMs' mental health by ameliorating the reception and care facilities for this group. Moreover, regular mental health screenings are needed, in combination with, if needed, adapted psychosocial and therapeutic care. PMID:23979476

  4. Mental Health Help-Seeking Intentions and Preferences of Rural Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P.; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate mental health help-seeking intentions and preferences of rural Chinese adults and determine predictors of the intentions. Methods A total of 2052 representative rural residents aged 18–60 completed a cross-sectional survey by face-to-face interviews. The survey included seven questions asking about respondents’ help-seeking intentions and preferences, and a series of internationally validated instruments to assess self-perceived health status, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, mental health literacy, and attitudes towards mental illness. Results Nearly 80% of respondents were willing to seek psychological help if needed, and 72.4% preferred to get help from medical organizations, yet only 12% knew of any hospitals or clinics providing such help. A multivariate analysis of help-seeking intention revealed that being female, having lower education, higher social health, higher mental health knowledge, and physical causal attribution for depression were positive predictors of help-seeking intention. Conclusion A huge gap exists between the relatively higher intention for help-seeking and significantly lower knowledge of helpful resources. Predictors of help-seeking intention for mental problems in the current study are consistent with previous studies. Interventions to increase help-seeking for mental problems by Chinese rural adults may be best served by focusing on increasing public awareness of help sources, as well as improving residents’ mental health literacy and social health, with special focus on males and those more educated. PMID:26545095

  5. Mental Health Services for Children: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuma, June M.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the current state of mental health services to children, youth, and families. The development of a continuum of care coordinated across the mental and non-mental health systems that naturally occur in all children's lives may vastly improve mental health services to children, youth, and families. (Author/BJV)

  6. Mental Health Awareness Month & Speak Up for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    May is National Mental Health Awareness Month. This is a great time to highlight the importance of mental wellness and school-based mental health services to children's positive learning and development. There is heightened urgency to the imperative to advance school-based mental health and school psychologists' expertise as essential to the…

  7. Eating Disorders National Institute of Mental Health

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Eating Disorders National Institute of Mental Health U.S. Department of HealtH anD HUman Service;____________________________________________ ________________________ _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________ _________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Contents What are eating disorders? 1 What are the different types of eating disorders? 2 Anorexia nervosa 2 Bulimia nervosa 3 Binge-eating disorder 4 How are eating disorders treated? 4 Treating anorexia

  8. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  9. One Hundred Years of College Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50…

  10. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  11. [Mental health, vulnerability and general practice: a study of non-profit health centers in Grenoble].

    PubMed

    Dubois-Fabing, Delphine; Pichon, Philippe; Arnevielhe, Alizée; Suscillon, Marie-Paule; Caron, Bruno; Saillard, Fabienne; François, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in France. The non-profit community health care centers in Grenoble provide populations living in sensitive urban zones with high quality primary health care that includes a medico-social and prevention dimension. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of mental health issues diagnosed by GPs in health care centers, to identify the factors associated with these issues and to describe treatment characteristics. This cross-sectional study focused on general practice consultations in the AGECSA Grenoble health care centers over the course of one week. At the end of each consultation, the GP collected information about the patient, including personal data, psychological disorders, vulnerability, and patient health management. Among the 451 patients included in the study, GPs found that 45.2% of patients were in vulnerable situations and 43% of patients suffered from a mental disorder, including 29% of cases of anxiety and 20% of cases of depression. 44% of patients suffered from a psychological disorder (mental disorder and/or psychological suffering). For these patients, 52.8% of the consultations lasted more than 20 minutes. Their treatment generally included a mental health care follow-up (in 76% of cases), including psychological support (59%) and treatment of functional somatic disorders (46%). The study shows the high prevalence of psychological disorders diagnosed in the patients treated by GPs working in health care centers in disadvantaged urban areas. Research shows that GPs play an important and specific role in mental health care and prevention. An analysis of the organizational methods used in health care centers is highly relevant. PMID:22370076

  12. Mental Health Care Need and Service Utilization in Older Adults Living in Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Simning, Adam; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Fisher, Susan G.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Anxiety and depression in socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults frequently go unrecognized and untreated. This study aims to characterize mental illness and its treatment in older adult public housing residents who have many risk factors for anxiety and depression. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Public housing high-rises in Rochester, NY. Participants 190 residents aged 60 years and older. Measurements Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, GAD-7, and PHQ-9. We obtained information on mental health care from medication review and self-report. Results Participants had a median age of 66 years, 58% were female, 80% were black, and 92% lived alone. Many participants (31%) were in need of mental health care: 21% had syndromal and 11% had subsyndromal anxiety or depression. Mental health care need was associated with younger age, intact cognitive functioning, impairments in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), more medical illness, decreased mobility, smaller social network size, more severe life events, and increased utilization of medical, human, and informal services. Of those with mental health care need, most were not receiving it. Compared to residents receiving mental health care, residents with untreated need were more likely to be male and have less IADL impairment, medical illness, severe life events, onsite social worker use, and human services utilization. Conclusions Mental illness was common and largely untreated in public housing residents. Increasing collaboration between medical, mental, and human services is needed to improve identification, treatment, and ultimately prevention of late-life mental illness in this community setting. PMID:22522961

  13. Helping Students through Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Data from the federal Center for Mental Health Services indicate that one in every 33 children and one in eight adolescents may be suffering from depression. Up to 70% of children with diagnosable mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders are not receiving mental health services, according to the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health.…

  14. Mental Health and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferman, Louis A., Ed.; Gordus, Jeanne P., Ed.

    This volume offers a collection of papers which explores the relationships between major economic changes and individual and collective mental and physical well-being, including individual distress, deviant behavior, and other symptoms of underlying pathology. The contributors examine the processes leading from macroeconomic change to social and…

  15. Mental health in the foreclosure crisis.

    PubMed

    Houle, Jason N

    2014-10-01

    Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health. PMID:25084488

  16. Measuring depression and pain with home health monitors.

    PubMed

    Dobscha, Steven K; Corson, Kathryn; Pruitt, Stephanie; Crutchfield, Megan; Gerrity, Martha S

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using home health monitors to administer standardized measures for depression and pain in a Veterans Affairs (VA) patient population. Five patients were recruited from a larger study of collaborative depression care, and were asked to use Viterion 100 Telehealth monitors to transmit depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and pain severity (SF36-V bodily pain items) scores on a weekly basis for 24 weeks. Information was received and reviewed by a nurse care manager, who recommended treatment changes as appropriate. The care manager occasionally followed up reports of changes in symptom severity with phone calls; in one case, she called to inquire why a patient was not submitting data. Overall, four patients were able to use the monitors successfully and frequently. Patient satisfaction was high: 5 of 5 reported that they would use monitors again, and 3 of 5 preferred monitors to phone or mail for completing questionnaires. Patients expressed no concerns about privacy. The data allowed tracking of the longitudinal interrelationship between depression and pain severity. However, the monitors were limited in their ability to display questionnaire items, and the system could neither directly compute measure scores nor transfer data to patient medical records. These results suggest that with modifications, home health monitoring shows promise for monitoring symptom severity for a variety of medical and mental health conditions, for either clinical or research purposes. PMID:17250493

  17. Strong links for Public Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Caan, Woody

    2015-08-01

    The new, national Public Mental Health Network offers health visitors and school nurses an opportunity to gain more of a voice within policy. The Network is hosted by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and works closely with Public Health England and NHS England to improve population mental health and to prevent mental illness.The CPHVA, RCN and other professional bodies have a vital role to fill in shaping development of the Network, including sharing good practice, interprofessional education and innovative public health research. In the past, the public health community has often been slow and uncoordinated in responding to either grassroots needs or government imperatives. In particular, voices advocating for better mental health for children and families have not been heard. Trade Unionists know that solidarity amplifies the voice of individuals. My own interest as a professor is to build on all we know that makes families, schools, neighbourhoods (and groups of practitioners) more resilient--and capable of more and more. PMID:26368996

  18. [E-health within the Dutch mental health services: what is the current situation?].

    PubMed

    Smeets, Odile; Martin Abello, Katherina; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, Moniek; Boon, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The 'e-mental health' currently available, which also covers m-health and i-health, varies from psycho-education and self-tests to self-help, treatment and contact with fellow sufferers. Many programs are based on cognitive behavioural therapy, but other types of therapy are also used. Research shows that online programs for depression, alcohol problems and anxiety can reduce these symptoms and can be cost effective. This applies to both self-help and treatment programs. Many e-programs in the Netherlands have been developed for the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care (GGZ) and for treatment of addiction problems. One problem with e-mental-health is that provision is fragmented, and there is no national overview, while insight into quality is important for patients and professionals. The quality hallmark 'Onlinehulpstempel.nl' ('Online help hallmark') provides this insight. The use of e-mental-health within Dutch healthcare services is still in its infancy. New financing methods are stimulating general practitioners to use it. The consolidation of online and face-to-face care ('blended e-health') provides an opportunity for patients and GGZ support personnel within general practice to start to use e-health. PMID:25515395

  19. Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

  20. 78 FR 26221 - National Mental Health Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...research that could unlock new treatments for mental illness and drive growth throughout our economy. We...teachers and other adults recognize the signs of mental illness in children, improve mental health outcomes for young people, and...

  1. Relationships Between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health Among Homeless Families

    PubMed Central

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and trauma exposure among homeless families, in order to better serve the needs of this vulnerable population. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between caregiver exposure to violence, caregiver depression, and youth depression and behavioral problems among homeless families. Preliminary findings indicate that among this sample of homeless families, caregiver violence exposure has statistically significant relationships with both youth behavioral problems and youth depression symptoms, as mediated by caregiver depression. These findings indicate that youth behavioral health is associated with caregiver mental health, which, in turn, is associated with caregiver trauma exposure. This highlights the importance of taking into account adult mental health while treating youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors and ensuring that caregivers, too, have access to adequate treatment and supports. Furthermore, this treatment should be trauma informed, given the link between trauma and mental health. PMID:26420978

  2. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  3. A Health Recreation Program for u-Healthcare Clients: Effects on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jisan; Jeong, Suyong; Choi, Hanna; Jin, Meiling; Kim, Sukwha

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: In this study, a health recreation program was implemented with elderly patients (60 years of age or older) who were receiving ubiquitous healthcare (u-healthcare) services. Furthermore, we examined the effects of health recreation on perceived stress, anxiety, and depression, by comparing survey results before and after the recreation program was conducted. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an offline service with the ability to promote the impact of the u-healthcare service on mental healthcare. Materials and Methods: A health recreation program, consisting of a variety of weekly games, songs, and minilectures about mental health over a 10-week period, was offered at a senior citizens center in K-Gu, Seoul, Korea. This program targeted 18 elderly people currently receiving u-healthcare services. Data on the impact of the program on the mental health of the elderly were collected through surveys administered before and after the recreation program, and the results were compared with those of a control group. The control group consisted of 18 elderly people who were receiving u-healthcare services from the same district. Results: The perceived stress and anxiety of the experimental group decreased significantly compared with those of the control group. However, the program did not result in a significant reduction in depression. Conclusions: This offline health recreation program offered to elderly u-healthcare service clients contributed to the promotion of their mental health. Further studies will be required to better incorporate the offline mental healthcare program into their daily lives within the u-healthcare service. PMID:25290668

  4. The Association between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness among a National Sample of 18- To 24-Year-Old College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy B.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship…

  5. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R(2) values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. PMID:26595460

  6. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  7. Mental health assessment of rape offenders.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-07-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  8. Personality, Negative Interactions, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that an individual’s personality traits may mediate the relationship between social support and mental health. This study uses two national data sets to test a conceptual model that integrates personality, social support, negative interactions, and psychological distress. Results suggest that, beyond the influence of personality, social support is negatively associated with psychological distress, and negative interactions are positively associated with such distress. The findings also suggest that personality has direct and indirect effects, through social support and negative interactions, on psychological distress. Findings specify how positive and negative facets of relationships and personality influence mental health outcomes. PMID:21151733

  9. PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH OF PSYCHIATRY RESIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Jyotirmoy Roy; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Prabhu, G.G.; Sarmukaddam, S.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY The clinician-patient relationship is more intense in the field of psychiatry than in other specialities of medicine. In this context, an understanding of the personality assets and liabilities of a psychiatrist takes on special significance. In the present comparative cross-sectional study, the personality profile, positive mental health characteristics and empathy were studied in two groups of residents in psychiatry and one in general medicine. Residents in psychiatry had greater amount of positive mental health characteristics and identifiable personality traits. However, in empathy the three groups did not show any significant difference. The utility and implications of the results are discussed. PMID:21927242

  10. [Family, Through Mental Health and Sickness].

    PubMed

    Solano Murcia, Martha Inés; Vasquez Cardozo, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    The following article arises from the study "Representaciones sociales en el campo de la salud mental" (Social Representations in the Mental Health Field), in which the objective was to address the social representations in the family context; concerning caring, as well as the burden it implies using a qualitative method. The corpus was built based on the analysis and interpretation gathered from families with mental illness members. There were 17 individual interviews, 13 group interviews and one family group of three generations, held regarding the clinical care of the family member. These interviews were held at three different hospitals in Bogota. The representation of "a family" constitutes the structuring of the meanings of family relationships that cope with mental illness built upon the social and historical life of its members. The three comprehensive categories were: a) Family in good times and bad times; b) mental illness in family interactions, and c) Care and burden. Socially speaking, mental illness can lead to dehumanization, in that it discriminates and stigmatizes, even within the family unit. Caring for a family member with mental illness comes about by hierarchical order, self assignation, and by institutionalization. This latter occurs due to lack of caregivers or because the family does not consider their home the best place to care for such a patient. PMID:26574076

  11. Mental health and the relationship between health promotion counseling and health outcomes in chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al Sayah, Fatima; Agborsangaya, Calypse; Lahtinen, Markus; Cooke, Tim; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the relationship between health promotion counseling (HPC) provided by FPs and health-related quality of life (HRQL) and the use of health care services among patients with chronic conditions, while assessing the effect of mental health on these relationships. Design Telephone survey using random-digit dialing. Setting Alberta. Participants A total of 1615 participants with chronic conditions. Main outcome measures Health promotion counseling provided by FPs, which was assessed using 4 questions; HRQL using the Euro quality of life 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire; and the use of health care services assessed with self-reported emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Results Of the 1615 participants with chronic conditions, 55% were female and more than two-thirds were older than age 45 years. Less than two-thirds of participants received HPC from their FPs. In patients without anxiety or depression, those who needed help from their FPs in making changes to prevent illness had a 0.05 lower EQ-5D score than those who did not (P < .001); and those who received diet counseling had a 0.03 higher EQ-5D score than their counterparts did (P = .048). However, these associations were not observed in patients with anxiety or depression. Patients were more likely to have visited EDs if they needed their physicians’ help in making changes to prevent illness (odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.89) and less likely to visit EDs if they had been encouraged by their physicians to talk about their health concerns (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91). None of the HPC items was associated with hospitalizations. Conclusion Not all patients with chronic conditions are receiving HPC from their FPs. Also, there is an association between HPC and important health outcomes (ie, HRQL and ED visits), but this association is not apparent for those with anxiety or depression. PMID:24522689

  12. Public mental health: an interdisciplinary subject?

    PubMed

    Stewart-Brown, Sarah L

    2015-09-01

    The Chief Medical Officer's report for 2013 was the first of its kind to highlight the public's mental rather than physical health and thus represents a very important landmark for public health in the UK. Written primarily from the perspective of psychiatrists, the report has created confusion in public health circles by failing to adequately address the public health perspective. David Foreman's editorial in this issue, calling as it does for more training in public health for psychiatrists, is therefore very welcome and timely. PMID:26329560

  13. Mental health literacy and obsessive--compulsive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Koutoufa, Iakovina; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-01-30

    An opportunistic sample of 342 participants completed a vignette identification task that required them to name the possible psychological problem of an individual described in vignettes describing people with depression, schizophrenia, OCD and OCPD. Participants rated the degree to which they believed the individual experienced distress, they felt sympathetic towards the described individual, and the degree to which they believed the individual was well-adjusted in the community. There were very low recognition rates of OCPD, with participants more likely to identify depression, schizophrenia and OCD. Analysis of distress, sympathy and adjustment ratings also revealed significant differences between the disorders. The findings highlight the necessity of greater mental health awareness and the importance of psycho-education in order to increase successful treatment seeking of OCPD patients. PMID:24262666

  14. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition. PMID:26040444

  15. Mental health of indigenous school children in Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depressive disorders occur in all stages of life and are the most common childhood disorders. However, only recently has attention been paid to mental health problems in indigenous children and studies of anxiety and depressive disorders in these children are still scarce. This study compares the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara and non-Aymara children. Among the Aymara children, the study examines the relations between these symptoms and the degree of involvement with Aymara culture. Methods We recruited 748 children aged 9 to 15 years from nine schools serving low socioeconomic classes in the city of Arica, in northern Chile. The children were equally divided between boys and girls and 37% of the children were Aymara. To evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms we used the Stress in Children (SiC) instrument and the Children Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), and used an instrument we developed to assess level of involvement in the Aymara culture. Results There was no significant difference between Aymara and non-Aymara children on any of the instrument scales. Dividing the Aymara children into high-involvement (n?=?89) and low-involvement (n?=?186) groups, the low-involvement group had significantly higher scores on the Hopelessness subscale of the CDI-S (p?=?0.02) and scores of marginally higher significance in overall Anxiety on the SiC (p?=?0.06). Conclusions Although Aymara children have migrated from the high Andean plateau to the city, this migration has not resulted in a greater presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Greater involvement with the Aymara culture may be a protective factor against anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara children. This point to an additional benefit of maintaining cultural traditions within this population. PMID:24438210

  16. Mindful Parenting in Mental Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Annukka; Restifo, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting (“mindful parenting”) is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting interventions are increasingly being used to help prevent and treat mental disorders in children, parenting problems, and prevent intergenerational transmission of mental disorders from parents to children. However, to date, few studies have examined the hypothesized mechanisms of change brought about by mindful parenting. We discuss six possible mechanisms through which mindful parenting may bring about change in parent–child interactions in the context of child and parent mental health problems. These mechanisms are hypothesized to be mediated by the effects of mindfulness on parental attention by: (1) reducing parental stress and resulting parental reactivity; (2) reducing parental preoccupation resulting from parental and/or child psychopathology; (3) improving parental executive functioning in impulsive parents; (4) breaking the cycle of intergenerational transmission of dysfunctional parenting schemas and habits; (5) increasing self-nourishing attention; and (6) improving marital functioning and co-parenting. We review research that has applied mindful parenting in mental health settings, with a focus on evidence for these six mechanisms. Finally, we discuss directions for future research into mindful parenting and the crucial questions that this research should strive to answer. PMID:21125026

  17. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  18. Asian American Mental Health: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Stanley; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saad, Carmel S.; Chu, Joyce P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed…

  19. 75 FR 32959 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, Mental Health Services--Member... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive...

  20. Creating supportive environments for mental health promotion in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Barkway, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Work is both an important resource for mental health, yet it also presents risk factors for mental illness. Consequently, the workplace has been identified as a potential setting for both mental health promotion and mental illness prevention. In the workplace various programs have been implemented which address risk factors for mental illness eg. stress management programs or the introduction of anti-bullying policies. However, few programs have been developed to address mental health promotion. It seems that the potential of mental health promotion is not fully utilised in this setting, nor are programs and initiatives to promote mental health as prolific as those in the physical health area. Furthermore, despite the introduction of legislation and workplace policies, structural changes have been unsuccessful in bringing about environmental modification which fosters mental well-being. This article explores explanations for this and makes recommendations utilising primary health care as an approach by which this situation can be redressed. PMID:16594890

  1. Mental health of sexual minorities. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Plöderl, Martin; Tremblay, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Many studies, reviews, and meta-analyses have reported elevated mental health problems for sexual minority (SM) individuals. This systematic review provides an update by including numerous recent studies, and explores whether SM individuals are at increased risk across selected mental health problems as per dimensions of sexual orientation (SO), genders, life-stages, geographic regions, and in higher quality studies. A systematic search in PubMed produced 199 studies appropriate for review. A clear majority of studies reported elevated risks for depression, anxiety, suicide attempts or suicides, and substance-related problems for SM men and women, as adolescents or adults from many geographic regions, and with varied SO dimensions (behaviour, attraction, identity), especially in more recent and higher quality studies. One notable exception is alcohol-related problems, where many studies reported zero or reversed effects, especially for SM men. All SM subgroups were at increased risk, but bisexual individuals were at highest risk in the majority of studies. Other subgroup and gender differences are more complex and are discussed. The review supports the long-standing mental health risk proposition for SM individuals, overall and as subgroups. PMID:26552495

  2. Obesity and Mental Disorders in the General Population: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Simon, Gregory E.; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gasquet, Isabelle; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Elie; Kessler, Ronald C.; Levinson, Daphna; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, J. Hans; Villa, Jose Posada; Uda, Hidenori; Von Korff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives (i) To investigate whether there is an association between obesity and mental disorders in the general populations of diverse countries, and (ii) to establish whether demographic variables (sex, age, education) moderate any associations observed. Design Thirteen cross-sectional, general population surveys conducted as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Subjects Household residing adults, 18 years and over (n = 62,277). Measurements DSM-IV mental disorders (anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, alcohol use disorders) were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), a fully structured diagnostic interview. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater; severe obesity as BMI 35+. Persons with BMI less than 18.5 were excluded from analysis. Height and weight were self-reported. Results Statistically significant, albeit modest associations (odds ratios generally in the range of 1.2–1.4) were observed between obesity and depressive disorders, and between obesity and anxiety disorders, in pooled data across countries. These associations were concentrated among those with severe obesity, and among females. Age and education had variable effects across depressive and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The findings are suggestive of a modest relationship between obesity (particularly severe obesity) and emotional disorders among women in the general population. The study is limited by the self-report of BMI and cannot clarify the direction or nature of the relationship observed, but it may indicate a need for a research and clinical focus on the psychological heterogeneity of the obese population. PMID:17712309

  3. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Molarius, Anu; Berglund, Kenneth; Eriksson, Charli; Eriksson, Hans G; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Nordström, Eva; Persson, Carina; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Starrin, Bengt; Ydreborg, Berit

    2009-01-01

    Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question). The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment), economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol are associated with mental health symptoms independent of socio-economic factors. PMID:19695085

  4. A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia A; Lyon, Debra E

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic mental health condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is well-established that psychological stress plays an integral role in depression and that depression has numerous negative health outcomes. However, a closer look at components of stress vulnerabilities and depression is required to allow for the development and testing of appropriate interventions. Aims and Discussion This article describes a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women. The authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. Conclusion The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression. PMID:25328843

  5. Mental Health Literacy: Empowering the Community to Take Action for Better Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorm, Anthony F.

    2012-01-01

    For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…

  6. Working-Memory Gene Linked to Schizophrenia -MSN Health & Fitness -Mental Health http://health.msn.com/health-topics/mental-health/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100256438[5/7/2010 1:37:50 PM

    E-print Network

    .msn.com/health-topics/mental-health/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100256438[5/7/2010 1:37:50 PM advertisement Mental Health Videos Mental Health Basics Diseases & Conditions Health Topics Symptom Checker

  7. Fleet leaders' attitudes about subordinates' use of mental health services.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Richard J

    2007-11-01

    Mental disorders are a significant source of medical and occupational morbidity for sailors. Stigma, fear of negative career impact, and subordinates concern about leaders' attitudes are significant barriers to the use of mental health services. Semistructured interviews and military policies were data sources used to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health treatment using Foucault's concept of discourse analysis. A discourse is a system of knowledge that influences language, perceptions, values, and social practices. The results showed that leaders' concerns about sailors' mental combat readiness, not mental illness stigma, was the dominant discourse about mental illness and mental health services use. In particular, organizational differences between the surface warfare and the mental health communities may influence leaders' attitudes more than stigma. This study provides an elaborated view of mental health knowledge and power within a Navy community. PMID:18062385

  8. Prevalence of mental health disorders in inflammatory bowel disease: an Australian outpatient cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tribbick, Davina; Salzberg, Michael; Ftanou, Maria; Connell, William R; Macrae, Finlay; Kamm, Michael A; Bates, Glen W; Cunningham, Georgina; Austin, David W; Knowles, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to characterize prevalence of anxiety and depressive conditions and uptake of mental health services in an Australian inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) outpatient setting. Methods Eighty-one IBD patients (39 males, mean age 35 years) attending a tertiary hospital IBD outpatient clinic participated in this study. Disease severity was evaluated according to the Manitoba Index. Diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive condition was based upon the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results Based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscale scores >8 and meeting Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview criteria, 16 (19.8%) participants had at least one anxiety condition, while nine (11.1%) had a depressive disorder present. Active IBD status was associated with higher prevalence rates across all anxiety and depressive conditions. Generalized anxiety was the most common (12 participants, 14.8%) anxiety condition, and major depressive disorder (recurrent) was the most common depressive condition reported (five participants, 6.2%). Seventeen participants (21%) reported currently seeking help for mental health issues while 12.4% were identified has having at least one psychological condition but not seeking treatment. Conclusion We conclude that rates of anxiety and depression are high in this cohort, and that IBD-focused psychological services should be a key component of any holistic IBD service, especially for those identified as having active IBD. PMID:26213474

  9. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Mental Fitness for Mildly Depressed Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haverman, Merel; Kramer, Jeannet; Westerhof, Gerben J; Riper, Heleen; Walburg, Jan A; Boon, Brigitte; Bohlmeijer, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a worldwide problem warranting global solutions to tackle it. Enhancing well-being has benefits in its own right and could be a good strategy for preventing depression. Providing well-being interventions via the Internet may have synergetic effects. Objective Psyfit (“mental fitness online”) is a fully automated self-help intervention to improve well-being based on positive psychology. This study examines the clinical effects of this intervention. Methods We conducted a 2-armed randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of access to Psyfit for 2 months (n=143) to a waiting-list control condition (n=141). Mild to moderately depressed adults in the general population seeking self-help were recruited. Primary outcome was well-being measured by Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5); secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, anxiety, vitality, and general health measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), and Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS-SF) vitality and general health subscales, respectively. Online measurements were taken at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months after baseline. Results The dropout rate was 37.8% in the Psyfit group and 22.7% in the control group. At 2-month follow-up, Psyfit tended to be more effective in enhancing well-being (nonsignificantly for MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.27, P=.06; significantly for WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.31, P=.01), compared to the waiting-list control group. For the secondary outcomes, small but significant effects were found for general health (Cohen’s d=0.14, P=.01), vitality (d=0.22, P=.02), anxiety symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.32, P=.001), and depressive symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.36, P=.02). At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant effects on well-being (MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.01, P=.90; WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.26, P=.11), whereas depressive symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.35, P=.02) and anxiety symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.35, P=.001) were still significantly reduced compared to the control group. There was no clear dose–response relationship between adherence and effectiveness, although some significant differences appeared across most outcomes in favor of those completing at least 1 lesson in the intervention. Conclusions This study shows that an online well-being intervention can effectively enhance well-being (at least in the short-term and for 1 well-being measure) and can help to reduce anxiety and depression symptoms. Further research should focus on increasing adherence and motivation, reaching and serving lower-educated people, and widening the target group to include people with different levels of depressive symptoms. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) number: NTR2126; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2126 (archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6IIiVrLcO). PMID:24041479

  10. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental...

  11. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental...

  12. Review of mobile health technology for military mental health.

    PubMed

    Shore, Jay H; Aldag, Matt; McVeigh, Francis L; Hoover, Ronald L; Ciulla, Robert; Fisher, Ashley

    2014-08-01

    Mental health problems pose challenges for military veterans, returning service members, and military family members including spouses and children. Challenges to meeting mental health needs include improving access to care and improving quality of care. Mobile Health, or "mHealth," can help meet these needs in the garrison and civilian environments. mHealth brings unique capabilities to health care provision through the use of mobile device technologies. This report identifies high-priority mHealth technology development considerations in two categories. First, priority considerations specific to mental health care provision include safety, privacy, evidence-based practice, efficacy studies, and temperament. Second, priority considerations broadly applicable to mHealth include security, outcomes, ease of use, carrier compliance, hardware, provider perspectives, data volume, population, regulation, command policy, and reimbursement. Strategic planning for the advancement of these priority considerations should be coordinated with stated Department of Defense capability needs to maximize likelihood of adoption. This report also summarizes three leading, military programs focused on mHealth projects in mental health, The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, The Military Operational Medicine Research Program, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and The National Center for Telehealth and Technology. PMID:25102529

  13. [Work and mental health: risk groups].

    PubMed

    Vézina, M; Gingras, S

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the Quebec Health survey identified those Quebec industrial sectors and professions in which workers are at risk of higher psychological distress and lower psychological well-being. Risk levels were measured by odds ratio, controlling for: health status, sex, social support and stressful life events. Results show that those at risk are blue collar workers and less qualified workers of traditional sectors. Lower job latitude could explain those results. Results show that risk of mental health problems is significantly higher in the following industrial sectors: leather, chemicals, paint and varnish industries; urban bus transport and taxi; shoe, clothing and textile retail stores; department stores; restaurant services; insurance and public administration (excluding defence). Risk of mental health problems is higher in the following professions road transport (excluding truck drivers); textile, leather, fur manufacturing and repairing; housekeeping and maintenance; painters, tapestry-workers, insulation and waterproofing, food and beverages sector; data processors; editors and university professors. PMID:8753644

  14. A randomized trial of ACT bibliotherapy on the mental health of K-12 teachers and staff.

    PubMed

    Jeffcoat, Tami; Hayes, Steven C

    2012-09-01

    The mental health challenges of some vocations present a challenge for current intervention models. Bibliotherapy focused on transdiagnostic processes that might both prevent and alleviate a range of mental health distress could be an effective and practical approach. K-12 school personnel (N = 236; 91% female; 30-60 years old) responding to a wellness-oriented program announcement were randomized to receive an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) self-help volume or to a waitlist. Three-fourths were above clinical cutoffs in general mental health, depression, anxiety, or stress. Participants read the book for two months, completed exercises and quizzes, and after post assessment were followed for 10 weeks; waitlist participants were then also given the book with two months to complete it. Overall, participants showed significant improvement in psychological health. Significant preventive effects for depression and anxiety were observed along with significant ameliorative effects for those in the clinical ranges of depression, anxiety and stress. Follow up general mental health, depression, and anxiety outcomes were related to the manner in which participants used the workbook and to post levels of psychological flexibility. PMID:22750188

  15. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  16. Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1992

    1992-01-01

    A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each paper presents a clear, easily understood analysis of the subject under consideration. A…

  17. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing: Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Judith L.

    A guide to Nursing 5, a course on psychiatric-mental health nursing offered at East Los Angeles College is presented. The guide first details classroom and clinical course requirements and then identifies long-range and end-of-course objectives. A list of required texts and manuals is followed by an outline of the objectives for each of four…

  18. Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Perspectives on the Essentials of Clinical Supervision" (Stephen A. Anderson); (2) "Adlerian Group Psychotherapy: A Brief Therapy Approach" (Manford A. Sonstegard,…

  19. Mental Health Counseling: Toward Resolving Identity Confusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2002-01-01

    The development of a professional identity is an important aspect of the training and ongoing sense of belongingness of mental health counselors. This article examines two themes related to identity confusion: establishing and producing a systematic body of theory for the profession and distinguishing the profession from other service providers.…

  20. Income Shocks and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…

  1. Organization Development in Mental Health Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrell, Jeanette M.; Kouzes, James M.

    1982-01-01

    Conducted a management and organization development program in eight mental health agencies. Describes the stages and activities of this 18-month effort and the results of its evaluation. There were significant, positive results for almost all the participating management teams as well as for their organizations. (Author)

  2. Prevention Programs for Refugee Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.

    Refugee movements impose tremendous psychological and physical trauma on survivors, making refugees a high risk group for psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment problems. This paper explores the traditional impediments to developing prevention programs for refugees and describes public mental health strategies that could be used for different…

  3. Urbanization, Mental Health, and Social Deviancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsella, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of current knowledge regarding urbanization, mental health, and social deviancy. Discusses definitional, conceptual and methodological issues and challenges, and provides a review of the international research literature on the topic. Offers recommendations for improving research efforts. Contains over 100 references. (MMU)

  4. Religion and Mental Health: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin, Florence A., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography cites journal articles, reports, and books on religion and mental health published since 1970. The listing is intended to help psychologists, psychiatrists, clergymen, social workers, teachers, doctors and other professionals respond to requests for information and advice in areas spanning the common ground between…

  5. Marriage & Family Counseling in Mental Health Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Stanley C.

    Marriage and Family Therapy is an increasingly popular treatment that was almost unknown 50 years ago. Family Therapy has been multidisciplinary from the beginning, drawing practitioners from social work, psychology, psychiatry, nursing, and pastoral and mental health counseling. It is often difficult to get a whole family to arrange schedules so…

  6. Students' Mental Health: Personal and University Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodarahimi, Siamak; Rasti, Ali; Khajehie, Malihe; Sattar, Rea

    2009-01-01

    The present study was to examine the effects of personal and university bounded factors in students mental health in north of Fars province, Iran. The effects of these factors on university students' psychopathology within a survey design were investigated among 300 participants--94 males and 206 females, who were selected through random sampling…

  7. Facing Mental Health Crises on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Educating the student body on mental health involves outreach to groups not normally exposed to this information, including athletes, ethnic groups, residence hall inhabitants, fraternities and sororities, and international students. Frontline responders can help facilitate this outreach through initiatives that involve presentations by counselors…

  8. Life Contentment and Mental Health Care Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Jonathan D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: It is now well documented that satisfaction with mental health services is influenced by a variety of other factors (e.g., race, diagnosis, functioning level). Because of a generally brighter outlook, this study examined whether care satisfaction is also influenced by contentment in housing, social relations, or existence in general.…

  9. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  10. Aging and Mental Health: Business as Usual?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyer, Michael A.; Gatz, Margaret

    1979-01-01

    In developing training models in mental health and aging, it is necessary to synthesize existing expertise in areas such as life span development, clinical psychology, and community psychology in order to create a conceptual foundation and a set of intervention approaches for these training programs. (Author/WI)

  11. Counseling and Mental Health Care in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawahin, Lamise; Ciftci, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    The authors provide a brief overview of counseling and mental health care in Palestine, including their history and a summary of their current status. Finally, a discussion is presented of future trends in the development of the profession with regard to recent changes in the region.

  12. Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This curriculum guide contains articles from numerous experts in the field of mental health counseling. This issue includes: (1) "Therapeutic Approaches to Anxiety Disorders" (Robert L. DuPont); (2) "The Role of Nutrition in Detoxification from Drugs and Alcohol" (Jeffrey S. Bland); (3) "'Repair' vs. 'Growth' Approaches to Therapy" (Paul L.…

  13. Strengthening "School" in School Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight new and existing research on school characteristics that are essential elements in building the capacity of school communities to implement whole school approaches to mental health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: Through an overview of recent research and writing the need for a…

  14. But Seriously: Clowning in Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Schuyler W.; Rosario, Katyna

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the insight into child and adolescent behavior offered by clowns. It reviews the Big Apple Circus Clown Care hospital clowning program and evaluates the role clowns could play in pediatric mental health inpatient work and their implications for the broader clinical setting.

  15. Latino Mental Health: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Ruiz, Rene A.

    Reviewed from an interdisciplinary viewpoint is the available literature on the mental health of Spanish speaking, Spanish surnammed (SSSS) individuals and communities in the United States. It is reported that over 9 million U.S. residents are of Spanish origin, that the SSSS are usually on the lowest rung of the socioeconomic ladder, that the…

  16. Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each lesson presents an analysis of the subject under consideration. A list of further sources…

  17. Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J., Ed.; Palmo, Artis J., Ed.

    The mental health counseling profession has gained increasing influence in the last 20 years. The purpose of this edited collection of articles is to chart the antecedents to, the present status of, and the future trends for this group of professionals. The book draws together historical tracings, rationales, conceptual models, and other…

  18. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Methods Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Results Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. Conclusion This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated with negative mental health amongst specific population groups in order to ensure greater impact. PMID:24502531

  19. Workplace mental health: developing an integrated intervention approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425

  20. Aggression Exposure and Mental Health among Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the extent of aggression exposure and the effects of exposure on the psychological health of nursing staff in hospitals. Results suggested that nearly 40% of staff experienced psychological distress, while nearly 10% experienced moderate to severe depression. Results of the logistic analyses indicated that frequent exposure to…

  1. Egyptian contribution to the concept of mental health.

    PubMed

    Okasha, A

    2001-05-01

    This paper provides an historical look at the Egyptian contribution to mental health from Pharaonic times through to the Islamic era and up to today. The current situation as regards mental health in Egypt is described. PMID:12690756

  2. Older adult consumers of Texas public mental health services: 

    E-print Network

    Karlin, Bradley Eric

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the current utilization of mental health care by the nation's geriatric population is greatly lacking. Research conducted prior to and during the 1980s consistently found that older adults utilize mental health care...

  3. Hispanic Mental Health Research: A Case for Cultural Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrega, Horacio, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Critically examines contemporary Hispanic mental health research. Develops idea that "establishment psychiatry" dominates methods, research, reimbursement, and treatment. Suggests need to broaden paradigms with culturally sensitive insight and contemporary psychiatric theory. Analyzes issues using frameworks of mental health research, social…

  4. Gender Differences in Mental Health Outcomes before, during, and after the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Rada K.; Chen, Jie; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in mental health outcomes during and post-recession versus pre-recession. We utilized 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Females had lower odds of depression diagnoses during and post-recession and better mental health during the recession, but higher odds of anxiety diagnoses post-recession. Males had lower odds of depression diagnoses and better mental health during and post-recession and lower Kessler 6 scores post-recession. We conducted stratified analyses, which confirmed that the aforementioned findings were consistent across the four different regions of the U.S., by employment status, income and health care utilization. Importantly, we found that the higher odds of anxiety diagnoses among females after the recession were mainly prominent among specific subgroups of females: those who lived in the Northeast or the Midwest, the unemployed, and those with low household income. Gender differences in mental health in association with the economic recession highlight the importance of policymakers taking these differences into consideration when designing economic and social policies to address economic downturns. Future research should examine the reasons behind the decreased depression diagnoses among both genders, and whether they signify decreased mental healthcare utilization or increased social support and more time for exercise and leisure activities. PMID:25970634

  5. Association of work-related stress with mental health problems in a special police force unit

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. Method At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the ‘VI Reparto Mobile’, a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand–Control–Support (DCS) and the Effort–Reward–Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Results Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI?10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers. PMID:23872288

  6. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values < .05). The multivariate model for depression yielded a three-way interaction among all three discrimination types (p < .01), indicating that perceived racial discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p < .05). Conclusion Findings suggest that some types of perceived discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061

  7. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  8. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, M; Hanna, F; Weissbecker, I; Ventevogel, P

    2015-07-01

    Armed conflicts and natural disasters impact negatively on the mental health and well-being of affected populations in the short- and long-term and affect the care of people with pre-existing mental health conditions. This paper outlines specific actions for mental health and psychosocial support by the health sector in the preparedness, response and recovery phases of emergencies. Broad recommendations for ministries of health are to: (1) embed mental health and psychosocial support in national health and emergency preparedness plans; (2) put in place national guidelines, standards and supporting tools for the provision of mental health and psychosocial support during emergencies; (3) strengthen the capacity of health professionals to identify and manage priority mental disorders during emergencies; and (4) utilize opportunities generated by the emergency response to contribute to development of sustainable mental health-care services. PMID:26442890

  9. A cross-sectional examination of the mental health of homeless mothers: does the relationship between mothering and mental health vary by duration of homelessness?

    PubMed Central

    Zabkiewicz, Denise M; Patterson, Michelle; Wright, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study draws on baseline data from the At Home/Chez Soi demonstration project to examine the association between parenting status and mental health among homeless women and whether the association varies by duration of homelessness. Setting Structured interviews were conducted with participants in five cities across Canada including Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver and Winnipeg. Participants Eligibility criteria included those with legal adult status, with a mental illness, and who lacked a regular, fixed shelter. All 713 women who participated in the larger project were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Measures The mental health conditions of interest include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol dependence and substance dependence. Results The relationship between parenting status and depression, as well as PTSD, varied by duration of homelessness. Among women who had been homeless for less than 2?years, no relationship was found between parenting status and depression, or PTSD. However, among women who had been homeless for 2 or more years, the odds of depression was twice as high among parenting women compared with others (aOR=2.05, p?0.05). A similar relationship was found between parenting status and PTSD (aOR=2.03, p?0.05). The odds of substance dependence was found to be 2.62 times greater among parenting women compared with others and this relationship did not vary by duration of homelessness (aOR=2.62; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.69). No relationship was found between parenting and alcohol dependence. Conclusions Overall, the findings from this study suggest that there is a relationship between long-term homelessness and mothers’ risk of poor mental health. Given the multiple demands mothers face, a failure to recognise their unique needs is likely to contribute to intergenerational legacies of homelessness and mental health problems. Trial registration number World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ISRCTN66721740 and ISRCTN57595077). PMID:25492272

  10. Learning Collaboratives in Mental Health Care: Used but Untested

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Erum; Olin, Serene; Hill, Laura Campbell; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2014-01-01

    Objective Policymakers have increasingly turned to Learning Collaboratives (LCs) as a strategy for improving usual care through the dissemination of evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review is to characterize the state of the evidence on LCs in mental health care. Methods A systematic search of major academic databases for peer-reviewed articles on LCs in mental health care generated 421 unique articles across a range of disciplines; 28 mental health articles were selected for full-text review, and 20 articles comprising 16 distinct studies met criteria for final inclusion. Articles were coded to identify the LC components reported, the focus of the research, and key findings. Results The majority of the articles included baseline to post-collaborative assessments of provider- or patient-level variables; there was only one study with a comparison condition. The LC targets ranged tremendously, from the use of a depression screener to implementation of evidence-based treatments. Fourteen crosscutting LC components (e.g., in-person learning sessions, phone meetings, data reporting, leadership involvement, training in QI methods) were identified from a systematic review of the extant literature on LCs. The LCs in this review reported including, on average, 7 components, most commonly in-person learning sessions, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, multidisciplinary QI teams, and data collection for QI. Conclusions LCs are being used widely in mental health care with minimal evidence of their effectiveness and unclear reporting on specific components. There is a great need for rigorous observational and controlled research studies on the impact of LCs on targeted provider- and patient-level outcomes. PMID:24882560

  11. Pastoral Care Use among Post-9/11 Veterans who Screen Positive for Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwsma, Jason A.; Fortune-Greeley, Alice K.; Jackson, George L.; Meador, Keith G.; Beckham, Jean C.; Elbogen, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their military experience, veterans with mental health problems may have unique motivations for seeking help from clergy. Patterns and correlates of seeking pastoral care were examined using a nationwide representative survey that was conducted among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts (adjusted N = 1,068; 56% response rate). Separate multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine veteran characteristics associated with seeking pastoral care and seeking mental health services. Among post-9/11 veterans with a probable mental disorder (n = 461) – defined as a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, or alcohol misuse – 20.2% reported talking to a “pastoral counselor” in the preceding year, 44.7% reported talking to a mental health professional, and 46.6% reported talking to neither. In a multivariate analysis for veterans with a probable mental disorder, seeing a pastoral counselor was associated with an increased likelihood of seeing a mental health professional in the past year (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: [1.28, 3.65]). In a separate bivariate analysis, pastoral counselors were more likely to be seen by veterans who indicated concerns about stigma or distrust of mental health care. These results suggest that pastoral and mental health care services may complement one another and underscore the importance of enhancing understanding and collaboration between these disciplines so as to meet the needs of the veterans they serve. PMID:24933105

  12. Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relationship to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…

  13. Cognitive Bias Modification Using Mental Imagery for Depression: Developing a Novel Computerized Intervention to Change Negative Thinking Styles

    PubMed Central

    LANG, TAMARA J; BLACKWELL, SIMON E; HARMER, CATHERINE J; DAVISON, PHIL; HOLMES, EMILY A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Why do some people see their glass as half-empty rather than half-full or even imagine that the glass will be filled in the future? Experimental methods can illuminate how individual differences in information processing style can profoundly impact mood or even result in disorders such as depression. A computerized cognitive bias modification intervention targeting interpretation bias in depression via positive mental imagery (CBM-I) was evaluated by investigating its impact on mental health and cognitive bias compared with a control condition. Twenty-six depressed individuals completed either positive imagery-focussed CBM-I or a control condition daily at home over one week. Outcome measures were collected pre-treatment and post-treatment and at two-week follow-up. Individuals in the positive condition demonstrated significant improvements from pre-treatment to post-treatment in depressive symptoms, cognitive bias and intrusive symptoms compared with the control condition. Improvements in depressive symptoms at two-week follow-up were at trend level. The results of this first controlled comparison of positive imagery-focussed CBM-I for depression further support the clinical potential of CBM-I and the development of a novel computerized treatment that could help patients imagine a more positive future. Broader implications concern the modification of individual differences in personality variables via their interaction with key information processing targets. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23316101

  14. Cognitive Bias Modification Using Mental Imagery for Depression: Developing a Novel Computerized Intervention to Change Negative Thinking Styles.

    PubMed

    Lang, Tamara J; Blackwell, Simon E; Harmer, Catherine J; Davison, Phil; Holmes, Emily A

    2012-03-01

    Why do some people see their glass as half-empty rather than half-full or even imagine that the glass will be filled in the future? Experimental methods can illuminate how individual differences in information processing style can profoundly impact mood or even result in disorders such as depression. A computerized cognitive bias modification intervention targeting interpretation bias in depression via positive mental imagery (CBM-I) was evaluated by investigating its impact on mental health and cognitive bias compared with a control condition. Twenty-six depressed individuals completed either positive imagery-focussed CBM-I or a control condition daily at home over one week. Outcome measures were collected pre-treatment and post-treatment and at two-week follow-up. Individuals in the positive condition demonstrated significant improvements from pre-treatment to post-treatment in depressive symptoms, cognitive bias and intrusive symptoms compared with the control condition. Improvements in depressive symptoms at two-week follow-up were at trend level. The results of this first controlled comparison of positive imagery-focussed CBM-I for depression further support the clinical potential of CBM-I and the development of a novel computerized treatment that could help patients imagine a more positive future. Broader implications concern the modification of individual differences in personality variables via their interaction with key information processing targets. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23316101

  15. Plato and the origin of mental health.

    PubMed

    Seeskin, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines the history of the concept of mental health. Its origin can be traced to Plato, who argued that immorality is to the soul what disease is to the body. The purpose of this argument was to answer those who thought that morality is a set of social conventions, and in that sense, is contrary to nature. Plato responded by turning to those who made a systematic study of nature--the medical writers of his day--and claiming that if proper balance is needed to maintain a healthy body, the same is true of the soul. Thus the natural state of the soul is one in which the various parts agree on which should rule. This does not mean that Plato sought to excuse immoral behavior by treating it as a medical condition, only that he regarded immoral behavior as contrary to nature and thus treatable. Although later attempts to define mental health are not as rigid as Plato's, it is remarkable how many of his insights are still applicable, in particular the claim that morality and mental health, though not identical, are nonetheless linked. A case in point is the experience of wanting something but not liking the fact that you want it. Plato regarded internal conflict of this sort as a paradigm case of psychic dysfunction. I argue that we can regard it as either a moral failing or a mental one. PMID:18962894

  16. School-based mental health: a de facto mental health system for children.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Steve; Coustasse, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    As the nation's schools seek to fulfill the academic imperatives of the federal No Child Left Behind Act and associated state imperatives, they may be forgetting an important missing element in boosting academic achievement: directly confronting the mental health and psychosocial needs that impede a significant percentage of children and adolescents. This article explores the available research on mental health services in schools and the theoretical basis for multiple approaches to the problem. Creating a comprehensive solution to address mental and behavioral barriers to learning could significantly improve academic performance in U.S. primary and secondary schools. PMID:19042869

  17. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors’ understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Results Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils’ mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Conclusions Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students’ mental health. PMID:24192066

  18. The impact of fear for family on mental health in a resettled Iraqi refugee community.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick; Brooks, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of fear for family remaining in the country of origin and under potential threat on the mental health of refugees. Adult Mandaean refugees (N=315) from Iraq, living in Sydney, Australia, were interviewed regarding fear for family in Iraq, fear of genocide, pre-migration trauma, post-migration living difficulties and psychological outcomes. Participants with immediate family in Iraq reported higher levels of symptoms of PTSD and depression, and greater mental health-related disability than those without family in Iraq. Intrusive fears about family independently predicted risk of PTSD, depression and disability after controlling for trauma exposure and current living difficulties. Threat to family members living in a context of ongoing threat predicted psychopathology and disability in Mandaean refugees. The effect of ongoing threat to family still living in conflict-ridden countries on the mental health of refugees should be further considered in the context of healthcare. PMID:19875131

  19. Polyvictimization by dating partners and mental health among U.S. college students.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara; Straus, Murray A

    2008-01-01

    Studies on mental health effects of partner violence often ignore multiple victimizations or polyvictimization. The current study had several objectives: (a) examine the rate of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization and combinations of them (polyvictimization) among a sample of students at 19 U.S. colleges; (b) examine the association between victimization and depressive symptoms and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms; and (c) examine the relation of polyvictimization to these mental health effects. A substantial number were polyvictims. As predicted, polyvictimization in almost all analyses was the strongest predictor of PTS symptoms for both men and women. Polyvictimization was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms for women. These findings highlight the importance of including polyvictimization in future work on the mental health effects of partner violence. PMID:19069560

  20. 76 FR 80741 - TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors AGENCY: Office of the... accordance with Section 717 of the NDAA 2008, that would allow licensed or certified mental health counselors... services. Under current TRICARE requirements, mental health counselors (MHCs) are authorized to...

  1. No Child Overlooked: Mental Health Triage in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…

  2. Aviation Disaster Intervention: A Mental Health Volunteer's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…

  3. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  4. Supporting Children with Mental Health Concerns in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Climie, Emma; Altomare, Alyssa A.

    2013-01-01

    There are a growing number of children who begin to develop mental concerns during the school-age years. As such, it is important that schools recognize and understand mental health issues and are actively engaged in supporting these students. This article provides a review of mental health in schools, highlighting the importance of school-health

  5. The Unmet Need for Mental Health Services among Probationers' Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Venema, Rachel; Roque, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the unmet need for mental health services among children with parents on probation. A group of 77 probationers provided information on 170 children. Information about children's need for mental health services was based on the Child Behavior Checklist and information about children's receipt of mental health services was based…

  6. Stigma and Student Mental Health in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer Marie

    2010-01-01

    Stigma is a powerful force in preventing university students with mental health difficulties from gaining access to appropriate support. This paper reports on an exploratory study of university students with mental health difficulties that found most students did not disclose their mental health problems to staff at university. This was primarily…

  7. Program Models for Mental Health Treatment of Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaranson, James M.; Bamford, Pauline

    This paper presents the approach used by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the University of Minnesota's Refugee Assistance Program in Mental Health for identifying successful and culturally sensitive mental health service delivery models. It divides these into four categories: the psychiatric model; the community mental health model; the…

  8. Supporting Young People at School with High Mental Health Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Debra

    2005-01-01

    For young people still at school, the school setting is vital to their mental health and wellbeing. Not only does the school environment have a direct and indirect impact on mental health, it provides an opportunistic setting in which to identify and respond to emerging mental health problems. To do this effectively, schools and school staff must…

  9. Report of a Mental Health Survey among Chinese International Students at Yale University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Xuesong; Han, Xuemei; Luo, Qianlai; Jacobs, Selby; Jean-Baptiste, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese international students, to identify factors that might be associated with these 2 symptom complexes, and to investigate their perception of mental health issues and counseling services. Participants: Chinese students ("N" = 130) at Yale University.…

  10. The Role of Acculturative Stress on Mental Health Symptoms for Immigrant Adolescents: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…

  11. The Relationship between Mental Health, Acculturative Stress, and Academic Performance in a Latino Middle School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…

  12. Mental health and dual sensory loss in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heine, Chyrisse; Browning, Colette J

    2014-01-01

    Mental health is a core component of quality of life in old age. Dual Sensory Loss (DSL; combined vision and hearing loss) is prevalent in older adults and has been correlated with decreased levels of well-being. This systematic review aimed to critically review and summarize the evidence from studies that examined the mental health of older adults with DSL. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) statement, specific databases were searched and eight articles were selected for final review. Seven studies investigated the association between DSL and depression or depressive symptoms, whilst one study explored the relationship between DSL and quality of life. No studies investigated the impact of DSL on anxiety. Overall, results of this review suggested that there is a significant relationship between DSL and decreased mental health with those with DSL either displaying depressive symptoms or being at risk for developing depression. Future research should focus on comparative studies of older people with and without sensory loss, as well as targeted studies of older people with dual sensory loss, that incorporate well-defined and valid measures of sensory loss and mental health. PMID:24860496

  13. Managing Mental Health Problems in Everyday Life: Drug Treatment Client's Self-Care Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Treloar, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Little is understood about the self-care activities undertaken by drug treatment clients. Using data from a qualitative study of drug treatment and mental health we identify the self-care practices of drug treatment clients diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven participants were interviewed in four sites across Australia.…

  14. “Life Grows Between the Rocks” Latino adolescents’ and parents’ perspectives on mental health stressors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carolyn; Lindgren, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    Latino adolescents, an increasingly larger proportion of youth in the US, are at special risk for mental health problems, including depression and suicidal ideation. Little is known about the meaning of mental health stressors for Latino adolescents and their parents. We conducted a descriptive study to elicit Latino adolescents’ and parents’ perspectives regarding mental health stressors as a basis for future preventive interventions. Eight focus groups were conducted with 53 Latino participants, two per sub-group (boys, girls, mothers, fathers). Three categories of mental health stressors included discrimination, immigration, and familial disconnection. Findings support the need for collaborative interventions and multi-level strategies (individual, family, and community) to address stressors in Latino adolescents’ experiences. PMID:19170104

  15. Identity Theft in Community Mental Health Patients

    PubMed Central

    Klopp, Jonathon; Konrad, Shane; Yanofski, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mental health center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented. PMID:20806029

  16. The Clergy and the Mental Health Professions

    PubMed Central

    Chalke, F. C. R.

    1965-01-01

    In this lecture, as a tribute to the late Samuel Prince, founder of the mental hygiene movement in the Maritime Provinces, the rapprochement between the clergy and mental health profession is discussed. A brief survey of the historical background of the churches' approaches to mental disorder leads to consideration of subjects of present mutual concern. Spiritual and emotional development, responsibility and guilt, law and freedom, psychic structure and sanctity, sexuality, and symbolic representation are among the areas which demand intellectual exploration in depth, jointly, by theologians and social scientists. The need is outlined for training parish clergy to carry out their role in ameliorating emotionally damaging social conditions and of educating and counselling parishioners. PMID:5320919

  17. Mental Health and Childhood Adversities: A Longitudinal Study in Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Goodman, Anna; Tol, Wietse; Eggerman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify prospective predictors of mental health in Kabul, Afghanistan. Method Using stratified random-sampling in schools, mental health and life events for 11-to 16-year-old students and their caregivers were assessed. In 2007, 1 year after baseline, the retention rate was 64% (n = 115 boys, 119 girls, 234 adults) with no evidence of selection bias. Self- and caregiver-rated child mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), depressive (Depression Self-Rating Scale), and posttraumatic stress (Child Revised Impact of Events Scale) symptoms and caregiver mental health (Self-Report Questionnaire) were assessed. Lifetime trauma and past-year traumatic, stressful, and protective experiences were assessed. Results With the exception of posttraumatic stress, one-year trajectories for all mental health outcomes showed significant improvement (p < .001). Family violence had a striking impact on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire data, raising caregiver-rated scores by 3.14 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.21–4.08) or half a standard deviation, and self-rated scores by 1.26 points (CI 0.50–2.03); past-year traumatic beatings independently raised self-rated scores by 1.85 points (CI 0.03–3.66). A major family conflict raised depression scores by 2.75 points (CI 0.89–4.61), two thirds of a standard deviation, whereas improved family life had protective effects. Posttraumatic stress symptom scores, however, were solely contingent on lifetime trauma, with more than three events raising scores by 5.38 points (CI 1.76–9.00). Conclusions Family violence predicted changes in mental health problems other than posttraumatic stress symptoms in a cohort that showed resilience to substantial socioeconomic and war-related stressors. The importance of prospectively identifying impacts of specific types of childhood adversities on mental health outcomes is highlighted to strengthen evidence on key modifiable factors for intervention in war-affected populations. PMID:21421175

  18. Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of smoking and lower rates of smoking cessation are known to be associated with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and with individual and community measures of socioeconomic status. It is not known to what extent mental illness and socioeconomic status might be jointly associated with smoking behaviour. We set out to examine the relationship between mental illness, measures of socioeconomic disadvantage and both current smoking and smoking cessation rates. Methods We used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between mental illness, socioeconomic status and both current smoking and smoking cessation. We used cross-classified tables and logistic regression to examine the relationship between psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors and current smoking. We also used proportional hazards regression to examine the relationship between the factors and smoking cessation. Results Both mental illness and socioeconomic status were independently associated with current smoking and with lower likelihood of smoking cessation, with gradients in smoking by mental health status being observed within levels of socioeconomic indicators and vice versa. Having a mental illness in the past 12 months was the most prevalent factor strongly associated with smoking, affecting 20.0% of the population, associated with increased current smoking (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.97-3.01) and reduced likelihood of smoking cessation (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). Conclusions The association between mental illness and smoking is not explained by the association between mental illness and socioeconomic status. There are strong socioeconomic and psychosocial gradients in both current smoking and smoking cessation. Incorporating knowledge of the other adverse factors in smokers’ lives may increase the penetration of tobacco control interventions in population groups that have historically benefitted less from these activities. PMID:23663362

  19. The effects of racial heterogeneity on mental health: A study of detained youth across multiple counties.

    PubMed

    Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C; Holloway, Evan D; Wiehe, Sarah E; Vachon, David D

    2015-09-01

    A majority of detained adolescents experience mental health and substance use problems. Limited research has examined the interaction between the race/ethnicity of an individual youth and county-level racial heterogeneity on adolescent mental health outcomes. Participants were identified through a statewide mental health screening project that took place in detention centers across 11 different counties in a Midwestern state during January 1, 2008, to May 10, 2010. A total of 23,831 detained youth (ages 11-18 years), identified as non-Hispanic White (46.6%), Black (43.5%), or Hispanic (9.8%), completed a mental health screener that assessed problems in alcohol/drug use, depression-anxiety, anger-irritability, trauma, somatic complaints, and suicide ideation. Census data were gathered to determine the racial heterogeneity of each county and other county-level variables. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to test the independent and interactive effects of youth race/ethnicity and county-level variables (including racial heterogeneity of the county) on adolescent mental health. Independent of other community characteristics, as county-level racial heterogeneity increased, mental health problems among detained youth decreased. In future research on the development and persistence of mental health problems in detained youth, both community and individual-level factors should be considered. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460702

  20. Relationship Between Allergic Rhinitis and Mental Health in the General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the association between AR and mental health status in the general Korean adult population and to investigate the relative burden of AR on mental health using the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed by using data from 11,154 individuals, 19 years old or older in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Univariate analysis was conducted in the healthy AR groups with weighted prevalence of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and comorbid diseases. Subanalysis that classified AR severity according to the ARIA classification was carried out to evaluate the relationship of AR severity with mental health. The odds ratios (ORs) for each component representing mental health status were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis with confounder adjustment. Results Univariate analysis with the chi-square test after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use status, and exercise status, components representing mental health status showed a linear relationship with the severity of AR according to the ARIA classification. Stress, depressive mood, suicidal thoughts, and psychological consultation factors were correlated with AR after adjustment for demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status. Even after adjustment for comorbid allergic diseases, the correlation remained significant with stress, depressive mood, and psychological consultation factors (OR [95% CI]; 1.227 [1.042, 1.445], 1.368 [1.095, 1.71], 1.804 [1.096, 2.969], respectively). Conclusions Patients with AR appear to be at higher risk of mental disorders in the general Korean adult population. Moreover, persistent or severe AR was correlated with poor mental health. Therefore, better control of AR may be conducive to better mental health, and more attention should be paid to the psychological status of AR patients. PMID:26540501

  1. Mental Health of Aging Immigrants and Native-Born Men Across 11 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Though working-age immigrants exhibit lower mortality compared with those domestic-born immigrants, consequences of immigration for mental health remain unclear. We examine whether older immigrants exhibit a mental advantage and whether factors believed to underlie immigrant vulnerability explain disparities. Method. The sample includes 12,247 noninstitutionalized men more than 50 years in 11 European countries. Multivariate logistic regression models estimated the impact of physical health, health behaviors, availability of social support, social participation, citizenship, time since immigration, socioeconomic status (SES), and employment on the mental health of immigrants. Results. Immigrants face 1.60 increased odds of depression despite a physical health advantage, evidenced by 0.74 lower odds of chronic illness. SES and availability of social support were predictive, though acculturation measures were not. Decomposition analysis revealed that only approximately 20% of the variation in depression rates between immigrants and native-born peers were explained by commonly cited risk factors. Conclusions. Despite physical health advantages, older immigrants suffer substantially higher depression rates. Time since immigration does not appear to mitigate depressive symptoms. PMID:23325505

  2. How does living with HIV impact on women's mental health? Voices from a global survey

    PubMed Central

    Orza, Luisa; Bewley, Susan; Logie, Carmen H; Crone, Elizabeth Tyler; Moroz, Svetlana; Strachan, Sophie; Vazquez, Marijo; Welbourn, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women living with HIV experience a disproportionate burden of mental health issues. To date, global guidelines contain insufficient guidance on mental health support, particularly regarding perinatal care. The aim of this article is to describe the extent and impact of mental health issues as experienced by women living with HIV on their sexual and reproductive health and human rights (SRH&HR). Methods A global, mixed-methods, user-led and designed survey on SRH&HR of women living with HIV was conducted using snowball sampling, containing an optional section exploring mental health issues. Statistical quantitative data analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression analysis for the mental health responses. Thematic analysis of open free-text responses was performed for qualitative data. Results A total of 832 respondents from 94 countries participated in the online survey with 489 responses to the optional mental health section. Of the respondents, 82% reported depression symptoms and 78% rejection. One-fifth reported mental health issues before HIV diagnosis. Respondents reported experiencing a 3.5-fold higher number of mental health issues after diagnosis (8.71 vs 2.48, t[488]=23.00, p<0.001). Nearly half (n=224; 45.8%) had multiple socially disadvantaged identities (SDIs). The number of SDIs was positively correlated with experiencing mental health issues (p<0.05). Women described how mental health issues affected their ability to enjoy their right to sexual and reproductive health and to access services. These included depression, rejection and social exclusion, sleep problems, intersectional stigma, challenges with sexual and intimate relationships, substance use and sexual risk, reproductive health barriers and human rights (HR) violations. Respondents recommended that policymakers and clinicians provide psychological support and counselling, funding for peer support and interventions to challenge gender-based violence and to promote HR. Conclusions Interventions addressing intersecting stigmas and any especial impacts of diagnosis during pregnancy are required to ensure women's SRH&HR. Global policy guidelines regarding women living with HIV must incorporate mental health considerations. PMID:26643460

  3. Family Impact in Intellectual Disability, Severe Mental Health Disorders and Mental Health Disorders in ID. A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Almudena; Gutierrez-Recacha, Pedro; Irazabal, Marcia; Marsa, Ferran; Garcia, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Family impact (or family burden) is a concept born in the field of mental health that has successfully been exported to the ambit of intellectual disability (ID). However, differences in family impact associated with severe mental health disorders (schizophrenia), to ID or to mental health problems in ID should be expected. Seventy-two adults with…

  4. Mental Health Issues Facing a Diverse Sample of College Students: Results from the College Student Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soet, Johanna; Sevig, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been increased attention given to mental health issues on college and university campuses across the country. However, few research efforts have been conducted to systematically investigate the mental health of college students. The College Student Mental Health Survey was undertaken as a first step towards gaining…

  5. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health

  6. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  7. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medical (CAM) Therapies Among Youth with Mental Health Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Gardiner, Paula; Birdee, Gurjeet S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies is common among adults with mental health concerns, but little is known about CAM use among adolescents with mental health concerns. Methods Data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for youth from 7–17 years old. The study focused on three common mental health conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression. CAM use was identified by criteria from the National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIH NCCAM). Results In a sample of 5651 individuals, representing seven million youth, with one or more mental health concerns in the past 12 months, 28.9% used one or more types of CAM excluding vitamins/minerals. In contrast, only 11.6% of those without mental health concerns reported CAM use (P<0.05). Among youth with one or more mental health conditions, the most commonly used CAM therapies were mind-body therapies (16.3%) and biologically-based therapies (11%); use was higher for therapies that could be directly accessed (18.6%), than for therapies delivered in groups (11.8%) or through a health professional (10.2%). In the multivariable regression model, demographic factors significantly associated with CAM use were higher household income, higher parental education, having other chronic health conditions, use of prescription medications, and difficulty affording mental health counseling. Conclusion Readily accessible CAM therapies are commonly used by youth with ADHD, depression, and anxiety, particularly those who have co-morbid chronic health conditions, take prescription medications, and difficulty affording counseling. Clinicians can use this data to guide inquiries and counseling. Researchers should explore the longitudinal relationship between access to coordinated care within a medical home and use of CAM therapies among youth with mental health concerns. What’s New Use of CAM is more than twice as common among youth with mental health concerns as those without. Among youth with mental health conditions, use is associated with presence of co-morbidities, prescription medication use, and difficulty affording counseling, perhaps reflecting higher health care utilization and inability to seek conventional care due to cost. PMID:24238680

  8. National Institute of Mental Health Professional Coalition for Research Progress

    E-print Network

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    and support research that will continue to make a difference for those living with mental illness to Fuel Research on the Causes of Mental Disorders; (2) Chart Mental Illness Trajectories to Determine Needs and Circumstances of People with Mental Illnesses; and (4) Strengthen the Public Health Impact

  9. Mental Health: Healing Deep Wounds from the Inside Out. Native Americans in the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with Native American mental health and social workers discuss how Native mental health problems are related to historical trauma and chronically inadequate mental health services. Elements of culturally relevant mental health services include locally delivered workshops, kinship foster care, tribal elders, spirituality, and Native care…

  10. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  11. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  12. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  13. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  14. 42 CFR 441.106 - Comprehensive mental health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section 441.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for...

  15. Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A.; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20–45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen’s (1968; A behavioral model of families’ use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  16. Videoconferencing and forensic mental health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Danny H; Chapman, Murray; Mullen, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    Videoconferencing is in common use in Australian forensic mental health services. It provides opportunities to link remote prisons, courts, and psychiatric clinics with distant specialist services, and enables a range of activities including assessment, treatment and feedback, expert testimony, education, and inter-service planning. These functions are acceptable to patients and clinicians, and in Australia videoconferencing minimizes disruption to small services and their patients, who might otherwise face lengthy journeys. In particular, marginalized patient groups, including indigenous people and prisoners, may receive better services. The evidence base supports use of videoconferencing despite a number of practical, legal, and clinical issues that may reduce its effectiveness compared with face-to-face assessments. Videoconferencing technologies are critical to effective forensic mental health services in Australia. PMID:18548513

  17. Child Disaster Mental Health Interventions: Therapy Components

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Varma, Vandana; Nelson, Summer D.; Newman, Elana

    2015-01-01

    Children face innumerable challenges following exposure to disasters. To address trauma sequelae, researchers and clinicians have developed a variety of mental health interventions. While the overall effectiveness of multiple interventions has been examined, few studies have focused on the individual components of these interventions. As a preliminary step to advancing intervention development and research, this literature review identifies and describes nine common components that comprise child disaster mental health interventions. This review concluded that future research should clearly define the constituent components included in available interventions. This will require that future studies dismantle interventions to examine the effectiveness of specific components and identify common therapeutic elements. Issues related to populations studied (eg, disaster exposure, demographic and cultural influences) and to intervention delivery (eg, timing and optimal sequencing of components) also warrant attention. PMID:25225954

  18. Transformational leadership and the mental health team.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Diwan, Sarah; Campion, John; Rashid, Fadwa

    2002-11-01

    Bass's (1990) multifactor model contrasts transformational and transactional styles of leadership with an essentially ineffective style: laissez-faire leadership. This study examines the relationship between these leadership styles and measures of organizational culture and staff burnout in mental health services teams. There were 236 leaders and 620 subordinates from 54 mental health teams who provided their perceptions of leadership style, organizational culture, and burnout in their program. Results show transformational leadership to be positively associated with a cohesive organizational culture and negatively associated with burnout. Moreover, leaders and subordinates differ in their ratings of transformational leadership-leaders viewed themselves more positively. These findings are helpful for understanding the central role of leaders in the organizational structure of teams. PMID:12680615

  19. Mental health nurses: changing practice?

    PubMed

    Tingle, Alison

    2002-09-01

    Project 2000 envisaged that the nurse practitioner of the future should act as an "agent for change", using research evidence to address those aspects of practice deemed detrimental to patient care. A Department of Health funded study investigating the careers of nurse diplomates provides information on the extent to which newly qualified nurses were able to change aspects of practice, what factors inhibited changes and which personnel played a key role in facilitating change. Key factors which inhibited newly qualified nurses acting as change agents were lack of experience and confidence, as well as attitudes of other members of staff. Staff of a higher grade, immediate line managers and healthcare assistants all played a key role in facilitating change. PMID:12201893

  20. Child mental health in the Americas: a public health approach.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, L

    1992-01-01

    The systematic, population-wide application of preventive measures based on what is known about the causes and outcomes of psychiatric disorders can markedly reduce morbidity from mental ill health among children in the Americas. The actions proposed here rely partly upon increasing access for all women and their children to thoroughly tested obstetric and pediatric care; in part they depend on improving nutrition and opportunities for cognitive stimulation; and in part they call for enhancing the mental health skills of primary care practitioners by appropriate in-service training. There are limits to our knowledge and to the effectiveness of some of our interventions; nonetheless, the greatest barrier to better child mental health is failure to muster the political will to apply what is known to the care of mothers and children in all sectors of society. PMID:1382773

  1. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. PMID:23966783

  2. Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

  3. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  4. Mental health nurse prescribing: the emerging impact.

    PubMed

    Ross, J D

    2015-09-01

    Some mental health nurses have now been prescribing for their clients for several years. When suitably qualified they can prescribe the same range of medication as medical staff. Concern was expressed that nurse prescribers might become more like doctors and as a result would sacrifice their nursing skills. The views of those who have their medication prescribed by mental health nurses as well as views of nurse prescribers, pharmacist prescribers, nurse managers and doctors were explored by using interviews and focus groups. Most participants saw the inclusion of prescribing in the nursing role as a benefit to clients. Rather than detracting from the nurse patient relationship, results from this study suggest that the nurse patient relationship was improved and more holistic care was provided. Nurse prescribing is well received by those who have experienced it. As nurse prescribing effects a change of power dynamics this could result in the need for less involvement of the medical profession in clients' care. As clients found nurses easier to talk to about their medication than doctors, medication concordance could be increased. Medication reconciliation could also be increased as medications no longer required by clients were more likely to be reduced or stopped by nurse prescribers. Discontinuing medication may indicate a new culture around mental health nurse prescribing. It may be that this trend has an impact on future service provision to clients. Results suggest that clients prefer to have their medication prescribed by nurses. Mental health nurse prescribing has been established in some areas in the UK for quite some time. Other than speculation that nurse prescribing would have a detrimental effect on the nurse-patient relationship, little has been written about the impact of nurse prescribing to date. Bradley and Nolan found that prescribing allowed nurses to overcome difficulties in the health-care system which would have previously delayed clients' access to medicines. Prescribing was believed to compliment many aspects of nursing and integrated previously diffuse aspects of the nursing role. Latter and Courtenay found that clients were generally satisfied with nurse prescribing. The aim of this study was to explore the impact mental health nurse prescribing has had on those involved. The views of clients, nurse prescribers, pharmacist prescribers, nurse managers and doctors were investigated. Questionnaires were used to gather demographic data and basic qualitative data. Focus groups and interviews were undertaken with 57 participants. The study was undertaken within one National Health Service Foundation Trust in England. Data analysis was guided by a framework approach. The majority of participants believed that the inclusion of prescribing in mental health nurses' roles improved the nurse-patient relationship, and five themes including the relationship, concordance, power, treatment approach and 'unprescribing' emerged. Trust was highly valued, and clients found nurses easier to talk to about their medication than doctors. Rather than detracting from the nurse-patient relationship, results from this study suggest that nurse prescribing enables mental health nurse prescribers to provide more holistic care than previously. PMID:26031457

  5. Antenatal Mental Health and Retinal Vascular Caliber in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Jun; Ikram, M. Kamran; Broekman, Leutscher; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Chen, Helen; Gooley, Joshua J.; Soh, Shu-E; Gluckman, Peter; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Depression, anxiety, and poor sleep are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between negative emotion and retinal microvascular changes among adults, yet no study has been done in pregnant women so far. This study aims to examine the association of antenatal mental health and retinal vascular caliber among Asian pregnant women. Methods Nine hundred and fifty two Asian pregnant women aged 18 to 46 years were included in this study, who were recruited from two Singapore cohort studies, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study and the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) study conducted from 2009 onwards. A total of 835 Asian pregnant women underwent retinal photography at 26 weeks follow up, of whom 800 had gradable photographs. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Results In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, ethnicity, household income, pregnancy outcome history, means of conception, hypertension history, diabetes history, cigarette smoking history, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index, and spherical equivalent, each standard deviation (SD) increase in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (4.49 scores) and in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (2.90 scores) was associated with a 0.80 ?m (P = 0.03) and a 1.22 ?m (P = 0.01) widening in retinal arteriolar caliber, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrates relationships of antenatal depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality with retinal arteriolar widening in pregnant women. Translational Relevance We speculate that this might possibly indicate an effect of antenatal depression and poor sleep on the microcirculation during pregnancy. PMID:24049713

  6. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and diabetes mellitus: a role for impulse control disorders and depression

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jordi; Stein, Dan J.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fukao, Akira; Bunting, Brendan; Haro, Josep Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Hu, Chiyi; Sasu, Carmen; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis No studies have evaluated whether the frequently observed associations between depression and diabetes could reflect the presence of comorbid psychiatric conditions and their associations with diabetes. We therefore examined the associations between a wide range of pre-existing Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Methods We performed a series of cross-sectional face-to-face household surveys of community-dwelling adults (n=52,095) in 19 countries. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Diabetes was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis together with its timing. We analysed the associations between all mental disorders and diabetes, without and with comorbidity adjustment. Results We identified 2,580 cases of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (21 years +). Although all 16 DSM-IV disorders were associated with diabetes diagnosis in bivariate models, only depression (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1, 1.5), intermittent explosive disorder (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), binge eating disorder (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7, 4.0) and bulimia nervosa (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3, 3.4) remained after comorbidity adjustment. Conclusions/interpretation Depression and impulse control disorders (eating disorders in particular) were significantly associated with diabetes diagnosis after comorbidity adjustment. These findings support the focus on depression as having a role in diabetes onset, but suggest that this focus may be extended towards impulse control disorders. Acknowledging the comorbidity of mental disorders is important in determining the associations between mental disorders and subsequent diabetes. PMID:24488082

  7. Mental disorders, health inequalities and ethics: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ndetei, David; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2010-01-01

    The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations. PMID:20528652

  8. National Institute of Mental Health Alliance for Research Progress

    E-print Network

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    of therapeutic interventions for mental illnesses. The meeting served as an opportunity for participants to 1National Institute of Mental Health Alliance for Research Progress January 19, 2007 Washington, D.C. Overview The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) held its Winter Alliance for Research Progress (The

  9. ExecutiveSummary Student Mental Health and Wellness

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    and chronic mental illness on campus. A PYRAMIDAL APPROACH The commission has developed a four-level pyramidalExecutiveSummary Student Mental Health and Wellness FRAMEWORK AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY Report of the Principal's Commission on Mental Health QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY, NOVEMBER #12

  10. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH ALLIANCE FOR RESEARCH PROGRESS

    E-print Network

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    . Insel gave a brief update on these trials: TADS: Treatment of adolescents with depression (439 enrolled break. The afternoon presentations included the economics o treating depression in the workplace challenge in fulfilling its mission to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research

  11. Mental health and sexual activity according to ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Tsoucalas, G; Kontaxaki, ?-?; Karamanou, ?; Sgantzos, ?; Androutsos, G

    2015-01-01

    The ancient Greek physicians have not failed in their studies to indicate the beneficial role of sexual activity in human health. They acknowledged that sex helps to maintain mental balance. Very interesting is their observation that sex may help mental patients to recover. Nevertheless they stressed emphatically that sex is beneficial only when there is a measure in it, so they believed that sexual abstinence or excessive sexual activity affect negatively the mental and physical health of man. Ancient Greek physicians reached this conclusion by empirical observation. They tried to justify the mental imbalance, as the potential physical problems, which probably will be listed today in the psychosomatic manifestations, of people with long-term sexual abstinence or hyperactivity, based on the theory of humors which was the main methodological tool of ancient Greek medicine. Their fundamental idea was that the four humors of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile) should be in balance. Therefore they believed that the loss and the exchange of bodily fluids during sex help body's humors to maintain their equilibrium which in turn will form the basis for the physical and mental health. Although in ancient medical texts the irrationality presented by people in the aforementioned conditions was not attributed in any of the major mental illnesses recognized in antiquity, as mania, melancholy and phrenitis, our belief is that their behavior is more suited to the characteristics of melancholy, while according to modern medicine it should be classified in the depressive disorders. We have come to this conclusion, because common characteristics of people who either did not have sexual life or was overactive, was sadness, lack of interest and hope, as well as paranoid thinking that can reach up to suicide. Regarding the psychosomatic problems, which could occur in these people, they were determined by the ancient Greek physicians in the following; continuous headaches and heaviness, dilatancy, pain, dysuria and fever. But all these symptoms would disappear when the man gained a measure sexual activity, as was categorically stated by Galen. It is striking that these ideas were maintained over time, starting already from the authors of the Hippocratic Corpus, from which the distinguished work De virginum morbis, refers indeed to women who reached the point of suicide due to the absence sexual life, hanging themselves or falling into wells and eventually passing to the works of Rufus of Ephesus, Soranus of Ephesus and Galen. PMID:26480224

  12. Comorbidity Profile and Health Care Utilization in Elderly Patients with Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Hugh C.; Hay, Don; Lane, Kathleen A.; Gao, Sujuan; Purnell, Christianna; Munger, Stephanie; Smith, Faye; Dickens, Jeanne; Boustani, Malaz A.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Patients with serious mental illness are living longer. Yet there remain few studies that focus on health care utilization and its relationship to comorbidities in these elderly mentally ill patients. Design Comparative study. Information on demographics, comorbidities and health care utilization were taken from an electronic medical record system. Setting Wishard Health Services senior care and community mental health clinics. Participants Patients age 65 years and over-255 patients with serious mental illness (schizophrenia, major recurrent depression and bipolar illness) attending a mental health clinic and a representative sample of 533 non-demented patients without serious mental illness attending primary care clinics. Results Patients having serious mental illness had significantly higher rates of medical emergency room visits (p=0.0027) and significantly longer lengths of medical hospitalizations (p<0.0001) than did the primary care control group. The frequency of medical comorbidities such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thyroid disease, and cancer were not significantly different between the groups. Hypertension was lower in the mentally ill group (p<0.0001). Reported falls (p<0.0001), diagnoses of substance abuse (p=0.02), and alcoholism (p=0.0016) were higher in the seriously mentally ill. The differences in health care utilization between the groups remained significant after adjusting for comorbidity levels, lifestyle factors, and attending primary care. Conclusions Our findings of higher rates of emergency care, longer hospitalizations, and increased frequency of falls, substance abuse, and alcoholism suggest the elderly seriously mentally ill remain a vulnerable population requiring an integrated model of health care. PMID:24206938

  13. Visual mental imagery in psychopathology--implications for the maintenance and treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Weßlau, Charlotte; Steil, Regina

    2014-06-01

    Negative mental images are a common feature in a range of mental disorders as well as in healthy subjects. Intrusive negative mental images have only recently become a focus of attention in clinical research on depression. Research so far indicates that they can be an important factor regarding the onset and chronicity of affective disorders. This article is the first to provide an extensive overview of the current state of research in the field of visual mental images in depression. It aims to investigate disorder-specific characteristics, as well as the role of imagery as a maintaining factor. A detailed definition and description of empirical results about mental images in depressive disorders is followed by a presentation and analysis of treatment studies using imagery techniques in depressed samples. Additionally, methodological issues like small sample sizes and the lack of control groups are pointed out and implications for future research are discussed. Case vignettes are included in the appendix to exemplify the importance of negative mental images in patients suffering from depression. PMID:24727643

  14. Integrating mental health and social development in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Plagerson, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to avoid uneven approaches to development. PMID:24452138

  15. Exposure to Neighborhood Green Space and Mental Health: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Kaltenbach, Andrea; Szabo, Aniko; Bogar, Sandra; Nieto, F. Javier; Malecki, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Green space is now widely viewed as a health-promoting characteristic of residential environments, and has been linked to mental health benefits such as recovery from mental fatigue and reduced stress, particularly through experimental work in environmental psychology. Few population level studies have examined the relationships between green space and mental health. Further, few studies have considered the role of green space in non-urban settings. This study contributes a population-level perspective from the United States to examine the relationship between environmental green space and mental health outcomes in a study area that includes a spectrum of urban to rural environments. Multivariate survey regression analyses examine the association between green space and mental health using the unique, population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin database. Analyses were adjusted for length of residence in the neighborhood to reduce the impact of neighborhood selection bias. Higher levels of neighborhood green space were associated with significantly lower levels of symptomology for depression, anxiety and stress, after controlling for a wide range of confounding factors. Results suggest that “greening” could be a potential population mental health improvement strategy in the United States. PMID:24662966

  16. Mental health and poverty in developing countries: revisiting the relationship.

    PubMed

    Das, Jishnu; Do, Quy-Toan; Friedman, Jed; McKenzie, David; Scott, Kinnon

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health has received considerable attention in the recent literature. However, the associations presented in existing studies typically rely on limited samples of individuals and on proxy indicators for poverty such as education, the lack of tap water, or being unemployed. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using data from nationally representative household surveys in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Indonesia and Mexico, along with special surveys from India and Tonga. As in previous studies, we find that individuals who are older, female, widowed, and in poor health are more likely to report worse mental health outcomes. Individuals living with others with poor mental health are significantly more likely to report worse mental health themselves. The size of the coefficients and their significance are comparable across the five countries. In contrast to previous studies, the relationship between higher education and better mental health is weak or non-existent. Furthermore, there is no consistent association between consumption poverty and mental health - in two countries mental health measures are marginally worse for the poor; in two countries there is no association; and in one country mental health measures are better for the poor compared to the non-poor. Moreover, the sizes of the coefficients for both education and consumption poverty are small compared to other factors considered here. While the lack of an association between consumption poverty and mental health implies that poor mental health is not a "disease of affluence", neither is it a disease of poverty. Changes in life circumstances brought on, for instance, by illness may have a greater impact on mental health than levels of poverty. Effective public health policy for mental health should focus on protecting individuals and households from adverse events and on targeted interventions following such adverse changes. PMID:17462803

  17. Current Physical and Mental Health of Former Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; DeFreese, J.D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of research on the current health of former collegiate athletes. Purpose: To examine the current health and related correlates in a cohort of former collegiate athletes who played in a diverse range of men’s and women’s sports with various levels of contact. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Former collegiate athletes (N = 3657) were asked to complete an online questionnaire addressing sports history, medical history, and demographics. The questionnaire also included the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), which yielded 2 composite scores for physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health. The VR-12 PCS and MCS scores were compared with published US normative data using t tests and analyses of variance. Results: Mean PCS and MCS scores of the 797 respondents with complete data (21.9% of target sample; average, 14.5 years since last played collegiate sport) were 53.0 ± 6.1 and 51.7 ± 9.4, respectively. When stratified by age and sex, PCS and MCS scores were similar to normative scores in the United States. Lower PCS scores were associated with sustaining ?3 concussions, playing in collision sports during college, and sustaining a career-ending injury (all, P < .001). No association was found between concussion and MCS scores (P = .06). Among former collegiate athletes, prevalent medical conditions included anxiety (16.2%), hypercholesterolemia/high cholesterol (10.6%), and depression (10.4%). Additionally, 5.8% screened positive for alcohol dependence, and 5.8% screened positive for disordered eating (eg, binge eating, purging). These findings were more prevalent than those reported by the World Health Organization as representative of the US population. Conversely, there was a lower prevalence of depression, bipolar disorders, and attention deficit disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD), than in the World Health Organization US population data sample. Conclusion: Former collegiate athletes appear similar to the general US population on many aspects of mental and physical health. However, observed health deficits associated with previous sports injuries warrant ongoing monitoring of the health and well-being of former collegiate athletes. PMID:26535354

  18. Mental health and physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Banting, Lauren; Teede, Helena J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2015-04-01

    This review was designed to consider the available literature concerning mental health and physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A systematic approach was taken and two electronic databases (PubMed and EBSCO Research articles published between 1970 and 2013) were searched in 2013 to inform a narrative review. Inclusion criteria encompassed requirements for the research to involve a physical activity intervention and assessment of mental health outcomes in women with PCOS. Seven articles considered mental health outcomes and physical activity interventions for women with PCOS. The results demonstrated positive outcomes following physical activity intervention for health-related quality of life, depression, and anxiety. Only one paper reported the independent effects of physical activity on mental health. All other interventions included multi-factor lifestyle interventions or did not establish a control group. Physical activity is likely to be beneficial to the mental health of women with PCOS; however, more research is required to establish the nature of the relationship between physical activity and mental health outcomes. PMID:25430602

  19. Mental Health, Binge Drinking, and Antihypertension Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Jim E.; Haskard, Kelly B.; Haviland, Mark G.; Williams, Summer L.; Werner, Leonard S.; Anderson, Donald L.; DiMatteo, M. Robin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between self-reported mental health and binge drinking, as well as health status, sociodemographic, social support, economic resource, and health care access indicators to antihypertension medication adherence. Method: Analysis of 2003 California Health Interview Survey data. Results: Having poor mental

  20. Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu In; Ock, Sun Myeong; Chung, Ju Hye; Song, Chan Hee

    2010-02-01

    Several lines of evidence from previous studies suggest that Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) may be involved in intracellular and interneuronal processes associated with affective disorders. However, there have been inconsistent results on the effect of Ca and Mg on depressive mood disorder. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine whether serum Ca and Mg levels, as well as serum Ca/Mg ratio, are associated with mental health in relatively healthy, adult women without psychiatric disorders. One hundred and twelve adult women were recruited from the outpatient clinic in a university hospital setting. Serum Ca and Mg levels were measured and indicators of mental health such as depression, anxiety, and stress were evaluated using two validated questionnaires; the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and the Modified Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument Stress Scale. After categorizing the serum Ca and Mg levels, and the Ca/Mg ratio into tertiles, the mean scores on each mental health scale were compared using analysis of covariance. The risk of depressive mood disorder according to the tertiles of serum Mg level and serum Ca/Mg ratio was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Women in the middle tertile of serum Ca/Mg ratio had significantly lower scores on depression and stress scales (p = 0.004 and p = 0.007, respectively) and a lower odds ratio (OR) for the risk of depressive mood disorder (OR = 0.31, CI(95%) 0.10-0.93) than those in the highest tertile. The OR for the risk of depressive mood disorder was higher in women in the lowest tertile of serum Mg than in those in the highest tertile (OR = 3.92, CI(95%) 1.11-13.83). Serum Mg level and serum Ca/Mg ratio may be involved in the mechanism for the progression of depressive mood or stress perception in relatively healthy, adult women. PMID:19543697

  1. Mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness: A descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; BIrudu, Raju; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite of growing evidence of mental disorders in developing countries, research on mental health literacy is limited from India. Aim: To examine mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 161 randomly selected caregivers of persons with mental illness at outpatient department of a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Regarding the causes of mental illness, a majority agreed that genetic inheritance (69%), substance abuse (64%) and brain disease (59.6%) are main factors for developing mental illness. Although more than two-thirds agreed that anyone could suffer from mental illness, 61.5% also agreed that people with mental health problems are largely to blame for their condition. The majority of the participants also agreed that mentally ill are not able to maintain friendships (45.9%), are dangerous (54%), and not capable to work (59.1%). Just over half (55.9%) of the participants would not want people to know if they had a mental illness and nearly half of them also expressed that they would feel ashamed if a family member had a mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study researchers suggest that there is an urgent need to educate and change the attitudes of caregivers through mental health literacy programs specifically designed for them. PMID:26167019

  2. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Global mental health (GMH) advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design A case study method is used. Results Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings. PMID:25280740

  3. Transition to parenthood and mental health in first-time parents.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Ylva; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the transition to parenthood and mental health in first-time parents in detail and explore any differences in this transition in the context of parental gender and postpartum mental health. Semistructured clinical interviews (Birmingham Interview for Maternal Mental Health) were carried out with 46 women and 40 men, 5 months after birth. Parents were assessed on pre- and postpartum anxiety, depression, and postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and a range of adjustment and relationship variables. One fourth of the men and women reported anxiety in pregnancy, reducing to 21% of women and 8% of men after birth. Pregnancy and postpartum depression rates were roughly equal, with 11% of women and 8% of men reporting depression. Postpartum PTSD was experienced by 5% of parents. Postpartum mental health problems were significantly associated with postpartum sleep deprivation (odds ratio [OR] = 7.5), complications in labor (OR = 5.1), lack of postpartum partner support (OR = 8.0), feelings of parental unworthiness (OR = 8.3), and anger toward the infant (OR = 4.4). Few gender differences were found for these variables. This study thus highlights the importance of focusing interventions on strengthening the couple's relationship and avoiding postnatal sleep deprivation, and to address parents' feelings of parental unworthiness and feelings of anger toward their baby. PMID:25798480

  4. Mental health of Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Edmond P H; Lam, Cindy L K; Chin, Weng Yee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health of Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This was a cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred and nineteen subjects with LUTS completed a structured questionnaire containing the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-Short Form, the International Prostate Symptom Score, the adapted International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form and questions about socio-demographics. Overall, 17.7% of subjects reported depressive symptoms, 24.3% anxiety symptoms and 9.6% stress symptoms. In males, demographic factors associated with poorer mental health included being not married; clinical factors included higher LUTS severity, weak stream, straining and mixed urinary incontinence. In females, demographic factors associated with poorer mental health included being younger, not married and lower household income; clinical factors included higher LUTS severity, incomplete bladder emptying, urgency and weak stream. Chinese primary care patients with LUTS appear to be an at-risk group for poorer mental health with increased prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and may require routine screening to identify those who may require more tailored interventions to address both their urinary symptoms and psychological distress. PMID:25887131

  5. Differential Impact of Types of Social Support in the Mental Health of Formerly Incarcerated Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Perry, Ashley; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The role of social support in the mental health of formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) is an issue overlooked in public health prevention efforts. The objectives of this analysis were to (a) describe the levels of social support perceived and received by FILM; (b) identify the associations, if any, between levels of social support and mental health indicators such as depression and anxiety; and (c) explore the impact of familism and hypermasculinity on the receptivity of social support and the potential role of these factors in mediating associations between social support and mental health indicators. To accomplish the objectives, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with FILM (n = 259), ages 18 to 59, in New York City, and one nominated member of their social network (n = 130 dyads). In this analysis, we examined four dimensions of social support (instrumental, informational, appraisal, and emotional) from two perspectives: provided (as reported by members of the social networks) and perceived (as reported by FILM). The major outcome variables for this analysis were the presence/absence of major anxiety and depressive symptoms. Our logistic regression analyses suggest that perceived emotional support was inversely associated with both anxiety and depression. Our findings suggest that familism mediated the association between perceived emotional support and anxiety/depression. Therefore, we must consider designing network enhancement interventions that focus on both FILM and their social support systems. PMID:24323767

  6. Creating a collaborative model of mental health counseling for the future.

    PubMed

    Domar, Alice D

    2015-08-01

    Infertility patients report high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, leading to a variety of challenges for the health care team. These include the impact of patient distress on nurses and physicians, patient treatment termination, and potentially lower pregnancy rates. Integrating a mental health professional into the infertility treatment team has the potential to lower distress for patients, support staff, and clinicians, leading to increased patient retention and an easier working environment. PMID:26056925

  7. 78 FR 54477 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Initial Review Group Interventions Committee for Adult... Activities, National Institute of Mental Health National Institutes of Health, 6001 Executive Blvd.,...

  8. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Initial Review Group; Interventions Committee for Disorders..., Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health,...

  9. How Iranian Women Conceptualize Mental Health: An Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    MIRABZADEH, Arash; FOROUZAN, Ameneh Setareh; MOHAMMADI, Farahnaz; DEJMAN, Masoumeh; BARADARAN EFTEKHARI, Monir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background In Iran, more than 25% of women suffer from mental disorders. Mental disorders and subclinical problems are associated with socioeconomic problem. At the community level, mental health promotion can reduce social damage. The aim of this study as a part of community based mental health promotion intervention was to explore how mental health in Iranian women is viewed. Methods According to a qualitative method in 2012, participants were selected by purposeful sampling from married women 18 to 65 years who are residents in Tehran. Fifteen in depth individual interviews were conducted with regard to the concept of mental health, causal pathway and help-seeking behavior according to explanatory model. Results Mental health was perceived as the same of emotional well-being. It conceptualized not only lack of mental disorder but also sense of satisfaction and healthy functioning. According to participant's view, the causal pathway of mental health problems were classified to individual, familial and social factors. Physical and behavioral problems were related to individual factor, Lack of marital adjustment was one of the most important issues in familial item and in social factor, cultural context and socio-economic problems were extracted. In help seeking process, all of the participants believed that the religion has important effect in mental health. Conclusion Marital adjustment is an important stage in process of mental health in women. PMID:25988094

  10. Men’s mental health: Connection to urologic health

    PubMed Central

    Matthew, Andrew; Elterman, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the specialty of urology has focused on single-system diseases. In recent years, however, there has been increasing recognition of the interconnectivity between the various systems, such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, erectile dysfunction and prostate cancer. This constellation of disease/syndrome and dysfunction may place urologists at the centre of men’s overall health concerns. As urologists considering taking on a leadership role in men’s health, they should also consider their potential in helping men suffering from the significant burden of a mental health disorder. Urologists may have a unique opportunity to identify mental health issues in their male patients, influence healthy behaviour change, and successfully refer men, who might otherwise not seek help, to appropriate medical/psychological care. PMID:25243041

  11. Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status. PMID:22778915

  12. [Adolescents previously involved in Satanism: mental health problems experience].

    PubMed

    Heathcote, H; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1998-03-01

    As far as the phenomena of adolescents previously involved with satanism that experience obstacles in the strive for mental health, no research has previously been done. Adolescents previously involved in satanism, presents behaviour problems like aggressive outbursts depression, "psychosis", or suicide attempts that can even lead to suicide. In the phenomena-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews with the respondents and their parents, were performed. The respondents were requested to write a naive sketch about there life. After the data-control was done, guidelines for nursing staff had been set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents that has previously been involved in satanism, and experiences obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in satanism was done, literature in the form of books, magazines and newsclippings were used to verify the findings in the research. The most important guidelines are that: the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show, any fear or sympathy; they have to have sufficient knowledge about satanism; the adolescent has to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team; the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions. PMID:9791342

  13. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, H; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1999-06-01

    No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, "psychosis" or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenon-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in Satanism were conducted, literature in the form of books, magazines and newspaper-clippings were used to verify the research findings. The most important guidelines are that the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show any fear or sympathy; they must have sufficient knowledge about Satanism; the adolescents have to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team and the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions. PMID:11040620

  14. Characteristics and mental health of Hispanic dementia caregivers in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, José Alejandro; Tipiani, Dante; Torres-Patiño, Gabriela; Silver, Stephanie; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Ramirez, Mildred; Teresi, Jeanne; Mittelman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Dementia prevalence and related caregiving burden are increasing, particularly among Hispanics. We studied the characteristics and mental health of Hispanic caregivers in New York City. Methods We recruited 139 Hispanic family caregivers. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics and predictors of caregiver burden, measured with the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, and depressive symptoms, measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results The mean age was 59.3 ± 10.4 years. The majority of caregivers were daughters and earned less than $30,000 a year. In multivariate analyses with linear regression, lower satisfaction with social networks was associated with higher caregiver burden and a greater number of depressive symptoms. Higher dementia severity was associated with higher caregiver burden, while higher caregiver comorbidities were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Conclusions Caregiver comorbidities and satisfaction with social support may be targets for intervention that could improve caregiver burden and depressive symptoms among Hispanic caregivers. PMID:25635108

  15. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.

    PubMed

    Burns, J K

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health outcomes requires us to develop a robust, evidence-based 'political economy of mental health.' PMID:25746820

  16. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  17. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  18. Barriers to Mental Health Treatment: Results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, L. H.; Alonso, J.; Mneimneh, Z.; Wells, J. E.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Graaf, R.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, I.; Jin, R.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Levinson, D.; Matschinger, H.; O’Neill, S.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Sasu, C.; Stein, D.; Takeshima, T.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders. Methods Data are from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n= 63,678) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity. Results Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past twelve months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. Desire to handle the problem on one’s own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers both to initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment dropout (39.3%) followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders). Conclusions Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide. PMID:23931656

  19. 45 CFR 1304.24 - Child mental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24 Public...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child...

  20. Uncovering Clinical Principles and Techniques to Address Minority Stress, Mental Health, and Related Health Risks Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men disproportionately experience depression, anxiety, and related health risks at least partially because of their exposure to sexual minority stress. This paper describes the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention capable of targeting the psychosocial pathways through which minority stress operates. Interviews with key stakeholders, including gay and bisexual men with depression and anxiety and expert providers, suggested intervention principles and techniques for improving minority stress coping. These principles and techniques are consistent with general cognitive behavioral therapy approaches, the empirical tenets of minority stress theory, and professional guidelines for LGB-affirmative mental health practice. If found to be efficacious, the psychosocial intervention described here would be one of the first to improve the mental health of gay and bisexual men by targeting minority stress. PMID:25554721